Abstract Aim: This study assessed infant feeding knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among women from Queensland, Australia, in their first pregnancy. Antenatal feeding intention in this group was described, and the hypothesis was tested that antenatal knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about infant feeding are associated with antenatal intention for the duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding for the infant's first year. Subjects and Methods: The Feeding Queensland Babies Study is a prospective survey of infant feeding attitudes and behaviors among first-time mothers in Queensland, Australia. Data on infant feeding knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and intention were collected antenatally, and an Infant Feeding Attitudes Score was calculated. Results: Although 85% of respondents endorsed breastfeeding as most appropriate for infants, 11% valued formula feeding equally. Intention to give any breastmilk during the first weeks was 98%, but it fell to 18% during the second year. More than one-quarter of women reported intention to introduce foods other than breastmilk before 5 months of infant age. The infant feeding attitudes and beliefs score correlated positively with feeding intention for breastfeeding and the introduction of complementary solids. Conclusions: Enhancing women's knowledge of recommendations and their understanding of breastfeeding's specific benefits and the reasons for recommended scheduling of feeding transitions may positively impact breastfeeding exclusivity and duration and the age-appropriate introduction of complementary solids. Communication of detailed feeding recommendations for the infant's first year and specific information about the health benefits of breastfeeding should be a goal of healthcare providers working with pregnant women. PMID:24840853
Newby, Ruth; Brodribb, Wendy; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W
Full Text Available Background and Design: This study evaluates the patients’ knowledge, opinions and attitudes about psoriasis.Materials and Methods: A total of 111 patients over the age of 18, clinically and histopathologically diagnosed with chronic plaque-type psoriasis were included in the study. Patients who have psychiatric illness and inadequate intelligence were excluded. A questionnaire including items on knowledge, opinions and attitudes on psoriasis were filled out by the patients and the results were analyzed statistically.Results: One hundred-eleven (45 female, 66 male patients were included in our study. 6.3% of patients did not know the diagnosis of their disease. 68.5% of patients thought that psoriasis was a contagious disease while18% thought that psoriasis was a hereditary condition. 88.3% of patients declined that they were informed about the disease by the doctor. 62.2% of patients believed that they had adequate information about psoriasis. 51.4% of patients believed that doctors gave them enough information about psoriasis. 44.1% of patients knew that psoriasis was aggravated by stress while 38.7% did not know any of the aggravating factors of psoriasis. 70.3% of patients believed that psoriasis would spread if not treated. Patients mostly (98.2% had idea about topical treatment options. 82% of patients were afraid of having psoriasis on their face. 5.4% of patients were uncomfortable with the idea of their partners’ having psoriasis. 72.1%, 88.3%, 72.1% of patients reported no negative effect of psoriasis on their relations with friends, family members, work or school life, respectivelyDiscussion: Our results showed that psoriasis patients do not have adequate knowledge about the disease. We think that dermatologists should pay more attention to inform and raise awareness of patie
This article reports on an exploratory study of English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and professional knowledge about teaching EFL (TEFL) in a preschool setting in China. The investigation is structured on a two-dimensional grid based on Calderhead's (1996) categorisation of teachers' attitudes and beliefs and…
Background: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have been a increasing problem worldwide with an estimation of 340 million new cases each year. STDs are one of the top five reasons of seeking health care in the developing countries. Aim: The aim was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding STDs among young adults in two vocational schools in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam and also compare the genders regarding the issues. Method: A descriptive and comparative study was used. ...
Edvinsson, Alfrida; Schmidt, Anna
Introduction: Young people, who tend to be healthy, idealistic, and motivated, are an excellent pool of potential voluntary unpaid blood donors. Recruiting and retaining young blood donors improves the long term safety and sufficiency of a country's blood supply. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) should play an important role in prevention of disease transmission. Materials and Methods: This study was a questionnaire based survey, conducted to explore the levels of knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about HIV in young college student blood donors. Results: The results showed that the proportion of participants with comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission was lesser than expected. Increase in education level and male gender was found to be significantly associated with high HIV-related knowledge. The responses on the different aspects of HIV-related attitude were also varied and there is still stigma associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) even in the educated groups. Discussion: There was a spectrum of myths and misperceptions emphasizing the need of education that recognizes the social context of attitude towards HIV. Results from this study may contribute to the development of appropriate educational and training material for this group of donors which in turn, may assist in achieving the elusive goal of safe blood supply in future.
Dubey, Anju; Sonker, Atul; Chaudhary, Rajendra K.
Full Text Available This paper reports data from a survey conducted with 260 Bahamian adolescents assessing their knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about AIDS. The results revealed that these adolescents have a high level of knowledge about AIDS. In fact, these adolescents are as knowledgeable about AIDS as adolescents in their normed group, which consisted of low-income African American adolescents. Further, neither males nor females differed in their perceptions about their risk for getting AIDS and in their perceptions about the effectiveness of condoms in preventing the spread of AIDS. Implications for the development of AIDS prevention programmes for Bahamian adolescents are discussed.
Despite evidence of increasing waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence among U.S. young adults, little is known about the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and smoking patterns of waterpipe users in this population. To address this lack of knowledge, two convenience samples of U.S. waterpipe users were surveyed—one from a Richmond, Virginia, waterpipe café (n=101), the other from an Internet forum called HookahForum.com (n=100). Sixty percent reported first-time waterpipe use at or before age 18...
Blood donation and transfusion are remarkably safe medical procedures. However, attitudes, beliefs and level of knowledge associated with blood donation and transfusion may affect such procedures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the attitude, belief and knowledge about blood donation and transfusion in Saudi Population. The present study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University Hospitals, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A well structured Arabic questionnaire was used to asses the attitude, belief and knowledge regarding blood donation and transfusion. The sample consisted of 335 male (55%) and 274 female (45%); the majority of the sample (65.84%) were non-donors. These non-donors (78.98%) were between the ages of 15-30 years. The 88.5% of the people who participated in the study believed that blood donation was not harmful, 20% of them stated that they would refuse blood transfusion even if they were in need because of the risk of acquiring infectious disease. 84.5% preferred direct donation, (49%) of the sample stated that they would accept blood donation only from relatives, 55.1% believed that blood transfusion was safe. However, 11.6% claimed to have acquired infectious disease after blood transfusion, 58% female in addition to 11.34% male preferred to receive blood from female donor and 69.5% did not know if the blood banks were in need of blood or not and 17.4% believed that all surgical procedures require blood transfusion. Different fears, mistrust in hospital and lack of information may serve as an important issue to be addressed when developing donors recruitment programs or campaigns to clear misconceptions about blood donation. In addition, public should know that numerous screening measures are implemented to ensure that blood donation is safe for the donor and that transfusion of the donated blood is safe for the recipient. (author)
Full Text Available This article explores the perceptions and attitudes of community health workers (CHWs about hypertension. The level of knowledge of hypertension, as well as their personal attitude towards this is crucial in the style and quality of their interventions. CHWs, whose role in health promotion is being increasingly recognised, can help contain or reduce the prevalence of hypertension by influencing the community to adopt healthy lifestyles. Forty-three CHWs employed by Zanempilo in two study areas, Sites B and C in Khayelitsha in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, were included in the study. Firstly, focus group discussions were conducted with 17 purposively selected CHWs to explore attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of hypertension. Secondly, interviews were conducted to assess their basic knowledge about causes, prevention and control of hypertension. The focus group discussions revealed that CHWs were uncertain about the causes of hypertension. They also found it difficult to grasp the fact that people without risk factors, such as overweight or a family history of hypertension, could be hypertensive. Many CHWs believe in traditional medicines and home-brewed beer as the best treatment for hypertension. They believe that people who take medical treatment become sicker and that their health deteriorates rapidly. Risk factors of hypertension mentioned during the structured interviews include inheritance, lack of physical activity, consuming lots of salty and fatty food. Conclusions drawn from the findings of the CHWs’ responses highlighted their insufficient knowledge about hypertension as a chronic disease of lifestyle. Meanwhile they are expected to play a role in stimulating community residents’ interest in the broad principle of preventive health maintenance and follow-up. Data obtained from this research can be used for the planning of health-promotion programmes. These should include preventing hypertension and improving primary management of individual sufferers. Because of their working relations and close link with CHWs, community nurses in primary health-care facilities need to recognise these beliefs and attitudes since these may differ from their own.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a debilitating illness with particular difficulties for healthcare providers because there are no diagnostic signs or laboratory tests and because management aims to merely improve symptoms. Further complicating management, healthcare providers' awareness concerning CFS has not been rigorously assessed. The present study aimed to ascertain United States (U.S. healthcare providers' awareness of CFS and to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KAB related to diagnosis and management of the illness. This information forms the foundation for developing CFS educational strategies. Methods We combined convenience and probability samples to measure CFS KAB among healthcare providers. In the convenience sample, 1,255 healthcare providers (81% response rate from 13 professional conferences completed a 12-item form. Descriptive statistics were reported for 9 KAB item responses and chi-square tests were performed for examining their association with giving a diagnosis of CFS. We used principal component analysis to construct multidimensional subscales and perform a general linear model to examine factors associated with subscales. The probability sample involved data on 15 CFS-specific questions from 2006 and 2007 DocStyles web-based panel surveys collected from 2,750 physicians (average response rate 55%. We calculated descriptive and chi-square statistics. The significance was set at two-tailed with the alpha level of 0.05. Results Healthcare providers in both samples were aware of CFS and exhibited a high level of knowledge. Overall, 96% of respondents in the DocStyles (probability sample had heard about CFS. Healthcare providers in the conference (convenience sample demonstrated good KAB scores; physicians' scores were highest on KAB scales and lowest in perception. Nurses' scores were lowest in knowledge. More than 40% of physicians reported ever giving a CFS diagnosis and in the DocStyles (probability sample more than 80% of physicians correctly identified CFS symptoms. Physicians reported professional journals, the Internet, and continuing education programs as the top 3 sources from which they obtain CFS information. Conclusions Findings from these combined samples fill a gap in the evidence-base of U.S. healthcare providers' and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs concerning CFS. Importantly, respondents in both samples expressed similar knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and perceptions. Awareness was high and negative attitudes were low. The primary areas for future education should address diagnosis and management of CFS and should be delivered through those venues providers indicated they primarily use. Data from this study provide a benchmark for evaluation the success of these future efforts.
Lin Jin-Mann S
Background To develop targeted interventions in the field of donor recruitment, an understanding of existing knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding blood donation is required. Recruiters should be aware of variability in different demographic strata when implementing interventions. Material and methods A self-administered questionnaire along with a face-to-face interview was conducted in 400 each of voluntary donors, replacement donors and non-donors to assess their knowledge, attitude and beliefs regarding blood donation and their motivations for giving blood. Data were analysed using ANOVA and the c2 test. Results The most common reason given by non-donors (40.75%) for not donating blood was “no one asked them to give blood”. Voluntary donors had a more pleasant blood donation experience compared to replacement donors and, therefore, more of them were willing to donate again (89.5%). The knowledge scores of non-donors were lower than those of donors and, among the latter, voluntary donors had better scores compared to replacement donors. Expectedly, the frequency of false beliefs was highest among non-donors (22.75%), with the most prevalent misbelief being that blood donation is associated with infertility. Television was found to be the most effective medium of communication for raising awareness about blood donation. Conclusion It is recommended that extensive blood donation campaigning should be initiated, targeting the campaigns to eliminate specific misbeliefs and reinforce motivational perceptions. Blood centres should implement strategies to improve donor retention and should aim to provide a pleasant donation experience, regardless of the donor type. The idea of voluntary blood donation needs to be intensively promoted.
Dubey, Anju; Sonker, Atul; Chaurasia, Rahul; Chaudhary, Rajendra
Doping in sport is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied mainly from a biomedical point of view, even though psychosocial approaches are also key factors in the fight against doping. This phenomenon has evolved greatly in recent years, and greater understanding of it is essential for developing efficient prevention programmes. In the psychosocial approach, attitudes are considered an index of doping behaviour, relating the use of banned substances to greater leniency towards doping. The aim of this review is to gather and critically analyse the most recent publications describing elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport, to better understand the foundations provided by the previous work, and to help develop practical strategies to efficiently combat doping. For this purpose, we performed a literature search using combinations of the terms "doping", "sport", "elite athletes", "attitudes", "beliefs", "knowledge", "drugs", and "performance-enhancing substances" (PES). A total of 33 studies were subjected to comprehensive assessment using articles published between 2000 and 2011. All of the reports focused on elite athletes and described their attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport. The initial reasons given for using banned substances included achievement of athletic success by improving performance, financial gain, improving recovery and prevention of nutritional deficiencies, as well as the idea that others use them, or the "false consensus effect". Although most athletes acknowledge that doping is cheating, unhealthy and risky because of sanctions, its effectiveness is also widely recognized. There is a general belief about the inefficacy of anti-doping programmes, and athletes criticise the way tests are carried out. Most athletes consider the severity of punishment is appropriate or not severe enough. There are some differences between sports, as team-based sports and sports requiring motor skills could be less influenced by doping practices than individual self-paced sports. However, anti-doping controls are less exhaustive in team sports. The use of banned substance also differs according to the demand of the specific sport. Coaches appear to be the main influence and source of information for athletes, whereas doctors and other specialists do not seem to act as principal advisors. Athletes are becoming increasingly familiar with anti-doping rules, but there is still a lack of knowledge that should be remedied using appropriate educational programmes. There is also a lack of information on dietary supplements and the side effects of PES. Therefore, information and prevention are necessary, and should cater to the athletes and associated stakeholders. This will allow us to establish and maintain correct attitudes towards doping. Psychosocial programmes must be carefully planned and developed, and should include middle- to long-term objectives (e.g. changing attitudes towards doping and the doping culture). Some institutions have developed or started prevention or educational programmes without the necessary resources, while the majority of the budget is spent on anti-doping testing. Controls are obviously needed, as well as more efficient educational strategies. Therefore, we encourage sporting institutions to invest in educational programmes aimed at discouraging the use of banned substances. Event organizers and sport federations should work together to adapt the rules of each competition to disincentivize dopers. Current research methods are weak, especially questionnaires. A combination of qualitative and quantitative measurements are recommended, using interviews, questionnaires and, ideally, biomedical tests. Studies should also examine possible geographical and cultural differences in attitudes towards doping. PMID:23532595
Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Zabala, Mikel
Purpose: This study reports the baseline knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and personal practices of health care professionals regarding colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in the High Plains Research Network (HPRN) of rural Colorado prior to a community-based educational intervention. It also examines the association between health care staff members'…
Rim, Sun Hee; Zittleman, Linda; Westfall, John M.; Overholser, Linda; Froshaug, Desiree; Coughlin, Steven S.
Full Text Available Research question: What is the level of knowledge , attitude, belief and practices of senior secondary students about AIDS? Objective: To document the knowledge, attitude, belief and practices about AIDS among senior secondary students. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting: Four senior secondary schools including two boys and two girls schools of Rural Delhi. Participants: Students of senior secondary schools. Study variables: Knowledge, attitude, belief and practices regarding AIDS. Statistical analysis: Proportions. Results: A large majority (83.0% of students though had heard about AIDS, yet majority of them did not know the possible method of prevention of AIDS. Only 27.1 % girls knew about regular condom usage. Half of them had permissible attitude for pre- marital sex while sexual activity was observed in one- fourth students. Students were less reluctant to discuss about AIDS than sex and teachers were preferred as compared to parents in this regard. Conclusion: School is an ideal setting for adolescents for educating them regarding HIV/AIDS transmission and safer sex behaviour.
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To examine smoking prevalence, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours/beliefs among Health Professional School students according to the Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS) approach. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Catania University Medical Schools. The GH [...] PSS questionnaires were self-administered. Logistic regression model was performed. The level of significance was p
Margherita, Ferrante; Rosella, Saulle; Caterina, Ledda; Roberto, Pappalardo; Roberto, Fallico; Giuseppe, La Torre; Maria, Fiore.
The purposes of this descriptive study were to (1) describe nutrition knowledge, attitudes, beliefs (KAB), and self-efficacy among low-income African American and Hispanic women; (2) identify the associations these variables have on diet quality and weight status; (3) identify barriers to healthy eating. Data from three separate studies were combined and analyzed. The total sample included African Americans (N = 92) and Hispanics (N = 272). Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were u...
Acheampong, Irene; Haldeman, Lauren
Background: This study aimed to determine knowledge, attitudes and believes about cervical cancer and human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination with related factors in Turkish university students. Materials and Methods: This descriptive and cross sectional study was conducted between June-July 2013 in Hitit University located in Corum, a rural area to the East of Ankara. The population consisted of 550 university students who were training in first and last year from Faculties of Economics, Theology and Health. We reached 463 volunteer students without selection. The study of data was collected with a 44 item questionaire covering socio-demographic features, knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about cervical cancer, HPV and vaccination. Also for this study ethic committee report was taken from Bozok University. Data were evaluated with the SPSS 17.0 programme using the Ki kare test with P<0.05 accepted as statistically significant. Results: It was seen that there was a statistically significant variation between classrooms and departments of students with knowledge about cervical cancer and human papilloma virus and vaccine (p<0.001; p<0.01; p<0.05). Also we found low attitudes to thinking about taking HPV vaccination of girls and their children in the future. Conclusions: In light of the study findings; it was concluded that knowledge levels, beliefs and attitudes of the university students about cervical cancer, HPV infection and HPV vaccination were low. PMID:24870780
Yilmazel, Gulay; Duman, Nuriye Buyukkayaci
Full Text Available This study examines demographic, cognitive and behavioral factors that predict pediatric dog-bite injury risk in rural China. A total of 1,537 children (grades 4–6 in rural regions of Anhui, Hebei and Zhejiang Provinces, China completed self-report questionnaires assessing beliefs about and behaviors with dogs. The results showed that almost 30% of children reported a history of dog bites. Children answered 56% of dog-safety knowledge items correctly. Regressions revealed both demographic and cognitive/behavioral factors predicted children’s risky interactions with dogs and dog-bite history. Boys behaved more riskily with dogs and were more frequently bitten. Older children reported greater risks with dogs and more bites. With demographics controlled, attitudes/beliefs of invulnerability, exposure frequency, and dog ownership predicted children’s self-reported risky practice with dogs. Attitudes/beliefs of invulnerability, dog exposure, and dog ownership predicted dog bites. In conclusion, both demographic and cognitive/behavioral factors influenced rural Chinese children’s dog-bite injury risk. Theory-based, empirically-supported intervention programs might reduce dog-bite injuries in rural China.
David C. Schwebel
Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey was done among students of four senior secondary schools including two boys and two girls schools of rural Delhi to know the knowledge, attitude, belief and practices regarding AIDS. A large majority (83.0% of students though had heard about AIDS, yet majority of them did not know the possible methods for prevention of AIDS. There were only 27.1% girls who knew about regular condom usage. Half of them had permissible attitude for pre-maritial sex, while sexual activity was observed in one-fourth students. Students were less reluctant to discuss about AIDS than sex, and teachers were preferred as compared to parents in this regard. School is an ideal setting to educate adolescents regarding HIV/AIDS transmission and safer sex behaviour.
Full Text Available Background: Physiotherapists play an inherent role in the multidisciplinary palliative care team. Existing knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences influence their team participation in palliative care. Aims: The objective of this study was to assess the changes in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists who attended a palliative care training program. Settings and Design: Preliminary quasi-experimental study design, conducted at an academic institution. Materials and Methods: Fifty-two student physiotherapists of either gender (12 male, 40 female of age (20.51±1.78 years who attended a palliative care training program which comprised lectures and case examples of six-hours duration participated in this study. The study was performed after getting institutional approval and obtaining participants? written informed consent. The lecture content comprised WHO definition of palliative care, spiritual aspects of life, death and healing, principles, levels and models of palliative care, and role of physiotherapists in a palliative care team. The physical therapy in palliative care-knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences scale (PTiPC-KABE Scale- modified from palliative care attitudes scale were used for assessing the participants before and after the program. Statistical Analysis: Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test at 95% confidence interval using SPSS 11.5 for Windows. Results: Statistically significant differences (P<0.05 were noted for all four subscales- knowledge (7.84±4.61 points, attitudes (9.46±8.06 points, beliefs (4.88±3.29 points and experiences (15.8±11.28 points out of a total score of 104 points. Conclusions: The focus-group training program produced a significant positive change about palliative care in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists.
Full Text Available The 513 undergraduate students (262 male and 251 female surveyed from five colleges of Delhi University were aware of AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency Syndrome. They knew from different sources that sexually promiscuous people, prostitutes, intravenous drug abusers, professional blood donors and recipients of HIV infected blood were at risk for AIDS. About half of the students (57.5% knew that AIDS was incurable and ultimately led to death. A majority of them (60-72%, also knew that AIDS could be prevented by using condoms during sexual intercourse, disposable needles during injection and avoiding sex with multiple partners. On the other hand their knowledge on non-sexual transmission was inadequate. Most of them (58% believed that one could get AIDS by airborne, oral and kinesthetic routes, some (41% felt that AIDS patients should not be allowed to mix in society, and 24% had an attitude of severing contact with their best friends or divorcing their spouses. The most impotent viewpoint was that 49% of them wrongly believed that AIDS could be prevented by vaccination. The need for more information on AIDS was felt by all of them.
The aim of this study was to investigate Hong Kong Filipino domestic workers health behaviors, knowledge, beliefs and attitudes about cervical screening and cancer. A concurrent cross sectional survey design used a snowball method of recruitment was used because of the acknowledged problematic access to a random sample of immigrant women. A total of 98 female domestic helpers were actively recruited through designated recreation centers. The women were between 24-45 years old (mean = 37.9, SD = 7.7). The majority of these women were employed as full-time domestic helpers (91%), were earning less than dollar 4000 Hong Kong dollars/month (92%), were married (82%), with children (91%), were non-smokers (88%), and had at least a secondary level of education (100%), with 66% of these women having completed post-secondary education. While the majority of women had previously heard about cervical smears (78%) more than half (53%) reported never having a cervical smear taken. Women who had a prior cervical smear had significantly more knowledge about cervical smears and cervical cancer (mean = 51.34, SD = 2.5) than those who never had a cervical smear (mean = 49.72, SD = 3.2). Recommendations are made for culturally tailored mass screening programmers out of office hours and health information to be provided in both written and oral Tagalong. Doctors and nurse ideally of Filipino origin should be used to deliver health messages that prioritize the importance of self protection for the family and future fertility issues, culturally prized within Filipino society. PMID:14535607
Holroyd, Eleanor A; Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E; Twinn, Sheila F
Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers’ attitudes to knowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated the relationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers’, and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) in the knowledge sharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method:
Olatokun, Wole M.; Elueze, Isioma N.
There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course chosen will be more favourable than if the alternative had been adopted
There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course chosen will be more favourable than if the alternative had been adopted.
Greenhalgh, Geoffrey [Down Park Place, Crawley Down (United Kingdom)
Introduction: Organ transplantation saves thousands of lives worldwide. Organ transplantation is a boon to the medical profession, as it helps in saving the lives of many diseased people. Globally, the prevalence of knowledge on organ donation was found to range from 60% to 85%, on using different knowledge variables. Knowledge, attitude and actions are interrelated and previous studies have shown that culture and religion were important external influences which affected the decision making process. So, students require further information on the organ donation process and they need opportunities to examine their own beliefs and attitudes, which can be addressed through educational interventions. Objective: Purpose of the study was to investigate the knowledge, attitude and belief on/towards organ donation and the impact of an educational intervention on them. Methods: An educational interventional study with pre structured questions being administered to study subjects. Results: In the present study, a total of 70 students consented to participate and all the 70 attended the pre-test and post-test after the classroom teaching. Among the 70 participants, 35(50%) were males and 35(50%) were females. A majority of the subjects were Hindus 64(91.4%) and only 3(4.30%) were Muslims. Sixty seven (95.7%) of the students had heard of the term, ‘organ donation’. Most common reason given by the participants for organ donation was that it was done to save someone’s life [61 (87.11%)]. Among the 70 study subjects, only 19(27.10%) knew about the organs that could be donated, whose number increased to 56(80%) after providing the educational intervention. The difference which was observed in their knowledge before and after providing the educational intervention was found to be statistically significant (t= 39.315, porgan donation was poor. Thiry one(444.3%) subjects were unaware about the existence of laws which were related to organ donation and its process. Conclusion: The study emphasizes the need of an intervention which incorporates the knowledge, motivational messages, facts and figures, to bring necessary changes in the perceptions and intentions of the students regarding organ donations.
Introduction: Organ transplantation saves thousands of lives worldwide. Organ transplantation is a boon to the medical profession, as it helps in saving the lives of many diseased people. Globally, the prevalence of knowledge on organ donation was found to range from 60% to 85%, on using different knowledge variables. Knowledge, attitude and actions are interrelated and previous studies have shown that culture and religion were important external influences which affected the decision making process. So, students require further information on the organ donation process and they need opportunities to examine their own beliefs and attitudes, which can be addressed through educational interventions. Objective: Purpose of the study was to investigate the knowledge, attitude and belief on/towards organ donation and the impact of an educational intervention on them. Methods: An educational interventional study with pre structured questions being administered to study subjects. Results: In the present study, a total of 70 students consented to participate and all the 70 attended the pre-test and post-test after the classroom teaching. Among the 70 participants, 35(50%) were males and 35(50%) were females. A majority of the subjects were Hindus 64(91.4%) and only 3(4.30%) were Muslims. Sixty seven (95.7%) of the students had heard of the term, 'organ donation'. Most common reason given by the participants for organ donation was that it was done to save someone's life [61 (87.11%)]. Among the 70 study subjects, only 19(27.10%) knew about the organs that could be donated, whose number increased to 56(80%) after providing the educational intervention. The difference which was observed in their knowledge before and after providing the educational intervention was found to be statistically significant (t= 39.315, porgan donation was poor. Thiry one(444.3%) subjects were unaware about the existence of laws which were related to organ donation and its process. Conclusion: The study emphasizes the need of an intervention which incorporates the knowledge, motivational messages, facts and figures, to bring necessary changes in the perceptions and intentions of the students regarding organ donations. PMID:24995198
Ramadurg, Umesh Yamanappa; Gupta, Akash
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Background: The main purpose of this study was to identify and describe knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards HIV infection and risky sexual behaviour in female medical freshmen in order to evaluate the possibility of female medical student-based peer education.
Methods: Researchers surveyed 560 freshmen: 280 medical students and 280 non medical students at two Italian Universities, collecting the data through anonymous, self administered questionnaires. Data were codified and statistical analysis was computed using Statistica and Openstat 4 software.
Results: Female medical freshmen showed higher levels of knowledge and risk perception about HIV infection, and higher levels of self-awareness in preventing infection when compared with non-medical freshmen. Moreover, medical student’s had a lower rate of sexual activity and a higher rate of condom usage.
Conclusions: Our data leads to the hypothesis that the involvement of female medical students in developing and providing safe sex education may be an important and effective way of better enhancing young people’s knowledge, attitude and behaviour towards the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.
Maria Anna Coniglio
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. La hipertensión arterial es uno de los grandes problemas de salud pública. Una de las principales razones del escaso avance en la efectividad de las intervenciones es la falta de conocimiento de los factores determinantes psicológicos y sociales, como son las creencias sobre la enferme [...] dad y su tratamiento. Objetivo. Valorar las actitudes del paciente respecto al tratamiento antihipertensivo y sus creencias. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal descriptivo en una muestra aleatoria de 202 pacientes adultos hipertensos adscritos a un centro privado de atención ambulatoria en Bogotá, Colombia. Se utilizó el test de Morisky-Green para valorar las actitudes del paciente respecto al tratamiento antihipertensivo y, la versión española del Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQGeneral), para valorar las creencias del paciente. Resultados. Alrededor del 48 % de los pacientes refiere olvidar en algún momento tomar el medicamento antihipertensivo. El 68 % considera que si los médicos tuvieran más tiempo para los pacientes, recetarían menos medicamentos. Alrededor del 40 % no sabe que órganos pueden lesionarse como consecuencia de la tensión arterial elevada. Conclusiones. El presente estudio coloca de manifiesto las necesidades de mejorar las estrategias de comunicación de los profesionales de salud, quienes pueden no estar valorando la importancia de desarrollar habilidades de comunicación para mantener una relación efectiva con sus pacientes. Abstract in english Introduction. Hypertension is an important public health problem in Colombia. One of the principal reasons for the poor effectiveness of interventions is the lack of knowledge and understanding of beliefs about this disease and its treatment. Objective. Profiles were determined for the atitudes, kno [...] wledge and beliefs of patients about antihypertensive drugs. Materials and methods. In a sample of 202 hypertensive patients from a private clinical center in Bogotá, Colombia, the beliefs, knowledge and attitudes about antihypertensive treatment was determined by the use of Morisky-Green test, and Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire. Results. Of these patients, 48% forgot to take the prescribed medication occasionally, 68% believed that if doctors had more time with patients, they will prescribe fewer medicines, and 40% did not know what physiological systems can be damaged by hypertension. Conclusion. This study reinforces the necessity of improving the communication strategies of health professionals in the support of a positive clinician-patient relationship.
Jefferson Antonio, Buendía.
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish FUNDAMENTO: Analizar los conocimientos de la población femenina de Mallorca sobre las causas del cáncer, las creencias sobre diagnóstico y tratamiento y su actitud ante la prevención. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo transversal en una muestra aleatoria de población (n=124) de mujeres entre 40 y 69 años [...] . El cuestionario recoge variables socio-demográficas, factores de riesgo, primeros síntomas, creencias sobre el diagnóstico y tratamiento y actitudes ante la prevención. RESULTADOS: El tabaco (92.7%; IC:88.1-97.3) y el alcohol (85.7%; IC:79.4-92.0) son las causas mejor identificadas. También la presencia de un bulto en un pecho (92.6%; IC:87.9-97.2) y los cambios en una mancha o verruga cutánea (89.7% ; IC:84.2-95.2%). Infravaloran el papel de la dieta (44.4%; IC:35.1-53.8) y sobrevaloran los agentes medioambientales. El conocimiento y la práctica de la autoexploración mamaria se asocian directamente con el nivel educativo (p Abstract in english BACKGROUND: To analyze the knowledge of the facts on the part of the female population of Mallorca with regard to the causes of cancer, the beliefs regarding diagnosis and treatment and their attitude toward prevention. METHODS: A descriptive cross-section study of a random population sample (n=124) [...] of women within the 40-69 age range. The questionnaire includes socio-demographic variables, risk factors, early warning symptoms and beliefs regarding diagnosis and treatment and attitudes toward prevention. RESULTS: Cigarette smoking (92.7%;CI:88.1-97.3) and drinking alcoholic (85.7%; CI:79.4-92.0) are the most well-identified causes. Also the presence of a lump in the breast (92.6%;CI:87.9-97.2) and changes in a mole or wart on the skin (89.7% ; CI:84.2-95.2%). The underestimate the role of the diet (44.4%; CI:35.1-53.8) and overestimate the environmental factors. The knowledge and use of self-examination procedures on the breast are associated directly with the degree of education (p
Elena, Cabeza; Gustavo, Catalán; Antoni, Avellà; Joan, Llobera; Onofre, Pons.
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish FUNDAMENTO: Analizar los conocimientos de la población femenina de Mallorca sobre las causas del cáncer, las creencias sobre diagnóstico y tratamiento y su actitud ante la prevención. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo transversal en una muestra aleatoria de población (n=124) de mujeres entre 40 y 69 años [...] . El cuestionario recoge variables socio-demográficas, factores de riesgo, primeros síntomas, creencias sobre el diagnóstico y tratamiento y actitudes ante la prevención. RESULTADOS: El tabaco (92.7%; IC:88.1-97.3) y el alcohol (85.7%; IC:79.4-92.0) son las causas mejor identificadas. También la presencia de un bulto en un pecho (92.6%; IC:87.9-97.2) y los cambios en una mancha o verruga cutánea (89.7% ; IC:84.2-95.2%). Infravaloran el papel de la dieta (44.4%; IC:35.1-53.8) y sobrevaloran los agentes medioambientales. El conocimiento y la práctica de la autoexploración mamaria se asocian directamente con el nivel educativo (p Abstract in english BACKGROUND: To analyze the knowledge of the facts on the part of the female population of Mallorca with regard to the causes of cancer, the beliefs regarding diagnosis and treatment and their attitude toward prevention. METHODS: A descriptive cross-section study of a random population sample (n=124) [...] of women within the 40-69 age range. The questionnaire includes socio-demographic variables, risk factors, early warning symptoms and beliefs regarding diagnosis and treatment and attitudes toward prevention. RESULTS: Cigarette smoking (92.7%;CI:88.1-97.3) and drinking alcoholic (85.7%; CI:79.4-92.0) are the most well-identified causes. Also the presence of a lump in the breast (92.6%;CI:87.9-97.2) and changes in a mole or wart on the skin (89.7% ; CI:84.2-95.2%). The underestimate the role of the diet (44.4%; CI:35.1-53.8) and overestimate the environmental factors. The knowledge and use of self-examination procedures on the breast are associated directly with the degree of education (p
Elena, Cabeza; Gustavo, Catalán; Antoni, Avellà; Joan, Llobera; Onofre, Pons.
Objectives. The purpose of this article is to describe a community-based participatory research pilot project conducted to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs that Pacific Islanders (PIs) hold toward biospecimen collection, use, and banking, all of which will help drive higher PI participation rates in both medical and behavioral research studies. Method. Academic and community partners worked side by side to develop a conceptual model, study measures, and study protocols. PI community partners screened, recruited, and conducted data collection, which consisted of a paper-and-pencil survey and a 1-hour semistructured interview administered by trained community workers. Results. A total of 60 PI adults representing various PI ethnic groups completed the surveys and interviews. Results showed a general support for biospecimen studies that would benefit the community, and many are willing to provide their biospecimen samples if asked. Conclusion. Due to the established level of trust, community partners were able to successfully recruit and collect data for the study. Many of those interviewed also called for more outreach and education about the importance of biospecimen research in their communities. PMID:24396121
Kwan, Patchareeya P; Briand, Greta; Lee, Cevadne; Lepule, Jonathan Tana; Pang, Jane Ka'ala; Sabado, Melanie; Sablan-Santos, Lola; Schmidt-Vaivao, Dorothy; Tanjasiri, Sora; Tui'one, Vanessa; Palmer, Paula H
Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) theoretically promotes actualization of both individualistic and social-oriented potentials. In a test of this assumption, the Belief Scale and subscales from the Survey of Personal Beliefs served as measures of what REBT presumes to be pathogenic irrationalities. These measures were correlated with the Hypercompetitive Attitude Scale (HCAS), the Personal Development Competitive Attitude Scale (PDCAS), factors from the Splitting Index, and self-esteem. Results for the HCAS and Self-Splitting supported the REBT claim about individualistic self-actualization. Mostly nonsignificant and a few counterintuitive linkages were observed for irrational beliefs with the PDCAS, Family-Splitting, and Other-Splitting, and these data suggested that REBT may be less successful in capturing the "rationality" of a social-oriented self-actualization. PMID:11241364
Watson, P J; Morris, R J; Miller, L
Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviours of older adults about pneumococcal immunization, a Public Health Agency of Canada/Canadian Institutes of Health Research Influenza Research Network (PCIRN) investigation
Background Fewer Canadian seniors are vaccinated against pneumococcal disease than receive the influenza vaccine annually. Improved understanding of factors influencing pneumococcal vaccination among older adults is needed to improve vaccine uptake. Methods A self-administered survey measuring knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviours about pneumococcal vaccination was administered to a cohort of seniors participating in a clinical trial of seasonal influenza vaccines at eight centers across Canada. Eligible participants were ambulatory adults 65 years of age or older, in good health or with stable health conditions, previously given influenza vaccine. The primary outcome was self-reported receipt of pneumococcal vaccination. Multi-variable logistic regression was used to determine factors significantly associated with pneumococcal vaccine receipt. Results A total of 863 participants completed questionnaires (response rate 92%); 58% indicated they had received the pneumococcal vaccine. Being offered the vaccine by a health care provider had the strongest relationship with vaccine receipt (AOR 23.4 (95% CI 13.4-40.7)). Other variables that remained significantly associated with vaccine receipt in the multivariable model included having heard of the vaccine (AOR 10.1(95% CI 4.7-21.7)), and strongly agreeing that it is important for adults?>?65 to be vaccinated against pneumococcus (AOR 3.3 (95% CI 1.2-9.2)). Participants who were?70 years of age were less likely to be vaccinated. Conclusions These results indicate healthcare recommendation significantly influenced vaccine uptake in this population of older adults. Measures to encourage healthcare providers to offer the vaccine may help increase coverage.
Background: All sciences share a common underlying epistemological domain, which gives grounds to and characterizes their nature and actions. Insofar as physicians depend on scientific knowledge, it would be helpful to assess their knowledge regarding some theoretical foundations of science. Objectives: 1.To assess resident physicians' knowledge of concepts and principles underlying all sciences. 2. To determine, to what extent physicians' epistemological beliefs and attitudes are compatible ...
Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers’ attitudes toknowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated therelationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers’,and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA in the knowledgesharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection.Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. PrincipalComponent Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression wasapplied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance.Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the majordeterminants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was notsignificantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitudetowards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge,although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positiveknowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT usage was also foundto significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’.Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more ITinfrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers.
Wole M. Olatokun
Attitudes toward science are an important aspect of students' persistence in school science and interest in pursuing future science careers, but students' attitudes typically decline over the course of formal schooling. This study examines relationships of students' attitudes toward science with their perceptions of science as inclusive or non-religious, and their epistemological beliefs about epistemic authority and certainty. Data were collected using an online survey system among undergraduates at a large, public US university (n = 582). Data were prepared using a Rasch rating scale model and then analyzed using multiple-regression analysis. Gender and number of science and mathematics courses were included as control variables, followed by perceptions of science, then epistemological beliefs. Findings show that respondents have more positive attitudes when they perceive science to be inclusive of women and minorities, and when they perceive science to be incompatible with religion. Respondents also have more positive attitudes toward science when they believe scientific knowledge is uncertain, and when they believe knowledge derives from authority. Interpretations of these findings and implications for future research are discussed.
Fulmer, Gavin W.
Objective: To better understand differences among parents in their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors regarding childhood immunizations and health-related issues. Methods: Forty-four survey variables assessing attitudes and beliefs about immunizations and health were analyzed. The K-means clusters technique was used to identify homogeneous groups…
Gust, Deborah; Brown, Cedric; Sheedy, Kristine; Hibbs, Beth; Weaver, Donna; Nowak, Glen
Two exploratory studies were conducted to investigate U.S. teachers' attitudes and beliefs about bullying. Although most teachers believed they were doing a good job at preventing bullying, results indicate that some teachers hold beliefs that are at odds with current best practices in bullying prevention and intervention. First-year teachers…
Bauman, Sheri; Hurley, Cindy
AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were assessed among female migrant laborers (N=32). Results are reported regarding knowledge and beliefs about AIDS transmission, knowledge and beliefs about condom use, and actual use of condoms. Needs for health education and services, sexual power, and other implications of findings are…
Organista, Pamela Balls; Organista, Kurt C.; Soloff, Pearl R.
A qualitative analysis of South African women's knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about HPV and cervical cancer prevention, vaccine awareness and acceptance, and maternal-child communication about sexual health.
In South Africa, cervical cancer is the second leading cause of death among women. Black South Africa women are disproportionately affected by cervical cancer and have one of the highest mortality rates from this disease. Although the body of literature that examines HPV and cervical cancer prevention is growing in the developing world; there is still a need for a better understanding of women's knowledge and beliefs around HPV and cervical cancer prevention. Therefore, this formative study sought to examine women's attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer, HPV vaccine acceptance, maternal-child communication about sexuality, and healthcare decision-making and gender roles within an urban community in South Africa. Women ages 18-44 were recruited from an antenatal clinic in a Black township outside of Johannesburg during the fall of 2008. Twenty-four women participated in three focus groups. Findings indicated that the women talked to their children about a variety of sexual health issues; had limited knowledge about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine. Women were interested in learning more about the vaccine although they had reservations about the long-term affect; they reinforced that grandmothers played a key role in a mother's decisions' about her child's health, and supported the idea that government should provide the HPV vaccine as part of the country's immunization program. Our findings indicate the need to develop primary prevention strategies and materials that will provide women with basic cervical cancer prevention messages, including information about HPV, cervical cancer, the HPV vaccine, screening, and how to talk to their children about these topics. Prevention strategies should also consider the cultural context and the role that grandmothers play in the family unit. PMID:21855591
Francis, Shelley A; Battle-Fisher, Michele; Liverpool, Joan; Hipple, Lauren; Mosavel, Maghboehba; Soogun, Soji; Mofammere, Nokuthula
Full Text Available Abstract Background Religion shapes everyday beliefs and activities, but few studies have examined its associations with attitudes about HIV. This exploratory study in Tanzania probed associations between religious beliefs and HIV stigma, disclosure, and attitudes toward antiretroviral (ARV treatment. Methods A self-administered survey was distributed to a convenience sample of parishioners (n = 438 attending Catholic, Lutheran, and Pentecostal churches in both urban and rural areas. The survey included questions about religious beliefs, opinions about HIV, and knowledge and attitudes about ARVs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess how religion was associated with perceptions about HIV, HIV treatment, and people living with HIV/AIDS. Results Results indicate that shame-related HIV stigma is strongly associated with religious beliefs such as the belief that HIV is a punishment from God (p Conclusion The decision to start ARVs hinged primarily on education-level and knowledge about ARVs rather than on religious factors. Research results highlight the influence of religious beliefs on HIV-related stigma and willingness to disclose, and should help to inform HIV-education outreach for religious groups.
Full Text Available Purpose: For intervention to be effective, it is essential that the knowledge, beliefs and perception of a specific social group are taken into account. This is particularly true of leprosy where the problems of social stigma and ostracism are more prominent than the disease itself. There are many misconceptions about the cause, methods of transmission, and treatment. The main objectives of the study were to examine the socio-demographic profile of persons with leprosy and to explore their knowledge, beliefs and perception about the disease and its initial symptoms, within a specific socio-cultural milieu. Method: Semi-structured interviews were held with a persons with leprosy at various clinics and care-homes for affected persons in and around Chandigarh, India. Those who had completed their treatment and those who were still undergoing treatment were included in the study. Data collection was done through case studies and in-depth interviews. Results: The name of the disease varied across different geo-cultural zones. Many respondents who were afflicted with only red patches and had no ulcers, believed that they suffered from a skin disease which would turn into leprosy if proper medication was not received. The perception of 64.9 % of the respondents was that leprosy resulted from supernatural causes like God’s punishment, karma, and sin. Conclusion: There is a need to educate persons with leprosy and their families about the etiology of the disease.
The 50-item Violence-Related Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (V-RABS) includes three subscales measuring possible causes of violent behavior (environmental influences, biological influences, and mental illness) and four subscales assessing possible controls of violent behavior (death penalty, punishment, prevention, and catharsis). Each subscale…
Brand, Pamela A.; Anastasio, Phyllis A.
Full Text Available Background: All sciences share a common underlying epistemological domain, which gives grounds to and characterizes their nature and actions. Insofar as physicians depend on scientific knowledge, it would be helpful to assess their knowledge regarding some theoretical foundations of science. Objectives: 1.To assess resident physicians' knowledge of concepts and principles underlying all sciences. 2. To determine, to what extent physicians' epistemological beliefs and attitudes are compatible with the scientific paradigm. Design: A questionnaire was administered to 161 resident physicians at three hospitals in Lima, Peru. Results: 237 resident physicians were selected, 161 (68% of whom agreed to answer the survey. 67% of respondents indicated they did not know what epistemology is, 21% were able to correctly define epistemology; 24% of the residents knew the appropriate definition of scientific theory. No respondents knew the philosophical presumptions of science; and 48% took a relativistic stand towards knowledge. Conclusions: There appear to be deficiencies in the knowledge of scientific theoretical foundations among physicians.
Dr. Adolfo Peña.
Background: Myocardial infarction is the third leading cause of death in the developing countries. Thrombolysis as a reperfusion therapy is shown to have a great role in decreasing mortality. The efficacy of thrombolytic therapy lies in its ability to reduce the duration of occlusion by early administration. Many of the studies have supported pre-hospital thrombolysis (PHT) therapy and proven that it is beneficial in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Methodology: Questionnaires adopted from studies of Humphrey et al., were distributed to paramedics in Saudi Red Crescent Authority and Emergency Medical Services Departments at King Abdulaziz Medical City, King Fahad Medical City, Prince Sultan Medical Military City and Security Forces Hospital in Riyadh. A total of 7 questions were about the knowledge of risk and benefit of PHT and 12 questions were about the beliefs and attitudes of paramedics toward PHT in AMI patients. Results: The response rate was 87%. Nearly 72% were believed to be capable of performing PHT, 87% are confident about recording 12-lead electrocardiogram in pre-hospital settings and 77% are confident in the interpretation. 94% believe that PHT will have a significant impact on pain to needle time. 77% consider PHT to be safe for use by paramedics. 66% preferred on-line medical direction or telemedicine linked with the supervision of a physician. Regarding the knowledge part, majority gave a correct answer, but the major concern was that 43% of the paramedics overestimated direct relation of bleeding to thrombolysis therapy. Conclusion: Majority of paramedics in Riyadh support the principle of PHT in patients with AMI via online medical direction. They believe that they are confident in their ability to administer PHT despite the concern of authorities on their level of training, the related risks and medico-legal issues. Nevertheless, since the total duration of PHT course for paramedics is just 2 days, we consider that the procedure should be performed under expert supervision until they achieve expertise.
Alanazi, Abdullah Foraih; Alrashidi, Qais Saad; Aljerian, Nawfal Abdullah
Autism is a life-long invisible impairment with an unknown etiology. Current literature shows an increase in the diagnosis of autism worldwide. This qualitative study explores the attitudes and beliefs which surround childhood autism in Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted with four (4) parents whose children have autism and three (3) key informants; a Religious Leader, a Health Worker and an Administrator of a Special school in Accra, Ghana. A semi-structured interview guide was used fo...
Full Text Available This Australian study seeks to better understand the disparity between the positive attitudes towards Socially Responsible Investing (SRI and the level of investment in SRI (Saulwick &Associates 2001; Watmore & Bradley 2001; Williams 2007; Arjalies 2010, by examining both the attitudes to SRI and the investment choices that are made. It is hypothesised that those who are more committed to religious belief principles are more likely to invest in SRI.To test this 322 people from two large Queensland organisations were surveyed in relation to their investment attitudes and preferences. Results show that those who are more religious are no more likely to invest in SRI, and that the level of importance placed on SRI and financial criteria are similar in most instances for the more and less religious. In addition, women who are religious place more importance on conservative general investment criteria than less ornon-religious women.
In Republic V, Plato makes the astonishing claim that knowledge is a different and independent power from belief, in the way, for example, that sight differs from hearing. I will argue that this is a fundamentally different conception of knowledge than the, also Platonic, conception of knowledge as 'true belief with an account'. I examine the reasons why Plato holds this position, and the ontology and epistemology which sustain its claims.
Despite significant evidence for the integration of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) into professional nursing practice, gaps exist regarding nurses' baseline knowledge, beliefs of efficacy, and learning needs for further education to facilitate the integration of CAM into nursing practice. The top three conditions which adults identified for using CAM were back pain, neck pain, and joint pain. CAM can offer nurses additional treatment options for managing their patients' pain and discomfort. The California Board of Registered Nursing (BRN) identifies that nurses can help provide the missing link between conventional Western medicine and CAM therapies. Nurses cannot successfully advocate for CAM therapies, nor understand their patients' prior use of such treatments, unless they themselves are familiar with both the risks and the benefits of these practices. It is necessary to first establish nurses' baseline knowledge and beliefs related to CAM so that adequate educational programs can be initiated to help mitigate the barriers to incorporating CAM into the acute care setting. This descriptive study explores registered nurses' attitudes and knowledge related to CAM by using the Nurse Complementary and Alternative Medicine Nursing Knowledge and Attitudes Survey developed by Rojas-Cooley and Grant. Nurses in this study demonstrated limited self-reported knowledge of basic CAM terminology and CAM practices. PMID:24315251
Trail-Mahan, Tracy; Mao, Chia-Ling; Bawel-Brinkley, Karen
Abstract Background Religion shapes everyday beliefs and activities, but few studies have examined its associations with attitudes about HIV. This exploratory study in Tanzania probed associations between religious beliefs and HIV stigma, disclosure, and attitudes toward antiretroviral (ARV) treatment. Methods A self-administered survey was distributed to a convenience sample of parishioners (n = 438) attending Catholic, Lutheran, and Pentecostal churches in bot...
Zou James; Yamanaka Yvonne; John Muze; Watt Melissa; Ostermann Jan; Thielman Nathan
Full Text Available Introduction Poor knowledge of and negative attitudes toward available screening tests may account in part for colorectal cancer screening rates being the lowest among 17 quality measures reported for the Department of Veterans Affairs health care system, the largest integrated health system in the United States. The purpose of this study was to develop a brief assessment tool to evaluate knowledge and attitudes among veterans toward colorectal cancer screening options. Methods A 44-item questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about colorectal cancer and screening and was then administered as part of an ongoing randomized controlled trial among 388 veterans receiving care in a general medicine clinic. Sixteen candidate items on colorectal cancer knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs were selected for further evaluation using principal components analysis. Two sets of items were then further analyzed. Results Because the Cronbach a for beliefs was low (a = 0.06, the beliefs subscale was deleted from further consideration. The final scale consisted of seven items: a four-item attitude subscale (a = 0.73 and a three-item knowledge subscale (a = 0.59. Twelve-month follow-up data were used to evaluate predictive validity; improved knowledge and attitudes were significantly associated with completion of flexible sigmoidoscopy (P = .004 and completion of either flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (P = .02. Conclusion The two-factor scale offers a parsimonious and reliable measure of colorectal cancer screening knowledge and attitudes among veterans. This colorectal Cancer Screening Survey (CSS may especially be useful as an evaluative tool in developing and testing of interventions designed to improve screening rates within this population.
Franklin Medio, PhD
Full Text Available Using the theoretical framework of the Theory of Reasoned Action , we examine benefits satisfactionas an attitude formed by the beliefs about benefits (i.e., benefits knowledge and the perceived value ofthese benefits (i.e., fit of benefits to individual needs. We use questionnaires to gather data from arandom sample of 591 employees in a large county agency in the South-eastern United States. The datasupport that knowledge of benefits is associated with enhanced benefits satisfaction and mediates theeffect of explanations about benefits on satisfaction. The results provide strong evidence that benefitsperceived to suit employee needs generate highest benefits satisfaction. Employees satisfied with theirbenefits are less likely to consider leaving the organization. The tested model is a starting point for futurestudies to apply the extended Theory of Reasoned Action  and incorporate perceived behaviouralcontrol and subjective norms (i.e., co-workers’ attitudes in forming benefits satisfaction. Understandingemployees’ affective and cognitive reactions to compensation, including benefits, can render betterpractices. Companies should use information campaigns to improve employee beliefs about benefits.Better attentiveness to individual needs and preferences can maximize the utility of a benefits plan andimprove its acceptance. We replicate and extend past research in a parsimonious model of benefitssatisfaction with a random sample of public sector employees.
Gery Markova, Foard Jones
In this thesis nutrition attitudes, beliefs, and fat intake in three generations of women are described. The aim of the study was twofold: the development of methods, and to study family resemblance in food habits. Based on literature study and qualitative pilot studies a questionnaire on beliefs and attitudes towards the consumption of 20 foods was developed for which Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action was used as a framework. In addition, an attitude scale was developed towards ...
Learning about one's sexuality is an important developmental task for the adolescent and has implications for a lifelong process of becoming a sexual being and reaching sexual maturity. Learning about intimacy in relationship with others is another important developmental task for the adolescent. The occurrence of interpersonal violence, particularly sexual, physical, or psychological violence, disrupts the development of intimacy which informs the process for becoming a sexual being. Society can assist adolescent females experiencing interpersonal violence to understand their sexual nature and make informed sexual decisions throughout their lifetime. This assistance requires a contextual understanding of the relationship between adolescent sexual development and the effects of interpersonal violence on this process. This study presents the groundwork needed to understand the contextual meanings of sexual relationships of adolescent females with a history of interpersonal violence and discusses the evolution of these adolescents' attitudes and beliefs for sexual health promotion. PMID:19544127
Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Collins, Jennifer L; Reyes, Stephanie; Rivera, Rebecca L
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of, attitudes towards, and knowledge about cigarette smoking in Ecuador in 1991. DESIGN: Survey using in-person interviews; stratified and multiple regression analyses. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: Eight hundred people (> or = 18 years old) representative of the adult populations in the cities of Quito and Guayaquil, Ecuador. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Smoking prevalence, daily cigarette consumption, reasons for smoking, desire to quit smoking, knowledge about...
Attitudes and knowledge regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) of 498 college students enrolled at California State University, Dominguez Hills were surveyed. The AIDS Opinion and Information Surveys were administered to subjects between the ages of 18 and 46+, with 81.5% being below the age of 32. The 19-item Opinion survey uses a…
The segment of organic products occupies an increasingly important place in dairy assortments. The European Union (EU) introduced a new EU organic logo in 2010 with the aim of harmonizing its organic sector and boosting consumer trust in organic food. This study focuses on organic yogurt and investigates consumer awareness and knowledge of the new EU logo. Consumers evaluate organic yogurt as superior compared with conventional yogurt on healthiness, environmental friendliness, quality, and safety. More frequent buyers of organic yogurt have a stronger belief that organic yogurt is superior. The willingness-to-pay for organic yogurt ranged from a premium of 15% for nonbuyers to 40% for habitual buyers, indicating the market potential for this product. A structural equations model reveals the positive association between knowledge, attitudes, and the frequency of purchasing and consuming organic yogurt. Nevertheless, consumer awareness of the EU organic logo remains rather low, which suggests a need for more effective information campaigns and marketing actions. PMID:23415537
Van Loo, Ellen J; Diem, My Nguyen Hoang; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim
Forty Cambodian women in Seattle, Washington were interviewed to learn about their childrearing knowledge, beliefs, practices, and information resources. It was found that women who once relied on family and elders for advice now turned to pediatric providers and other clinic staff. Most women reported accurately the ages at which developmental milestones occur, with the exception of vision and hearing milestones. Their treatment of common childhood illnesses included both Western and Cambodian remedies. Beliefs about children's nature, discipline, learning, and reincarnation were explored. Implications for providers trying to support the parenting efforts of Cambodian women in the United States are discussed. PMID:1748925
Lenart, J C; St Clair, P A; Bell, M A
The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology and its various applications. In addition, whether students' knowledge and attitudes differed according to age and gender were also explored. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and the Biotechnology Attitude…
Ozel, Murat; Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol
The present study adds to the evolving literature on green consumer behavior by examining through statistically robust methods the effect and interrelationships of the key constructs of environmental concern, consumer environmental knowledge, beliefs about biofuels, and behavioral intention (i.e., willingness to use and pay) in the context of biofuels. Data were collected through a survey of 1695 respondents. Hypotheses are based on a literature review and a pilot study, and the conceptual structural model developed is tested through structural equation modeling. Results show that concern for the environment has a positive and direct impact on environmental knowledge, beliefs, and behavioral intention. Also, demographics determine levels of concern for the environment and environmental knowledge. All constructs associate positively with one another delineating that the interdependencies between them are important when accounting for environmental behavior. Future research should validate present results with the use of cross-cultural samples and investigate whether environmental concern increases due to social desirability response bias.
Pagiaslis, Anastasios; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios
A number of instruments have been designed to probe the variety of attitudes, beliefs, expectations, and epistemological frames taught in our introductory physics courses. Using a newly developed instrument - the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) - we examine the relationship between students' beliefs about physics and other educational outcomes, such as conceptual learning and student retention. We report results from surveys of over 750 students in a variety of courses, including several courses modified to promote favorable beliefs about physics. We find positive correlations between particular student beliefs and conceptual learning gains, and between student retention and favorable beliefs in select categories. We also note the influence of teaching practices on student beliefs.
Perkins, K. K.; Adams, W. K.; Pollock, S. J.; Finkelstein, N. D.; Wieman, C. E.
Background: Religion shapes everyday beliefs and activities, but few studies have examined its associations with attitudes about HIV. This exploratory study in Tanzania probed associations between religious beliefs and HIV stigma, disclosure, and attitudes toward antiretroviral (ARV) treatment. Methods: A self-administered survey was distributed to a convenience sample of parishioners (n = 438) attending Catholic, Lutheran, and Pentecostal churches in both urban and rural areas. The survey in...
Yamanaka, Yvonne; John, Muze; Watt, Melissa; Ostermann, Jan; Thielman, Nathan; Zou, James Yang
In this study, preservice teachers' demographic variables such as race, innercity program experiences, religious affiliation, and cross-cultural friendships are examined to see if they influence the preservice teachers' beliefs on issues of diversity. The data are from a Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale and a Professional Beliefs About…
Dedeoglu, Hakan; Lamme, Linda L.
Though artificial intelligence scientists frequently use words such as belief and desire when describing the computational capacities of their programs and computers, they have completely ignored the philosophical and psychological theories of belief and desire. Hence, their explanations of computational capacities that use these terms are frequently little better than folk-psychological explanations. Conversely, though-philosophers and psychologists attempt to couch their theories of belief and desire in computational terms, they have consistently misunderstood the notions of computation and computational semantics. Hence, their theories of such attitudes are frequently inadequate. A computational theory of propositional attitudes (belief and desire) is presented here. It is argued that the theory of propositional attitudes put forth by philosophers and psychologists entails that propositional attitudes are a kind of abstract data type. This refined computational view of propositional attitudes bridges the gap between artificial intelligence, philosophy, and psychology. It is argued that this theory of propositional attitudes has consequences for meta-processing and consciousness in computers.
Throughout Central America, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and the Zamorano Pan-American Agricultural School support a Safe Pesticide Use program. In 1993, a study of results was carried out among farmers and housewives in eastern Guatemala. Aspects of the methodology included: (1) participation of extension workers in all aspects of the study; (2) small, region-focused samples (eight cells, 30 interviews per cell); (3) comparison to control groups of untrained farmers and housewives; (4) a traditional questionnaire for studying acquisition of specific knowledge; and (5) a flexible instrument for building a cognitive map of knowledge and beliefs regarding pesticides. The cognitive map is a step toward applying modern psychocultural scaling, an approach already well developed for medicine and public health, to environmental problems. Positive results detected include progress at learning the meaning of colors on containers that denote toxicity and where to store pesticides. Pesticide application problems detected were mention by farmers of highly toxic, restricted pesticides as appropriate for most pest problems and of insecticides as the correct solution to fungus problems, and the widespread belief that correct pesticide dosage depends on number of pests seen rather than on land or foliage surface. Health-related problems detected were admission by a vast majority of housewives that they apply highly toxic pesticides to combat children's head-lice; low awareness that pesticides cause health problems more serious than nausea, dizziness, and headaches; and a common belief that lemonade and coffee are effective medicines for pesticide poisoning.
Popper, Roger; Andino, Karla; Bustamante, Mario; Hernandez, Beatriz; Rodas, Luis
Nutritional knowledge, attitudes, and food patterns of women athletes at the University of Nebraska at Lincoln were studied. Mean test scores for nutritional knowledge were higher for questions relating to "nutrition for the athlete" than to "general nutrition." Attitudes toward nutrition were generally favorable, with a positive correlation between nutritional knowledge and attitudes. Athletes who had received some form of nutrition education had higher nutritional knowledge and attitude scores than those who had not. Respondents were especially concerned with diet as it relates to weight control; those with higher knowledge scores consistently followed food patterns for weight-control diets similar to those used in training and pre-event diets. PMID:681645
Werblow, J A; Fox, H M; Henneman, A
We report the results of a survey of second-year medical students concerning attitudes and basic knowledge of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). It appeared that there were significant negative biases against ECT in a portion of the group. Forty percent of the students who participated felt that psychiatrists often misused ECT, while 31% actually thought ECT was used to punish violent or uncooperative patients. Few students knew the typical frequency or duration of treatment or even that it was done under general anesthesia. It was interesting that the group describing themselves as highly knowledgeable about psychiatric illness had a greater bias against ECT. Students in the negative group did not differ in the sources of their information about ECT. The most common sources of this information about ECT were movies or college classes. The results document the need for appropriate coverage of ECT in medical school curriculum. PMID:11417934
Clothier, J L; Freeman, T; Snow, L
Research Question: What is the level of knowledge, sexual practices and attitude of medical students towards AIDS/ HIV. Objective: To assess the knowledge, sexual practices and attitudes of medical students in relation to HIV/AIDS. Study Design: Cross- sectional. Participants: 409 first year medical students. Study variables: Sex knowledge, sexual practices, Attitudes, Risk perception. Results: 92% of the students had heard about AIDS predominantly through mass media. Many students had...
Amalraj Edwin R; Chandrasekaran Nirmala; Solomon Sunithi; Sumbandam Raja P
Background: Research has suggested that patients and treatment providers hold different beliefs and models of obesity. This could impact consistency and quality of interventions for weight management. This study investigated the attitudes and beliefs of health professionals, commercial weight management advisors (expert patients) and overweight and obese dieters, towards obesity. Methods: Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire from 287 health professionals, 85 expert pati...
Mcconnon, A.; Gribble, R.; Raats, Mm; Stubbs, J.; Shepherd, R.
Although the effectiveness of corporal punishment (CP) has received little empirical support, public support for this disciplinary method continues despite calls for its abandonment by researchers. Even among educators, favorable attitudes toward the use of CP are prevalent. We measured education majors' beliefs about CP before and after they read…
Robinson, Daniel H.; Funk, Daniel C.; Beth, Alicia; Bush, Angela M.
American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) suffer a disproportionate burden of diabetes and kidney failure. For those with chronic kidney disease, transplantation may be the most effective treatment option. However, low rates of organ donation and transplantation are reported for AI/ANs, who face significant barriers in accessing the transplant waiting list. They are also less likely than Whites to consent to become organ donors. We partnered with five tribal colleges and universities to conduct focus groups to assess knowledge, cultural beliefs, and behaviors related to organ donation and transplantation among AI/AN college students. Focus group data were used to develop a culturally targeted media campaign and outreach strategy aimed at increasing rates of consent to donate organs. Community knowledge typically drew from direct family experience with chronic illness. Study findings confirmed that attitudes about organ donation were influenced by cultural beliefs. Nevertheless, many participants supported organ donation even when it conflicted with cultural and spiritual beliefs about keeping the body intact for burial. Participants also expressed mistrust of the local health care system, suggesting that trust issues might interfere with health messaging on this topic. This is the first study to examine sociocultural beliefs about organ donation among AI/AN college students. Through focus group findings, study staff were better positioned to develop culturally relevant outreach materials. Rising rates of chronic illness among AI/ANs ensure that organ donation and transplantation will be a long-term feature of the health landscape in AI/AN communities. Targeted health messaging must be part of the strategy to reduce donor shortages. PMID:23504267
Jernigan, Meghan; Fahrenwald, Nancy; Harris, Raymond; Tsosie, Ursula; Baker, Lannesse Olivina; Buchwald, Dedra
PURPOSE Negative attitudes and beliefs about depression treatment may prevent many young adults from accepting a diagnosis and treatment for depression. We undertook a study to determine the association between depressive symptom severity, beliefs about and attitudes toward treatment, subjective social norms, and past behavior on the intent not to accept a physician’s diagnosis of depression.
Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these…
Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.
Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death in US women, with Hispanic women at higher risk of mortality than non-Hispanic white women. While the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine represents substantial progress towards cervical cancer prevention, little is currently known about Hispanic student's beliefs regarding the HPV vaccine. To assess the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs of college students in the US-Mexico border region following the release of the HPV vaccine for both males and females. This survey was conducted using a convenience sample were participants were recruited from pre-nursing and nursing courses. The self-administered questionnaire ascertained HPV vaccination status, and knowledge and beliefs regarding the HPV vaccine. 202 male and female students responded. 28.9% of respondents reported having received the HPV vaccine. Of the non-vaccinated students under age 27, 27.3% Hispanic students reported an intention to receive the vaccine. Misinformation about HPV was common and was associated with intention to get vaccinated among non-Hispanic white students. We found a relatively small proportion of unvaccinated Hispanic and non-Hispanic nursing students intend to be vaccinated for HPV. Findings indicate an intervention to increase vaccination rates among college-aged students may not be as straightforward as increasing knowledge of HPV. Nurses are in a unique position to educate and recommend HPV to underserved patients. Thus, educating nursing students regarding HPV and the associated cancers is paramount if we are to encourage ethnic minorities to receive the HPV vaccine. PMID:23813323
Schmotzer, Geri L; Reding, Kerryn W
Science textbooks are dominant influences behind most secondary science instruction but little is known about teachers' approach to science reading. The purpose of this naturalistic study was to develop and validate a Science and Reading Questionnaire to assess secondary science teachers' attitudes toward science reading and their beliefs or informed opinions about science reading. A survey of 428 British Columbia secondary science teachers was conducted and 215 science teachers responded. Results on a 12-item Likert attitude scale indicated that teachers place high value on reading as an important strategy to promote learning in science and that they generally accept responsibility for teaching content reading skills to science students. Results on a 13-item Likert belief scale indicated that science teachers generally reject the text-driven model of reading, but they usually do not have well-formulated alternative models to guide their teaching practices. Teachers have intuitive beliefs about science reading that partially agree with many research findings, but their beliefs are fragmented and particularly sketchy in regard to the cognitive and metacognitive skills required by readers to learn from science texts. The findings for attitude, belief, and total scales were substantiated by further questions in the Science and Reading Questionnaire regarding classroom practice and by individual interviews and classroom observations of a 15-teacher subsample of the questionnaire respondents.
Yore, Larry D.
In the present study, we surveyed the English language-learning motivations of 518 secondary school students, university students, and young adult learners in the capital of Chile, Santiago. We applied multi-group structural-equation modeling to analyze how language-learning goals, attitudes, self-related beliefs, and parental encouragement…
Kormos, Judit; Kiddle, Thom; Csizer, Kata
The purpose of this study was to examine how belief in a just world (BJW), political ideology, religious ideology, socioeconomic status of origin, and race relate to social justice advocacy attitudes among school counseling professionals. A sequential multiple regression indicated that political ideology and BJW were statistically significant…
Parikh, Sejal B.; Post, Phyllis; Flowers, Claudia
Full Text Available Objective: The development of effective psychoeducational programs for the management of schizophrenia requires an understanding of attitudes towards and beliefs about the disorder in families of affected probands. In order to establish the need for adaptation of Western psychoeducational programs, these variables were investigated in Xhosa speaking families in South Africa. Design: Xhosa speaking family members of patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia were recruited on a voluntary basis, and interviewed with a structured belief and attitudes questionnaire adapted from previous studies in the West. Setting: The study population was drawn from both urban and rural Xhosa communities in South Africa. Subjects: 100 Xhosa speaking family members participated in the study. Results: Family members most often recommended treatment with psychotropic medications (88% and traditional healers (32%, and least often recommended psychotherapy (4% and meditation (1%. Of the respondents who recommended traditional healing methods, 92% also recommended simultaneous use of allopathic treatment. Conclusion: Attitudes towards and beliefs about schizophrenia in family members of patients with schizophrenia may differ substantially from those described in previous work in the West. An understanding of local attitudes and beliefs is crucial for the successful development of local psychoeducational programs.
This study investigated preservice teachers' intentions to integrate democratic practice into their teaching and the influence of attitudes and beliefs on intentions. Participants were 76 undergraduates from 3 social studies methods classes. A theory of reasoned action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) guided instrument development. Intention was…
Pryor, Caroline R.; Pryor, Brandt W.
This study analyzed teachers' beliefs and attitudes affecting job satisfaction in one small, rural Florida school district. This mixed methods study included a self-administered survey of Likert-type items measuring 20 factors for job satisfaction and individual semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Several issues related to dissatisfaction…
Huysman, John T.
The present study examined the role of pancultural social beliefs, as measured by the Social Axioms Survey (SAS), in predicting attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help in an ethnically diverse sample of Canadian university students (N = 400). The result of a hierarchical regression showed that the collective contribution of the…
Kuo, Ben C. H.; Kwantes, Catherine T.; Towson, Shelagh; Nanson, Kathleen M.
The purpose of this study was to take the first steps in a long-term approach to helping South African teachers understand and respond to government demands that they change their assessment practices. Specifically, it attempted to identify the beliefs, perceptions and attitudes about assessment that student teachers bring with them to courses that are designed to equip
Beliefs and attitudes of teachers in Mumbai, India, towards children who stutter were investigated using questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Questionnaires were completed by 58 teachers, four of whom were subsequently interviewed. Results from the questionnaires showed that teachers believed that a child's environment influenced…
Pachigar, Vinati; Stansfield, Jois; Goldbart, Juliet
One hundred and sixty-one Mexican respondents completed a questionnaire that measured beliefs and attitudes toward hysterectomy and another that measured gender-role ideology in marriage (GRIMQ). The participants were divided into two groups according to the GRIMQ: "high machismo/marianismo" and "low machismo/marianismo" groups. The participants belonging to the first group showed the most negative attitudes toward hysterectomy. In this group, men showed more negative attitudes toward hysterctomy and were less likely than women to believe that hysterectomy has positive aspects. The findings are discussed in light of male dominance and female subordination that prevail in certain cultural groups of Mexico.xs. PMID:22577739
Marván, Ma Luisa; Quiros, Vanessa; López-Vázquez, Esperanza; Ehrenzweig, Yamilet
Primary osteoporosis prevention requires healthy behaviours, such as regular physical exercise and adequate dietary intakes of calcium, vitamin D and protein. Calcium and vitamin D can decrease postmenopausal bone loss and prevent fracture risk. However, there is still a high prevalence of calcium and vitamin D insufficiency in women aged 50+ years. Dietary sources of these nutrients are the preferred choice, and dairy products represent a valuable dietary source of calcium due to the high content, high absorptive rate and relatively low cost. Furthermore, dairy products also contain other key nutrients including vitamin D, phosphorus and protein that contribute to bone health. Studies of women's beliefs and behaviours with respect to osteoporosis highlight poor knowledge of the importance of dietary nutrient intakes and low concern regarding bone health. Osteoporosis educational programmes exist to help women change behaviours relevant to bone health. Such programmes can have positive influences on women's knowledge, attitudes, perceived norms, motivation and behaviours. Increased awareness of the consequences of low calcium and vitamin D intakes may promote women's attitudes towards dietary sources, in particular dairy products, and lead to better adherence to health recommendations. Increasing dietary nutrient intakes through educational initiatives should be further developed to aid the prevention of osteoporosis and the efficacy of osteoporosis management. PMID:24059908
Rizzoli, R; Abraham, C; Brandi, M-L
Full Text Available Pubic lice (Pthirus pubis maintain a worldwide parasitic population infesting two to over 10 percent of human populations, continuing a presence that has been constant since early evidence 10,000 years ago. Outbreaks in the 1970s have been recorded, but incomplete records preclude description of a definitive population cycle. Current levels of infestation in a US college student population were investigated in this study. Knowledge and opinions of students were also recorded in an online survey administered to college students taking a basic health course at a mid-sized East Coast University. In a group of 817 students, 35 reported experience with pubic lice or other STD infection. Knowledge, beliefs, and treatment attitudes were examined for the 782 students who did not have experience with either pubic lice or STD infection. These students deemed antibiotics as a viable treatment for pubic lice infestation. They also indicated negative attitudes toward the use of pesticide crèmes, which are the most useful prescription. Symptoms and transmission myths in student answers are described.
The relationship between the nutrition knowledge and attitudes and dietary practices of adolescent female athletes was studied, using a 24-hour recall and a 48-hour food record with a modified version of the self-administered knowledge and attitude questionnaire of Werblow et al. Analysis indicated that the diets were similar to those of other teenage girls in the United States. The calculated mean values for vitamins A and C were more than 100% of the RDAs, while those for calcium and iron were less than 67% of the allowances. The mean energy value was less than recommended and may have been inadequate for the active subjects. Food consumption analysis showed that of total servings, the milk and meat groups accounted for only about 10% each and that more than 30% came from the "others" group. Although the subjects had some common misconceptions about nutrition, they were generally knowledgeable as well as positive in their attitudes toward nutrition. Nutrition knowledge and attitudes were positively correlated, indicating that the more nutrition knowledge a subject had, the more positive was the attitude toward nutrition, and vice versa. However, no significant correlation was found between nutrition knowledge or attitudes and dietary intake, suggesting that factors other than nutrition knowledge and attitudes, such as a concern for weight and a dependence on others for food selection, played a role in determining the food practices of the subjects. PMID:3989173
Perron, M; Endres, J
Adaptação transcultural para o português brasileiro do instrumento The Epilepsy Beliefs and Attitudes Scale (Ebas) - Adult Version / Transcultural adaptation for brazilian portuguese of The Epilepsy Beliefs and Attitudes Scale (Ebas) - Adult Version
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: o desconhecimento acerca da epilepsia tem fomentado o interesse em desenvolver ferramentas voltadas para detecção das crenças e atitudes da comunidade em geral acerca da doença. OBJETIVO: apresentar o processo de adaptação transcultural do instrumento The Epilepsy Beliefs and Attitudes S [...] cale (EBAS) - Adult Version e uma versão em português para uso no Brasil. MÉTODO: o processo de adaptação envolveu a equivalência conceitual, de itens, semântica e operacional. RESULTADOS: os conceitos apreendidos foram considerados pertinentes à nossa cultura e seus itens adequados quanto à sua capacidade de representar tais conceitos na população-alvo, além de apresentar boa equivalência semântica entre a versão final em português e o original. CONCLUSÃO: o instrumento mostrou-se adequado para uso na população em geral e seus resultados serão revistos em estudos futuros a luz de avaliações psicométricas. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: the lack of knowledge about epilepsy has boosted the interest to develop instruments aimed for the detection of beliefs and attitudes of the community in general about the disease. OBJECTIVE: to carry out the transcultural adaptation of the instrument The Epilepsy Beliefs and Attitudes [...] Scale (EBAS) - Adult Version and a version in Brazilian Portuguese. METHOD: the transcultural adaptation involved the conceptual, items, operational and semantic equivalences. RESULTS: the concepts were considered relevant to our culture and the items as appropriate to their ability to represent these concepts in the target population. It was possible establish high-quality semantic equivalence between the Brazilian Portuguese-language final version and the original. CONCLUSION: the instrument proved to be suitable for use in the general population and the results will be reevaluated in the light of forthcoming psychometric analysis.
Zanni, Karina Piccin; Matsukura, Thelma Simões; Maia Filho, Heber de Souza.
Organ transplantation is widely agreed to be beneficial to health. Many transplantations involve donation from the deceased. In Aotearoa/New Zealand, Maori both donate and receive proportionally fewer organs than non-Maori. This paper seeks illumination of this fact in unique Maori spiritual beliefs. These spiritual beliefs are not held by all Maori, and their role in an individual's life may vary, nonetheless they constitute a living tradition. Because cadaveric donation involves removal of organs from the dead person as soon after death as possible, considerations arise about customary rules and observances and the movement between the realm of the living and the dead. This may raise concerns for donors, recipients, and their respective whanau (extended family). In some cases, these concerns may form a consideration against donating posthumously. PMID:15587519
Lewis, Greg; Pickering, Neil
Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Abdullah A Alabdrabalnabi,2 Rehab B Albacker,3 Umar A Al-Jughaiman,4 Samar N Hassan5 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2University of Dammam, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Faisal University, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1 to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2 to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF clinic. Methods and materials: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ? 0.05. Results: A generally poor level of knowledge (59% and a neutral attitude (76% toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%, black magic (67.5%, intrauterine devices (71.3%, and contraceptive pills (42.9%. The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility treatment by 6.7% and 44.2% of IVF patients, respectively. Compared with fertile patients, IVF patients were significantly less likely to favor divorce (38.5% versus 57.6%; P = 0.001 or marriage to a second wife (62.5% versus 86.2%; P < 0.001, if the woman could not have a baby. The patients with infertility had more favorable attitudes toward fertility drugs (87.5% versus 68.4%; P = 0.003 and having a test tube baby (92.4% versus 70.3%; P < 0.001. Child adoption was accepted as an option for treatment by the majority of IVF patients (60.6% and fertile outpatients (71.5%. Alternative treatments previously practiced by the IVF patients to improve fertility include practicing Ruqia (61%, using alternative medicine (42%, engaging in physical exercise (39%, eating certain foods (22%, and quitting smoking (12%. Conclusion: These findings have implications for health care providers regarding the reluctance that couples experiencing fertility problems may have, at least initially, to accept some interventions required for the couple to conceive. Keywords: infertility, knowledge, attitude, practice, KAP, misconceptions
Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of knowledge, sexual practices and attitude of medical students towards AIDS/ HIV. Objective: To assess the knowledge, sexual practices and attitudes of medical students in relation to HIV/AIDS. Study Design: Cross- sectional. Participants: 409 first year medical students. Study variables: Sex knowledge, sexual practices, Attitudes, Risk perception. Results: 92% of the students had heard about AIDS predominantly through mass media. Many students had misconception about transmission of HIV infection should not be allowed to work in the clinic or hospital. 36% of male and 9% of female students admitted indulging in safe sexual practices mostly with their friends.
Amalraj Edwin R
Full Text Available Objective: High prevalence of tobacco consumption in childbearing ages is an important topic of consideration as its ill effects have influences on fertility. Worldwide studies have shown that general knowledge on fertility issues is low. Aim of the current study was to assess tobacco harm knowledge and attitude in infertile couples referring to the Avicenna center."nMaterials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. All Avicenna fertility clinics' new patients with infertility complain between November of 2007 and February 2008 was included. Information was collected trough standard knowledge and attitude questionnaire. "nResults: Among 684 individuals (342 couples, the mean score of knowledge and attitude was 0.49±0.79 (from a total of 4, 19.1±2.70 (from a total of 24. The mean knowledge score among women and men was 0.44±0.73, 0.54±0.84, respectively. The mean of attitude score in women and men was 19.35±2.55, 18.85±2.82, respectively. Significant correlation between age, gender, education and tobacco experience with knowledge was not found. Yet, attitude was significantly more appropriate in women, the educated and inexperienced tobacco usage (P=0.001, P=0.001, P=0.03, respectively."nConclusion: In the population studied, attitude was appropriate but level of knowledge was low and this suggests more steps should be taken to improve the knowledge.
Hooman Sadri Ardakani
Low participation rates of girls in advanced physics classes are a serious problem in many countries. Assuming that physics teachers can affect girls' choice to elect advanced physics classes, and that teachers' behaviors are affected by their knowledge and beliefs, the goal of this study was to investigate physics teachers' knowledge and beliefs…
Zohar, Anat; Bronshtein, Boaz
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the relationships Belief Dimensions and attitude of viewers towards TVadvertising. Earlier research was mainly explored in the west with some finding were positive and some beingnegative on certain aspects of viewers perception. Whilst this study is exploratory in nature in understanding therelationship between Belief Dimensions and attitude of viewers towards TV advertising. Generally the Thai TVviewers tend to have a more negative attitude towards TV advertising. Three Belief dimension were found to besignificant towards TV advertising and theses are informational benefits, negative contents and offensive. Threewere not significant and these are availability, advertising format and non-informative. The result shows anumber of implications for the management of business organization in particular the advertising agencies. Theyneed to address the issue of peoples’ perception being negative towards TV adverting; secondly combine thedemographic characteristics and belief dimensions to maximize advertising’s reach and effectiveness. Byunderstanding the viewer profile advertising agencies may be able to do a better media planning and focus oncreativity and presentation.
Traditionally, knowledge has been seen as an epistemic form opposed to belief. Whereas for the external observer knowledge carries the possi¬bility mid the promise of truth, belief rests on the uncertainties associated with the bias of subject, society and culture. In this paper I would like to problematise this view by proposing knowledge as a more encompassing term that can comprise different epistemic forms and ultimately different rationalities. Knowledge, I argue, is a plural and plasti...
This study investigated differences in osteoporosis knowledge, self-efficacy, and health beliefs among Chinese and American college students. Information obtained will be used in developing osteoporosis prevention programs for younger adults. Methods. Chinese (n = 409) and US (n = 408) college students completed the Osteoporosis Health Belief, Self-Efficacy, and Knowledge Tests. Results. Differences were seen in osteoporosis knowledge (Mus = 14.52, MChinese = 11.82), exercise knowledge (Mus ...
Ford, M. Allison; Bass, Martha; Zhao, Yan; Bai, Jin-bing; Zhao, Yue
Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism.Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%. The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9; (c nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27; and (d eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8. A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively.Results: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035. The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66, 24.12 (SD=2.99, and 0.66 (SD=1.15 respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005 and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (P<0.001.Conclusions: This knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP questionnaire was developed as a standard tool in order to assess perception of subjects toward plagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission.
Full Text Available In Thailand, chemical fertilisers provide nutrients that are essential for increasing agricultural productivity but they are expensive, often representing 25% of the crop production cost. Tailor-made fertiliser technology is a new fertiliser application technology that is being promoted to help farmers reduce fertiliser costs. This study aims to investigate and clarify sugarcane farmers’ knowledge and attitudes towards tailor-made-fertiliser. This study also attempts to provide a better understanding of the effect of farm size on farmers’ beliefs and attitudes towards tailor-made-fertiliser. Moreover, the findings suggest that further extension of tailor-made-fertiliser practices should include training services for smallholders to improve their knowledge of relevant practices.
The factor structure of a back translated Spanish version (Lega, Caballo and Ellis, 2002) of the Attitudes and Beliefs Inventory (ABI) (Burgess, 1990) is analyzed in a sample of 250 university students. The Spanish version of the ABI is a 48-items self-report inventory using a 5-point Likert scale that assesses rational and irrational attitudes and beliefs. 24-items cover two dimensions of irrationality: a) areas of content (3 subscales), and b) styles of thinking (4 subscales). An Expl...
Ruiz, Jose?; Fuste?, Adela
The goal of this study was to examine the influence of receiving scientific information about hypnosis over Spanish psychologists’ beliefs and attitudes toward hypnosis. The Valencia Scale on Attitudes and Beliefs toward Hypnosis-Therapist (VSABH-T) wasadministered to 2434 Spanish psychologists. A retest and a second retest were carried out, and between these testing administrations a monograph issue focused on hypnosis was published in a journal that all members of the Spanish Psychologica...
Epilepsy remains misunderstood, particularly in resource poor countries (RPC). We developed and validated a tool to assess beliefs and attitudes about epilepsy among people with epilepsy (PWE) in Kilifi, Kenya. The 50-item scale was developed through a literature review and qualitative study findings, and its reliability and validity were assessed with 673 PWE. A final scale of 34 items had Cronbach's alpha scores for the five subscales: causes of epilepsy (? = 0.71); biomedical treatment ...
Mbuba, Caroline K.; Abubakar, Amina; Hartley, Sally; Odermatt, Peter; Newton, Charles R.; Carter, Julie A.
Background: Studying nursing students' opinions could be a useful guide for the formation of their professional
role as well as their education and training.
Aim: The present study's aim is to examine nurse students' opinion, beliefs and attitude regarding the concepts
of health, health care, health education, health ethics, illness, safety in health care and quality in health care, in
an educational environment which promotes cooperative a...
Separation is a central step in the process of stigmatizing persons with mental disorders. We examine whether belief in a continuum of symptoms from mental health to mental illness is associated with less stigmatizing attitudes. In a representative population survey in Germany (n=3642), using case-vignettes of persons suffering from schizophrenia, depression or alcohol dependence, we measured belief in a continuity of symptoms, emotional reactions and desire for social distance related to the person described in the vignette. While 42% of respondents agreed in symptom continuity for depression, this percentage was 26% for schizophrenia and 27% for alcohol dependence. Continuum beliefs were associated in general with more positive emotional reactions and less desire for social distance. This relationship was strongest for schizophrenia, followed by alcohol dependence. Continuum beliefs thus seem to be associated with less stigmatizing attitudes, particularly regarding schizophrenia and alcohol dependence. Educational information on the continuous nature of most psychopathological phenomena could usefully be integrated in anti-stigma messages. PMID:23465293
Schomerus, Georg; Matschinger, Herbert; Angermeyer, Matthias C
The purpose of this study was to analyze smoking related beliefs, attitudes and knowledge on anti-smoking legislation among some cafe workers, business owners and customers about smoking ban in their worklaces in province of Trabzon. Agreed to participate in the study to 87 business owner, 140 office employees and 465 customers in total, including 692 people face to face with the survey technique was applied. The 75.3% of those who participated in the study of law is thought necessary. The nu...
Gamze Can; Murat Topbas; Asuman Yavuzyilmaz; Funda Oztuna; Emine Can
The purpose of this study is to examine US parental knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) in males, views on vaccination, and correlation to vaccination rates. The survey was conducted of clinic population about parental knowledge and beliefs of male HPV health outcomes and vaccination. There were a total of 102 participants who completed the survey. Perceived parental knowledge about the virus was reported as "a lot" by 11%, "some" by 50%, and "very little/nothing" by 38% of the participants. However, knowledge of HPV was moderate, with only 14% of the respondents answering all knowledge questions correctly; 64% of the respondents correctly identified HPV as a cause of genital warts in males, 43% identified at least one HPV-related cancer, and 30% were unable to identify any health outcomes in males. There was a statistically significant correlation between perceived and actual knowledge, with >15% of the survey respondents correctly identifying that HPV does not clear up on its own (p=0.004). Of the participants who did not vaccinate, reasons included the following: 54% fulfilled the child's wish not to be vaccinated, 38% reported belief vaccine is unsafe, and 38% indicated that their children are too young and/or expressed fear that the vaccine would negatively affect behavior. This study supports the fact that parental beliefs and attitudes are more important than actual knowledge about HPV or HPV vaccination. The implication to physicians is to tailor discussions to address fears about the dangers or complications, emphasize the safety of the vaccine, and address sources of misinformation. PMID:23183731
Griebeler, Meridith; Feferman, Helayne; Gupta, Vibha; Patel, Dilip
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The success of mammal cloning in 1997 has brought the issue of human cloning into public discussion. Human cloning has several aspects and potential applications for use in both reproductive and non-reproductive matters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning in Israel. Data from 120 respondents (68 health professionals and 52 non-health professionals), all Jewish, Hebrew speaking with at least 15 years of education each, were collected using two questionnaires that dealt with knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning. Results showed that although health professionals had significantly more knowledge that non-health professionals, all respondents had poor knowledge about cloning. No difference in attitudes was found between the groups. Most respondents opposed human cloning, but more positive attitudes toward non-reproductive cloning were found. The results are discussed in the context of the deficit model. The findings indicate a need to provide information about human cloning to allow people to form their attitudes based on factual knowledge. PMID:17312628
Barnoy, Sivia; Ehrenfeld, Malka; Sharon, Rina; Tabak, Nili
The Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey (GABS) is a questionnaire which explores gambling-related dysfunctional beliefs in an unidimensional way. The present research aims to investigate the dimensionality of the scale. 343 undergraduate student gamblers and 75 pathological gamblers seeking treatment completed the GABS and the south oaks gambling screen. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the original one-factor structure of the GABS did not fit the data effectively. We then proposed a shorter version of the GABS (GABS-23) with a new five-factor structure, which fitted with the data more efficiently. The comparisons between students (problem vs. non-problem gamblers) and pathological gamblers seeking treatment indicated that the GABS-23 can discriminate between problem and non-problem gamblers as efficiently as the original GABS. To ensure the validity and the stability of the new structure of the GABS-23, analyses were replicated in an independent sample that consisted of 628 gamblers (256 non problem gamblers, 169 problem gamblers who are not treatment-seeking and 203 problem gamblers seeking treatment). Analyses showed satisfactory results, and the multidimensional structure of the GABS-23 was then confirmed. The GABS-23 seems to be a valid and useful assessment tool for screening gambling-related beliefs, emotions and attitudes among problem and non-problem gamblers. Moreover, it presents the advantage of being shorter than the original GABS, and of screening irrational beliefs and attitudes about gambling in a multidimensional way. The five-factor model of the GABS-23 is discussed based on the theory of locus of control. PMID:23334576
Bouju, Gaëlle; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Boutin, Claude; Gorwood, Philip; Le Bourvellec, Jean-Damien; Feuillet, Fanny; Venisse, Jean-Luc; Grall-Bronnec, Marie
In this study, the relationships between student beliefs about the nature of science, student attitudes, and conceptual change about the nature of forces were investigated within a traditional and within a constructivistic high school physics classroom. Students in both classrooms were honors students taking a first year high school physics course and were primarily white and middle to upper SES. Students in the traditional classroom were all high ability juniors, and physics instruction was integrated with pre-calculus. Students in the constructivistic classroom were a mixture of juniors and seniors. Due to the interrelated nature of these factors and the complexity of their interactions, a naturalistic inquiry design was chosen. The data sources included videotape of 7-9 weeks of instruction; analysis of the videotapes using the Secondary Teacher Analysis Matrix (Gallagher & Parker, 1995); field notes; pretest/posttest assessment with the Force Concept Inventory (Hestenes, Wells, & Swackhammer, 1992); student responses from the Views on Science-Technology-Society questionnaire (Aikenhead & Ryan, 1992), the Questionnaire for the Assessment of a Science Course (Chiappetta, 1995), and the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (Taylor, Fraser, & White, 1994); student interviews; and teacher interviews. In the traditional classroom, (a) students did not think that physics was relevant to everyday experiences; (b) high conceptual change students were more likely to have an angular world view (Cobern, 1993) and have views more similar to the teacher's about the nature of science; and (c) high conceptual change students were able to develop an internally consistent understanding of the content; however, that content appeared to be isolated knowledge in some students. In the constructivistic classroom, (a) students saw physics as relevant and useful; (b) there was no difference in world view or agreement with the teacher's views on the nature of science between high and low conceptual change students; (c) students appreciated the importance of empirical evidence; and (d) low conceptual change students had low classroom engagement. Mean gains in conceptual change were larger for the traditional classroom.
Adams, April Dean
Attitudes toward the use of nuclear energy pose fundamental issues in the political debate about how to meet future energy needs. Development of new nuclear power facilities faces significant opposition both from knowledgeable individuals who display an understanding of the risks attached to various forms of power generation and those who follow strict politically based ideological dogmas. This article employs data from a 2005 Eurobarometer survey of UK citizens to examine the influence of both political preferences and knowledge in explaining support of nuclear power. Findings reveal that attitudes about nuclear power are highly politically motivated while the influence of knowledge about radioactive waste is dependent upon beliefs about the consequences of nuclear energy use. Perceptions of being informed about radioactive waste and trust in sources providing information about radioactive waste management also predict attitudes toward nuclear power generation. PMID:18631298
Costa-Font, Joan; Rudisill, Caroline; Mossialos, Elias
Full Text Available One of the applications applied most nowadays is web based instruction (WBI. Although there are many studies on WBI, no study which researched the relations between beliefs for WBI, WBI tools acceptance levels and web pedagogical content knowledge (WPCK of science and technology pre-service teachers was found among these studies. The aim of this study is to examine this relation. In accordance with this aim, the study group of the study consisted of 363 pre-service teachers. The data collected from pre-service teachers under the research were collected with scales of belief, tools acceptance and WPCK towards WBI. 3 scales were used for the data collection in the research. The data were analyzed with structural equation modeling in the research. As a result of the research, behavioral and contextual beliefs in WBI beliefs were medium level. Perceived usefulness, ease of use, perceived attitude and intention positively affect WBI tools acceptance levels of pre-service teachers. When the relation between beliefs, tools acceptance levels and web pedagogical content knowledge of science and technology education pre-service teachers towards WBI is analyzed, it is seen that beliefs towards WBI affect acceptance levels of WBI tools and WBI tools acceptance levels affect web pedagogical content knowledge.
Mehmet Bar?s HORZUM
Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare patterns of use, beliefs, and attitudes related to waterpipe smoking between university students (beginning smokers and café customers (established smokers in Aleppo Syria, in order to explore the evolution of this smoking method. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among representative samples of university students (total 587, 48.4% men, mean age 22 years, and waterpipe users among cafe' customers (total 268, 60% men, mean age 30 years in Aleppo, Syria. We used interviewer-administered questionnaire inquiring about pattern of waterpipe smoking (initiation, frequency, situational characteristics of use (partner, place, sharing, beliefs related to waterpipe smoking (harmful/addictive properties of waterpipe, attitudes related to waterpipe smoking (confidence in quitting, will to quit, motivation for quitting, past year quit attempt, and cigarette smoking. Results Daily and regular patterns of smoking become more prevalent with increased duration of smoking, but intermittent smoking remains the predominant pattern of waterpipe use. Women seem to be drawn later to the habit, which seem to escape the usual taboo against women's cigarette smoking. Patterns and context of waterpipe use tend to change with progress of the practice affecting frequency, setting, and sharing of waterpipe. Unlike beginners, established waterpipe smokers seem more smoking-method oriented, more hooked on the habit, less willing to quit, and less likely to foresee challenges to quitting. Conclusion Use patterns and attitudes related to waterpipe smoking evolve to accommodate the change in dependence and life circumstances of the smoker. Most of use features, beliefs, attitudes, as well as time-course seem unique to this smoking method requiring novel approach to intervention.
Ward Kenneth D
Objective: Our purpose was to describe the financial knowledge, habits and attitudes of chiropractic students. Methods: We designed a cross-sectional survey to measure basic financial knowledge, current financial habits, risk tolerance, and beliefs about future income among 250 students enrolled in business courses at one US chiropractic college. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed. Results: We received 57 questionnaires (23% response rate). Most respondents would accumulate over $125,000 in student loan debt by graduation. Financial knowledge was low (mean 77%). Most respondents (72%) scored as average financial risk takers. Chiropractic students reported recommended short-term habits such as having checking accounts (90%) and health insurance (63%) or paying monthly bills (88%) and credit cards (60%). Few saved money for unplanned expenses (39%) or long-term goals (26%), kept written budgets (32%), or had retirement accounts (19%). Conclusion: These chiropractic students demonstrated inadequate financial literacy and did not engage in many recommended financial habits.
Lorence, Julie; Lawrence, Dana J.; Salsbury, Stacie A.; Goertz, Christine M.
(1) To explore attitudes and beliefs of neonatal nurses toward nursing care for dying neonates; (2) to estimate the influence of neonatal nurses' personal and professional characteristics on their attitudes towards end-of life care for dying infants. A cross-sectional design was used. A questionnaire was used to collect data from 80 neonatal nurses. Research setting was four level III NICUs at four medical centers around the central region of Taiwan. Research participants were neonatal nurses who had worked for at least 1 year in one of level III NICUs and had been directly involved with the care of dying infants. Research participants were 80 neonatal nurses (response rate 100 %). Research findings identified eight barriers hindering neonatal palliative care practice. These barriers were insufficient communication due to the lack of an in-service educational program; the lack of available counseling help for neonatal clinicians; inability to express personal opinions, values and beliefs towards neonatal palliative care; insufficient staffing; the lack of unit policies/guidelines for supporting palliative care; the technological imperative; parental demands and personal beliefs about death and previous experience caring for dying infants. Further studies are needed to explore each barrier and to provide in-service neonatal palliative care educational programs that are needed to decrease these barriers. PMID:23180191
Chen, Chao-Huei; Huang, Li-Chi; Liu, Hsin-Li; Lee, Ho-Yu; Wu, Shu-Ya; Chang, Yue-Cune; Peng, Niang-Huei
Abstract Background Antibiotic overuse and misuse for upper respiratory tract infections in children is widespread and fuelled by public attitudes and expectations. This study assessed knowledge, beliefs, and practices regarding antibiotic use for these paediatric infections among children's caregivers' in Trinidad and Tobago in the English speaking Caribbean. Methods In a cross-sectional observational study, by random survey children's adult caregivers gave a t...
Parimi Neeta; Pereira Lexley; Prabhakar P
Full Text Available Objectives:This study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of practicing nurses onmedication administration and medication errors.Materials and Methods:A questionnaire assessing knowledge on medication errors and attitude of the stafftowards medication errors was distributed to 170 nurses working in Gulf Medical CollegeHospital, Ajman.Analyses were made by appropriate statistical test procedures.Results:In the present study, 67.1% possessed the qualification of GNM (explain and the remainingwere graduates. Twenty one questions were asked to elicit the knowledge regarding medicationerrors. Mean knowledge score was 15.1±2.6 among participants with graduate level educationwhereas it was 14.2±2.8 for those with GNM as education level.
Albinism is an inherited, genetic condition. People with albinism exhibit little or no pigment in eyes, skin or hair, and often have problems with vision and sensitive skin. Albinism in Malawi is a qualitative project that has set out to examine attitudes and beliefs related to people living with albinism in Malawi. The aim has been to assess what implications albinism has on the lives of those born with it, and for their closest network of family and friends. Individual, in-depth inter...
Braathen, Stine Hellum
Full Text Available Organ transplantation is the most preferred treatment modality for patients with end-stage organ disease. There is an inadequate supply of cadaver organs commensurate with need. Health-care professionals are the critical link in augmenting public awareness about organ donation. Their attitudes and beliefs can influence the public opinion. This study aims at understanding the awareness, attitudes, and beliefs among the medical postgraduate students. A total of 123 post-graduates of a medical college hospital in South India participated in the study. A specially de-signed questionnaire was used in assessment. Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS Windows version 10.0. The mean age of the postgraduate students was 28.32 ± 3.5 years, 54% were males, 62% belonged to Christian religion, 69% were single, 77% were from nuclear families, 87% had urban background, and 54% were from upper socio-economic strata. About 97% said they were aware of organ donation through media, 23 unders-tood the concept of "cadaver" as "brain-death" and 93% were able to distinguish between brain-death and persistent vegetative state. Eighty-nine percent wished to donate their organs, 77% did not believe in body disfigurement and 87% did not believe in rebirth without the donated organs, if they pledged their organs. Sixty-nine percent were willing to donate the organs of their family members. Eighty percent were willing to receive organs from family and cadaver, 40% were willing to donate a child?s organs, 95% did not believe that organ donation is against their religion, 87% disagreed with the notion that doctors would not impart adequate care if they were pledged organ donors and 79% agreed that doctors would not declare death prematurely, if they had pledged their organs during life. There was a statis-tically significant correlation between attitudes, beliefs and demographics. In conclusion, the concept of brain-death was clearly understood by only a small number of medical postgraduate students. They how-ever, had positive attitudes and beliefs towards organ donation.
Objective: High prevalence of tobacco consumption in childbearing ages is an important topic of consideration as its ill effects have influences on fertility. Worldwide studies have shown that general knowledge on fertility issues is low. Aim of the current study was to assess tobacco harm knowledge and attitude in infertile couples referring to the Avicenna center."nMaterials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. All Avicenna fertility clinics' new patients with infe...
In almost every country, the organ supply for transplantation does not match the increasing demand; health professionals may play an important role in eliminating barriers and increasing organ donation. Therefore, assessing medical students’ knowledge and attitudes regarding organ donation is important for the future organ supply. Some 409 of 508 first- and second-year medical students answered an anonymous, multiple-choice questionnaire about demographic variables, knowledge about transpla...
This article explores the impact of practitioners' attitudes and knowledge of sexual health on clinical behaviors. Sexual health topics are often areas of concern for clients of any age in counseling. Thus, counselors must be trained and equipped to address sexual health across the life span. This study explored whether child and adolescent…
Russell, Elizabeth B.
Investigating knowledge, perceptions as well as attitudes of the public that concern various aspects of environmental issues is of high importance for Environmental Education. An integrated understanding of these parameters can properly support the planning of Environmental Education curriculum and relevant educational materials. In this survey we…
Liarakou, Georgia; Gavrilakis, Costas; Flouri, Eleni
Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…
Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee
Purpose: Stereotypes toward stuttering and people who stutter (PWS) are widespread in the general public irrespective of age, level of education, culture, geographic location and profession. Negative attitudes held by persons of authority like teachers can lead to social, economic and educational obstacles in the lives of PWS. Method: The current…
Abdalla, Fauzia A.; St. Louis, Kenneth O.
This paper addresses the problem of parameter estimation and state prediction in Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) based on observed outputs and partial knowledge of hidden states expressed in the belief function framework. The usual HMM model is recovered when the belief functions are vacuous. Parameters are learnt using the Evidential Expectation- Maximization algorithm, a recently introduced variant of the Expectation-Maximization algorithm for maximum likelihood estimation based on uncertain da...
Ramasso, Emmanuel; Denoeux, Thierry
There are few studies that have assessed factors influencing infection control practices among health care workers (HCW) in nursing homes. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of HCWs (N = 392) in 4 nursing homes to assess whether knowledge, beliefs, and perceptions influence reported hand hygiene habits. Positive perceptions and beliefs regarding effectiveness of infection control in nursing homes were associated with reported appropriate glove use and fingernail characteristics, respective...
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and beliefs related to sexuality of couples doing marriage preparation. Method: This study was carried out as a cross sectional descriptive study in the public health laboratory in Gaziantep between January 12 to August 18, 2011. The study sample consisted of 382 couples who agreed to participate in the study. A questionnaire form and Beliefs Related to Sexual Information Form (CIBIF) were used for data collection. Couples completed th...
Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed at determining the knowledge attitude and nutritional practice of female middle school students in district 4 of Isfahan. Methods: This deh1ive study was performed on 120 female students. The data were collected through a three-part self-reported questionnaire (Demographic factors knowledge BASNEF Model. To investigate the nutritional performance the participants were interviewed to recall their previous 24-hour nutrition for three days. Results: The results indicated that 37.5% of students had poor nutritional knowledge and 90% of the students had a poor nutritional practice. The results of the BASNEF part indicated that mean of belief and evaluation of behavioral outcomes was 74.6 attitude toward the behavior was 64.64 normative belief was 72.8 subjective norms was 58.9 enabling factors was 54.2 and behavioral intention was 68.9. Conclusion: A low percentage of students had good nutritional practices and in majority of cases their nutritional practice does not accord with their nutritional knowledge and attitude. These results indicate the necessity of nutritional intervention in female students.
The aim of this study was to assess and analyse the attitudes and beliefs of medical students regarding organ donation, procurement, and transplantation. Medical students at the University of Cape Town were prospectively surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. There were 346 study participants; the mean age was 21 (range 18-33) yr, 38% were male and 62% was female. Only 8% of respondents were registered donors; clinical and white students constituted the majority of this group. Of the 315 "non-donors," the main reason for not donating was "I have not really thought about organ donation" (59%). Most students (91%) would accept an artificial organ; and 87% and 52% of students would accept human and animal organs respectively. Muslim students (11%, preincarnation (18%, p=0.00) were less willing to accept human or animal organs. About 95% of respondents stated that they would like to learn more about transplantation and would keep information about it in their practice but only 18% of respondents knew where to find information for potential donors and recipients. Most students have a favorable attitude toward organ transplantation; religion and belief systems impact on willingness to receive organs. PMID:21457343
Sobnach, Sanju; Borkum, Megan; Millar, Alastair J W; Hoffman, Ross; Muller, Elmi; McCurdie, Fiona; Kahn, Delawir
To assess the knowledge, attitude regarding family planning and the practice of contraceptives among rural women. One-hundred women between the ages 15-45, living with their husbands and coming from rural area (villages) were interviewed. Women who were pregnant, had a child younger than 2 years, or had any medical disorder were excluded. Their knowledge, attitude and practice on contraceptives were evaluated with the help of a predesigned questionnaire. The other variables used were the age of women, parity and educational status. Descriptive analysis was conducted to obtain percentages. Out of 100 interviewed women with mean age of 29.7 years, 81(81%) had some knowledge about family planning methods. The media provided information of contraceptives in 52 out of 81 (64%) women. Regarding the usage of contraceptive methods, only 53 (53%) of the respondents were using some sort of contraception. Barrier method (condoms) was in practice by 18 (33.9%) and 12 (22.6%) of women had already undergone tubal ligation. The women using injectables and intrauterine contraceptive devices were 10 (18.8%) and 7 (13.2%) respectively. Six were using oral contraceptive pills (11.3%). Positive attitude towards contraception was shown by 76 (76%) of them, while 41(41%) stated their husbands positive attitude towards contraception. In the present study, there was a low contraceptive use among women of rural origin despite good knowledge. Motivation of couples through media and health personnel can help to achieve positive attitude of husbands for effective use of contraceptives. (author)
Full Text Available Objective. Since communicating risk related to environmental hazards has consistently presented a challenge to government agencies and industries, our objective was to better understand the attitudes and beliefs of three communities, so as to help agencies and industries develop better risk communication interventions. Methods. We explored attitudes and beliefs about environmental risks in three diverse communities in Texas on the border with Mexico, in the county of El Paso. During the summer of 1995, using a door-to-door survey, we interviewed 147 individuals, using a questionnaire based upon an existing instrument. Interviews were conducted in three very different areas of the county: semirural low-income, urban low-income, and suburban upper-income. We randomly selected specific sections in each of the three communities for inclusion in the sample. We assessed attitudes and beliefs about regulations and experts, risk and hazards, and how to address environmental issues. Results. Attitudes and beliefs varied among the three communities, especially in the assessment of riskiness of various hazards. In general, there was mistrust of government agencies and of industries, a strong feeling that the environment can be improved, and a lack of understanding about what actions individuals might take to improve the environment. Discussion. Agencies need to find ways to increase their credibility with the public, and they should assess communities in order to understand the attitudes of the residents.
Byrd Theresa L.
Abstract Background Psychological factors are important in influencing breastfeeding practices. This retrospective study explored knowledge and attitudes related to breastfeeding of Chinese mothers living in Ireland. Methods A cross-sectional self-administrated survey written in Chinese was distributed to a convenience sample of 322 immigrant Chinese mothers mainly via Chinese supermarkets and Chinese language schools in Dublin, with the involvement of the snowball method to increase sample size. Maternal breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes were described, their associations with socio-demographic variables were explored by Chi-square analysis, and their independent associations with breastfeeding behaviours were estimated by binary logistic regression analyses. Results In spite of considerable awareness of the advantages of breastfeeding (mean score = 4.03 ± 0.73), some misconceptions (e.g. \\'mother should stop breastfeeding if she catches a cold\\') and negative attitudes (e.g. breastfeeding inconvenient, embarrassing, and adverse to mothers\\' figure) existed, especially among the less educated mothers. Cultural beliefs concerning the traditional Chinese postpartum diet were prevalent, particularly among those who had lived in Ireland for a shorter duration (P = 0.004). Psychological parameters had strong independent associations with breastfeeding practices in this study. Those who had lower awareness score (OR = 2.98, 95% CI: 1.87-4.73), more misconceptions and negative attitudes (P < 0.05), and weaker cultural beliefs (P < 0.05) were less likely to breastfeed. Conclusions Findings highlight a need to focus resources and education on correcting the misconceptions identified and reversing the negative attitudes towards breastfeeding among Chinese mothers in Ireland, in particular those with primary\\/secondary level of education. Mothers\\' cultural beliefs should also be acknowledged and understood by healthcare providers.
Background: Providing women with information enabling an informed consent to prenatal examinations has been widely recommended. Objective: The primary purpose of this review is to summarise current knowledge of the pregnant woman's expectations and attitudes concerning prenatal examinations, as well as the knowledge possessed by pregnant women undergoing prenatal examinations. Second, we explore their reasons for accepting or declining available screening tests. Results: More than 90 %of the pregnant women expressed a positive attitude toward screening preocedures in pregnancy. Most often (70-96%), the pregnant women were found knowledgeable about the procedural and preactical aspects, but were more seldom (31-81%) able to correctly identify the purpose of tracing fetal malformations. Some 29-65 % were not familiar with the existence of a false negative result, and 30-43 % were found unaware of the possibility of a false negative result. The risk of miscarriage in relation to amniocentesis (AC) is unknown to 11-53%. Uptake rates are associated with attitudes towards prenatal examinations, but not knowledge of the test offered. A total of 88 % concidered their health care provider an important source of information, and 57 % stated that this information has influenced their decision.Â Conclusions: Pregnant women favor prenatal examinations, but the choice of participation does not seem to be based on insight to enable full informed consent. Health care providers are perceived as an essential source of information.Â
Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik
As teachers are one of the more important agents for disseminating information, a study was done to gauge the knowledge and attitude concerning Renewable Energy (RE) and Energy Efficiency (EE) amongst teachers in Malaysia. Results from the study have shown that teachers do not have adequate knowledge on the concept of RE. They also viewed education as the best strategy in ensuring the success of RE practices. Although there is an interest to know more about RE, the teachers felt that they were inadequately trained to teach this subject in schools, that there are not enough teachers to teach the subject in the schools and that this topic should be integrated as part of co-curricular activities. CETREE, as a centre for education and training in Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency has already started a curriculum to train teachers on the awareness of Renewable Energy (RE) and Energy Efficiency (EE). Result of this study indicates that more training and campaigns need to be implemented at school levels to promote the awareness on RE and EE. This paper will also discuss knowledge and attitude as important factors to consider in creating awareness on RE for the next generation. Teachers need to acquire the knowledge and positive attitude toward these concepts to become successful change agents. Media preference amongst teachers concerning ways to educate the public on RE will also be highlighted
The main purpose of this study is to compare the primary teachers and pre-service primary teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes toward teaching profession in Turkey. Descriptive method was used in the study and the study was carried out on 180 first grade and 107 fourth grade primary pre-service teachers at the Faculty of Education in Rize University and 131 primary teachers working in the primary schools located in Çayeli (Rize) district. The Attitude Scale towards Teaching Profes...
The purpose of this study is to survey the attitude and knowledge of radiation and radioiodine treatment in hyperthyroid patients. One-hundred-eighty-seven hyperthyroid patients who were sent for radioactive iodine treatment at Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital were requested to fill the questionnaires before and after receiving the information about radioiodine treatment. The questionnaires consisted of 15 questions of which the first five were about the attitude to radiation and radioiodine treatment. The rest was about an information on hyperthyroidism and radioiodine treatment. For data analysis, firstly the percentage of correct answer of each question was calculated and compared between pre-and post-test. Secondly all patients were categorized into 2 groups according to their education: up to high school, and undergraduate or higher. The attitude and the understanding about radioiodine treatment were analyzed in each group. If the average percentage was greater than 80, patients has positive attitude of good understanding. The results showed that post-test gives higher percentages of correct answers for all questions with an average of 24.6% improvement. For up to high school group, the attitude improved from 81.6% to 98.6% and the understanding about radioiodine treatment improved from 92.2% to 100%. Similarly, for the undergraduate or higher group, the attitude improved from 87% to 97.8% and the understanding about radioiodine treatment was 100% for both pre- and post-intervention. It may be concluded that our education intervention is informative and improves the patients, attitude and understanding about radiation
The purpose of this study was to use a validated instrument to determine the attitudes and knowledge of high school teachers regarding food irradiation, and to determine the correlations among their knowledge and attitudes and certain demographic variables. Knowledge and attitudes about food irradiation were measured in selected high school family…
Thompson, B. M.; Ribera, K. P.; Wingenbach, G. J.; Vestal, T. A.
This knowledge attitude and practice (KAP) study was done in the married women of age 18-38 years in Jorpati and Gokarna village development committees of Katmandu district to evaluate the knowledge of "Facts for Life". There were 510 married women involved in this study. Altogether 28 questions were asked to each of them regarding the "Facts for Life". It includes the following five subjects: Safe motherhood, Childhood Immunization, Childhood diarrhea, Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) in childhood and hygiene. There was a significant increase in knowledge about hygiene and knowledge regarding childhood immunization than diarrhea, ARI and Safe motherhood. Results showed that the overall knowledge was at 62.8%. This shows that still more attention is needed to Nepalese women. PMID:17017397
Adhikari, Prakash; Dhungel, Sunil; Shrestha, Rajendra; Khanal, Shankar
Full Text Available Objectives: What attitudes do medical students express about AIDS and does their knowledge correlate with these attitudes. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of purposively selected 400 students of 1st and 2nd MBBS, Medical College Baroda was conducted during July 2008. They were asked to complete a pretested, prestructured, and designed written proforma and information was gathered. Results: About 18?lieved that urine is a potential source of infection while only 64% believed that tattooing can spread HIV. About 90% stressed upon HIV testing for patients before admission. 66% students are not willing for mouth-to-mouth resuscitation and 40 % were unwilling to assist in surgical procedure on HIV/AIDS patients. Conclusions: The results indicate that studentâ€™s knowledge about transmission was incomplete and their general willingness to provide care for patients with HIV, tempered by substantial concerns regarding the provision of such care.
Shaikh Mohsin, Sunil Nayak, Vipul Mandaviya
Full Text Available Background: Despite the growing awareness on pain management, mild and severe pain is still common among hospitalized patients. Inadequate treatment has been mostly linked to health care workers' failure to assess patients’ pain and to intervene appropriately.Objective: To determine the pain management knowledge and attitudes of the nurses working in training and research hospital in Turkey and their relationship to demographic and educational factors. Methods: Descriptive and cross-sectional study design was used. The Nurses’ Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (NKASRP was used to determine the pain-related knowledge and attitude of the nurses. Results: A total of 246 nurses were included in the study. The percentage working at a surgical unit was 48.8% and 77.2% were staff nurses. Only 11.8% had taken a pain management course and 31.7% had read a book or journal on pain. The rate of correct responses to the NKASRP scale was 39.65% while the mean number of correct answers to all questions was 15.86±7.33 with a range of 0 to 37. A statistically significant difference was found regarding education level, working unit, whether a pain management course had been taken, whether a book or journal on pain had been read, and the evaluation of the nurse's efficacy regarding pain (p<0.05. Conclusion: We found that the nurses did not have adequate knowledge and the positive attitude for pain management although it is a very important part of patient care. We suggest that results be taken into account when the content of graduate and postgraduate training programs is determined and guidelines are prepared.
Abstract Background Young people are of particular importance in state policies against Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). We intended to assess the knowledge and attitude of high school students regarding AIDS in Iran. Methods Through a cluster-sampling, 4641 students from 52 high schools in Tehran were assessed by anonymous questionnaires in February 2002. Results The students identified television as their most important source of inform...
Tavoosi Anahita; Zaferani Azadeh; Enzevaei Anahita; Tajik Parvin; Ahmadinezhad Zahra
Full Text Available PurposeThis study was conducted to identify relationships among knowledge and attitudes of unmarried mothers toward emergency contraceptive pills.MethodsData were collected through structured questionnaires from 135 unmarried mothers enrolled in 7 single mothers' facilities nationwide. Data were analyzed using the SPSS/WIN 17.0 program for descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Scheffe-test, and Pearson correlation coefficients.ResultsFor knowledge about emergency contraceptive pills, there were significant differences among who live with her before pregnancy, experience of past pregnancies, state of present pregnancy and preparation in using contraceptives. For attitude toward emergency contraceptive pills, there were significant differences according to age, education level and religion. There were significant positive relationships between knowledge and attitudes toward emergency contraceptive pills.ConclusionThe results of this study suggest that unmarried women should be better informed about emergency contraceptive pills, and reassured about their safety. Efforts are needed to disseminate up-to-date information to experts in sex education including nurses.
Gyeong Mi Lee
Full Text Available This study examined the belief, knowledge and perception on parents to immunization of children in Lagos State. Questionnaires were distributed to a sample of 1000 parents seeking for their opinion on various issues pertaining to their perception about child immunization. In addition, the study did a general literature review on immunization coverage in Nigeria taking into cognizance the beliefs of the Yoruba of South-West Nigeria to which the study area (Lagos State is an integral part.The result shows that although, many parents have knowledge about the efficacy of vaccination for their children, yet culture overrides such knowledge in some cases. The result shows that gender of parents does not significantly affect their belief about immunization and their willingness to present children for routine immunization. However, marital status, education and religion significantly influence such belief.It is concluded that the culture and beliefs of the Yoruba in Lagos State is too complex to be ignored in any public health plan, if such plan is to be effectively and efficiently implemented.
Rasheed Kola Ojikutu
Objective To understand primary care providers’ experiences, beliefs and attitudes about using opioid treatment agreements (OTAs) for patients with chronic pain. Design Qualitative research study Participants 28 internists and family medicine physicians Approach Semi-structured telephone interviews, informed by the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction. Themes were analyzed using a Grounded Theory approach, and similarities and differences in themes were examined among OTA adopters, non-adopters, and selective adopters. Results Participants were 64% female and 68% white, and practiced for a mean of 9.5 years. Adoption of OTAs varied: 7 were adopters, 5 were non-adopters, and 16 were selective adopters. OTA adoption reflected PCPs’ beliefs and attitudes in three thematic categories: (1) perceived effect of OTA use on the therapeutic alliance, (2) beliefs about the utility of OTAs for patients or providers, and (3) perception of patients’ risk for opioid misuse. PCPs commonly believed that OTAs were useful for physician self-protection, but few believed that they prevent opioid misuse. Selective adopters expressed ambivalent beliefs and made decisions about OTA use for individual patients based on both observed data and a subjective sense of each patient’s risk for misuse. Conclusions Substantial variability in PCP use of OTAs reflects differences in PCP beliefs and attitudes. Research to understand the impact of OTA use on providers, patients, and the therapeutic alliance is urgently needed to guide best practices.
Starrels, Joanna L.; Wu, Bryan; Peyser, Deena; Fox, Aaron D.; Batchelder, Abigail; Barg, Frances K.; Arnsten, Julia H.; Cunningham, Chinazo O.
Incoming first-year college students (N = 4,292) were surveyed regarding attitudes and beliefs about leadership. Students' opinions about their leadership ability were high and were related to having an outgoing personality, as well as the number of high school activities in which they had been involved. In addition, students' understanding of…
Wielkiewicz, Richard M.; Fischer, Donald V.; Stelzner, Stephen P.; Overland, Maribeth; Sinner, Alyssa M.
The aim of research is to investigate the relationship between attitudes of prospective physical education teacher towards education technologies and their computer self-efficacy beliefs. Relational research method has been used in the study. Study group consists of 337 prospective physical education teachers ("M"[subscript age] = 21.57…
Kalemoglu Varol, Yaprak
Background: The purpose of this study was: (1) to evaluate the beliefs, attitudes and behaviours associated with nutrition and physical activity of parents with adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID); (2) to determine if these variables related to the body mass index (BMI) of the adolescents and the parents' BMI; and (3) to investigate if…
George, V. A.; Shacter, S. D.; Johnson, P. M.
The Leadership Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (LABS-III; Wielkiewicz, 2000) was validated against a measure with a more traditional, position-based definition of leadership. Disagreement with Hierarchical Thinking was associated with a higher GPA. A Life-Long Learning scale was strongly associated with GPA, Systemic Thinking, and social activism.…
Wielkiewicz, Richard M.; Prom, Christina L.; Loos, Steven
The aim of current study was to examine predictor and explanatory relationships between fifth graders' self-regulated learning strategies, motivational beliefs, attitudes towards mathematics, and academic achievement. The study was conducted on a sample of 204 students studying in the primary schools of Afyonkarahisar province. Motivated…
Ocak, Gurbuz; Yamac, Ahmet
Full Text Available Introduction. In a time that economic classification of nations is largely dependant on their scientific output, our country "Iran" in comparison to it"s facilities, has fewer scienilfic producilon than accepted. For programming to increase quantity and quality of research, at first, should carefully recognise the present condition. This study was done to survay attitiude, knowledge and practice of students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services (IUMSHS about research. Methods. Questionnaires were distribiuted among interns (n=234 who their names and sites had extracted. Students enterance year to university was between 1992 to 1994. So, they were at the end of their staying in university. Results. Average grade of knowledge was 2.92±2 (from whole grade= 10. This grade did not depend on stage of preparing thesis. The most true answer was in writing of purpose and the least was in sampling, medline and role of variables in study. Attitude in 78.2 percent, indicate agreement with necessity of learning research concept. 54.2 percent agree with necessity of participailon in at least one research project in educational period in university, but 41.8 percent believe that research activity in present condition is wasting the time. The answerers who at least had parilcipated in one research project were 11.9 percent and the highest knowledg"s grade was in these students. Discussion. Despite the positive attitude of interns to learn the research concept, their knowledge level in comparison with other Iranian univercities and other univercities" students in the world, was very low. Although more than half of them have positive attitude to participation in research project, their practice was insignificant. Radical changes in education system and management seems to be necessary.
Controversial and ethically tenuous, the use of placebos is central to medicine but even more pivotal to psychosocial therapies. Scholars, researchers, and practitioners largely disagree about the conceptualization of placebos. While different professionals often confound the meanings of placebo effects with placebo responses, physicians continue to prescribe placebos as part of clinical practice. Our study aims to review attitudes and beliefs concerning placebos outside of clinical research. Herein we compare patterns of placebo use reported by academic psychiatrists with those reported by physicians from different specialties across Canadian medical schools. Using a web-based tool, we circulated an online survey to all 17 Canadian medical schools, with a special emphasis on psychiatry departments therein and in university-affiliated teaching hospitals. A variation on earlier efforts, our 5-minute, 21-question survey was anonymous. Among the 606 respondents who completed our online survey, 257 were psychiatrists. Our analysis revealed that psychiatrists prescribed significantly more subtherapeutic doses of medication than physicians in other specialties, although about 20% of both psychiatrists and nonpsychiatrists prescribed placebos regularly as part of routine clinical practice. However, compared with 6% of nonpsychiatrists, only 2% of psychiatrists deemed placebos of no clinical benefit. In addition, more than 60% of psychiatrists either agreed or strongly agreed that placebos had therapeutic effects relative to fewer than 45% of other practitioners. Findings from this pan-Canadian survey suggest that, compared with other physicians, psychiatrists seem to better value the influence placebos wield on the mind and body and maintain more favourable beliefs and attitudes toward placebo phenomena. PMID:21507276
Raz, Amir; Campbell, Natasha; Guindi, Daniella; Holcroft, Christina; Déry, Catherine; Cukier, Olivia
The first Chinese Hospital Information Systems (HIS) was used as a pilot project at People's Hospital, of Beijing Medical University (BMU). To assess the computer knowledge, attitudes, and skills of nurses working in the hospital, and to examine the relationships among these factors, 169 staff nurses working on clinical units were surveyed by proportionate stratified random sampling. Computer knowledge, attitudes, and skills were measured, by a nurses' computer knowledge questionnaire (NCKQ), nurses' computer attitude scale (NCAS), and nurses' computer skill scale (NCSS), respectively, developed by the investigators. Data analysis showed that the overall computer knowledge and skills of nurses were at moderate levels and the computer attitudes were neutral. Nurses' computer skills were significantly and positively correlated with both computer knowledge and computer attitudes; however, no significant correlation was found between computer knowledge and computer attitudes. Strategies to enhance nurses' computer knowledge, attitudes, and skills were proposed. PMID:10939189
Liu, J E; Pothiban, L; Lu, Z; Khamphonsiri, T
Objective: Given recent approval for administration of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to men, it is important to assess the HPV-related perspectives of men and women. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in HPV knowledge, beliefs, and vaccine acceptance among college students attending 3 historically black…
Bynum, Shalanda A.; Brandt, Heather M.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Annang, Lucy; Tanner, Andrea
A survey of 498 nursing faculty showed that knowledge and beliefs about pain and the content of nursing curriculum on the topic were less than optimal. Particularly lacking areas included pain relief, pharmacological interventions, and differentiation of acute from chronic pain. (SK)
Ferrell, Betty R.; And Others
Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotic overuse and misuse for upper respiratory tract infections in children is widespread and fuelled by public attitudes and expectations. This study assessed knowledge, beliefs, and practices regarding antibiotic use for these paediatric infections among children's caregivers' in Trinidad and Tobago in the English speaking Caribbean. Methods In a cross-sectional observational study, by random survey children's adult caregivers gave a telephone interview from November 1998 to January 1999. On a pilot-tested evaluation instrument, respondents provided information about their knowledge and beliefs of antibiotics, and their use of these agents to treat recent episodes ( Results Of the 417 caregivers, 70% were female and between 18–40 years, 77% were educated to high school and beyond and 43% lived in urban areas. Two hundred and forty nine (60% respondents scored high (? 12 on antibiotic knowledge and 149 (34% had used antibiotics in the preceding year. More caregivers with a high knowledge score had private health insurance (33%, (p Conclusions In Trinidad and Tobago, caregivers scoring low on antibiotic knowledge have erroneous beliefs and use antibiotics inappropriately. Children in their care receive antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections without visiting a health clinic or a physician. Educational interventions in the community on the consequences of inappropriate antibiotic use in children are recommended. Our findings emphasise the need to address information, training, legislation and education at all levels of the drug delivery system towards discouraging self-medication with antibiotics in children.
Eruption of the first deciduous teeth in children has shown much variation and occasionally may erupt prematurely at birth or within one month of life. Myths about natal/neonatal teeth abound in the Nigerian culture. Nurses are health care providers who are in constant close contact with patients and can be invaluable in helping to dispel these associated myths. However, to provide correct information they should be adequately equipped to do so. The aim of this study thus, was to assess the attitudes and beliefs of some nurses in Ibadan, Nigeria to natal/neonatal teeth in infants. A cross sectional survey was conducted among 380 nurses in the teaching, general and local government hospitals and clinics in Ibadan, Nigeria. Results revealed that 41.3% of the respondents would express shock and surprise if they assisted in delivering a baby with natal teeth. Half of the respondents (49.7%) felt that natal/neonatal teeth will be a great source of embarrassment to the family while a smaller proportion (11.8%), believed it was a curse (p = 0.01). On the advice the respondents would give to the mothers, more than a th (39.7%), would recommend immediate extraction of the teeth. A further 42 (11.1%) nurses were of the opinion that spiritual cleansing should be carried out prior to extraction. A greater proportion of the older nurses would advice immediate extraction of the teeth (p = 0.031). Regarding the perceived effect of natal/neonatal teeth on the children, (7.4%), (12.6%) and (29.2%) of the respondents believed that the children will behave strangely, will possess spiritual authority and be victims of stigmatization later in life respectively. This study has revealed that knowledge gaps about natal/neonatal teeth exist among the nurses in Ibadan, Nigeria. Health education programmes targeted at nurses are essential to correct these beliefs. PMID:24380119
Bankole, O O; Oke, G A
Full Text Available Objectives: This study was conducted to find out knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of epilepsy among 12 th -class students in Uttarakhand state. Secondly data of Uttarakhand was compared with KAP study from other parts of the country. Materials and Methods: All 12 th - class students studying in six schools of randomly selected 36 villages in Chakrata block of Dehradun district of Uttarakhand state were provided a printed questionnaire having answer as "yes or no". This questionnaire used was used previously by various authors and validated for KAP analysis. These filled questionnaires were collected by village health workers and medical officer. Results: This study conducted on 219, 12 th -class students revealed that epilepsy was heard by 98%, 74.9% thought epilepsy a mental disease and 4.8% believed that it is contagious. Negative attitude showed as nearly 2/3 rd students stated that epilepsy is hindrance in marriage and occupation. Nearly 41% would use onion or shoe for terminating seizure attack. Ayurvedic treatment was preferred over allopathic drugs. Conclusions: Study on 12 th -class students of Uttarakhand revealed poor knowledge, attitude and practice for epilepsy and needs special education program to dispel these misconceptions.
A longitudinal prospective design was used to examine antisocial behavior, two aspects of the parent–child relationship, inept parenting, and adolescents’ beliefs in the appropriateness of monitoring as predictors of parents’ monitoring and change in monitoring during the high school years. 426 adolescents provided reports of their parents’ monitoring knowledge during four yearly assessments beginning the summer before entering grade 9. Greater concurrent levels of monitoring knowledg...
Laird, Robert D.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.
The BELIEF Project is a Coordination Action funded by the European Commission in the context of the FP6 and FP7 Programmes. It aims to create a platform where e-Infrastructures providers and users can collaborate and exchange knowledge, ensuring that e-Infrastructures are developed and effectively used worldwide, filling the gap separating the e-Infrastructures providers from the users, and thus contribute to the emergence of a competitive knowledge-based economy. To create this synergy among...
Zoppi, Franco; Castelli, Donatella; Simon, Taylor
Abstract A cross-sectional prospective study was performed to assess knowledge and attitude toward breastfeeding among mothers in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia and its influence on their breastfeeding practices. Two hundred thirteen women who had delivered healthy babies at term were enrolled. A structured questionnaire containing demographic data and the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Score were used, followed by a telephone interview after 8 weeks to determine the feeding outcome. Women of Malay ethnicity with higher education level who had received breastfeeding counseling had a significantly more favorable attitude toward breastfeeding. Ethnicity was found to be a significant determinant in the success of breastfeeding, whereas returning to work was a major reason for discontinuing breastfeeding. In ensuring a successful breastfeeding practice, apart from knowledge and attitude, issues surrounding culture and traditions as well as improving deliverance of readily available support should be addressed. PMID:24893127
Ishak, Shareena; Adzan, Nur Azeanny M; Quan, Lee K; Shafie, M Hasli; Rani, Nor Azila; Ramli, Kazzoma G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer for both sexes in developed countries. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices regarding CRC of adults in Italy. Methods A random sample of 1165 adults received a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics; knowledge regarding definition, risk factors, and screening; attitudes regarding perceived risk of contracting CRC and utility of screening tests; health-related behaviors and health care use; source of information. Results Only 18.5% knew the two main modifiable risk factors (low physical activity, high caloric intake from fat and this knowledge was significantly associated with higher educational level, performing physical activity, modification of dietary habits and physical activity for fear of contracting CRC, and lower risk perception of contracting CRC. Half of respondents identified fecal occult blood testing (FOBT as main test for CRC prevention and were more knowledgeable those unmarried, more educated, who knew the main risk factors of CRC, and have received advice by physician of performing FOBT. Personal opinion that screening is useful for CRC prevention was high with a mean score of 8.3 and it was predicted by respondents' lower education, beliefs that CRC can be prevented, higher personal perceived risk of contracting CRC, and information received by physician about CRC. An appropriate behavior of performing FOBT if eligible or not performing if not eligible was significantly higher in female, younger, more educated, in those who have been recommended by physician for undergo or not undergo FOBT, and who have not personal history of precancerous lesions and familial history of precancerous lesions or CRC. Conclusion Linkages between health care and educational systems are needed to improve the levels of knowledge and to raise CRC screening adherence.
Full Text Available Background: Studying nursing students' opinions could be a useful guide for the formation of their professionalrole as well as their education and training.Aim: The present study's aim is to examine nurse students' opinion, beliefs and attitude regarding the conceptsof health, health care, health education, health ethics, illness, safety in health care and quality in health care, inan educational environment which promotes cooperative activities in class.Methodology: Seventy four nurse students of the University of Peloponnese participated in the present studyduring the winter semester of 2008-2009. They were asked to describe shortly the meaning of the study concepts,writing down their opinion on a questionnaire that included six questions. Their answers were evaluated usingthe method of content analysis and sorted to exhaustive and mutually exclusive categories.Results: Nursing Students were asked to describe the meaning of the concept of health, health care, healtheducation, health ethics, illness, safety in health care and quality in health care. The result of the students'opinion reveals the way they conceive their professional role, their education and their attitude in real workingconditions and, therefore, the quality of the services they provide and how well prepared they are to demand andto put in a claim for the quality in health care.Conclusions: Further empirical research could aim to replicate or contradict these findings, using a larger sampleand recruiting more university departments.
Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of Argentine women 65 years of age and older regarding urinary incontinence (UI. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 238 community-dwelling Argentine women 65 years of age and older was conducted in San Justo, Argentina. Data were collected by in-person interviews. Results: Regarding knowledge, 232 (97.5% of the women surveyed were familiar with the term urinary incontinence, but 152 (63.9% falsely believed that UI is a normal part of aging and 163 (68.5% did not know about pelvic exercises or a surgical option to treat UI. A total of 106 (44.5% women reported symptoms of UI. Discussion: Older Argentine women are misinformed about UI. Interventions are necessary to increase their knowledge and healthcare seeking behaviors.
The purpose of the paper is to discuss the recent data analysis of a mail-in survey which investigated the attitudes of people having some knowledge of the nuclear industry. The survey contained 74 items which solicited 4 major types of information. Thirty-seven items investigated respondents' perception of risk concerning spent fuel transportation, 12 examined respondents' confidence in certain governing agencies' abilities of managing the safe transportation of spent fuel, 19 examined respondents' attitudes toward certain special precautionary actions for spent fuel transport, and 6 requested demographic data. The 637 people who responded to the survey were divided into 5 mutually exclusive groups for analysis. These included: safety professionals, government employees, employees of the nuclear industry, employees of environmental organizations, and Native Americans. The safety, government, and Native American groups were divided into subgroups for further analysis. Overall and group responses concerned with special precautionary actions for the transportation of spent fuel were examined. Native American, safety, and government subgroup responses to items which examined respondents' perceived risks, confidence in certain governing agencies, and attitudes concerning special precautionary actions for the transportation of spent fuel were also investigated. Additionally, risk perceptions of spent fuel transport was compared between people residing no more than 5 miles from an interstate highway to those living no less than 16 miles from an interstate highway. The results of the analysis are divided into 4 sections: A. Sample Identification; B. Overall and Group Attitudes to Certain Special Precautionary Actions For Transporting Spent Fuel; C. Subgroup Attitudes toward the Transportation of Spent Fuel; D. Risk Perceptions of People Living No More than 5 Miles vs. People Living No Less than 16 Miles from and Interstate Highway. Generally conclusions are also provided
Full Text Available Introduction. Nurses represent an important link in mediating between the potential donors and their relatives’ consent to organ and tissue transplantation. The message of the Health Department to potential donors about the importance of organ donation was supported by the Serbian Orthodox Church, the army and other institutions through media campaigns. Nurses could contribute to this action by their personal example. Objective. The aim of this study was identification and bivariate analysis of nurse attitude about organ donation, their knowledge about the importance of transplantation as treatment methods, as well as the connection between work experience and education level with the formation of attitudes and new skills. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 291 nurses from the Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, filled in the questionnaire on the effect of correlation between the length of the service and level of education on knowledge and attitudes toward organ transplantation and organ donation. Results. Out of 291 respondents, 67.4% have completed the nursing school and 32.6% have higher education. The majority (63.9% of respondents knew that the EEG was the most valid method for determining brain death. The question regarding the possibility of buying organs was answered correctly by 68.7% of respondents. A large majority (91% would accept organ transplant, if needed, but only 32.0% would be organ donors, and only 0.3% owned a donor card. In contrast, one third of nurses were already blood donors. Conclusion. In case of necessary transplantation, nurses would accept someone else’s organ, though they do not possess donor cards, but just few would donate their organs. It is possible that prejudice arises from ignorance and distrust in the health policy of the Republic of Serbia. However, besides negative attitude, nurses have expressed interest in learning and professional development in the area of transplantation.
Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study is to explore tobacco control-related education of health profession students and demonstrate variations according to course of study. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey of 154 of third year nursing, pharmacy, medical and dental students in a tertiary institution in Lagos, Nigeria. The validated Global Health Professional Students survey questionnaire was used to collect data on recall of tobacco-related training, attitudes to tobacco control and beliefs about the role of health professionals in tobacco control. This was voluntary and anonymous. Descriptive and univariate analysis were conducted. Results: Only 11.8(n=18 of all respondents recalled being trained on all possible items of formal tobacco-related training. Pharmacy students had significantly low levels of training recall (?[sup]2[/sup][sub](3[/sub]=9.88; p=0.02. Nursing students were reported to have the most positive attitudes to tobacco control with the highest mean score of 4.27 (95= 3.88-4.66. However, there was no significant difference in attitudes to tobacco control. Compared to other students, Nursing students were significantly less likely to believe that as health professionals they had a role in tobacco-control (?[sup]2[/sup][sub](3[/sub] = 8.06; p=0.045. Conclusions: Many respondents believed they have a role in providing cessation interventions and that specific training should be part of the education they receive. However, fewer respondents report receiving such training. The education and training of these samples of health profession students needs to place more emphasis on their role in tobacco control if they are to effectively function as health promoting health professionals in preventing tobacco-related diseases.
Knowledge and beliefs about malaria transmission and practices for vector control in Southern Mexico Conocimientos y creencias acerca del paludismo y prácticas para el control de vectores en el sur de México
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the knowledge and beliefs about malaria transmission and practices for vector control in eight villages on the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted during May and June 1995 in Chiapas, Mexico. A questionnaire to investigate family structure, knowledge on malaria transmission, preventive measures and attitudes towards seeking treatment was applied to both family heads of a sample of households. Associations wer...
Américo David Rodríguez; Rosa Patricia Penilla; Mario Henry-Rodríguez; Janet Hemingway; Angel Francisco Betanzos; Juan Eugenio Hernández-Avila
Full Text Available Indigenous and rural area residents are groups at high risk for tuberculosis. The strategies ofhealth promotion and disease prevention must be based on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice(CAP that communities have on this topic. Objective: to describe the CAP about tuberculosisand its association with socio-demographic aspects in Indigenous and rural area residents ofCordoba, Colombia, 2012, and assess the validity and reliability of the scale CAP. Materials andmethods: cross sectional study in 300 individuals, 100 Zenú indigenous and 200 peasants. Datawere collected through primary source, analyzes were performed using summary measures, frequencyand nonparametric statistics tests in SPSS 20. Results: CAP showed good reliability andvalidity of appearance, content and construct. In knowledge 76% presented a satisfactory level,the attitudes 77% were unsatisfactory and the 48% had good practices. There was no statisticalassociation of CAP with sex or religious beliefs, the ethnicity were statistically significant differencesin knowledge and practices. The age was statistically associated with knowledge, educationshowed association with the practices. Conclusion: there was an adequate level of knowledge abouttuberculosis, while attitudes and practices were unsatisfactory; the main factors associated withCAP were ethnicity, age and education.
Jaiberth Antonio Cardona-Arias
Full Text Available Background: Millions of workers are occupationally exposed to dyes in the world, but little is known about their knowledge and attitudes toward the effects of dye on their health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the fabric dyers? and fabric printers? knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the health hazard of dyes. Materials and Methods: The present study was taken up in the Madurai district which is situated in the Southern Tamil Nadu, India. One hundred and forty-two workers employed in small-scale dyeing and printing units participated in a face-to-face confidential interview . Results: The mean age of fabric dyers and fabric printers was 42 years (?10.7. When enquired about whether dyes affect body organ(s, all the workers agreed that dye(s will affect skin, but they were not aware that dyes could affect other parts of the body. All the workers believed that safe methods of handling of dyes and disposal of contaminated packaging used for dyes need to be considered. It was found that 34% of the workers were using personal protective equipment (PPE such as rubber hand gloves during work. Conclusion: The workers had knowledge regarding the occupational hazards, and their attitudinal approach toward the betterment of the work environment is positive.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Clustered within the nomenclature of Asian American are numerous subgroups, each with their own ethnic heritage, cultural, and linguistic characteristics. An understanding of the prevailing health knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors of these subgroups is essential for creating population-specific health promotion programs. Methods Korean American women (123 completed baseline surveys of breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors as part of an Asian grocery store-based breast cancer education program evaluation. Follow-up telephone surveys, initiated two weeks later, were completed by 93 women. Results Low adherence to the American Cancer Society's breast cancer screening guidelines and insufficient breast cancer knowledge were reported. Participants' receptiveness to the grocery store-based breast cancer education program underscores the importance of finding ways to reach Korean women with breast cancer early detection information and repeated cues for screening. The data also suggest that the Asian grocery store-based cancer education program being tested may have been effective in motivating a proportion of the women to schedule a breast cancer screening between the baseline and follow-up surveys. Conclusion The program offers a viable strategy to reach Korean women that addresses the language, cultural, transportation, and time barriers they face in accessing breast cancer early detection information.
Ryujin Lisa T
Background: Influenza disease is one of the oldest medical problems that can cause severe illness and high mortality rates, worldwide. In flu pandemics, medical and dental students’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) is critical to save patients life. The aim of this study was to determine the score of KAP toward the Pandemic H1N1 and their predictor factors among the medical and dental residents and fellowships of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Methods: In 2009, 125 participants were recruited in a convenient sampling cross-sectional survey. Self-reported questionnaire were used and results were analyzed applying appropriate statistical tests. Results: The mean score of participants’ knowledge, attitude and practice were 22.6, 21.1 and 26.5 respectively. Participants practice had significant linear positive correlation with knowledge and attitude. Also, their age was significantly and directly correlated to knowledge and practice. The educational major, age, and sex were significant predictors of responder's knowledge score and age was the only significant predictor of both attitude and practice scores. Conclusions: High knowledge is not sufficient lonely for improve attitude and practices. It seems that traditional educational models are not efficient and governments should emphasize to advanced and motivational education methods including health belief model and motivational interview at postgraduate levels. Perhaps younger students, dentists and males have less motivation to change their attitude and behavior, so we can focuses our interventions in these groups.
Askarian, Mehrdad; Danaei, Mina; Vakili, Veda
The Health Belief model says for communities to take part in an activity, they need to perceive the risk of failing to take part and the benefits associated with taking part. A study was carried out in Luvuvhu catchment of South Africa to evaluate community knowledge, attitudes, practices and perceptions relating to water quality and safety. The study was divided into two parts. The first part involved a population of over 8000 people and participatory tools were used to speed up the data col...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological factors are important in influencing breastfeeding practices. This retrospective study explored knowledge and attitudes related to breastfeeding of Chinese mothers living in Ireland. Methods A cross-sectional self-administrated survey written in Chinese was distributed to a convenience sample of 322 immigrant Chinese mothers mainly via Chinese supermarkets and Chinese language schools in Dublin, with the involvement of the snowball method to increase sample size. Maternal breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes were described, their associations with socio-demographic variables were explored by Chi-square analysis, and their independent associations with breastfeeding behaviours were estimated by binary logistic regression analyses. Results In spite of considerable awareness of the advantages of breastfeeding (mean score = 4.03 ± 0.73, some misconceptions (e.g. 'mother should stop breastfeeding if she catches a cold' and negative attitudes (e.g. breastfeeding inconvenient, embarrassing, and adverse to mothers' figure existed, especially among the less educated mothers. Cultural beliefs concerning the traditional Chinese postpartum diet were prevalent, particularly among those who had lived in Ireland for a shorter duration (P = 0.004. Psychological parameters had strong independent associations with breastfeeding practices in this study. Those who had lower awareness score (OR = 2.98, 95% CI: 1.87-4.73, more misconceptions and negative attitudes (P Conclusions Findings highlight a need to focus resources and education on correcting the misconceptions identified and reversing the negative attitudes towards breastfeeding among Chinese mothers in Ireland, in particular those with primary/secondary level of education. Mothers' cultural beliefs should also be acknowledged and understood by healthcare providers.
Kearney John M
"nBackground: The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge and attitude of pregnant women in Qazvin Province, central Iran, Relating to oral Hygiene."nMethods: The study group comprised of 760 pregnant women living in Qazvin, center of Iran in 2004. The questions were formulated to evaluate information without the need for dental examination. The age groups between 17-41 years old were randomly selected and a question was given to woman in three family planning center. St...
Hamissi, J.; Bakianian Vaziri, P.; Davalloo, A.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine gifted students’ knowledge of and attitudes towards biotechnology. A total of 62 gifted primary school students who were taught in science and art centers in Denizli and Kahramanmara? in 2010-2011 academic year participated in the study. The results indicated that most of the students (87% had an awareness regarding genetically modified (GM products. The results also revealed that students think that GM products have risks. Overall, the students thought that GM products should be used for the benefit of technology and people. Based on the findings from this study, some implications for biotechnology education are made.
The Hungarian Youth for Nuclear (FINE) was established in 1999 as the Hungarian branch of the Young Generation Network. Our purpose is to remove the misconceptions and fears that have arisen around the nuclear techniques, mainly nuclear energetics, and to reply to the questions brought up by the Hungarian youth on this topic. This year, our main activity was to take part in the Student Island with a Nuclear-tent. In this paper we delineate our experience that we have gained with the help of our programmes about the attitude and knowledge of the Hungarian youth. (authors)
The Young People for the Nuclear Energetics (FINE) was established in 1999 as the Hungarian branch of the Young Generation Network. Our purpose is to remove the misbelieves and fears arisen around the nuclear techniques and mainly the nuclear energetics and to reply the questions brought up by the Hungarian youth in this topic. In this year our main activity was to take part in the Student Island festival with a Nuclear-tent. In this paper our experience is delineated what we drawn with the help of our programmes about the attitude and the knowledge of the youth. (authors)
The nutritional care of patients is one of the primary responsibilities of all registered nurses (Persenius et al, 2008). A poor nutritional status can lead to malnutrition, which can have serious consequences for an individual\\'s quality of life (Field and Smith, 2008). This paper commences with an introduction to the concept of nutrition, provides an overview of nutritional guidelines and nutritional screening tools which identify those at risk of malnutrition. It reviews the literature on nurses\\' knowledge, attitudes and practices in the provision of nutritional care and debates challenges and opportunities encountered to help nurses ensure adequate patient nutrition.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary health care (PHC clinicians have an important role to play in addressing lifestyle risk factors for chronic diseases. However they intervene only rarely, despite the opportunities that arise within their routine clinical practice. Beliefs and attitudes have been shown to be associated with risk factor management practices, but little is known about this for PHC clinicians working outside general practice. The aim of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes of PHC clinicians about incorporating lifestyle risk factor management into their routine care and to examine whether these varied according to their self reported level of risk factor management. Methods A cross sectional survey was undertaken with PHC clinicians (n = 59 in three community health teams. Clinicians' beliefs and attitudes were also explored through qualitative interviews with a purposeful sample of 22 clinicians from the teams. Mixed methods analysis was used to compare beliefs and attitudes for those with high and low levels of self reported risk factor management. Results Role congruence, perceived client acceptability, beliefs about capabilities, perceived effectiveness and clinicians' own lifestyle were key themes related to risk factor management practices. Those reporting high levels of risk factor screening and intervention had different beliefs and attitudes to those PHC clinicians who reported lower levels. Conclusion PHC clinicians' level of involvement in risk factor management reflects their beliefs and attitudes about it. This provides insights into ways of intervening to improve the integration of behavioural risk factor management into routine practice.
Amoroso Cheryl L
OBJECTIVES:: The recently enacted Israeli Dying Patient Act was designed to strike balance between enhancing patient autonomy in end-of-life decision making and cultural/religious norms that are in opposition to active euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). The current study evaluated physician attitudes regarding active and passive euthanasia, and their knowledge of specific aspects of the law. METHODS:: A survey was administered to a convenience sample of hospital-based physicians treating terminal patients. Physicians were queried about their attitudes regarding euthanasia and PAS. Physicians were also queried about specific aspects of the law and whether they had sufficient resources to uphold the law. RESULTS:: Surveys were distributed to 270 physicians and 100 were returned and evaluated (37%). Nearly all physicians supported passive euthanasia (withholding treatment), whereas over 40% maintained that active forms of euthanasia should be allowed for terminal patients in severe physical pain. Multivariate analysis showed a negative relationship between support for more active forms of euthanasia and physicians' self-reported religiosity. Physicians cited lack of time as a reason for not complying with the new law. Physicians had a familiarity with the general aspects of the new legislation, but a large proportion was not aware of the specifics of the law. CONCLUSIONS:: Compared with previous surveys, a larger number of physicians support passive euthanasia. A sizable percentage of physicians would be willing to participate in active euthanasia and even PAS. Attitudes toward euthanasia are influenced by religious factors. PMID:23660598
Doron, Dana; Wexler, Isaiah D; Shabtai, Esther; Corn, Benjamin W
While arguing that many cognitive states do indeed have a characteristic phenomenology, I find reasons for exempting beliefs from the program of cognitive phenomenology. Examining the complex relationship between beliefs and various kinds of conscious experience shows that belief is a messy concept and that we ought to take a relaxed and pluralist view on the ontology of belief.
Klausen, SÃ¸ren Harnow
Full Text Available In almost every country, the organ supply for transplantation does not match the increasing demand; health professionals may play an important role in eliminating barriers and increasing organ donation. Therefore, assessing medical students’ knowledge and attitudes regarding organ donation is important for the future organ supply. Some 409 of 508 first- and second-year medical students answered an anonymous, multiple-choice questionnaire about demographic variables, knowledge about transplant issues, and willingness to donate organs. The mean age was 20.3±1.8 years (range: 17 to 29 years; 50.1% were male, 49.9% were female. Some 44.8% of the total respondents reported that they had sufficient knowledge about organ donation, and 40.1% reported knowledge about organ transplantation. The primary source of their knowledge was reported as the media (72.1%. Willingness to donate their own organs was 58.4% and willingness as to their relatives’ organs was 39.9%. The acceptance of live organ donation was higher (74.6% than cadaver donation. Only 1.2% had a organ donation card. Female students were more willing to donate their own and their relatives’ organs. Since medical students are prospective leaders of promoting organ donation action, these issues should be taught within the context of social medicine lessons, and desirable behavioral changes should be implemented.
Background: Despite scientific evidence on the positive effects of seafood consumption on human health, the consumption of fish remains below the recommended intake levels for the majority of Europeans. The present study aimed to explore cultural differences in potential determinants of fish consumption: consumers' knowledge and health-related beliefs, as well as the relationship between those variables, socio-demographics and fish consumption frequency, using data from five European countries. Methods: A cross-sectional consumer survey was carried out in 2004 with representative household samples from Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Spain. The sample consisted of 4786 respondents, aged 18-84 years, who were responsible for food purchasing and cooking in the household. Results: European consumers had a very strong belief that eating fish is healthy. Consumers' belief that eating fish is healthy, their interest in healthy eating and objective fish-related nutrition knowledge, positively, but only weakly, influenced fish consumption frequency. Subjective knowledge was found to be a stronger predictor of fish consumption than the previously noted factors. Age and education contributed, both directly and indirectly through knowledge, to explain fish consumption behaviour. However, the path coefficients in the estimated model were relatively low, which indicates that fish consumption frequency was also determined by factors other than health-related beliefs and consumers' knowledge. Conclusions: The findings of the present study suggest that communication should focus on health-related benefits other than fish consumption alone. Communicating that eating fish is healthy and stressing the health benefits of fish alone, as is still commonly performed (e.g. in generic promotion and other types of public information campaigns) will be insufficient to achieve higher levels of compliance with fish consumption recommendations.
Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim
Full Text Available Introduction: Intensive care unit ICU syndrome is a disorder, in which patients in an ICU or a similar setting experience anxiety, hallucination and become paranoid, severely disoriented in time and place, very agitated, or even violent, etc. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of nurses with regards to prevention of ICU syndrome (Delirium. Methods: Subjects of this research were 56 nurses with including criteria of registration in nursing, university degree and at least one month experience of working in open heart surgery ICUs. The data was gathered from 3 clusters in university hospitals equipped with open heart surgery ICUs in Tehran. All subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire. Moreover all subjects were observed in all shifts. During observation, two researchers observed each subject simultaneously to achieve higher accuracy of observations. Descriptive and analytic statistics were applied to analysis the data. Results: The finding of the study showed that more than 53% of the subjects had passed a continuing education course, but less than 46% of them never passed a training course on ICU. According to this research, subjects, work experience in ICUs had significant relation on their knowledge with regard to prevention of ICU psychosis. However, it has not significant relation to their attitude and skill. Conclusion: According to the results of the study, subjects have little chance to be familiar with the concepts and elements of ICU syndrome in their university program. The finding also indicated that many subjects in this study were not familiar with the important concepts such as sleep deprivation, sensory overload and sensory deprivation, etc. Ongoing progression in high-tech ICUs brings about continuing nursing education programs for all nurses. The results also showed that stress factor in ICU, such as high mortality, isolation, high workload etc. Gradually influences nurses,attitude in ICU. So, it is strongly recommended to consider rotation of nurses in order not to impose high stress to ICU nurses.
Background During the past 2 decades, the Internet has evolved to become a necessity in our daily lives. The selection and sorting algorithms of search engines exert tremendous influence over the global spread of information and other communication processes. Objective This study is concerned with demonstrating the influence of selection and sorting/ranking criteria operating in search engines on users’ knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes of websites about vaccination. In particular, it is to compare the effects of search engines that deliver websites emphasizing on the pro side of vaccination with those focusing on the con side and with normal Google as a control group. Method We conducted 2 online experiments using manipulated search engines. A pilot study was to verify the existence of dangerous health literacy in connection with searching and using health information on the Internet by exploring the effect of 2 manipulated search engines that yielded either pro or con vaccination sites only, with a group receiving normal Google as control. A pre-post test design was used; participants were American marketing students enrolled in a study-abroad program in Lugano, Switzerland. The second experiment manipulated the search engine by applying different ratios of con versus pro vaccination webpages displayed in the search results. Participants were recruited from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk platform where it was published as a human intelligence task (HIT). Results Both experiments showed knowledge highest in the group offered only pro vaccination sites (Z=–2.088, P=.03; Kruskal-Wallis H test [H5]=11.30, P=.04). They acknowledged the importance/benefits (Z=–2.326, P=.02; H5=11.34, P=.04) and effectiveness (Z=–2.230, P=.03) of vaccination more, whereas groups offered antivaccination sites only showed increased concern about effects (Z=–2.582, P=.01; H5=16.88, P=.005) and harmful health outcomes (Z=–2.200, P=.02) of vaccination. Normal Google users perceived information quality to be positive despite a small effect on knowledge and a negative effect on their beliefs and attitudes toward vaccination and willingness to recommend the information (?2 5=14.1, P=.01). More exposure to antivaccination websites lowered participants’ knowledge (J=4783.5, z=?2.142, P=.03) increased their fear of side effects (J=6496, z=2.724, P=.006), and lowered their acknowledgment of benefits (J=4805, z=–2.067, P=.03). Conclusion The selection and sorting/ranking criteria of search engines play a vital role in online health information seeking. Search engines delivering websites containing credible and evidence-based medical information impact positively Internet users seeking health information. Whereas sites retrieved by biased search engines create some opinion change in users. These effects are apparently independent of users’ site credibility and evaluation judgments. Users are affected beneficially or detrimentally but are unaware, suggesting they are not consciously perceptive of indicators that steer them toward the credible sources or away from the dangerous ones. In this sense, the online health information seeker is flying blind.
Schulz, Peter Johannes; Nakamoto, Kent
Overview: A primary caregivers’ knowledge about child health can have a significant impact on her practices, which in turn can affect child growth and development. The main objective of the study was to explore the level of caregiver’s knowledge and beliefs about the treatment of diarrhoea and child nutrition and to find out whether caregivers’ socio-economic status influences their knowledge and beliefs. Methods: In this study, the data used were from the Savelugu- Nanton Household Sur...
Full Text Available Currently, the syndromic management of HIV/AIDS is based on a biomedical model that focuses on the ABC (Abstain, Be faithful, Condomise model. The ABC model overlooks the issue of indigenous cultural practices, sexual behaviours, knowledge and attitudes of the society. A grounded theory study was used for the research. The population for the research on which this article is reporting, was selected from the Vhavenda ethnic group using purposive sampling. In-depth interviews were held at the participants’ own homes. The outcome of the study on which this article is reporting, may assist in identifying indigenous health beliefs, attitudes and practices that will assist in curbing the spread of HIV/AIDS. The findings revealed that cultural practices, such as premarital counselling, polygamy and widow inheritance, are believed to be influential in making women more susceptible to sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. The practice of abstinence, as emphasised at initiation schools, should be incorporated into current policies and preventative practices. The findings further demonstrate that policy-makers who formulated the HIV/AIDS strategy have limited knowledge of the health beliefs, attitudes and practices of the people they serve. They thus find it difficult to draw up promotion and prevention strategies that meet the needs of the community. It is therefore imperative that our health-care training curriculum be reviewed to make provision for the incorporation of sound and effective indigenous practices to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS and to eliminate or refine practices that are harmful and detrimental to people’s health. The cultural practices that were proved reliable and effective will be recommended for integration into health education.
The topics and framing of news stories relevant to skin cancer prevention have shifted over time. This study examined agenda-setting effects of such news stories on public attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer. Content analysis data on 516 articles published in two major daily newspapers in Melbourne, Australia, from 1994 to 2007 were combined with circulation data to generate indices of potential news exposure. Associations between these indices and cross-sectional telephone survey data from the same period on 6,244 adults' tanning attitudes and perceived susceptibility to skin cancer were examined using logistic regression models, accounting for the temporal precedence of news content. Pro-sun protection stories on attitudes and behavior were associated with older adults not thinking a tan looks healthy. Pro-sun protection stories on solaria were associated with less preference for a deep tan among young adults who like to suntan. Stories on vitamin D that were unsupportive of or ambiguous about sun protection were associated with a number of pro-tan attitudes among younger adults. Results indicate news coverage during 1994-2007 served an important agenda-setting role in explaining the public's attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer. Vitamin D stories appeared most influential, particularly among young adults. PMID:23485415
Dixon, Helen; Warne, Charles; Scully, Maree; Dobbinson, Suzanne; Wakefield, Melanie
Full Text Available Abstract Background Biobanks have the potential to offer a venue for chronic disease biomarker discovery, which would allow for disease early detection and for identification of carriers of a certain predictor biomarker. To assess the general attitudes towards genetic research and participation in biobanks in the Long Island/Queens area of New York, and what factors would predict a positive view of such research, participants from the NSLIJ hospital system were surveyed. Methods Participants were recruited at six hospital centers in the NSLIJ system during the summers of 2009 and again in 2011 (n?=?1,041. Those who opted to participate were given a questionnaire containing 22 questions assessing demographics, lifestyle and attitudes towards genetic research. These questions addressed individual participant’s beliefs about the importance of genetic research, willingness to participate in genetic research themselves, and their views on informed consent issues. Results Respondents took a generally positive view of genetic research in general, as well as their own participation in such research. Those with reservations were most likely to cite concerns over the privacy of their medical and genetic information. Those who were married tended to view genetic research as important, while those in the younger age group viewed it as less important. Prior blood donation of respondents was found to be a predictor of their approval for genetic research. Demographic factors were not found to be predictive of personal willingness to participate in genetic research, or of approval for the opt-out approach to consent. Conclusions While respondents were generally inclined to approve of genetic research, and those who disapproved did not do so based on an underlying moral objection to such research, there is a disconnect between the belief in the importance of genetic research and the willingness of individuals to participate themselves. This indicates a continued concern for the ways in which genetic materials are safeguarded once they are collected. Also indicated was a general lack of understanding about the various consent processes that go along with genetic research, which should be addressed further to ensure the successful continuation of biobanks.
Kerath Samantha M
Attitudes and beliefs about antiretroviral therapy (ART) may affect sexual risk behaviors among the general population in sub-Saharan Africa. We performed a cross-sectional population-based study in Kisumu, Kenya to test this hypothesis in October 2006. A total of 1655 participants were interviewed regarding attitudes and beliefs about ART and their sexual risk behaviors. The majority of participants, (71%) men and (70%) women, had heard of ART. Of these, 20% of men and 29% of women believed ...
Smith, Rachel M.; Carrico, Adam W.; Montandon, Michele; Kwena, Zachary; Bailey, Robert; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Cohen, Craig R.
From March 2007 to March 2008 a cross-sectional study was conducted in Qatar to estimate the prevalence of consanguinity among Qataris and to assess their knowledge of the risks and their attitudes towards the practice. A secondary objective was to test the acceptability of sixteen Likert-style questions within the Qatari population. Face-to-face interviews using a 70-item structured questionnaire were conducted by three native Arabic-speaking medical students with 362 Qatari employees. Where consanguinity existed between the employee's parents, a diagram of the consanguinal relationship (phylogram) was completed. The response rate was 93%. By phylogram, 22% of participants reported a cousin relationship between their parents (consanguinal relationship) and another 15% reported that their parents were from the same tribe (affinal relationship). With respect to their own marital decision, 68% of the respondents had been married at least once. By phylogram, 35% of these reported a consanguineous relationship (first marriage), 9% reported only an affinal relationship and 56% reported that they were not married to a blood relative. Results on the sixteen Likert-style attitude questions were stratified by consanguinity status of parents and of self. In the stratification by consanguinity status of parents the top five attitudes differed by group but there appeared to be more similarity between the consanguinal and only tribal groups. Attitudinal results were stratified by sex. Results showed that the males had a stronger belief in several of the attitudes than females with the exception of causation of genetic abnormalities and health problems. The phylogram was shown to collect more detailed and explicit data than hard-coding. With respect to knowledge, the results showed that knowledge was imperfect with high proportions of participants not knowing that consanguinity has been implicated in autosomal recessive diseases such as thalassaemia, inborn errors of metabolism, deafness, anomalies of the extremities and specific congenital heart defects. Additionally, a sizeable proportion of the participants did not know that a more distant cousin marriage (e.g. third cousin) theoretically could be a less genetically risky choice to potential offspring than a closer cousin marriage (half-first cousin). These results indicate that more effort needs to be made in developing public health strategies to improve the population's understanding of the cost-benefit analysis involved in contracting consanguineous marriages given the goal of healthy offspring. PMID:19895726
Sandridge, A L; Takeddin, J; Al-Kaabi, E; Frances, Y
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although dietary supplements (DS are widely sold in pharmacies, the legal, ethical, and practice responsibilities of pharmacists with respect to these products have not been well defined. This systematic review of pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviours toward DS is intended to inform pharmacy regulators' and educators' decision making around this topic. Methods Eligible studies were identified through a systematic database search for all available years through to March 2006. Articles were analyzed for this review if they included survey data on U.S. or Canadian pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, or professional practice behaviors toward DS published in 1990 or later. Results Due to the heterogeneity of the data, it was not possible to draw a conclusion with respect to pharmacists' general attitudes toward DS. Approximately equal numbers of pharmacists report positive as well as negative attitudes about the safety and efficacy of DS. There is strong agreement among pharmacists for the need to have additional training on DS, increased regulation of DS, and quality information on DS. In addition, survey data indicate that pharmacists do not perceive their knowledge of DS to be adequate and that pharmacists do not routinely document, monitor, or inquire about patients' use of DS. Despite this, a large proportion of pharmacists reported receiving questions about DS from patients and other health care practitioners. Conclusion Further research is needed to explore the factors that influence pharmacists' beliefs and attitudes about DS, to accurately evaluate pharmacists' knowledge of DS, and to uncover the reasons why pharmacists do not routinely document, monitor, or inquire about patients' use of DS.
PURPOSE Negative attitudes and beliefs about depression treatment may prevent many young adults from accepting a diagnosis and treatment for depression. We undertook a study to determine the association between depressive symptom severity, beliefs about and attitudes toward treatment, subjective social norms, and past behavior on the intent not to accept a physician’s diagnosis of depression. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study of 10,962 persons aged 16 to 29 years who participated and had positive screening results on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) score in an Internet-based public health depression screening program. Participants reported whether they would accept their physician’s diagnosis of depression. Based on the theory of reasoned action, we developed a multivariate model of the factors that predict intent not to accept a diagnosis of depression. RESULTS Twenty-six percent of the participants stated their intent not to accept their physician’s diagnosis of depression. Disagreeing that medications are effective in treating depression (strongly disagree, odds ratio ( OR ) = 6.5, 95% confidence interval (CI), 4.6–9.3), that there is a biological cause for depression (strongly disagree, OR = 1.9, 95% CI, 1.3–2.7), and agreeing that you would be embarrassed if your friends knew you had depression were associated with the intent not to accept a diagnosis of depression (strongly agree, OR = 2.3, 95% CI, 1.8–2.9). Beliefs and attitudes, subjective social norms, and past behavior explained most of the variance in this model (84%). CONCLUSIONS Negative beliefs and attitudes, subjective social norms, and lack of past helpful treatment experiences are associated with the intent to not accept the diagnosis of depression and may contribute to low rates of treatment among young adults.
Van Voorhees, Benjamin W.; Fogel, Joshua; Houston, Thomas K.; Cooper, Lisa A.; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Ford, Daniel E.
Abstract Background The need for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) and holistic approaches in allopathic medical school curricula has been well articulated. Despite increased CAM instruction, feasible and validated instruments for measuring learner outcomes in this content area do not widely exist. In addition, baseline attitudes or beliefs of medical students towards CAM, and the factors that may have formed them, including use of CAM itself, remain unreported.
Lie Désirée; Boker John
Because no published studies of young persons' knowledge and awareness of fetal alcohol syndrome are available, the awareness and beliefs about drinking while pregnant in several large samples of young persons ages 13-20 are examined. Approximately 81 percent of the entire sample that completed questionnaires in school surveys believe that drinking alcohol while pregnant can definitely harm the fetus, although males and younger persons are less likely to believe in this risk. A substantial pr...
Mackinnon, D. P.; Williams-avery, R. M.; Pentz, M. A.
Full Text Available Organic farming is gaining popularity all over the world as it can diversify agricultural production system toward attaining improved productivity, farm income as well as food safety. The rise of organic farming was driven partly by consumers' concern with food quality and safety, as well as the protection of the environment. Organic Farming produces safe and nutritious food as it helps prevent soil pollution by stopping risky chemical reactions in the soil and avoiding produce contamination, as well as soil erosion, by wind and rain. One of the important parties that can enable the country to produce more organic products through organic farming is the growers or farmers. The final decision of farmers to use a new practice like organic farming system is usually the result of their knowledge of the practices as well as their perception. Therefore, the main purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate the knowledge, perception or attitude, and practices of vegetable growers towards organic farming. A survey method through face-to-face interview by using structured questionnaire was used to collect data from a total of 31 vegetable growers in Kundasang, Sabah which was selected by using simple random sampling method. The findings of the study show that the knowledge of the respondents on organic farming especially pertaining to the use of chemical insecticides, herbicides and fertilizers is still need to be improved, their attitude is also still negative, and they are still dependent on conventional practices (i.e. chemical especially to control pests and diseases.
It has been repeatedly claimed that the application of genetic engineering in the field of agricultural and food production is both beneficial and advantageous. However, biotechnology is developing in an environment where public concerns about food safety and environmental protection are steadily increasing. The present study aims at gaining an insight into Greek consumers' beliefs, attitudes and intentions towards genetically modified (GM) food products. The objectives of this study are summarized as follows (i) to provide evidence that consumer beliefs are built around the 'safety-benefits' axis, and (ii) to segment the Greek market in terms of consumer beliefs about GM food products and identify a number of clusters with clear-cut behavioural profiles. Although the overall attitude of Greek consumers towards GM food is negative, the research very interestingly concludes that there exists a market segment ofÂ substantial size, whose beliefs about GM food appears to be positive. This finding suggests that there is not a 'consensus' regarding the rejection of GM foods in the Greek market as one might have expected thus 'encouraging' theÂ implementation of adequate marketing strategies to target this segment of 'early adopters' in the first place.
Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S.; Krystallis, Athanasios
The current study examines links among attitudes toward White privilege, religious beliefs, and social justice interest and commitment for White Christian students. Two distinct patterns of results emerged from a path analysis of 500 White Christian students. First, a willingness to confront White privilege was positively associated with the sanctification of social justice (i.e., attributing spiritual significance to working for social justice) and both were positively associated with social justice interest and commitment. Second, awareness of White privilege was negatively associated with religious conservatism, and religious conservatism was negatively associated with social justice interest. These patterns show that White privilege attitudes directly (i.e., willingness to confront White privilege) and indirectly (i.e., awareness of White privilege through religious conservatism) predicted social justice interest and commitment. Moreover, religious beliefs demonstrated opposite patterns of association with social justice interest and commitment such that the sanctification of social justice positively predicted social justice interest and commitment whereas religious conservatism negatively predicted social justice interest. Overall, findings demonstrate direct and indirect links between White privilege attitudes, religious beliefs, and social justice interest and commitment. Limitations and implications for future community psychology research and collaboration also are discussed. PMID:24473921
Todd, Nathan R; McConnell, Elizabeth A; Suffrin, Rachael L
Full Text Available Introduction: cervical cancer (CC is the second most frequent cancer in women in theworld, South America and Colombia. It represents the fourth cause of death by cancerin the world, the third cause in South America and the first cause in Colombia. The interesanprincipalrisk factor is the persistent infection with the Human Papillomavirus (HPV. TheCC can be prevented and the patient can be treated if it is detected early.Objective: to establish the knowledge, attitudes and practices about HumanPapillomavirus (HPV in adolescent students of secondary.Methods: an analytical, observational and cross sectional study was performed withthe application of a survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP, to studentsof secondary of two schools of the city of Cartagena, Colombia, between July andDecember of 2011.Results: 10.8% of the polled adolescents replied that they knew the condilomatosis,infectious disease of sexual transmission caused by HPV and 20,1% have knowledgeabout the connection between cervical cancer and HPV infection.Conclusion: there is low knowledge about HPV infection and its association with CC,just like good attitudes with respect to the use of prevention methods of HPV infectionand early detection methods of CC and inadequate practices, mainly in the vaccinationprogramming against HPV. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2012;3(2:275-281RESUMEN:frecuente en mujeres en el mundo, América Latina y Colombia. Representa la cuartacausa de muerte por cáncer en el mundo, la tercera en America del Sur y la primera enColombia. El factor de riesgo principal es la infección persistente con el Virus del PapilomaHumano (VPH. El CACU puede prevenirse y curarse si se detecta tempranamente.Objetivo: establecer conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas acerca del VPH enadolescentes estudiantes de secundaria.Metodología: estudio observacional analítico de corte transversal realizado con laaplicación de una encuesta de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (CAP, a estudiantesde secundaria de dos colegios de la ciudad de Cartagena, Colombia, en el periodocomprendido entre julio y diciembre de 2011.Resultados: el 10.8% de las adolescentes encuestadas respondió que conocía lacondilomatosis, enfermedad infecciosa de transmisión sexual causada por el VPH y el20,1% tiene conocimiento de la relación del cáncer de cuello uterino con la infecciónpor VPH.Conclusiones: se observa bajo conocimiento acerca de la infección por VPH y suasociación con el CACU, buenas actitudes con respecto a la utilización de métodosde prevención de la infección por VPH y de métodos de detección precoz de CACU yprácticas deficientes, principalmente en la cobertura de vacunación contra el VPH. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2012;3(2:275-281
Castro Reyes Elkin Mauricio
The negative attitudes surrounding mental disorders and their treatment are a major obstacle to the correct identification and treatment of emerging psychopathologies. The purpose of this study was to investigate mental health literacy in a large and representative sample of high school students in Italy, via a booklet containing several questionnaires delivered to 1032 teenagers. The items in the questionnaires probed knowledge about mental health and illness, stigmatization, stereotypes, behaviors, opinions, and attitudes. In general, the students had a reasonable knowledge of mental disorders and were able to distinguish these from somatic disorders. However, a large portion of the students nourished some misconceptions about mental disorders and was also rather skeptical about the effectiveness of treatment or the chance of recovery for people with severe mental disorders. Nevertheless, roughly half of the students reported being willing to provide help to someone with a mental disorder when in need. Poor mental health literacy is a major barrier to seeking help and receiving effective treatment. Young people are the ideal target of raising awareness and antistigma campaigns because they are at a higher risk for developing a psychopathology. PMID:23538976
Serra, Marianna; Lai, Alessandra; Buizza, Chiara; Pioli, Rosaria; Preti, Antonio; Masala, Carmelo; Petretto, Donatella Rita
Full Text Available Paper is a case study of console market, where the console makers are identified as group G which shares a distributed knowledge of current consumer expectations. According to the basic logic, it is reasonable to expect that if it is commonly known that a choice A is better than a choice B, any agent i will prefer the choice instead of the inferior one. In case some console makers chose a completely different outcome which is rather based on belief instead of common knowledge.
Full Text Available Background: Tooth avulsion is one of the commonest types of physical sport injury. Themanagement of these cases is critical in order to prevent complete loss of tooth and its subsequentconsequences. The prognosis of such avulsed tooth depends on prompt treatment. The emergencymanagement of such avulsed tooth is made by the sports teacher who is present at the sports ground. Thefirst–aid knowledge about tooth avulsion is must for the sports teacher. Aim: The objective of the presentstudy was to evaluate the knowledge about management of tooth avulsion among sports teachers inAhmednagar District. Methods: A sample of 60 sports teachers were interviewed from different schools.The data was collected using a self administered questionnaire containing seven items which wasdistributed among the sports teacher from different schools. Results: we found that 90% of the sportsteachers were not having the first-aid knowledge about the emergency management of avulsed tooth andthe benefit of timely care. This demands an effort to properly educate sports teachers about first-aidmanagement and consequently change their attitude towards dental trauma.
The proper handling and disposal of biomedical waste (BMW) is very imperative. There is a defined set of rules for handling BMW worldwide. Unfortunately, laxity and lack of adequate training and awareness in the execution of these rules leads to staid health and environment apprehension. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of hospital staff to BMW management. The cross-sectional study was conducted on 261 healthcare workers from 9 hospitals, which were randomized from 32 hospitals. The most important finding was a significant (P BMW management. Twenty-nine (19.9%) members of government hospital staff and 37 (32.2%) members of staff from the private sector agreed that BMW management is not just the government's responsibility, but one that every member of personnel should share. This finding will help to address the issue more appropriately, and plan for better training programs and monitoring of BMW management systems in hospitals. PMID:23585502
Lakbala, Parvin; Lakbala, Mahboobeh
Full Text Available An estimated 200,000 children born in Thailand each year are at risk of prenatal exposure to pesticides and associated neurodevelopmental outcomes because of their mothers’ agricultural occupations. Children born to non-agricultural workers may also be at risk of exposure from other pathways of maternal pesticide exposure, including exposure through home use, diet, and other environmental media. Pesticide exposure in Thailand has been linked to unsafe practices and beliefs about pesticides. However, limited information exists on pesticide knowledge, attitudes, and practices among pregnant women in Thailand or elsewhere. Obtaining this information is essential to understand the factors associated with prenatal pesticide exposure, identify populations potentially at risk, and ultimately protect pregnant women and their children. We administered surveys to 76 pregnant women in northern Thailand and used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate associations among pesticide-related knowledge, pregnancy trimester, and pesticide use behavior. In this pilot study, lower knowledge score and earliest trimester of pregnancy were marginally (p < 0.1 associated with unsafe practices in the home, but not at work. Women who worked in agriculture or applied pesticides before becoming pregnant, or who had a previous child were significantly (p < 0.05 more likely to engage in unsafe behaviors in the home during their current pregnancy. We preliminarily conclude that increasing pesticide-related knowledge among pregnant women may help promote safe practices and reduce prenatal exposure. Knowledge-based interventions may be most effective when implemented early in pregnancy and targeted to agricultural workers and other sub-populations at risk of pesticide exposure.
Anne M. Riederer
Full Text Available Pharmacovigilance can be helpful in protecting consumers from harmful effects of medicines. Healthcare professionals should consider Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR reporting as their professional obligation and should be aware of the existing pharmacovigilance mechanisms in their countries. In Nepal, pharmacovigilance activities were initiated in 2004. Objectives: The present study evaluated the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of the healthcare professionals towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance in Manipal Teaching Hospital (MTH, a tertiary care teaching hospital attached to the regional pharmacovigilance center in western Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2007 using a pretested (Cronbach alpha=0.72 questionnaire having 25 questions (15 questions on knowledge, 5 on attitude and 5 on practice. The correct/positive responses were given a score of ‘2’ and the wrong/negative responses ‘1’, maximum possible score of ‘50’. Results: A total of 131 responses were obtained among which 42 were incomplete and remaining 89 [females 49 (55.1%] were analyzed. Of the 89 professionals, 29 (32.6% were doctors, 46 (51.8 nurses and 14 (15.7% pharmacists. The mean age was 28.32 (SD=8.46 years and the median (interquartile range of duration of the service 14.5 (6-36 months. The total KAP scores was 40.06 (SD=3.51 for doctors, 38.92 (SD=4.83 for pharmacists, and 35.82 (SD=3.75 for nurses. Among the 89 professionals, 59 (62.3% had not reported even a single ADR to the pharmacovigilance center. Conclusion: The healthcare professionals at the MTH had a poor KAP towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance and there is a need for educational and awareness intervention for these professionals.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The need for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM and holistic approaches in allopathic medical school curricula has been well articulated. Despite increased CAM instruction, feasible and validated instruments for measuring learner outcomes in this content area do not widely exist. In addition, baseline attitudes or beliefs of medical students towards CAM, and the factors that may have formed them, including use of CAM itself, remain unreported. Methods A 10-item measure (CHBQ – CAM Health Belief Questionnaire was constructed and administered to three successive classes of medical students simultaneously with the previously validated 29-item Integrative Medicine Attitude Questionnaire (IMAQ. Both measures were imbedded in a baseline needs assessment questionnaire. Demographic and other data were collected on students' use of CAM modalities and their awareness and use of primary CAM information resources. Analysis of CHBQ items was performed and its reliability and criterion-related validity were established. Results Response rate was 96.5% (272 of 282 students studied. The shorter CHBQ compared favorably with the longer IMAQ in internal consistency reliability. Cronbach's coefficient alpha was 0.75 and 0.83 for the CHBQ and IMAQ respectively. Students showed positive attitudes/beliefs towards CAM and high levels of self-reported CAM use. The majority (73.5% of students reported using at least one CAM modality, and 54% reported using at least two modalities. Eighty-one percent use the internet as a primary source of information for CAM. Conclusions The CHBQ is a practical, valid and reliable instrument for measuring medical student attitudes/beliefs and has potential utility for measuring the impact of CAM instruction. Medical students showed a high self-reported rate of CAM use and positive attitudes towards CAM. Short, didactic exposure to CAM instruction in the first year of medical school did not additionally impact these already positive attitudes. Unlike the IMAQ, which was intended for use with physicians, the CHBQ is generic in design and content and applicable to a variety of learner types. Evaluation measures must be appropriate for specific CAM instructional outcomes.
Seventy to ninety percent of HIV-infected individuals have oral lesions that affect their quality of life. Caregivers play an important role in complementing the healthcare team. It is essential that the caregivers have optimal knowledge, beliefs and practices toward the management of care regarding oral-lesions in HIV-infected patients in caregiving institutions in Johannesburg, South Africa. To measure the knowledge, beliefs and practices relating to oral lesions in HIV infection amongst...
Kolisa, Yolanda; Ayo-yusuf, Olalekan A.
Seventy to ninety percent of HIV-infected individuals have oral lesions that affect their quality-of-life. Caregivers play an important role in complementing the healthcare team. It is essential that the caregivers have optimal knowledge, beliefs and practices toward the management of care regarding oral-lesions in HIV-infected patients in caregiving institutions in Johannesburg, South Africa. To measure the knowledge, beliefs and practices relating to oral lesions in HIV infection amongst ca...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the leading female malignancy in Nigeria. Screening for early detection has led to reduction in mortality from the disease. It is known that attitudes of physicians and motivation by community nurses influence uptake of screening methods by women. This study aims to investigate knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, beliefs about treatment and practice of screening methods among a cohort of female healthcare professionals in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire to assess the knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, beliefs about treatment and practice of screening methods among 207 female doctors, nurses and other healthcare professionals working in a university teaching hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Stratified random sampling method was employed. Chi square test, analysis of variance and Mantel-Haenszel test were performed in data analysis using SPSS v10.0 and Epi Info version 6 statistical packages. Results Female doctors obtained a mean knowledge score of 74% and were the only professional group that had satisfactory knowledge of risk factors. Majority (86% believed that early breast cancer is curable while half of participants believed that prayer can make breast cancer disappear from the affected breast. Eighty three percent practice breast self-examination (BSE once a month and only 8% have ever had a mammogram. Age, knowledge of risk factors, profession and beliefs were not significantly associated with rate of BSE in this study. Conclusion Results from this study suggest the need for continuing medical education programmes aimed at improving knowledge of breast cancer among female healthcare providers other than doctors.
Odusanya Olumuyiwa O
Full Text Available Context and Objective: Hamstring strain is a common injury in football and it causes a significant amount of time lost from competition and training. Since poor flexibility is thought to predispose to muscle strain, stretching is routinely recommended during warm-up routines by coaches to prevent injuries. However, available evidence suggests that pre-exercise stretching (PES, especially static stretching, has no benefit on injury rates and may even reduce performance in explosive type activities. We designed this study to assess the attitudes, beliefs and practices of football coaches regarding stretching in the prevention of hamstring strains. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Mauritius Football Association (MFA. Participants: 26 football coaches registered with the MFA. Intervention: Questionnaires were distributed to football coaches of the MFA via sports officers. Questionnaires were then collected two weeks after distribution. Main Outcome Measures: Attitudes, beliefs and practices of football coaches regarding stretching in the prevention of ham-string strains. Results: MFA coaches held generally positive attitudes and beliefs towards stretching. 88% of coaches felt that PES is beneficial and 93% believed that PES prevents hamstring strains. The majority of coaches recommended stretching after warming up (81% and after the training session (93%. 76% of coaches also advised stretching outside the training sessions. 96% of coaches used static stretching to stretch the hamstrings. The hamstrings were stretched on average for 4 times at each training session and the mean duration of a static stretch was 12 seconds. Conclusions: Nearly all coaches believed that PES prevents hamstring strains although evidence is limited. Some of the coaches’ beliefs and practices were not in line with current recommendations. Coaches reported that their stretching practices would be most likely influenced by scientific research. Thus there is an urgent need to devise awareness and training programmes in this area.
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and beliefs related to sexuality of couples doing marriage preparation. Method: This study was carried out as a cross sectional descriptive study in the public health laboratory in Gaziantep between January 12 to August 18, 2011. The study sample consisted of 382 couples who agreed to participate in the study. A questionnaire form and Beliefs Related to Sexual Information Form (CIBIF were used for data collection. Couples completed the forms as an individual in the separate locations. SPSS version 11.5 was used for statistical analyzes. Descriptive statistics and One-Way ANOVA test were used. Results: In the study, 56.8% of women and 57.1% men stated that they received information about sexuality and reproductive health, of those 80.6% of the women and 73.4% of men received the information from the mass media. When we examined the mean scores of CIBIF, women were found to have 18.01 ± 3.11 mean score while men had 22.59 ± 4.89 mean score (p <0.05. We found that met and decided to marry in agreement, who are under 20 years old, had a primary school degree had significantly higher scores on average from CIBIF compared to other groups (p < 0.05. Conclusion: This study draws attention to lack of knowledge about sexuality for couples who are in marriage preparation. Couples were found to have false beliefs about sexually transmitted infections, sexual health-related personal hygiene and sexuality to live. For these reasons, consulting services related to sexuality and reproductive health information for couples engaged in preparation for marriage in the family health centers by health care personel is thought to be effective way of preventing false information and beliefs about sexuality. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(3.000: 297-306
Current research focuses on competence development and complex professional tasks. However, "learning processes" towards the integration of knowledge, skills and attitudes largely remain a black box. This article conceptualises three integration processes, in analogy to theories on transfer. Knowledge, skills and attitudes are defined, reconciling…
Baartman, Liesbeth K. J.; de Bruijn, Elly
Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate whether paediatricians have appropriate knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours regarding vaccinations for infants in Italy. Methods A random sample of 500 paediatricians received a self-administered anonymous questionnaire covering demographic and professional characteristics; knowledge about the mandatory, recommended, and not indicated vaccinations for infants; attitudes about vaccinations for infa...
Anastasi Daniela; Di Giuseppe Gabriella; Marinelli Paolo; Angelillo Italo F.
The Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Test was designed to measure the attitudes and knowledge of retarded individuals in fourteen areas: (1) anatomy/terminology; (2) dating; (3) marriage; (4) intimacy; (5) intercourse; (6) pregnancy, childbirth and childrearing; (8) masturbation; (9) homosexuality; (10) alcohol and drugs; (11) community risks…
Edmonson, Barbara; And Others
Excessive sun exposure, mainly in childhood, represents one of the major skin cancer risk factors. Sun protection habits should start early in life to be effective. The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitude and sun protection behaviour in parents (P) and in their children (C). The educational intervention addressed the parents of 131 primary school pupils in Valencia, Spain, during the school year 2007-2008. A self-administered pre- and post-intervention questionnaire was handed in during school hours to be filled in by parents. Parents' compliance was very high (88 %). At baseline, regular high-sun-protective-factor (>15) sunscreen use was common (P, 64 %; C, 95 %); wearing clothing (T-shirt: P, 34 %, C, 62 %; hat: P, 29 %, C, 64 %) and sun avoidance at midday (P, 23 %; C, 29 %) were less frequent. Almost 70 % of parents reported difficulties, mainly due to the children's refusal. A high knowledge score (median, 6/7) and a medium/high attitude score (median, 24/30) in parents were observed; however, lifetime sunburn history was generally reported (P, 88 %; C, 24 %). Factors associated with parents' knowledge were a personal history of sunburns and regularly repeating sunscreen application to children (median score: 6 vs 5; p???0.01) Predictors of a more favourable attitude were female caretakers and having daughters (median score: 30 vs 25 and 25 vs 24, respectively; p???0.01). A trend towards limited post-intervention positive changes emerged; however, sun avoidance habit decreased (35 vs 20 %, p?=?0.01). Despite a high level of parents' knowledge, sun protection in children is not adequate, and sunburns are not uncommon. Unfavourable beliefs and attitudes need to be overcome and quality of messages improved to achieve sun-safe exposure in children. PMID:23055129
Cercato, M C; Nagore, E; Ramazzotti, V; Sperduti, I; Guillén, C
Clozapine is, in most countries, underutilized and the initiation of clozapine is often delayed. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reasons for the delay and the underutilization of clozapine. One hundred psychiatrists were interviewed by phone. The interview was a structured interview with questions regarding attitude to, knowledge of and experiences with clozapine. Forty-eight (48%) psychiatrists had treatment responsibility of fewer than five patients treated with clozapine and 31 of the interviewed psychiatrists (31%) had started clozapine within the last 3 months. Seven psychiatrists (7%) had never prescribed clozapine despite the fact that they had been working more than five years in general psychiatry. Sixty-four psychiatrists (64%) would rather combine two antipsychotics than use clozapine. Sixty-six psychiatrists (66%) believed that patients treated with clozapine were less satisfied with their treatment when compared with those treated with other atypical antipsychotics. Many psychiatrists are reluctant to use clozapine and this might be due to less experience and knowledge of clozapine. A reason for the low awareness of clozapine's properties might be that clozapine is now a generic drug, and therefore, the marketing and education in using the drug is sparse.
Nielsen, Jimmi; Dahm, M
Full Text Available Introduction: Unintended pregnancy, human immunodefi ciency virus and other sexually transmitted diseases are an important public health issue because they are associated with maternal, foetal, neonatal and other adverse outcome. Therefore preventing unintended pregnancy is the important concern. Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of contraceptive among married reproductive females. Material and method: The present cross sectional study was carried out at urban health training centre of tertiary care hospital from 16th March to 16th May 2013. Total 205 married reproductive females were enrolled in the study. Result: In the study 71.22% females had awareness regarding any method of contraception. Knowledge about emergency contraceptive was quiet low (6.83%. The most common source of information on contraception was media, both printed and electronic. The most common reason for discontinuation of family planning methods was fear of side effects. Conclusion: Effort should be made to educate the public about the safety and convenience of modern, long term, reversible methods of contraception among both in health care professional and public
Full Text Available Barbara P Yawn, Peter C WollanOlmsted Medical Center, Research Department, Rochester, MN, USAPurpose: COPD remains under-recognized and under-treated. Much of early COPD care is given by primary care physicians but only when COPD is recognized. This survey explores the attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge related to COPD recognition, diagnosis, and treatment from family physicians and nurse practitioners (NPs and physician assistants (PAs working in primary care.Methods: We completed a survey of family physicians, and NPs/PAs attending one of three CME programs on five common chronic conditions including COPD.Results: Return rate was 62% (n = 284 including 178 physicians and 100 NPs/PAs. Fewer than half of the respondents reported knowledge of or use of COPD guidelines. The barriers to recognition and diagnosis of COPD they reported included the multiple morbidities of most COPD patients, failure of patients to report COPD symptoms, as well as lack of knowledge and inadequate training in COPD diagnosis and management. Three quarters (74% of respondents reported use of spirometry to diagnose COPD but only 32% said they included reversibility assessment. COPD was incorrectly assessed as a disease primarily of men (78% of respondents that appeared after age 60 (61%. Few respondents reported that they believed COPD treatment was useful or very useful for improving symptoms (15% or decreasing exacerbations (3% or that pulmonary rehabilitation was helpful (3%, but 13% reported they thought COPD treatment could extend longevity.Conclusions: Primary care physicians and NPs/PAs working in primary care continue to report lack of awareness and use of COPD guidelines, as well as correct information related to COPD epidemiology or potential benefits of available treatments including pulmonary rehabilitation. It is unlikely that diagnosis and management of COPD will improve in primary care until these knowledge gaps and discrepancies with published efficacy of therapy issues are addressed.Keywords: COPD treatment, diagnosis, management, patients, family physicians
Barbara P Yawn
There is limited information about the influence of partners on medical male circumcision (MMC) uptake. This study aimed to evaluate attitudes, knowledge, and preferences about MMC among men and their partners, and their relative impact on male readiness to undergo the MMC procedure. Male participants (n = 354) and their partners (n = 273) were recruited from community health centers in Lusaka, Zambia. Men reported their readiness to undergo MMC, and both men and women were assessed regarding their attitudes and knowledge regarding MMC. Men who had discussed MMC with their partners, those who endorsed MMC for HIV risk reduction, and those viewing MMC as culturally acceptable reported increased readiness to undergo MMC. Additionally, endorsement of MMC by female partners was associated with increased men's readiness. Results support promotion of cultural acceptability of MMC, and efforts to increase MMC uptake may benefit from incorporating partners in the decision making process. PMID:23757123
Jones, Deborah; Cook, Ryan; Arheart, Kris; Redding, Colleen A; Zulu, Robert; Castro, Jose; Weiss, Stephen M
Studies indicate that women in China are not frequently carrying out breast cancer prevention practices. This is assumed to be due to lack of knowledge and/or lack of personalized instruction. This study was to explore the effect of breast cancer health education on women's knowledge and attitudes on breast cancer and breast self-examination, behavior related to breast self-examination among women living in the catchment area of a community health center. A pretest and posttest assessment of a 1-h health education session was conducted with 38 participants. A telephone reminder and questionnaires were administered at 1 and 3 months after the education. Three instruments were administered at each contact to assess the knowledge and attitudes on breast cancer and behavior related to breast self-examination and accuracy of breast self-examination before education, 1- and 3-month follow-ups after education. The findings showed the incidence of self-examination, and scores on the accuracy of breast self-examination practice were significantly increased immediately following the intervention and at 1- and 3-month follow-ups. Furthermore, the scores of the health belief regarding perceived benefits, perceived competency, and perceived seriousness significantly improved. The current findings imply community-based intervention could be used to teach women about the general knowledge of breast cancer and how to perform breast self-examination correctly, especially for women who are lack of such information. PMID:24504664
Ouyang, Yan-Qiong; Hu, Xiaoyan
Full Text Available The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS is a new instrument designed to measure student beliefs about physics and about learning physics. This instrument extends previous work by probing additional aspects of student beliefs and by using wording suitable for students in a wide variety of physics courses. The CLASS has been validated using interviews, reliability studies, and extensive statistical analyses of responses from over 5000 students. In addition, a new methodology for determining useful and statistically robust categories of student beliefs has been developed. This paper serves as the foundation for an extensive study of how student beliefs impact and are impacted by their educational experiences. For example, this survey measures the following: that most teaching practices cause substantial drops in student scores; that a student’s likelihood of becoming a physics major correlates with their “Personal Interest” score; and that, for a majority of student populations, women’s scores in some categories, including “Personal Interest” and “Real World Connections,” are significantly different from men’s scores.
N. D. Finkelstein
OBJECTIVES: To describe oral health behaviour, illness behaviour, oral health knowledge and attitudes among 35-44 and 65-74-year-old Chinese; to analyse the oral health behaviour profile of the two age groups in relation to province and urbanisation, and to assess the relative effect of socio-behavioural risk factors on dental caries experience. METHODS: A total number of 4,398 35-44-year-olds and 4,399 65-74-year-olds were selected by multistage stratified cluster random sampling which involved 11 provinces in China. Data were collected by self-administered structured questionnaires and clinical examinations (WHO criteria). RESULTS: 32% of the 35-44-year-olds and 23% of the 65-74-year-olds brushed at least twice a day but only 5% used fluoridated toothpaste; 30% and 17% respectively performed 'Love-Teeth-Day' recommended methods of tooth brushing. A dental visit within the previous 12 months was reported by 25% of all participants and 6% had a dental check-up during the past two years. Nearly 15% of the subjects would visit a dentist if they experienced bleeding from gums; about 60% of the subjects paid no attention to signs of caries if there was no pain. Two thirds of the urban residents and one fifth of the rural participants had economic support for their dental treatment from a third party, either totally or partially. Significant variations in oral health practices were found according to urbanisation and province. At age 35-44 years 43% of participants had daily consumption of sweets against 28% at age 65-74 years. Dental caries experience was affected by urbanisation, gender, frequency, time spent on and method of tooth brushing. Knowledge of causes and prevention of dental diseases was low with somewhat negative attitudes to prevention observed. CONCLUSION: Systematic community-based oral health promotion should be strengthened and preventive-oriented oral health care systems are needed, including promotion of further self-care practices and the use of fluoridated toothpaste.
Petersen, Poul Erik
Purpose. To investigate the level of nutrition knowledge and attitude of adolescent male and female swimmers training competitively in Trinidad and Tobago. Methodology. A self-administered questionnaire, which consisted of 21 nutrition knowledge and 11 attitude statements, was utilized to assess the level of nutrition knowledge and attitude of adolescent swimmers. For the assessment of nutrition knowledge, correct answers were given a score of “1” and incorrect answers were given a score of “0.” For the evaluation of attitude towards nutrition, a score ranging from 1 to 5 was assigned to each response; “5” was given to the most positive response, and “1” was given to the most negative. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21.0. Results. Two hundred and twenty swimmers with a mean age of 14.56 ± 2.544 completed the questionnaire. The mean nutrition knowledge score was 10.97 ± 2.897 and mean attitude score was 41.69 ± 6.215. Nutrition knowledge was positively and significantly related to the number of reported nutrition sources (r = 0.172, P = 0.005). Nutrition knowledge was positively and significantly related to the attitude (r = 0.130, P = 0.027). Conclusions and Implication. Athletes lack nutrition knowledge but have a positive attitude towards nutrition, which may indicate receptiveness to future nutrition education.
Webb, Marquitta C.; Beckford, Safiya E.
This study examined the associations of different socio-demographic and psychological factors with attitudes towards obesity. Individuals with different weight status (N=2436) were drawn from an annual population-based survey in Sweden, and data on attitudes towards obesity (ATOP) and predictor variables were assessed in 2008. The strongest predictor of ATOP was controllability beliefs about obesity (?=0.83). Thus, greater controllability beliefs about obesity predicted more negative attitudes. Sex and weight satisfaction were also independently associated with ATOP. However, there was no, or only a weak, association between weight satisfaction and ATOP among individuals with normal weight or overweight. And the higher the weight satisfactions of individuals with obesity, the more positive were their attitudes. It seems that stigma-reduction strategies in the general public should address the uncontrollable factors in the aetiology of obesity. However, more research is needed to understand the underlying causes of people's attitudes towards obesity. PMID:24268600
Hansson, Lena M; Rasmussen, Finn
With the rising incidence of HIV/AIDS in China, nurses will increasingly be caring for patients with HIV/AIDS. Thus, it is necessary that they have enough knowledge to reduce the risk of occupationally acquired HIV infection and that they change their attitude to care for HIV/AIDS patients. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between student nurses' HIV/AIDS knowledge and their attitude using a structural equation model (SEM). A cross-sectional survey was conducted in January 2008 among 528 student nurses at the technical secondary school of the China Medical University. An SEM is proposed to determine the direction and magnitude of the interdependent effects between the latent factors. The SEM was built using LISREL version 8.5. The measurement properties of the latent factors underlying the questionnaire were based on a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Our results as following, HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitude may be measured by seven underlying constructs, namely, preventive knowledge, knowledge of transmission routes, specialty knowledge, knowledge of nontransmission routes, positive attitude toward HIV/AIDS, negative attitude toward HIV/AIDS, and occupational attitude. The SEM fits the data well. The interdependent relationships between these constructs identified the factors of preventive knowledge, specialty knowledge, and attitude toward HIV/AIDS as having both direct and indirect effects on occupational attitude. In conclusions, our results represent an initial effort to assess the relationship between student nurses' HIV/AIDS knowledge and their attitude toward the disease. CFA and SEM analysis have demonstrated their usefulness in evaluating multifactor complex constructs. PMID:20113151
Qu, Bo; Zhang, Yang; Guo, Haiqiang; Sun, Gao
Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess knowledge and attitudes of the pharmacists on dispensing drugs to pregnant women. Methods: Cross-sectional study in 150 community pharmacies randomly selected in Curitiba (Brazil. A closed end questionnaire with 25 questions were used, including dispensing scenarios containing risk types A, B, D or X and questions on pharmacist interaction with pregnant women, physicians, and information sources availability. Results: Pharmacists performed appropriately in 53% of the encounters. Lower success were associated to prednison and captopril (24.8% in both, end cases producing more doubts were captopril (31.7% and simvastatin (30.7%. Most of the pharmacists state have advised drugs to pregnant women or contact to the physician to discuss about a prescription related with this issue. A Majority (64.4% did not feel able to understand FDA risk classification and did not have trustable information sources in pharmacy. Conclusions: Pharmacists dispensing drugs in Curitiba are not able to interpret information on the use of drugs in pregnant women, and they don have reliable information sources on the use of dugs in pregnancy. However, they advice and counsel drugs to pregnant women and discuss with physicians therapeutic strategies.
Energy use per square foot from science research labs is disproportionately higher than that of other rooms in buildings on campuses across the nation. This is partly due to labs’ use of energy intensive equipment. However, laboratory management and personnel behavior may be significant contributing factors to energy consumption. Despite an apparent increasing need for energy conservation in science labs, a systematic investigation of avenues promoting energy conservation behavior in such labs appears absent in scholarly literature. This paper reports the findings of a recent study into the energy conservation knowledge, attitude and behavior of principle investigators, laboratory managers, and student lab workers at a tier 1 research university. The study investigates potential barriers as well as promising avenues to reducing energy consumption in science laboratories. The findings revealed: (1) an apparent lack of information about options for energy conservation in science labs, (2) existing operational barriers, (3) economic issues as barriers/motivators of energy conservation and (4) a widespread notion that cutting edge science may be compromised by energy conservation initiatives. - Highlights: ? Effective energy conservation and efficiency depend on social systems and human behaviors. ? Science laboratories use more energy per square foot than any other academic and research spaces. ? Time, money, quality control, and convenience overshadow personnel’s desire to save energy. ? Ignorance of conservation practices is a barrier to energy conservation in labs.
Full Text Available "nBackground: The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge and attitude of pregnant women in Qazvin Province, central Iran, Relating to oral Hygiene."nMethods: The study group comprised of 760 pregnant women living in Qazvin, center of Iran in 2004. The questions were formulated to evaluate information without the need for dental examination. The age groups between 17-41 years old were randomly selected and a question was given to woman in three family planning center. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS."nResults: 94.4% responded the questionnaire and participated in statistical procedure. 73.1% of the patients used to brush their teeth at least twice a day and also 70.3% used to brush their teeth after meal."nConclusion: Health authorities should strengthen the implementation of community- based oral disease prevention and health promotion programmes. More importance must be given to oral health care center in family planning centers.
Full Text Available Help seeking pathway of individuals suffering from mental disorders is affected by their beliefs and attitudes towards various sociocultural and environmental factors relevant to these disorders. The current study aimed at exploration of correlation between attitudes and beliefs of patients seeking help from psychiatry out-patient department and their care givers for role of magico-religious and supernatural influences in mental disorders. The study was carried out at the out-patient psychiatry department of a tertiary care multispecialty hospital. Following inclusion in the study, the patients and care givers were assessed for demographic variables. Subsequently, they were assessed for their attitudes, belief and behaviour with regards to magico-religious and supernatural influences in context of mental disorders. Correlation between various domains of Supernatural Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ was carried out using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The study sample comprised of 44 (45% female and 54 (55% male care givers. Forty six percent of care givers reported belief in magico-religious and supernatural influences. Sixty one percent of care givers had favorable attitude towards magico-religious and supernatural influences as cause of mental illness. Male and female care givers did not differ significantly on any of the domains of SAQ. Help seeking behaviour of care givers with regards to magico-religious and supernatural influences was more strongly correlated with the attitudes of the care givers towards causal role of these influences in mental disorders. There is a positive correlation between beliefs, attitudes and behaviour of psychiatric patients and their care givers with regards to magico-religious beliefs and supernatural factors.
Yatan Pal Singh Balhara
Full Text Available In 1998 the World Health Organization declared childhood obesity as a “global epidemic.” It has also been observed that the health problems of adult obesity can be prevented, if obesity is controlled in childhood. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge and attitude regarding prevention of obesity and Correlate the knowledge and attitude regarding prevention of obesity among adolescents in a selected pre-university college. A pre-experimental one group pre-test post-test design was adopted. Convenience sampling technique used for selecting the adolescents. A structured knowledge questionnaire on prevention of obesity and a five-point Likert scale to assess the attitude regarding prevention of obesity were developed as the tools for data collection. The data obtained were analyzed based on the objectives and hypotheses, using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result showed that the mean post-test knowledge and attitude score of adolescents on prevention of obesity was higher than the mean pretest knowledge and attitude score. There was no correlation between knowledge and the attitude. The present study concludes that the teaching programme improved the knowledge and attitude of adolescents regarding prevention of obesity.
Prashanth K and Umarani J
Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is one of the prevalent and mortal cancers. The aim of the study is to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of women toward this cancer and Pap smear.Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study among 402 women through a questionnaire with 5 socio-demographic parameters and 14 questions about knowledge, attitude and practice. We aimed to know how knowledge, attitude and practice are affected by socio-demographic status and how practice is affected by knowledge and attitude.Results: The mean score was 4.09. Knowledge and age did not correlate directly. Old aged women had the best knowledge. As the number of children rose, knowledge deteriorated, vice versa about the age of marriage and education. The clerks were better than housewives and businesswomen. Just 3.5% did not consider the regular Pap as necessary (with the lower educational level. Almost 99% intended to get more information. The minority (28.1% had the incorrect attitude toward the curability of the cancer. Most of the women referred to do Pap due to health center personnel’s advice. About 80% had undesired practice.Discussion: The educated ones had more appropriate and optimistic incorrect attitude compared to the uneducated ones. As more years pass from the age of marriage, practice gets worse. All the newly married women had the desired practice, correct attitude and intended to get more information. All the women who knew it unnecessary had undesired practice. Women with the desired practice had 9% more correct attitude and 9% more optimistic incorrect attitude compared to the undesirably practicing ones. Totally, practice is not much influenced by attitude.
In this article, we report data from an online questionnaire study with 587 respondents, representative for the adult U.S. population in terms of age, gender, and level of education. The aim of this study was to assess how interest in science and knowledge as well as beliefs about science are associated with risk and benefit perceptions of nanotechnology. The findings suggest that the U.S. public is still rather unfamiliar with nanotechnology. Those who have some knowledge mainly have gotten it from TV and the Internet. The content of current media reports is perceived as fairly positive. Knowledge of scientific methods is unrelated to benefit and risk perceptions, at least when other predictors are controlled. In contrast, positive beliefs about science (e.g., its impact on economy or health) and more sophisticated epistemological beliefs about the nature of scientific knowledge are moderately linked to more positive perceptions of nanotechnology. The only exception is the perception of scientific uncertainty: This is associated with less positive evaluations. Finally, higher engagement with science is associated with higher risk perceptions. These findings show that laypersons who are engaged with science and who are aware of the inherent uncertainty of scientific evidence might perceive nanotechnology in a somewhat more differentiated way, contrary to how it is portrayed in the media today.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate in members of the Chinese community in Melbourne the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA training on knowledge about mental disorders and on attitudes to people with mental illness. The hypotheses were that at the end of the training participants would have increased knowledge of mental disorders and related treatments, and decreased negative attitudes towards people with mental disorders. Methods Respondents were 108 participants of three MHFA training workshops for the Chinese community in Melbourne conducted by a qualified MHFA trainer. Participants completed the research questionnaire prior to the commencement of the training (pre-test and at its completion (post-test. The questionnaires assessed participants' ability to recognize a mental disorder (depression and schizophrenia described in the vignettes, knowledge about the professional help and treatment, and negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Results Between pre- and post-test there was significant improvement in the recognition of mental disorders, beliefs about treatment became more concordant with health professionals, and negative attitudes reduced. Conclusion The MHFA training course for general members of the Chinese community in Melbourne produced significant positive change in the level of mental health literacy and reductions in stigmatizing attitudes. The evidence from this study, together with the accumulated evidence of the benefits of MHFA training in the general Australian community, suggests that this approach should be scaled up to a level where it can have an impact on the whole of the Chinese community in Australia.
Wong Daniel FK
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to compare the primary teachers and pre-service primary teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes toward teaching profession in Turkey. Descriptive method was used in the study and the study was carried out on 180 first grade and 107 fourth grade primary pre-service teachers at the Faculty of Education in Rize University and 131 primary teachers working in the primary schools located in Çayeli (Rize district. The Attitude Scale towards Teaching Profession (Özgür, 1994 and the Turkish form of the Ohio State Teacher Efficacy Scale (Balo?lu and Karada?, 2008 were used as data gathering instrument in the study. The study results revealed that the first grade primary pre-service teachers’ scores on the attitudes towards teaching professions were statistically higher than the scores of the fourth grade primary pre-service teachers and of the primary teachers. However, the study results indicated that the teaching self-efficacy scores of the first grade pre-service teachers were statistically lower than the teaching self-efficacy scores of the fourth grade pre-service teachers and primary teachers. On the other hand, the study results showed that females’ attitudes towards teaching profession were higher than the attitudes of their male counterparts whereas self-efficacy scores did not differentiate due to the gender of the primary pre-service teachers and primary teachers. Moreover, the study results indicated that there were not any significant correlation between the self-efficacy and attitudes scores of the pre-service teachers and primary teachers.
An exploratory study of quasi-experimental approach that aimed to verify the impact of an educational intervention on attitudes and knowledge of nurses towards alcohol use and associated problems. The sample included 185 nurses, divided into two groups: 84 submitted to a training course and formed the experimental group. Data were collected through a knowledge survey and an attitude scale. The attitudes of the participants of both groups were positive. There were no significant differences between groups in relation to knowledge. The strongest predictors of positive attitudes were possessed preparation to act with chemical dependents (OR = 2.18), "have received increased workload during graduation on the theme, 'alcohol and other drugs'" (OR = 1.70), and "completed graduate school" (OR = 2.59). The educational intervention had a positive impact on the attitudes of nurses towards alcoholics, work and interpersonal relationships with such clientele. PMID:24346459
Soares, Janaina; de Vargas, Divane; Formigoni, Maria Lucia Oliveira de Souza
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Self-medication is the selection and use of medicines by individuals to treat selfrecognised illnesses or symptoms and an important initial response to illnesses if successfully used. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of self medication among Medical Sciences Faculty students of Jimma University.METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in Medical sciences Faculty students in 2009.The faculty and the three schools were selected by lottery method .Then, within the faculty respective number of students for each School was determined by proportion from the total sample size. Data was collected randomly from each School using self administered questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0RESULTS: From a total of 403 (100% participants,95 (45.89% students practiced self medication in the past two months for commonly perceived illnesses such as headache 35 (36.85%, abdominal pain 29 (30.55% and cough 33 (23.16% using mainly analgesics 40(49.38% and antibiotics 29 (35.80% mostly from drug retail outlets 88(92.63. Fifty seven (60.00% respondents can recall the dose, frequency and duration of the medicine while 38 (40% did not know. Sixty five (68.42% students agreed to practice self medication irrespective of the seriousness of illnesses.CONCLUSION: Self mediation was widely practiced for minor symptoms with both OTC and prescription only drugs. Most of respondents use self medication irrespective of the seriousness of the illnesses. Lack of proper information and the ease of access from drug outlets were the most important problems.
Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo et al.
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the association between smoke-free regulations in public places and secondhand smoke exposure and related beliefs, awareness, attitudes, and behavior among urban residents in China. Methods: We selected one city (Hangzhou as the intervention city and another (Jiaxing as the comparison. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection, and implemented at two time points across a 20-month interval. Both unadjusted and adjusted logistic methods were considered in analyses. Multiple regression procedures were performed in examining variation between final and baseline measures. Results: Smoke-free regulations in the intervention city were associated with a significant decline in personal secondhand smoke exposure in government buildings, buses or taxis, and restaurants, but there was no change in such exposure in healthcare facilities and schools. In terms of personal smoking beliefs, awareness, attitudes, and practices, the only significant change was in giving quitting advice to proximal family members. Conclusions: There was a statistically significant association between implementation of smoke-free regulations in a city and inhibition of secondhand tobacco smoking exposure in public places. However, any such impact was limited. Effective tobacco control in China will require a combination of strong public health education and enforcement of regulations.
Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative "utilitarian" attitudes and…
Barney, Erin C.; Mintzes, Joel J.; Yen, Chiung-Fen
This present research reveals how beer advertising affects adolescents' knowledge of beer brands, drinking attitudes, and drinking behaviors. In addition to traditional psychological approaches for measuring media effects on alcohol-related behaviors and attitudes, market research advertising tracking methods were included to permit a clearer and…
Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.; Bloomgren, Barry W., Jr.; Atti, Jule A.; Norman, Jessica A.
Full Text Available Cancer appears to pose a major threat to the health of the Sudanese population. It is the third leading cause of death in the Sudan after malaria and pneumonia, accounting for 5% of all deaths. In 2005, approximately 22,000 people in the Sudan died from cancer and 17,000 of these people were less than 70 years old. This study was designed to: 1 assess nutrition knowledge and selected dietary beliefs related to cancer in Sudanese residing in Khartoum; 2 identify perceived barriers to the adoption of eating behaviors consistent with those recommended for cancer prevention; and 3 describe the food preferences and dietary practices in Sudanese residing in Khartoum. An interviewer-administered questionnaire elicited demographic information, cancer-related food and nutrition knowledge, food preferences, selected dietary beliefs, barriers to healthy eating and food practices from 182 participants between the ages of 18 and 35 years. More than 50% of females and males correctly identified the food lowest in fiber from a given list. Respondents were knowledgeable about the fat content of their traditional foods, but unaware of the different types of fat. Only 8.8% of the respondents thought that consumption of fruits and vegetables reduced cancer risk. Resondents perceived nutritionists as the most reliable source of information about nutrition and cancer, and the media as the best source of information on nutrition and healthy cooking. “Samin”, feta cheese, a variety of stews, “Zalabia”, lean meat, brown bread, sesame oil, dried okra, fried fish, and chicken were described as preferred food items by respondents. Daily salt/ sodium intake was described by 44% and 39% of the male and female respondents, respectively, as “high” (>2400 mg/day. The findings of this study have clear implications for aggressive nutrition education intervention programs with emphasis on the traditional foods of the Sudan.
A cross sectional survey was conducted among Government workers and the general public in Accra, Ghana. A total of 380 persons were interviewed. Almost everybody could describe accurately, an epileptic person. However, 172 (45.3%) out of the 380 respondents did not know the cause of epilepsy, and 37.6% did not know how it could be treated. Out of the 358 responses to the cause of epilepsy, 114 (31.8%) said it was inherited disease, 100 (27.9%) said it was due to witchcraft/juju or spiritual. With respect to treatment, 150 out of 333 responses mentioned sending the individual to the medical doctor, 95 (28.5%) said the use of herbs/visits to fetish priest, 59 (17.7%) suggested prayers, 20 (6.0%) said to do nothing. For prevention, 77 (29.1%) out of 319 responses indicated prayers, 49 (15.45%) cautioned marrying into epileptic family, and 13 (4.1%) responses indicated not to touch patient fitting. Those who answered "don't know" regarding knowledge about epilepsy were mostly the young, the lower educational status and the single respondents. However, the most important characteristic of the respondent that was associated with the appropriateness of the responses was the educational status. Although a lot of misconceptions about epilepsy existed in the study population, e.g. epilepsy can be spread by contact and that epileptics must be isolated or avoided, several respondents would share a room, eat or employ persons with epilepsy. The study has shown that the traditional beliefs and attitudes about epilepsy are still held firmly by the adult working population and that the educational level of the respondent was positively related to the appropriateness of the responses. It is therefore suggested that additional efforts must be made to increase the knowledge of the general population through the use of social marketing strategies in order to improve the management of persons with epilepsy. PMID:9329281
Nyame, P K; Biritwum, R B
Background: Women's fears and attitudes to childbirth may influence the maternity care they receive and the outcomes of birth. This study aimed to develop profiles of women according to their attitudes regarding birth and their levels of childbirth related fear. The association of these profiles with mode and outcomes of birth was explored. Methods: Prospective longitudinal cohort design with self report questionnaires containing a set of attitudinal statements regarding birth (Birth Attitude...
Haines, Helen M.; Rubertsson, Christine; Pallant, Julie F.; Hildingsson, Ingegerd
The aims of this study were to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of female high school and university students concerning contraception. The study was performed at the Alexandra University Hospital in Athens. A total of 297 female students participated in the study. A questionnaire was used to evaluate the depth of knowledge and attitude of respondents concerning contraception. Our findings suggest students have a defective knowledge of contraception. Their main source of information were friends but the majority would prefer to receive information from doctors. The most popular contraceptive method was the male condom. The attitude and behavior of young women in our study were consequently defective. In conclusion, there is a need to provide students with correct, detailed and broad-based information on conception and contraception as part of the school curriculum to help them acquire adequate knowledge and develop appropriate attitudes on contraception and sexual health. PMID:14584301
Kallipolitis, G; Stefanidis, K; Loutradis, D; Siskos, K; Milingos, S; Michalas, S
...knowledge regarding payments for ecosystem services, and attitudes and interest toward a payment for ecosystem services intended to benefit jaguar...understanding of payments for ecosystem services. The survey will improve...
The study was set to determine whether knowledge and attitudes toward organ dona-tion differ according to geographical location. Self-administered questionnaires were employed to collect data such as demographic characteristics, basic knowledge, attitudes and source of information about organ donation from subjects in rural and urban areas. The questionnaires were distributed randomly to 1,000 individuals in both areas during 2008. The data were analyzed in a descriptive fashion. Despite simi...
Introduction.With respect to the importance of nutritional counselling during pregnancy, the improtance of knowledge, attitude and practice of health care providers is undisputable. In this study the knowledge, attitude and practice of the health care providers in the city of shiraz with respect to the nutritional counseling in pregnancy was investigated. Methods. The survey was done upon all who practicing in MCH unit of heath care centers in the city of shiraz. The intended information...
Bromand-far, G.; Yousefi, A.; Tabatabaie, M.
This report describes the development and measurement characteristics of a new measure of smoking knowledge, attitudes, and practices (S-KAP) among treatment providers. Data are based on survey responses from 336 paid staff working in one of three drug abuse treatment or HIV care settings. Exploratory factor analysis, used to examine the factor structure, pointed towards five underlying factors: a single “knowledge” factor, three “attitude” factors (‘treatment barriers,’ ‘counse...
Delucchi, Kevin L.; Tajima, Barbara; Guydish, Joseph
Objective: Objective of the present study is to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practice of universal work precautions amongst medical laboratory technicians in private hospitals. Methodology: Cross-sectional study of health care workers was conducted using a pretested self-administered questionnaire, which enquired about knowledge, attitude and practices of universal work precautions. The hepatitis B vaccination statuses were also asked. Results: 200 questionnaires were administered t...
All patients if given proper guidance and education regarding diabetes care would be able to make significant improvement in their life-style which is helpful for good glycemic control. Education to diabetic patients would be more effective if we know the level of knowledge, attitude and practices of our patients. Thus a study was conducted to assess the general characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practices of type 2 diabetic patients attending the Out-Patient Department (OPD) of Baqai I...
Naeema Badruddin; Abdul Basit; Zafar Iqbal Hydrie, M.; Rubina Hakeem
"nBackground and Aims: Fissure sealant therapy is a national program in elementary schools in Iran. Therefore, evaluation of the parents' knowledge and attitude is necessary to improve the program."nMaterials and Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive-analytic study, Iranian students were chosen in a randomized cluster manner. The questionnaires were filled-out by students' parents to evaluate their general information, knowledge, and attitude. Moreover, students...
Jafari A.; Amir Soltani M; Golestan B; Bahrami N
A cross-sectional study regarding knowledge, attitude & practices of family planning was conducted in an immunization center of Indore district. All the females coming to immunization center for vaccinating their infants were interviewed using a pretested, semi structured Performa during a fixed study period. The performa included details like socio demographic features, questions related to knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) regarding contraceptive use. Results showed poor contracep...
Background: Good knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of HIV prevention are essential in order not to acquire HIV infection and to prevent the disease from spreading. A proper and well functioning prevention of HIV requires clear and relevant information and instructions from health care givers. Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning HIV prevention among Burmese migrant workers in Thailand and compare these between genders. Meth...
This study has developed three Logistic Regression Models to determine and analyze the factors that could affect knowledge, attitude and behavior of the urban poor concerning solid waste management. To pursue the objective, the study has collected primary data from the level of living conditions of the poor residing in the squatters and low-cost flats of Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia. The empirical results of the study are exciting as they provide evidence to the effect that knowledge, attitude...
Wahid Murad, M. D.; Chamhuri Siwar
The objective of this study is to determine the knowledge and attitudes related to food purchase among individuals who apply to a primary health care center in Umraniye, Istanbul. In this descriptive study, data was collected through face to face interviews from 167 individuals who had applied to a primary health care center. The questionnaire form included sociodemographic variables as well as a group of questions that determine knowledge and attitudes related to food purchasing, consuming a...
Background: Mental disorders are widely recognized as a major contributor to the global burden of disease worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine the knowledge and attitude about mental illness among general public. Method: This is a cross-sectional survey conducted from October 2008 to March 2009. A questionnaire was designed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding mental illness. Results: 100 subjects were selected conveniently, of which 33 % males and 67 % females, mo...
This study was conducted to assess the knowledge of family medicine providers and their attitudes towards emergency contraception in a teaching hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. A 21-item questionnaire containing the demographic profile of respondents and questions concerning knowledge of and attitudes towards emergency contraception was distributed among participants. In total, 45 interviews were conducted, with a response rate of 100%, with faculty physicians (33%), residents (27%), medical of...
Abdulghani, Hamza M.; Karim, Syed I.; Irfan, Farhana
Abstract Background Establishing an evidence-based method of improving knowledge and attitudes concerning depression has been identified as a priority in Chinese medical education. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a self-directed learning strategy as a part of student-centred education improved knowledge of and attitudes towards depression among Chinese medical students. Methods A controlled trial in which 205 medical students were allocated to...
OBJECTIVES--To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of risk of occupational HIV transmission in hospital in relation to existing guidelines. DESIGN--Cross sectional anonymous questionnaire survey of all occupational groups. SETTING--One large inner city teaching hospital. SUBJECTS--All 1530 staff working in the hospital in October 1991 and 22 managers. MAIN MEASURES--Knowledge of safe working practices and hospital guidelines; attitudes towards patients with AIDS; perception of ri...
Davidson, G.; Gillies, P.
Purpose: To describe Canadian Master of Physical Therapy (MPT) students' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding peer mentorship. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional survey study was conducted. An online questionnaire was sent to 945 MPT students via e-mail, using a modified Dillman approach. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics to describe the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Canadian MPT students. Results: A total of 260 MPT students (27.5%) responded to the quest...
In this study the mixed methods research design was used to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of secondary school science teachers in the implementation of the new Swaziland Junior Secondary Science Curriculum (SJSSC). The interactions between the teachers’ knowledge, attitudes, and classroom practices were also investigated. A total of 37 Form-1 Science teachers from 20 purposively selected schools in the Manzini region of Swaziland participated in the study. The 20 schools...
OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in the AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of first year university undergraduates in 1989 and 1994. DESIGN: Comparisons were made between cross-sectional surveys, conducted in 1989 and 1994, of first year undergraduates at three Melbourne universities. RESULTS: The 1994 cohort reported more positive attitudes toward, and better knowledge of, safe sex practices and less discrimination against perceived risk groups than did the 1989 cohort; howeve...
Rosenthal, D. A.; Smith, A. M.; Reichler, H.; Moore, S.
Objective: This study examined the relationship between ethnic background and parental views of healthy body size, concerns surrounding overweight and attitudes to perceived causes of overweight in childhood. Method: A self-report questionnaire was designed to explore parental attitudes towards childhood weight. Sampling deliberately…
Trigwell, J.; Watson, P. M.; Murphy, R. C.; Stratton, G.; Cable, N. T.
The aim of this study is to examine the relationships between chemistry laboratory anxiety, chemistry attitudes, and self-efficacy. Participants were 395 university students. Participants completed the Chemistry Laboratory Anxiety Scale, the Chemistry Attitudes Scale, and the Self-efficacy Scale. Results showed that chemistry laboratory anxiety…
Kurbanoglu, N. Izzet; Akin, Ahmet
We propose a method for estimating subjective beliefs, viewed as a subjective probability distribution. The key insight is to characterize beliefs as a parameter to be estimated from observed choices in a well-defined experimental task and to estimate that parameter as a random coefficient. The experimental task consists of a series of standard lottery choices in which the subject is assumed to use conventional risk attitudes to select one lottery or the other and then a series of betting choices in which the subject is presented with a range of bookies offering odds on the outcome of some event that the subject has a belief over. Knowledge of the risk attitudes of subjects conditions the inferences about subjective beliefs. Maximum simulated likelihood methods are used to estimate a structural model in which subjects employ subjective beliefs to make bets. We present evidence that some subjective probabilities are indeed best characterized as probability distributions with non-zero variance.
Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John
Full Text Available Background and Aims: The objective of the present study was to investigate knowledge and attitude of senior dental students towards HIV/AIDS. Its result could help in promotion of education. Materials and Methods: This educational research was carried out in two state dental schools in Tehran. The senior dental students in Tehran and Shaheed Beheshti dental schools were asked to fill in a self-administered questionnaire regarding their age, gender, parents' job, knowledge and attitudes towards treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS in Autumn semester 2007. Fifty five dental students (83% including 27% male and 73% female in Shaheed Beheshti and fifty five dental students (85% including 34% male and 66% female in Tehran dental schools were participated. The score for knowledge and attitude of the students were calculated separately. The data were analyzed using Independent sample t-test. Results: The mean percentage of knowledge and attitude scores were 76.5% (at rang 1-3 and 50% (at range 1-5, respectively. Nearly all of the students believed that all patients should be considered as HIV positive in dental practice, while 49% preferred to refer HIV positive patients. Knowledge and attitude of students were not significantly associated with the gender and knowing HIV positive person (P>0.05. Conclusion: There is a need to improve knowledge and attitudes of dental students towards HIV/AIDS. It is suggested to emphasize on this subject in dental schools curriculum in Iran.
Full Text Available Background: The principles of pharmaceutical care are embedded in the concept of Good Pharmacy Practice (GPP. GPP is poorly applied in community pharmacies not only in Asian countries, but even in United States and Europe. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of the community pharmacists in Iran, regarding GPP. Methods: A total of 794 pharmacists were evaluated with a reliable and validated KAP (Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice questionnaire regarding GPP in September 2008. Results: The most important finding in the present study was the pharmacists’ low knowledge (Mean= 13.42 and practice (Mean= 29.85 level about GPP, while their attitude towards this subject was at a high level (Mean= 74.83. Increase in their knowledge of good pharmacy practice aligned with an increase in their attitudes towards this issue. Also increase in our pharmacists’ knowledge and attitude aligned with an increase in quality of their practice. Conclusion: The current practice of Iranian community pharmacists needs further improvement. National pharmaceutical organizations should organize educational programs for the community pharmacists to equip them for their main role in community practice: promoting rational drug use. Keywords: Pharmacy, Knowledge, Attitude
Mohammad Reza Javadi
Full Text Available
The current shortage of organs for transplantation is a matter of considerable concern in the United Kingdom (U.K.). Whilst issues of histocompatibility create particular problems in this respect for the Asian population in the U.K., it is sometimes suggested that there is also a resistance to the idea of organ transplantation among this community. To explore this issue, a small-scale interview study was conducted in Coventry among members of the Sikh community. A judgemental sample of 22 individuals, from different strata of the local Sikh community, were interviewed either in one-to-one interviews or in a focus group. These interviews had two broad aims: to determine the prevailing attitudes towards organ transplantation, and to gauge the impact and acceptability of the current Department of Health campaign literature. It was found that, whilst there were a number of misgivings to do with notions of mutilation and reincarnation, and anxieties as to technical or clinical aspects of the transplantation process, the prevailing view was supportive of transplantation, and organ donation was seen as a highly appropriate means of exhibiting the altruistic tradition within Sikhism. Such barriers that exist to the idea of transplantation seem to have more to do with knowledge and understanding than with cultural or religious factors. Concerning the campaign literature, informants identified a number of shortcomings, and indicated ways in which the impact of the leaflets and posters might be enhanced. Although the generalizability of these findings is limited, and despite possible threats to the validity of the data collected, this study has produced findings with significant implications for future policy in this area. PMID:8816007
Exley, C; Sim, J; Reid, N; Jackson, S; West, N
Background Migrant populations are at high risk of Human Immuno Deficiency Virus infection (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Studies of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and practices among fishermen in developing countries have shown gaps in knowledge and fear of contagion with ambivalent attitudes towards HIV/AIDS and inconsistent universal precautions adherence. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among adult fishermen in a coastal area of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods Community based cross sectional study was conducted among fishermen in coastal area of Karachi from June to September 2012. A total of 297 adult fishermen were selected by using simple random sampling technique from different sectors of coastal village. Data were collected using a structured validated questionnaire. The frequency distribution of both dependent and independent variables were worked out. Comparisons of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS by socio-demographic characteristics were made using logistic regression. Results Out of 297 fishermen, majority had in-appropriate knowledge (93.6%), negative attitude (75.8%) and less adherent sexual practices (91.6%). In univariate analysis, lower education and higher income were significantly associated (OR 2.25, 95% CI, 1.11, 4.55), (OR = 3.04 CI 1.03-9.02, p value 0.04) with negative attitude and un-safe practices towards HIV/AIDS respectively, whereas no significant association of socio-economic characteristics with knowledge, attitude and practices were observed in multivariate analysis. Conclusions This study suggests that fishermen had very poor knowledge, negative attitudes towards HIV and AIDS and had unsafe sexual practices which suggest that they lack the basic understanding of HIV/AIDS infection. Extensive health education campaign should be provided to the vulnerable sections of the society for the control of HIV/AIDS.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to discuss the food sanitation knowledge, attitude, and behavior for the employees of university restaurants, and furthermore, to explain the interrelations of these various were occurring at school. A questionnaire survey procedure was used. Each two constructs of food sanitation attitude and behavior were analyzed by factor analysis. Data was analyzed by description, Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression analysis. The correctness rate toward the whole sanitation knowledge of trials was 70%. The overall attitude toward food sanitation was prone to positive and the attitude of employee self-responsibility was superior to the attitude of food sanitation practice. The sanitary guiding behavior was better than the sanitary habit behavior; and there was a significant relationship indicated through Pearson correlation analysis among three various. The sanitation knowledge and sanitation attitude showed a 42.6% predictive power to behavior, the attitude was mediated between knowledge and behavior. The university restaurant employees shared a more pessimistic view toward the benefits of training and the institutions could establish a committee for monitoring food nutrition and sanitation. It provides valuable information for development employees training while seeking to raise school restaurant food safety levels.
Full Text Available Seventy to ninety percent of HIV-infected individuals have oral lesions that affect their quality-of-life. Caregivers play an important role in complementing the healthcare team. It is essential that the caregivers have optimal knowledge, beliefs and practices toward the management of care regarding oral-lesions in HIV-infected patients in caregiving institutions in Johannesburg, South Africa. To measure the knowledge, beliefs and practices relating to oral lesions in HIV infection amongst caregivers in caregiving institutions in Johannesburg. This cross-sectional pilot study conducted during 2005 and 2006 involved caregivers in palliative care institutions in Region 8, Johannesburg Metropolitan area (n= 52. Using a questionnaire, information obtained included demographics, knowledge, beliefs and practices with regard to oral care for HIV-positive patients. Principal component analysis was used to extract questionnaire items of the knowledge domain. The knowledge domain displayed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach ?-score of > 0.91. Of the caregivers, 65.4%had received training in oral care. Compared to caregivers not trained in oral care (NTOC, those caregivers trained in oral care (TOC were more likely to be older (31 yrs vs. 44 yrs; p = 0.001, female (72%vs. 94%; p = 0.03 and were less likely to be employed on a full-time basis (94%vs. 68%; p = 0.03. Compared with NTOCs, TOCs had more knowledge regarding HIV-specific lesions and ‘routine’ oral-care for the patients (p < 0.005. Similarly, TOCcaregivers had more positive beliefs about oral care for those living with HIV (p < 0.05. Offering training in oral healthcare to caregivers improves their knowledge of oral lesions and their beliefs about oral care.
Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the level of knowledge and attitudes about the transmission and prevention of tuberculosis in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB, compared by sex and education level, and specify the main sources of information about tuberculosis. Methods: Observational, cross-sectional study. We studied 70 patients diagnosed with MDR-TB in treatment during 2009, from five health centers, DISA V Lima-Ciudad, which were chosen by consulting experts. Variables were grouped into three categories: 1. general information (age, sex, marital status, education level, occupation, current diagnosis, primary means of acquiring information and time of the acquisition of knowledge, 2. knowledge about the transmission and preventive measures on tuberculosis and 3. attitudes towards their disease. We used a survey to collect the necessary information. Results: The mean age was 32.10±12.92 years, 55.7% and 44.3% were male and female respectively. 82.9% of patients achieved an adequate knowledge about TB transmission, 51.4% had adequate knowledge on prevention and 60% were classified as having a proper attitude towards their disease. The distribution by sex and educational level was not significantly different in any of the categories of knowledge and attitudes (p> 0.05. Conclusion: Most patients had an adequate level of knowledge about transmission of tuberculosis, there was an understatement of this knowledge. Nevertheless, we found an overestimation of knowledge about preventive measures, and only about half of the patients had an adequate level of this knowledge. The patient’s attitude regarding their disease was adequate in most cases. There was not significant difference in the level of knowledge and patients attitudes by sex nor educational level. The main source of information was the local health center.
Little is known about younger adults' attitudes towards age-related sexual changes and behaviors. Research using the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale (ASKAS) (White, 1982) has been effective in determining knowledge and attitudes among the staff of long-term care facilities, nurses, undergraduate nursing students, health care…
Ewen, Heidi H.; Brown, Pamela S.
Full Text Available Findings from two studies investigating the effects of Kids on the Block (KOB puppet shows onelementary school students’ knowledge of and attitude toward individuals with disabilities aredescribed. KOB is a troupe of life-size hand-and-rod puppets used to improve knowledge and changeattitudes toward persons with disabilities. Results from both studies indicated that KOB performanceshad positive effects on both the knowledge and attitudes of second, third, and fourth grade students.Study 1 showed that the puppet show participants had more positive attitudes and more accuratefactual knowledge of individuals with disabilities compared to the control group participants who didnot experience the KOB puppets. Findings from Study 2 showed pretest-post test gain scores for theKOB group were larger than those for the control group. The results taken together provided evidencethat a rather simple intervention was effective in terms of changing the knowledge of and attitudestoward individuals with disabilities.
Carl J. DUNST
Full Text Available This research aims to determine teachers' influence in the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT at schools. Various variables are examined such as years of experience, gender, the duration of computer and Internet use, and to determine the attitude, level of knowledge on and the frequency of ICT use among teachers. The study was conducted with 1540 primary school teachers using Knowledge, Use and Attitude Scales of ICT. The results show that the most commonly used and well-known ICT types among teachers are the Internet, e-mail and word processing, and teachers' attitudes towards computers and the Internet are generally positive. It was also found that their attitudes vary with their years of experience and levels of knowledge.
Full Text Available Knowledge about the spread of HIV has a critical impact of the prevention of AIDS young people are of particular importance in state policies against AIDS,we intended to assess the knowledge and attitude of college students regarding AIDS in Iran,.This study is a cross-sectional study that carried out in 400 first college students. A structured questionnaire was used to assess knowledge about AIDS, source of information and attitudes toward people living with HIV, the students identified mass media (40% as their most important source of information about ADIS. Only a few students answered all the knowledge questions correctly and there were many misconceptions about the routes of transmissions. College students demonstrated a moderate level of knowledge (67.5% concerning AIDS and HIV. Results showed that 85% of samples fell all people entering Iran should be tested. Twenty five percent of them believed that people with HIV should not be allowed to use common toilets and 27% incorrectly believed that HIV infected college students be removed from university bedroom. Attitude was significantly correlated with knowledge, (r = -0.38, p< 0.001, student with less knowledge scores had more negative attitude toward HIV positive Individuals. The knowledge level seems to be moderately high misconception about the routes of transmission were common. Alarming gaps in knowledge about transmission and curability put young Iranian students at risk of contracting HIV. Intolerant attitudes about people living with HIV were prevalent. Present results suggest that a more appropriate education program in colleges in Iran may be necessary to reduce the discrepancy between general knowledge and desirable attitude regarding HIV/AIDS.
The purpose of this study is to find out whether university students' attitudes towards physics lesson, their self-efficacy beliefs and burnout levels predict their academic success in physics lessons. The research group consists of 641 university students of which 307 are girls (47.1%) and 334 boys (52.9%). The research data were collected…
Background: About 40% of White American women over age 50 experience osteoporosis-related fracture of the hip, spine, or wrist during their lives. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the level of osteoporosis knowledge and beliefs among young women. Methods: University women (n=302) completed a self-administered osteoporosis risk…
Kasper, Mark J.; Garber, Michele; Walsdorf, Kristie
Sex education in Portugal has become a right and an obligation starting in the first years of school. However, despite being required by legislation, this is not easy to achieve, partly because of weaknesses in the training of teachers, which need to be identified. In this study, data were collected about the knowledge, behaviours and beliefs of…
Veiga, Luisa; Teixeira, Filomena; Martins, Isabel; Melico-Silvestre, Antonio
This study indicates that video modeling is a useful tool for increasing breast cancer clinical trial knowledge, but not for improving clinical trial beliefs among women. This video was also found to be a useful teaching tool for vulnerable groups, specifically those with lower education.
Full Text Available Background: One of the high-risk professions for the development of musculoskeletal problems is nursing. Studies have reported that there is a high prevalence of low back pain(LBP amongst South African nurses, but very little is known regarding the prevention and self-treatment principles for LBP in this group.Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about the prevention and self-treatment principles for LBP amongst nursing staff in Cecilia Makiwane Hospital, Eastern Cape.Methods: The study population consisted of all qualified nurses employed at the hospital. A cross-sectional survey with a purposive convenience sampling method was used. A questionnaire was designed using literature from established sources. The questionnaire was distributed manually and data obtained were analysed using EPI-INFO4.Results: The study found that the majority of the participants experienced LBP on a regular basis. The participants could identify the most important physical risk factors associated with the development of LBP, but neglected the psychological risk factors. Action taken after the development of LBP included professional consultations as well as medication and bed rest. The participants identified the different components of a preventative exercise programme but only focused on the physical and not psychological components associated with LBP.Conclusions:LBP is a serious problem amongst the nurses at the hospital, but no proactive approach is taken in order to address this problem. Policy guidelines and a comprehensive prevention and treatment programme need to be designed and implemented to address this issue.
A study investigated British Columbian English teachers' beliefs and values as factors in their willingness to implement a senior-secondary English course focusing on technical and professional communication, Technical and Professional Communications 12 (TPC12). Statistically significant differences at the .05 level of confidence were found…
Abraham, Nargis; Belanger, Joe
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the association between knowledge, attitudes and practice of oral health in 12-year-old schoolchildren, and to analyse the findings in terms of the conventional KAP health-education model and of the critical approach. Study design: This study has [...] a cross sectional design. The study participants were 1105 randomly selected 12-year-old children resident in the region of Galicia in Spain. For data collection, five teams of one dentist and one assistant were formed. The dentist carried out the physical examination and the assistant helped the subjects to answer the questionnaire. Knowledge, attitudes and practice were assessed, as well as oral health indicators. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify variables affecting practice (as measured by extent of plaque). Results: The results of this study show how that there is an important association between oral health knowledge, attitudes, and practice in 12-year-old schoolchildren in this region. However, the results also show that attitude is not totally explained by knowledge, so that attitude cannot be understood simply as an intermediate variable in a knowledge® practice causal chain. Specifically, the results indicate that sociocultural environment modifies the association knowledge, attitudes and practice. Conclusions: Within oral health education it is clearly important to increase public knowledge of the risk factors for dental disease. However, the efficacy of such education will be limited if health programs do not directly impinge on attitudes, and take into account factors related to the environment, education, social status and economic level of the targeted population.
Ernesto, Smyth; Francisco, Caamaño; Paula, Fernández-Riveiro.
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health problem. Treatment and prevention of TB has shifted from inpatient to outpatient settings. A report from the World Health Organization has emphasized educational strategy to ensure students graduate with the appropriate knowledge, skills, and attitudes essential to the effective management of TB. The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices among medical students. The survey was done from 2012 to 2013. Knowledge, attitudes and practices were assessed regarding tuberculosis with a questionnaire. Knowledge mean score of students was 16.13±2.06 and Attitude score was 36.08±3.76, Knowledge and attitude levels of students were moderate to high in the majority of them. Practice score of the study subjects was 22.77±4.95, 11.9% of students had poor practice level. 43% did not know that a sputum smear is the most important method used for diagnosis of TB. Two-thirds of them did not know the distance that should be kept from contagious patients. Half of them believed that the BCG vaccination has no role in the prevention of TB. This study concluded that more efforts should be made to improve the knowledge of students regarding TB transmission and the role of sputum smear in diagnosis. The importance of the BCG vaccination should be emphasized. PMID:24857175
Behnaz, Fatemah; Mohammadzade, Golnaz; Mousavi-E-Roknabadi, Razieh S; Mohammadzadeh, Mahmoud
Full Text Available Health care personnel are the first line of contact for public with the health care system and therefore, can have an important role in public’s oral health promotion. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior of Health Care centers personnel in Neyshabour, Iran. One hundred and thirty four health care personnel in Neyshabour participated in this cross sectional study. A researcher-led questionnaire was used to evaluate oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior of participants. Oral hygiene examination was carried out by a qualified dentist using simplified oral hygiene index. Then the association between knowledge, attitude and behavior of health care personnel with age, gender, occupation and education level were assessed by Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The results showed that 56% of participants had good knowledge, 80% reported positive attitude and 86% of personnel reported tooth brushing once daily. Average score for oral hygiene index was 1.26±1.66. Personnel with higher educational level had more knowledge (p = 0.007 and people with higher education and income had more positive attitude (p = 0.001 and 0.04, respectively. The oral hygiene index of people with higher education was better than others (p = 0.001. It seems that level of knowledge and behavior of studied Health Care employees regarding oral health needs improvement. Enhancement and continuation of oral health educational courses is mandatory.
This paper builds upon earlier work that argued the information and experience contained within the knowledge-practice-belief complex of M?tauranga M?ori [M?ori knowledge] is a valuable and neglected area of information and understanding about past catastrophic events in Aotearoa/New Zealand (A/NZ). Here we map M?ori oral traditions (p?r?kau) that relate experience with extreme environmental disturbance (in particular, tsunamis) around the A/NZ coast, com...
King, D. N.; Goff, J. R.
Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus, a chronic health condition, affecting over 18 million Americans has been found to disproportionably affect members of minority groups. To-date, limited research has been conducted to understand the etiology of the disease in the Hmong community many of whom migrated to the United States from Southeast Asia. The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge, beliefs, and treatment of diabetes in the Hmong community in Fresno County. Thirty-three participants between the age of 18 and 65 participated in this survey which included qualitative and quantitative questions. Findings from this survey revealed that the majority of study participants had no knowledge of the disease. Results from the survey also revealed misconceptions about the disease (e.g., believing a person can catch the disease by eating too many sweet foods. The study also revealed that the majority of study participants utilize traditional Hmong remedies such as herbs, including plants and tree roots for diabetes treatments.
Miguel A. Perez
Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners (GPs and nurses are ideally placed to address the significant unmet demand for the treatment of cannabis-related problems given the numbers of people who regularly seek their care. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences between GPs and nurses’ perceived knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors toward cannabis use and its screening and management. Methods This study involved 161 nurses and 503 GPs who completed a survey distributed via conference satchels to delegates of Healthed seminars focused on topics relevant to women and children’s health. Differences between GPs and nurses were analyzed using ?2- tests and two-sample t-tests, while logistic regression examined predictors of service provision. Results GPs were more likely than nurses to have engaged in cannabis-related service provision, but also more frequently reported barriers related to time, interest, and having more important issues to address. Nurses reported less knowledge, skills, and role legitimacy. Perceived screening skills predicted screening and referral to alcohol and other drug (AOD services, while knowing a regular user increased the likelihood of referrals only. Conclusions Approaches to increase cannabis-related screening and intervention may be improved by involving nurses, and by leveraging the relationship between nurses and doctors, in primary care.
Norberg Melissa M
The authors determined the food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of undergraduates (n = 1122) on an urban college campus using a previously piloted survey tool. Data obtained found that while students reported high levels of confidence in their ability to engage in safe food handling practices, their knowledge and self-reported behaviors…
Stein, Susan E.; Dirks, Brian P.; Quinlan, Jennifer J.
Snakes are controversial animals emblazoned by legends, but also endangered as a result of human prejudice and fear. The author investigated gender and age-related differences in attitudes to and knowledge of snakes comparing samples of school children and pre-service teachers. It was found that although pre-service teachers had better knowledge…
Mail and telephone surveys of 412 Vietnamese-American college students investigated their HIV-related knowledge and attitudes. Results indicated that they were aware of HIV transmission modes but had many misconceptions about HIV. Females and students who were not sexually active were the most knowledgeable about HIV. Respondents were not…
Yi, Jenny K.
General practitioners (GPs) could have an important role in early diagnosis of autism. There have been no studies evaluating the knowledge of GPs regarding autism in Pakistan. We aimed to fill that gap by assessing knowledge and attitude of GPs in Karachi regarding autism. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 348 GPs; only 148 (44.6%) had…
Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; Ibrahim, Khalid; Assassi, Parisa
Biotechnology has a considerable importance in Turkish biology curriculum. This study was designed to explore or indicate Turkish high school and university students' knowledge and attitudes toward biotechnology. A total number of 352 high school and 276 university students were invited to the study. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ)…
Usak, Muhammet; Erdogan, Mehmet; Prokop, Pavol; Ozel, Murat
Full Text Available Introduction.With respect to the importance of nutritional counselling during pregnancy, the improtance of knowledge, attitude and practice of health care providers is undisputable. In this study the knowledge, attitude and practice of the health care providers in the city of shiraz with respect to the nutritional counseling in pregnancy was investigated. Methods. The survey was done upon all who practicing in MCH unit of heath care centers in the city of shiraz. The intended information was gathered using a checklist and questionnaire from 75 heath care providers. Results. Knowledge is in middle level in 60 percent, attitude is positive in 98.7 percent and practice is poor in 90.67 percent of samples. Midwifery school graduations have more knowledge than other (P < 0.05. Discussion. Education of nutritional sciences for health care providers has an important role in health promotion. During special situations such as pregnancy, this matter is more important.
Nurses play an important role in managing children's pain. The nurse's accurate assessment, appropriate intervention, and evaluation of pain relief measures are necessary for positive patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge and attitudes of pediatric nurses regarding the child's pain. The Pediatric Nurses' Knowledge and Attitude Survey (PNKAS) was used to evaluate the nurses' knowledge and attitudes. The PNKAS consists of 40 questions. In this study, 29.9% of nurses had a diploma and 40.6% associate's, 25.0% bachelor's, and 4.5% master's degree, and respondents had an everage 6.1 years pediatric nursing experience. The total mean score on the PNKAS scale was 38.2%. The highest score was 65%, and the lowest score 15%. The findings of the survey show that pediatric nurses in Turkey have insufficient knowledge regarding pain management and could benefit from additional education on that issue. PMID:24315279
Ekim, Ayfer; Ocakc?, Ayse Ferda
The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge and attitudes of nursing faculty and students (BSN and MS) regarding complementary/alternative therapies (C/AT) and their integration into nursing practice. Implications for curricular and faculty development were also identified. A cross-sectional survey (n = 170) of graduating BSN students (n = 73) and MS and PhD students (n = 47) and faculty (n = 50) was conducted in a university-based nursing program. The self-administered questionnaire contained 134 forced choice items. Questions assessed attitudes and knowledge about training in, personal use of, perceived barriers to, and intent to integrate C/AT into clinical practice. Over 95 percent of the students and faculty agreed that clinical care should integrate the best of conventional and C/AT practices. Few had received formal C/AT education; the highest number had received some education about massage, music, prayer/spiritual healing, and therapeutic/healing touch. They desired more education but not necessarily the skills to perform these therapies themselves. Faculty and students expressed positive attitudes about incorporating C/AT into curricula and nursing practice. Current knowledge lags behind interest, however, suggesting a situation ripe for change. The most important perceived barrier to incorporation was lack of evidence. Curricular change is needed to fully integrate C/AT in nursing programs at all levels; faculty development and nursing research is needed to facilitate these changes. PMID:14689396
Halcón, Linda L; Chlan, Linda L; Kreitzer, Mary Jo; Leonard, Barbara J
Background Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major global public health problem both in hospital and community acquired infections. The present study assessed the knowledge and beliefs on AMR among physicians and nurses in 13 hospitals in Amhara region, Ethiopia, which is a low-income country. Methods A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was applied. Results A total of 385 participants (175 physicians and 210 nurses) took part in the study. Sixty five percent of physicians and 98% of nurses replied that they need training on antimicrobial stewardship. Only 48% of physicians and 22.8% of nurses had exposures for local antibiogram data. Overall, 278 (72.2%) of participants were knowledgeable about AMR. Majority of participants agreed or strongly agreed AMR as worldwide and national problem but few considered AMR as problem in their own hospitals. The two most important factors mentioned for AMR development were patients’ poor adherence to prescribed antimicrobials (86%) and overuse of antibiotics (80.5%). The most leading local factors identified for AMR development were: self-antibiotic prescription (53.5%), lack of access to local antibiogram data (12.3%) and prescriber poor awareness about AMR (9.2%). Factors perceived for excessive antibiotic prescriptions were: patient drive (56%), treatment failure (79%), unknown febrile illnesses (39.7%) and upper respiratory tract infections (33.4%). Conclusion Majority of physicians and nurses lack up to-date knowledge on AMR. Unavailability of local antibiogram data, self-prescription by patients and poor awareness on AMR are areas of interventions for prevention and control of AMR.
Abstract Background The diagnosis and treatment of Autism in Pakistan occurs in multiple settings and is provided by variety of health professionals. Unfortunately, knowledge and awareness about Autism is low among Pakistani healthcare professionals & the presence of inaccurate and outdated beliefs regarding this disorder may compromise early detection and timely referral for interventions. The study assessed the baseline knowledge and misconceptions regarding autism among he...
Imran Nazish; Chaudry Mansoor R; Azeem Muhammad W; Bhatti Muhammad R; Choudhary Zaidan I; Cheema Mohsin A
Full Text Available Introduction: The importance of the periodontal health maintenance and promotion in diabetes mellitus has been supported. Evidence showed that many patients are unaware about effects of diabetes mellitus on oral health. The aim of this study is to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and practice of diabetic patients concerning the risk of periodontal disease and prevention. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 156 diabetic patients referring to Yazd Diabetic Research Center were recruited by random selection. Patients completed questionnaires, which included 29 questions about their knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health in diabetes mellitus. The data was scored and analyzed. Result: The results showed knowledge (58.64 and attitude (46.86 scores of diabetic patients were moderate, while their practice (24.3 score were poor. There is statistical significant relation between mean scores of knowledge, attitude and practice of patients with their educational level and age. Conclusion: This study showed knowledge, attitude and practice level of diabetic patients were insufficient on oral health care.
Fazele Atarbashi Moghadam
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of health education on the knowledge and attitude regarding family planning and contraception’s method among the women who obligatory attended the Premarital Counseling Center in Yasouj city, Iran. An experimental study was carried out and a total of 200 women were selected for the study using convenience sampling method among women who attended in the health centre in order to utilize the necessary premarital actions. Respondents were divided by two experimental and control groups randomly. A pre-evaluation was done on the knowledge and attitude on family planning using a structured questionnaire. After which, the health education for experimental group was done within four educational sessions during 4 consecutive weeks and control group underwent traditional education method. Post evaluation was utilized for any changes regarding their knowledge and attitude among the respondents immediately after the intervention. Independent and paired t-test was used to evaluate the mean knowledge and attitude scores differences among both groups. Results showed that there was a significant improvement in respondents’ knowledge and attitude after educational program in experimental group (p
Full Text Available Background: Alternative or complementary medicine includes models for treatment or prevention of disease, which are different in method or efficacy from current biologic medicine. Interest in alternative and complementary medical practices have increased in recent years. This study has been conducted to determine the knowledge and attitude of the general physicians about complementary and alternative medicine.Materials and method: This descriptive study was done on all general physicians of Rafsanjan city (n=80 in a census method. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, which included three parts; demographic, knowledge and attitude questions about complementary and alternative medicine. After collecting, the questionnaires, data were collected and entered in SPSS-16 software and were analyzed statistically by means of descriptive statistics (charts and tables and analytical statistics (Chi-squared and Fisher statistical tests.Results: The findings of this study (n=80 showed 53.8% (n=43 had a good knowledge and 5% (n=4 had a positive attitude about complementary and alternative medicine. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, knowledge and positive attitude of general physicians of Rafsanjan about complementary and alternative medicine is low. For promotion of their knowledge, continuous education is needed for proper attitude to be developed
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess students' knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV and AIDS. A questionnaire was administered to a cross section of 259 Chinese undergraduates. Respondents were asked to provide information about knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Study results indicated that the majority of undergraduates had a moderate level of HIV and AIDS knowledge, acceptance and attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS. Boys had more acceptance and positive attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS than girls. Students majoring in medicine performed better (more knowledgeable and accepting than non-medical students. Differences between students with various monthly expenditures were found-- 6.2% of students had 3-5 sexual partners which has rarely been found in Chinese students; most students did not know HIV VCT centers and most students did not show their confidence for controlling of HIV and AIDS in China. In conclusion, studentsÃ¢Â€Â™ knowledge about HIV/AIDS was uneven. A peer educational program to talk about self esteem, healthy sexual attitudes, being human-accepting and loving should be developed in the near future.
Background: Nowadays, organ transplantation is the treatment of choice for end-stage organ failure, which increases the importance of organ procurement. It seems that the attitude towards organ donation and transplantation affects people’s satisfaction. Moreover, health care personnel, especially physicians, should be familiar with transplantation rules and standards. It seems that understanding the knowledge and attitude of this group can affect the transplantation center policies. Objective: To assess knowledge and attitude of a group of Iranian physicians towards organ and tissue donation. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 560 Iranian physicians including nephrologists, urologists and internists were asked to fill out a validated questionnaire containing their demographics, knowledge and attitude towards organ and tissue donation and transplantation. Results: Of 560 participants, 435 (78%) agreed with organ donation after death and 285 (51%) agreed with living kidney donation. The most common reason provided by those who agreed with donation was “helping people” whereas the most common cause of disagreement was “to honor the body.” Only 32 (6%) physicians had no knowledge about transplantation rules. Complete awareness about theoretical basis and financial issues of transplantation was observed in 265 (47%) and 221 (40%) participants, respectively. Conclusion: Physicians had a good attitude towards organ and tissue transplantation although less than half of them had knowledge of transplantation rules and its theoretical basis and financial issues; therefore, additional awareness and education of physicians is needed in all areas of the organ donation process in Iran.
Salmani Nadoushan, M.; Nozary Heshmati, B.; Shabanzadeh Pirsaraee, A.; Salmani Nodoushan, I.; Jafari Nadoushan, R.; Yazdi, F.
The theoretical foundations of belief dependence in multiple agent environment, where agents may rely on someone else about their beliefs of knowledge are investigated. Several logics for belief dependence are introduced and studied. An attempt is made to...
The purpose of this study was to discuss the food sanitation knowledge, attitude, and behavior for the employees of university restaurants, and furthermore, to explain the interrelations of these various were occurring at school. A questionnaire survey procedure was used. Each two constructs of food sanitation attitude and behavior were analyzed by factor analysis. Data was analyzed by description, Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression analysis. The correctness rate toward the whole...
The aim of this descriptive study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of the first and fourth-year students (n=190) of Inonu University Health High School concerning HIV/AIDS. The questionnaire that developed by investigators was applied to students under observation. The main source of information was the lectures on the school. Mean scores on the knowledge of the fourth-year students were significantly higher than the first-year students. General knowledge scores of health official s...
Context-Knowledge is linked consistently with organ donation attitudes, willingness, and consent. Negative information about donation and the recipients of donation can affect public opinion and donation willingness. However, it is unclear which information sources are most important in forming knowledge, particularly in Australia where little prior research exists.Objectives-To identify information sources that may inform Australians' organ donation knowledge and attitudes toward transplant recipients.Participants-1487 Australian residents aged 18 years or older who completed an online survey.Main Outcome Measures-Self-reported knowledge, information sources, and attitudes toward transplant recipients.Results-Participants felt fairly well informed about organ donation, particularly if they registered donation wishes, were female, and were older. More than half reported their driver's license, television news, and discussion with family/friends as donation information sources. However, information sources contributing to knowledge were personal experience, online, hospital, government campaign, discussion with family/friends, Medicare, doctor's surgery, and the newspaper. Differences based on registration status, sex, and age, were found. Discussion with family/friends and movies or television shows, as well as not having seen information in a newspaper or doctor's surgery, contributed to positive attitudes toward recipients, although the variance explained was small.Conclusions-People felt more informed by personal, medical, and government information sources than by mass media. Family discussion was not only a common information source but also contributed significantly and positively to both donation knowledge and attitudes toward recipients. Further exploration of information sources contributing to donation knowledge and community attitudes toward transplant recipients among young men is needed. PMID:24919734
Hyde, Melissa K; Chambers, Suzanne K
A self-administered questionnaire (SKAQ) in simple Hindi was constructed and standardized for assessing the knowledge and attitude of a north Indian population towards sex. SKAQ is a 55- item questionnaire split into two parts: a 35-item knowledge-part with dichotomous choice of responses and a 20-item attitude-part scorable on 3-point Likert scale. Higher scores indicated a better knowledge and a liberal attitude. Its test-retest reliability was established and discriminant validity demonstr...
Avasthi, Ajit K.; Varma, Vijoy K.; Nehra, Ritu; Das, Karobi
This study is interested in understanding curriculum as an international text and evaluating the connections between junior high school students’ global knowledge and attitudes and the required national curriculum in Taiwan. The study also examines whether the global knowledge and attitudes vary by demographic variables. By using the Global Knowledge Scale and Global Attitudes Scale, data were collected from 1,017 students in central Taiwan and analyzed by descriptive statistics, chi-square...
Su-ching Lin; Hsin-Yi Kung
Knowledge, attitude and practice studies have been used to understand the various factors that influence blood donation which is the basis for donor mobilization and retention strategies. Role of youngsters in voluntary blood donation is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. The present study was aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice regarding voluntary blood donation among the health care students. A validated and pre-tested questionnaire on knowledge, attitude an...
Kowsalya, V.; Vijayakumar, R.; Chidambaram, R.; Srikumar, R.; Prabhakar Reddy, E.; Latha, S.; Gayathri Fathima, I.; Kishor Kumar, C.
Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to generate discussion and communication among a group of general dentists in Tehran on their viewpoints regarding denture adhesives. Have they accepted denture adhesive as a material to enhance denture retention, stability and function? Materials and Methods: In the summer of 2007, a questionnaire was mailed to 300 general dentists who were assigned with a random systematic sampling method from general dentists in Tehran. The questions were arranged in two parts of evaluating knowledge and attitude. In evaluation of knowledge, dentists were classified into groups of good, moderate, weak and lack of knowledge. In evaluation of attitude, dentists were classified into positive, moderate and negative groups. (Evaluating attitude was carried out in good and moderate groups of knowledge. Results: The study showed that 14%, 32% and 37% of the general dentists had respectively good, moderate and weak knowledge toward denture adhesive while 16.3% had no knowledge about this material. In evaluation of attitude through dentists with positive and moderate knowledge toward denture adhesive, 9.3%, 71.3% and 19.4% had respectively positive, moderate and negative attitude toward denture adhesive. The ?2 test showed a significant statistical relation between situation of knowledge and experiences of dentists. Discussion: This study demonstrated that the rate of knowledge of these 300 general dentists in Tehran towards denture adhesives has not been in a good situation. It is believed that denture adhesive be able to enhance the fitness of a denture and provide psychological relief to the patient. Dentists agreed that education, not only for practitioners but also for patients, would raise the advantageous features and reduce the misuse of denture adhesive. Education of the topic "Denture adhesive" should be more concerned in dental universities.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Misconceptions about antibiotic use among community members potentially lead to inappropriate use of antibiotics in the community. This population-based study was aimed at examining common knowledge and beliefs about antibiotic use of people in an urban area of Indonesia. Methods The population of the study was adults (over 18 years old in Yogyakarta City. A cluster random sampling technique was applied (N?=?640. Data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlation. Results A total of 625 respondents was approached and 559 respondents completed the questionnaire (90% response rate. Out of 559 respondents, 283 (51% are familiar with antibiotics. Out of 283 respondents who are familiar with antibiotics, more than half have appropriate knowledge regarding antibiotic resistance (85%, allergic reactions (70%, and their effectiveness for bacterial infections (76%. Half these respondents know that antibiotics ought not to be used immediately for fever (50%. More than half have incorrect knowledge regarding antibiotics for viral infections (71%. More than half believe that antibiotics can prevent illnesses from becoming worse (74%. Fewer than half believe that antibiotics have no side effects (24%, that antibiotics can cure any disease (40%, and that antibiotic powders poured onto the skin can quickly cure injuries (37%. Those who are uncertain with these beliefs ranged from 25% to 40%. Generally, these respondents have moderate knowledge; where the median is 3 with a range of 0 to 5 (out of a potential maximum of 5. Median of scores of beliefs is 13 (4 to 19; potential range: 4 to 20. The results of correlation analysis show that those with appropriate knowledge regarding antibiotics would also quite likely have more appropriate beliefs regarding antibiotics. The correlation is highest for those who are male, young participants, with higher education levels, and have a higher income level. Conclusions Misconceptions regarding antibiotic use exist among people in this study. Therefore, improving appropriate knowledge regarding antibiotic use is required.
Reports on the school climate for gay and lesbian students in the United States suggest that negative attitudes toward gay and lesbian individuals are quite common in adolescence. Very little research, however, has investigated adolescents' sexual prejudice from a developmental perspective. In this study, 10th- (N = 119) and 12th- (N = 145) grade…
Horn, Stacey S.
Attitudes and beliefs about antiretroviral therapy (ART) may affect sexual risk behaviors among the general population in sub-Saharan Africa. We performed a cross-sectional population-based study in Kisumu, Kenya to test this hypothesis in October 2006. A total of 1655 participants were interviewed regarding attitudes and beliefs about ART and their sexual risk behaviors. The majority of participants, (71%) men and (70%) women, had heard of ART. Of these, 20% of men and 29% of women believed ART cures HIV. Among women, an attitude that "HIV is more controllable now that ART is available" was associated with sex with a non-spousal partner, increased lifetime number of sexual partners as well as a younger age at sexual debut. No significant associations with this factor were found among men. The belief that "ART cures HIV" was associated with younger age of sexual debut among women. The same belief was associated with an increased likelihood of exchanging sex for money/gifts and decreased likelihood of condom use at last sex among men. These findings were most significant for people aged 15-29 years. In high HIV seroprevalence populations with expanding access to ART, prevention programs must ensure their content counteracts misconceptions of ART in order to reduce high risk sexual behaviors, especially among youth. PMID:22050441
Smith, Rachel M; Carrico, Adam W; Montandon, Michele; Kwena, Zachary; Bailey, Robert; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R
Lack of societal acceptance of energy (transition) technologies is often attributed to a lack of knowledge among the public. The underlying assumption is that more knowledge improves attitudes about a technology. This assumption will be tested in this paper by examining the influence of the scores on a CCS Knowledge Test on attitudes towards CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Furthermore the paper will examine the influence of perceptions of CCS (ideas that cannot be deemed 'true' or 'false') on attitude towards CCS and will analyse how knowledge and perceptions jointly influence attitude as well as in interaction. Implications of the results for communication about CCS are discussed.
Brunsting, S.; De Best-Waldhober, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Terwel, B.W. [Leiden University, Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, Leiden (Netherlands)
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was designed to assess the knowledge and attitude of male students of Kerman primaryschools about 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash solution that students used it once a week.METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 502 boys, eight to nine year-old and students of Kerman primaryschools were selected for the study. The data related to their knowledge and attitude about the sodium fluoridemouthwash were collected by questionnaire.RESULTS: The boy students’ knowledge about the sodium fluoride mouthwash solution was good but their attitude wasnegative.CONCLUSIONS: The oral health education program concerning the optimal use of the fluoride mouthwash in dentalcaries prevention is highly recommended. It is suggested that its taste is improved
Hamid Reza Poureslami DDS, MSc
Epilepsy is poorly understood by the public and has been associated with numerous myths. This, coupled with its sometimes dramatic clinical manifestations, has often resulted in stigmatization of persons with epilepsy. A questionnaire to measure knowledge of, attitudes toward, and perceptions of epilepsy (KAPE) was adapted from previous studies and administered to students of the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago. The response rate was 91% (355 students). Knowledge was limited, especially with respect to epilepsy's cause, its incidence, and management of an acute emergency. Attitudes toward epilepsy were generally positive. Students who knew someone with epilepsy scored significantly higher on knowledge and attitude questions. A stigma score was calculated to assess perceived stigmatization. There were no differences between the genders, but persons from rural areas and persons of mixed ethnicity perceived less stigmatization. Hindus perceived greater stigmatization than people of other religions. Overall, students still feel persons with epilepsy are discriminated against and experience stigmatization. PMID:19435574
Youssef, Farid F; Dial, Sarah; Jaggernauth, Nikita; Jagdeo, Cathy-Lee; Pascall, Akilah; Ramessar, Lydia; Ramnarine, Malini; Ramsawak, Rudranath; Simon, Trishell
This study explores the extent to which an activity used in an elementary science methods course affected the preservice teachers’ content knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy. The participants were 172 students enrolled in five sections of elementary science methods. Students participated in a 9-week investigation on life cycles using mealworms ( Tenebrio obscurus). Multiple data sources indicate that most of the students had limited prior content knowledge about mealworms, expressed neutral attitudes toward mealworms upon first exposure to them, and were uncomfortable with the idea of having to teach with and about them. At the end of 9 weeks, content knowledge on mealworms had greatly improved. The preservice teachers’ attitudes about mealworms and their self-efficacy about using mealworms with children had also improved.
Full Text Available The study was set to determine whether knowledge and attitudes toward organ dona-tion differ according to geographical location. Self-administered questionnaires were employed to collect data such as demographic characteristics, basic knowledge, attitudes and source of information about organ donation from subjects in rural and urban areas. The questionnaires were distributed randomly to 1,000 individuals in both areas during 2008. The data were analyzed in a descriptive fashion. Despite similarities in knowledge and attitudes of respondents in both areas, rural res-pondents were less likely to have information about organ donation, to report willingness to donate organs, and to have knowledge about "brain death" or the "organ donation card" than their counter-parts in urban areas. The study identified that the principle respondents? source of information about organ donation was the television. More than 90% of respondents in rural and urban areas reported that the contribution of health care providers in providing them with knowledge about organ dona-tion and transplantation was "none" or "little". Respondents identified several reasons, which may influence their decisions to donate organs. In conclusion, the deficit in knowledge and attitudes of rural respondents about organ donation may be justified by the lack of information about this signi-ficant issue. Accordingly, health facilities, local mass media and educational institutions should provide intensive educational programs to encourage the public donate organs.
Full Text Available Dengue fever is an infectious disease caused by the dengue virus and transmitted by the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. If not treated quickly, it can develop into a lethal hemorrhagic disease. The study was conducted with a cross-sectional design aimed to determine the relationship of knowledge and attitudes of community leaders to its role in the control of dengue fever in Kawalu Public Health Centre Tasikmalaya City. The study population is all public jigures who are in the Kawalu Public Health Centre, with sample size of 68 respondents. Sampling technique was purposive sampling. The results were analyzed with chisquare (X2 to see the relationship of knowledge and attitudes of community leaders to its role in the control of dengue fever. The results showed that there was no significant relationship between knowledge of the role of community leaders in the control of dengue fever (p = 0.578, as well as the attitude of no significant relation to the role of community leaders (p = 0.177. The role of society is not based on the knowledge and a positive attitude, or a positive attitude and know it but not yet reflected in its role in the control of dengue fever; may be one cause of the dengue fever problem is difficult of resolve so far. Health care workers are expected to approach and field studies in more depth so that people contribute more significantly in the control of dengue fever.
The aim of the study was to investigate whether students in their fifth and sixth years of medical school in Zagreb have homophobic attitudes and assess their knowledge about homosexuality. A survey was conducted among fifth and sixth year medical students during the 2009/2010 academic year. The survey consisted of general demographic data, two validated questionnaires--"Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire" and "Heterosexual Attitudes towards Homosexuality Scale"--and questions about personal experiences created for this study. The mean knowledge scores were X = 14.8 out of 20. Furthermore, gender differences in attitudes were observed, indicating less negative attitudes among the female participants. The regression model was significant (ANOVA: Sum of Squares = 38.065; df = 17, Mean Square= 2239, F = 10.6; p homosexuality score were female gender (beta= -0.14, p = 0.015), sixth year of study (beta = -0.16, p = 0.009) and more knowledge about homosexuality (beta = -0.48, p < 0.001). Negative attitudes are present among the students; therefore, educational efforts should be included in the curricula of medical schools to diminish the negative perceptions of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community. PMID:24851595
Grabovac, Igor; Abramovi?, Marija; Komlenovi?, Gordana; Milosevi?, Milan; Mustajbegovi?, Jadranka
Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing an evidence-based method of improving knowledge and attitudes concerning depression has been identified as a priority in Chinese medical education. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a self-directed learning strategy as a part of student-centred education improved knowledge of and attitudes towards depression among Chinese medical students. Methods A controlled trial in which 205 medical students were allocated to one of two groups: didactic teaching (DT group or a combined didactic teaching and self-directed learning (DT/SDL group. The DT/SDL group continued having a series of learning activities after both groups had a lecture on depression together. Student's knowledge and attitudes were assessed immediately after the activities, one month and six months later. Results The intervention (DT/SDL group showed substantially greater improvements in recognition of depression as a major health issue and identifying helpful treatments than the DT group. Only the DT/SDL group demonstrated any improvement in attitudes. This improvement was sustained over six months. Conclusions Self-directed learning is an effective education strategy in improving medical students' knowledge of and attitudes towards depression.
Davenport Tracey A
Full Text Available Background: Health sciences students are expected to have appropriate knowledge and attitudes toward medication use. However, literary evidence of such expertise among health sciences students of King Saud University is unknown. This study was completed to assess the knowledge about medicines and behavior of health science students towards safe use of medications. It also aims to assess the health knowledge, attitude and practices of the students. Methods: This cross-sectional study used a questionnaire consisting of 24 questions. This was administered by the researcher between October and December 2009 in the colleges of medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, applied medical science and nursing of the King Saud University. The survey consisted of three parts: Ten questions assessed the students’ knowledge on drug safety (Part 1. Four questions assessed student attitude toward medication consultations by the pharmacist (Part 2 and ten questions involved medication use practices and consultation with pharmacists (Part 3. A stratified sampling method was used to select participants. Results: Pharmacy students had better medication knowledge compared to other health sciences students especially regarding antihypertensive drugs, antibiotics, paracetamol and antacids (p<0.05. Pharmacy students showed a positive attitude regarding the trustworthiness of a pharmacist to give a consultation. Nearly all other health science students showed a negative attitude about dispensing and consultation concerning nutritional supplements by a pharmacist. All health sciences students had a similar perception toward medication use and practice. Conclusion Pharmacy students had better knowledge about medication practice compared to other health sciences students. All other health sciences students lacked the appropriate attitude and practice related to the safe use of medications.
Abdullah T. Eissa
The public opinion in the Netherlands about nuclear energy has been rather stable during recent years. Since the Chernobyl accident roughly 60% of the Dutch population is opposed to extension of the use of nuclear energy. Nuclear experts play an important role in the formation of public opinion about nuclear energy. In this paper the social and cultural background of 87 Dutch nuclear energy experts is analyzed with respect to religious belief, age, life style, membership of a political party, birth order and career pattern. 2 figs., 2 tabs., 16 refs
Full Text Available Background: Acquired immunodeficiency may impose considerableconsequences on patients’ family behaviors towardthem. The objective of the present study was to investigatewhether a counseling program at Behavioral Counseling Centerin the city of Shiraz, Iran could change the attitude, knowledgeand behavior of patients' family members.Methods: 125 HIV/AIDS patients’ family members were interviewed,using a valid and reliable questionnaire before andafter performing counseling sessions at Behavioral CounselingCenter. The findings were analyzed using nonparametric tests.Results: The age of the participants was 40±13 years. Sixty fivepercent were female, 63% married and 79% educated. Forty fourpercent of participants had spousal relationships with their patients.Their knowledge about the main routes of HIV transmissionwere 9.76 ± 2.59 and10.64±0.88 before and after counseling,respectively (P=0.028. Supportive behaviors of families towardtheir patients reached to 79% after counseling compared with 44% before that (P=0.004. Belief to isolate the patients and thepractice of this approach at home dropped from 71% to 15% andfrom 29% to 7% after counseling, respectively (P0.05.Conclusion: Ongoing counseling for HIV/AIDS patients’ familiesat Behavioral Counseling Center of Shiraz did advance theirknowledge about AIDS and improved their attitude and behaviortoward their patients However, the counseling program didnot show remarkable success in some aspects such as the removalof fear about HIV spread in the family or the change ofthe patients’ wives attitude to have protected sex with their HIVinfected husbands.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(4: 287-292.
"nBackground: Studies show that about 90% of accidents occur because of unsafe behavior and human errors. Even if workers do not have the right knowledge, attitude and behavior toward safety measures in a safe workplace, all efforts for an accident-free workplace will be in vain. This study aims to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and behavior of workers toward occupational health and safety."nMethods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on workers in Ma...
Aim: This study was designed to examine the level of knowledge about, to investigate attitudes toward, and to determine the emphasis given to HIV/AIDS among healthcare professionals. Material and Method: A total of 210 healthcare professionals employed as a laboratory (n=54), operating room (n=60) or in-patient clinic (n=96) staff were included in this descriptive study. A 27-item questionnaire composed of questions related to level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS (n=19), attitudes toward HIV/AID...
Postcessation weight gain is common and a frequent cause of relapse. Although interventions to address weight gain and weight gain concerns exist, the experience of telephone cessation coun- sellors in addressing weight concerns is unknown. We surveyed 134 cessation counsellors providing quitlines for 30 states regarding their experiences and attitudes about how to address weight gain concerns among smokers trying to quit. Counsellors estimated they discuss weight in 40% of their calls, prima...
Objective: To determine the knowledge and practice of the breast cancer in medical community. The study was carried out in the Department of Oncology, Service Hospital, Lahore and completed in one month. Subjects and Methods: About 200 female doctors and nurses of the Hospital were involved. Each subject was asked to fill up a pro forma designed to assess knowledge, risk factors and preventive practices of the breast cancer. Using non-probability convenience sampling technique, breast self-examination (BSE) and mammography was performed as screening of breast cancer. Results: A majority had good knowledge of the risk factors and screening method for the early detection of breast cancer. Majority had the consensus on the benefit of mammography. Conclusions: The study shows that although medical professionals had fairly good knowledge about screening methods and risk factors of breast cancer. Their preventive practices were scanty in high risk population and, therefore, physicians and nurses need proper training. (author)
Conclusions: The study showed, inspite of having good knowledge, utilization of contraceptives were less because of large family norm, religious myth, cultural and political barrier. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(2.000: 385-388
How can you improve and focus on the knowledge produced through a design project by design students? The range of skills and competencies in design education is not limited to the ability to handle different types of projects themes. In an overall perspective a master education at a university is also about acquiring skills and competencies in adapting, producing and reflecting on knowledge in a design process. Using learning theory in a number of cases this paper will unfold the principles, ...
What is the distribution of attitudes towards the large-scale application of coal and uranium. How can these attitudes be explained from belief systems. What are the perceived probabilities of a number of consequences from these energy sources. What are the consequences of these attitudes for behaviour and behavioural intentions. What normative influences play a role. These questions are addressed on the basis of a national survey held in the Netherlands. Attention is also paid to other aspects of people's evaluations of these energy technologies, e.g. information level, imaginability of accidents, anxiety and involvement with the problems perceived. The study has been designed following an extended and adapted version of the attitude-behaviour model of Fishbein and Ajzen (1975). (author)
Full Text Available In this study, knowledge, attitude and practice about mercury hygiene of dentist who have private offices in Isfahan were evaluated. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2001-2002. One hundred and sixteen of dentists were selected by random sampling. Data were collected using a standard questionnaire. T-student test, Chi-square test, Fisher"s exact test and Spearman correlation test have been used to analyse data. It was shown that dentists knowledge about mercury hygiene was not acceptable. However the mean of their attitude score was more than scale mean and most of them had a positive attitude toward improvement of mercury hygiene in their offices. According to the results, dent ist"s practice, in this regard proved weak. There was no significant correlation between knowledge and practice and between attitude and practice (P > 0.05. In order to improve dentists" knowledge, training them is supposed. Because of no significant correlation between their knowledge and practice, surveillance seems necessary.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite concerns that facilitating informed choice would decrease diabetes screening uptake, 'informed choice' invitations that increased knowledge did not affect attendance (the DICISION trial. We explored possible reasons using data from an experimental analogue study undertaken to develop the invitations. We tested a model of the impact on knowledge, attitude and intentions of a diabetes screening invitation designed to facilitate informed choices. Methods 417 men and women aged 40-69 recruited from town centres in the UK were randomised to receive either an invitation for diabetes screening designed to facilitate informed choice or a standard type of invitation. Knowledge of the invitation, attitude towards diabetes screening, and intention to attend for diabetes screening were assessed two weeks later. Results Attitude was a strong predictor of screening intentions (? = .64, p = .001. Knowledge added to the model but was a weak predictor of intentions (? = .13, p = .005. However, invitation type did not predict attitudes towards screening but did predict knowledge (? = -.45, p = .001, which mediated a small effect of invitation type on intention (indirect ? = -.06, p = .017. Conclusions These findings may explain why information about the benefits and harms of screening did not reduce diabetes screening attendance in the DICISION trial.
Background: The reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by nurses in hospitals is very important. Aims: This study was aimed at investigating the impact of an educational intervention to improve ADR reporting and whether trained nurses had better knowledge, attitude, and practice toward ADR reporting. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 nurses in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Tehran, Iran were evaluated with a knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) questionnaire regarding ADR reporting in March 2010. After this, an educational program about ADR was provided to nurses. Then the nurses were re-evaluated by the same questionnaire. Comparisons were made of the attitude and knowledge within nurses, before and after education. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. P < 0.05 was considered as significant level. Independent-sample t-test was used to measure the intervention effect. Results: The response rate was 61.3% (N = 184). Knowledge of nurses before the intervention was significantly less than the knowledge after the intervention (P = 0.001). Also, there was a significant effect on attitude (P = 0.002). During the follow-up period of 4 months after the intervention, 26 spontaneous reports were received. Conclusion: Continuous ADR educational program, training, and integration of ADRs’ reporting into the activities of the nurses would likely improve ADR reporting.
Hanafi, Somayeh; Torkamandi, Hassan; Hayatshahi, Alireza; Gholami, Kheirollah; Shahmirzadi, Nikinaz Ashrafi; Javadi, Mohammad Reza
Objective. To determine the impact of an elective course on pharmacy students’ perceptions, knowledge, and confidence regarding Medicare Part D, medication therapy management (MTM), and immunizations.
Galal, Suzanne M.; Patel, Rajul A.; Thai, Huong K.; Phou, Christine M.; Walberg, Mark P.; Woelfel, Joseph A.; Carr-lopez, Sian M.; Chan, Emily K.
Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of the smoking habit among Mexican physicians as well as some of their attitudes and information on specific issues concerning smoking. Material and methods. In 1993, a survey was carried out among 3 568 physicians of the three major official health care institutions in Mexico City. A questionnaire designed for The Mexican National Survey of Addictions (ENA 1993 was used. Prevalence of cigarette smoking, age of onset, number of cigarettes per day; also information and attitudes concerning smoking were assessed. Results. The mean age was 37, 66% were males. Of the 3,488 (98% surveyed, 26.9% were smokers (62% daily, 20.6% were ex-smokers and 52.5% non-smokers. There were differences related to age and sex (p< 0.05. Of daily smokers, 36% smoked between 1 and 5 cigarettes. There was a significant trend among ex-smokers that linked the time they had ceased smoking with the fear to start smoking again. Physicians were well informed of the relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. Over 80% considered tobacco an addictive drug but only 65% were in favor of banning smoking from their workplaces and over 10% were not aware that it is forbidden to smoke inside health care facilities. Conclusions. These results differ from other studies that find the prevalence of smoking among physicians lower than in the general population. Our study revealed a greater prevalence of the smoking habit among female physicians and the number of cigarettes smoked per day was greater than in the general population regardless of sex.
How can you improve and focus on the knowledge produced through a design project by design students? The range of skills and competencies in design education is not limited to the ability to handle different types of projects themes. In an overall perspective a master education at a university is also about acquiring skills and competencies in adapting, producing and reflecting on knowledge in a design process. Using learning theory in a number of cases this paper will unfold the principles, structure and tools used in the process reporting to describe the inherent reflections in the design process can emphasize the knowledge production aspects of the process. By making the reflections and evaluation more explicit and accessible this provide a platform for the student to relate to the type of knowledge produced by various activities and methods making theory of science very tangible and inherent in the process. It also allows for an examination that revolves around how the design solution came to be, rather than focusing on the solution itself and thus placing the design studentâ??s awareness on knowledge production as a central and embedded part and of the education.
Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 314 Trinidadian women, 40 years and older, to ascertain their breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Those with higher education had greater knowledge of the benefits of early breast cancer detection (p < .01) and knew that an abnormal mammography result (p = .01) or recall (p < .01) was not necessarily indicative of breast cancer. Inaccurate beliefs particularly that breast compression causes cancer were more likely among those with the least education (p = .04). Obesity and alcohol were identified as risk factors by 29.3% and 12.4%, respectively. Over two-thirds (70%) of mammograms were primarily the doctor's decision. Over 90% of women were satisfied post-mammography, most (94.6%) with plans for future use. Some (15.6%) reported pain and 48.7% reported discomfort, with over 70% of these finding the examination less painful than anticipated. Targeted culturally sensitive awareness campaigns are needed. Clinicians must be sensitized to their importance in recommending mammography. Data on patient satisfaction and pain perception can be publicized to encourage women who are hesitant about mammography. PMID:24509017
Gosein, Maria A; Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; Narinesingh, Dylan; Ameeral, Anthony
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Seventy to ninety percent of HIV-infected individuals have oral lesions that affect their quality-of-life. Caregivers play an important role in complementing the healthcare team. It is essential that the caregivers have optimal knowledge, beliefs and practices toward the management of care regarding [...] oral-lesions in HIV-infected patients in caregiving institutions in Johannesburg, South Africa. To measure the knowledge, beliefs and practices relating to oral lesions in HIV infection amongst caregivers in caregiving institutions in Johannesburg. This cross-sectional pilot study conducted during 2005 and 2006 involved caregivers in palliative care institutions in Region 8, Johannesburg Metropolitan area (n = 52). Using a questionnaire, information obtained included demographics, knowledge, beliefs and practices with regard to oral care for HIV-positive patients. Principal component analysis was used to extract questionnaire items of the knowledge domain. The knowledge domain displayed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach ?-score of > 0.91). Of the caregivers, 65.4% had received training in oral care. Compared to caregivers not trained in oral care (NTOC), those caregivers trained in oral care (TOC) were more likely to be older (31 yrs vs. 44 yrs; p = 0.001), female (72% vs. 94%; p = 0.03) and were less likely to be employed on a full-time basis (94% vs. 68%; p = 0.03). Compared with NTOCs, TOCs had more knowledge regarding HIV-specific lesions and 'routine' oral-care for the patients (p
Kolisa, Yolanda; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan.
Background: Due to changing demographics in the population, the majority of current nursing students will work mostlywith older people after graduation. It is known that most nursing student have little knowledge and interests in workingwith older people. There is a growing need for motivated nurses to provide care for older people as the quality of care isinfluenced by their attitudes. The objective of this study is to investigate Dutch nursing students’ knowledge of an...
In this study, knowledge, attitude and practice about mercury hygiene of dentist who have private offices in Isfahan were evaluated. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2001-2002. One hundred and sixteen of dentists were selected by random sampling. Data were collected using a standard questionnaire. T-student test, Chi-square test, Fisher"s exact test and Spearman correlation test have been used to analyse data. It was shown that dentists knowledge about mercury hygiene wa...
Mortazavi, V.; Zolfaghary, B.; Shokrani, M.
Students at the University of Botswana, an at-risk group, have previously been shown to have high levels of risky sexual behavior despite widespread knowledge that these behaviors might lead to HIV-1 infection. As there have recently been considerable efforts focused on HIV-1 prevention in Botswana through nationwide media education campaigns and the opening of voluntary counselling and testing centers, re-evaluation of HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices among students is needed....
Abstract Background The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices among healthcare professionals in Barbados in relation to healthcare ethics and law in an attempt to assist in guiding their professional conduct and aid in curriculum development. Methods A self-administered structured questionnaire about knowledge of healthcare ethics, law and the role of an Ethics Committee in the healthcare system was devised, tested and distributed ...
Background: Understanding why people do not use family planning is critical to address unmet needs and to increase contraceptive use. According to the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2011, most women and men had knowledge on some family planning methods but only about 29% of married women were using contraceptives. 20% women had an unmet need for family planning. We examined knowledge, attitudes and contraceptive practice as well as factors related to contraceptive use in Jimma zone, ...
Degfie, Tizta Tilahun; Coene, Gily; Lu?chters, Stanley; Kassahun, Wondwosen; Leye, Els; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier
This research was conducted for the purpose of determining the effect of education about breast cancer and breast self examination (BSE) given to female students living in the dormitory on their knowledge and attitudes. Two hundred female students staying at the Denizli Province Credit and Dormitory Institution's dormitory were taken into the sample and data were obtained using a demographic questionnaire and "Survey about Knowledge of Breast Cancer and Breast Self Examination." The r...
Kerime Derya (Tasci) Beydag; Hacer Karaoglan
This research was conducted for the purpose of determining the effect of education about breast cancer and breast self examination (BSE) given to female students living in the dormitory on their knowledge and attitudes. Two hundred female students staying at the Denizli Province Credit and Dormitory Institution's dormitory were taken into the sample and data were obtained using a demographic questionnaire and "Survey about Knowledge of Breast Cancer and Breast Self Examination." The...
Kerime Derya Tasci Beydag; Hacer Karaoglan
BACKGROUND: To determine The Medical Technology Vocational Training School (MTVTS) students? the knowledge about the effects of GMO on human health and environment and to evaluate their attitude and behavior has been aimed. METHODS: All of the second class students of the year 2006-2007 of MTVTS were included (N=161) in the study, response rate was 92%. The survey questionare included questions on knowledge, the risk perception and attitute about GMOs. The legal framework in Turkey about...
Abstract Background Physiotherapists as primary health care practitioners are well placed in promoting physically active lifestyles, but their role and practice towards its promotion among patients in Nigeria has not been fully investigated. This study was therefore aimed at determining the knowledge, attitude and practice of Nigerian physiotherapists towards promotion of non-treatment physical activity among patients. Methods Three hundred and eight practicing ...
Aweto Happiness A; Oligbo Cynthia N; Fapojuwo Oluseun A; Olawale Olajide A
Condensed Abstract: Cancer is the second leading cause of death among Chamorros, the indigenous population of Guam, yet little has been published about cancer control needs of this population. This paper provides important data about Chamorro’s knowledge, attitudes and screening behaviors that can help to guide a comprehensive cancer control program on Guam.
Balajadia, Ronald G.; Wenzel, Lari; Huh, Jimi; Sweningson, Jamie; Hubbell, F. Allan
This study focussed on secondary school (11-18 years) pre-service teachers' (n = 73) knowledge of and attitudes towards risks associated with alpha, beta, and gamma radiations. A multi-method approach was used with physics, chemistry, biology, and history graduates undertaking the one-year initial teacher training, Post Graduate Certificate in…
Colclough, Nicholas Denys; Lock, Roger; Soares, Allan
Despite successful infant vaccination program, pertussis remains endemic in many countries. Waning immunity leaves adolescents and adults susceptible to disease and potential reservoirs of infection allowing transmission to vulnerable infants. Misdiagnosis leads to significant underestimation of disease burden and inappropriate treatment. This online survey of 517 European health care professionals (HCP) examined their knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding pertussis and adult vaccinati...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate whether paediatricians have appropriate knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours regarding vaccinations for infants in Italy. Methods A random sample of 500 paediatricians received a self-administered anonymous questionnaire covering demographic and professional characteristics; knowledge about the mandatory, recommended, and not indicated vaccinations for infants; attitudes about vaccinations for infants; behaviour regarding current administration or willingness to administer mandatory or recommended vaccinations for infants and immunization education programs of the parents. Results Only 42.3% paediatricians knew all recommended vaccinations for infants and this knowledge was significantly higher in females, in those who worked a higher number of hours for week, and in those who use guidelines for immunization practice. Only 10.3% had a very favourable attitude towards the utility of the recommended vaccinations for infants and this was significantly higher in those who administered recommended vaccinations for infants. A large proportion (82.7% of paediatricians routinely informed the parents about the recommended vaccinations for infants and this appropriate behaviour was significantly higher among younger, in those with a higher number of years in practice, and in those who administered the recommended vaccinations for infants. Conclusion Training and educational interventions are needed in order to improve knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours regarding vaccinations for infants among paediatricians.
In this study we investigated Alberta high school counsellors' knowledge about homosexuality and their attitudes toward gay males. Three questionnaires were mailed to 648 high school counselling centres; 223 individuals returned the completed questionnaires. Most counsellors attained low scores in measured homo-negativity and high scores regarding…
Alderson, Kevin G.; Orzeck, Tricia L.; McEwen, Scott C.
The focus of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between generalized multicultural awareness and knowledge as measured by the "Attitudes toward Multicultural Children Scale" ("AMCS") and the "Multicultural Counseling Vignette" ("MCV"). How race, gender, education, and years of experience as a counselor affect measures of…
Johnson, Nancy L.
This study explores the extent to which an activity used in an elementary science methods course affected the preservice teachers' content knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy. The participants were 172 students enrolled in five sections of elementary science methods. Students participated in a 9-week investigation on life cycles using…
Voluntary body donation has become an important source of cadavers for anatomical study and education. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding whole body donation among medical professionals in a medical institute in India. A cross sectional study was conducted at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal,…
Ballala, Kirthinath; Shetty, Avinash; Malpe, Surekha Bhat
This article reports on a mixed-methods study of Chinese university students' knowledge of and attitudes toward plagiarism in English academic writing. A sample of 270 undergraduates from two Chinese universities rated three short English passages under different conditions, provided open-ended responses to justify their ratings, and completed a…
Hu, Guangwei; Lei, Jun
Examined male adolescent behavior, attitudes, and knowledge concerning condom use. Findings from 241 sexually active black adolescent males revealed that factors associated with condom use included higher grade level, having 2 or more sexual partners in past 6 months, communication about contraception with sexual partner, desire for sexually…
Wilson, Michele D.; And Others
A key organizational barrier related to the implementation of open innovation strategies refers to the unwillingness of employees to undertake extra-organizational knowledge transactions. Negative attitudes against the utilization of external knowledge (i.e. the Not-invented-here (NIH) syndrome), as well as against the external commercialization of knowledge assets, for example, via licensing (i.e. the Not-sold-here (NSH) syndrome), may create resistance to these activities and, consequently, a misalignment between the intentions of top management and the attitudes of involved employees (Katz and Allen, 1982; Lichtenthaler et al., 2010). In this paper, we examine the extent to which these attitudes impact the actual adoption of both the inbound and the outbound approaches to open innovation. We posit that these attitudes have a negative influence, since they create unfavourable perceptions of the value of outside competencies and know-how, supporting only internal development and application of ideas and technologies. We test two hypotheses concerning the consequences of the NIH- and NSH-syndromes with cross-sectional survey data from 355 Danish firms. The population consists of firms in the manufacturing industries (NACE codes 10-37) with 5-499 employees. Our findings help explain the extent to which companies are able to benefit from inflows and outflows of knowledge.
Burcharth, Ana Luiza Lara de AraÃºjo; SÃ¸ndergaard, Helle Alsted
A structured questionnaire was administered to assess Greek pre-service primary teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported behavior toward marine pollution issues. Exploratory factor analysis revealed several factors, all demonstrating adequate internal consistency, and showed that pre-service teachers demonstrated a moderate level of…
Boubonari, Theodora; Markos, Angelos; Kevrekidis, Theodoros
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of diversity infusion modules provided to university students in a predominantly white homogeneous community. A mixed-method approach using a pre-post retrospective design was used to measure attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge about diversity issues, and included a comparison group…
Saleh, Mahasin F.; Anngela-Cole, Linda; Boateng, Alice
This study examined the similarities and differences among 171 Grade 7-12 science teachers from three different countries (54 U.S, 63 Bolivian, and 54 Turkish) with respect to their attitudes toward environmental education (EE) and instructional practices. The instrument employed explored how teachers' knowledge, instructional practices,…
Campbell, Todd; Medina-Jerez, William; Erdogan, Ibrahim; Zhang, Danhui
This paper discusses the concept of "rational civic attitudes" and its link to knowledge, using data on eighth-grade students from 38 countries in the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement International Civic and Citizenship Education Study to examine these questions: (1) Are country-averages on self-reported…
Full Text Available Introduction: Nutritional concepts learned by young girls as would-be mothers will play an important part in children’s and family's health. This study aimed at evaluating nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice of female junior high school students in two regions of Iran. Methods: In this descriptive study, 587 female students within the age range of 11 to 16 years old were selected through random sampling in cities of Malayer and Shahrood in 2009. To evaluate the nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP, questionnaires containing items on demographic, KAP and food behaviors were used. Based on the yielded results analyzed by SPSS software Pack, those who scored 75%, within the range of 75%- 50% and lower than 50% of the highest score were considered as desirable, moderate and low, respectively. Results: On the Whole, the majority of subjects in the two cities, had moderate knowledge (59.5%, had good attitude (55.2% and had moderate practice (55.53%. Conclusions: The results showed that the subjects had moderate knowledge and practice, but since nutritional practice does not accord with their attitude, constant nutritional intervention seems necessary.
Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…
M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.
This paper presents data on the mathematical content knowledge and attitudes of pre-service primary teacher education students. The assessment consisted of nine tasks, including 2-digit computations and proportional reasoning. Students rated their liking for mathematics at three time points: primary, secondary, .and when assessed. Fewer than half…
Young-Loveridge, Jenny; Bicknell, Brenda; Mills, Judith
This study evaluated knowledge and attitudes of undergraduates regarding nutrition and health of the aged and students' intentions of pursuing career involvement with older adults. The participants evaluated were undergraduates from three mid-western universities (n=1,755). The majority of those surveyed were uninformed and unlikely to pursue…
Heuberger, Roschelle A.; Stanczak, Melanie
Attitudes and beliefs about environmental hazards in three diverse communities in Texas on the border with Mexico Actitudes y creencias sobre los agentes nocivos ambientales en tres comunidades diferentes de la frontera de Texas con México
Objective. Since communicating risk related to environmental hazards has consistently presented a challenge to government agencies and industries, our objective was to better understand the attitudes and beliefs of three communities, so as to help agencies and industries develop better risk communication interventions. Methods. We explored attitudes and beliefs about environmental risks in three diverse communities in Texas on the border with Mexico, in the county of El Paso. During the summe...
Byrd, Theresa L.; James VanDerslice; Peterson, Susan K.
Full Text Available This study is interested in understanding curriculum as an international text and evaluating the connections between junior high school students’ global knowledge and attitudes and the required national curriculum in Taiwan. The study also examines whether the global knowledge and attitudes vary by demographic variables. By using the Global Knowledge Scale and Global Attitudes Scale, data were collected from 1,017 students in central Taiwan and analyzed by descriptive statistics, chi-square and one-way MANOVA. The results of this study revealed that, first, the global knowledge of the junior high school students was insufficient, but their global attitudes were positive. Second, there was no gender difference in global knowledge but there was a difference in global attitudes. Third, ninth graders held significantly the highest knowledge and attitudes than eighth graders and seventh graders. Fourth, there was a socioeconomic status difference in global knowledge and attitudes. Finally, students with overseas travel experience have better global knowledge and attitudes. This study suggests that practitioners and researchers need to find practical ways to improve global education including curriculum design and implementation, teacher preparation, school environment, and students’ assessment.
To create this synergy among multi-disciplinary Research Infrastructure communities, BELIEF created a one-stop-shop for e-Infrastructures communities providing a Community Portal and a Digital Library (DL) with a huge number of e-Infrastructures open access publications. The BELIEF DL - implemented on top of the OpenDLib Software System - offers uniform access to multimedia documentation (e.g. presentations, videos, technical reports, manuals, on-line tutorials, etc.) providing continuously u...
Zoppi, Franco; Biagini, Federico
Using nationally representative data from the Monitoring the Future Study on United States middle and high school students, we related exposure to anti-drug television advertising as measured by Nielsen Media Research ratings points to student self-reported drug-related outcomes from 1995-2006. Multivariate analyses controlling for key socio-demographics and accounting for the complex survey design included 337,918 cases. Results indicated that attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors regarding subs...
Terry-mcelrath, Yvonne M.; Emery, Sherry; Szczypka, Glen; Johnston, Lloyd D.
Chronic diseases of environmental origin are a significant and increasing public health problem among the children of New York State, yet few resources exist to address this growing burden. To assess New York State pediatricians self-perceived competency in dealing with common environmental exposures and diseases of environmental origin in children, we assessed their attitudes and beliefs about the role of the environment in children’s health. A four-page survey was sent to 1,500 randomly s...
Trasande, Leonardo; Boscarino, Joseph; Graber, Nathan; Falk, Raphael; Schechter, Clyde; Galvez, Maida; Dunkel, George; Geslani, Jessica; Moline, Jacqueline; Kaplan-liss, Evonne; Miller, Richard K.; Korfmacher, Katrina; Carpenter, David; Forman, Joel; Balk, Sophie J.
This paper builds upon earlier work that argued the information and experience contained within the knowledge-practice-belief complex of M?tauranga M?ori [M?ori knowledge] is a valuable and neglected area of information and understanding about past catastrophic events in Aotearoa/New Zealand (A/NZ). Here we map M?ori oral traditions (p?r?kau) that relate experience with extreme environmental disturbance (in particular, tsunamis) around the A/NZ coas...
King, D. N.; Goff, J. R.
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the infant oral health (IOH) related knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of parents in Udaipur, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 470 parents visiting the Department of Pediatrics, Rabindranath Tagore Medical College and Hospital. A 32-item questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics and questions pertaining to KAP regarding IOH care was used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and Scheffe's test were used for the statistical analysis (P ? 0.05). Results: Majority of the parents had good knowledge regarding tooth eruption, but had a poor knowledge of cleaning (58.7%) and development of caries (48.5%). Parents in the age group of 25-30 years showed significantly higher mean knowledge (25.90 ± 3.93), attitude (15.71 ± 2.23), and practice (20.09 ± 2.50) scores. Female parents showed a significantly higher mean knowledge (21.45 ± 4.27) and attitude scores (14.97 ± 2.15) than the male parents. Conclusion: Parent's knowledge on IOH care was inadequate. Health professionals, who are the first to come into contact with expectant and new mothers, need to disseminate appropriate and accurate information about oral health-care for infants.
Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Kakatkar, Gauri; Sharda, Archana J; Asawa, Kailash; Ramesh, Gayathri; Sandesh, Nagarajappa
Full Text Available The aim of this descriptive study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of the first and fourth-year students (n=190 of Inonu University Health High School concerning HIV/AIDS. The questionnaire that developed by investigators was applied to students under observation. The main source of information was the lectures on the school. Mean scores on the knowledge of the fourth-year students were significantly higher than the first-year students. General knowledge scores of health official students were higher than midwifery and nursing students. The fourth-year students were highly knowledgeable about the transmission routes and precaution than first-year students. More than half of the students declared that they would not avoid from a person with HIV/AIDS, they would not fear to touch with a person with the disease and they would worry about getting AIDS. Nearly half of the students would not live together in the same home with a person with HIV/AIDS. Mean scores of the knowledge and the number of correct answers on main questions are definitely higher for the students. However, their some knowledge and attitudes to patients with AIDS were contradictory. This results suggest a need for effective strategies and education programmes for prevention and therapy of HIV/AIDS and developing positive attitudes to people with AIDS. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(3: 175-180
Full Text Available The aim of this descriptive study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of the first and fourth-year students (n=190 of Inonu University Health High School concerning HIV/AIDS. The questionnaire that developed by investigators was applied to students under observation. The main source of information was the lectures on the school. Mean scores on the knowledge of the fourth-year students were significantly higher than the first-year students. General knowledge scores of health official students were higher than midwifery and nursing students. The fourth-year students were highly knowledgeable about the transmission routes and precaution than first-year students. More than half of the students declared that they would not avoid from a person with HIV/AIDS, they would not fear to touch with a person with the disease and they would worry about getting AIDS. Nearly half of the students would not live together in the same home with a person with HIV/AIDS. Mean scores of the knowledge and the number of correct answers on main questions are definitely higher for the students. However, their some knowledge and attitudes to patients with AIDS were contradictory. This results suggest a need for effective strategies and education programmes for prevention and therapy of HIV/AIDS and developing positive attitudes to people with AIDS. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 175-180
The present survey aimed to determine the knowledge level and attitude of medical students in Guilan University toward Hepatitis B and C viruses' infections. In a cross-sectional survey, the knowledge and attitude of 424 medical science undergraduate students of nursing, midwifery, operating room technician, laboratory, anesthesiology and radiology in Guilan University of Medical Sciences toward Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections were investigated using a standardized questionnaire. The mean (SD) knowledge level of the medical students toward HBV and HCV were 17 ± 5 from 28 and 10.58 ± 6.7 from 29 questions respectively. Females, nursing students, forth year students, those who worked in hospital and those who had needle stick injuries (NSI) history showed significantly higher knowledge scores toward HBV (P< 0.05). Married students, anesthesiology students, those who were in their fourth year of study, and those who worked in hospital had significantly higher mean knowledge scores toward HCV (P< 0.05). Also students' attitude toward HBV and HCV was positively correlated with their mean knowledge level (r=0.14, p=0.004), (r=0.18, p=0.0001). Education on the nature, symptoms, transmission, prevention and treatment of HBV and HCV infections may increase the willingness of health care workers to care for infected persons. PMID:23573351
Mansour-Ghanaei, Roya; Joukar, Farahnaz; Souti, Fatemeh; Atrkar-Roushan, Zahra
Full Text Available Emergency Contraception (EC is used within a few days of unprotected sex to prevent an unintended pregnancy. About one quarter of pregnancies in south of Iran are unintended. EC is important option that women can use after unprotected sex or contraceptive failure for preventing of unplanned pregnancies and adverse maternal and perinatal health outcomes. Health staff have influence on women’s contraceptive behavior and their knowledge and attitudes about EC can affect women’s contraceptive behaviors. Data are lacking about the knowledge, attitude and practice of hormonal EC method among health staff in Bushehr state, south of Iran. A cross-sectional study using self administered questionnaire was conducted. A sample of 170 health staff were surveyed. The mean age of respondents was 30.6±5.1. Overall 6.5% of participants had poor knowledge, 25.2% moderate knowledge, 68.3% good knowledge about EC. Half of participants had positive and half had negative attitude towards the EC method. Midwives and family health workers were more knowledgeable (p
This study examined smoking-related knowledge, beliefs, self-efficacy, smoking cessation practices, and barriers to providing smoking cessation services in a workforce sample. The 11 participating clinics (N=335 staff) included substance abuse treatment and HIV care clinics categorized into three types: Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) clinics, hospital-based clinics, and community-based clinics. Staff in both VAMC and hospital-based settings shared characteristics that may predict smok...
Tajima, Barbara; Guydish, Joseph; Delucchi, Kevin; Passalacqua, Emma; Chan, Mable; Moore, Matt
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude, practice and preferences on contraceptive methods among the female population, to determine the association between knowledge and attitude on contraceptive methods with the variables.Materials and methods: A Descriptive survey of 136 females between 18- 45 year of age were done using a structured knowledge questionnaire, structured attitude scale and opinionnaire on practice and preference during the month of January 2012 to February 2012 at Moodu Alevoor village, Udupi district, Karnataka. Simple random sampling was used to select the village and purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample.Results: It was shown that 48.5% were of 26-35 years of age, 92% were Hindus, 45.6% had higher secondary education, 41.2% were house wives, 55.9% had family monthly income below 5000 rupees, 49.3% were from nuclear family, 64% were married between 19-25 years, 43.3% had 2-3 years of married life and 52.2% had one pregnancy. Majority (55.9% had one living child and 98.5% got information through health personnel. Majority (67.60% had moderate knowledge on contraceptive methods and 17.60% had high knowledge. Majority (87.50% had favourable attitude and 12.50% had unfavourable attitude towards contraceptive methods. From the group of studied women 38.23% did not use any contraceptive methods, 19.85% used OCPs and minimum 1.47% used injection as contraceptive method. In this study 37.5% preferred OCPs as Rank 1, male condom (22.1% as Rank 2 and injection (16.3% as Rank 3. There was association between knowledge with educational status(c2 = 47.14, p=0.001, occupation (c2 =15.81, p=0.044, family monthly income (c2 =6.473, p=0.039 and duration of marriage (c2=6.721, p=0.035. There was no association between attitude and the studied variables.Conclusion: The study showed that majority of the females had moderate knowledge and favourable attitude
Sonam Zangmu Sherpa
Introduction. In a time that economic classification of nations is largely dependant on their scientific output, our country "Iran" in comparison to it"s facilities, has fewer scienilfic producilon than accepted. For programming to increase quantity and quality of research, at first, should carefully recognise the present condition. This study was done to survay attitiude, knowledge and practice of students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services (IUMSHS) about research....
Talaei, M.; Roohi, S.; Sabet, B.; Baghaei, A. M.; Bahman Ziari, P.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine developmental changes in metacognitive knowledge of reading strategies and attitudes toward reading during early adolescence (from 10 to 14 years, taking gender into account. A secondary aim was also to test a model of the relationships among gender, attitudes toward reading, metacognitive knowledge of reading strategies, and reading comprehension. The sample for this longitudinal study consisted of 175 students. The first data collection took place when the students were enrolled in grade 4 (10 years old, and the follow-up measurements were conducted in grades 6 and 8. At each measurement point, measures of metacognitive knowledge of reading strategies and attitudes toward reading were applied in addition to text comprehension tasks. The obtained results indicated that metacognitive knowledge of reading strategies continuously improved during early adolescence, while attitudes toward recreational reading showed continuous decline from the fourth to the eighth grade, and attitudes toward academic reading dropped significantly between sixth and eighth grades. Girls consistently demonstrated better metacognitive knowledge, as well as more positive attitudes toward both recreational and academic reading when compared to boys. The model that included only attitudes toward recreational reading fitted the data better than the model comprising both academic and recreational reading attitudes. The findings of the path analysis indicated that gender had an effect on recreational reading attitudes that consistently predicted text comprehension directly and indirectly through metacognitive knowledge during early adolescence. The model fitted the data better as students got older.