AIDS constitutes an important public health problem in Haiti, where it appears to be spread mainly through heterosexual encounters. The study reported here employed in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and a national cross-sectional survey of 1,300 men and 1,300 women 15 to 49 years old to assess AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices in Haiti. According to criteria established for the study, 38.1% of the 1,118 sexually active male survey respondents were found to engage in high-risk behavior. In general, the women were found to have better knowledge of AIDS than the men. Significant obstacles to condom use included the inability of women to choose whether condoms would be used and a belief that condom lubricant could cause health problems. The study also found a tendency to ostracize people with AIDS, especially in areas outside Port-au-Prince, and a belief that AIDS was imposed on people by fate--which could partially explain the tendency to persist in high-risk behavior. PMID:8220518
Adrien, A; Cayemittes, M; Bergevin, Y
This study examines inservice elementary school teachers' beliefs, attitudes, and practical knowledge toward inquiry-based science instruction and the influence of an inquiry-based elementary science course on teachers' beliefs, attitudes, and practical knowledge regarding inquiry. Both surveys and a case study were administered to the 14…
Choi, Sanghee; Ramsey, John
The use of genetics in medical research is one of the most important avenues currently being explored to enhance human health. For some, the idea that we can intervene in the mechanisms of human existence at such a fundamental level can be at minimum worrying and at most repugnant. In particular, religious doctrines are likely to collide with the rapidly advancing capability for science to make such interventions. The key ingredient for acceptance of genetics, on the other hand, is prototypically assumed to be scientific literacy - familiarity and understanding of the critical facts and methods of science. However, this binary opposition between science and religion runs counter to what is often found in practice. In this paper, we examine the association between religiosity, science knowledge and attitudes to medical genetics amongst the British public. In particular, we test the hypothesis that religion acts as a 'perceptual filter' through which citizens acquire and use scientific knowledge in the formation of attitudes towards medical genetics in various ways. PMID:23838683
Allum, Nick; Sibley, Elissa; Sturgis, Patrick; Stoneman, Paul
There is a paucity of information about what college-age men know about testicular cancer, making targeted educational programs difficult. The most common age group affected by testicular cancer is 15- to 40-year-olds. Therefore, educating young men, including the college population, becomes paramount. Six focus groups were conducted with men between the ages of 18 and 23 years (N = 31) at a large public university in the Northeast. Major topics included risk factors for testicular cancer, screening and diagnosis, treatments, psychological effects, and beliefs about prevention and cure. Focus groups revealed college students have poor knowledge and even less understanding of testicular cancer. Students were interested in learning about testicular cancer and other health topics affecting college men, such as healthy diet and exercise and common infectious diseases on college campuses. Simple means to educate college men included courses or assignments that focused on health issues, brief factual information, health fairs, peer educators, and celebrity guest speakers. PMID:19482795
Daley, Christine Makosky
Full Text Available Background and Design: This study evaluates the patients’ knowledge, opinions and attitudes about psoriasis.Materials and Methods: A total of 111 patients over the age of 18, clinically and histopathologically diagnosed with chronic plaque-type psoriasis were included in the study. Patients who have psychiatric illness and inadequate intelligence were excluded. A questionnaire including items on knowledge, opinions and attitudes on psoriasis were filled out by the patients and the results were analyzed statistically.Results: One hundred-eleven (45 female, 66 male patients were included in our study. 6.3% of patients did not know the diagnosis of their disease. 68.5% of patients thought that psoriasis was a contagious disease while18% thought that psoriasis was a hereditary condition. 88.3% of patients declined that they were informed about the disease by the doctor. 62.2% of patients believed that they had adequate information about psoriasis. 51.4% of patients believed that doctors gave them enough information about psoriasis. 44.1% of patients knew that psoriasis was aggravated by stress while 38.7% did not know any of the aggravating factors of psoriasis. 70.3% of patients believed that psoriasis would spread if not treated. Patients mostly (98.2% had idea about topical treatment options. 82% of patients were afraid of having psoriasis on their face. 5.4% of patients were uncomfortable with the idea of their partners’ having psoriasis. 72.1%, 88.3%, 72.1% of patients reported no negative effect of psoriasis on their relations with friends, family members, work or school life, respectivelyDiscussion: Our results showed that psoriasis patients do not have adequate knowledge about the disease. We think that dermatologists should pay more attention to inform and raise awareness of patie
The promotion of healthy infant feeding is increasingly recognized as an important obesity-prevention strategy. This is relevant for American Indian populations that exhibit high levels of obesity and low compliance with infant feeding guidelines. The literature examining the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs surrounding infant feeding within the American Indian population is sparse and focuses primarily on breastfeeding, with limited information on the introduction of solid foods and related practices that can be important in an obesity-prevention context. This research presents descriptive findings from a baseline knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs questionnaire on infant feeding and related behaviors administered to mothers (n=438) from five Northwest American Indian tribes that participated in the Prevention of Toddler Overweight and Teeth Health Study (PTOTS). Enrollment occurred during pregnancy or up to 6 months postpartum. The knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs questionnaire focused on themes of breastfeeding/formula feeding and introducing solid foods, with supplemental questions on physical activity. Knowledge questions were multiple choice or true/false. Attitudes and beliefs were assessed on Likert scales. Descriptive statistics included frequencies and percents and means and standard deviations. Most women knew basic breastfeeding recommendations and facts, but fewer recognized the broader health benefits of breastfeeding (eg, reducing diabetes risk) or knew when to introduce solid foods. Women believed breastfeeding to be healthy and perceived their social networks to agree. Attitudes and beliefs about formula feeding and social support were more ambivalent. This work suggests opportunities to increase the perceived value of breastfeeding to include broader health benefits, increase knowledge about solid foods, and strengthen social support. PMID:24951434
Eckhardt, Cara L; Lutz, Tam; Karanja, Njeri; Jobe, Jared B; Maupomé, Gerardo; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl
Full Text Available This cross-sectional study among 1597 tertiary level students, 757 (48% males and 832 (52% females (9 respondents no mention of gender, from 12 institutions, across Papua New Guinea, examined their level of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about HIV/AIDS. The study revealed that the majority of the students have a very good knowledge of HIV/AIDS; in general students have a considerate and compassionate attitude towards those infected with HIV/AIDS; and the students have positive and healthy attitudes and beliefs regarding HIV/AIDS. Among the demographic variables of gender, province and the institution of their study a significant difference showed in their levels of knowledge and also a statistically significant association was found between beliefs and knowledge. Interestingly, about 58% of the students think that HIV/AIDS is a punishment from God. Almost half (46.5% of the respondents think that learning about sex and the use of condoms could also encourage young people to engage in more frequent sex. Although, in general the students have a very good knowledge, they indicate the need for more sex education and awareness pro-grams about HIV/AIDS that could be given in high schools.
This article discusses methods and elements of three major national health survey systems, particularly as they relate to HIV infection and AIDS. The National Health Interview Survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System provide information about health-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of adults in the United States. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System measure health-related behaviors of American youth. Questions and survey designs differ among the thr...
Safran, M. A.; Wilson, R. W.
Full Text Available The social work profession has been undergoing a period of change and has been encouraged to prove the effectiveness of clinical interventions by scientific evidence. This study was therefore designed to describe the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of a sample of Romanian social work professionals to evidence-based practice (EBP. 62 social workers were required to complete a 37-item closed ended questionnaire, which collected information on demographic data, practice settings, knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding EBP. Respondents agreed that the use of EBP was necessary and that the quality of patient care was better when evidence was used, with the younger physiotherapists at the fore front. About 50% of the respondents had access to online information; the majority of these respondents only had time to access the internet more at home rather than at work place. The primary barrier to implementing EBP was insufficient time. The respondents had a positive attitude towards EBP and were interested in improving the skills necessary to implement EBP. There was a need to increase the use of EBP in clinical practice and decision making among social workers. The respondents who were recently licensed and those with post-graduate education expressed more positive attitudes toward EBP than those who were not. Results also point out the issue of appreciative inquiry (AI as a key-component in successful implementation of EBP in social work clinical settings.
Blood donation and transfusion are remarkably safe medical procedures. However, attitudes, beliefs and level of knowledge associated with blood donation and transfusion may affect such procedures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the attitude, belief and knowledge about blood donation and transfusion in Saudi Population. The present study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University Hospitals, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A well structured Arabic questionnaire was used to asses the attitude, belief and knowledge regarding blood donation and transfusion. The sample consisted of 335 male (55%) and 274 female (45%); the majority of the sample (65.84%) were non-donors. These non-donors (78.98%) were between the ages of 15-30 years. The 88.5% of the people who participated in the study believed that blood donation was not harmful, 20% of them stated that they would refuse blood transfusion even if they were in need because of the risk of acquiring infectious disease. 84.5% preferred direct donation, (49%) of the sample stated that they would accept blood donation only from relatives, 55.1% believed that blood transfusion was safe. However, 11.6% claimed to have acquired infectious disease after blood transfusion, 58% female in addition to 11.34% male preferred to receive blood from female donor and 69.5% did not know if the blood banks were in need of blood or not and 17.4% believed that all surgical procedures require eved that all surgical procedures require blood transfusion. Different fears, mistrust in hospital and lack of information may serve as an important issue to be addressed when developing donors recruitment programs or campaigns to clear misconceptions about blood donation. In addition, public should know that numerous screening measures are implemented to ensure that blood donation is safe for the donor and that transfusion of the donated blood is safe for the recipient. (author)
Full Text Available This article explores the perceptions and attitudes of community health workers (CHWs about hypertension. The level of knowledge of hypertension, as well as their personal attitude towards this is crucial in the style and quality of their interventions. CHWs, whose role in health promotion is being increasingly recognised, can help contain or reduce the prevalence of hypertension by influencing the community to adopt healthy lifestyles. Forty-three CHWs employed by Zanempilo in two study areas, Sites B and C in Khayelitsha in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, were included in the study. Firstly, focus group discussions were conducted with 17 purposively selected CHWs to explore attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of hypertension. Secondly, interviews were conducted to assess their basic knowledge about causes, prevention and control of hypertension. The focus group discussions revealed that CHWs were uncertain about the causes of hypertension. They also found it difficult to grasp the fact that people without risk factors, such as overweight or a family history of hypertension, could be hypertensive. Many CHWs believe in traditional medicines and home-brewed beer as the best treatment for hypertension. They believe that people who take medical treatment become sicker and that their health deteriorates rapidly. Risk factors of hypertension mentioned during the structured interviews include inheritance, lack of physical activity, consuming lots of salty and fatty food. Conclusions drawn from the findings of the CHWs’ responses highlighted their insufficient knowledge about hypertension as a chronic disease of lifestyle. Meanwhile they are expected to play a role in stimulating community residents’ interest in the broad principle of preventive health maintenance and follow-up. Data obtained from this research can be used for the planning of health-promotion programmes. These should include preventing hypertension and improving primary management of individual sufferers. Because of their working relations and close link with CHWs, community nurses in primary health-care facilities need to recognise these beliefs and attitudes since these may differ from their own.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a debilitating illness with particular difficulties for healthcare providers because there are no diagnostic signs or laboratory tests and because management aims to merely improve symptoms. Further complicating management, healthcare providers' awareness concerning CFS has not been rigorously assessed. The present study aimed to ascertain United States (U.S. healthcare providers' awareness of CFS and to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KAB related to diagnosis and management of the illness. This information forms the foundation for developing CFS educational strategies. Methods We combined convenience and probability samples to measure CFS KAB among healthcare providers. In the convenience sample, 1,255 healthcare providers (81% response rate from 13 professional conferences completed a 12-item form. Descriptive statistics were reported for 9 KAB item responses and chi-square tests were performed for examining their association with giving a diagnosis of CFS. We used principal component analysis to construct multidimensional subscales and perform a general linear model to examine factors associated with subscales. The probability sample involved data on 15 CFS-specific questions from 2006 and 2007 DocStyles web-based panel surveys collected from 2,750 physicians (average response rate 55%. We calculated descriptive and chi-square statistics. The significance was set at two-tailed with the alpha level of 0.05. Results Healthcare providers in both samples were aware of CFS and exhibited a high level of knowledge. Overall, 96% of respondents in the DocStyles (probability sample had heard about CFS. Healthcare providers in the conference (convenience sample demonstrated good KAB scores; physicians' scores were highest on KAB scales and lowest in perception. Nurses' scores were lowest in knowledge. More than 40% of physicians reported ever giving a CFS diagnosis and in the DocStyles (probability sample more than 80% of physicians correctly identified CFS symptoms. Physicians reported professional journals, the Internet, and continuing education programs as the top 3 sources from which they obtain CFS information. Conclusions Findings from these combined samples fill a gap in the evidence-base of U.S. healthcare providers' and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs concerning CFS. Importantly, respondents in both samples expressed similar knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and perceptions. Awareness was high and negative attitudes were low. The primary areas for future education should address diagnosis and management of CFS and should be delivered through those venues providers indicated they primarily use. Data from this study provide a benchmark for evaluation the success of these future efforts.
Lin Jin-Mann S
Doping in sport is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied mainly from a biomedical point of view, even though psychosocial approaches are also key factors in the fight against doping. This phenomenon has evolved greatly in recent years, and greater understanding of it is essential for developing efficient prevention programmes. In the psychosocial approach, attitudes are considered an index of doping behaviour, relating the use of banned substances to greater leniency towards doping. The aim of this review is to gather and critically analyse the most recent publications describing elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport, to better understand the foundations provided by the previous work, and to help develop practical strategies to efficiently combat doping. For this purpose, we performed a literature search using combinations of the terms "doping", "sport", "elite athletes", "attitudes", "beliefs", "knowledge", "drugs", and "performance-enhancing substances" (PES). A total of 33 studies were subjected to comprehensive assessment using articles published between 2000 and 2011. All of the reports focused on elite athletes and described their attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport. The initial reasons given for using banned substances included achievement of athletic success by improving performance, financial gain, improving recovery and prevention of nutritional deficiencies, as well as the idea that others use them, or the "false consensus effect". Although most athletes acknowledge that doping is cheating, unhealthy and risky because of sanctions, its effectiveness is also widely recognized. There is a general belief about the inefficacy of anti-doping programmes, and athletes criticise the way tests are carried out. Most athletes consider the severity of punishment is appropriate or not severe enough. There are some differences between sports, as team-based sports and sports requiring motor skills could be less influenced by doping practices than individual self-paced sports. However, anti-doping controls are less exhaustive in team sports. The use of banned substance also differs according to the demand of the specific sport. Coaches appear to be the main influence and source of information for athletes, whereas doctors and other specialists do not seem to act as principal advisors. Athletes are becoming increasingly familiar with anti-doping rules, but there is still a lack of knowledge that should be remedied using appropriate educational programmes. There is also a lack of information on dietary supplements and the side effects of PES. Therefore, information and prevention are necessary, and should cater to the athletes and associated stakeholders. This will allow us to establish and maintain correct attitudes towards doping. Psychosocial programmes must be carefully planned and developed, and should include middle- to long-term objectives (e.g. changing attitudes towards doping and the doping culture). Some institutions have developed or started prevention or educational programmes without the necessary resources, while the majority of the budget is spent on anti-doping testing. Controls are obviously needed, as well as more efficient educational strategies. Therefore, we encourage sporting institutions to invest in educational programmes aimed at discouraging the use of banned substances. Event organizers and sport federations should work together to adapt the rules of each competition to disincentivize dopers. Current research methods are weak, especially questionnaires. A combination of qualitative and quantitative measurements are recommended, using interviews, questionnaires and, ideally, biomedical tests. Studies should also examine possible geographical and cultural differences in attitudes towards doping. PMID:23532595
Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Zabala, Mikel
We have investigated how open attitudes, attribution beliefs, pedagogical knowledge, and pedagogical content knowledge were related to teaching performance among teacher interns. The participants were 72 teacher interns in Hong Kong, where large-scale education reform has been launched since 2000. Multiple methods (self-report, academic grades,…
Lam, Shui-fong; Law, Yin-kum
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and experiences (KABE) of 64 HCV antibody positive methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients were assessed in conjunction with acceptability of an on-site semi-structured HCV education session, HCV RNA diagnostic testing, HCV treatment motivational assessment, and initiation of HCV treatment. The KABE interviews were conducted in 2006 and 2007 in an urban New York State MMT clinic in affiliation with a NIDA-funded HCV research project. The majority had basic knowledge of HCV disease, but poor understanding of HCV testing and treatment. While the majority of participants expressed fear of HCV treatment side effects, 88% accepted HCV RNA testing and 78% expressed willingness to start HCV treatment with the majority of chronically infected choosing to start HCV treatment medications. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:20141461
Canfield, Kelly M; Smyth, Emily; Batki, Steven L
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the knowledge, attitude and beliefs about safe motherhood practices amongst pregnant women residing in the urban slum of the city of Jaipur, India.The study recruited 100 pregnant women from one of the urban slums of a selected district. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered on the selected sample. Overall, the results show low levels of awareness among rural pregnant women. Two major axes of investigation were used - age and education. In both instances, no significant differences for knowledge levels was found amongst pregnant women.The findings indicate that appropriate communication strategies should be designed and implemented amongst the most vulnerable section of society, especially through health education campaigns, in order to have a constructive outcome in the near future.
A needs assessment of the knowledge, attitudes, practices, and beliefs about HIV/AIDS prevention was conducted among 100 Sudanese and Bantu Somali women immigrants aged 19 years and older, recruited through a community organization between April and July 2006. Information was collected by interview using interpreters to administer a 60-item test and a 116-item questionnaire that ha...
Lynette Smith; Shingairai Feresu
Purpose: This study reports the baseline knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and personal practices of health care professionals regarding colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in the High Plains Research Network (HPRN) of rural Colorado prior to a community-based educational intervention. It also examines the association between health care staff members'…
Rim, Sun Hee; Zittleman, Linda; Westfall, John M.; Overholser, Linda; Froshaug, Desiree; Coughlin, Steven S.
This paper examines one important dimension of inclusive education: the development of in-service teacher education courses. Using an example from Cyprus, it discusses the issue of contextualizing teacher training courses to suit teachers' prior knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about inclusion. The paper considers some of the findings of a survey…
Symeonidou, Simoni; Phtiaka, Helen
Despite the end of colonialism, Zimbabwean rural school teachers still find themselves trapped in the colonial pedagogic practices that undervalue the importance of rural school children's experiential knowledge in science. This article explores the beliefs and attitudes of rural primary teachers towards incorporating Indigenous knowledge and…
Full Text Available A needs assessment of the knowledge, attitudes, practices, and beliefs about HIV/AIDS prevention was conducted among 100 Sudanese and Bantu Somali women immigrants aged 19 years and older, recruited through a community organization between April and July 2006. Information was collected by interview using interpreters to administer a 60-item test and a 116-item questionnaire that had been translated into Nuer and Arabic. Women in this study had low levels of education, poor knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention and safer sex practices, and poor attitudes to HIV/AIDS. They believe that HIV/AIDS is a punishment from God, HIV-positive people should be separated from society, carrying a condom indicates having loose morals, women should not experience sexual pleasure, and men should decide when and how to have sexual intercourse. Education, gender, and cultural beliefs are critical in the spread of HIV. Efforts to educate immigrant and displaced populations, particularly women, are essential.
The purposes of this descriptive study were to (1) describe nutrition knowledge, attitudes, beliefs (KAB), and self-efficacy among low-income African American and Hispanic women; (2) identify the associations these variables have on diet quality and weight status; (3) identify barriers to healthy eating. Data from three separate studies were combined and analyzed. The total sample included African Americans (N = 92) and Hispanics (N = 272). Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were u...
Acheampong, Irene; Haldeman, Lauren
The purposes of this descriptive study were to (1) describe nutrition knowledge, attitudes, beliefs (KAB), and self-efficacy among low-income African American and Hispanic women; (2) identify the associations these variables have on diet quality and weight status; (3) identify barriers to healthy eating. Data from three separate studies were combined and analyzed. The total sample included African Americans (N = 92) and Hispanics (N = 272). Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were used to identify associations between KAB and body mass index (BMI) and diet quality. The majority of African Americans had good knowledge in nutrition while Hispanics had fair knowledge. Attitudes toward eating a healthy diet were significantly associated with high fiber intake among African Americans and low fat consumption among Hispanics. A computed KAB score showed no significant relation to individuals' weight status or diet quality. However, attitudes and beliefs about healthy foods strongly correlated with participants' weight or diet consumption among Hispanics. The most common barrier to consuming a healthy diet reported by both groups was the cost of healthy foods. It is therefore recommended to address these variables when addressing obesity and poor dietary intake among low-income minority groups. PMID:23819044
Acheampong, Irene; Haldeman, Lauren
This study examines demographic, cognitive and behavioral factors that predict pediatric dog-bite injury risk in rural China. A total of 1,537 children (grades 4-6) in rural regions of Anhui, Hebei and Zhejiang Provinces, China completed self-report questionnaires assessing beliefs about and behaviors with dogs. The results showed that almost 30% of children reported a history of dog bites. Children answered 56% of dog-safety knowledge items correctly. Regressions revealed both demographic and cognitive/behavioral factors predicted children's risky interactions with dogs and dog-bite history. Boys behaved more riskily with dogs and were more frequently bitten. Older children reported greater risks with dogs and more bites. With demographics controlled, attitudes/beliefs of invulnerability, exposure frequency, and dog ownership predicted children's self-reported risky practice with dogs. Attitudes/beliefs of invulnerability, dog exposure, and dog ownership predicted dog bites. In conclusion, both demographic and cognitive/behavioral factors influenced rural Chinese children's dog-bite injury risk. Theory-based, empirically-supported intervention programs might reduce dog-bite injuries in rural China. PMID:23470881
Shen, Jiabin; Li, Shaohua; Xiang, Huiyun; Pang, Shulan; Xu, Guozhang; Schwebel, David C
Full Text Available This study examines demographic, cognitive and behavioral factors that predict pediatric dog-bite injury risk in rural China. A total of 1,537 children (grades 4–6 in rural regions of Anhui, Hebei and Zhejiang Provinces, China completed self-report questionnaires assessing beliefs about and behaviors with dogs. The results showed that almost 30% of children reported a history of dog bites. Children answered 56% of dog-safety knowledge items correctly. Regressions revealed both demographic and cognitive/behavioral factors predicted children’s risky interactions with dogs and dog-bite history. Boys behaved more riskily with dogs and were more frequently bitten. Older children reported greater risks with dogs and more bites. With demographics controlled, attitudes/beliefs of invulnerability, exposure frequency, and dog ownership predicted children’s self-reported risky practice with dogs. Attitudes/beliefs of invulnerability, dog exposure, and dog ownership predicted dog bites. In conclusion, both demographic and cognitive/behavioral factors influenced rural Chinese children’s dog-bite injury risk. Theory-based, empirically-supported intervention programs might reduce dog-bite injuries in rural China.
David C. Schwebel
This study examined pre-service mathematics teachers' knowledge of history of mathematics and their attitudes and beliefs towards using history of mathematics in mathematics education based on year level in teacher education program and gender. The sample included 1,593 freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior pre-service middle school (grades 4-8) mathematics teachers from nine universities in Turkey. Data were collected through Knowledge of History of Mathematics Test and Attitudes and Beliefs towards the Use of History of Mathematics in Mathematics Education Questionnaire. Results indicate that pre-service teachers have moderate knowledge of history of mathematics and positive attitudes and beliefs towards using history of mathematics. Their knowledge scores increase as the year level in teacher education program advanced. Males' knowledge scores are significantly higher than females' scores in the first 2 years. This situation reverses in the last 2 years, but it is not statistically significant. Pre-service teachers have more positive attitudes and availing beliefs towards using history of mathematics as they progress in their teacher education program. Females have greater attitudes and beliefs mean scores than males in each of the years. The results indicate that the teacher education program may have enhanced the pre-service teachers' knowledge of history of mathematics by related courses. However, the moderate knowledge scores indicate that there is a need for revision of these courses. The pre-service teachers' positive attitudes and beliefs towards using history of mathematics stress the importance of teacher education program in order to prepare them for implementing this alternative strategy in the future.
Alpaslan, Mustafa; I??ksal, Mine; Haser, Çi?dem
Full Text Available Background: Physiotherapists play an inherent role in the multidisciplinary palliative care team. Existing knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences influence their team participation in palliative care. Aims: The objective of this study was to assess the changes in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists who attended a palliative care training program. Settings and Design: Preliminary quasi-experimental study design, conducted at an academic institution. Materials and Methods: Fifty-two student physiotherapists of either gender (12 male, 40 female of age (20.51±1.78 years who attended a palliative care training program which comprised lectures and case examples of six-hours duration participated in this study. The study was performed after getting institutional approval and obtaining participants? written informed consent. The lecture content comprised WHO definition of palliative care, spiritual aspects of life, death and healing, principles, levels and models of palliative care, and role of physiotherapists in a palliative care team. The physical therapy in palliative care-knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences scale (PTiPC-KABE Scale- modified from palliative care attitudes scale were used for assessing the participants before and after the program. Statistical Analysis: Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test at 95% confidence interval using SPSS 11.5 for Windows. Results: Statistically significant differences (P<0.05 were noted for all four subscales- knowledge (7.84±4.61 points, attitudes (9.46±8.06 points, beliefs (4.88±3.29 points and experiences (15.8±11.28 points out of a total score of 104 points. Conclusions: The focus-group training program produced a significant positive change about palliative care in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists.
This study examined pre-service mathematics teachers' knowledge of history of mathematics and their attitudes and beliefs towards using history of mathematics in mathematics education based on year level in teacher education program and gender. The sample included 1,593 freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior pre-service middle school (grades…
Alpaslan, Mustafa; Isiksal, Mine; Haser, Çigdem
An Arabic version of the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes Inventory [POSHA-E; St Louis, K. O. (2005), a global instrument to measure public attitudes about stuttering. ("The ASHA Leader," 22, 2-13)] was administered to 424 Arab parents of preschool and school age children in 18 government schools across all six governorates in Kuwait. The…
Al-Khaledi, Maram; Lincoln, Michelle; McCabe, Patricia; Packman, Ann; Alshatti, Tariq
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents of children with food allergy, primary care physicians, and members of the general public play a critical role in the health and well-being of food-allergic children, though little is known about their knowledge and perceptions of food allergy. The purpose of this paper is to detail the development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among these three populations. Methods From 2006–2008, parents of food-allergic children, pediatricians, family physicians, and adult members of the general public were recruited to assist in survey development. Preliminary analysis included literature review, creation of initial content domains, expert panel review, and focus groups. Survey validation included creation of initial survey items, expert panel ratings, cognitive interviews, reliability testing, item reduction, and final validation. National administration of the surveys is ongoing. Results Nine experts were assembled to oversee survey development. Six focus groups were held: 2/survey population, 4–9 participants/group; transcripts were reviewed via constant comparative methods to identify emerging themes and inform item creation. At least 220 participants per population were recruited to assess the relevance, reliability, and utility of each survey item as follows: cognitive interviews, 10 participants; reliability testing ? 10; item reduction ? 50; and final validation, 150 respondents. Conclusion The Chicago Food Allergy Research surveys offer validated tools to assess food allergy knowledge and perceptions among three distinct populations: a 42 item parent tool, a 50 item physician tool, and a 35 item general public tool. No such tools were previously available.
Pongracic Jacqueline A
Full Text Available Problem statement: Agriculture sector in Malaysia has been intensified through the Eight and Ninth Malaysian Plan. In order to further develop this sector, contract farming activities such as leech rearing, worm rearing, herbs and mushroom have been introduced to the community. But do the communities especially the youth have a positive acceptance towards this activity? Approach: This was a quantitative study. The respondents were among two agriculture learning institutions in Malaysia. From a simple random sampling, a total of 194 respondents were selected. The data collection took two months to be completed. Results: From the multiple linear regression employed, it can be concluded that attitude, belief and knowledge are the significant contributor for acceptance towards contract farming. Conclusion/Recommendation: It is recommended that more studies can be conducted to inspect the complexities related with youths participation in contract farming and special attention should be highlighted to identify what universities can do in strategizing specific agricultural courses that would motivate youth to possess a better acceptance towards contract farming.
Full Text Available Traditional birth attendants (TBAs are still mainly being utilized in the rural areas even in the presence of the formal health care facilities. Studies reveal that the utilization of TBAs is beneficial in some other contexts with some support and supervision from the western health sector. In order to develop further training for TBAs the researchers deemed it necessary to assess their knowledge, attitudes and beliefs related to HIV/AIDS, prenatal care, delivery and postnatal care.
Rangelands can be managed to increase soil carbon and help mitigate emissions of carbon dioxide. This study assessed Utah rangeland owner's environmental values, beliefs about climate change, and awareness of and attitudes towards carbon sequestration, as well as their perceptions of potential policy strategies for promoting carbon sequestration on private rangelands. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews and a statewide survey of Utah rangeland owners, and were analyzed using descriptive and bivariate statistics. Over two-thirds of respondents reported some level of awareness of carbon sequestration and a generally positive attitude towards it, contrasting to their lack of interest in participating in a relevant program in the future. Having a positive attitude was statistically significantly associated with having more "biocentric" environmental values, believing the climate had been changing over the past 30 years, and having a stronger belief of human activities influencing the climate. Respondents valued the potential ecological benefits of carbon sequestration more than the potential financial or climate change benefits. Additionally, respondents indicated a preference for educational approaches over financial incentives. They also preferred to work with a private agricultural entity over a non-profit or government entity on improving land management practices to sequester carbon. These results suggest potential challenges for developing technically sound and socially acceptable policies and programs for promoting carbon sequestration on private rangelands. Potential strategies for overcoming these challenges include emphasizing the ecological benefits associated with sequestering carbon to appeal to landowners with ecologically oriented management objectives, enhancing the cooperation between private agricultural organizations and government agencies, and funneling resources for promoting carbon sequestration into existing land management and conservation programs that may produce carbon benefits. PMID:24468448
Cook, Seth L; Ma, Zhao
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women with incidence of more than 500000 cases per year. It is preventable because of its long pre-cancerous period, suitable screening programs and effective treatments. Since the social and cultural barriers alongside the lack of knowledge are deterrents to participation in screening programs, the current study was performed to assess the effect of educational intervention through the Health Belief Model on knowledge and attitude of teachers about pap smear, considering their role in making people aware. Materials and Methods: This was a controlled before-after interventional study conducted on 72 individuals selected through simple sampling, assigned to two groups. Data collection tool was a questionnaire used and compared before training and one month after that. Training methods (intervention included lectures with questions and answers. Data were analyzed with SPSS, version 11.5. Results: 47.2% of intervention and 45.8% of control group were 40 to 50 years old and majority of them (47.2% and 50% respectively had undergraduate educational level and 86.1% were married. Respectively, 67.2% and 74.2% have experience of being examined via Pap smear, while the knowledge of women in both groups was moderate about the disease. Study results revealed significant differences in knowledge, attitude and Health Belief Model constructs within intervention group (before and after training as well as between groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: Using Pap smear test among the participants was lower compared with healthy people aims targeted by 2010. Therefore, necessity of education and knowledge promotions are obvious.
There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course chosen will be more favourable than if the alternative had been adopted
Schools play a key role in transmitting attitudes towards sexual diversity. Many studies stress the importance of teachers' and other professionals' attitudes towards gay men and/or lesbian women. This study evaluates attitudes and prejudices toward homosexuality in a sample of 254 elementary and high school teachers in Barcelona and its surrounding area. The results obtained using a scale of overt and subtle prejudice and a scale of perceived discrepancy of values indicate that discrepancy between likely behavior and personal values was significantly greater in women, those who hold religious beliefs, churchgoers and people without any gay or lesbian acquaintances. Approximately 88% of the teachers showed no type of prejudiced attitudes towards gay men and lesbian women. The experience of proximity to gay men and/or lesbian women reduces not only the discrepancy between personal values and likely behavior but also the presence of homophobic prejudice. It would be advisable to expand specific teacher training in the subject of sexual diversity in order to reduce prejudicial attitudes, thus fostering non-stereotyped knowledge of homosexuality. PMID:20480684
Pérez-Testor, Carles; Behar, Julia; Davins, Montse; Conde Sala, José Luís; Castillo, José A; Salamero, Manel; Alomar, Elisabeth; Segarra, Sabina
Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Introdução: O aumento das IST's, da gravidez não planeada e de outros tantos riscos ligados à actividade sexual fazem com que os jovens sejam considerados um grupo de intervenção prioritário em termos de saúde sexual e reprodutiva. Para se promover atitudes e comportamentos sexuais saudáveis é essen [...] cial a concretização de uma educação sexual que tenha como objectivo desenvolver atitudes e competências nos jovens, permitindo que estes se sintam informados e seguros nas suas escolhas. Material e métodos: Este estudo (HBSC/OMS) avaliou o papel que 3331 adolescentes portugueses (1579 rapazes e 1752 raparigas), com uma média de idades de 15 anos, atribuem à educação sexual, os seus conhecimentos e atitudes face ao VIH/SIDA. Usou-se um questionário de auto-relato que foi aplicado às turmas em sala de aula. Resultados: Analisados os resultados do estudo, verificou-se que quer os factores de risco quer os de protecção em relação aos comportamentos sexuais de risco dos adolescentes são inúmeros. Conclusões: Sendo assim, é crucial que a educação sexual abranja intervenções do tipo preventivo de carácter universal, abrangendo toda a população escolar e respectivos contextos de vida: escola, família e grupo de pares, mas também intervenções mais específicas, em pequenos subgrupos identificados como prioritários. Abstract in english Introduction: Because the incidence of STI, unplanned pregnancy and several other sexual risk behaviours are increasing among youngsters, it is accepted that they are given high priority in intervention in what sexual and reproductive health is concerned. In order to promote healthy sexual attitudes [...] and behaviours, it is crucial to implement a program of sexual education that aims at developing attitudes and skills in young people, hence enabling them to make well-informed decisions and feel confident about the choices they make. Material and methods: This HBSC/WHO research evaluated the role of sexual education for Portuguese adolescents and their knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Structured self-reported questionnaires were responded within a classroom context by 3331 participants (1579 boys and 1752 girls), with an average age of 15 years. Results: The results show that there are inumerous risk and protection factors related to sex behavior. Conclusions: This suggests that sexual education should focus on preventive interventions, not only universal, including all teenagers and considering all the contexts in which they interact (the school professionals, family and peers), but also selective strategies delivered to targeted subgroups, once they are identified.
Lúcia, Ramiro; Marta, Reis; Margarida Gaspar de, Matos; José Alves, Diniz; Celeste, Simões.
Addressing social barriers and closing the gender knowledge gap: exposure to road shows is associated with more knowledge and more positive beliefs, attitudes and social norms regarding exclusive breastfeeding in rural Zimbabwe.
Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is rarely practiced despite its significant child survival benefits. A key constraint to increasing EBF rates in Zimbabwe and most of the developing world is that key decision makers (fathers/partners and other family members) are often poorly informed about EBF and do not attend antenatal clinics where health information is routinely provided. Informed by formative research, a district-wide campaign was conducted in rural Zimbabwe to encourage EBF and expressing and heat treating (EHT) breast milk as a means to maintain EBF. The campaign combined traditional strategies of education, counselling and outreach through health service delivery with a novel road show 'edutainment' intervention to reach men and other community members. A post campaign evaluation measured the association of road show exposure with 20 knowledge items and summative scores of social norms, beliefs and attitudes obtained through exploratory factor analysis. In adjusted models, road show exposure was associated with correct EBF knowledge (?=1.0, 0.001), EHT knowledge (?=1.3, P<0.001) and greater perceived benefits of condom use during pregnancy and breastfeeding (?=0.5, P<0.001), and more positive EBF social norms (?=0.6, P<0.001), EBF beliefs and attitudes (?=1.0, P<0.001) and attitudes towards condom use during breastfeeding (?=0.6, P<0.001). Road show exposure was more strongly associated with EBF knowledge among men (P-value for gender×exposure group interaction=0.03), suggesting that it also closed the knowledge gap between men and women. Longitudinal studies will determine whether road shows were associated with changes in EBF practices. PMID:21972843
Jenkins, Alison L; Tavengwa, Naume V; Chasekwa, Bernard; Chatora, Kumbirai; Taruberekera, Noah; Mushayi, Wellington; Madzima, Rufaro C; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge, attitudes and practices of community members and healthcare providers in rural northern Ghana regarding clean delivery are not well understood. This study explores hand washing/use of gloves during delivery, delivering on a clean surface, sterile cord cutting, appropriate cord tying, proper cord care following delivery, and infant bathing and cleanliness. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using NVivo 9.0. Results 253 respondents participated, including women with newborn infants, grandmothers, household and compound heads, community leaders, traditional birth attendants, and formally trained health care providers. There is widespread understanding of the need for clean delivery to reduce the risk of infection to both mothers and their babies during and shortly after delivery. Despite this understanding, the use of gloves during delivery and hand washing during and after delivery were mentioned infrequently. The need for a clean delivery surface was raised repeatedly, including explicit discussion of avoiding delivering in the dirt. Many activities to do with cord care involved non-sterile materials and practices: 1 Cord cutting was done with a variety of tools, and the most commonly used were razor blades or scissors; 2 Cord tying utilized a variety of materials, including string, rope, thread, twigs, and clamps; and 3 Cord care often involved applying traditional salves to the cord - including shea butter, ground shea nuts, local herbs, local oil, or “red earth sand.” Keeping babies and their surroundings clean was mentioned repeatedly as an important way to keep babies from falling ill. Conclusions This study suggests a widespread understanding in rural northern Ghana of the need for clean delivery. Nonetheless, many recommended clean delivery practices are ignored. Overarching themes emerging from this study included the increasing use of facility-based delivery, the disconnect between healthcare providers and the community, and the critical role grandmothers play in ensuring clean delivery practices. Future interventions to address clean delivery and prevention of neonatal infections include educating healthcare providers about harmful traditional practices so they are specifically addressed, strengthening facilities, and incorporating influential community members such as grandmothers to ensure success.
Moyer Cheryl A
Full Text Available Pedagogical beliefs and attitudes significantly determine the professional skills and practice of teachers. Many professional development programs for teachers aim to the elaboration of the pedagogical knowledge in order to improve teaching quality. This paper presents the study of pedagogical beliefs of computer science teachers in Greece. The research data reveal that computer science teachers usually hold mixed traditional and constructivist theories which are generally irrelevant to either demographic factors or their pedagogical training. In some cases statistically significant correlations to the educational level or the total teaching service are detected. The results of the study set out suggestions concerning the design of pedagogical training programs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that attitudes and beliefs are important in predicting adherence in depressive and bipolar disorders. However, such attitudes and beliefs on mood stabilizers have not been analysed by socio-demographic and clinical variables. Methods The Mood Stabilizer Compliance Questionnaire (MSQC was mailed to a large population of patients with depressive or bipolar disorder representative of patients treated at their first contacts to hospital settings in Denmark. Results Of the 1005 recipients, 49.9 % responded to the letter and among these 256 indicated that they previously had been or currently were in treatment with a mood stabilizer. A large proportion of the patients (40 to 80 % had non-correct views on the effect of mood stabilizers. Older patients consistently had a more negative view on the doctor-patient relationship, more non-correct views on the effect of mood stabilizers and a more negative view on mood stabilizers. There was no difference in the attitudes and beliefs according to the type of disorder (depressive or bipolar, the number of psychiatric hospitalisations or according to the type of the current doctor (general practitioner, private psychiatrist, community psychiatry doctor, hospital doctor, other doctor. Conclusion There is a need of improving knowledge and attitudes toward diagnosis and treatment especially among elder patients as this may add to improve the prognosis of depressive and bipolar disorders.
The primary purpose of this mixed-methods study was two-fold: first, to assess diabetes knowledge, attitudes, disease management and self efficacy among a sample of Mexican American (MA) and Mexican-Native (MN) adults living in North Texas; and second, to determine factors which promote or deter diabetes prevention and management using…
Melancon, Jim; Oomen-Early, Jody; del Rincon, Lydia M.
Attitudes toward science are an important aspect of students' persistence in school science and interest in pursuing future science careers, but students' attitudes typically decline over the course of formal schooling. This study examines relationships of students' attitudes toward science with their perceptions of science as inclusive or non-religious, and their epistemological beliefs about epistemic authority and certainty. Data were collected using an online survey system among undergraduates at a large, public US university (n = 582). Data were prepared using a Rasch rating scale model and then analyzed using multiple-regression analysis. Gender and number of science and mathematics courses were included as control variables, followed by perceptions of science, then epistemological beliefs. Findings show that respondents have more positive attitudes when they perceive science to be inclusive of women and minorities, and when they perceive science to be incompatible with religion. Respondents also have more positive attitudes toward science when they believe scientific knowledge is uncertain, and when they believe knowledge derives from authority. Interpretations of these findings and implications for future research are discussed.
Fulmer, Gavin W.
The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between teachers' attitudes toward science, knowledge and beliefs about inquiry, and science classroom teaching practices. Specifically, the study addressed three questions: What are teachers' beliefs and knowledge about inquiry? What are teachers' teaching related classroom practices? Do…
Saad, Rayana; BouJaoude, Saouma
Abstract Background Generic substitution has been implemented in many countries, but knowledge about patients’ attitudes, beliefs and experiences is still sparse. Aim To assess associations between generic switching and patients’ attitudes, beliefs and experiences with previous generic switching. Design and setting A cross-sectional study comprising questionnaire responses from 2476 randomly selected patients aged 20 years or older and living in the Region of Southern Denmark, who had redeemed substitutable drugs. Methods The questionnaire included items on beliefs about medicine, views on generic medicine and confidence in the healthcare system. Only prescriptions issued by the general practitioners were included. For each patient we focused on one purchase of a generically substitutable drug (index drug). Patients were identified by means of a dispensing database. Results Earlier generic switches within the index ATC code were statistically significantly associated with experience of a generic switch (adjusted OR 5.93 95% CI 4.70; 7.49). Having had more than 5 earlier switches within other ATC codes and having negative views on generic medicines reduced the odds of experiencing a generic switch. No associations were found between generic substitution and gender, drug group, number of different drugs used by the patient, confidence in the health care system and beliefs about medicine in general. Conclusion Patients who had once experienced a generic switch were more likely to accept a future generic switch within the same ATC code. Negative views on generic medicines were negatively associated with switching, while beliefs about medicine and confidence in the healthcare system had no influence.
Østergaard Rathe, Jette; Larsen, Pia Veldt
This study examined preservice teachers' pedagogical beliefs and attitudes toward technology in relation to teacher educators' pedagogical beliefs and technology uses. Regression analyses were conducted to answer the research questions. The findings of this study revealed that teacher educators' learner-centered beliefs and nonlearner-centered…
Bai, Hua; Ertmer, Peggy
South Asian (SA) taxi drivers potentially possess a double epidemiologic risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to their ethnicity and occupation. This study investigates SA taxi drivers' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs about general health, CVD and approaches to reduce CVD risk. Five focus groups were conducted with 31 SA taxi drivers in the participants' primary language (Bengali, Hindi, Urdu or Punjabi). Audio-recordings of the sessions were transcribed, translated and entered into ATLAS.ti 6.2 for coding and analysis. SA drivers in an urban setting perceive themselves to be at high risk for CVD because of high work-related stress, physical inactivity, poor diet and poor health care access. Participants attributed their occupation to increasing risk for heart disease; none believed that being SA increased their risk. Interventions to lower CVD risk among SA taxi drivers should be multi-level and involve the individual drivers and the taxi industry. PMID:22843321
Gany, Francesca M; Gill, Pavan P; Ahmed, Ayaz; Acharya, Sudha; Leng, Jennifer
Background: Epileptics are often socially discriminated due to the negative public attitudes, misconceptions and false beliefs. Thus, the main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy among Malaysian Chinese.Methods: A cross-sectional study by using a 23-item validated, self-administered questionnaire was carried out in urban areas, selected through stratified sampling. A Chinese population was randomly selected in the stratified areas of Penang, Ipoh,...
Chrishantha Abeysena; Hasan, Shahzad S.; Wg, Wayne Wei; Keivan Ahmadi; Ahmed, Imran S.; Ks, Alen Yong; Mudassir Anwar
A focus on antisocial beliefs and attitudes has informed both the assessment and treatment literature, and practice, in youth justice service provision. This study attempts to broaden the construct of antisocial beliefs and attitudes and reports on the psychometric development of the Antisocial Beliefs and Attitudes Scale (ABAS). The ABAS is a new…
Butler, Stephen M.; Leschied, Alan Winfield; Fearon, Pasco
Using the theoretical framework of the Theory of Reasoned Action , we examine benefits satisfactionas an attitude formed by the beliefs about benefits (i.e., benefits knowledge) and the perceived value ofthese benefits (i.e., fit of benefits to individual needs). We use questionnaires to gather data from arandom sample of 591 employees in a large county agency in the South-eastern United States. The datasupport that knowledge of benefits is associated with enhanced benefits satisfaction an...
Gery Markova, Foard Jones
Full Text Available Abstract Background Religion shapes everyday beliefs and activities, but few studies have examined its associations with attitudes about HIV. This exploratory study in Tanzania probed associations between religious beliefs and HIV stigma, disclosure, and attitudes toward antiretroviral (ARV treatment. Methods A self-administered survey was distributed to a convenience sample of parishioners (n = 438 attending Catholic, Lutheran, and Pentecostal churches in both urban and rural areas. The survey included questions about religious beliefs, opinions about HIV, and knowledge and attitudes about ARVs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess how religion was associated with perceptions about HIV, HIV treatment, and people living with HIV/AIDS. Results Results indicate that shame-related HIV stigma is strongly associated with religious beliefs such as the belief that HIV is a punishment from God (p Conclusion The decision to start ARVs hinged primarily on education-level and knowledge about ARVs rather than on religious factors. Research results highlight the influence of religious beliefs on HIV-related stigma and willingness to disclose, and should help to inform HIV-education outreach for religious groups.
In contrast to other countries in Southeast Asia, the HIV/ AIDS epidemic is in the initial stages in Viet Nam, although the rates have increased notably since 1997. This study examined attitudes towards the use of an HIV vaccine (when one becomes available) as a means for preventing the disease. Since injecting drug users are the great majority of…
In the field of teacher knowledge, "beliefs" is a large term narrowly constructed. The beliefs theorized, researched, and discussed are beliefs about technique, methodology, curriculum, classroom management, professional development, and similarly. Spiritual and religious beliefs are for the most part omitted. This study argues that they should be…
Background Religion shapes everyday beliefs and activities, but few studies have examined its associations with attitudes about HIV. This exploratory study in Tanzania probed associations between religious beliefs and HIV stigma, disclosure, and attitudes toward antiretroviral (ARV) treatment. Methods A self-administered survey was distributed to a convenience sample of parishioners (n = 438) attending Catholic, Lutheran, and Pentecostal churches in both urban and rural areas. The survey included questions about religious beliefs, opinions about HIV, and knowledge and attitudes about ARVs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess how religion was associated with perceptions about HIV, HIV treatment, and people living with HIV/AIDS. Results Results indicate that shame-related HIV stigma is strongly associated with religious beliefs such as the belief that HIV is a punishment from God (p < 0.01) or that people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have not followed the Word of God (p < 0.001). Most participants (84.2%) said that they would disclose their HIV status to their pastor or congregation if they became infected. Although the majority of respondents (80.8%) believed that prayer could cure HIV, almost all (93.7%) said that they would begin ARV treatment if they became HIV-infected. The multivariate analysis found that respondents' hypothetical willingness to begin ARV treatme was not significantly associated with the belief that prayer could cure HIV or with other religious factors. Refusal of ARV treatment was instead correlated with lack of secondary schooling and lack of knowledge about ARVs. Conclusion The decision to start ARVs hinged primarily on education-level and knowledge about ARVs rather than on religious factors. Research results highlight the influence of religious beliefs on HIV-related stigma and willingness to disclose, and should help to inform HIV-education outreach for religious groups. PMID:19261186
Zou, James; Yamanaka, Yvonne; John, Muze; Watt, Melissa; Ostermann, Jan; Thielman, Nathan
Research has shown that negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men are common and widespread in Western societies. However, few studies have addressed attitudes toward transgender individuals. In addition, although research has shown that homophobic harassment and bullying is highly common among adolescents, little is known about adolescent's attitudes toward sexual minorities. This study aimed to fill these gaps in knowledge, by investigating adolescents' attitudes toward transgender individuals and possible attitudinal correlates of those attitudes. Participants (N?=?188; 62 males and 126 females) were recruited in high schools in Lisbon, Portugal. Age ranged from 15 to 19 years (M?=?17; SD = .96). Participants completed a questionnaire booklet measuring attitudes toward transgender individuals, lesbians, and gay men, and gender role beliefs. Results revealed that attitudes toward transgender individuals were significantly correlated with all attitude measures. Specifically, it was revealed that those participants who endorsed negative attitudes toward transgender individuals were also endorsing of negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men and tended to adhere to traditional gender roles. A significant gender effect was found with males being more negative toward sexual minorities than females, but these negative attitudes were more extreme toward gay men than toward lesbian women. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:23153027
Costa, Pedro Alexandre; Davies, Michelle
The evolution of various approaches to health education and additions from educational psychology have brought about a proposition of an easy-to-follow (thus useful) model for health educators based on five nouns: Desire, Knowledge, Belief, Choice, and Ability (Vouloir, Savoir, Se voir, Choisir et Pouvoir). 1. Desire creates the motivation which is essential to action, and can stem from: anticipating consequences; and/or an internal need to resolve problems; and/or external constraints; and/or an interest, reflecting a system of values. Motivation increases, of course, when more than one of the above factors comes into play and the effects are combined. 2. Knowledge is the cognitive competence which is acquired through direct experience, imitation of models, or "verbal apprenticeship" which provides the individual with a repertoire of effective solutions to various problems. 3. Belief concerns the concept of self-evaluation (or rather self-estime). An individual judges his/her capacity to act according to his/her capabilities, and the community according to its actual or potential human, financial and material resources. 4. An individual or community uses its "knowledge" to consider a series of possible solutions to a given problem and chooses the solution according to a base of preferences. In health, as elsewhere, all actions have positive and negative consequences. An example can be found in the alcohol/tobacco area: a certain positive image of smoking and drinking has been portrayed in many socio-cultural environments, and educational campaigns have had a difficult time convincing the public of the negative consequences of these actions. It is thus not surprising that the "balance" of the decision continues toward substance abuse. 5. After "desire, knowledge, belief and choice" have filtered potential solutions, the decisive step is left: the individual and/or community execute an action according to their ability to succeed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3666752
Leclercq, D; Sigaudès, D
The purpose of this study was to explore how teacher educators' pedagogical beliefs are related to their uses of technology in instruction. Also, this study explored the relationship between the pedagogical beliefs of teacher educators and preservice teachers, as well as the relationship between teacher educators' uses of technology and preservice teachers' attitudes toward technology uses in classrooms. Participants in this study included new teacher education students and teacher educators ...
This study examined the relationship between media exposure, antifat attitudes, and body dissatisfaction, as well as the mediating effect of dysfunctional appearance beliefs. A sample of 112 women completed surveys measuring media exposure, antifat attitudes, body dissatisfaction, and dysfunctional beliefs about appearance. It was found that time spent reading fashion magazines was positively correlated with antifat attitudes and that this relationship was mediated by dysfunctional beliefs about appearance. Measures of antifat attitudes and body dissatisfaction were both found to be correlated with endorsement of dysfunctional beliefs about appearance and body mass index. Results suggest that time spent reading fashion magazines may be related to antifat attitudes through dysfunctional appearance beliefs. PMID:18996065
Lin, Linda; Reid, Kathleen
Data from ethnically diverse north-western Thailand with recent migrants from Myanmar (Burma) and China allow testing of hypotheses concerning between- and within-community differences in predominantly Yunnanese Chinese, Hmong and Lahu ethnic minority villages versus ethnic majority Thai villages. Topics include knowledge of HIV transmission, prevention and treatment, avoidance of people infected with HIV and constraints to use of health services. Respondents include women with one or more children under age five and their husbands/partners. Ethnicity is consistently associated with socioeconomic characteristics, knowledge of HIV transmission, prevention and treatment, avoidance of people living with HIV and AIDS, and constraints to use of services. Chinese community residents had the lowest levels of knowledge of HIV, especially with regard to mother-to-child transmission, the most intent to avoid contact with people living with HIV and AIDS, and the highest levels of constraints to using services, including ineligibility for government healthcare and limited Thai language ability. Associations of counselling with Thai language ability, and more knowledge and less avoidance of people living with HIV and AIDS, suggest that language-appropriate health education may help overcome disparities. PMID:23930982
Full Text Available Purpose: For intervention to be effective, it is essential that the knowledge, beliefs and perception of a specific social group are taken into account. This is particularly true of leprosy where the problems of social stigma and ostracism are more prominent than the disease itself. There are many misconceptions about the cause, methods of transmission, and treatment. The main objectives of the study were to examine the socio-demographic profile of persons with leprosy and to explore their knowledge, beliefs and perception about the disease and its initial symptoms, within a specific socio-cultural milieu. Method: Semi-structured interviews were held with a persons with leprosy at various clinics and care-homes for affected persons in and around Chandigarh, India. Those who had completed their treatment and those who were still undergoing treatment were included in the study. Data collection was done through case studies and in-depth interviews. Results: The name of the disease varied across different geo-cultural zones. Many respondents who were afflicted with only red patches and had no ulcers, believed that they suffered from a skin disease which would turn into leprosy if proper medication was not received. The perception of 64.9 % of the respondents was that leprosy resulted from supernatural causes like God’s punishment, karma, and sin. Conclusion: There is a need to educate persons with leprosy and their families about the etiology of the disease.
Beliefs and attitudes resulting from the unique life experiences of teachers frame interactions with learners promoting gender equity or inequity and the reproduction of social views about knowledge and power as related to gender. This study examines the enactment of a female science teacher's pedagogy (Laura), seeking to understand the implications of her beliefs and attitudes, as framed by her interpretations and daily manifestations, as she interacts with students. Distinct influences inform the conceptual framework of this study: (a) the social organization of society at large, governed by understood and unspoken patriarchy, present both academically and socially; (b) the devaluing of women as "knowers" of scientific knowledge as defined by a western and male view of science; (c) the marginalization or "feminization" of education and pedagogical knowledge. The findings reflect tensions between attitudes and beliefs and actual teacher practice suggesting the need for awareness within existing or new teachers about their positions as social agents and the sociological implications related to issues of gender within which we live and work, inclusive of science teaching and learning.
Zapata, Mara; Gallard, Alejandro J.
Teachers face a seemingly insurmountable task when asked to address the science of climate change with the general public. This topic is unique because of its complexity, political implications and urgency for action. Developing tools that teachers need to address the National Science Standards begin with comprehensive professional development. After one year's implementation of our program (after participation in UCAR's NASA-funded Research Experiences for Teachers Institute), we are beginning to see evidence that with intentional delivery and preparation of climate science curriculum it is possible to combine knowledge and beliefs in order to nurture a desire for action. Teachers need to acquire an appreciation and understanding for the level of connectedness between disciplines used to study climate and repeatedly present the scientific process as a way of gathering evidence to arrive at factual conclusions. This emphasis on scientific process is important in dealing with the difference between personal beliefs and knowledge. In students' everyday lives their beliefs often matter much more to them than scientific facts. Today's media frequently gives opinions as much clout as verifiable data. Therefore, science teachers need to become anthropologists in order to navigate between cultures, traditions, economic realities and foundational beliefs to effect a change in attitude. Climate change affects us all whether we like it or not, and the challenge is finding a personal connection for each student that supports their journey instead of polarizing each other into the "believers" and "non-believers". It is important to listen to those whose worldview is not best explained by science in order to address the problem with the least resistance. At the end of a program that implemented techniques described above the student's overwhelming response was not: "climate change is a hoax" but instead "ok, I get it, NOW WHAT?" This is the million-dollar question that we strive to be asked and struggle to answer. We can get the student's attention but keeping them active in the pursuit of change is our next hurdle. Initial results are available in the form of case studies including pre and post attitudes about this global issue.
Contextualizar os conhecimentos, atitudes e crenças face ao VIH/SIDA: um contributo para aperfeiçoar o caminho a percorrer / Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about HIV/AIDS: contributions for the understanding of the problem
Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Reconhecendo que a implementação de estratégias direccionadas para os mais jovens tem surgido como um vector fundamental à regressão da epidemia, o objectivo primordial deste estudo consistiu em avaliar os conhecimentos, as atitudes e as crenças face ao VIH/SIDA dos jovens do distrito de Vila Real, [...] que frequentavam os 10º, 11º e 12º anos de escolaridade e, deste modo, apresentar-se como uma contribuição para o aperfeiçoamento das intervenções preventivas. Para este propósito foi utilizada uma amostra estratificada por sexo e ano de escolaridade, constituída por 1.152 estudantes, dos quais 480 eram do sexo masculino e 672 do sexo feminino, sendo a média de idades de 16 anos. Para a recolha de dados, utilizou-se um inquérito estruturado com base nas recomendações do documento "Research Package on KABP-Knowleddge, Attitudes, Beliefs and Practices", composto por 60 perguntas agrupadas em oito blocos temáticos. Dos resultados obtidos, constatou-se que a maioria dos estudantes não referiu actividade sexual (67,7%). Dos que mencionaram já ter tido relações sexuais, 49,3%, eram do sexo masculino e 20,2% do sexo feminino. Quanto ao número de parceiros sexuais tidos durante a vida, predominou, para o sexo feminino, um parceiro sexual, enquanto para o sexo masculino mais de três parceiros sexuais. Apesar da maior parte dos estudantes ter utilizado preservativo durante as relações sexuais e ter referido conhecimentos sobre este método de prevenção, foi de sublinhar que alguns não referiram a sua utilização (14,5%). Uma apreciação global, quanto aos conhecimentos sobre VIH/SIDA, apontou para um bom nível de conhecimentos, merecendo alguma atenção as questões relativas à possibilidade de identificação dos indivíduos infectados através do seu aspecto físico e ao facto de as pessoas portadoras do vírus padecerem da doença, cuja percentagem de respostas incorrectas foi considerável. Os estudantes revelaram uma subvalorização do risco, com apenas 46,3% a admitir alguma possibilidade de contágio, sendo os estudantes do sexo masculino e os que tinham conhecimentos sobre SIDA a admitirem em média uma maior possibilidade de contágio. A maioria dos estudantes referiu uma percepção de ameaça grave para a saúde, reconheceu que não existe possibilidade de cura e que a maior parte das pessoas serão vítimas da doença. Como nota de síntese, queremos sublinhar o valor inegável da Promoção da Saúde em contexto escolar, como forma de assegurar o desenvolvimento saudável dos jovens, quando tem como pressupostos estruturantes o processo de capacitação do ser humano para agir e intervir no decurso da sua vida. Abstract in english Recognizing that the implementation of strategies guided for the more youth has been appearing as a fundamental vector to the regression of the epidemic, the primordial main of this study consisted of evaluating the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about HIV/AIDS, of the youth of the district of Vil [...] a Real, that attend the 10th, 11th and 12th grade, and this way, to present as a contribution for the improvement of the preventive interventions. For that purpose a sample was used stratified by sex and year of education, constituted by 1.152 students, of which 480 were male and 672 female, being the average of 16 year-old ages. For the collection of data an inquiry was used structured on the basis of the recommendations of the document "Research Package on KABP ?Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs and Practices", composed by 60 questions, grouped in eight thematic blocks. From the obtained results it was verified that most of the students didn’t refer sexual activity (67.7%). Of the students that mentioned to have already had sexual relationships, 49.3%, are male and 20.2% female. As for the number of sexual partners they had, for the feminine sex, a sexual partner prevailed, while for the masculine sex prevailed more than three sexual partners. In spite of most of the stu
Maria João, Monteiro; José, Vasconcelos-Raposo.
Despite significant evidence for the integration of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) into professional nursing practice, gaps exist regarding nurses' baseline knowledge, beliefs of efficacy, and learning needs for further education to facilitate the integration of CAM into nursing practice. The top three conditions which adults identified for using CAM were back pain, neck pain, and joint pain. CAM can offer nurses additional treatment options for managing their patients' pain and discomfort. The California Board of Registered Nursing (BRN) identifies that nurses can help provide the missing link between conventional Western medicine and CAM therapies. Nurses cannot successfully advocate for CAM therapies, nor understand their patients' prior use of such treatments, unless they themselves are familiar with both the risks and the benefits of these practices. It is necessary to first establish nurses' baseline knowledge and beliefs related to CAM so that adequate educational programs can be initiated to help mitigate the barriers to incorporating CAM into the acute care setting. This descriptive study explores registered nurses' attitudes and knowledge related to CAM by using the Nurse Complementary and Alternative Medicine Nursing Knowledge and Attitudes Survey developed by Rojas-Cooley and Grant. Nurses in this study demonstrated limited self-reported knowledge of basic CAM terminology and CAM practices. PMID:24315251
Trail-Mahan, Tracy; Mao, Chia-Ling; Bawel-Brinkley, Karen
Discussed is the development and psychometric analysis of a measure of rape-supportive attitudes and beliefs called the Rape Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (RABS), intended for the use with college men. Items were developed from a literature review of "rape myths" that were correlated to some measure of sexual aggression. An exploratory factor…
Burgess, Gerald H.
We have begun a mixed methods study that uses longitudinal and interview data to inform our understanding of student's beliefs and attitudes about the role of science within our society and their understanding of the nature of science within the context of astronomy. We are also seeking the input of the broader Astro 101 teaching community about their own beliefs and attitudes about what is important for students to understand about science and its role in society. The results of this work will be used to inform the development of a multiple-choice pre-/post-assessment instrument designed to determine how different instructional environments change students' beliefs and attitudes as a result of an introductory astronomy course. We describe specific attitudinal categories that the survey questions are being designed to address. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program, and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Education and Public Outreach Program.
Cormier, Sebastien; Prather, E. E.; Brissenden, G.; Impey, C.; CATS
To develop environmental education in Australia, a survey of tenth-grade students was undertaken. Thirty knowledge items and ten belief items were constructed. A panel of environmentalists and educators identified best responses for the knowledge items, and a common reference point, preservation of homo sapiens, for the belief items, so a…
Eyers, Vivian George
Native American nurses are in an ideal position to articulate how to serve Native people in ways that respect indigenous cultures. Forty Native American nurses and nursing students completed a survey on knowledge, skills, and attitudes/values necessary for culturally competent service provision to Native patients. Four knowledge themes, four skill themes, and three attitude/value themes were identified. Nurses must know about and show respect for the culture and history of Native groups, including culturally specific health beliefs and healing practices. Skills must be tailored for work in a non-Western context, and containment skills become particularly important. Additionally, respecting diversity and traditions and being open-minded and nonethnocentric are fundamental. This study provides valuable information nurses can use to enhance their work with indigenous people. PMID:10693406
Weaver, H N
Full Text Available This Australian study seeks to better understand the disparity between the positive attitudes towards Socially Responsible Investing (SRI and the level of investment in SRI (Saulwick &Associates 2001; Watmore & Bradley 2001; Williams 2007; Arjalies 2010, by examining both the attitudes to SRI and the investment choices that are made. It is hypothesised that those who are more committed to religious belief principles are more likely to invest in SRI.To test this 322 people from two large Queensland organisations were surveyed in relation to their investment attitudes and preferences. Results show that those who are more religious are no more likely to invest in SRI, and that the level of importance placed on SRI and financial criteria are similar in most instances for the more and less religious. In addition, women who are religious place more importance on conservative general investment criteria than less ornon-religious women.
Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…
Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.
Two hundred people completed two questionnaires that concerned their beliefs about what psychotherapy clients experience and their attitudes toward psychotherapy. Both questionnaires were shown to have an interpretable factor structure, and these beliefs and attitudal factors were shown to be clearly related. There were no sex, a few age, but a number of educational and "psychological experience" correlates of the belief and attitudinal factors. A canonical correlation produced one factor that seemed readily interpretable, with psychological experience the most powerful correlate of both beliefs and attitudes. The results were discussed in terms of the work on lay beliefs and expectations about therapy and counseling. PMID:2286686
Furnham, A; Wardley, Z
In this article, we present and discuss an example of how teachers' discussions of mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) items elicited their beliefs about the knowledge needed to teach mathematics. One category of MKT is "horizon content knowledge," and this can be described as mathematical knowledge not directly deployed in…
Mosvold, Reidar; Fauskanger, Janne
In past millennia religious traditions suggested a kind of wisdom from which science divorced since its beginning, belief being then considered as a backwards attitude with respect to the triumphant scientific reason. Apparently, no sacred text suggested an adequate analysis on both the admirable intellectual construction built by scientific reason and modern way of life, essentially advantaging progress with respect to all traditions. Since one century a new attitude ...
Intuitively, there is a difference between knowledge and mere belief. Contemporary philosophical work on the nature of this difference has focused on scenarios known as "Gettier cases." Designed as counterexamples to the classical theory that knowledge is justified true belief, these cases feature agents who arrive at true beliefs in ways which seem reasonable or justified, while nevertheless seeming to lack knowledge. Prior empirical investigation of these cases has raised questions about whether lay people generally share philosophers' intuitions about these cases, or whether lay intuitions vary depending on individual factors (e.g. ethnicity) or factors related to specific types of Gettier cases (e.g. cases that include apparent evidence). We report an experiment on lay attributions of knowledge and justification for a wide range of Gettier Cases and for a related class of controversial cases known as Skeptical Pressure cases, which are also thought by philosophers to elicit intuitive denials of knowledge. Although participants rated true beliefs in Gettier and Skeptical Pressure cases as being justified, they were significantly less likely to attribute knowledge for these cases than for matched True Belief cases. This pattern of response was consistent across different variations of Gettier cases and did not vary by ethnicity or gender, although attributions of justification were found to be positively related to measures of empathy. These findings therefore suggest that across demographic groups, laypeople share similar epistemic concepts with philosophers, recognizing a difference between knowledge and justified true belief. PMID:23489589
Nagel, Jennifer; Juan, Valerie San; Mar, Raymond A
Full Text Available Using the theoretical framework of the Theory of Reasoned Action , we examine benefits satisfactionas an attitude formed by the beliefs about benefits (i.e., benefits knowledge and the perceived value ofthese benefits (i.e., fit of benefits to individual needs. We use questionnaires to gather data from arandom sample of 591 employees in a large county agency in the South-eastern United States. The datasupport that knowledge of benefits is associated with enhanced benefits satisfaction and mediates theeffect of explanations about benefits on satisfaction. The results provide strong evidence that benefitsperceived to suit employee needs generate highest benefits satisfaction. Employees satisfied with theirbenefits are less likely to consider leaving the organization. The tested model is a starting point for futurestudies to apply the extended Theory of Reasoned Action  and incorporate perceived behaviouralcontrol and subjective norms (i.e., co-workers’ attitudes in forming benefits satisfaction. Understandingemployees’ affective and cognitive reactions to compensation, including benefits, can render betterpractices. Companies should use information campaigns to improve employee beliefs about benefits.Better attentiveness to individual needs and preferences can maximize the utility of a benefits plan andimprove its acceptance. We replicate and extend past research in a parsimonious model of benefitssatisfaction with a random sample of public sector employees.
Gery Markova, Foard Jones
Full Text Available I shall examine Quine’s conception of logic, of propositional attitudes, and of the unity of knowledge in order to show that there are some tensions in Quine’s system. I first propose a conception of the use or application of logic, stating that logic strictly speaking applies to intentional phenomena or to things that presuppose the existence of intentional phenomena. Then, I consider briefly Quine’s philosophy of logic and discuss some issues. In Quine’s philosophy, logic stays at the very center of the web of our beliefs; it is central in science and ordinary knowledge as well. Then I examine Quine’s tendency to “quine” the mental, given his own maxim of minimum mutilation. Finally, I consider Quine’s thesis of the unity of knowledge, the thesis that there is continuity from ordinary to scientific knowledge. If I am right about the use of logic and the presence of the propositional attitude idiom in ordinary knowledge and social sciences and humanities, I think there is a problem of consistency in Quine’s system, and that Quine himself pointed to a part of the solution.
The authors examined whether students' epistemic and learning beliefs varied across different knowledge types in physics. On the basis of various beliefs frameworks, the authors predicted that individuals' beliefs would vary within a domain across the same content when presented conceptually versus procedurally. Participants were 81 high…
Muis, Krista R.; Gierus, Bogusia
The goal of the current study was to develop and validate a self-report questionnaire of preschool teachers' attitudes and beliefs toward science. In preparation for the current study, the research team developed the Preschool Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs toward Science Questionnaire (P-TABS). The sample consists of 507 teachers: 98% female,…
Maier, Michelle F.; Greenfield, Daryl B.; Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca
Smokers and nonsmokers were exposed to anti-smoking communications to compare the relationship of emotional arousal, attitudes, and subjective normative beliefs. Findings revealed that smoking-related intentions were more strongly associated with attitudes toward smoking than with subjective normative beliefs or emotional arousal. (RC)
Beck, Kenneth H.; Davis, Clive M.
This study investigated tenth- and twelfth-grade adolescents' ( N = 264) beliefs about homosexuality, their attitudes about gay and lesbian peers in school, and their evaluations of the treatment of gay, lesbian, and gender non-conforming peers. The results revealed differences in adolescents' beliefs about homosexuality and their attitudes toward…
Horn, Stacey S.; Nucci, Larry
A small but statistically significant positive correlation (r = .17) was found in a sample of 279 13- to 16-yr.-old students in Wales between scores on the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity and on a new Index of Paranormal Belief. These data suggest that there is little common variance between attitude toward Christianity and belief in the paranormal. PMID:17037478
Williams, Emyr; Francis, Leslie J; Robbins, Mandy
Prior empirical studies in the implementation of general information technologies (IT) have revealed that IT adoption and usage were determined by user beliefs and attitudes. However, little is known about how user beliefs and attitudes form and change over time. To address these issues, this paper reports a study of 481 inexperienced and 120…
Lau, Siong-Hoe; Woods, Peter C.
Examines impact of gender identity and adversarial sexual beliefs as predictors of attitudes toward sexual harassment for 52 female and 55 male college students. Adversarial beliefs and experience with sexual harassment predict less tolerant attitudes toward harassment for males, whereas strong gender group identity and experience with harassment…
Murrell, Audrey J.; Dietz-Uhler, Beth L.
Attitudes and knowledge regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) of 498 college students enrolled at California State University, Dominguez Hills were surveyed. The AIDS Opinion and Information Surveys were administered to subjects between the ages of 18 and 46+, with 81.5% being below the age of 32. The 19-item Opinion survey uses a…
Full Text Available Background: Epileptics are often socially discriminated due to the negative public attitudes, misconceptions and false beliefs. Thus, the main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy among Malaysian Chinese.Methods: A cross-sectional study by using a 23-item validated, self-administered questionnaire was carried out in urban areas, selected through stratified sampling. A Chinese population was randomly selected in the stratified areas of Penang, Ipoh, Klang valley, and Kuala Lumpur and was asked to complete the questionnaire.Results: Among 382 (74.6% respondents, 16.2% believed that epilepsy is a type of mental illness. Majority (90.8% accepted that epileptics can become useful members of the society however, only 16% agreed to marry them. About 57% of respondents recognised epilepsy as nervous system problem. Significant relationships between education level and statements such as, epileptics are as intelligent as everyone else (p=0.009, epilepsy can be successfully treated with drugs (p=0.037 and epileptics can be successful in their chosen career (p=0.009, were found.Conclusions: The general Chinese population in the selected areas of peninsular Malaysia had relatively good knowledge and positive attitudes toward certain aspects of epilepsy at the time of the investigation. However, minority of the study participants demonstrated prejudice and discriminatory behaviour towards people with epilepsy.
In this thesis nutrition attitudes, beliefs, and fat intake in three generations of women are described. The aim of the study was twofold: the development of methods, and to study family resemblance in food habits. Based on literature study and qualitative pilot studies a questionnaire on beliefs and attitudes towards the consumption of 20 foods was developed for which Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action was used as a framework. In addition, an attitude scale was developed towards ...
Full Text Available Background & Aim: Inter-partner relationships as part of a somatic-affective interaction have important role in supporting of familial relations. In this regard, knowledge of couples about their specific role against their spouses and the ways of having correct sexual relationship is essential. This correct knowledge might help spouses to understand their husband/wife and would promote family's cultural status and would be transmitted to next generations. This study carried out to determine the knowledge level and beliefs of couples attending marriage counseling centers toward correct sexual relationships. Methods & Materials: This is a cross-sectional study. A total of 300 individuals (150 couples, attending marriage counseling centers in the north and east of Tehran recruited for the study using random selection method. Data were collected using a questionnaire including knowledge and beliefs assessment questions. Results: Mean knowledge score for men and women were 12.3±2.5 and 10.1±1.8, respectively (P=0.23. Knowledge level of participants with higher education (P=0.00; and those aged 25-29 years (P=0.65 were higher than others. 11.3% of women and 13.1% of men did not have appropriate attitudes toward correct sexual relationships (P=0.35.Conclusion: Although knowledge level of respondents was just above the half of the complete score, the overall beliefs toward sexual relationships were positive.
Since the introduction of the Basic Safety Standards recommendations, the scope of the radiation protection was broadening. On behalf of the incorporation of radiation protection of the patient in medical exposures, the different groups of professionals involved: physicians, medical physicists, radiation protection officers, regulators, etc., have to work together. The objective of radiation protection, that is, to reduces doses from practices, to prevent potential exposures, to detect its occurrence as well as to evaluate and spread such abnormal situations, will be obtained only if it were possible to joint two basic conditions: knowledge and attitude. It should be well known the differences between the backgrounds needed to be for example, a medical physicist or an R.P.O., However, their attitude to solve an eventual problem involving radiation protection should be the same; as well as the behavior of the specialized physician and regulators, in order to add towards common goals. In this work, we show as an example the curricula contents about radiation protection of the cancer of medical physics in the Universidad Nacional de San Martin (UNSAM), and the corresponding module on medical exposures from the Post-Graduate course on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, held since the 80s in Buenos Aires by the National Commission of Atomic Energy, ARN, IAEA, and the Universidad de Buenos Aires. On the other hand, we describe different attitudes which leads or could start major radiological accidents, regardless the level of knowledge in radiation protection. We conclude that the larger numbers of accidents are due to problems in the attitude than in the level of knowledge of the person involved. Consequently; we suggest emphasizing the discussion on how to generate positive attitudes in every professional involucrated, independently of its cognitive profile or level. (Author) 2 refs
Full Text Available This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes in relation to AIDS in women over 50 years of age. The study included women from the Center for the Study of the Elderly - NETI, of the Federal University of Santa Catarina - UFSC. To achieve the proposed objectives, a descriptive-exploratory qualitative approach was chosen. A semi-structured interview was used as the data collection technique. It was identified that knowledge about AIDS and risk attitudes toward the disease, arise from the permanence of the concept of risk groups, from the dynamics of power inherent in gender relationships in our society, and from the lack of effectiveness and sustainability of public policies on AIDS prevention which effectively reach this segment of the population, as well as a lack of strategies to effectively make such policies operational.
Elza Berger Salema Coelho
A sample of 323 physicians from Edmonton, Alberta, was surveyed to evaluate their attitudes and knowledge level concerning heart disease and lipids. Of the sample, 117 physicians returned the questionnaire. When asked to choose significant risk factors of cardiovascular disease, 69% of the physicians indicated hypertension; 85% indicated smoking; and 87% indicated elevated serum cholesterol. Concerning the minimal low-density lipoprotein level that warrants treatment, 82% of the general pract...
Macdonald, Neil; Daub, Bill
Student success in a physics degree has been shown to depend on more than just performance in course assessment: important additional factors include student attitudes and beliefs about their subject. We have used an instrument (CLASS) that measures how student epistemologies evolve over the course of their undergraduate degree. Our previous work has sampled a cross-section of students at all levels across the physics undergraduate programme at Edinburgh in a single academic year, and found that student attitudes and beliefs remain essentially static. Here, we present fully longitudinal data collected over the past three years, where we track the evolution of the attitudes and beliefs of one group of students. We find broadly similar results: attitudes and beliefs remain surprisingly consistent over time. This suggests that a 'cross-sectional' or 'pseudo-longitudinal' study (collecting snapshot data in one year) is a valid methodology, rather than necessarily having to wait several years to accumulate truly longitudinal data.
Slaughter, K. A.; Bates, S. P.; Galloway, R. K.
A number of instruments have been designed to probe the variety of attitudes, beliefs, expectations, and epistemological frames taught in our introductory physics courses. Using a newly developed instrument — the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) — we examine the relationship between students' beliefs about physics and other educational outcomes, such as conceptual learning and student retention. We report results from surveys of over 750 students in a variety of courses, including several courses modified to promote favorable beliefs about physics. We find positive correlations between particular student beliefs and conceptual learning gains, and between student retention and favorable beliefs in select categories. We also note the influence of teaching practices on student beliefs.
Perkins, K. K.; Adams, W. K.; Pollock, S. J.; Finkelstein, N. D.; Wieman, C. E.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between osteoporosis knowledge, beliefs and calcium intake among college students. This study also examined perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers and self-efficacy related to osteoporosis prevention. Participants: Seven hundred and ninety two (n = 792) men and women ages 17 - 31 of all ethnicities at a mid-western regional university in the US participated in the study. Methods: The Osteoporosis Knowledge T...
Usdan, Stuart L.; Turner, Lori W.; Ellen Edmonds
The present study adds to the evolving literature on green consumer behavior by examining through statistically robust methods the effect and interrelationships of the key constructs of environmental concern, consumer environmental knowledge, beliefs about biofuels, and behavioral intention (i.e., willingness to use and pay) in the context of biofuels. Data were collected through a survey of 1695 respondents. Hypotheses are based on a literature review and a pilot study, and the conceptual structural model developed is tested through structural equation modeling. Results show that concern for the environment has a positive and direct impact on environmental knowledge, beliefs, and behavioral intention. Also, demographics determine levels of concern for the environment and environmental knowledge. All constructs associate positively with one another delineating that the interdependencies between them are important when accounting for environmental behavior. Future research should validate present results with the use of cross-cultural samples and investigate whether environmental concern increases due to social desirability response bias.
Pagiaslis, Anastasios; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios
We present results of a pseudolongitudinal study of attitudes and beliefs about physics from different cohort groups ranging from final-year high school students in the UK to physics faculty (N=637), using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) instrument. In terms of overall degree of expertlike thinking, we find little…
Bates, Simon P.; Galloway, Ross K.; Loptson, Claire; Slaughter, Katherine A.
This study evaluated the attitudes and beliefs of 68 undergraduate preservice teachers in the fourth year of a teacher training program at the National Institute of Education (Singapore). The preservice teachers completed a survey of attitudes toward different assumptions of inclusion, perceptions of self-efficacy, and competence. Results suggest…
Rao, Shaila M.; Lim, Levan
Scholars and teacher educators alike agree that teachers' beliefs and attitudes toward mathematics are key informants of teachers' instructional approaches. Therefore, it has become clear that, in addition to enriching preservice teachers' (PSTs) knowledge, teacher education programs should also create opportunities for prospective teachers to…
Charalambous, Charalambos Y.; Panaoura, Areti; Philippou, George
La formación de enfermeras y el fenómeno de las drogas en Colombia: conocimientos, actitudes y creencias A formação dos enfermeiros e o fenômeno das drogas na Colômbia: conhecimentos, atitudes e crenças Nursing education and the drugs phenomenon in Colombia: knowledge, attitudes and beliefs
Full Text Available La Investigación, tuvo como objetivo, caracterizar en la formación de enfermeras los conocimientos, las actitudes y creencias relacionadas con el fenómeno de las drogas. Estudio descriptivo, muestra total 100% (n=159, estudiantes de ultimo semestre de los programas de pregrado de enfermería. Resultados, se conocieron las actitudes y creencias sobre Alcohol, Drogas, Alcohol y Drogas, y los conocimientos que sobre el fenómeno de las drogas, tienen los estudiantes. Se identifico abordaje de las relaciones entre la Salud Internacional. Conclusión, los futuros enfermeros de la Región Central de Colombia, poseen preparación teórica sobre el alcohol y las drogas, asumen actitudes positivas, presentan debilidades prácticas, para actuar frente a esa problemática. Comprenden las relaciones entre la salud general, salud internacional y sus interrelaciones con el fenómeno de las drogas, indican que pueden ser actores en sus contextos internacionales, nacionales y regionales.A pesquisa teve como objetivo caracterizar a formação dos enfermeiros através do conhecimento, atitudes e crenças relacionadas com o fenômeno das drogas. É um estudo descritivo, com uma amostra composta por 159 (100% estudantes do último semestre do programa de graduação de enfermagem ano. Pelos resultados, se conheceram as atitudes e crenças sobre os problemas relacionados ao álcool, álcool e drogas e drogas e ainda sobre o conhecimento que os estudantes tem sobre o tema Saúde Internacional. Conclusão: os futuros enfermeiros na Região Central da Colômbia possuem preparo teórico sobre álcool e drogas, possuem atitudes positivas, mas apresentam dificuldades na prática para atuar frente a essa problemática. Compreendem as relações entre a saúde geral, saúde internacional e as suas inter-relações com o fenômeno das drogas, indicam que podem ser atores em seus contextos internacionais, nacionais e regionais.The objective of the research was to confer a distinction on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs in nurse formation, related with drugs problem. Descriptive study, Total sample 100% (n=159 from nursing pregrade Programs. Results: the attitudes and beliefs Alcohol, Drugs, Alcohol and Drugs were known, and the knowledge that students have about drugs phenomenon. It identifies the relationship between International. Conclusion: the newly nurses Central Region of Colombia, theoretical preparation about Alcohol and Drugs, they assume positive attitudes, they show weakness in practice, to perform against this problem. They understand the relation between general health, international health and them with drugs problem, because all of this, it indicates they can be a great help in their international, nationals and regional contexts.
Evelyn Vásquez Mendoza
Introduction. Ability and readiness to talk with patients about sexual problems not only depend on education in sexual physiology and pathology, but also on the doctors’ beliefs and attitudes towards sexuality. Considering importance of these matters, the authors decided to collect and evaluate the data regarding attitudes and cognitive schemata of medical students. Aim. Analysis of selected convictions and attitudes towards sex life of IV-th grade students of medicine. Methods. There was s...
Mu?ldner-nieckowski, ?ukasz; Soban?ski, Jerzy A.; Klasa, Katarzyna; Dembin?ska, Edyta; Rutkowski, Krzysztof
This study surveyed over 400 individuals attending jury duty regarding various perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs they had concerning psychopathic personality (psychopathy). The protocol included (a) prototype ratings of what participants considered to be core features, using the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP) prototype rating scale; (b) questions concerning knowledge and beliefs about psychopathy (e.g., prevalence in society); and (c) attitudinal scales concerning potential associated features (e.g., criminality, rehabilitation potential), etiological underpinnings, and moral judgments and legal sanctions. Consistent with results of earlier studies using expert raters, jury panel members rated most of the 33 individual CAPP items and all 6 CAPP scales as at least moderately prototypical, with Self and Dominance domains obtaining the highest mean ratings. Many participants also strongly endorsed symptoms of psychosis (e.g., delusions) as prototypical of psychopathy. Despite this, they viewed psychopaths as responsible for their own actions, as capable of determining right from wrong, and as generally not "insane." Our findings indicate that jury panel members view the prototypical psychopath as highly dominant, self-focused, and lacking in remorse and empathy and reinforce the need for expert witnesses to clearly differentiate between psychopathy and psychotic-spectrum disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24933174
Smith, Shannon Toney; Edens, John F; Clark, John; Rulseh, Allison
Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these…
Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.
This study examined the ability of a lifespan course to create positive change in both knowledge of, and attitudes toward, aging of undergraduate students. Additionally, we questioned whether students define the point at which one is considered to be old in similar ways. Findings indicated positive change in both knowledge and attitudes, but…
Cottle, Nate R.; Glover, Rebecca J.
This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian school counselors toward diabetes mellitus. A sample of 295 counselors completed a questionnaire consisting of two parts concerning knowledge and attitudes. The face validity of the questionnaire was assessed using an informed panel of judges, and its reliability was established…
Tannous, Adel G.; Khateeb, Jamal M.; Khamra, Hatem A.; Hadidi, Muna S.; Natour, Mayada M.
This study explored knowledge, attitudes and practices towards HIV/AIDS infection among 1256 Egyptian industrial and tourism workers aged 16-40 years. Compared with industrial workers, tourism workers had a significantly better perception of the magnitude of the HIV/AIDS problem worldwide as well as in Egypt and of the likelihood of the problem worsening. Knowledge of tourism workers was also significantly better about causative agent of AIDS and methods of transmission. Both groups had negative attitudes towards patients living with HIV/AIDS concerning their right to confidentiality and to work. Both groups had a positive attitude towards behaviour change for protection from HIV/AIDS, principally via avoidance of extramarital sexual relations and adherence to religious beliefs. Use of condoms as a way to avoid HIV/AIDS was reported by only 0.4% of workers. PMID:19161085
El-Sayyed, N; Kabbash, I A; El-Gueniedy, M
The objective of this study was to examine the current community intention, knowledge, beliefs and behaviour regarding colorectal cancer (CRC) screening with faecal occult blood testing (FOBT). A cross sectional telephone survey of the general population was conducted in Queensland, Australia. A random sample of 1,136 residents aged 40-80 years were invited to participate in the survey with a response rate of 77.8%. 77.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 74.0 to 80.7%) of respondents reported that they would participate in CRC screening by FOBT if recommended to do so by doctors or health authorities. Screening intention was significantly associated with interest in further information concerning CRC or CRC screening (odds ratio: 6.7; 95% CI: 3.4 - 13.1), belief that CRC screening is necessary for persons without symptoms (5.0; 95% CI: 1.5 -17.1), and belief that treating bowel cancer in the early stages increases a person's chance of survival (5.1; 95% CI: 2.6 - 9.9). Knowledge of seeking medical advice (2.8; 95% CI: 0.9 - 8.7) and diarrhoea/constipation as a symptom of CRC (1.7; 95% CI: 0.9 - 3.2), self-initiated screening behaviour (1.5; 95% CI: 0.8 -2.9), and medical check a couple of times a year or more (2.4; 95% CI: 0.9 - 6.5) were also marginally significantly associated with screening intention. Community intention to screen for CRC with FOBT may have increased over recent years. Screening intention is associated with community knowledge, attitudes/beliefs and behaviour. PMID:16629434
Tong, S; Hughes, K; Oldenburg, B B; Mar, C D
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of case-based learning instruction over traditionally designed chemistry instruction on eleventh grade students' epistemological beliefs and their attitudes toward chemistry as a school subject. The subjects of this study consisted of 63 eleventh grade students from two intact classes of an urban high school instructed with same teacher. Each teaching method was randomly assigned to one class. The experimental group received case-based learning and the control group received traditional instruction. At the experimental group, life cases were presented with small group format; at the control group, lecturing and discussion was carried out. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the experimental and control group with respect to their epistemological beliefs and attitudes toward chemistry as a school subject in favor of case-based learning method group. Thus, case base learning is helpful for development of students' epistemological beliefs and attitudes toward chemistry.
Çam, Aylin; Geban, Ömer
Stage hypnosis shows, designed to entertain and amaze, and public lectures, designed to explain and educate, provide dramatically different introductions to hypnosis. This study examined how audience members' attitudes and beliefs regarding hypnosis are affected by these two different experiences. Two hundred and five college students completed pretest measures before either watching a stage hypnosis show, or attending a lecture on hypnosis, or participating in a control group. Subjects completed posttest measures between one to three weeks later. Both the stage hypnosis show and the lecture increased attendees' motivation to use hypnosis in treatment and decreased their belief that hypnotizability reflects lower intelligence. Moreover, the lecture also increased beliefs that hypnotizability reflects creativity and inner strength. Finally, while the lecture reduced the belief that a hypnotized person is robotlike and automatically acts on all suggestions, the stage hypnosis show increased this attitude among its audience members. PMID:8533735
Echterling, L G; Whalen, J
Limited data exist regarding community attitudes and knowledge about clinical depression in rural India. We administered 159 questionnaires and 7 focus groups to Gujarati villagers to explore knowledge and beliefs about clinical depression. Quantitative data were analyzed for frequencies, nonparametric correlations, and principal components, whereas qualitative data were coded for prominent themes. Two groups of subjects emerged from our analysis: one "medically oriented" group that viewed depression as a medical condition and expressed optimism regarding its prognosis and one "spiritually oriented" group that expressed pessimism. Correlations emerged between etiological belief, degree of optimism, and associated stigma. The subjects were pessimistic when they attributed depression to a traumatic event, punishment from God, or brain disease but optimistic when depression was attributed to socioeconomic circumstances. Overall, the subjects were knowledgeable and open-minded toward depression and demonstrated curiosity and willingness to learn more. This study will help to inform future clinical and educational outreach in rural Gujarat. PMID:25275344
Liu, Michelle C; Tirth, Seth; Appasani, Raghu; Shah, Sandip; Katz, Craig L
In this article we analyze beliefs about the social desirability of ten racial attitude items from the German General Social Survey (ALLBUS). These beliefs indicate that the items, as well as respondents with regard to different sex, age and education, are differently prone to social desirability bias. Demographic response differences may thus only reflect differences in social desirability bias. We matched the desirability differences between the items and demographic groups with the racial ...
Background: Research has suggested that patients and treatment providers hold different beliefs and models of obesity. This could impact consistency and quality of interventions for weight management. This study investigated the attitudes and beliefs of health professionals, commercial weight management advisors (expert patients) and overweight and obese dieters, towards obesity. Methods: Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire from 287 health professionals, 85 expert pati...
Mcconnon, A.; Gribble, R.; Raats, Mm; Stubbs, J.; Shepherd, R.
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between osteoporosis knowledge, beliefs and calcium intake among college students. This study also examined perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers and self-efficacy related to osteoporosis prevention. Participants: Seven hundred and ninety two (n = 792 men and women ages 17 - 31 of all ethnicities at a mid-western regional university in the US participated in the study. Methods: The Osteoporosis Knowledge Test, Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale, and Osteoporosis Preventing Behaviors Survey were utilized. Each of these tools were previously validated and found reliable. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were completed. Results: Participants did not perceive themselves as susceptible to osteoporosis and perceived minimal barriers to calcium intake. Their knowledge was minimal concerning alternate sources of calcium. Conclusions: Prevention programs should aim to increase osteoporosis knowledge of risk factors and osteoprotective behaviors and to decrease high-risk behaviors during college years when behavior changes can have the strongest impact on bone health.
Stuart L. Usdan
This article documents the beliefs and attitudes of men toward intimate partner violence in Pakistan. Men's beliefs and attitudes toward partner violence are shaped by the life-long process of gender socialization, where the role of wife is projected as submissive and docile. Drawing on eight in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions (FGDs) conducted in Lahore and Sialkot, this article presents how men perceive and justify partner violence within the context of Pakistani society. The data show that the construct of "ideal wife" inculcated among men fits into Foucault's notion of "docile bodies," which are subjected to control, discipline, and violent punishment. PMID:23448911
Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Kraemer, Alexander
Investigates in-service and pre-service school counselors' current levels of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and attitudes, and the demographic factors potentially associated with HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes. (Contains 26 references.) (GCP)
Costin, Amanda C.; Page, Betsy J.; Pietrzak, Dale R.; Kerr, Dianne L.; Symons, Cynthia W.
BACKGROUND: To date the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy modified for bipolar disorder has been inconsistent and sometimes disappointing. However studies exploring cognitive style in bipolar disorder have not identified the unique patterns of beliefs specific to bipolar disorder. The current study examines whether Mansell's hypomania-related dysfunctional belief scale specifically identifies bipolar disorder patients. METHOD: Forty remitted bipolar patients, twenty remitted unipolar pa...
Alatiq, Y.; Crane, C.; Williams, JM; Goodwin, Gm
This paper concerns formal theories for reasoning about the knowledge and belief of agents. It has seemed attractive to researchers in artificial intelligence to formalise these propositional attitudes as predicates of first-order predicate logic. This allows the agents to express stronger introspective beliefs and engage in stronger meta-reasoning than in the classical modal operator approach. Results by Montague  and Thomason  show, however, that the predicate approach is prone to inconsistency. More recent results by des Rivieres & Levesque  and Morreau & Kraus  show that we can keep the predicate approach if we make suitable restrictions to our set of epistemic axioms. Their results are proved by careful translations from corresponding modal formalisms. In the present paper we show that their results fit nicely into the framework of logic programming semantics, in that we show their results to be corollaries of well-known results in this field. This does not only allow us to demonstrate a close connection between consistency problems in the syntactic treatment of propositional attitudes and problems in semantics for logic programs, but it also allows us to strengthen the results of Rivieres and Levesque  and Morreau and Kraus .
Full Text Available Consanguineous marriages are traditionally favoured in most of Asian and African countries especially in the Muslim countries. However, it is apparent that these kinds of marriage are a major factor of some genetic disorders inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Although there is a long history of consanguineous marriage in Iran, the information on its prevalence is too poor. The aim of this study was to define the frequency of consanguineous marriage in Mashhad City, Khorasan Province, Iran as well as its correlations to the youths’ attitude and their knowledge about the genetic consequences of inbreeding. The concerning information was obtained by administration of a direct questionnaire including 50 open and closed questions. The subjects were 500 young people (with a mean age of 21.4 yr who were selected during a quota sampling. The results of this study revealed that most of the youth did not have favorable information about the consequences of genetic disorders of inbreeding. There was a higher rate of consanguinity in the rural rather than the urban population. The traditional beliefs and the authority of the parents who had also experienced consanguineous marriage were other predominating factors of inbreeding.
Motor vehicle (MV) clerks are at the epicenter of organ donor registration. We show that MV clerks (n = 225) in two northeastern states have knowledge gaps and negative beliefs about organ donation. A majority believe it may be possible to buy organs on the black market (81%) and that recovery from brain death is possible (65%), whereas nearly half believe that doctors might not work as hard to save the life of a registered donor (46%). Organ procurement organizations should conduct formal educational programming with MV staff, considering their prominent role in the donor registration process. PMID:25222015
Rodrigue, James R; Fleishman, Aaron; Fitzpatrick, Sean; Boger, Matthew
Since online learning technology, such as streaming video, was introduced to the college distance-learning environment, there has been a need to study the attitudes of college students toward the use of this modality in hybrid courses. Understanding students' attitudes toward using online materials and the impact on class attendance is not only…
Yudko, Errol; Hirokawa, Randy; Chi, Robert
Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of knowledge, sexual practices and attitude of medical students towards AIDS/ HIV. Objective: To assess the knowledge, sexual practices and attitudes of medical students in relation to HIV/AIDS. Study Design: Cross- sectional. Participants: 409 first year medical students. Study variables: Sex knowledge, sexual practices, Attitudes, Risk perception. Results: 92% of the students had heard about AIDS predominantly through mass media. Many students had misconception about transmission of HIV infection should not be allowed to work in the clinic or hospital. 36% of male and 9% of female students admitted indulging in safe sexual practices mostly with their friends.
Amalraj Edwin R
This study uses multivariate statistical methods to explore the beliefs of upper Midwestern U.S. residents about global climate change, and possible consumer responses to determine their willingness to pay more for cellulosic ethanol from multiple feedstocks. A mail survey was sent to residents of Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin to determine baseline knowledge, attitudes and beliefs on several aspects of these issues, with a focus on the emerging market for cellulosic ethanol. First, survey responses were compiled and principal components analysis was used to reduce the dimensionality of the data. This resulted in seven factors and a theoretical framework to help understand consumers' beliefs about climate change and possible energy policy responses. Second, these results were combined with insights from previous studies that were used as input for further research hypotheses and multivariate analyses. The factor scores from principal components analysis along with the some of the key control variables (i.e., gender, income, and rural/urban) served as independent variables in three revised multiple regression models of consumer's willingness to pay (WTP) their fair share of any additional cost of cellulosic ethanol, as reported in an earlier study. Four explanatory variables were found to be significant determinants of WTP in every model: environment, energy consumption, and climate change; concerns about climate change impacts; inability to stop climate change; and gasoline prices and consumption. These results suggest strong public support and consumer WTP for cellulosic ethanol production in the region.
Full Text Available Objective: High prevalence of tobacco consumption in childbearing ages is an important topic of consideration as its ill effects have influences on fertility. Worldwide studies have shown that general knowledge on fertility issues is low. Aim of the current study was to assess tobacco harm knowledge and attitude in infertile couples referring to the Avicenna center."nMaterials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. All Avicenna fertility clinics' new patients with infertility complain between November of 2007 and February 2008 was included. Information was collected trough standard knowledge and attitude questionnaire. "nResults: Among 684 individuals (342 couples, the mean score of knowledge and attitude was 0.49±0.79 (from a total of 4, 19.1±2.70 (from a total of 24. The mean knowledge score among women and men was 0.44±0.73, 0.54±0.84, respectively. The mean of attitude score in women and men was 19.35±2.55, 18.85±2.82, respectively. Significant correlation between age, gender, education and tobacco experience with knowledge was not found. Yet, attitude was significantly more appropriate in women, the educated and inexperienced tobacco usage (P=0.001, P=0.001, P=0.03, respectively."nConclusion: In the population studied, attitude was appropriate but level of knowledge was low and this suggests more steps should be taken to improve the knowledge.
Hooman Sadri Ardakani
Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Abdullah A Alabdrabalnabi,2 Rehab B Albacker,3 Umar A Al-Jughaiman,4 Samar N Hassan5 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2University of Dammam, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Faisal University, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1 to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2 to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF clinic. Methods and materials: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ? 0.05. Results: A generally poor level of knowledge (59% and a neutral attitude (76% toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%, black magic (67.5%, intrauterine devices (71.3%, and contraceptive pills (42.9%. The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility treatment by 6.7% and 44.2% of IVF patients, respectively. Compared with fertile patients, IVF patients were significantly less likely to favor divorce (38.5% versus 57.6%; P = 0.001 or marriage to a second wife (62.5% versus 86.2%; P < 0.001, if the woman could not have a baby. The patients with infertility had more favorable attitudes toward fertility drugs (87.5% versus 68.4%; P = 0.003 and having a test tube baby (92.4% versus 70.3%; P < 0.001. Child adoption was accepted as an option for treatment by the majority of IVF patients (60.6% and fertile outpatients (71.5%. Alternative treatments previously practiced by the IVF patients to improve fertility include practicing Ruqia (61%, using alternative medicine (42%, engaging in physical exercise (39%, eating certain foods (22%, and quitting smoking (12%. Conclusion: These findings have implications for health care providers regarding the reluctance that couples experiencing fertility problems may have, at least initially, to accept some interventions required for the couple to conceive. Keywords: infertility, knowledge, attitude, practice, KAP, misconceptions
One hundred and sixty-one Mexican respondents completed a questionnaire that measured beliefs and attitudes toward hysterectomy and another that measured gender-role ideology in marriage (GRIMQ). The participants were divided into two groups according to the GRIMQ: "high machismo/marianismo" and "low machismo/marianismo" groups. The participants belonging to the first group showed the most negative attitudes toward hysterectomy. In this group, men showed more negative attitudes toward hysterctomy and were less likely than women to believe that hysterectomy has positive aspects. The findings are discussed in light of male dominance and female subordination that prevail in certain cultural groups of Mexico.xs. PMID:22577739
Marván, Ma Luisa; Quiros, Vanessa; López-Vázquez, Esperanza; Ehrenzweig, Yamilet
This essay explores how viewing a single Theatre for Young Audiences production might affect the attitudes, values, and/or beliefs of adolescent spectators. Data is drawn from a mixed-methods case study performed with middle school students who viewed a professional performance for young people, and is considered through the lens of cognitive…
In the present study, we surveyed the English language-learning motivations of 518 secondary school students, university students, and young adult learners in the capital of Chile, Santiago. We applied multi-group structural-equation modeling to analyze how language-learning goals, attitudes, self-related beliefs, and parental encouragement…
Kormos, Judit; Kiddle, Thom; Csizer, Kata
The current study investigates how two groups of mathematically gifted pupils with learning difficulties (MG/LD) change/do not change their attitudes towards, and beliefs about, mathematics over five weeks during which they received two different instructional programs in mathematics. Thirty pupils (16 girls and 14 boys), aged 10 years to 11 years…
One influential hypothesis for what makes teachers effective contends that the best teachers share a particular set of values about education, such as commitment, caring, or persistence. To translate affective beliefs, attitudes, and values into practicable teacher selection, many schools have turned to commercial teacher hiring instruments. This…
Metzger, Scott Alan; Wu, Meng-Jia
Social workers will inevitably encounter survivors of domestic violence or sexual assault in their work. In this study we explore how education, training, and personal or professional experiences influence students' attitudes, beliefs, and behavior toward survivors. Results indicate that education and/or training decreases students' blaming…
Postmus, Judy L.; McMahon, Sarah; Warrener, Corinne; Macri, Lisa
The general public's responses to people with intellectual disabilities influence the likely success or failure of policies aimed at increasing their social inclusion. The present paper provides a review of general population based research into awareness, attitudes and beliefs regarding intellectual disability published in English between 1990…
The present study examined the role of pancultural social beliefs, as measured by the Social Axioms Survey (SAS), in predicting attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help in an ethnically diverse sample of Canadian university students (N = 400). The result of a hierarchical regression showed that the collective contribution of the…
Kuo, Ben C. H.; Kwantes, Catherine T.; Towson, Shelagh; Nanson, Kathleen M.
The objective of this research is to ground the reputation construct in theory and to explore the formation of reputation through beliefs about the university and attitude toward the university. Additionally, it will allow for analysis of the consequences of reputation, specifically behavioral intentions, which has received limited attention in…
Ressler, Jamie M.
This article presents exploratory research investigating the integration of music and a mathematics lesson as an intervention to promote preservice teachers' attitude and confidence and to extend their beliefs toward teaching mathematics integrated with music. Thirty students were randomly selected from 64 preservice teachers in a southern…
An, Song A.; Ma, Tingting; Capraro, Mary Margaret
This study analyzed teachers' beliefs and attitudes affecting job satisfaction in one small, rural Florida school district. This mixed methods study included a self-administered survey of Likert-type items measuring 20 factors for job satisfaction and individual semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Several issues related to dissatisfaction…
Huysman, John T.
Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death in US women, with Hispanic women at higher risk of mortality than non-Hispanic white women. While the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine represents substantial progress towards cervical cancer prevention, little is currently known about Hispanic student's beliefs regarding the HPV vaccine. To assess the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs of college students in the US-Mexico border region following the release of the HPV vaccine for both males and females. This survey was conducted using a convenience sample were participants were recruited from pre-nursing and nursing courses. The self-administered questionnaire ascertained HPV vaccination status, and knowledge and beliefs regarding the HPV vaccine. 202 male and female students responded. 28.9% of respondents reported having received the HPV vaccine. Of the non-vaccinated students under age 27, 27.3% Hispanic students reported an intention to receive the vaccine. Misinformation about HPV was common and was associated with intention to get vaccinated among non-Hispanic white students. We found a relatively small proportion of unvaccinated Hispanic and non-Hispanic nursing students intend to be vaccinated for HPV. Findings indicate an intervention to increase vaccination rates among college-aged students may not be as straightforward as increasing knowledge of HPV. Nurses are in a unique position to educate and recommend HPV to underserved patients. Thus, educating nursing students regarding HPV and the associated cancers is paramount if we are to encourage ethnic minorities to receive the HPV vaccine. PMID:23813323
Schmotzer, Geri L; Reding, Kerryn W
Purpose Recently, through international marriage, immigrant women have rapidly increased throughout Korea. This study was performed to identify health beliefs and practices related to breast cancer screening in immigrant women in Korea. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out between March and July 2012, and study population included immigrant females from six other Asian countries (Cambodia, China, Japan, Mongolia, Vietnam, and the Philippines). We surveyed 197 women and categorized them into four groups according to home countries. The questionnaire consisted of 55 items, including demographic and socioeconomic factors, breast cancer-related knowledge regarding risk factors and symptoms, beliefs and attitudes towards health and breast cancer, perceived susceptibility, barriers, and benefits of screening. Results Japanese participants were significantly older and had resided in Korea for more years than other country-of-origin groups (all p<0.001), and showed higher screening rates without statistical significance (p=0.392). In multivariate analysis, country of origin showed a significant correlation with knowledge (p=0.001), positive beliefs (p=0.002), and perceived benefits (p=0.025) of breast cancer screening. The group with the lowest household income showed a significantly lower score of perceived benefits (p=0.022). Through analysis to identify factors affecting participation in screening mammography, we found that education level (p=0.009), occupation status (p=0.006), and Korean language fluency (p=0.002) were independent predictors for screening behavior. Conclusion This study identified conditions related to breast cancer screening knowledge, perception, and behavior of immigrant women in Korea. The results reflect the need for increased social aids to remove barriers to medical services and more educational programs to facilitate higher rates of screening. PMID:25320627
Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Se Kyung; Lee, Jeonghui; Choi, Min-Young; Jung, Seung Pil; Kim, Min Kook; Kim, Sangmin; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon
The development and validation of an inventory of preventive cardiology at the University of Virginia is described. The inventory contains two instruments designed to measure medical students' preinstructional and postinstructional knowledge of and attitude toward preventive cardiology. (Author/MLW)
Allred, Charlene A.; And Others
Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism.Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%. The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9; (c nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27; and (d eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8. A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively.Results: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035. The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66, 24.12 (SD=2.99, and 0.66 (SD=1.15 respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005 and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (P<0.001.Conclusions: This knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP questionnaire was developed as a standard tool in order to assess perception of subjects toward plagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission.
Background: Millions of workers are occupationally exposed to dyes in the world, but little is known about their knowledge and attitudes toward the effects of dye on their health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the fabric dyers? and fabric printers? knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the health hazard of dyes. Materials and Methods: The present study was taken up in the Madurai district which is situated in the Southern Tamil Nadu, Ind...
Paramasivam Parimalam; Raghavan Premalatha; Srinivasan Padmini; Kumar Ganguli
Adaptação transcultural para o português brasileiro do instrumento The Epilepsy Beliefs and Attitudes Scale (Ebas) - Adult Version / Transcultural adaptation for brazilian portuguese of The Epilepsy Beliefs and Attitudes Scale (Ebas) - Adult Version
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: o desconhecimento acerca da epilepsia tem fomentado o interesse em desenvolver ferramentas voltadas para detecção das crenças e atitudes da comunidade em geral acerca da doença. OBJETIVO: apresentar o processo de adaptação transcultural do instrumento The Epilepsy Beliefs and Attitudes S [...] cale (EBAS) - Adult Version e uma versão em português para uso no Brasil. MÉTODO: o processo de adaptação envolveu a equivalência conceitual, de itens, semântica e operacional. RESULTADOS: os conceitos apreendidos foram considerados pertinentes à nossa cultura e seus itens adequados quanto à sua capacidade de representar tais conceitos na população-alvo, além de apresentar boa equivalência semântica entre a versão final em português e o original. CONCLUSÃO: o instrumento mostrou-se adequado para uso na população em geral e seus resultados serão revistos em estudos futuros a luz de avaliações psicométricas. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: the lack of knowledge about epilepsy has boosted the interest to develop instruments aimed for the detection of beliefs and attitudes of the community in general about the disease. OBJECTIVE: to carry out the transcultural adaptation of the instrument The Epilepsy Beliefs and Attitudes [...] Scale (EBAS) - Adult Version and a version in Brazilian Portuguese. METHOD: the transcultural adaptation involved the conceptual, items, operational and semantic equivalences. RESULTS: the concepts were considered relevant to our culture and the items as appropriate to their ability to represent these concepts in the target population. It was possible establish high-quality semantic equivalence between the Brazilian Portuguese-language final version and the original. CONCLUSION: the instrument proved to be suitable for use in the general population and the results will be reevaluated in the light of forthcoming psychometric analysis.
Karina Piccin, Zanni; Thelma Simões, Matsukura; Heber de Souza, Maia Filho.
The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) recently reported that annual computed tomography (CT) screening is associated with decreased lung cancer mortality in high-risk smokers. Beliefs about lung cancer and screening, particularly across race and ethnicity, and their influence on CT screening utilization are largely unexamined. Our study recruited asymptomatic, high-risk smokers, 55-74 years of age from primary care clinics in an academic urban hospital. Guided by the self-regulation theory, we evaluated cognitive and affective beliefs about lung cancer. Intention to screen for lung cancer with a CT scan was assessed by self-report. We used univariate and logistic regression analyses to compare beliefs about screening and intention to screen among minority (Blacks and Hispanics) and non-minority participants. Overall, we enrolled 108 participants, of which 40% were Black and 34% were Hispanic; the mean age was 62.3 years, and median pack-years of smoking was 26. We found that intention to screen was similar among minorities and non-minorities (p=0.19); however, Hispanics were less likely to report intention to screen if they had to pay for the test (p=0.02). Fatalistic beliefs, fear of radiation exposure, and anxiety related to CT scans were significantly associated with decreased intention to screen (pminority versus non-minority participants' beliefs toward lung cancer and screening. In conclusion, we found that concerns about cost, which were particularly prominent among Hispanics, as well as fatalism and radiation exposure fears may constitute barriers to lung cancer screening. Lung cancer screening programs should address these factors to ensure broad participation, particularly among minorities. PMID:22681870
Jonnalagadda, Sirisha; Bergamo, Cara; Lin, Jenny J; Lurslurchachai, Linda; Diefenbach, Michael; Smith, Cardinale; Nelson, Judith E; Wisnivesky, Juan P
Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate Nova Scotia (NS pharmacists’ knowledge and beliefs regarding the use of bioidentical hormones (BHs for the management of menopause related symptoms. Methods: Using Dillman’s tailored design methodology, an invitation to complete the web-based questionnaire was emailed to pharmacists in NS as part of the Dalhousie College of Pharmacy Continuing Pharmacy Education Department’s (CPE weekly email update. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Of approximately 1300 e-mails sent, 113 pharmacists completed the questionnaire (response rate 8.7%. The majority of respondents (94% knew that BHs were not free from adverse drug reactions. More than 50% were aware that conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate were not examples of BHs. For seven of eleven knowledge questions, 33-45% indicated that they did not know the answer. When asked about their beliefs regarding BHs, many believed that BHs were similar in efficacy (49% or more effective (21% than conventional hormone therapy (CHT for vasomotor symptoms. Most respondents also believed that both BHs and CHT had similar safety profiles. Additionally, responding pharmacists indicated that more education would be helpful, especially in the area of safety and efficacy of BHTs compared to CHT. Conclusion: NS pharmacists knew BHs were not free of adverse effects, however knowledge was lacking in other areas. This may reflect the level of coverage of this topic in pharmacy school curriculums and in the pharmacy literature. Results indicate a need for additional education of NS pharmacists with respect to BHs, which could be accomplished through modification of undergraduate pharmacy programs and supplementary CPE.
Full Text Available In Thailand, chemical fertilisers provide nutrients that are essential for increasing agricultural productivity but they are expensive, often representing 25% of the crop production cost. Tailor-made fertiliser technology is a new fertiliser application technology that is being promoted to help farmers reduce fertiliser costs. This study aims to investigate and clarify sugarcane farmers’ knowledge and attitudes towards tailor-made-fertiliser. This study also attempts to provide a better understanding of the effect of farm size on farmers’ beliefs and attitudes towards tailor-made-fertiliser. Moreover, the findings suggest that further extension of tailor-made-fertiliser practices should include training services for smallholders to improve their knowledge of relevant practices.
Full Text Available Pubic lice (Pthirus pubis maintain a worldwide parasitic population infesting two to over 10 percent of human populations, continuing a presence that has been constant since early evidence 10,000 years ago. Outbreaks in the 1970s have been recorded, but incomplete records preclude description of a definitive population cycle. Current levels of infestation in a US college student population were investigated in this study. Knowledge and opinions of students were also recorded in an online survey administered to college students taking a basic health course at a mid-sized East Coast University. In a group of 817 students, 35 reported experience with pubic lice or other STD infection. Knowledge, beliefs, and treatment attitudes were examined for the 782 students who did not have experience with either pubic lice or STD infection. These students deemed antibiotics as a viable treatment for pubic lice infestation. They also indicated negative attitudes toward the use of pesticide crèmes, which are the most useful prescription. Symptoms and transmission myths in student answers are described.
A survey of outreach related beliefs, attitudes, and activities of the Spanish professional astronomers is presented. More than one hundred scientists answered an ad-hoc drawn up questionnaire, whose results have been analysed statistically. This feedback form is an improved version of that used in a previous research carried out by the authors with a sample of members of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Díaz Vilela & Rodríguez Hidalgo 2005). Some of the studied items are the actual time and effort devoted to outreach by a researcher, the role of outreach within his work, the valuation of outreach activities in his curriculum, socially, or economically, the opinion about who should have the responsibility of organising and performing popularisation tasks, etc. Three kinds of studies have been performed: the descriptive one is based on the frequencies and means of variables; a Principal Component Analysis was applied to get a shorter number of belief-attitude dimensions; and an inferential one, derived from a Multiple Regression Analysis which provides a reliable description of the beliefs-attitudes scale grouping outreach related beliefs into 6 components, 3 of them more significant. A simple regression allows us to predict about a 50% of the variance of the outreach practices.
Rodríguez Hidalgo, I.; Díaz Vilela, L. F.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the relationships Belief Dimensions and attitude of viewers towards TVadvertising. Earlier research was mainly explored in the west with some finding were positive and some beingnegative on certain aspects of viewers perception. Whilst this study is exploratory in nature in understanding therelationship between Belief Dimensions and attitude of viewers towards TV advertising. Generally the Thai TVviewers tend to have a more negative attitude towards TV advertising. Three Belief dimension were found to besignificant towards TV advertising and theses are informational benefits, negative contents and offensive. Threewere not significant and these are availability, advertising format and non-informative. The result shows anumber of implications for the management of business organization in particular the advertising agencies. Theyneed to address the issue of peoples’ perception being negative towards TV adverting; secondly combine thedemographic characteristics and belief dimensions to maximize advertising’s reach and effectiveness. Byunderstanding the viewer profile advertising agencies may be able to do a better media planning and focus oncreativity and presentation.
A new rating scale to assess cultural diversity in North American people's understanding of epilepsy was developed and its psychometric properties were evaluated. The content of the scale was based on the hypotheses that cultural diversity and experience with epilepsy would be associated with differences in people's beliefs and attitudes about epilepsy. The sample, 117 Caucasians, 71 South Asians, and 40 East Asians, was drawn from a larger study. All participants had completed the newscale, Epilepsy Beliefs and Attitudes Scale (EBAS). Cronbach's coefficient alpha for the items in the scale was 0.85. A method of principal-axis factor analysis yielded three factors which were referred to as the Neurological, Enviro-psycho-physical, and Metaphysical subscales to emphasize the underlying themes of beliefs and attitudes they represented. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed a significant main effect for culture (P < 0.0001), epilepsy status (Caucasians only) (P < 0.007), and epilepsy familiarity group (P < 0.002). Further analysis was conducted between demographic variables, culture, and participants' subscale scores. Results indicated that age, gender, and education were not related to differential responses to the scale. However, a significant effect for the duration of stay in North America was found (P < 0.02). An examination of the role of faith in higher power revealed that the participants may consider both the Neurological and Metaphysical beliefs concurrently. The results provided support for the EBAS as a reliable, valid, and culturally sensitive instrument. PMID:12609440
Gajjar, Mina; Geva, Esther; Humphries, Tom; Peterson-Badali, Michele; Otsubo, Hiroshi
Objective: The bystander approach to rape prevention is gaining popularity on college campuses, although research is limited. This study explored bystander attitudes and their relationship with rape myths in a sample of college students. Participants: Surveys from 2,338 incoming undergraduate students at a large, northeastern university were…
This article describes how adult attitudes toward play on the Hawaiian island of Lana'i reflect the connection between play and culture. It is based on a study of ninety-two caregivers (parents, grandparents, and other adult custodians), primarily representing individuals of Filipino, part Hawaiian, and Japanese heritages. These respondents…
Holmes, Robyn M.
Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Según la posición contextualista puede ocurrir que con las mismas evidencias y el mismo grado de convicción, un sujeto sepa que P en un contexto y no en otro. Mediante la distinción entre aceptación y creencia, se combate tal posición en favor de una concepció invariantista del conocimiento. “Saber” [...] no varía de significado con los contextos, aunque -reconozco- no es correcto auto atribuirse conocimiento cuando no se acepta que P. Abstract in english According to Contextualism about knowledge, it is possible that a subject, with the same amount of evidence and the same degree of conviction, knows that P in a context and not in another. In this paper, I favor the invarationist conception of knowledge by drawing a distinction between belief and ac [...] ceptance. “Know”, I defend, does not change in meaning across contexts, although -I acknowledge- it is not correct to self ascribe knowledge when one does not accept that P.
Despite many efforts, science is still a male-dominated field. Girls who do persist in science often express a desire to use their knowledge in socially relevant ways. The current study examined elementary school girls' beliefs about the work of scientists and how presenting information about a prosocial aspect of physics would influence their attitudes toward that information. Participants were asked an open-ended question to assess their knowledge of what scientists do and were presented with scenarios describing physicists in either a discovery context or as helping society. The results revealed that relatively few participants generated prosocial responses to the open-ended question, and the helping context story was rated as significantly more likable than the discovery context. Suggestions are given for educators to include prosocial aspects of science in their teaching.
Yanowitz, Karen L.
This study focuses on the knowledge exhibited by 30 elementary school in-service and pre-service teachers in solving non-routine mathematical problems and on their beliefs regarding these kinds of problems. Interviews were used to reveal teachers' knowledge and beliefs. The findings indicated that these teachers had difficulty in solving…
Asman, Dalia; Markovits, Zvia
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to examine the influence of receiving scientific information about hypnosis over Spanish psychologists’ beliefs and attitudes toward hypnosis. The Valencia Scale on Attitudes and Beliefs toward Hypnosis-Therapist (VSABH-T wasadministered to 2434 Spanish psychologists. A retest and a second retest were carried out, and between these testing administrations a monograph issue focused on hypnosis was published in a journal that all members of the Spanish Psychological Association received. Results indicated that psychologists who read this monograph, in general terms, changed their misconceptions about hypnosis for correct beliefs and their negative attitudes toward hypnosis for positive ones. Moreover, the VSABH-T was useful for detecting changes in psychologists’ beliefs and attitudes toward hypnosis.
M. Elena Mendoza
Full Text Available Introduction. Ability and readiness to talk with patients about sexual problems not only depend on education in sexual physiology and pathology, but also on the doctors’ beliefs and attitudes towards sexuality. Considering importance of these matters, the authors decided to collect and evaluate the data regarding attitudes and cognitive schemata of medical students. Aim. Analysis of selected convictions and attitudes towards sex life of IV-th grade students of medicine. Methods. There was self-report Questionnaire on Satisfaction with Sexual Life (KSS2 applied. Medical students filled-out the questionnaire when attending the courses of Psychopathology of neurotic disorders or Psychotherapy. Results. Analysis of the collected data revealed differentiation of the studied group in regard of beliefs and attitudes towards sex life, dialogue about sex in erotic relationships, and seeking for professional help. Regarding some aspects, significant differences between women and men occurred. The following factors, which may negatively influence medical doctor’s competencies in domain of sexual health, were identified: discomfort considering their own sexuality, avoidance of sexual drive, negative moral judgment of sexual activity. Conclusions. Assessment of influence of students’ and doctors’ own sexuality on their competencies in diagnostics and treatment requires further studies. There is a clear indication to look for the means for prophylaxis and correction of ineffective attitudes and convictions of future doctors’, as professional sexual education or interpersonal trainings.
Introduction: Emergency Contraception is a grossly underu–tilized option of prevention of pregnancy. It is a safe and effective method which can prevent unintended pregnancies, unsafe abortions and unwanted childbirth. Knowledge and attitude of Nursing personnel who are both service providers and health educators to the community can influence the contraceptive behavior of the people exposed to them. A few studies done in our country indicate that their awareness regarding EC is low. Aim: To explore the knowledge, attitude and practice of EC amongst Nursing Personnel in a medical college hospital. Materials and Methods: In this study, 185 nursing personnel participated. A predesigned, pretested questionnaire was used to collect their responses regarding knowledge, attitude and practice of EC. Descriptive analysis of data was done. Results : Out of the total, 52.43% of the participants had good knowledge regarding the general information of EC, 51.35% had positive attitude towards EC, 47.56% had expressed willingness to use EC if indicated whereas only 22.7% had ever used EC. 72.97% had expressed willingness to attend awareness programmes on EC. Conclusion :Even though knowledge and attitude towards EC among the participants was marginally good they had many misconceptions regarding specific aspects like mode of action, indications and timing of administration. More awareness programmes would definitely clear their misconceptions and apprehensions and encourage Nursing Personnel to personally use and promote EC to others. PMID:25386489
Shanthini N, Fatima
The ability to locate, share, and use knowledge is vital for effective functioning of organizations. However, such knowledge processing can be complicated by increasing cultural diversity. Recent studies have suggested that a group’s diversity attitudes may increase group outcomes. In this study, based on a sample consisting of 489 members of multicultural academic departments, we set out to investigate the relationship between openness to diversity (linguistic, social category, value, and informational) and group knowledge processing (knowledge location, knowledge needed, bring knowledge to bear, and personal knowledge). We found openness to linguistic and informational diversity to have positive associations with all group knowledge processing variables. Openness to value diversity was positively associated with most group knowledge processing variables, while openness to social category diversity only had a positive effect on personal knowledge.
Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan
Attitudes toward the use of nuclear energy pose fundamental issues in the political debate about how to meet future energy needs. Development of new nuclear power facilities faces significant opposition both from knowledgeable individuals who display an understanding of the risks attached to various forms of power generation and those who follow strict politically based ideological dogmas. This article employs data from a 2005 Eurobarometer survey of UK citizens to examine the influence of both political preferences and knowledge in explaining support of nuclear power. Findings reveal that attitudes about nuclear power are highly politically motivated while the influence of knowledge about radioactive waste is dependent upon beliefs about the consequences of nuclear energy use. Perceptions of being informed about radioactive waste and trust in sources providing information about radioactive waste management also predict attitudes toward nuclear power generation. PMID:18631298
Costa-Font, Joan; Rudisill, Caroline; Mossialos, Elias
The factor structure of a back translated Spanish version (Lega, Caballo and Ellis, 2002) of the Attitudes and Beliefs Inventory (ABI) (Burgess, 1990) is analyzed in a sample of 250 university students. The Spanish version of the ABI is a 48-items self-report inventory using a 5-point Likert scale that assesses rational and irrational attitudes and beliefs. 24-items cover two dimensions of irrationality: a) areas of content (3 subscales), and b) styles of thinking (4 subscales). An Expl...
Ruiz Rodri?guez, Jose?; Fuste? Escolano, Adela
Full Text Available Objective:This is a qualitative research that aims to explore the mothers’ knowledge and practices regarding infant nutrition and breastfeeding. Forty mothers with infants aged 9-15 months- and with varing different backgrounds in education, social and economic structure, formed the study groups.Method:The data was collected by means of depth interviews useing of a semi-structured questionnaire.Results:After the analysis the mothers’ words during the interviews were classified under these main themes: 1-Procedures affecting mothers’ breastfeeding decision 2-Knowledge and beliefs regarding breast-milk, 3-Breastfeeding practices, 4-Factors influencing the decisions of feeding with non-breast milk products 5-Mothers’ knowledge and attitudes to complementary nutritients/foods. Breastfeeding is a common habit in Turkey. In our study all of the infants were breastfed. But the mother’sanxiety about the sufficiency of breast-milk and social pressure leads to starting with complementary nutritients/foods early. Education must emphasize exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months and following the weight gain of the infant as the major indicator for assessment of its sufficiency. Although the economic level of the family affects the selection of the complementary foods, supervision is necessary for mothers who do not know enough about the quality of the foods and time of addition to the diet. i Mothers prefer one to one interviews with health professionals and using printed materials about infant nutrition.Conclusion:Before preparing community-based programs to improve infant nutrition, the mothers’ opinions, beliefs and needs, should be taken into account.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Joint pain, specifically chronic knee pain (CKP, is a frequent cause of chronic pain and limitation of function and mobility among older adults. Multiple evidence-based guidelines recommend exercise as a first-line treatment for all patients with CKP or knee osteoarthritis (KOA, yet healthcare practitioners' attitudes and beliefs may limit their implementation. This systematic review aims to identify the attitudes, beliefs and behaviours of General Practitioners (GPs regarding the use of exercise for CKP/KOA. Methods We searched four electronic databases between inception and January 2008, using subject headings to identify studies examining the attitudes, beliefs or behaviours of GPs regarding the use of exercise for the treatment of CKP/KOA in adults aged over 45 years in primary care. Studies referring to patellofemoral pain syndrome or CKP secondary to other causes or that occurring in a prosthetic joint were excluded. Once inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, study data were extracted and summarised. Study quality was independently reviewed using two assessment tools. Results From 2135 potentially relevant articles, 20 were suitable for inclusion. A variety of study methodologies and approaches to measuring attitudes beliefs and behaviours were used among the studies. Quality assessment revealed good reporting of study objective, type, outcome factors and, generally, the sampling frame. However, criticisms included use of small sample sizes, low response rates and under-reporting of non-responder factors. Although 99% of GPs agreed that exercise should be used for CKP/KOA and reported ever providing advice or referring to a physiotherapist, up to 29% believed that rest was the optimum management approach. The frequency of actual provision of exercise advice or physiotherapy referral was lower. Estimates of provision of exercise advice and physiotherapy referral were generally higher for vignette-based studies (exercise advice 9%-89%; physiotherapy referral 44%-77% than reviews of actual practice (exercise advice 5%-52%; physiotherapy referral 13-63%. Advice to exercise and exercise prescription were not clearly differentiated. Conclusions Attitudes and beliefs of GPs towards exercise for CKP/KOA vary widely and exercise appears to be underused in the management of CKP/KOA. Limitations of the evidence base include the paucity of studies directly examining attitudes of GPs, poor methodological quality, limited generalisability of results and ambiguity concerning GPs' expected roles. Further investigation is required of the roles of GPs in using exercise as first-line management of CKP/KOA.
Foster Nadine E
Athlete support personnel (ASP) failing to meet responsibilities under the World Anti-Doping Code risk sanction. It is unclear whether the poor knowledge of responsibilities seen in sports physicians and coaches applies to other ASP (e.g., administrators, chiropractors, family, nutritionists, physiotherapists, psychologists, and trainers). A purposive sample of Australian ASP (n?=?292) responded to a survey on knowledge of anti-doping rules (35 true/false questions), ethical beliefs and practice, and attitudes toward performance enhancement. Some ASP declined to participate, claiming doping was irrelevant to their practice. Physicians were most knowledgeable (30.8/35), with family and trainers the least (26.0/35). ASP reported that improvements were needed to support anti-doping education (e.g., basis for anti-doping) and practice (e.g., rules). ASP also had a slightly negative attitude toward performance enhancement. Linear regression showed that being a sports physician, providing support at the elite level, and 15 years of experience influenced knowledge. The results confirm gaps in knowledge, suggesting that stronger engagement with ASP anti-doping education and practice is needed. Applying the principles of andragogy could help foster active engagement through emphasis on active inquiry, rather than passive reception of content. Future work on the context within which ASP experience anti-doping is needed, exploring acquisition and translation of knowledge into practice. PMID:23692367
Mazanov, J; Backhouse, S; Connor, J; Hemphill, D; Quirk, F
Adherence to medication can be problematic for patients, especially so for patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Effective medications are available for the treatment of ADHD; however, nonadherence rates for ADHD medication range from 13.2%–64%. The reasons for nonadherence can be complex. This review aims to look at how the beliefs and attitudes of adolescents and adults impact ADHD treatment adherence.
Please read the abstract in the dissertation. Copyright © 1999, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria Please cite as follows: Cameron-Ellis, JA 1999, Church and homosexuality : the relationship between individual religious beliefs, attitudes ...
Cameron-ellis, Jean A.
Optimal pain management requires knowledgeable and trained nurses. The aim of this study is to investigate nurses' knowledge and attitudes regarding pain treatment in Jordan. The sample included 211 nurses from 4 hospitals in Jordan. The Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain was used to measure the nurses' pain management knowledge and attitudes. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, unpaired t test, and Spearman correlation test. The results indicate that 51.7% of participants were male and the average age was 27.2 (SD 4.7) years. In addition, most nurses had a bachelor's degree (90.5%) and worked in medical and surgical wards. Furthermore, 52% of nurses reported no previous pain education in the last five years. The average of correct answers was 19.3 out of 40 (SD 4.7) and the rate of correct answers ranged from 10% (item 38) to 72% (item 22). It was found that there were no significant differences between nurses' gender and educational level and the total knowledge and attitude score, except for exposure to previous pain education (t = -3.64; df = 195; p pain education got higher mean scores on the questionnaire. Jordanian nurses expressed a lower level of pain knowledge than that reported worldwide. Continuous education and reforming undergraduate curricula to address pain management are recommended. PMID:24602438
Al Qadire, Mohammad; Al Khalaileh, Murad
Full Text Available Background: Obsessive patients are distressed by intrusivethoughts, which are related to unreal threats. These patientsfeel that they are responsible for harming themselves and others.While controlling worry and meta-cognitive beliefs, thepresent study aimed at comparing the responsibility attitudesin obsessive compulsive patients with those in normal subjectsto determine whether the difference in responsibility attitudesbetween two groups was significant.Methods: A group of 15 patients were compared with normalsubjects (n=15 who matched the patient group in terms ofgender, age and education. All subjects filled the ResponsibilityAttitude Scale, the Penn, State Worry Questionnaire andthe Meta-cognition Questionnaire -30. The findings were analyzedusing descriptive statistics as well as student t and ANCOVAtests.Results: Responsibility attitudes in obsessive patients weresignificantly higher than those in normal subjects (P<0.001,when patient worries and meta-cognitive beliefs were notcontrolled. However, after controlling patient's worry andmeta-cognitive beliefs there was no significant differencebetween responsibility attitudes in normal and obsessive–compulsive group.Conclusion: The findings might suggest that responsibilityattitude is not strongly related to obsessive-compulsive symptoms.It seems that it is a characteristic caused by basic metacognitivebeliefs, because the relationship between the responsibilityand the symptoms was dependent on meta-cognition.Therefore, in studying the etiology and treatment of obsessivecompulsive disorders focus on the responsibility attitudesalone cannot be very helpful.
Full Text Available Educating health professionals implies the challenge of creating and developing an inquiring mind, ready to be in a state of permanent questioning. For this purpose, it is fundamental to generate a positive attitude toward the generation of knowledge and science. Objective: to determine the attitude toward science and the scientific method in undergraduate students of health sciences. Materials and methods: a cross-sectional study was made by applying a self-administered survey, excluding those who were transferred from other universities and repeated. The attitude toward science and the scientific method were valued using the scale validated and published by Hren, which contains three domains: value of scientific knowledge, value of scientific methodology, and value of science for health professions. Results: 362 students were included, 86,6% of them graded the attitude toward scientific knowledge above 135 points, neutral scale value. Similar scores were registered in the domains value of scientific knowlede for the human dimension of the students and value of science for health professions. 91,4% of the students graded the value of scientific methodology below 48 points. Conclusions: the favorable attitude of the students can be explained by the contact that they have with the scientific method since the beginning of their studies and its concordance with the evolution of science. The domain value of scientific methodology obtained the lowest grade on the part of the students, which could be related to the lack of knowledge about scientific methodology.
Merideidy Plazas Vargas
Background. Blood donation is remarkably safe medical procedure. However, attitudes, beliefs, and level of knowledge may affect it. Objectives. To measure the level of knowledge regarding blood donation, find out positive and negative attitudes, identify the obstacles, and suggest some motivational factors. Methodology. A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC). Participants were selected by convenient nonrandom sampling technique. A self-created questionnaire was used for data collection. Results. The study included 349 individuals. About 45.8% of the participants claimed that they have a history of blood donation. Reported causes for not donating blood were blood donation not crossing their mind (52.4%), no time for donation (45%), and difficulty in accessing blood donation center (41.3%). Reported motivating factors for donating blood were one day off (81.4%), mobile blood donation caravans in public areas (79.1%), token gifts (31.5%), and finally paying money (18.9%). Conclusion. People in the age group 31–50 years, males, higher education and military were more likely to donate blood as well as People who showed higher knowledge level and positive attitude towards blood donation. More educational programs to increase the awareness in specific targeted populations and also to focus on some motivational factors are recommended.
Citizen science projects offer opportunities for non-scientists to take part in scientific research. While their contribution to scientific data collection has been well documented, there is limited research on changes that may occur to their volunteer participants. In this study, we investigated (1) how volunteers’ attitudes towards science and beliefs in the nature of science changed over six months of participation in an astronomy-themed citizen science project and (2) how the level of project participation accounted for these changes. To measure attitudes towards science and beliefs about the nature of science, identical pre- and post-tests were used. We used pre-test data from 1,375 participants and post-test data collected from 175 participants. Responses were analyzed using the Rasch Rating Scale Model. The pre-test sample was used to create the Rasch scales for the two scientific literacy measures. For the pre/post-test comparisons, data from those who completed both tests were used. Fourteen participants who took the pre/post-tests were interviewed. Results show that overall scientific attitudes did not change, p = .812. However, we did find significant changes related towards two scientific attitude items about science in the news (positive change; p self-efficacy (negative change, p self-efficacy is not due to a lowering of esteem but rather a greater appreciation for what they have yet to learn.
This study represents a continuation of research efforts to further refine the Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom Control (ABCC) Inventory. The purposes of this study were to investigate the: (1) impact of classroom management training on classroom management style; (2) differences in attitudes toward classroom management between novice and…
Martin, Nancy K.; Yin, Zenong; Mayall, Hayley
Full Text Available This paper describes the Jodï horticultural system, including belief, knowledge and practice aspects. The horticulturalpractices of the Jodï were previously characterized as ‘incipient cultivation’ but such practices were poorly described anddocumented. The antiquity of cultivation among this group is suggested by the prominence and significance of horticulturalproducts and techniques in myth and ritual. Our field observations uncovered a fairly sophisticated system of plantmanagement in swiddens, house gardens, trail gardens and natural forest gaps. An inventory of 67 cultivated plant specieswas documented, of which 36 are utilized for food, 20 for magical or medicinal purposes, and 11 for technology. The Jodïprolong the productive phase of their gardens for five years or more through successive planting-harvesting-replantingoperations. Jodï swiddens display an elaborate polycultivated appearance and they possess at least five principal crops:plantain/banana, maize, yams, sweet potato, and sweet manioc. Another distinctive feature is the extensive use of naturalgaps in the forest canopy as cultivation zones. The results of this study suggest that while Jodï horticultural practice iswell integrated with a nomadic, foraging-dependent lifestyle, nevertheless this system does not deserve to be labeled as‘incipient’ and instead is more integral than was recognized previously.
Attitudes and beliefs regarding parent participation and home programs in early intervention have significantly changed over the last 30 years on the basis of public policy and the needs of families. This paper discusses traditional and current attitudes and practices regarding parent participation and home programs. These attitudes and practices have been influenced by the medical model, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (Public Law 94-142), the Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1986 (Public Law 99-457), and parental concerns. We have evolved from believing that, as occupational therapists, we are the experts who teach parents what to do with their child through parent training to believing that parents and professionals need to collaborate as equal partners in developing home activities. Six guidelines are suggested for use in developing family-centered home programs, and the application of some of these guidelines is demonstrated in a case example. PMID:2532473
Introduction ART initiation in primary HIV infection (PHI) could reduce risk of transmission to sexual partners at a time of high viraemia, although health benefit for the individual remains unknown. We examined attitudes to early ART and associated beliefs in men who have sex with men (MSM) with PHI. Materials and Methods Semi-structured face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with 13 MSM aged ?16 years attending a central London HIV clinic, within 12 months of date of estimated HIV seroconversion. Audio recordings of interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. Results Median age was 33 years (range 22–47), majority were white British (n=8), educated to university level (n=11) and were not on ART (n=10). Great diversity in ART knowledge and expectations around starting were observed, with some men assuming they would be prescribed ART immediately upon diagnosis. Deferral until CD4<350 came as a surprise and counterintuitive when put into the context of treating other diseases. For many, the decision to start ART was a balance of current and future health and quality of life. Fear of side effects was prevalent, with many believing them inevitable and a reason to avoid early ART. A perceived lack of “good quality” evidence showing a health benefit of early ART caused confusion. Avoiding the decision to start or deferring to their HIV clinician was common, however reported clinicians’ views also varied. Some men voiced a desire to be proactive and start early ART to control viral replication. In these cases men also reported a belief that ART could be temporary as they expected a cure in their lifetime. Men commonly described feeling “infected” and reducing this infectiousness was seen as a major benefit of ART; not purely to reduce the risk of transmission to sexual partners but to facilitate disclosure to partners, reduce anxiety and guilt and restore sexual confidence commonly lost after HIV diagnosis. Having a long-term HIV-negative partner was a strong facilitator to starting ART to reduce transmission in the absence of good evidence of individual health benefit. Conclusions Factors involved in the decision to start ART in PHI were complex. Uncertainty over individual health benefits in conjunction with fear of toxicities were barriers to starting ART early. By contrast ART was seen as a facilitator to disclosure, and as a way to limit the consequences of infection until a cure is found.
Parsons, Victoria; Porter, Kholoud; Gilson, Richard; Hart, Graham
The capacity to reason about the false beliefs of others is classically considered the benchmark for a fully fledged understanding of the mental lives of others. Although much is known about the developmental origins of our understanding of others' beliefs, we still know much less about the evolutionary origins of this capacity. Here, we examine…
Marticorena, Drew C. W.; Ruiz, April M.; Mukerji, Cora; Goddu, Anna; Santos, Laurie R.
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Objective: High prevalence of tobacco consumption in childbearing ages is an important topic of consideration as its ill effects have influences on fertility. Worldwide studies have shown that general knowledge on fertility issues is low. Aim of the current study was to assess tobacco harm knowledge and attitude in infertile couples referring to the Avicenna center."nMaterials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. All Avicenna fertility clinics' new patients with ...
Hooman Sadri Ardakani; Gholamreza Heydari; Mohamad Reza Masjedi; Mahshid Aryanpur; Mohamad Mehdi Akhondi; Majid Tarahomi
Purpose: Little is known about interrelationships among nutrition knowledge, attitude, dietary intake, and body satisfaction, which are important variables that play a role in nutrition education interventions. This paper aims to focus on these interrelationships. Design/methodology/approach: Students (n = 279; 20.12 plus or minus 1.75SD years)…
Dissen, Anthony R.; Policastro, Peggy; Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol
The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…
Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara
Objective: Hookah smoking is a popular form of tobacco use on university campuses. This study documented use, attitudes, and knowledge of hookah smoking among college students. Participants: The sample included 943 university students recruited between February 2009 and January 2010. Respondents ("M" age = 20.02) included 376 males, 533…
Holtzman, Adam L.; Babinski, Dara; Merlo, Lisa J.
The purpose of this study was to explore agricultural science teachers' knowledge levels and attitudes toward biotechnology topics. The average agricultural science teacher in this study was a 37-year-old male who had taught for 12 years. He had a bachelor's degree and had lived or worked on a farm or ranch. He had not attended…
Mowen, Diana L.; Roberts, T. Grady; Wingenbach, Gary J.; Harlin, Julie F.
This article explores the impact of practitioners' attitudes and knowledge of sexual health on clinical behaviors. Sexual health topics are often areas of concern for clients of any age in counseling. Thus, counselors must be trained and equipped to address sexual health across the life span. This study explored whether child and adolescent…
Russell, Elizabeth B.
This study evaluated teachers' attitudes toward, reactions to, and knowledge of using portfolios in language arts classrooms. In May 1996, sixth, seventh, and eighth grade teachers in city and county public schools in Memphis, Tennessee, completed a 14-item questionnaire that asked: (1) if they currently used portfolios in evaluating language arts…
Starck, Thomas L.
In a national assessment program, 57% of Dutch ninth-grade students had a positive attitude towards the environment and 35% were prepared to make sacrifices for the environment. Student knowledge about environmental problems, however, was fragmentary and often incorrect. Environmentally responsible behavior was more strongly connected with the…
Kuhlemeier, Hans; van den Bergh, Huub; Lagerweij, Nijs
Pain management requires knowledgeable and trained nurses. Because nursing students are the nurses of the future, it is important to ensure that students receive adequate education about pain management in nursing schools. The purpose of this study is to evaluate nursing students' knowledge and attitudes regarding pain management. A cross-sectional survey was used. The sample comprised 144 students from three nursing colleges in Jordan. Sixty-one percent were female and the average age was 21.6 years (SD 1.7). The students' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain was used. The rate of correct answers ranged from 11.1% to 64%. Students showed a low level of knowledge regarding pain management-the average score was just 16 (SD 5.11) out of 40. Students were weak in their knowledge of pain medications pharmacology (actions and side effects). Less than half of students (47.9%) recognised that pain may be present, even when vital signs are normal and facial expressions relaxed. Finally, students showed negative attitudes towards pain management, believing that patients should tolerate pain as much as they can before receiving opioids; almost half (48%) of students agreed that patients' pain could be managed with placebo rather than medication. In conclusion, Jordanian nursing students showed lower levels of pain knowledge compared with other nursing students around the world. This study underlines the need to include pain-management courses throughout undergraduate nursing curricula in Jordan. PMID:24280924
Al Khalaileh, Murad; Al Qadire, Mohammad
Full Text Available One of the applications applied most nowadays is web based instruction (WBI. Although there are many studies on WBI, no study which researched the relations between beliefs for WBI, WBI tools acceptance levels and web pedagogical content knowledge (WPCK of science and technology pre-service teachers was found among these studies. The aim of this study is to examine this relation. In accordance with this aim, the study group of the study consisted of 363 pre-service teachers. The data collected from pre-service teachers under the research were collected with scales of belief, tools acceptance and WPCK towards WBI. 3 scales were used for the data collection in the research. The data were analyzed with structural equation modeling in the research. As a result of the research, behavioral and contextual beliefs in WBI beliefs were medium level. Perceived usefulness, ease of use, perceived attitude and intention positively affect WBI tools acceptance levels of pre-service teachers. When the relation between beliefs, tools acceptance levels and web pedagogical content knowledge of science and technology education pre-service teachers towards WBI is analyzed, it is seen that beliefs towards WBI affect acceptance levels of WBI tools and WBI tools acceptance levels affect web pedagogical content knowledge.
Mehmet Bar?s HORZUM
The purpose of this study is to understand knowledge about and general attitudes towards nutrition, dietary restriction attitudes, and dietary restriction behavior in the Taiwanese elderly, and the relationship of these various components to each other. Data from the Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (1999-2000) were used for analysis and included 1937 elderly persons aged over 65. The results indicated that the elderly had poor nutrition knowledge, especially about the relationship between nutrition and disease. Elderly nutrition attitudes were fair; they tended to disagree with misconceptions about "healthy" or functional foods and also had quite positive general eating attitudes. However, the Taiwanese elderly hold quite strong attitudes influenced by Chinese traditional or food-texture-related dietary restrictions. Elderly people frequently avoid eating foods considered unhealthy by modern medical science (e.g. high fat/cholesterol foods) as well as foods forbidden by Chinese traditional medicine (e.g. "heating" foods, "cooling" foods). Most of the elderly regularly eat three meals a day, however, they seldom pay attention to dietary and nutrition information. The most important sources of nutrition information are offspring or family members, TV, and medical practitioners. In general, elderly men with a higher educational level and living in less remote areas had better nutrition knowledge, held more positive nutrition attitudes, and kept to dietary restrictions less frequently. Elderly people's nutrition knowledge was positively related to their health-care attitudes, general eating attitudes, high- fat or high-cholesterol food restriction behavior, fermented or pickled food restriction behavior, attention to nutrition information, and regularity of meals. However, nutrition knowledge was inversely related to Chinese traditional or food-texture-related dietary restriction behaviors. The results of this study suggest that education of elderly people about nutrition is important, and the design of such nutrition education programs should consider the low educational levels of the elderly. Children or other family members may also be included in the program. The use of TV as a medium for nutrition education of the elderly may also be important for nutrition educators. PMID:16169832
Lin, Wei; Lee, Ya-Wen
Although it is widely assumed that religiosity plays an important role in individuals' attitudes about death, research to date has failed to reveal consistent associations between religiosity and death attitudes. Drawing from D. M. Wulff's (1991) multidimensional model of religiosity, the authors examined associations between religious attitudes as measured by the Post-Critical Belief Scale and death attitudes as assessed by the Death Attitude Profile--Revised. In total, 471 Dutch-speaking Belgian adults completed both questionnaires. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to asses the unique contribution of the religious attitudes in the prediction of the death attitudes. First, results show that religious people are more likely to endorse an approach acceptance attitude toward death, indicating that religiosity as such is related to belief in an afterlife. Second, people holding a literal attitude toward religion report more death anxiety, indicating that the processing of religious contents is related to defensiveness toward death. Finally, the specific combination of the two dimensions seems important in the prediction of a neutral acceptance attitude. The relevance of our findings for future research on religiosity and death attitudes is discussed. PMID:19140293
Dezutter, Jessie; Soenens, Bart; Luyckx, Koen; Bruyneel, Sabrina; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Duriez, Bart; Hutsebaut, Dirk
This study examines breast cancer knowledge, attitudes and screening behaviors of Hispanic women living in the South Texas colonias of Maverick and Val Verde Counties. We used the Health Belief Model to analyze the effects of HBM constructs on clinical breast exam (CBE) and mammogram screening. Using a multistage systematic sampling approach we interviewed women living within these colonias. Logistic regression analysis was used to predict CBE and mammography screening behaviors. The results indicate that knowledge, susceptibility, barriers and source of health information were statistically significant in predicting CBE among these women. In addition, background variables such as marital status and health insurance were also significant in predicting CBE. Findings further indicate that source of health information, barriers, and health insurance significantly predicts mammography screening behaviors. Results suggest that for women living in colonias along the South Texas Border socio-demographic variables play a significant role in CBE and mammography utilization. PMID:23903907
Sunil, T S; Hurd, Thelma; Deem, Carma; Nevarez, Lucinda; Guidry, Jeffrey; Rios, Rebecca; Guerra, Hector; Ortiz, Juanita; Jones, Lovell
Full Text Available Objectives: To study the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about the causes and the treatment of epilepsy in rural North West India in the year 2000 and, again after 4 years, to study the effects of health education and regular treatment on the same parameters. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted twice, in 2000 and 2004. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic profile, seizure characteristics, knowledge regarding cause of epilepsy, details of alternative forms of treatment taken, and attitude towards medical treatment. Results: Generalized seizures were the most common (84% type of seizure, followed by partial seizures (9.4%. The most common antiepileptic drug used was phenytoin, followed by phenobarbitone. Ayurvedic treatment was the most common alternative therapy used. Evil spirits were believed to be the cause of the disease by 26.4% of the patients in 2000, but only in 11.2% in 2004. Faith in the curative power of drugs increased from 18% in 2000 to 59% in the year 2004. Polytherapy was being resorted to by 60% of patients in 2000; this was reduced to 45.6% in 2004. Conclusion: Positive attitude changes over the four years from 2000 to 2004 confirm the need for effective health education that can remove misconcepts regarding disease.
This study was an investigation of female adolescents' perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs towards science and reading science-related texts. Three surveys were used to collect data from 253 middle school students in Grade 7 and Grade 8 and six interviews were conducted with students. The interviews allowed a deeper analysis of the value students placed on science and on reading science-related texts. The quantitative data were collected through the following surveys: Test of Science Related Attitudes, Motivation for Reading Informational Books in School adapted, and Metacognitive Awareness Reading Strategies Inventory adapted. The purpose of the surveys was to provide a comprehensive picture of students' self-reported perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs towards science and the motivation to engage. Literacy processes and practices make engagement and learning in science possible; however, intrinsic motivation and cognitive strategies are critical influential components that educators cannot overlook. The female adolescents in this study expressed greater competence when involved in learning science through inquiry experimentation integrated with literacy presented in different formats.
The study revealed poor knowledge and negative attitude of medical students' toward cancer pain. A structured teaching pain program is needed to improve the knowledge and attitude of future doctors toward pain.
Abdullah M. Kaki
Full Text Available Background: Despite advances in medical science and modern technology, epilepsy remains as a stigmatized condition and negative public attitude toward epilepsy is a common phenomenon especially in developing countries such as Iran. It is the major factor causing serious social discrimination against people with epilepsy which in turn may be more devastating than the disorder itself. Thorough understanding of the knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy is essential to modify these negative attitudes. Methods: We conducted a face-to-face questionnaire interview survey in crowd locations of Tehran in August, 2004-April 2005. A total of 1079 persons all more than 15 years old were asked to fill the questionnaire. Results: Eighty eight percent of respondents had heard about epilepsy before, 42.2% of them knew one person with epilepsy. However, out of responses about the causes of epilepsy, 52/4% said it was caused by brain damage, 26.4% said it was an inherited disease,, 14.3% said it was due to fever, 34.8% believed stress as the cause of it and1.1% said evil spirits was the cause. 56.9% considered pregnancy to be appropriate for epileptics. 94% believed children with epilepsy could go to school and have normal education. Conclusion: According to this survey, public knowledge and attitudes about epilepsy in study population is not satisfactory. It is suggested that additional efforts must be made to increase the knowledge of the general population through education programs especially among school children.
Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed at determining the knowledge attitude and nutritional practice of female middle school students in district 4 of Isfahan. Methods: This deh1ive study was performed on 120 female students. The data were collected through a three-part self-reported questionnaire (Demographic factors knowledge BASNEF Model. To investigate the nutritional performance the participants were interviewed to recall their previous 24-hour nutrition for three days. Results: The results indicated that 37.5% of students had poor nutritional knowledge and 90% of the students had a poor nutritional practice. The results of the BASNEF part indicated that mean of belief and evaluation of behavioral outcomes was 74.6 attitude toward the behavior was 64.64 normative belief was 72.8 subjective norms was 58.9 enabling factors was 54.2 and behavioral intention was 68.9. Conclusion: A low percentage of students had good nutritional practices and in majority of cases their nutritional practice does not accord with their nutritional knowledge and attitude. These results indicate the necessity of nutritional intervention in female students.
Full Text Available Background: Epilepsy, one of the most common serious chronic brain disorders, is poorly understood by the public and has been associated with numerous misconceptions and beliefs. This, coupled with its sometimes dramatic clinical manifestations, has often resulted in a strong social stigma.Objective: This study was conducted to find out knowledge, attitudes and practices toward epilepsy among preparatory school students in Mekelle, North Ethiopia.Methods: A semi-structured questionnaire used previously by various authors was self-administered to 391 students studying in four preparatory schools in Mekelle, North Ethiopia.Results: About 85.7% had heard about epilepsy, 19.23% had read on the subject, 67.03% had known someone with epilepsy and 57.14% had witnessed a seizure. Those who would offer equal employment opportunities to people with epilepsy (PWE, refuse to associate with, or refuse to marry PWE represented 64%, 16.8%, and 44.8%, respectively. Negative attitudes seemed to be reinforced by beliefs that epilepsy is evil spirit (33.24%, contagious (28.6% or a kind of insanity (51.6%. Majority of respondents (70.33% opted for Holy water, followed by physicians (64.01%, traditional healer (44.78% and prayers (32.14%.Conclusions: The study revealed practices and knowledge toward epilepsy were limited, especially with respect to epilepsy’s cause, manifestation, and management. Moreover, there were statistically significant differences between respondents attitude with respect to epilepsy based on age, gender, level of education, religion and school category.
To assess the knowledge, attitude regarding family planning and the practice of contraceptives among rural women. One-hundred women between the ages 15-45, living with their husbands and coming from rural area (villages) were interviewed. Women who were pregnant, had a child younger than 2 years, or had any medical disorder were excluded. Their knowledge, attitude and practice on contraceptives were evaluated with the help of a predesigned questionnaire. The other variables used were the age of women, parity and educational status. Descriptive analysis was conducted to obtain percentages. Out of 100 interviewed women with mean age of 29.7 years, 81(81%) had some knowledge about family planning methods. The media provided information of contraceptives in 52 out of 81 (64%) women. Regarding the usage of contraceptive methods, only 53 (53%) of the respondents were using some sort of contraception. Barrier method (condoms) was in practice by 18 (33.9%) and 12 (22.6%) of women had already undergone tubal ligation. The women using injectables and intrauterine contraceptive devices were 10 (18.8%) and 7 (13.2%) respectively. Six were using oral contraceptive pills (11.3%). Positive attitude towards contraception was shown by 76 (76%) of them, while 41(41%) stated their husbands positive attitude towards contraception. In the present study, there was a low contraceptive use among women of rural origin despite good knowledge. Motivation of couples through media and health persn of couples through media and health personnel can help to achieve positive attitude of husbands for effective use of contraceptives. (author)
The purpose of this study was to use a validated instrument to determine the attitudes and knowledge of high school teachers regarding food irradiation, and to determine the correlations among their knowledge and attitudes and certain demographic variables. Knowledge and attitudes about food irradiation were measured in selected high school family…
Thompson, B. M.; Ribera, K. P.; Wingenbach, G. J.; Vestal, T. A.
Full Text Available Organ transplantation is the most preferred treatment modality for patients with end-stage organ disease. There is an inadequate supply of cadaver organs commensurate with need. Health-care professionals are the critical link in augmenting public awareness about organ donation. Their attitudes and beliefs can influence the public opinion. This study aims at understanding the awareness, attitudes, and beliefs among the medical postgraduate students. A total of 123 post-graduates of a medical college hospital in South India participated in the study. A specially de-signed questionnaire was used in assessment. Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS Windows version 10.0. The mean age of the postgraduate students was 28.32 ± 3.5 years, 54% were males, 62% belonged to Christian religion, 69% were single, 77% were from nuclear families, 87% had urban background, and 54% were from upper socio-economic strata. About 97% said they were aware of organ donation through media, 23 unders-tood the concept of "cadaver" as "brain-death" and 93% were able to distinguish between brain-death and persistent vegetative state. Eighty-nine percent wished to donate their organs, 77% did not believe in body disfigurement and 87% did not believe in rebirth without the donated organs, if they pledged their organs. Sixty-nine percent were willing to donate the organs of their family members. Eighty percent were willing to receive organs from family and cadaver, 40% were willing to donate a child?s organs, 95% did not believe that organ donation is against their religion, 87% disagreed with the notion that doctors would not impart adequate care if they were pledged organ donors and 79% agreed that doctors would not declare death prematurely, if they had pledged their organs during life. There was a statis-tically significant correlation between attitudes, beliefs and demographics. In conclusion, the concept of brain-death was clearly understood by only a small number of medical postgraduate students. They how-ever, had positive attitudes and beliefs towards organ donation.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Young people are of particular importance in state policies against Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS. We intended to assess the knowledge and attitude of high school students regarding AIDS in Iran. Methods Through a cluster-sampling, 4641 students from 52 high schools in Tehran were assessed by anonymous questionnaires in February 2002. Results The students identified television as their most important source of information about AIDS. Only a few students answered all the knowledge questions correctly, and there were many misconceptions about the routes of transmission. Mosquito bites (33%, public swimming pools (21%, and public toilets (20% were incorrectly identified as routes of transmission. 46% believed that Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive (HIV positive students should not attend ordinary schools. Most of the students wanted to know more about AIDS. In this study knowledge level was associated with students' attitudes and discipline (p Conclusion Although the knowledge level seems to be moderately high, misconceptions about the routes of transmission were common. There was a substantial intolerant attitude towards AIDS and HIV positive patients. We recommend that strategies for AIDS risk reduction in adolescents be developed in Iranian high schools.
As teachers are one of the more important agents for disseminating information, a study was done to gauge the knowledge and attitude concerning Renewable Energy (RE) and Energy Efficiency (EE) amongst teachers in Malaysia. Results from the study have shown that teachers do not have adequate knowledge on the concept of RE. They also viewed education as the best strategy in ensuring the success of RE practices. Although there is an interest to know more about RE, the teachers felt that they were inadequately trained to teach this subject in schools, that there are not enough teachers to teach the subject in the schools and that this topic should be integrated as part of co-curricular activities. CETREE, as a centre for education and training in Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency has already started a curriculum to train teachers on the awareness of Renewable Energy (RE) and Energy Efficiency (EE). Result of this study indicates that more training and campaigns need to be implemented at school levels to promote the awareness on RE and EE. This paper will also discuss knowledge and attitude as important factors to consider in creating awareness on RE for the next generation. Teachers need to acquire the knowledge and positive attitude toward these concepts to become successful change agents. Media preference amongst teachers concerning ways to educate the public on RE will also be highlighted
Full Text Available Many hospitalizations in India are due to Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR and resulting in morbidity and mortality in majority cases in addition to the huge economic burden. A survey was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and behavior of community pharmacists towards ADR related aspects. One hundred and twenty eight pharmacists from various Community pharmacies in two Districts of South India were consented in this survey. A questionnaire was prepared to investigate the knowledge, attitude and behavior of pharmacists regarding ADR reporting and distributed to the identified pharmacies. The data was collected and analyzed by ANOVA and t- test. Out of 342 community pharmacies approached, 128 (37.4% community pharmacists consented to be part of the survey and the questionnaire given was filled and returned by them. Out of these respondents, only 39 (30.5% pharmacists had knowledge about ADR, 15 (11.7% and 14 (10.9% were aware of National Pharmacovigilance Program (NPP and regional reporting centers respectively. Only 54 (43% agreed that ADR reporting is a professional obligation of pharmacist and none of the respondents reported ADRs. The main reason for not reporting any ADR was ‘they did not know how to report’ and ‘did not feel its beneficial’. This survey revealed that the community pharmacists were having least scores towards knowledge, attitude and behavior on ADRs in Indian Scenario.
Ravi Katti Venkappa
Background: Providing women with information enabling an informed consent to prenatal examinations has been widely recommended. Objective: The primary purpose of this review is to summarise current knowledge of the pregnant woman's expectations and attitudes concerning prenatal examinations, as well as the knowledge possessed by pregnant women undergoing prenatal examinations. Second, we explore their reasons for accepting or declining available screening tests. Results: More than 90 %of the pregnant women expressed a positive attitude toward screening preocedures in pregnancy. Most often (70-96%), the pregnant women were found knowledgeable about the procedural and preactical aspects, but were more seldom (31-81%) able to correctly identify the purpose of tracing fetal malformations. Some 29-65 % were not familiar with the existence of a false negative result, and 30-43 % were found unaware of the possibility of a false negative result. The risk of miscarriage in relation to amniocentesis (AC) is unknown to 11-53%. Uptake rates are associated with attitudes towards prenatal examinations, but not knowledge of the test offered. A total of 88 % concidered their health care provider an important source of information, and 57 % stated that this information has influenced their decision. Conclusions: Pregnant women favor prenatal examinations, but the choice of participation does not seem to be based on insight to enable full informed consent. Health care providers are perceived as an essential source of information.
Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik
This study explored the effectiveness of a pain education intervention on Mexican nurses' knowledge and attitudes toward pediatric pain. A convenience sample of 106 registered nurses from three hospitals in Mexico City was recruited. A Pediatric Pain Education Program (PPEP) was developed, implemented, and evaluated by a nurse researcher, clinical nurse specialist, and a child life specialist. The 4-hour program, which was translated into Spanish, consisted of pain assessment, physiology, and management, including pharmacology and nonpharmacology. The effects of PPEP were measured in a one-group pretest-posttest design using a translated Spanish version of the Pediatric Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey (PNKAS). A total of 79 nurses completed both tests. A paired t test indicated significant differences between pre- and posttest results (p < .0001) on the PNKAS. The hospital site and years of nursing experience were significantly related to nurses' pre- and post-PNKAS scores. One test item on children's ability to reliably report their pain had a significantly lower score after the intervention (p = .016). The intervention was effective in improving Mexican pediatric nurses' knowledge and attitudes. However, it is not known how long this effect was maintained. Health care professionals can share a common vision for pain management by increasing international collaborative efforts and by advancing pediatric pain knowledge. PMID:21095595
Huth, Myra Martz; Gregg, Theresa L; Lin, Li
Abstract Background Psychological factors are important in influencing breastfeeding practices. This retrospective study explored knowledge and attitudes related to breastfeeding of Chinese mothers living in Ireland. Methods A cross-sectional self-administrated survey written in Chinese was distributed to a convenience sample of 322 immigrant Chinese mothers mainly via Chinese supermarkets and Chinese language schools in Dublin, with the involvement of the snowball method to increase sample size. Maternal breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes were described, their associations with socio-demographic variables were explored by Chi-square analysis, and their independent associations with breastfeeding behaviours were estimated by binary logistic regression analyses. Results In spite of considerable awareness of the advantages of breastfeeding (mean score = 4.03 ± 0.73), some misconceptions (e.g. \\'mother should stop breastfeeding if she catches a cold\\') and negative attitudes (e.g. breastfeeding inconvenient, embarrassing, and adverse to mothers\\' figure) existed, especially among the less educated mothers. Cultural beliefs concerning the traditional Chinese postpartum diet were prevalent, particularly among those who had lived in Ireland for a shorter duration (P = 0.004). Psychological parameters had strong independent associations with breastfeeding practices in this study. Those who had lower awareness score (OR = 2.98, 95% CI: 1.87-4.73), more misconceptions and negative attitudes (P < 0.05), and weaker cultural beliefs (P < 0.05) were less likely to breastfeed. Conclusions Findings highlight a need to focus resources and education on correcting the misconceptions identified and reversing the negative attitudes towards breastfeeding among Chinese mothers in Ireland, in particular those with primary\\/secondary level of education. Mothers\\' cultural beliefs should also be acknowledged and understood by healthcare providers.
Full Text Available We present results of a pseudolongitudinal study of attitudes and beliefs about physics from different cohort groups ranging from final-year high school students in the UK to physics faculty (N=637, using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS instrument. In terms of overall degree of expertlike thinking, we find little change in cohorts at different stages of their undergraduate degrees, with a flat profile of expertlike thinking across the years of an undergraduate degree. Significant differences in overall CLASS scores occur for cohorts across entry and exit points of the undergraduate program. At the entry boundary, our data for high school students provides strong evidence of a selection effect, with students who intend to major in physics at university displaying more expertlike views than those students who are merely studying the subject to final year in high school. A similar effect is suggested at the exit boundary but is not definitive.
Simon P. Bates*
Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Papilloma Virus (HPV vaccine has undergone successful trials and has recently been approved for use for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine knowledge and attitudes towards HPV vaccination. Methods Semi-structured interview and questionnaire delivered in a street survey. Standardised HPV-related statements used to measure HPV knowledge and attitudes to vaccination. The setting was three different areas of Birmingham, to target a mix of social class and ethnicity. The sample population was composed of 16–54 year olds. Results A total of 420 participants were recruited. Poor knowledge of HPV and its links with cervical cancer were observed. 81% had a knowledge score of zero. Knowledge about HPV was associated with different ethnic group and socio-economic group. The majority (88% of participants were in favour of vaccination, with 83.6% indicating that they would allow a child under their care to be vaccinated. Conclusion Initial responses to the proposed HPV vaccination within the UK public are favourable. However, knowledge levels are poor and media and health professional promotion are required to raise awareness.
Powell Judy E
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the knowledge and beliefs about malaria transmission and practices for vector control in eight villages on the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted during May and June 1995 in Chiapas, Mexico. A questionnaire to investigate family structure, knowledge on malaria transmission, preventive measures and attitudes towards seeking treatment was applied to both family heads of a sample of households. Associations were analyzed by estimating odds ratios with confidence intervals and p values, using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression methods. RESULTS: Malaria knowledge was poor and only 48% associated malaria with mosquito bites. The perceived benefit of indoor residual spraying was associated to a reduction of mosquitoes, a reduction in the numbers of cockroaches and rats, but only 3% associated it directly with the prevention of malaria transmission. Most villagers (97.6% agreed with the indoor residual spraying of insecticides. Ninety nine percent of villagers had mosquito bednets, 75.7% used them all year round. Other measures used by villagers to prevent mosquito bites were smoke and mosquito coils. Above 40% of villagers self-medicated when any member of the family had a fever episode, but 51% attended proper health services (community dispensary, private physician, health worker. About 61% used pesticides for agricultural or livestock purposes and 55% applied them themselves. Women had a greater participation as family health promoters, with 70% of the housewives being in charge of the application of self-protection preventive measures. CONCLUSIONS: Educational programs aimed at increasing awareness on the participation of mosquitoes on malaria transmission could promote community participation in malaria control in the region.
Rodríguez Américo David
Abstract Background Young people are of particular importance in state policies against Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). We intended to assess the knowledge and attitude of high school students regarding AIDS in Iran. Methods Through a cluster-sampling, 4641 students from 52 high schools in Tehran were assessed by anonymous questionnaires in February 2002. Results The students identified television as their most important source of inform...
Tajik Parvin; Enzevaei Anahita; Zaferani Azadeh; Tavoosi Anahita; Ahmadinezhad Zahra
Introduction: Intensive care unit ICU syndrome is a disorder, in which patients in an ICU or a similar setting experience anxiety, hallucination and become paranoid, severely disoriented in time and place, very agitated, or even violent, etc. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of nurses with regards to prevention of ICU syndrome (Delirium). Methods: Subjects of this research were 56 nurses with including criteria of registration in nursing, university d...
Ali Dadgari; Farede Yaghmaie; Jasman Shahnazarian; Leyla Dadvar
This exploratory study was designed to examine the knowledge and attitudes nurses have about patients from culturally different backgrounds. A questionnaire, entitled The Cultural Fitness Survey, was used to collect data from registered nurses. Subjects were selected from a pool of 3,242 registered nurses employed in eight major acute care hospitals in urban Northern Indiana.^ Three major hypotheses were tested using repeated measures MANOVA, one-way ANOVA, multiple regression analysis, an...
Rooda, Linda Ann
Background: Alteration in pattern of sexuality is known to be impressed by couples’ believes about women’s physical and psychological changes during pregnancy. The objective of this study is to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of couples about sexual relations during pregnancy. Methods: In a descriptive study from February to April 2005, two hundred sixty six consecutive pregnant women referring to a university hospital were asked to answer a questionnaire containing questions their s...
Heydari, M.; Kiani Asiabar, A.; Faghih Zade, S.
Background:Prenatal screening has become an ever increasing part of antenatal care in the western part of the world. Providing women with information enabling an informed consent to prenatal examinations has been widely recommended, with women accepting or declining the screening tests offered in full understanding of pros and contra.Objective and hypothesis:To summarize current knowledge of women's expectations and attitudes concerning prenatal examinations as well as the amount of knowledge possessed by pregnant women undergoing prenatal examinations. Reasons for accepting or declining a screening test offered, as well as the influence of information in the decision-making process is also explored. Methods:The review is based on systematic search strategy in the electronic databases Medline and Science Citation. Additional studies were identified through reference lists of individual papers obtained. Results:Women in general express a positive attitude towards screening procedures in pregnancy. Women are found most knowledgeable about procedural and practical aspects but are not always aware of the purposes or any limitations of the tests offered. Understanding and interpretation of risk estimates is low and possible consequences if the test reveals a problem is seldom considered beforehand. A woman's attitude to prenatal examinations is found decisive for up-take of prenatal tests, with no association between a woman's attitude towards prenatal examinations and her knowledge of those tests. Most women consider their doctor an important source of information, and state that information has influenced their decision. Conclusions: Pregnant women favor prenatal examinations, but participation does not seem to be based on an informed consent.
Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik
Full Text Available Background: Despite the growing awareness on pain management, mild and severe pain is still common among hospitalized patients. Inadequate treatment has been mostly linked to health care workers' failure to assess patients’ pain and to intervene appropriately.Objective: To determine the pain management knowledge and attitudes of the nurses working in training and research hospital in Turkey and their relationship to demographic and educational factors. Methods: Descriptive and cross-sectional study design was used. The Nurses’ Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (NKASRP was used to determine the pain-related knowledge and attitude of the nurses. Results: A total of 246 nurses were included in the study. The percentage working at a surgical unit was 48.8% and 77.2% were staff nurses. Only 11.8% had taken a pain management course and 31.7% had read a book or journal on pain. The rate of correct responses to the NKASRP scale was 39.65% while the mean number of correct answers to all questions was 15.86±7.33 with a range of 0 to 37. A statistically significant difference was found regarding education level, working unit, whether a pain management course had been taken, whether a book or journal on pain had been read, and the evaluation of the nurse's efficacy regarding pain (p<0.05. Conclusion: We found that the nurses did not have adequate knowledge and the positive attitude for pain management although it is a very important part of patient care. We suggest that results be taken into account when the content of graduate and postgraduate training programs is determined and guidelines are prepared.
Full Text Available PurposeThis study was conducted to identify relationships among knowledge and attitudes of unmarried mothers toward emergency contraceptive pills.MethodsData were collected through structured questionnaires from 135 unmarried mothers enrolled in 7 single mothers' facilities nationwide. Data were analyzed using the SPSS/WIN 17.0 program for descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Scheffe-test, and Pearson correlation coefficients.ResultsFor knowledge about emergency contraceptive pills, there were significant differences among who live with her before pregnancy, experience of past pregnancies, state of present pregnancy and preparation in using contraceptives. For attitude toward emergency contraceptive pills, there were significant differences according to age, education level and religion. There were significant positive relationships between knowledge and attitudes toward emergency contraceptive pills.ConclusionThe results of this study suggest that unmarried women should be better informed about emergency contraceptive pills, and reassured about their safety. Efforts are needed to disseminate up-to-date information to experts in sex education including nurses.
Gyeong Mi Lee
Full Text Available Background: Alteration in pattern of sexuality is known to be impressed by couples’ believes about women’s physical and psychological changes during pregnancy. The objective of this study is to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of couples about sexual relations during pregnancy. Methods: In a descriptive study from February to April 2005, two hundred sixty six consecutive pregnant women referring to a university hospital were asked to answer a questionnaire containing questions their sexual status and some demographic data. In 122 cases the answers of the spouses was collected also. The answers were compared in divided groups according to age range, duration of marriage, parity and educational status. Results: Fifty five percent of men and fifty eight percent of women had a negative attitude about sexual relations during pregnancy, and 60% of men and 75% of women presented incorrect knowledge about sexuality during pregnancy. Main reasons for decreased sexual relations in pregnancy were mentioned to be dysparaunia, and the fear of trauma to the baby, abortion, membrane rapture, preterm labor and infection. Conclusion: As couples’ knowledge and attitudes about sexuality affect their general sexual behavior during pregnancy it is crucial to provide proper consultation regarding sexual relations in prenatal care services.
Meningitis has a significant impact in the Sahel, but the mechanisms for transmission and factors determining a person's vulnerability are not well understood. Our survey examined the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of people in a meningitis-endemic area in the Upper East region of northern Ghana to identify social, economic, and behavioral factors that may contribute to disease transmission and possible interventions that might improve health outcomes. Key results suggest potential interventions in response to the risk posed by migration, especially seasonal migration, a lack of knowledge about early symptoms causing delayed treatment, and a need for further education about the protective benefits of vaccination. PMID:23775016
Hayden, Mary H; Dalaba, Maxwell; Awine, Timothy; Akweongo, Patricia; Nyaaba, Gertrude; Anaseba, Dominic; Pelzman, Jamie; Hodgson, Abraham; Pandya, Rajul
In young adults, preparedness to accept improbable events as planned rather than due to chance is predictive of the level of belief in the paranormal, possibly underpinned by lower intelligence levels (Musch and Ehrenberg, 2002). The present study, using a sample of 73 older participants aged 60-84 years failed to find any relationship between…
Stuart-Hamilton, Ian; Nayak, Laxman; Priest, Lee
Full Text Available Suzanne McCarthy School of Pharmacy, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Abstract: Adherence to medication can be problematic for patients, especially so for patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Effective medications are available for the treatment of ADHD; however, nonadherence rates for ADHD medication range from 13.2%–64%. The reasons for nonadherence can be complex. This review aims to look at how the beliefs and attitudes of adolescents and adults impact ADHD treatment adherence. Keywords: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, medication, stimulant, attitude, belief, adherence
Full Text Available This study aimed to explore Iranian primary school students’ attitudes and knowledge about HIV/AIDS. The knowledge and attitudes of 597 primary school students from all areas of Ahwaz were assessed by anonymous questionnaires in November 2007. None of the students answered all the knowledge questions correctly, and results indicated that there were many misconceptions about the routes of transmission. Sneezing and coughing, contaminated food, water or hands were incorrectly identified as routes of transmission. The knowledge increased with age (P<0.001. The sources of pupils’ information primarily included: Television (66.8%, family members (20.2%, friends (10.6% and school teachers (2.4%. Also some pupils believed that there was some treatment (38.3% or an effective vaccine (63.4% for HIV/AIDS. The result of this study revealed that most primary school students in Ahvaz had a lack of proper knowledge about HIV/AIDS. There is a need to promote an AIDS education in Ahvaz and also all Iranian schools, to improve socio-cultural factors in next years.
The paper presented by the author at the first IAEA Knowledge Management Conference (2004, Saclay, France) was dedicated to the main achievements of the Soviet Union and Russia in generation and systematization of nuclear knowledge and in providing human resources for their application. Nevertheless, some well-known nuclear professionals consider the breach of the normal knowledge transfer process, which occurred when nuclear power plants have been transferred from the half-military nuclear complex with its high level of discipline to the civil 'boiler power industry' (quite unprepared for that), as one of the relevant causes of the Chernobyl accident. The crises of 1980-90ies (Chernobyl accident, changed political system, collapse of the USSR) have stopped the development of nuclear power industry and gave a severe blow to the nuclear knowledge management system. In present conditions, which can be surely described in the terms of 'nuclear renaissance', it seems important to trace, how the preserved and developing knowledge management system is influenced by the attitude towards nuclear energy in the country and in its 'components' (governmental authorities, energy community, public), as well as to follow up the role of nuclear professionals in forming the above attitude
The objective of this study was to assess students' knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV and AIDS. A questionnaire was administered to a cross section of 259 Chinese undergraduates. Respondents were asked to provide information about knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Study results indicated that the majority of undergraduates had a moderate level of HIV and AIDS knowledge, acceptance and attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS. Boys had more acceptance and positive attitudes tow...
Chaojun Xie; Chunhong Wang; Dong Zhou; Jingju Pan; Xiaodong Tan
Dentists are usually the first group who can examine patients for oral cancer and the early diagnosis highly depends on their knowledge. In this study, we aim to survey the Iranian dentists' knowledge, attitude, and behaviors regarding oral cancer. A valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire was designed and sent to 150 dentists. Responses to the questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Just one fifth of the dentists reported to perform oral cancer examination for all of their patients in age of 40 and above and about 34 % of them were knowledgeable. They mostly claimed that the lack of knowledge is the main barriers to the provision of routine oral cancer examinations. The opinion of dentists about the effectiveness of continuing education courses supports the development of these courses on oral cancer. Besides, more emphasis should be placed on oral cancer prevention in dental schools. PMID:23508899
Razavi, Sayed Mohammad; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Foroohandeh, Mehrdad; Doost, Mostafa Emami; Tahani, Bahareh
Full Text Available Objective. Since communicating risk related to environmental hazards has consistently presented a challenge to government agencies and industries, our objective was to better understand the attitudes and beliefs of three communities, so as to help agencies and industries develop better risk communication interventions. Methods. We explored attitudes and beliefs about environmental risks in three diverse communities in Texas on the border with Mexico, in the county of El Paso. During the summer of 1995, using a door-to-door survey, we interviewed 147 individuals, using a questionnaire based upon an existing instrument. Interviews were conducted in three very different areas of the county: semirural low-income, urban low-income, and suburban upper-income. We randomly selected specific sections in each of the three communities for inclusion in the sample. We assessed attitudes and beliefs about regulations and experts, risk and hazards, and how to address environmental issues. Results. Attitudes and beliefs varied among the three communities, especially in the assessment of riskiness of various hazards. In general, there was mistrust of government agencies and of industries, a strong feeling that the environment can be improved, and a lack of understanding about what actions individuals might take to improve the environment. Discussion. Agencies need to find ways to increase their credibility with the public, and they should assess communities in order to understand the attitudes of the residents.
Byrd Theresa L.
The study compared knowledge and beliefs about depression among urban and rural Chinese in a Malaysian sample. A total of 409 participants were asked to identify cases of depression varying in intensity from two vignettes and rate their beliefs regarding a list of possible causes and treatments for depression. The urban Chinese were more likely to identify depression as the problem in the vignette. Beliefs about causes of depression were factored into five components, whereas beliefs about treatment for depression factored into four components. The results indicated that the causes most strongly endorsed were stress and pressure, and standard treatments rated the highest as treatments for depression. Overall, depression literacy was moderate for Chinese Malaysians. The results are discussed in relation to Chinese cultural beliefs about depression. Limitations of this preliminary study were acknowledged. PMID:22981052
Loo, Phik-Wern; Furnham, Adrian
Full Text Available Introduction. In a time that economic classification of nations is largely dependant on their scientific output, our country "Iran" in comparison to it"s facilities, has fewer scienilfic producilon than accepted. For programming to increase quantity and quality of research, at first, should carefully recognise the present condition. This study was done to survay attitiude, knowledge and practice of students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services (IUMSHS about research. Methods. Questionnaires were distribiuted among interns (n=234 who their names and sites had extracted. Students enterance year to university was between 1992 to 1994. So, they were at the end of their staying in university. Results. Average grade of knowledge was 2.92±2 (from whole grade= 10. This grade did not depend on stage of preparing thesis. The most true answer was in writing of purpose and the least was in sampling, medline and role of variables in study. Attitude in 78.2 percent, indicate agreement with necessity of learning research concept. 54.2 percent agree with necessity of participailon in at least one research project in educational period in university, but 41.8 percent believe that research activity in present condition is wasting the time. The answerers who at least had parilcipated in one research project were 11.9 percent and the highest knowledg"s grade was in these students. Discussion. Despite the positive attitude of interns to learn the research concept, their knowledge level in comparison with other Iranian univercities and other univercities" students in the world, was very low. Although more than half of them have positive attitude to participation in research project, their practice was insignificant. Radical changes in education system and management seems to be necessary.
Background In this study we aimed to determine knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of mosque imams regarding organ donation. Material and Methods This study involved 322 mosque imams working in Kahramanmaras, a city in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. A questionnaire was used to determine participants' sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding organ donation. Results Out of a total of 322 participants, 253 (78.6%) stated that organ donation is allowed in Islam, while 5 (1.6%) expressed that it is religiously forbidden, and 64 (19.9%) stated that they have no idea about the issue. Only 2 (0.6%) participants were registered organ/tissue donors, wile 320 (99.4%) were not. Out of all participants, 72 (22.4%) imams were willing to donate organs. Forty-six (14.3%) imams had previously received basic training about organ donation, and 166 (51.6%) were willing to attend a related training. Television programs and healthcare professionals were the most common means of learning about organ donation. Educational programs by healthcare professionals for imams and the public were proposed to be effective in increasing the number of organ donations. Conclusions This study revealed that the knowledge of mosque imams regarding organ donation is poor and they had little willingness to donate their organs. Interestingly, many imams had no knowledge about organ donation under Islam. Collaboration of media, healthcare professionals, and mosque imams regarding organ donation might help increase organ donation. PMID:25402268
Keten, Hamit Sirri; Keten, Derya; Ucer, Huseyin; Cerit, Mustafa; Isik, Oguz; Miniksar, Okkes Hakan; Ersoy, Ozgur
Premarital counselling and examination have begun to play a very important role in the management of many genetic disorders. 600 villager's knowledge and attitudes toward premarital counselling and examination in Menofia Governorate was studied in order to predict the community acceptance and behaviour toward utilization of such service. The result showed a big lack in knowledge even among educated respondents about the term. The main source of information was mass media followed by medical personnel who should participate more in this service. Most respondents, except unmarried males, have a favourable attitude toward either premarital counselling and examination or consanguinous marriage. This may be related to certain social changes in village life such as declining illiteracy, increased economic pressures, increase number of nuclear families and accordingly delay in beginning a family. It was unlikely that non-contraceptive users would resort to induced abortion rather to use contraceptive methods. Educational programs should be directed toward: (a) unmarried males so that their attitude toward premarital counselling and examination can be changed to correct direction, (b) unmarried females to make consanginous marriage more undesirable, and (c) non-contraceptive users to make them more intended to use safe contraceptive methods than induced abortion. PMID:2520141
Eshra, D K; Dorgham, L S; el-Sherbini, A F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer for both sexes in developed countries. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices regarding CRC of adults in Italy. Methods A random sample of 1165 adults received a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics; knowledge regarding definition, risk factors, and screening; attitudes regarding perceived risk of contracting CRC and utility of screening tests; health-related behaviors and health care use; source of information. Results Only 18.5% knew the two main modifiable risk factors (low physical activity, high caloric intake from fat and this knowledge was significantly associated with higher educational level, performing physical activity, modification of dietary habits and physical activity for fear of contracting CRC, and lower risk perception of contracting CRC. Half of respondents identified fecal occult blood testing (FOBT as main test for CRC prevention and were more knowledgeable those unmarried, more educated, who knew the main risk factors of CRC, and have received advice by physician of performing FOBT. Personal opinion that screening is useful for CRC prevention was high with a mean score of 8.3 and it was predicted by respondents' lower education, beliefs that CRC can be prevented, higher personal perceived risk of contracting CRC, and information received by physician about CRC. An appropriate behavior of performing FOBT if eligible or not performing if not eligible was significantly higher in female, younger, more educated, in those who have been recommended by physician for undergo or not undergo FOBT, and who have not personal history of precancerous lesions and familial history of precancerous lesions or CRC. Conclusion Linkages between health care and educational systems are needed to improve the levels of knowledge and to raise CRC screening adherence.
Purpose: Stereotypes toward stuttering and people who stutter (PWS) are widespread in the general public irrespective of age, level of education, culture, geographic location and profession. Negative attitudes held by persons of authority like teachers can lead to social, economic and educational obstacles in the lives of PWS. Method: The current…
Abdalla, Fauzia A.; St. Louis, Kenneth O.
Misconception and stigma towards epilepsy have a profound impact on this disease in Africa. An unselected sample of Zambian people was interviewed to investigate their knowledge and attitudes towards epilepsy. Proper/improper answers were scored, and a composite score was developed with negative values for unsatisfactory awareness and high stigma levels. The sample comprised 231 people residing in urban (107) or in rural (124) areas. The median and interquartile range of scores for epilepsy awareness and stigma were, respectively, -1 (-3; +1) and +1 (-1; +6). Poor education was the only significant predictor of unsatisfactory awareness (p=0.0131), while education and residency were significantly associated with stigma (p<0.0001 and p=0.0004). Rural people were mostly in the highest stigma level (44.2%) and urban people in the lowest stigma level (60.4%). Misconception and negative attitudes towards epilepsy among Zambian people reflect poor education and rural residency. PMID:24681384
Pupillo, Elisabetta; Vitelli, Eugenio; Messina, Paolo; Beghi, Ettore
The study summarizes information obtained from interviews conducted by telephone from ORC's WATS facility in Princeton, New Jersey. The information on the extent on which American consumers are conserving energy and their awareness of the attitudes towards conserving energy in their daily lives will aid the FEA to help plan and evaluate its energy conservation policies and programs. Survey questions dealt with subjects in 7 chapters: Private Individual's Willingness to Make Energy-Saving Efforts and their Perception of the Likelihood of Others Doing the Same; Public Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Relating to Natural Gas Issues; Driving and Energy Conservation; Energy Saving Behavior Around the Home; Parents' Perceptions of their Children's Sources of Energy Information and Energy-Related Activities; Understanding of the Energy Situation and Evaluations of Alternative Actions. (MCW)
Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of Argentine women 65 years of age and older regarding urinary incontinence (UI. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 238 community-dwelling Argentine women 65 years of age and older was conducted in San Justo, Argentina. Data were collected by in-person interviews. Results: Regarding knowledge, 232 (97.5% of the women surveyed were familiar with the term urinary incontinence, but 152 (63.9% falsely believed that UI is a normal part of aging and 163 (68.5% did not know about pelvic exercises or a surgical option to treat UI. A total of 106 (44.5% women reported symptoms of UI. Discussion: Older Argentine women are misinformed about UI. Interventions are necessary to increase their knowledge and healthcare seeking behaviors.
Full Text Available Introduction. Nurses represent an important link in mediating between the potential donors and their relatives’ consent to organ and tissue transplantation. The message of the Health Department to potential donors about the importance of organ donation was supported by the Serbian Orthodox Church, the army and other institutions through media campaigns. Nurses could contribute to this action by their personal example. Objective. The aim of this study was identification and bivariate analysis of nurse attitude about organ donation, their knowledge about the importance of transplantation as treatment methods, as well as the connection between work experience and education level with the formation of attitudes and new skills. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 291 nurses from the Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, filled in the questionnaire on the effect of correlation between the length of the service and level of education on knowledge and attitudes toward organ transplantation and organ donation. Results. Out of 291 respondents, 67.4% have completed the nursing school and 32.6% have higher education. The majority (63.9% of respondents knew that the EEG was the most valid method for determining brain death. The question regarding the possibility of buying organs was answered correctly by 68.7% of respondents. A large majority (91% would accept organ transplant, if needed, but only 32.0% would be organ donors, and only 0.3% owned a donor card. In contrast, one third of nurses were already blood donors. Conclusion. In case of necessary transplantation, nurses would accept someone else’s organ, though they do not possess donor cards, but just few would donate their organs. It is possible that prejudice arises from ignorance and distrust in the health policy of the Republic of Serbia. However, besides negative attitude, nurses have expressed interest in learning and professional development in the area of transplantation.
Full Text Available Indigenous and rural area residents are groups at high risk for tuberculosis. The strategies ofhealth promotion and disease prevention must be based on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice(CAP that communities have on this topic. Objective: to describe the CAP about tuberculosisand its association with socio-demographic aspects in Indigenous and rural area residents ofCordoba, Colombia, 2012, and assess the validity and reliability of the scale CAP. Materials andmethods: cross sectional study in 300 individuals, 100 Zenú indigenous and 200 peasants. Datawere collected through primary source, analyzes were performed using summary measures, frequencyand nonparametric statistics tests in SPSS 20. Results: CAP showed good reliability andvalidity of appearance, content and construct. In knowledge 76% presented a satisfactory level,the attitudes 77% were unsatisfactory and the 48% had good practices. There was no statisticalassociation of CAP with sex or religious beliefs, the ethnicity were statistically significant differencesin knowledge and practices. The age was statistically associated with knowledge, educationshowed association with the practices. Conclusion: there was an adequate level of knowledge abouttuberculosis, while attitudes and practices were unsatisfactory; the main factors associated withCAP were ethnicity, age and education.
Jaiberth Antonio Cardona-Arias
This study investigated beliefs about HIV/AIDS to find out whether this variable could constitute an obstacle to change in attitudes to sex among undergraduate youths in South West Nigeria. A descriptive research design was adopted. A total of 1,420 undergraduate students in four different universities from four states were sampled. A…
Odu, Bimbola Kemi; Akanle, Florence Foluso
The aim of research is to investigate the relationship between attitudes of prospective physical education teacher towards education technologies and their computer self-efficacy beliefs. Relational research method has been used in the study. Study group consists of 337 prospective physical education teachers ("M"[subscript age] = 21.57…
Kalemoglu Varol, Yaprak
This study examined parents' attitudes and beliefs following implementation of an HIV/AIDS education program that included condom availability in every public high school. Results indicated that parents supported the schools' role in reducing adolescent HIV/AIDS transmission and believed providing condoms was acceptable within an HIV/AIDS…
Guttmacher, Sally; And Others
The aim of current study was to examine predictor and explanatory relationships between fifth graders' self-regulated learning strategies, motivational beliefs, attitudes towards mathematics, and academic achievement. The study was conducted on a sample of 204 students studying in the primary schools of Afyonkarahisar province. Motivated…
Ocak, Gurbuz; Yamac, Ahmet
This paper summarizes the findings of a study investigating the beliefs and attitudes of six key respondent groups regarding issues surrounding television advertising and children. The six groups included in the study are spokesmen for Action for Children's Television (ACT); the presidents and top executive officers of advertising agencies…
Culley, James D.
To gain information about AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of junior high school students, 1,967 students in three junior high schools in an inner city school district were surveyed. Ages of the participants ranged from 11-16 years, and 48% were male. Ethnically, 33% were Asian, 31% African-American, 24% Latino, and 5% white. African-American students had greater AIDS general knowledge than Asians and similar general knowledge to Latinos and whites. Most students wanted to be taught about AIDS in school. Misconceptions about casual contagion of AIDS were common. Students with these misconceptions were more likely to believe that students with AIDS should not be allowed to attend school. A high proportion of students had engaged in high-risk behavior including sexual intercourse, drinking alcoholic beverages, and using street drugs. More boys than girls reported each of these activities. Of individuals having had sexual intercourse, a positive association was found between the belief that condoms are effective in preventing HIV infection and use of condoms. These findings support the possibility that improving knowledge about HIV transmission would result in more tolerance toward students with HIV infection and would result in less high-risk behavior. PMID:1857106
Siegel, D; Lazarus, N; Krasnovsky, F; Durbin, M; Chesney, M
The current study was aimed to assess Saudi school students' knowledge, attitude and practice about medicines. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used anonymously among 15-20 year-old adolescents attending tertiary schools in Taif City, KSA. A total of 1022 students completed the questionnaires. Only 15.4% of the respondents knew the medicines' uses. Most of the students 79.6% affirmed that they used to take medicines after consulting physicians, and 45.1% of the students thought that tablet size affects the medicine's efficacy. More than half of the students knew that high temperatures affect the efficacy of medicines, there was a significant difference between rural and urban areas (P = 0.005). Physicians (50.6%) and community pharmacists (15.7%), were the main students' reliable sources of information about medicines. The majority of the students 70.5% were interested in learning more about medicines. The younger students ?18 years wish to learn more than the older ones (P Saudi school students aged 15-20 years old have poor knowledge, misconception and negative attitudes about medicines. Low level of knowledge may expose adolescents to health-related problems. Educational efforts are important to improve students' practice toward medicines. PMID:25061406
Eldalo, Ahmed S; Yousif, Mirghani A; Abdallah, Mustafa Awad
More than 20 different pharmacogenomic tests are being used in the oncology field. The current descriptive study was conducted with 368 oncology nurses in North Carolina to identify and test key elements of Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation Theory that play a role in the adoption of pharmacogenomic testing. Oncology nurses who participated in this study had limited knowledge of genomics and pharmacogenomic testing. Attitudes toward pharmacogenomic testing were positive overall, and the study revealed that oncology nurses in this study routinely use pharmacogenomic testing information. Variable selection methods revealed that total genomic knowledge was more accurately predicted by prior experience and personality variables, pharmacogenomic knowledge was more accurately predicted by personality variables, and attitude was more accurately predicted by prior experience and perceived need of innovation. Based on these findings, several factors play key roles in the diffusion of pharmacogenomic testing within the oncology nursing field. Therefore, assessment of these variables may benefit the widespread adoption of pharmacogenomic testing. Further research should be conducted with these variables to assess the adoption of the innovation. PMID:25095306
Full Text Available Background: Millions of workers are occupationally exposed to dyes in the world, but little is known about their knowledge and attitudes toward the effects of dye on their health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the fabric dyers? and fabric printers? knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the health hazard of dyes. Materials and Methods: The present study was taken up in the Madurai district which is situated in the Southern Tamil Nadu, India. One hundred and forty-two workers employed in small-scale dyeing and printing units participated in a face-to-face confidential interview . Results: The mean age of fabric dyers and fabric printers was 42 years (?10.7. When enquired about whether dyes affect body organ(s, all the workers agreed that dye(s will affect skin, but they were not aware that dyes could affect other parts of the body. All the workers believed that safe methods of handling of dyes and disposal of contaminated packaging used for dyes need to be considered. It was found that 34% of the workers were using personal protective equipment (PPE such as rubber hand gloves during work. Conclusion: The workers had knowledge regarding the occupational hazards, and their attitudinal approach toward the betterment of the work environment is positive.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological factors are important in influencing breastfeeding practices. This retrospective study explored knowledge and attitudes related to breastfeeding of Chinese mothers living in Ireland. Methods A cross-sectional self-administrated survey written in Chinese was distributed to a convenience sample of 322 immigrant Chinese mothers mainly via Chinese supermarkets and Chinese language schools in Dublin, with the involvement of the snowball method to increase sample size. Maternal breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes were described, their associations with socio-demographic variables were explored by Chi-square analysis, and their independent associations with breastfeeding behaviours were estimated by binary logistic regression analyses. Results In spite of considerable awareness of the advantages of breastfeeding (mean score = 4.03 ± 0.73, some misconceptions (e.g. 'mother should stop breastfeeding if she catches a cold' and negative attitudes (e.g. breastfeeding inconvenient, embarrassing, and adverse to mothers' figure existed, especially among the less educated mothers. Cultural beliefs concerning the traditional Chinese postpartum diet were prevalent, particularly among those who had lived in Ireland for a shorter duration (P = 0.004. Psychological parameters had strong independent associations with breastfeeding practices in this study. Those who had lower awareness score (OR = 2.98, 95% CI: 1.87-4.73, more misconceptions and negative attitudes (P Conclusions Findings highlight a need to focus resources and education on correcting the misconceptions identified and reversing the negative attitudes towards breastfeeding among Chinese mothers in Ireland, in particular those with primary/secondary level of education. Mothers' cultural beliefs should also be acknowledged and understood by healthcare providers.
Kearney John M
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine gifted students’ knowledge of and attitudes towards biotechnology. A total of 62 gifted primary school students who were taught in science and art centers in Denizli and Kahramanmara? in 2010-2011 academic year participated in the study. The results indicated that most of the students (87% had an awareness regarding genetically modified (GM products. The results also revealed that students think that GM products have risks. Overall, the students thought that GM products should be used for the benefit of technology and people. Based on the findings from this study, some implications for biotechnology education are made.
The nutritional care of patients is one of the primary responsibilities of all registered nurses (Persenius et al, 2008). A poor nutritional status can lead to malnutrition, which can have serious consequences for an individual\\'s quality of life (Field and Smith, 2008). This paper commences with an introduction to the concept of nutrition, provides an overview of nutritional guidelines and nutritional screening tools which identify those at risk of malnutrition. It reviews the literature on nurses\\' knowledge, attitudes and practices in the provision of nutritional care and debates challenges and opportunities encountered to help nurses ensure adequate patient nutrition.
The Hungarian Youth for Nuclear (FINE) was established in 1999 as the Hungarian branch of the Young Generation Network. Our purpose is to remove the misconceptions and fears that have arisen around the nuclear techniques, mainly nuclear energetics, and to reply to the questions brought up by the Hungarian youth on this topic. This year, our main activity was to take part in the Student Island with a Nuclear-tent. In this paper we delineate our experience that we have gained with the help of our programmes about the attitude and knowledge of the Hungarian youth. (authors)
The Young People for the Nuclear Energetics (FINE) was established in 1999 as the Hungarian branch of the Young Generation Network. Our purpose is to remove the misbelieves and fears arisen around the nuclear techniques and mainly the nuclear energetics and to reply the questions brought up by the Hungarian youth in this topic. In this year our main activity was to take part in the Student Island festival with a Nuclear-tent. In this paper our experience is delineated what we drawn with the help of our programmes about the attitude and the knowledge of the youth. (authors)
"nBackground: The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge and attitude of pregnant women in Qazvin Province, central Iran, Relating to oral Hygiene."nMethods: The study group comprised of 760 pregnant women living in Qazvin, center of Iran in 2004. The questions were formulated to evaluate information without the need for dental examination. The age groups between 17-41 years old were randomly selected and a question was given to woman in three family planning center. St...
Hamissi, J.; Bakianian Vaziri, P.; Davalloo, A.
The relation of exercise habits of 113 female college students to their knowledge about osteoporosis and their health beliefs was investigated, using the health belief model to determine why some people participate in self-care preventive actions but others do not. Age was positively correlated with the level of osteoporosis knowledge, awareness of personal susceptibility, and motivation for general health behaviors. Older participants, however, perceived more barriers to exercise as an osteoporosis-prevention measure than did the younger respondents. The authors' conclusions support the importance of early osteoporosis education and lifetime physical activities to prevent osteoporosis. PMID:8543727
Taggart, H M; Connor, S E
The marketing of natural cigarettes has been widely criticized by consumer advocates and public policymakers. The present research is designed to inform the ongoing policy debate by examining the effects of natural cigarette claims on adolescents' brand impressions. The authors report the results of an experiment in which high school students viewed images of cigarette packages for three different brands. Findings indicate that including natural claims on cigarette packages can weaken beliefs that the cigarettes cause diseases. Results also reveal that skepticism toward marketing claims may play an important role in undermining brand attitudes and trial intentions toward cigarette brands promoted with natural claims. Policy implications and suggestions for further research are provided. PMID:24628465
Kelly, Kathleen J; Manning, Kenneth
In this study, we used the Mixed Rasch Model (MRM) to analyze data from the Beliefs and Attitudes About Memory Survey (BAMS; Brown, Garry, Silver, and Loftus, 1997). We used the original 5-point BAMS data to investigate the functioning of the "Neutral" category via threshold analysis under a 2-class MRM solution. The "Neutral" category was identified as not eliciting the model expected responses and observations in the "Neutral" category were subsequently treated as missing data. For the BAMS data without the "Neutral" category, exploratory MRM analyses specifying up to 5 latent classes were conducted to evaluate data-model fit using the consistent Akaike information criterion (CAIC). For each of three BAMS subscales, a two latent class solution was identified as fitting the mixed Rasch rating scale model the best. Results regarding threshold analysis, person parameters, and item fit based on the final models are presented and discussed as well as the implications of this study. PMID:22677495
Smith, Everett V; Ying, Yuping; Brown, Scott W
OBJECTIVES:: The recently enacted Israeli Dying Patient Act was designed to strike balance between enhancing patient autonomy in end-of-life decision making and cultural/religious norms that are in opposition to active euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). The current study evaluated physician attitudes regarding active and passive euthanasia, and their knowledge of specific aspects of the law. METHODS:: A survey was administered to a convenience sample of hospital-based physicians treating terminal patients. Physicians were queried about their attitudes regarding euthanasia and PAS. Physicians were also queried about specific aspects of the law and whether they had sufficient resources to uphold the law. RESULTS:: Surveys were distributed to 270 physicians and 100 were returned and evaluated (37%). Nearly all physicians supported passive euthanasia (withholding treatment), whereas over 40% maintained that active forms of euthanasia should be allowed for terminal patients in severe physical pain. Multivariate analysis showed a negative relationship between support for more active forms of euthanasia and physicians' self-reported religiosity. Physicians cited lack of time as a reason for not complying with the new law. Physicians had a familiarity with the general aspects of the new legislation, but a large proportion was not aware of the specifics of the law. CONCLUSIONS:: Compared with previous surveys, a larger number of physicians support passive euthanasia. A sizable percentage of physicians would be willing to participate in active euthanasia and even PAS. Attitudes toward euthanasia are influenced by religious factors. PMID:23660598
Doron, Dana; Wexler, Isaiah D; Shabtai, Esther; Corn, Benjamin W
Full Text Available In almost every country, the organ supply for transplantation does not match the increasing demand; health professionals may play an important role in eliminating barriers and increasing organ donation. Therefore, assessing medical students’ knowledge and attitudes regarding organ donation is important for the future organ supply. Some 409 of 508 first- and second-year medical students answered an anonymous, multiple-choice questionnaire about demographic variables, knowledge about transplant issues, and willingness to donate organs. The mean age was 20.3±1.8 years (range: 17 to 29 years; 50.1% were male, 49.9% were female. Some 44.8% of the total respondents reported that they had sufficient knowledge about organ donation, and 40.1% reported knowledge about organ transplantation. The primary source of their knowledge was reported as the media (72.1%. Willingness to donate their own organs was 58.4% and willingness as to their relatives’ organs was 39.9%. The acceptance of live organ donation was higher (74.6% than cadaver donation. Only 1.2% had a organ donation card. Female students were more willing to donate their own and their relatives’ organs. Since medical students are prospective leaders of promoting organ donation action, these issues should be taught within the context of social medicine lessons, and desirable behavioral changes should be implemented.
Full Text Available This study examined the belief, knowledge and perception on parents to immunization of children in Lagos State. Questionnaires were distributed to a sample of 1000 parents seeking for their opinion on various issues pertaining to their perception about child immunization. In addition, the study did a general literature review on immunization coverage in Nigeria taking into cognizance the beliefs of the Yoruba of South-West Nigeria to which the study area (Lagos State is an integral part.The result shows that although, many parents have knowledge about the efficacy of vaccination for their children, yet culture overrides such knowledge in some cases. The result shows that gender of parents does not significantly affect their belief about immunization and their willingness to present children for routine immunization. However, marital status, education and religion significantly influence such belief.It is concluded that the culture and beliefs of the Yoruba in Lagos State is too complex to be ignored in any public health plan, if such plan is to be effectively and efficiently implemented.
Rasheed Kola Ojikutu
Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotic overuse and misuse for upper respiratory tract infections in children is widespread and fuelled by public attitudes and expectations. This study assessed knowledge, beliefs, and practices regarding antibiotic use for these paediatric infections among children's caregivers' in Trinidad and Tobago in the English speaking Caribbean. Methods In a cross-sectional observational study, by random survey children's adult caregivers gave a telephone interview from November 1998 to January 1999. On a pilot-tested evaluation instrument, respondents provided information about their knowledge and beliefs of antibiotics, and their use of these agents to treat recent episodes ( Results Of the 417 caregivers, 70% were female and between 18–40 years, 77% were educated to high school and beyond and 43% lived in urban areas. Two hundred and forty nine (60% respondents scored high (? 12 on antibiotic knowledge and 149 (34% had used antibiotics in the preceding year. More caregivers with a high knowledge score had private health insurance (33%, (p Conclusions In Trinidad and Tobago, caregivers scoring low on antibiotic knowledge have erroneous beliefs and use antibiotics inappropriately. Children in their care receive antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections without visiting a health clinic or a physician. Educational interventions in the community on the consequences of inappropriate antibiotic use in children are recommended. Our findings emphasise the need to address information, training, legislation and education at all levels of the drug delivery system towards discouraging self-medication with antibiotics in children.
Is belief in the paranormal alive and well within preservice teachers? In this survey 232 undergraduates (including 202 preservice primary teachers) were asked to react to a series of eight statements reflecting paranormal New Age beliefs rated earlier by a faculty panel as “totally unbelievable.” Overall, the students' modal response was expressed as “no particular opinion,” although for five of the eight items the modal respónse was “slightly believable.” It was found that only four students within the sample consistently rejected all eight statements. The frequency of ‘believers’ outnumbered the ‘skeptics’ in relation to three items (beliefs in UFOs, psychic seances, and Nostradamus). New Age factor scores were not significantly related to undergraduate faculty or year level, to holding anti-scientific beliefs or to a measure of TV-viewing, and did not correlate significantly with the personality scale Need for Cognition. Females evidenced higher New Age scores than males, but attitudes to science were unrelated to gender.
Yates, Gregory C. R.; Chandler, Margaret
The Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program is an ongoing project that is designed to strengthen geoscience education in South Texas public schools. It began in June 2003 and is funded by the National Science Foundation. This outreach program involves collaboration between Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi and four independent school districts in South Texas with support from the South Texas Rural Systemic Initiative, another NSF-funded project. Additional curriculum support has been provided by various local and state organizations. Across Texas, fifth grade students are demonstrating a weakness in geoscience concepts as evidenced by their scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills. As a result, fifth and sixth grade public school students from low-income school districts were selected to participate in this program. At this age students are already making decisions that will affect their high school and college years. The main purpose of this project is to encourage these students, many of whom are Hispanic, to become geoscientists. This purpose is accomplished by enhancing their geoscience knowledge, nurturing their interest in geoscience and showing them what careers are available in the geosciences. Educators and scientists collaborate to engage students in scientific discovery through hands-on laboratory exercises and exposure to state-of-the-art technology (laptop computers, weather stations, telescopes, etc.). Students' family members become involved in the geoscience learning process as they participate in Family Science Night activities. Family Science Nights constitute an effective venue to reach the public. During the course of the Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program, investigators have measured success in two ways: improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience concepts and change in students' attitudes towards geoscience. Findings include significant improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience. Students also report more positive attitudes toward geoscience after having participated in laboratory activities and Family Science Nights. Preliminary findings on the extent to which geoscience and geoscience careers become part of families' purviews, discourses and planning through involvement in Family Science Nights will be presented. Implications related to the success of this program, as indicated by measurement of students' knowledge and attitudes of geoscience as well as engagement of this program by families, will be discussed.
Silliman, J. E.; Hansen, A.; McDonald, J.; Martinez, M.
Full Text Available Introduction: Intensive care unit ICU syndrome is a disorder, in which patients in an ICU or a similar setting experience anxiety, hallucination and become paranoid, severely disoriented in time and place, very agitated, or even violent, etc. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of nurses with regards to prevention of ICU syndrome (Delirium. Methods: Subjects of this research were 56 nurses with including criteria of registration in nursing, university degree and at least one month experience of working in open heart surgery ICUs. The data was gathered from 3 clusters in university hospitals equipped with open heart surgery ICUs in Tehran. All subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire. Moreover all subjects were observed in all shifts. During observation, two researchers observed each subject simultaneously to achieve higher accuracy of observations. Descriptive and analytic statistics were applied to analysis the data. Results: The finding of the study showed that more than 53% of the subjects had passed a continuing education course, but less than 46% of them never passed a training course on ICU. According to this research, subjects, work experience in ICUs had significant relation on their knowledge with regard to prevention of ICU psychosis. However, it has not significant relation to their attitude and skill. Conclusion: According to the results of the study, subjects have little chance to be familiar with the concepts and elements of ICU syndrome in their university program. The finding also indicated that many subjects in this study were not familiar with the important concepts such as sleep deprivation, sensory overload and sensory deprivation, etc. Ongoing progression in high-tech ICUs brings about continuing nursing education programs for all nurses. The results also showed that stress factor in ICU, such as high mortality, isolation, high workload etc. Gradually influences nurses,attitude in ICU. So, it is strongly recommended to consider rotation of nurses in order not to impose high stress to ICU nurses.
The purpose of this study was to examine the cultural knowledge that informs exercise behaviors among Black and Hispanic college-age women. Focus groups were conducted among 26 Black or Hispanic female college students. Questions were based on constructs from social cognitive theory. Data were analyzed using content analysis. Latinas were found to be more likely to view vigorous exercise as "unfeminine" and cited family responsibilities as barriers. Black women enjoyed the competition and camaraderie of exercise, but felt pressure to conform to White standards of beauty. There appear to be distinct differences in the cultural beliefs that inform exercise behaviors among these women. PMID:18263846
D'Alonzo, Karen T; Fischetti, Natalie
Full Text Available Background: Studying nursing students' opinions could be a useful guide for the formation of their professionalrole as well as their education and training.Aim: The present study's aim is to examine nurse students' opinion, beliefs and attitude regarding the conceptsof health, health care, health education, health ethics, illness, safety in health care and quality in health care, inan educational environment which promotes cooperative activities in class.Methodology: Seventy four nurse students of the University of Peloponnese participated in the present studyduring the winter semester of 2008-2009. They were asked to describe shortly the meaning of the study concepts,writing down their opinion on a questionnaire that included six questions. Their answers were evaluated usingthe method of content analysis and sorted to exhaustive and mutually exclusive categories.Results: Nursing Students were asked to describe the meaning of the concept of health, health care, healtheducation, health ethics, illness, safety in health care and quality in health care. The result of the students'opinion reveals the way they conceive their professional role, their education and their attitude in real workingconditions and, therefore, the quality of the services they provide and how well prepared they are to demand andto put in a claim for the quality in health care.Conclusions: Further empirical research could aim to replicate or contradict these findings, using a larger sampleand recruiting more university departments.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Gemstones have been in use as part of alternative and complementary medicine for years. However, our understanding of the perceived healing powers of gemstones is limited. An extensive literature search revealed that there is a dearth of validated information on this subject. This study was therefore undertaken to explore the various aspects of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the public towards gemstone therapeutics. Methods A survey was performed in the Community Health Centre of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Pakistan. Data collection was done via a face-to-face interview based on a structured, pre-tested questionnaire. Participants included all willing persons between 18–75 years of age approached prior to their appointments at the Community Health Centre. Results The survey response rate was 86% (400/465. More than half (63% of the study population was aware of the use of gemstone therapy. One hundred fifty-six individuals believed that gemstone use impacts health. Of this group, 39% believed that gemstone use increases physical strength. 62% believed that gemstone use is based on superstitious beliefs, whereas 28% opined that it is based on religious beliefs. 38% had used gemstones therapeutics formerly, while 24% were current users. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age status and education status were significant (p Conclusion More than half of our sample population is aware of the use of the gemstones for their various effects. Willingness to use gemstones is associated with the beliefs about the impact of gemstone therapy on health. Friends and family seem to be the major role players influencing people's willingness to use gemstones. CAM modalities should be recognized and considered as an important therapeutic option. We feel that gemstone therapy is a relatively unexplored area and more studies should, therefore, be conducted to gather more validated information on the subject.
Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to investigate the knowledge and attitudes among pharmacists in Oman towards the specific use and knowledge of herbal drugs. Methods: The study was conducted on 100 pharmacists employed in Oman. The data was collected using two self- administered questionnaire containing 7 and 11 closed ended questions in each, respectively. Results: The mean age of pharmacists was 32.6 (SD=5.6 years. The majority of pharmacists were interested in herbal information and their herbal information mainly comes from their previous classes during college. Most of them have belief on the effectiveness of herbal products. Pharmacists were more knowledgeable on specific therapeutic indications of herbal products rather than on other areas such as drug- herb interaction or side effects. Conclusion: In summary, Pharmacists need to be informed on the therapeutic indications, drug interactions, dose, active constituent and precautions of herbal products. Concerned bodies must also provide them with regular continuing education programs apart from putting their effects to incorporate relevant topics in herbal medicine in pharmacy curriculum.
Shah Alam Khan
Full Text Available The inappropriate use of antibiotics in the community is one of the major causes of antimicrobial resistance. This study aimed to explore the physician prescribing pattern of antibiotics for acute respiratory infections (ARIs and to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of patients regarding antibiotic use for ARIs. The study was conducted in Upper Egypt and used quantitative and qualitative research techniques. Eligible patients exiting outpatient clinics with ARIs were invited to participate in the study. A qualitative study was conducted through 20 focus group discussions. Out of 350 encounters for patients with various ARIs, 292 (83% had been prescribed at least one antibiotic. Factors significantly associated with antibiotic prescribing for adults included patient preference that an antibiotic be prescribed. For children younger than 18, presentation with fever, cough, loss of appetite, and sore throat, along with the caregiver’s antibiotic preference, were associated with an antibiotic prescription. Several misconceptions regarding antibiotic use among community members were stated, such as the strong belief of the curing and prophylactic power of antibiotics for the common cold. Interventions to promote proper antibiotic use for ARIs need to be piloted, targeting both physicians and the public. Educational programs for physicians and campaigns to raise public awareness regarding proper antibiotic use for ARIs need to be developed.
A cross-sectional prospective study was performed to assess knowledge and attitude toward breastfeeding among mothers in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia and its influence on their breastfeeding practices. Two hundred thirteen women who had delivered healthy babies at term were enrolled. A structured questionnaire containing demographic data and the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Score were used, followed by a telephone interview after 8 weeks to determine the feeding outcome. Women of Malay ethnicity with higher education level who had received breastfeeding counseling had a significantly more favorable attitude toward breastfeeding. Ethnicity was found to be a significant determinant in the success of breastfeeding, whereas returning to work was a major reason for discontinuing breastfeeding. In ensuring a successful breastfeeding practice, apart from knowledge and attitude, issues surrounding culture and traditions as well as improving deliverance of readily available support should be addressed. PMID:24893127
Ishak, Shareena; Adzan, Nur Azeanny M; Quan, Lee K; Shafie, M Hasli; Rani, Nor Azila; Ramli, Kazzoma G
Five hundred men who have sex with men (MSM), recruited through Respondent Driven Sampling in Buenos Aires, Argentina, were interviewed in order to assess knowledge and beliefs about HIV infection. The mean proportion of HIV correct knowledge answers was 62%; however participants whose sexual partners in the prior year included women (MSM&W) had lower frequencies of correct answers than participants with no women partners. Men with previous HIV testing experience and those who were HIV positive had higher HIV knowledge. In relation to HIV beliefs, less than half of participants responded correctly to each of the scenarios presented. Accurate answers for all items were more likely among those who only have sex with men. Men have basic HIV knowledge but also many misconceptions about transmission and prevention. Furthermore, MSM&W have less information than those who are exclusively MSM, probably related to the fact that information campaigns specifically targeted gay identified men. PMID:23297085
Pando, MA; Balan, I; Marone, R; Dolezal, C; Barreda, V; Carballo Dieguez, A; Avila, MM
Genetic counseling is part of the social response to the science of genetics. It is intended to help twenty-first-century societies manage the consequences of our ability to observe and intervene in our genetic makeup. This article explores the views, knowledge, and beliefs of some Deaf and hard of hearing people about genetics and genetic…
Middleton, Anna; Emery, Steven D.; Turner, Graham H.
In this paper, we devise a diagrammatic conceptualization to describe and represent the complex interplay of a teacher's knowledge (K), goals (G) and beliefs (B) in leveraging technology effectively in the classroom. The degree of coherency between the KGB region and the affordances of the technology serves as an indicator of the teachers'…
Chen, F-H.; Looi, C.-K.; Chen, W.
This study examined HIV/AIDS knowledge and beliefs in Haitian adolescents in an HIV epicenter, Miami-Dade Florida. This study examined survey data from 300 Haitian adolescents, aged 13 through 18, from both low- and middle-income neighborhoods. A sub-sample of 80 adolescents was selected for in-depth interviews and continuous observations with…
Marcelin, Louis Herns; McCoy, H. Virginia; DiClemente, Ralph J.
The BELIEF Project is a Coordination Action funded by the European Commission in the context of the FP6 and FP7 Programmes. It aims to create a platform where e-Infrastructures providers and users can collaborate and exchange knowledge, ensuring that e-Infrastructures are developed and effectively used worldwide, filling the gap separating the e-Infrastructures providers from the users, and thus contribute to the emergence of a competitive knowledge-based economy. To create this synergy among...
Zoppi, Franco; Castelli, Donatella; Simon, Taylor
Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to assess the rate of tobacco consumption among professional athletes in Iran and assessing their knowledge and attitude in this regard.Methods: A total of 738 athletes from 10 different types of sports were evaluated. Athletes were all members of the priority leagues. After obtaining consent from the Physical Education Organization and coordination with the related federations, athletes were asked to fill out the standard questionnaire.Findings: All understudy subjects were males. The mean age was 28.4±2.7 yrs. The mean age of initiation of sport in these subjects was reported to be 12.3±4.01 yrs. A total of 178 (24.6% subjects had experienced cigarette smoking and 308 (42.3% had experienced hookah smoking. Sixty four subjects (9% were current smokers. The mean score of knowledge about hazards of smoking was 5.6±0.9 among those who had experienced smoking. This score was 7.9±0.5 among those with no smoking experience (P=0.04.Conclusion: Rate of smoking among professional athletes is lower than general population average. So participation in organized sports may be a protective factor against tobacco use in people. Percentage of smoker athletes was significantly higher in individual sports compared to team sports. Experiencing hookah smoking was significantly higher than cigarette smoking among athletes. Athletes had good knowledge about hazards of smoking and had a positive attitude in this respect. Further studies are needed to evaluate reasons of cigarette and hookah smoking among athletes.
Full Text Available Organic farming is gaining popularity all over the world as it can diversify agricultural production system toward attaining improved productivity, farm income as well as food safety. The rise of organic farming was driven partly by consumers' concern with food quality and safety, as well as the protection of the environment. Organic Farming produces safe and nutritious food as it helps prevent soil pollution by stopping risky chemical reactions in the soil and avoiding produce contamination, as well as soil erosion, by wind and rain. One of the important parties that can enable the country to produce more organic products through organic farming is the growers or farmers. The final decision of farmers to use a new practice like organic farming system is usually the result of their knowledge of the practices as well as their perception. Therefore, the main purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate the knowledge, perception or attitude, and practices of vegetable growers towards organic farming. A survey method through face-to-face interview by using structured questionnaire was used to collect data from a total of 31 vegetable growers in Kundasang, Sabah which was selected by using simple random sampling method. The findings of the study show that the knowledge of the respondents on organic farming especially pertaining to the use of chemical insecticides, herbicides and fertilizers is still need to be improved, their attitude is also still negative, and they are still dependent on conventional practices (i.e. chemical especially to control pests and diseases.
Full Text Available Currently, the syndromic management of HIV/AIDS is based on a biomedical model that focuses on the ABC (Abstain, Be faithful, Condomise model. The ABC model overlooks the issue of indigenous cultural practices, sexual behaviours, knowledge and attitudes of the society. A grounded theory study was used for the research. The population for the research on which this article is reporting, was selected from the Vhavenda ethnic group using purposive sampling. In-depth interviews were held at the participants’ own homes. The outcome of the study on which this article is reporting, may assist in identifying indigenous health beliefs, attitudes and practices that will assist in curbing the spread of HIV/AIDS. The findings revealed that cultural practices, such as premarital counselling, polygamy and widow inheritance, are believed to be influential in making women more susceptible to sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. The practice of abstinence, as emphasised at initiation schools, should be incorporated into current policies and preventative practices. The findings further demonstrate that policy-makers who formulated the HIV/AIDS strategy have limited knowledge of the health beliefs, attitudes and practices of the people they serve. They thus find it difficult to draw up promotion and prevention strategies that meet the needs of the community. It is therefore imperative that our health-care training curriculum be reviewed to make provision for the incorporation of sound and effective indigenous practices to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS and to eliminate or refine practices that are harmful and detrimental to people’s health. The cultural practices that were proved reliable and effective will be recommended for integration into health education.
Full Text Available Background: Unsafe abortion is a major Public health problem in developing countries, where women make several unsafe attempts at termination of the unintended pregnancy before turning to health services. Community health workers can act as a bridge between the community and their health facilities and can use Emergency Contraceptive Pills to significantly reduce the mortality and morbidity related to unsafe abortions. Aims: This study explores the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Lady Health Supervisor of the National Program for Family Planning, district Rawalpindi, regarding emergency contraception pills. Materials and Methods: The cross sectional survey was conducted during the monthly meeting of Lady Health Supervisors. Self administered, anonymous and voluntary questionnaire consisting of 17 items, regarding demographic profile, awareness, knowledge, attitudes and practices, was used. Results: Insufficient knowledge, high misinformation and strongly negative attitudes were revealed. More than half did not know that emergency contraceptive pills do not cause abortion. About four fifths believed that emergency contraceptive pills will lead to ‘evil’ practices in society. More than four fifths recognized that the clients of National Program for Family Planning need emergency contraceptive pills. The attitudes were significantly associated with knowledge (P=0.034, Fisher’s Exact Test. Conclusion: The awareness of emergency contraceptive pills is high. Serious gaps in knowledge have been identified. There is a clear recognition of the need of emergency contraceptive pills for the clients of National Program for Family Planning. However, any strategy to introduce emergency contraceptive pills must cater for the misplaced beliefs of the work force.
Azeem Sultan Mir
Full Text Available Objectives: To measure general public knowledge, source of knowledge, preferred dosage forms, and beliefs toward medicines. Methods: A cross-sectional study design using convenience-sampling technique was used. A pre-validated questionnaire was designed and distributed to the general public through face-to-face interviews. All data were analyzed, and p-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. The study took place in the Clinical Pharmacy Department, Taif University, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between August 2012 and February 2013 Results: Nine hundred participants successfully responded to this study. Males represented two-thirds of the respondents (66.8%. In addition, 52% of respondents were of high education level. Modern (74.2% and alternative medicines (88.7% were understood by most respondents. Tablets (69.6% and capsules (37.6% represented the highest preferred dosage forms. In addition, physicians (66.6% and pharmacists (46.2% were the main sources of information regarding medicines. In terms of beliefs, respondents showed wrong beliefs in many statements used in this study. Conclusion: There is a need to improve public knowledge and beliefs toward medicines as well as utilizing public preferred dosage forms. In addition, pharmacists should play a major role in these programs since they are experts on medicines and play a more active role in patient education and counseling.
Mahmoud S. Alhaddad
Full Text Available An estimated 200,000 children born in Thailand each year are at risk of prenatal exposure to pesticides and associated neurodevelopmental outcomes because of their mothers’ agricultural occupations. Children born to non-agricultural workers may also be at risk of exposure from other pathways of maternal pesticide exposure, including exposure through home use, diet, and other environmental media. Pesticide exposure in Thailand has been linked to unsafe practices and beliefs about pesticides. However, limited information exists on pesticide knowledge, attitudes, and practices among pregnant women in Thailand or elsewhere. Obtaining this information is essential to understand the factors associated with prenatal pesticide exposure, identify populations potentially at risk, and ultimately protect pregnant women and their children. We administered surveys to 76 pregnant women in northern Thailand and used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate associations among pesticide-related knowledge, pregnancy trimester, and pesticide use behavior. In this pilot study, lower knowledge score and earliest trimester of pregnancy were marginally (p < 0.1 associated with unsafe practices in the home, but not at work. Women who worked in agriculture or applied pesticides before becoming pregnant, or who had a previous child were significantly (p < 0.05 more likely to engage in unsafe behaviors in the home during their current pregnancy. We preliminarily conclude that increasing pesticide-related knowledge among pregnant women may help promote safe practices and reduce prenatal exposure. Knowledge-based interventions may be most effective when implemented early in pregnancy and targeted to agricultural workers and other sub-populations at risk of pesticide exposure.
Anne M. Riederer
The topics and framing of news stories relevant to skin cancer prevention have shifted over time. This study examined agenda-setting effects of such news stories on public attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer. Content analysis data on 516 articles published in two major daily newspapers in Melbourne, Australia, from 1994 to 2007 were combined with circulation data to generate indices of potential news exposure. Associations between these indices and cross-sectional telephone survey data from the same period on 6,244 adults' tanning attitudes and perceived susceptibility to skin cancer were examined using logistic regression models, accounting for the temporal precedence of news content. Pro-sun protection stories on attitudes and behavior were associated with older adults not thinking a tan looks healthy. Pro-sun protection stories on solaria were associated with less preference for a deep tan among young adults who like to suntan. Stories on vitamin D that were unsupportive of or ambiguous about sun protection were associated with a number of pro-tan attitudes among younger adults. Results indicate news coverage during 1994-2007 served an important agenda-setting role in explaining the public's attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer. Vitamin D stories appeared most influential, particularly among young adults. PMID:23485415
Dixon, Helen; Warne, Charles; Scully, Maree; Dobbinson, Suzanne; Wakefield, Melanie
Dementia is a prevalent syndrome in ageing societies and therefore of significant medical and social importance for the general population. We have studied knowledge and attitudes towards Alzheimer's dementia (AD) of 1245 epidemiologically representative individuals between 14 and 99 years. Only 13% mentioned memory disturbances, e.g. forgetfulness, as hallmarks of AD; 54% knew that age was a major risk factor; 47% felt that "brain-jogging" was therapeutically useful. In case of developing AD, more than 70% wished to be informed together with a close relative or friend; 7% felt that nobody else should know about their problem; and many more than 50% expected information on treatment, course, symptoms and causes. These results demonstrate, that there is a remarkable lack of relevant information on AD in the general population, and that most individuals wished to be informed about a potential diagnosis of AD together with their family and friends. PMID:18381055
Schwalen, Susanne; Förstl, Hans
While arguing that many cognitive states do indeed have a characteristic phenomenology, I find reasons for exempting beliefs from the program of cognitive phenomenology. Examining the complex relationship between beliefs and various kinds of conscious experience shows that belief is a messy concept and that we ought to take a relaxed and pluralist view on the ontology of belief.
Klausen, SØren Harnow
Full Text Available Abstract Background Biobanks have the potential to offer a venue for chronic disease biomarker discovery, which would allow for disease early detection and for identification of carriers of a certain predictor biomarker. To assess the general attitudes towards genetic research and participation in biobanks in the Long Island/Queens area of New York, and what factors would predict a positive view of such research, participants from the NSLIJ hospital system were surveyed. Methods Participants were recruited at six hospital centers in the NSLIJ system during the summers of 2009 and again in 2011 (n?=?1,041. Those who opted to participate were given a questionnaire containing 22 questions assessing demographics, lifestyle and attitudes towards genetic research. These questions addressed individual participant’s beliefs about the importance of genetic research, willingness to participate in genetic research themselves, and their views on informed consent issues. Results Respondents took a generally positive view of genetic research in general, as well as their own participation in such research. Those with reservations were most likely to cite concerns over the privacy of their medical and genetic information. Those who were married tended to view genetic research as important, while those in the younger age group viewed it as less important. Prior blood donation of respondents was found to be a predictor of their approval for genetic research. Demographic factors were not found to be predictive of personal willingness to participate in genetic research, or of approval for the opt-out approach to consent. Conclusions While respondents were generally inclined to approve of genetic research, and those who disapproved did not do so based on an underlying moral objection to such research, there is a disconnect between the belief in the importance of genetic research and the willingness of individuals to participate themselves. This indicates a continued concern for the ways in which genetic materials are safeguarded once they are collected. Also indicated was a general lack of understanding about the various consent processes that go along with genetic research, which should be addressed further to ensure the successful continuation of biobanks.
Kerath Samantha M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in biobanking for collection of specimens for non-communicable diseases research has grown in recent times. This paper explores the perspectives of Nigerians on donation of specimen for the biobanking research. Methods We conducted 16 Focus Group Discussions (FGD with individuals from different ethnic, age and socio-economic groups in Kano (North, Enugu (Southeast, Oyo States (Southwest and Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory (Central of Nigeria. We used topic guides and prompt statements to explore the knowledge and understanding of interviewees to general issues about biobanking of biospecimens, their use and specifically about role of biobanking in non-communicable diseases research. Results A total of 123 individuals participated in 16 focus group discussions in 2011. Our participants had limited knowledge of the concept of biobanking but accepted it once they were educated about it and saw it as a worthwhile venture. Half of our study participants supported use of broad consent, a quarter supported restricted consent while the remaining quarter were in favour of tiered consent. Most discussants support shipment of their samples to other countries for further research, but they prefer those collaborations to be done only with competent, ethical researchers and they would like to receive feedback about such projects. The majority preferred health care as a benefit from participation, particularly for any unexpected condition that may be discovered during the course of the research instead of financial compensation. Participants emphasized the need to ensure that donated samples were not used for research that contradicts their religious beliefs. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that our participants accepted biobanking once they understand it but there were different attitudes to elements of biobanking such as type of consent. Our study highlights the need to carefully document population attitudes to elements of modern scientific research and the consenting process.
Igbe Michael A
Examined the relationships between athletes' (N=291) knowledge about the long-term effects of anabolic steroids and their attitudes toward this type of drug. Results show low correlation between greater knowledge and attitudes about the use of steroids in sports, suggesting that drug education programs regarding steroids may have limited value.…
Anshel, Mark H.; Russell, Kenneth G.
To assess their knowledge, use, and attitudes regarding peer-to-peer (P2P) applications, this study surveyed academic librarians (n = 162) via a mail-in survey. Correlations between the sample characteristics (age, gender, year of MLS, type of library job) and P2P knowledge, use, and attitudes were also explored. Overall, academic librarians…
Reports a study that examined the current HIV and AIDS knowledge and attitudes of 63 preclinical medical students. Survey data indicated that a significant portion of the subjects had poor knowledge and had attitudes that might have an adverse impact on their care of AIDS patients. (SM)
McDaniel, J. Stephen; And Others
Outdoor educational programmes are generally believed to be a suitable alternative to conventional biology settings that improve participants' environmental attitudes and knowledge. Here we examine whether outdoor educational programmes focused solely on practical work with plants influence participants' knowledge of and attitudes towards plants.…
Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol
The Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Test was designed to measure the attitudes and knowledge of retarded individuals in fourteen areas: (1) anatomy/terminology; (2) dating; (3) marriage; (4) intimacy; (5) intercourse; (6) pregnancy, childbirth and childrearing; (8) masturbation; (9) homosexuality; (10) alcohol and drugs; (11) community risks…
Edmonson, Barbara; And Others
We describe the findings from a survey assessing the beliefs regarding testing, confidentiality, disclosure, and environment of care and attitudes towards care of people with HIV/AIDS (PLHWA), in 1020, 4th and 5th year medical students, from public and private medical universities in Malaysia. A self-administered validated questionnaire based on the UNAIDS Model Questionnaire with a 5-point Likert scale (5, strongly disagree; 4, disagree; 3, neutral; 2, agree; 1, strongly agree) was used a...
Choy, K. K.; Rene, T. J.; Khan, S. A.
PURPOSE Negative attitudes and beliefs about depression treatment may prevent many young adults from accepting a diagnosis and treatment for depression. We undertook a study to determine the association between depressive symptom severity, beliefs about and attitudes toward treatment, subjective social norms, and past behavior on the intent not to accept a physician’s diagnosis of depression. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study of 10,962 persons aged 16 to 29 years who participated and had positive screening results on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) score in an Internet-based public health depression screening program. Participants reported whether they would accept their physician’s diagnosis of depression. Based on the theory of reasoned action, we developed a multivariate model of the factors that predict intent not to accept a diagnosis of depression. RESULTS Twenty-six percent of the participants stated their intent not to accept their physician’s diagnosis of depression. Disagreeing that medications are effective in treating depression (strongly disagree, odds ratio ( OR ) = 6.5, 95% confidence interval (CI), 4.6–9.3), that there is a biological cause for depression (strongly disagree, OR = 1.9, 95% CI, 1.3–2.7), and agreeing that you would be embarrassed if your friends knew you had depression were associated with the intent not to accept a diagnosis of depression (strongly agree, OR = 2.3, 95% CI, 1.8–2.9). Beliefs and attitudes, subjective social norms, and past behavior explained most of the variance in this model (84%). CONCLUSIONS Negative beliefs and attitudes, subjective social norms, and lack of past helpful treatment experiences are associated with the intent to not accept the diagnosis of depression and may contribute to low rates of treatment among young adults. PMID:15671189
Van Voorhees, Benjamin W.; Fogel, Joshua; Houston, Thomas K.; Cooper, Lisa A.; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Ford, Daniel E.
It has been repeatedly claimed that the application of genetic engineering in the field of agricultural and food production is both beneficial and advantageous. However, biotechnology is developing in an environment where public concerns about food safety and environmental protection are steadily increasing. The present study aims at gaining an insight into Greek consumers' beliefs, attitudes and intentions towards genetically modified (GM) food products. The objectives of this study are summarized as follows (i) to provide evidence that consumer beliefs are built around the 'safety-benefits' axis, and (ii) to segment the Greek market in terms of consumer beliefs about GM food products and identify a number of clusters with clear-cut behavioural profiles. Although the overall attitude of Greek consumers towards GM food is negative, the research very interestingly concludes that there exists a market segment of substantial size, whose beliefs about GM food appears to be positive. This finding suggests that there is not a 'consensus' regarding the rejection of GM foods in the Greek market as one might have expected thus 'encouraging' the implementation of adequate marketing strategies to target this segment of 'early adopters' in the first place.
Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S.; Krystallis, Athanasios
Background: Despite scientific evidence on the positive effects of seafood consumption on human health, the consumption of fish remains below the recommended intake levels for the majority of Europeans. The present study aimed to explore cultural differences in potential determinants of fish consumption: consumers' knowledge and health-related beliefs, as well as the relationship between those variables, socio-demographics and fish consumption frequency, using data from five European countries. Methods: A cross-sectional consumer survey was carried out in 2004 with representative household samples from Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Spain. The sample consisted of 4786 respondents, aged 18-84 years, who were responsible for food purchasing and cooking in the household. Results: European consumers had a very strong belief that eating fish is healthy. Consumers' belief that eating fish is healthy, their interest in healthy eating and objective fish-related nutrition knowledge, positively, but only weakly, influenced fish consumption frequency. Subjective knowledge was found to be a stronger predictor of fish consumption than the previously noted factors. Age and education contributed, both directly and indirectly through knowledge, to explain fish consumption behaviour. However, the path coefficients in the estimated model were relatively low, which indicates that fish consumption frequency was also determined by factors other than health-related beliefs and consumers' knowledge. Conclusions: The findings of the present study suggest that communication should focus on health-related benefits other than fish consumption alone. Communicating that eating fish is healthy and stressing the health benefits of fish alone, as is still commonly performed (e.g. in generic promotion and other types of public information campaigns) will be insufficient to achieve higher levels of compliance with fish consumption recommendations.
Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim
Full Text Available Fever is extremely common in population. People have been shown to have unrealistic fears of the harmful effects of fever and they generally see it as the main component of an illness. The objective of this study was to survey people about their kowledge, attitude and beliefs concerning fever. The study was conducted in Kazim Karabekir a district area of Umraniye. The data were collected by focus group discussion in 6 goups and 40 people. An education was given to participants after discussion to teach the use of thermometer and patient care with high fever. Most of the participants feel the need for decreasing the temparature of people with high fever. They define the harms of high fever as febrile convulsion, stroke and menengitis. They dont know the range of normal body temparature. They generally don?t use termometers, measure the fever by touching with hand. Consequently, it has been observed that participants consider high fever is dangerous. However their applications related to high fever are insufficient. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(1: 69-76
Sebahat Dilek TORUN
Full Text Available Fever is extremely common in population. People have been shown to have unrealistic fears of the harmful effects of fever and they generally see it as the main component of an illness. The objective of this study was to survey people about their kowledge, attitude and beliefs concerning fever. The study was conducted in Kazim Karabekir a district area of Umraniye. The data were collected by focus group discussion in 6 goups and 40 people. An education was given to participants after discussion to teach the use of thermometer and patient care with high fever. Most of the participants feel the need for decreasing the temparature of people with high fever. They define the harms of high fever as febrile convulsion, stroke and menengitis. They dont know the range of normal body temparature. They generally don?t use termometers, measure the fever by touching with hand. Consequently, it has been observed that participants consider high fever is dangerous. However their applications related to high fever are insufficient. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(1.000: 69-76
Depression among older adults is a major public health concern leading to increased disability and mortality. Less than 3% of older adults utilize professional mental health services for the treatment of depression, less than any other adult age group. And despite similar rates of depression, African Americans are significantly less likely to seek, engage and be retained in professional mental health services than their white counterparts. Cultural differences in the way depression symptoms are manifested, defined, interpreted and labeled may in part explain some of these racial differences in help-seeking behaviors. Focus group methodology was utilized to identify and explore attitudes and beliefs about depression and mental health treatment utilization among 42 older African Americans who had recently suffered a major depressive episode. Thematic analysis of identified six overarching themes: (a) perceptions of depression, (b) the African American experience, (c) seeking treatment as a last resort, (d) myths about treatment, (e) stigma associated with seeking treatment and (f) culturally appropriate coping strategies. We discuss implications for practice, education and research. PMID:21423819
Conner, Kyaien O; Lee, Brenda; Mayers, Vanessa; Robinson, Deborah; Reynolds, Charles F; Albert, Steve; Brown, Charlotte
Background The incidence of prostate cancer in Uganda is one of the highest recorded in Africa. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in Uganda. Objective This study assessed the current knowledge, attitudes and practices of adult Ugandan men regarding prostate cancer. Subjects and Methods We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study using interviewer administered questionnaires and focus group discussions among 545 adult men aged 18–71 years, residing in Kampala, the capital of Uganda. Quantitative data were analyzed with SPSS version 20. Qualitative data were collected using audio recorded focus group discussions, transcribed and analyzed by clustering into themes. Results The majority of the respondents (324, 59.4%) were aged 18–28 years, 295 (54.1%) had heard about prostate cancer and 250 (45.9%) had never heard about it. The commonest source of information about prostate cancer was the mass media. Only 12.5% of the respondents obtained information about prostate cancer from a health worker, 37.4% did not know the age group that prostate cancer affects and 50.2% could not identify any risk factor for prostate cancer. Participants in the focus group discussions confused prostate cancer with gonorrhea and had various misconceptions about the causes of prostate cancer. Only 10.3% of the respondents had good knowledge of the symptoms of prostate cancer and only 9% knew about serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing. Although 63.5% thought they were susceptible to prostate cancer, only 22.9% considered getting and only 3.5% had ever undergone a serum PSA test. Conclusion There was generally poor knowledge and several misconceptions regarding prostate cancer and screening in the study population. Community based health education programs about prostate cancer are greatly needed for this population.
Nakandi, H.; Kirabo, M.; Semugabo, C.; Kittengo, A.; Kitayimbwa, P.; Kalungi, S.; Maena, J.
In the present study we examined the role of civic knowledge and efficacy beliefs as factors that can promote adolescents' expectations to participate in civic activities, while also taking into consideration the influences of socio-economic background and gender differences. Structural equation modelling techniques were used to examine data from the International Civic and Citizenship Study, collected from 3352 eighth grade Italian students. Gender was found to significantly moderate some relationships between the variables, while efficacy beliefs, rather than civic knowledge, positively influenced expected civic participation. Socio-economic background influenced all the variables included in the study, but it had a very small direct influence on adolescents' expected civic participation. It therefore appears that adolescents' expected civic participation can be encouraged by making them more confident about their civic and political abilities. These results extend our understanding of civic engagement in adolescents, and can inform policies aiming to promote it. PMID:24931566
Manganelli, Sara; Lucidi, Fabio; Alivernini, Fabio
The teacher is the most important school-based factor in student learning. Thus, in order to improve student learning, we must examine how teachers learn to teach. My overarching research agenda centers upon K-16 science teacher learning and development. Within this agenda, I conduct studies focused on two strands of research: 1) How teachers learn to teach science using constructivist and inquiry-oriented teaching strategies; and 2) How teachers learn to teach biological evolution. This dissertation merges the two strands together, and consists of four related manuscripts that address how beginning biology teachers learn to teach natural selection using constructivist and inquiry-oriented teaching strategies. In the first manuscript, I reviewed the evolution education literature focused on K-12 teachers’ knowledge, beliefs, and practice for teaching evolution. Based upon findings across the studies, I articulated five goals for preparing teachers to teach evolution. The second and third manuscripts are longitudinal empirical studies focused on three beginning biology teachers learning to teach natural selection using the 5E instructional model and interactive classroom simulations. The fourth manuscript is a practitioner article that explains how to teach natural selection simulations using a constructivist, analogy-based teaching strategy. Findings that cut across the four manuscripts are organized into the following themes: (A) The participants developed some common types of knowledge for teaching natural selection, yet also developed in unique ways. All participants developed knowledge of the horizontal curriculum. Yet, participants also developed different types of knowledge. For example, participants who had taken an evolution course developed more integrated pedagogical content knowledge for teaching the core concepts of natural selection. The participant who integrated discipline-level knowledge for teaching science through inquiry with topic-level knowledge for teaching natural selection had taken an undergraduate evolution course and possessed a student-centered orientation, demonstrating the importance of both subject matter preparation and orientations for teaching science in reform-based ways. Differences I observed among the participants highlight the need for more in-depth case studies in addition to large-scale studies to understand beginning science teacher development. (B) Beliefs about science teaching and learning shaped the participants’ knowledge and practice for teaching natural selection. Participants who possessed student-centered science teaching orientations developed more integrated pedagogical content knowledge for teaching natural selection. However, one participant with a student-centered orientation possessed beliefs in which it was the students’ role to discover natural selection with little intervention from the teacher. This finding supports the need to help teachers develop constructivist orientations to facilitate students’ conceptual understandings of science in addition to engaging in inquiry processes. (C) Learning to teach evolution requires a complex amalgam of knowledge, beliefs, and practice. The literature highlights the types of knowledge and beliefs that teachers must develop to be willing to teach evolution, including content knowledge, understandings of the nature of science, and knowledge of teaching controversial topics. In addition, teachers need to develop pedagogical content knowledge for teaching evolution in ways that support students’ conceptual understanding of evolution. Based upon my review of the literature, secondary science majors should be required to take a course designed for teaching evolution, with the following goals: 1) Develop content knowledge of evolution; 2) Accept evolution as scientifically valid; 3) Develop understandings of the nature of science related to evolution; 4) Develop strategies for handling the public controversy; and 5) Develop pedagogical content knowledge for teaching evolution. This collection of work has implications f
Sickel, Aaron J.
Full Text Available Background & Aim: Knowledge of nursing is necessary for caring people suffering from pain. Regarding pain management and nursing role in order to put into practice exact pain management and availing comfort, possessing knowledge and positive attitude toward nursing care in this population have an important role. Methods & Materials: This descriptive (cross- sectional study determines cancer nurses knowledge and attitudes regarding pain management in hospitalized patients in related wards in Tehran University of medical sciences. Total of 113 nurses (from 132 questionnaires were sent, 113 of them were completed who work in cancer wards in Tehran University of medical science hospitals were selected by convenience sampling (accidental sampling. For data gathering, questionnaires were used. Statistical analysis was performed using ?2 test, t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient. To compare results and for describing the results, descriptive analysis were used. Results: Results indicates that knowledge and attitude of samples is in a high school (level of knowledge 76% and level of attitude 86.6%. The correlation between knowledge and attitudes is (R=0.350, (p=0.000 that means there is a direct relation between nurses knowledge and attitudes and by increasing one of them? the other will increase. Conclusion: Some of features like level of education, taking part in continuing education, working in chemotherapy and radiotherapy ward, operating room and facing to cancer patients, influence on nurses knowledge and attitudes.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conhecer o portador de hipertensão arterial, da rede pública de saúde, por meio da análise de suas atitudes, percepções, crenças, pensamentos e práticas, com o propósito de aperfeiçoar os programas de atendimento para essa categoria de doença. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo exploratório com 32 pacientes hipertensos atendidos em duas unidades de saúde do Município de Ribeirão Preto, SP. Os sujeitos foram entrevistados em uma única sessão e os dados foram analisados pelo método "análise de conteúdo", por meio de categorias não definidas a priori. RESULTADOS: Quase a metade dos pacientes estudados (41% não soube definir o que é hipertensão arterial. Mencionaram como principal sintoma dor de cabeça e na nuca (18%, sendo as possíveis conseqüências o derrame e o infarto (39%. Os fatores emocionais foram os mais referidos como os que dificultam o controle da pressão alta. Para este controle, 40% indicaram mudanças de hábitos alimentares e de vida. Dentro deste total, a caminhada e a ginástica foram os mais referidos. Quanto ao comportamento adotado pelos pacientes, os mais mencionados foram o uso de medicamentos e tratamento por profissional de saúde. CONCLUSÕES: Os aspectos psicossociais e as crenças de saúde parecem interferir diretamente no conhecimento que o paciente tem sobre a doença hipertensiva e nas práticas de saúde adotadas. Considera-se importante propor novas formas de orientação aos pacientes com hipertensão arterial.OBJECTIVE: To get to know arterial hypertension patients through their attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, thoughts, and practices related to the disease. METHODS: An exploratory study was carried out in 32 hypertensive patients seen at 2 health care units in the municipal district of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. Subjects were interviewed in a single session and data were analyzed using the Content Analysis method through categories not defined a priori. RESULTS: About half the patients (41% were not able to define hypertension. They believed the main symptoms were headaches and neck pain (18% and the possible consequences of the disease were stroke and heart attack (39%. Emotional factors were mentioned as the ones that mostly impair hypertension control. To accomplish that, 40% said there should be changes in the diet and life style, such as walking and exercising. Regarding patients' practices, drug treatment and management by a health provider were most often referred. CONCLUSIONS: Psychosocial aspects and health beliefs seem to affect directly with patients' knowledge on hypertensive disease and their health practices. Given that all patients had already received some kind of information about arterial hypertension before the beginning of the study, it would be important to propose new forms of educating these patients.
Denise S Péres
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Conhecer o portador de hipertensão arterial, da rede pública de saúde, por meio da análise de suas atitudes, percepções, crenças, pensamentos e práticas, com o propósito de aperfeiçoar os programas de atendimento para essa categoria de doença. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo exploratório com [...] 32 pacientes hipertensos atendidos em duas unidades de saúde do Município de Ribeirão Preto, SP. Os sujeitos foram entrevistados em uma única sessão e os dados foram analisados pelo método "análise de conteúdo", por meio de categorias não definidas a priori. RESULTADOS: Quase a metade dos pacientes estudados (41%) não soube definir o que é hipertensão arterial. Mencionaram como principal sintoma dor de cabeça e na nuca (18%), sendo as possíveis conseqüências o derrame e o infarto (39%). Os fatores emocionais foram os mais referidos como os que dificultam o controle da pressão alta. Para este controle, 40% indicaram mudanças de hábitos alimentares e de vida. Dentro deste total, a caminhada e a ginástica foram os mais referidos. Quanto ao comportamento adotado pelos pacientes, os mais mencionados foram o uso de medicamentos e tratamento por profissional de saúde. CONCLUSÕES: Os aspectos psicossociais e as crenças de saúde parecem interferir diretamente no conhecimento que o paciente tem sobre a doença hipertensiva e nas práticas de saúde adotadas. Considera-se importante propor novas formas de orientação aos pacientes com hipertensão arterial. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To get to know arterial hypertension patients through their attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, thoughts, and practices related to the disease. METHODS: An exploratory study was carried out in 32 hypertensive patients seen at 2 health care units in the municipal district of Ribeirão Preto, B [...] razil. Subjects were interviewed in a single session and data were analyzed using the Content Analysis method through categories not defined a priori. RESULTS: About half the patients (41%) were not able to define hypertension. They believed the main symptoms were headaches and neck pain (18%) and the possible consequences of the disease were stroke and heart attack (39%). Emotional factors were mentioned as the ones that mostly impair hypertension control. To accomplish that, 40% said there should be changes in the diet and life style, such as walking and exercising. Regarding patients' practices, drug treatment and management by a health provider were most often referred. CONCLUSIONS: Psychosocial aspects and health beliefs seem to affect directly with patients' knowledge on hypertensive disease and their health practices. Given that all patients had already received some kind of information about arterial hypertension before the beginning of the study, it would be important to propose new forms of educating these patients.
Denise S, Péres; Jocelí Mara, Magna; Luis Atílio, Viana.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Conhecer o portador de hipertensão arterial, da rede pública de saúde, por meio da análise de suas atitudes, percepções, crenças, pensamentos e práticas, com o propósito de aperfeiçoar os programas de atendimento para essa categoria de doença. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo exploratório com [...] 32 pacientes hipertensos atendidos em duas unidades de saúde do Município de Ribeirão Preto, SP. Os sujeitos foram entrevistados em uma única sessão e os dados foram analisados pelo método "análise de conteúdo", por meio de categorias não definidas a priori. RESULTADOS: Quase a metade dos pacientes estudados (41%) não soube definir o que é hipertensão arterial. Mencionaram como principal sintoma dor de cabeça e na nuca (18%), sendo as possíveis conseqüências o derrame e o infarto (39%). Os fatores emocionais foram os mais referidos como os que dificultam o controle da pressão alta. Para este controle, 40% indicaram mudanças de hábitos alimentares e de vida. Dentro deste total, a caminhada e a ginástica foram os mais referidos. Quanto ao comportamento adotado pelos pacientes, os mais mencionados foram o uso de medicamentos e tratamento por profissional de saúde. CONCLUSÕES: Os aspectos psicossociais e as crenças de saúde parecem interferir diretamente no conhecimento que o paciente tem sobre a doença hipertensiva e nas práticas de saúde adotadas. Considera-se importante propor novas formas de orientação aos pacientes com hipertensão arterial. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To get to know arterial hypertension patients through their attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, thoughts, and practices related to the disease. METHODS: An exploratory study was carried out in 32 hypertensive patients seen at 2 health care units in the municipal district of Ribeirão Preto, B [...] razil. Subjects were interviewed in a single session and data were analyzed using the Content Analysis method through categories not defined a priori. RESULTS: About half the patients (41%) were not able to define hypertension. They believed the main symptoms were headaches and neck pain (18%) and the possible consequences of the disease were stroke and heart attack (39%). Emotional factors were mentioned as the ones that mostly impair hypertension control. To accomplish that, 40% said there should be changes in the diet and life style, such as walking and exercising. Regarding patients' practices, drug treatment and management by a health provider were most often referred. CONCLUSIONS: Psychosocial aspects and health beliefs seem to affect directly with patients' knowledge on hypertensive disease and their health practices. Given that all patients had already received some kind of information about arterial hypertension before the beginning of the study, it would be important to propose new forms of educating these patients.
Denise S, Péres; Jocelí Mara, Magna; Luis Atílio, Viana.
In the United Kingdom over 90% of women do not breastfeed for as long as they would like, despite widespread knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding. Negative attitudes and low levels of knowledge in staff supporting breastfeeding may be a contributing factor. This paper reports on the breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes in two key workforce groups; student midwives (n = 19) and Breastfeeding Network peer supporters (n = 36) and compares them with breastfeeding women (n = 23). All three groups had high knowledge and attitude scores, but peer supporters had significantly higher levels than student midwives or breastfeeding women. Student midwives' knowledge of breastfeeding was higher than breastfeeding women's but they had similar breastfeeding attitude scores. The higher knowledge and attitude scores in peer supporters may be attributed to the effectiveness of their training, which includes challenging their existing breastfeeding attitudes and debriefing their personal breastfeeding experience. It is suggested that midwives' breastfeeding attitudes are affected by their community culture and their personal experience of breastfeeding. It is proposed that midwifery training should continue to embrace a biopsychosocial model, including training to improve breastfeeding attitudes, particularly for professionals from areas where breastfeeding is not the cultural norm, or who have had negative personal breastfeeding experiences. PMID:24594280
Darwent, Kirsty L; Kempenaar, Larissa E
OBJECTIVES: To describe oral health behaviour, illness behaviour, oral health knowledge and attitudes among 35-44 and 65-74-year-old Chinese; to analyse the oral health behaviour profile of the two age groups in relation to province and urbanisation, and to assess the relative effect of socio-behavioural risk factors on dental caries experience. METHODS: A total number of 4,398 35-44-year-olds and 4,399 65-74-year-olds were selected by multistage stratified cluster random sampling which involved 11 provinces in China. Data were collected by self-administered structured questionnaires and clinical examinations (WHO criteria). RESULTS: 32% of the 35-44-year-olds and 23% of the 65-74-year-olds brushed at least twice a day but only 5% used fluoridated toothpaste; 30% and 17% respectively performed 'Love-Teeth-Day' recommended methods of tooth brushing. A dental visit within the previous 12 months was reported by 25% of all participants and 6% had a dental check-up during the past two years. Nearly 15% of the subjects would visit a dentist if they experienced bleeding from gums; about 60% of the subjects paid no attention to signs of caries if there was no pain. Two thirds of the urban residents and one fifth of the rural participants had economic support for their dental treatment from a third party, either totally or partially. Significant variations in oral health practices were found according to urbanisation and province. At age 35-44 years 43% of participants had daily consumption of sweets against 28% at age 65-74 years. Dental caries experience was affected by urbanisation, gender, frequency, time spent on and method of tooth brushing. Knowledge of causes and prevention of dental diseases was low with somewhat negative attitudes to prevention observed. CONCLUSION: Systematic community-based oral health promotion should be strengthened and preventive-oriented oral health care systems are needed, including promotion of further self-care practices and the use of fluoridated toothpaste.
Zhu, Ling; Petersen, Poul Erik
Full Text Available Abstract Background The need for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM and holistic approaches in allopathic medical school curricula has been well articulated. Despite increased CAM instruction, feasible and validated instruments for measuring learner outcomes in this content area do not widely exist. In addition, baseline attitudes or beliefs of medical students towards CAM, and the factors that may have formed them, including use of CAM itself, remain unreported. Methods A 10-item measure (CHBQ – CAM Health Belief Questionnaire was constructed and administered to three successive classes of medical students simultaneously with the previously validated 29-item Integrative Medicine Attitude Questionnaire (IMAQ. Both measures were imbedded in a baseline needs assessment questionnaire. Demographic and other data were collected on students' use of CAM modalities and their awareness and use of primary CAM information resources. Analysis of CHBQ items was performed and its reliability and criterion-related validity were established. Results Response rate was 96.5% (272 of 282 students studied. The shorter CHBQ compared favorably with the longer IMAQ in internal consistency reliability. Cronbach's coefficient alpha was 0.75 and 0.83 for the CHBQ and IMAQ respectively. Students showed positive attitudes/beliefs towards CAM and high levels of self-reported CAM use. The majority (73.5% of students reported using at least one CAM modality, and 54% reported using at least two modalities. Eighty-one percent use the internet as a primary source of information for CAM. Conclusions The CHBQ is a practical, valid and reliable instrument for measuring medical student attitudes/beliefs and has potential utility for measuring the impact of CAM instruction. Medical students showed a high self-reported rate of CAM use and positive attitudes towards CAM. Short, didactic exposure to CAM instruction in the first year of medical school did not additionally impact these already positive attitudes. Unlike the IMAQ, which was intended for use with physicians, the CHBQ is generic in design and content and applicable to a variety of learner types. Evaluation measures must be appropriate for specific CAM instructional outcomes.
University students from five classes were randomly assigned to seeing either a movie on AIDS or a movie on first aid. Six weeks later, both groups of students filled out a questionnaire measuring their knowledge of AIDS, attitudes toward AIDS, and attitudes toward homosexuals. In general, the differences between the two groups on the knowledge and attitudes measures were slight. In particular, there was little effect on social attitudes. The showing of one educational movie on AIDS (particularly the movie that was used in this experiment) appears to be insufficient to educate students on this issue. PMID:2723257
Gilliam, A; Seltzer, R
With the rising incidence of HIV/AIDS in China, nurses will increasingly be caring for patients with HIV/AIDS. Thus, it is necessary that they have enough knowledge to reduce the risk of occupationally acquired HIV infection and that they change their attitude to care for HIV/AIDS patients. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between student nurses' HIV/AIDS knowledge and their attitude using a structural equation model (SEM). A cross-sectional survey was conducted in January 2008 among 528 student nurses at the technical secondary school of the China Medical University. An SEM is proposed to determine the direction and magnitude of the interdependent effects between the latent factors. The SEM was built using LISREL version 8.5. The measurement properties of the latent factors underlying the questionnaire were based on a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Our results as following, HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitude may be measured by seven underlying constructs, namely, preventive knowledge, knowledge of transmission routes, specialty knowledge, knowledge of nontransmission routes, positive attitude toward HIV/AIDS, negative attitude toward HIV/AIDS, and occupational attitude. The SEM fits the data well. The interdependent relationships between these constructs identified the factors of preventive knowledge, specialty knowledge, and attitude toward HIV/AIDS as having both direct and indirect effects on occupational attitude. In conclusions, our results represent an initial effort to assess the relationship between student nurses' HIV/AIDS knowledge and their attitude toward the disease. CFA and SEM analysis have demonstrated their usefulness in evaluating multifactor complex constructs. PMID:20113151
Qu, Bo; Zhang, Yang; Guo, Haiqiang; Sun, Gao
To determine the level of knowledge and to assess attitudes and lifestyles in patients with unstable angina. A descriptive study was conducted among CCU patients in Mashad hospitals. 180 subjects were chosen by sequential admission. They filled an 82-item questionnaire covering demographic variables (4 items) - knowledge (5 items) –attitude (56 items) – lifestyle (17 items). Findings indicate that the global level of knowledge is sufficient on issues such as cardiac risk factors, current ...
Assasi, N.; Hosseini, M.; Shojaizadeh, D.; Shidfar, M. R.; Majlesi, F.
Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been realized as a primary cause of death in women for almost a century. However, the relationship between women’s knowledge, their wish and action on practicing heart healthy lifestyle is still vague. Aim and Objectives: This research aimed to determine the association between knowledge and attitude, knowledge and practice and attitude and practice on cardiovascular disease among women in Kelantan. Methods/ Study Design: A cross sectional stud...
Ranimah Yahya; Rosediani Muhamad; Harmy Mohamed Yusoff
Full Text Available Context and Objective: Hamstring strain is a common injury in football and it causes a significant amount of time lost from competition and training. Since poor flexibility is thought to predispose to muscle strain, stretching is routinely recommended during warm-up routines by coaches to prevent injuries. However, available evidence suggests that pre-exercise stretching (PES, especially static stretching, has no benefit on injury rates and may even reduce performance in explosive type activities. We designed this study to assess the attitudes, beliefs and practices of football coaches regarding stretching in the prevention of hamstring strains. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Mauritius Football Association (MFA. Participants: 26 football coaches registered with the MFA. Intervention: Questionnaires were distributed to football coaches of the MFA via sports officers. Questionnaires were then collected two weeks after distribution. Main Outcome Measures: Attitudes, beliefs and practices of football coaches regarding stretching in the prevention of ham-string strains. Results: MFA coaches held generally positive attitudes and beliefs towards stretching. 88% of coaches felt that PES is beneficial and 93% believed that PES prevents hamstring strains. The majority of coaches recommended stretching after warming up (81% and after the training session (93%. 76% of coaches also advised stretching outside the training sessions. 96% of coaches used static stretching to stretch the hamstrings. The hamstrings were stretched on average for 4 times at each training session and the mean duration of a static stretch was 12 seconds. Conclusions: Nearly all coaches believed that PES prevents hamstring strains although evidence is limited. Some of the coaches’ beliefs and practices were not in line with current recommendations. Coaches reported that their stretching practices would be most likely influenced by scientific research. Thus there is an urgent need to devise awareness and training programmes in this area.
This study examined HIV/AIDS knowledge and beliefs in Haitian adolescents in an HIV epicenter, Miami-Dade Florida. This study examined survey data from 300 Haitian adolescents, aged 13 through 18, from both low-and middle-income neighborhoods. A sub-sample of 80 adolescents was selected for in-depth interviews and continuous observations with their families and networks of friends, which added rich descriptions to the quantitative data. Overall knowledge about HIV/AIDS was high with the major...
Marcelin, Louis Herns; Mccoy, H. Virginia; Diclemente, Ralph J.
Data from a twenty-year investigation into the science literacy of undergraduates (see Impey et al., this meeting) was used to explore responses to questions, derived from policy driven projects (e.g. NSF Science Indicators). Responses from almost 10,000 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory astronomy courses from 1989 to 2009 have been analyzed based on students’ responses to forced-choice and open-ended science literacy questions as well as Likert scale belief questions about science and technology. Science literacy questions were scored based on work by Miller (1998, 2004). In addition, we developed an extensive emergent coding scheme for the four open-ended science questions. Unique results as well as trends in the student data based on subgroups of codes are presented. Responses to belief questions were categorized, using theoretically derived categories, remodeled and confirmed through factor analysis, into five main categories; belief in life on other planets, faith-based beliefs, belief in unscientific phenomena, general attitude toward science and technology, and ethical considerations. Analysis revealed that demographic information explained less than 10% of the overall variance in students’ forced-answer scientific literacy scores. We present how students’ beliefs in these categories relate to their scientific literacy scores. You can help! Stop by our poster and fill out a new survey that will give us important parallel information to help us continue to analyze our valuable data set. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.
Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, J.; Impey, C.; CATS
Full Text Available In 1998 the World Health Organization declared childhood obesity as a “global epidemic.” It has also been observed that the health problems of adult obesity can be prevented, if obesity is controlled in childhood. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge and attitude regarding prevention of obesity and Correlate the knowledge and attitude regarding prevention of obesity among adolescents in a selected pre-university college. A pre-experimental one group pre-test post-test design was adopted. Convenience sampling technique used for selecting the adolescents. A structured knowledge questionnaire on prevention of obesity and a five-point Likert scale to assess the attitude regarding prevention of obesity were developed as the tools for data collection. The data obtained were analyzed based on the objectives and hypotheses, using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result showed that the mean post-test knowledge and attitude score of adolescents on prevention of obesity was higher than the mean pretest knowledge and attitude score. There was no correlation between knowledge and the attitude. The present study concludes that the teaching programme improved the knowledge and attitude of adolescents regarding prevention of obesity.
Prashanth K and Umarani J
Objectives: Little is known about supplement users and their dietary behavior in India. This study was conducted with the following objectives: 1. To determine the usage of dietary supplements in health sciences students. 2. To determine their knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding micronutrients. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional, questionnaire based study conducted at a University in south India, which included second year students pursuing medical, dental and nursing courses. Data was analysed using SPSS version 19. Results: The commonest reasons for consuming supplements were to maintain good health (136, 40.1%) and ensure adequate nutrition (125, 36.9%). The respondents’ opinions about dietary supplements were generally between ‘unsure’ and ‘agree’. Medical students scored the highest percentage (44.84%) in their knowledge about micronutrients as compared to nursing (43.17%) and dental (37.8%). There was a significant difference between the scores of medical and dental students (p=0.005) while the scoring of students of medical and nursing did not vary significantly. There was no significant difference between the scoring percentage of males and females in medical and dental groups while in the nursing group female students scored a better percentage as compared to males (p=0.036). Conclusion: Although, the usage of dietary supplements in health sciences students is high, there is a dearth of knowledge, especially regarding role of micronutrients in health and disease. Hence, it is crucial this information must be highlighted in the health sciences curriculum with the objective of producing well-informed professionals who can later on have a positive impact on the health of society. PMID:25302213
Adiga, Shalini; M, Ashok
Objective: To examine self-reported knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices on cancer among Saudis. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from Saudis aged 15 years or more, who attended one of the randomly selected 20 Primary Health Centers (PHC) or the four major private hospitals located in the Riyadh region, either as patients or their escorts. The association between the variables was evaluated by the Chi square test. Results: The study population consisted of 618 males and 719 females. Among the female respondents 23.1% reported that they practiced breast self-examination (BSE); 14.2 and 8.1%, respectively, had clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography. However, 10.0 and 16.1% of the females, aged 40 years and older, reported having had mammograms and CBE, respectively. The BSE performers were more educated, knew someone with cancer, and had heard of the cancer warning signal. Both educational level and ‘heard of cancer warning signal’ were significantly related to CBE. Cancer information was received from television / radio by 65.1% and from the physician by 29.4%. Even though 69.4% believed that cancer could be detected early, a vast majority (95.8%) felt early detection of cancer was extremely desirable and 55.1% said their participation was definite in any screening program. A majority of the respondents (92.6%) insisted on the need for physician recommendation to participate and 78.1% expected that any such program should be conducted in the existing hospitals / clinics. Conclusion: Culturally sensitive health education messages should be tailored to fulfill the knowledge gap among all population strata. Saudis will benefit from partnerships between public health educators and media to speed up the dissemination of cancer information. PMID:22175041
Ravichandran, Kandasamy; Al-Hamdan, Nasser A.; Mohamed, Gamal
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to establish the knowledge and attitude of family physcians offering primary health care, towards adult vaccination and their own vaccination coverage. Methods: This descriptive study was performed in May 2009 in Kayseri, Turkey. 282 family physician accepted to fill a questionnaire about adult vaccination. Results: Most of the family physcians (83.0% thought adult vaccination as a modality of protection and 66.7% wanted a vaccination scheme just like the one in childhood. Their own vaccination rate for Hepatitis B was 67.0% and 58.5% for influenza at any time. Only half of the physcians were vaccinated within the season for influenza. Only 9.2% of the doctors have stated that they ask questions to their patients about their vaccination status. When physcians were questioned about the vaccines they advise to their patients aged 65 and more; 70.6% stated influenza and 39.7% stated pneumococcus. Conclusion: In spite of being in the risk group, family physicians have low vaccination coverage rates. Suggestion of the necessary vaccines to the risk groups or to their patients at risk is low as well.
Energy use per square foot from science research labs is disproportionately higher than that of other rooms in buildings on campuses across the nation. This is partly due to labs’ use of energy intensive equipment. However, laboratory management and personnel behavior may be significant contributing factors to energy consumption. Despite an apparent increasing need for energy conservation in science labs, a systematic investigation of avenues promoting energy conservation behavior in such labs appears absent in scholarly literature. This paper reports the findings of a recent study into the energy conservation knowledge, attitude and behavior of principle investigators, laboratory managers, and student lab workers at a tier 1 research university. The study investigates potential barriers as well as promising avenues to reducing energy consumption in science laboratories. The findings revealed: (1) an apparent lack of information about options for energy conservation in science labs, (2) existing operational barriers, (3) economic issues as barriers/motivators of energy conservation and (4) a widespread notion that cutting edge science may be compromised by energy conservation initiatives. - Highlights: ? Effective energy conservation and efficiency depend on social systems and human behaviors. ? Science laboratories use more energy per square foot than any other academic and research spaces. ? Time, money, quality control, and convenience overshadow personnel’s desire to save energy. ? Ignorance of conservation practices is a barrier to energy conservation in labs.
The objective of this study was to investigate consumers' knowledge of health risks of high salt intake and frequency of use and understanding of labelled salt information. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in shopping centres within Metropolitan Melbourne. A sample of 493 subjects was recruited. The questionnaire assessed salt related shopping behaviours, attitudes to salt intake and health and their ability to interpret labelled sodium information. Four hundred and seventy four valid surveys were collected (65% female, 64% being the main shopper). Most participants knew of the relationship between salt intake and high blood pressure (88%). Sixty five percent of participants were unable to correctly identify the relationship between salt and sodium. Sixty nine percent reported reading the salt content of food products when shopping. Salt label usage was significantly related to shoppers concern about the amount of salt in their diet and the belief that their health could improve by lowering salt intake. Approximately half of the sample was unable to accurately use labelled sodium information to pick low salt options. Raising consumer awareness of the health risks associated with high salt consumption may increase salt label usage and purchases of low salt foods. However, for food labels to be effective in helping consumers select low salt foods a more 'user friendly' labelling format is needed. PMID:19540891
Grimes, Carley A; Riddell, Lynn J; Nowson, Caryl A
In France, most teachers still receive scant training in how to support plurilingual children in their learning of and through the language of instruction. In the absence of relevant, in-depth knowledge about language, we believe that many teachers are practising language policies based on beliefs rooted in ideologies unsupported by research…
Young, Andrea S.
Full Text Available This paper proposes machine learning techniques to discover knowledge in a dataset in the form of if-then rules for the purpose of formulating queries for validation of a Bayesian belief network model of the same data. Although do-main expertise is often available, the query formulation task is tedious and laborious, and hence automation of query formulation is desirable. In an effort to automate the query formulation process, a machine learning algorithm is lev-eraged to discover knowledge in the form of if-then rules in the data from which the Bayesian belief network model under validation was also induced. The set of if-then rules are processed and filtered through domain expertise to identify a subset that consists of “interesting” and “significant” rules. The subset of interesting and significant rules is formulated into corresponding queries to be posed, for validation purposes, to the Bayesian belief network induced from the same dataset. The promise of the proposed methodology was assessed through an empirical study performed on a real-life dataset, the National Crime Victimization Survey, which has over 250 attributes and well over 200,000 data points. The study demonstrated that the proposed approach is feasible and provides automation, in part, of the query formulation process for validation of a complex probabilistic model, which culminates in substantial savings for the need for human expert involvement and investment.
Background. Engagement in physical exercise in pregnancy is hamstrung by safety concerns, skepticism about usefulness, and limited individualized prescription guidelines. This study assessed knowledge and attitude of pregnant women towards antenatal exercises (ANEx). Methods. The cross-sectional study recruited 189 pregnant women from six selected antenatal clinics in Ile-Ife, South-West, Nigeria. Data were obtained on maternal characteristics, knowledge, and attitude towards ANEx. Results. Relaxation and breathing (59.8%), back care (51.3%), and muscle strengthening (51.3%) exercises were the most commonly known ANEx. Prevention of back pain risk (75.9%) and excess weight gain (69.1%) were perceived as benefits, while lower extremities swelling (31.8%) and extreme weight gain or loss (30.7%) were considered as contraindications to ANEx. 15.8% of the respondents had negative attitude towards ANEx resulting from insufficient information on exercise (83.3%) and tiredness (70.0%). Age significantly influences knowledge about contraindications to ANEx (P = 0.001), while attitude was influenced by age and occupation, respectively (P attitude and knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx (P knowledge but had positive attitude towards ANEx. Knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx significantly influenced the attitude towards exercise in pregnancy. PMID:25006478
Mbada, Chidozie E; Adebayo, Olubukayomi E; Adeyemi, Adebanjo B; Arije, Olujide O; Dada, Olumide O; Akinwande, Olabisi A; Awotidebe, Taofeek O; Alonge, Ibidun A
This article examines the impact of a popular documentary series about teen pregnancy, MTV's 16 and Pregnant, on adolescent girls' pregnancy-related attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions. The results suggest that girls who watched 16 and Pregnant, compared with a control group, reported a lower perception of their own risk for pregnancy and a greater perception that the benefits of teen pregnancy outweigh the risks. The authors also examined the relationships between homophily and parasocial interaction with the teen moms featured in 16 and Pregnant and attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions, finding that homophily predicted lower risk perceptions, greater acceptance of myths about teen pregnancy, and more favorable attitudes about teen pregnancy. Parasocial interaction demonstrated the same pattern of results, with the addition of also predicting fewer behavioral intentions to avoid teen pregnancy. Last, results revealed that teen girls' perceptions that the message of 16 and Pregnant was encouraging of teen pregnancy predicted homophily and parasocial interaction with the teen moms. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:24628488
Aubrey, Jennifer Stevens; Behm-Morawitz, Elizabeth; Kim, Kyungbo
Nutritional supplement (NS) use is widespread in sport. This study applied an integrated social cognitive approach to examine doping attitudes, beliefs, and self-reported doping use behavior across NS users (n = 96) and nonusers (n = 116). Following ethical approval, 212 competitive athletes (age mean = 21.4, s = 4.5; 137 males) completed self-reported measures of doping-related social cognitions and behaviors, presented in an online format where completion implied consent. Significantly more NS users (22.9%) reported doping compared with nonusers (6.0%; U = 4628.0, P attitudes toward doping (U = 3152.0, P doping is effective (U = 3152.0, P doping (U = 3504.5, P doping use is three-and-a-half times more prevalent in NS users compared with nonusers. This finding is accompanied by significant differences in doping attitudes, norms, and beliefs. Thus, this article offers support for the gateway hypothesis; athletes who engage in legal performance enhancement practices appear to embody an "at-risk" group for transition toward doping. Education should be appropriately targeted. PMID:22092778
Backhouse, S H; Whitaker, L; Petróczi, A
Despite continued critique of the idea of clear boundaries between scientific and lay knowledge, the 'deficit-model' of public understanding of ecological issues still seems prevalent in discourses of biodiversity management. Prominent invasion biologists, for example, still argue that citizens need to be educated so that they accept scientists' views on the management of non-native invasive species. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey with members of the public and professionals in invasive species management (n?=?732) in Canada and the UK to investigate commonalities and differences in their perceptions of species and, more importantly, how these perceptions were connected to attitudes towards species management. Both native and non-native mammal and tree species were included. Professionals tended to have more extreme views than the public, especially in relation to nativeness and abundance of a species. In both groups, species that were perceived to be more abundant, non-native, unattractive or harmful to nature and the economy were more likely to be regarded as in need of management. While perceptions of species and attitudes towards management thus often differed between public and professionals, these perceptions were linked to attitudes in very similar ways across the two groups. This suggests that ways of reasoning about invasive species employed by professionals and the public might be more compatible with each other than commonly thought. We recommend that managers and local people engage in open discussion about each other's beliefs and attitudes prior to an invasive species control programme. This could ultimately reduce conflict over invasive species control. PMID:25170957
Fischer, Anke; Selge, Sebastian; van der Wal, René; Larson, Brendon M H
There is limited information about the influence of partners on medical male circumcision (MMC) uptake. This study aimed to evaluate attitudes, knowledge, and preferences about MMC among men and their partners, and their relative impact on male readiness to undergo the MMC procedure. Male participants (n = 354) and their partners (n = 273) were recruited from community health centers in Lusaka, Zambia. Men reported their readiness to undergo MMC, and both men and women were assessed regarding their attitudes and knowledge regarding MMC. Men who had discussed MMC with their partners, those who endorsed MMC for HIV risk reduction, and those viewing MMC as culturally acceptable reported increased readiness to undergo MMC. Additionally, endorsement of MMC by female partners was associated with increased men's readiness. Results support promotion of cultural acceptability of MMC, and efforts to increase MMC uptake may benefit from incorporating partners in the decision making process. PMID:23757123
Jones, Deborah; Cook, Ryan; Arheart, Kris; Redding, Colleen A; Zulu, Robert; Castro, Jose; Weiss, Stephen M
The relationship of knowledge, attitudes, and prevalence of steroid use among college athletes and nonathletes was investigated. Results indicated that the more individuals knew about steroids, the more favorable was their attitude toward use. Powerlifters and bodybuilders were found most likely to use steroids. (JD)
Chng, Chwee Lye; Moore, Alan
Full Text Available Background: Community Psychiatry involves support and treatment of people with mental disorder in a domiciliary setting instead of mental hospital. The attitude of the public towards mental illness and mentally ill person is generally negative. Knowledge and attitude of nurses towards this topic is important because they deal directly patients, families and the community as negative attitude will hinder quality service. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitude of Registered Nurses (RNs towards Community Psychiatric services. Methods: A descriptive survey design was used for this study. A systematic random sampling method was used to select one hundred and fifty respondents. The research instrument for this study was self- developed structured questionnaire design in line with the variables to be measured. Descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages, independent t–test and Pearson Moment Correlation Coefficient analysis were used to analyze all data. Results: The study revealed that RNs with positive attitude have a higher mean value than Registered Nurses with negative attitude towards Community Psychiatric services. There is also a significant relationship between the knowledge and attitude of RNs and their participation in community psychiatric services. Conclusion: RNs disseminate information and care for mentally ill people and their relations, signifying a need for a positive knowledge and attitude that will enable the RNs to enter a personal relationship with the patient which is necessary for rehabilitation.
Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative "utilitarian" attitudes and…
Barney, Erin C.; Mintzes, Joel J.; Yen, Chiung-Fen
The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to examine the sexual behavior of emerging adult women in relation to their sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and perceptions of their parents' sexual attitudes; and second, to discuss the implications of this research in working with young adult women. Three hundred and sixty-four college-age women…
Byno, Lucy H.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Mullis, Ann K.
Assessed students' (N=198) knowledge of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) specific facts, their attitudes toward people with AIDS, and their general attitudes toward homosexual men and lesbian women. Found most subjects accurately informed on the subject of AIDS. Most held neither negative views toward homosexuality nor punitive views…
Grieger, Ingrid; Ponterotto, Joseph G.
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and beliefs related to sexuality of couples doing marriage preparation. Method: This study was carried out as a cross sectional descriptive study in the public health laboratory in Gaziantep between January 12 to August 18, 2011. The study sample consisted of 382 couples who agreed to participate in the study. A questionnaire form and Beliefs Related to Sexual Information Form (CIBIF were used for data collection. Couples completed the forms as an individual in the separate locations. SPSS version 11.5 was used for statistical analyzes. Descriptive statistics and One-Way ANOVA test were used. Results: In the study, 56.8% of women and 57.1% men stated that they received information about sexuality and reproductive health, of those 80.6% of the women and 73.4% of men received the information from the mass media. When we examined the mean scores of CIBIF, women were found to have 18.01 ± 3.11 mean score while men had 22.59 ± 4.89 mean score (p <0.05. We found that met and decided to marry in agreement, who are under 20 years old, had a primary school degree had significantly higher scores on average from CIBIF compared to other groups (p < 0.05. Conclusion: This study draws attention to lack of knowledge about sexuality for couples who are in marriage preparation. Couples were found to have false beliefs about sexually transmitted infections, sexual health-related personal hygiene and sexuality to live. For these reasons, consulting services related to sexuality and reproductive health information for couples engaged in preparation for marriage in the family health centers by health care personel is thought to be effective way of preventing false information and beliefs about sexuality. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(3.000: 297-306
Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis threatens the aged population especially the menopausal women and can lead to life long disability and death. Appropriate knowledge and behavior have an important role in prevention of osteoporosis. In this study the knowledge, attitude and behavior of women regarding osteoporosis is assessed and compared in different age groups.Methods: This cross sectional study includes 390 women in reproductive, premenopausal and menopausal age groups who had come to Shariati hospital clinics and each had answered the designed questionnaire. The questionnaires were scored and analyzed. Women's knowledge, attitude and behavior were assessed and compared by X2 test in the three age groups and P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: 15-30% of women didn't know what osteoporosis is and in 380 of them attitude or behavior was not good. Education had a significant effect on knowledge of women in reproductive and premenopausal ages (P=0.002, 0.04 respectively, but had no effect on their attitude or behavior. Age had a significant effect on knowledge and attitude (P=0.001 but had no effect on behavior. Age had significant effect on the knowledge that exercise can prevent osteoporosis (P=0.014 but not on attitude or behavior. Age had no effect on knowledge, attitude or behavior of daily calcium intake to prevent osteoporosis. (P=0.123, 0.12, 0.153 respectively 93% to 95% of women thought the risks of osteoporosis are less than cardiovascular disease or breast cancer.Conclusions: 15-30% of women didn't know what osteoporosis is. The total knowledge about osteoporosis was low. Although 22-75% of women younger than 54 years old had knowledge about the predisposing factors but their attitude or behavior was not good.
Kaghaz kanani R.
Full Text Available AZIZI, M.; RAHMANI-NIA, F.; MALAEE, M.; MALAEE, M.; KHOSRAVI, N. A study of Nutritional knowledge and attitudes of elite College Athletes in Iran. Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity, v. 4, n. 2, p. 105-112, 2010. This study designed for understanding the nutrition knowledge and attitude of elite college athletes in Iran. A researcher-built questionnaire which was developed to measure subject’s nutrition knowledge and attitude,distributed to 297 female (age 21.8 ±1.8 years and 298 males (age 22.8 ± 1.9 years randomly. The questionnaire contained 15 nutrition knowledge questions and 15 nutrition attitude questions. The collected data was analyzed by t-test, one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient (p<0.05. The mean nutrition knowledge and attitude score for male and females was 52.36±6.2; 50.61±5 and 54.3±6.3; 52.03±5.8 respectively. Nutrition knowledge and attitude score in P.E. females was significantly higher than other major (p<0.05, while the difference between P.E. males and other major was not significant. There was a significant positive correlation between nutrition knowledge and attitude among males (r= 0.424, p ? 0.01 and female (r= 0.422, p ? 0.01 elite athletes. Based on the result of our study the knowledge of Iranian college athletes is moderate, and these suggest that nutrition knowledge and attitudes of Iranian college athletes need to improve.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Self-medication is the selection and use of medicines by individuals to treat selfrecognised illnesses or symptoms and an important initial response to illnesses if successfully used. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of self medication among Medical Sciences Faculty students of Jimma University.METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in Medical sciences Faculty students in 2009.The faculty and the three schools were selected by lottery method .Then, within the faculty respective number of students for each School was determined by proportion from the total sample size. Data was collected randomly from each School using self administered questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0RESULTS: From a total of 403 (100% participants,95 (45.89% students practiced self medication in the past two months for commonly perceived illnesses such as headache 35 (36.85%, abdominal pain 29 (30.55% and cough 33 (23.16% using mainly analgesics 40(49.38% and antibiotics 29 (35.80% mostly from drug retail outlets 88(92.63. Fifty seven (60.00% respondents can recall the dose, frequency and duration of the medicine while 38 (40% did not know. Sixty five (68.42% students agreed to practice self medication irrespective of the seriousness of illnesses.CONCLUSION: Self mediation was widely practiced for minor symptoms with both OTC and prescription only drugs. Most of respondents use self medication irrespective of the seriousness of the illnesses. Lack of proper information and the ease of access from drug outlets were the most important problems.
Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo et al.
This article describes a survey conducted among medical practitioners in India. The study's objective was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of whole body donation among medical professionals in India. Outcomes and results are discussed.
Objectives: The study investigates the dietary intakes of Omani preschoolers and associations with both socio-demographic characteristics and the mother’s nutritional knowledge and attitudes.Methods: A sample of 154 parents of preschoolers completed a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics, a food-frequency questionnaire to assess children’s food intake, nutritional knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating.Results: The results showed a lower dietary adequacy of ...
Saif Al-Tobi; Sadeq Al-Sheraji; Fouad Hassan; Layla Al-Shukaily; Ali Al-Shookri
The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess nurse educators' and nursing service personnels' knowledge of and attitudes toward computer applicability to nursing practice in order to facilitate planning future education in the area of computer-based nursing practice. The data yielded no significant differences between nurse educators' and nursing service personnels' knowledge of and attitudes toward computer use in nursing practice. There were, however, significant differences in knowl...
Merrow, Sherry Lynne
Objectives : This study was done to find out the knowledge and attitudes of pharmacists regarding oral health care and oral hygiene products in Chennai city. Materials and Methods : A cross-sectional survey among a sample of the pharmacists in Chennai city was done and data regarding their knowledge and attitudes towards oral health care and oral hygiene products were obtained using a closed-ended questionnaire. Results: Among the 60 pharmacies approached, 50 pharmacis...
Priya Shanmuga; Madan Kumar P; Ramachandran S
Background: The underlying goals of the present study were (i) to assess knowledge of and attitudes towards aging in a sample of Portuguese undergraduate students undertaking various degrees in health and welfare subjects, and (ii) to analyze the extent to which knowledge, attitudes and other factors were associated with interest in working with older adults. Methods: The study was cross-sectional in design. The sample comprised 460 Portuguese undergraduate students enrolled in...
Gonc?alves, Dc; Guedes, J.; Fonseca, Am; Pinto, Fc; Marti?n, I.; Byrne, Gj; Pachana, Na
This report describes the results of a set of five surveys designed to assess the perceived risks of nuclear waste management policy in Colorado and New Mexico. Within these states, mail surveys of randomly selected samples were taken of members of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, members of the Sierra Club, members of business associations, and state legislators. In addition, a telephone sample of randomly selected households was conducted in Colorado and New Mexico. Using these data, the perceptions of the risk of nuclear waste management -- from production of nuclear energy through permanent storage of nuclear wastes -- are compared for each of the five samples. The degree of trust in, and the perceived political influence of, the more prominent policy actors are assessed. Certain cognitive attributes, including degree of subjective certainty regarding beliefs about risks of nuclear wastes, and likelihood of altering perceived risks when confronted with new information, are compared across samples. In addition, the sample scores from rudimentary knowledge tests about the characteristics of radiation are compared. The relationships among the knowledge scores, cognitive attributes and risk perceptions are evaluated. Perceptions of the balance of media coverage are measured, as are the possible direct and indirect roles of media exposure in risk perception. Aggregate models, testing an array of hypotheses about the bases of nuclear waste risk pes about the bases of nuclear waste risk perceptions, are conducted. These tests indicate that risk perceptions are related to a complex set of factors, and that these factors may differ significantly across the different sub-populations. Finally, the relationships between risk perception and political participation -- including registering to vote, political party affiliation, and level of political activism -- are analyzed. 5 figs., 33 tabs
Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing recognition that mathematics anxiety plays an important role in students’ learning of mathematics and thus, mathematics anxiety has gained heightened awareness by mathematics educators as an important factor in the teaching of mathematics (Bursal & Paznokas, 2006; Thomas & Higbee, 1999; McLeod, 1988; Singh, Granville, & Dika, 2002; Sloan, Daane, & Geisen, 2002; Vinson, 2001; Zettle & Raines, 2000. Math anxiety defined by Richardson & Suinn (1972 as a “feelings of tension and anxiety that interfere with the manipulation of numbers and the solving of mathematical problems in a wide variety of ordinary life and academic situations”. Research demonstrated that the physiological, cognitive, and behavioral consequences of math anxiety may impair life functioning. For example, students who have math anxiety exhibit physiological reactivity to numeric stimuli and have faulty beliefs and negative attitudes regarding their problem solving abilities. These students also may avoid environment and careers that require utilization of math skills, and will sacrifice accuracy for speed when performing numeric tasks (Ashcraft & Kirk, 2001. Purpose and significanceThe purpose of this research is to examine whether there is a significant difference between the attitudes, anxieties, and self-efficacy beliefs towards mathematics lessons high school students’ in terms of gender, types of school and students’ grades. It is very important to reveal relationships between attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs to develop high school students’ positive attitudes towards mathematics lessons.MethodsIn this study, descriptive research method was conducted. A total of 418 students, from three different school types participated in the study. The schools are Anatolian High School, Vocational High School and Public High School. Three scales were implemented on students to reveal relationships between students’ attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs. The results obtained from scales were analyzed with SPSS 13.0.ResultsIt was observed in the findings of study that there are no statistically significant differences between students’ gender and scores of attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs. But there are statistically significant differences between students’ types of school and students’ grades and scores of attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs.Discussion and ConclusionsStudents’ achievements in mathematics lessons are directly related to students’ self-efficacy beliefs, attitudes towards mathematics lessons and anxieties towards mathematics lessons. Students’ mathematics achievements will increase because of students’ high self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes towards mathematics lessons. In this study, there are no statistically significant differences between students’ gender and scores of attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs. But there are statistically significant differences between students’ types of school and students’ grades and scores of attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs. While students’ who attended from successful schools- self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes towards mathematics lessons are high, their anxiety levels towards mathematics lessons are low. Besides, it was observed, when students’ grades increase, their self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes towards mathematics lessons get higher and their anxiety levels towards mathematics lessons get lower.
N. ?zzet Kurbano?lu
Full Text Available Background and Aims: The objective of the present study was to investigate knowledge and attitude of senior dental students towards HIV/AIDS. Its result could help in promotion of education. Materials and Methods: This educational research was carried out in two state dental schools in Tehran. The senior dental students in Tehran and Shaheed Beheshti dental schools were asked to fill in a self-administered questionnaire regarding their age, gender, parents' job, knowledge and attitudes towards treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS in Autumn semester 2007. Fifty five dental students (83% including 27% male and 73% female in Shaheed Beheshti and fifty five dental students (85% including 34% male and 66% female in Tehran dental schools were participated. The score for knowledge and attitude of the students were calculated separately. The data were analyzed using Independent sample t-test. Results: The mean percentage of knowledge and attitude scores were 76.5% (at rang 1-3 and 50% (at range 1-5, respectively. Nearly all of the students believed that all patients should be considered as HIV positive in dental practice, while 49% preferred to refer HIV positive patients. Knowledge and attitude of students were not significantly associated with the gender and knowing HIV positive person (P>0.05. Conclusion: There is a need to improve knowledge and attitudes of dental students towards HIV/AIDS. It is suggested to emphasize on this subject in dental schools curriculum in Iran.
Full Text Available This qualitative case study aimed to focus on the experiences and subsequent science and science teaching beliefs, attitudes, and self-efficacy of an elementary pre-service teacher, Heather, with extremely positive attitude and high self-efficacy. For this particular population of pre-service teachers, possessing a high science teaching self-efficacy alone is not sufficient to assume reform-based beliefs and teaching practices. This study was unique in that it concurrently explored the relationship between attitude, beliefs, and self-efficacy before and after the course. Initially, Heatherâ€™s attitude and self-efficacy with respect to science and science teaching were closely interrelated and a product of her own intrinsic interest in science and her unique K-12 experiences. Her beliefs appeared to have been shaped by both her actual science experiences and what she had witnessed in the classrooms. Heatherâ€™s course experiences shaped her post beliefs about science and science teaching, which consequently altered her attitude and confidence.
Counselors are challenged to use a nontraditional, multicultural approach with Puerto Rican inmates, to strive to understand their values, beliefs, experiences, and behaviors; and to question their own underlying assumptions and linear models of therapy. Five specific recommendations are made, and a comparison of beliefs and values is appended.…
Rivera, Edil Torres; Wilbur, Michael P.; Roberts-Wilbur, Janice
Little is known about younger adults' attitudes towards age-related sexual changes and behaviors. Research using the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale (ASKAS) (White, 1982) has been effective in determining knowledge and attitudes among the staff of long-term care facilities, nurses, undergraduate nursing students, health care…
Ewen, Heidi H.; Brown, Pamela S.
Full Text Available Great efforts have been made to enhance breast-feeding among mothers of infants, yet there is a continued decline in breast-feeding behavior. The Theory of Planned Behavior emphasizes that human behavior is governed by personal attitudes, social pressures and a sense of control. A study was set up to assess the influence of maternal beliefs, attitude, intention and perceived behavior control on breast-feeding behavior of mothers aged between 18-40 years of infants (1 year old in western Kenya based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. A total sample of 230 breast-feeding mothers attending post natal clinics were randomly selected and were the respondents who provided information on the selected variables of the study. Cronbach’s alpha was used to assess reliability and exploratory factor analysis used to assess validity. Skewness and kurtosis were used to assess for the normality of the obtained data. Structural equation modeling (AMOS version 7 was used to determine the predictive power of maternal attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control on breast-feeding behavior. Maternal attitude (? = 0.38, p<0.01, perceived behavioral control (? = 0.35, p<0.01 and subjective norm (? = 0.25, p<0.001 predicted the mother’s intention to breast-feed. Intention (? = 0.95, p<0.001 was a strong predictor of breast-feeding behavior.
Mary Khakoni Walingo
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to compare the primary teachers and pre-service primary teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes toward teaching profession in Turkey. Descriptive method was used in the study and the study was carried out on 180 first grade and 107 fourth grade primary pre-service teachers at the Faculty of Education in Rize University and 131 primary teachers working in the primary schools located in Çayeli (Rize district. The Attitude Scale towards Teaching Profession (Özgür, 1994 and the Turkish form of the Ohio State Teacher Efficacy Scale (Balo?lu and Karada?, 2008 were used as data gathering instrument in the study. The study results revealed that the first grade primary pre-service teachers’ scores on the attitudes towards teaching professions were statistically higher than the scores of the fourth grade primary pre-service teachers and of the primary teachers. However, the study results indicated that the teaching self-efficacy scores of the first grade pre-service teachers were statistically lower than the teaching self-efficacy scores of the fourth grade pre-service teachers and primary teachers. On the other hand, the study results showed that females’ attitudes towards teaching profession were higher than the attitudes of their male counterparts whereas self-efficacy scores did not differentiate due to the gender of the primary pre-service teachers and primary teachers. Moreover, the study results indicated that there were not any significant correlation between the self-efficacy and attitudes scores of the pre-service teachers and primary teachers.
Both humans and artificial systems frequently use trial and error methods to problem solving. In order to be effective, this type of strategy implies having high quality control knowledge to guide the quest for the optimal solution. Unfortunately, this control knowledge is rarely perfect. Moreover, in artificial systems-as in humans-self-evaluation of one's own knowledge is often difficult. Yet, this self-evaluation can be very useful to manage knowledge and to determine when to revise it. The objective of our work is to propose an automated approach to evaluate the quality of control knowledge in artificial systems based on a specific trial and error strategy, namely the informed tree search strategy. Our revision approach consists in analysing the system's execution logs, and in using the belief theory to evaluate the global quality of the knowledge. We present a real-world industrial application in the form of an experiment using this approach in the domain of cartographic generalisation. Thus far, the res...
Taillandier, Patrick; Drogoul, Alexis
Full Text Available Findings from two studies investigating the effects of Kids on the Block (KOB puppet shows onelementary school students’ knowledge of and attitude toward individuals with disabilities aredescribed. KOB is a troupe of life-size hand-and-rod puppets used to improve knowledge and changeattitudes toward persons with disabilities. Results from both studies indicated that KOB performanceshad positive effects on both the knowledge and attitudes of second, third, and fourth grade students.Study 1 showed that the puppet show participants had more positive attitudes and more accuratefactual knowledge of individuals with disabilities compared to the control group participants who didnot experience the KOB puppets. Findings from Study 2 showed pretest-post test gain scores for theKOB group were larger than those for the control group. The results taken together provided evidencethat a rather simple intervention was effective in terms of changing the knowledge of and attitudestoward individuals with disabilities.
Carl J. DUNST
Full Text Available Stigma in mental health is studied in a sample of 152 subjects of Almería city population with the aim of designing specific anti-stigma campaigns. For this, Stigma is operatized in three constructs: Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour, using MAKS, CAMI and RIBS scales for these. Results show that the younger group, under thirty-five years old are less knowledgeable about mental health related to stigma, showing a significant difference (p< .05. Moreover, we found significant differences in gender regarding the intention of stigmatizing behaviour (p=.049 as well as attitudes (p= .006 where men have more stigmatizing behaviour and attitudes than women. These results together with those that show a significant correlation between knowledge and behaviour, as well as between attitudes and behaviour will be used as a guide to design interventions aimed to reduce stigma in mental health.
Ana María Moreno Herrero
Full Text Available This research aims to determine teachers' influence in the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT at schools. Various variables are examined such as years of experience, gender, the duration of computer and Internet use, and to determine the attitude, level of knowledge on and the frequency of ICT use among teachers. The study was conducted with 1540 primary school teachers using Knowledge, Use and Attitude Scales of ICT. The results show that the most commonly used and well-known ICT types among teachers are the Internet, e-mail and word processing, and teachers' attitudes towards computers and the Internet are generally positive. It was also found that their attitudes vary with their years of experience and levels of knowledge.
The report presents the first attempt of the IMA-AKN Sinha Institute of continuing medical and health education and research to study the knowledge, attitude and practice of doctors regarding torture. Although, majority of the doctors in India are aware of various national and international human rights institutions, but they seem not to be aware of the human rights of the detainees. It is interesting to note that the doctors are aware of the long term physical and psychological effects of torture and also agreed that physical examination is not sufficient to detect torture sequelae. A large number of doctors have seen cases of torture, and were willing to treat them and felt reasonably competent. A significant number of doctors justified use of coercive technique and manhandling in dealing with detainees by law enforcement agencies. A small number of doctors expressed their unwillingness to get involved in the treatment of the victims of torture due to medicolegal consequence. The dissemination of information on human rights and medical ethics and incorporating them into the medical curriculum at undergraduate and postgraduate training was emphasised by majority of the respondents. Almost unanimous view was expressed by respondents on the importance of the role of medical ethics and the profession's responsibility to its members. An important finding of the study is the need for IMA to help establishing counselling and rehabilitation centres for treatment of torture victims and educate its members. A large number of doctors mentioned the need of initiating community action in case of rape, child abuse, dowry victims and sexual harassment. Further, a majority of respondents expressed the view that the medical association should take the responsibilities of protecting the doctors who fearlessly testify cases of torture besides disciplining doctors who facilitate torture. Respondents felt that the reasons for doctors' participation in torture need further study. It is encouraging that most of the responding physicians are willing to take up training and become counsellor for victims of torture to be able to provide treatment, counselling and rehabilitation. PMID:11002645
Sobti, J C; Chapparawal, B C; Holst, E
Full Text Available Objectives: The study investigates the dietary intakes of Omani preschoolers and associations with both socio-demographic characteristics and the mother’s nutritional knowledge and attitudes.Methods: A sample of 154 parents of preschoolers completed a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics, a food-frequency questionnaire to assess children’s food intake, nutritional knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating.Results: The results showed a lower dietary adequacy of children’s food intake in mothers with low educational levels, high-ranked occupation, and lower levels of both nutritional knowledge and food related health attitudes. The highest food intake and healthy eating attitude scores were found in children of mothers with high education level and mother without a job. The association of the dietary adequacy with socio-demographic background can help the Omani healthcare decision makers to develop better-tailored nutrition interventions which are more suitable for the Omani community.Conclusion: The results from this study of mothers’ nutritional knowledge and attitudes support the inclusion of knowledge and attitudes in dietary interventions.
Background Palliative care is not yet integrated into the health-care system in Saudi Arabia. King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre-Riyadh (KFSH&RC-Riyadh) is a tertiary care facility and regional cancer centre in Saudia Arabia with a highly multinational nursing workforce. Little is known about these nurses' knowledge of and attitudes towards palliative care. Aim To determine the palliative care knowledge and attitudes of the nursing workforce of KFSH&RC-Riyadh and any influencing factors. Method A questionnaire including demographic data, the Palliative Care Quiz for Nurses (PCQN), and Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying scale (FATCOD) was completed by 395 staff nurses from 19 countries. Results The nurses scored a mean of 111.66 out of 150 on the FATCOD scale and of 9.06 out of 20 on the PCQN. These scores indicate moderate attitudes towards but a knowledge deficit regarding palliative care. The nurses' palliative care training and years of nursing experience significantly affected the scores. The level of palliative care integration in the nurses' home countries was the most significant factor in multiple regression tests. Conclusion Palliative care integration into the health-care system of the country in which nurses train significantly influences their knowledge of and attitudes towards palliative care. Incorporating palliative care into nursing education might promote positive attitudes towards palliative care in nurses while enhancing their knowledge and skills. PMID:25250548
Abudari, Gassan; Zahreddine, Hassan; Hazeim, Hassan; Assi, Mohammad Al; Emara, Sania
Objectives The study investigates the dietary intakes of Omani preschoolers and associations with both socio-demographic characteristics and the mother’s nutritional knowledge and attitudes. Methods A sample of 154 parents of preschoolers completed a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics, a food-frequency questionnaire to assess children’s food intake, nutritional knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating. Results The results showed a lower dietary adequacy of children’s food intake in mothers with low educational levels, high-ranked occupation, and lower levels of both nutritional knowledge and food related health attitudes. The highest food intake and healthy eating attitude scores were found in children of mothers with high education level and mother without a job. The association of the dietary adequacy with socio-demographic background can help the Omani healthcare decision makers to develop better-tailored nutrition interventions which are more suitable for the Omani community. Conclusion The results from this study of mothers’ nutritional knowledge and attitudes support the inclusion of knowledge and attitudes in dietary interventions. PMID:22043429
Al-Shookri, Ali; Al-Shukaily, Layla; Hassan, Fouad; Al-Sheraji, Sadeq; Al-Tobi, Saif
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of health education on the knowledge and attitude regarding family planning and contraception’s method among the women who obligatory attended the Premarital Counseling Center in Yasouj city, Iran. An experimental study was carried out and a total of 200 women were selected for the study using convenience sampling method among women who attended in the health centre in order to utilize the necessary premarital actions. Respondents were divided by two experimental and control groups randomly. A pre-evaluation was done on the knowledge and attitude on family planning using a structured questionnaire. After which, the health education for experimental group was done within four educational sessions during 4 consecutive weeks and control group underwent traditional education method. Post evaluation was utilized for any changes regarding their knowledge and attitude among the respondents immediately after the intervention. Independent and paired t-test was used to evaluate the mean knowledge and attitude scores differences among both groups. Results showed that there was a significant improvement in respondents’ knowledge and attitude after educational program in experimental group (p<0.001, while no significant difference was observed in knowledge and attitude of control group. The finding also indicated that age was significantly associated with the level of respondents’ knowledge. These results deal the effectiveness of the educational method. In conclusion, the educational method is effective in increasing the knowledge and improving the attitude of women regarding family planning in Yasouj compared to current used educational method. Future educational programs need to incorporate the features that have been associated with successful interventions in the past, as well as including their own evaluation procedures.
Full Text Available Knowledge about the spread of HIV has a critical impact of the prevention of AIDS young people are of particular importance in state policies against AIDS,we intended to assess the knowledge and attitude of college students regarding AIDS in Iran,.This study is a cross-sectional study that carried out in 400 first college students. A structured questionnaire was used to assess knowledge about AIDS, source of information and attitudes toward people living with HIV, the students identified mass media (40% as their most important source of information about ADIS. Only a few students answered all the knowledge questions correctly and there were many misconceptions about the routes of transmissions. College students demonstrated a moderate level of knowledge (67.5% concerning AIDS and HIV. Results showed that 85% of samples fell all people entering Iran should be tested. Twenty five percent of them believed that people with HIV should not be allowed to use common toilets and 27% incorrectly believed that HIV infected college students be removed from university bedroom. Attitude was significantly correlated with knowledge, (r = -0.38, p< 0.001, student with less knowledge scores had more negative attitude toward HIV positive Individuals. The knowledge level seems to be moderately high misconception about the routes of transmission were common. Alarming gaps in knowledge about transmission and curability put young Iranian students at risk of contracting HIV. Intolerant attitudes about people living with HIV were prevalent. Present results suggest that a more appropriate education program in colleges in Iran may be necessary to reduce the discrepancy between general knowledge and desirable attitude regarding HIV/AIDS.
recent increase in the amount of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) entering the western Lake Erie basin is likely due to increased spring storm events in combination with issues related to fertilizer application and timing. These factors in combination with warmer lake temperatures have amplified the spread of toxic algal blooms. We assessed the attitudes of farmers in northwest Ohio toward taking at least one additional action to reduce nutrient loss on their farm. Specifically, we (1) identified to what extent farm and farmer characteristics (e.g., age, gross farm sales) as well as risk-based beliefs (e.g., efficacy, risk perception) influenced attitudes, and (2) assessed how these characteristics and beliefs differ in their predictive ability based on unobservable latent classes of farmers. Risk perception, or a belief that negative impacts to profit and water quality from nutrient loss were likely, was the most consistent predictor of farmer attitudes. Response efficacy, or a belief that taking action on one's farm made a difference, was found to significantly influence attitudes, although this belief was particularly salient for the minority class of farmers who were older and more motivated by profit. Communication efforts should focus on the negative impacts of nutrient loss to both the farm (i.e., profit) and the natural environment (i.e., water quality) to raise individual perceived risk among the majority, while the minority need higher perceived efficacy or more specific information about the economic effectiveness of particular recommended practices.
Wilson, Robyn S.; Howard, Gregory; Burnett, Elizabeth A.
We describe the findings from a survey assessing the beliefs regarding testing, confidentiality, disclosure, and environment of care and attitudes towards care of people with HIV/AIDS (PLHWA), in 1020, 4th and 5th year medical students, from public and private medical universities in Malaysia. A self-administered validated questionnaire based on the UNAIDS Model Questionnaire with a 5-point Likert scale (5, strongly disagree; 4, disagree; 3, neutral; 2, agree; 1, strongly agree) was used as a survey tool. The survey included demographic data and data on undergraduate training received on HIV/AIDS. Statistical significance in the demographic data and training received by respondents was evaluated using the chi-square test while the independent Student's t-test was used for comparison of means between public and private universities. A P value of medical students received adequate training to care for PLHWA. They had prevalent negative beliefs regarding testing, confidentiality, disclosure and environment of care towards PLHWA although in giving care to PLHWA, their attitudes were largely positive and nondiscriminatory. PMID:24285935
Choy, Koh Kwee; Rene, Teh Jae; Khan, Saad Ahmed
This study examined the transformation of immigrant women's knowledge, belief and experience with regard to sexual and reproductive health after living in the US. Four focus groups (N = 24) were held with Hispanic women ?18 years old. We identified two main themes (Fertility/Knowledge and Gender power) with five subthemes (Sex education, Contraception and unintended pregnancy, Men versus women, Intimate partner violence, and Immigrating to the US). Most of these women were raised in a very restricted family context where talking about sex was viewed as sinful. In spite of their own experiences of sexual silence and the consequences to their lives, women valued the positive changes achieved by immigrating to the US; they felt empowered to make their own decisions regarding reproductive health. PMID:23475348
Quelopana, Ana M; Alcalde, Cristina
Full Text Available Background Infant mortality rate is an indicator of the degree of health in society. In Indonesia, the infant mortality rate remains high, with most deaths occurring in the first 24 hours of life. Breastfeeding has been shown to reduce infant mortality, especially if undertaken in the first hour of life. This practice is known as early initiation of breastfeeding (EIB. According to various studies, EIB implementation may be influenced by many factors such as knowledge, attitude, behavior, and health care facilities. Objective To assess the level of knowledge, attitude, and behavior of pregnant women towards EIB. Methods We conducted a descriptive study using questionnaires on 74 pregnant women in the outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Dustira Hospital, Cimahi, West Java, Indonesia from November to December 2012. Results Out of 74 respondents, 21% had a good level of knowledge on EIB, 23% had an adequate knowledge, and 56% had less than adequate knowledge on EIB. A positive attitude towards EIBwas found in 65% of the respondents, while 35% had a negative attitude. With regards to behavior conducive to EIB, 8% of respondents had good behavior, 57% had moderate behavior, and 35%had less than adequate behavior. Conclusion Majority of pregnant women have less than adequate knowledge on EIB, a positive attitude towards and moderate to less than adequate behavior conducive to EeIBb.
The aim of the study was to examine the effectiveness of a pain management program (PMP) in enhancing the knowledge and attitudes of health care workers in pain management. Many nursing home residents suffer from pain, and treatment of pain is often inadequate. Failure of health care workers to assess pain and their insufficient knowledge of pain management are barriers to adequate treatment. It was a quasiexperimental pretest and posttest study. Four nursing homes were approached, and 88 staff joined the 8-week PMP. Demographics and the knowledge and attitudes regarding pain were collected with the use of the Nurse's Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain-Chinese version (NKASRP-C) before and after the PMP. A deficit in knowledge and attitudes related to pain management was prominent before the PMP, and there was a significant increase in pain knowledge and attitudes from 7.9 ± SD 3.52 to 19.2 ± SD4.4 (p PMPs for nurses and all health care professionals are important in enhancing care for older adults and to inform policy on the provision of pain management. PMID:24602419
Tse, Mimi Mun Yee; Ho, Suki S K
Full Text Available Health care personnel are the first line of contact for public with the health care system and therefore, can have an important role in public’s oral health promotion. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior of Health Care centers personnel in Neyshabour, Iran. One hundred and thirty four health care personnel in Neyshabour participated in this cross sectional study. A researcher-led questionnaire was used to evaluate oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior of participants. Oral hygiene examination was carried out by a qualified dentist using simplified oral hygiene index. Then the association between knowledge, attitude and behavior of health care personnel with age, gender, occupation and education level were assessed by Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The results showed that 56% of participants had good knowledge, 80% reported positive attitude and 86% of personnel reported tooth brushing once daily. Average score for oral hygiene index was 1.26±1.66. Personnel with higher educational level had more knowledge (p = 0.007 and people with higher education and income had more positive attitude (p = 0.001 and 0.04, respectively. The oral hygiene index of people with higher education was better than others (p = 0.001. It seems that level of knowledge and behavior of studied Health Care employees regarding oral health needs improvement. Enhancement and continuation of oral health educational courses is mandatory.
In this article, we report data from an online questionnaire study with 587 respondents, representative for the adult U.S. population in terms of age, gender, and level of education. The aim of this study was to assess how interest in science and knowledge as well as beliefs about science are associated with risk and benefit perceptions of nanotechnology. The findings suggest that the U.S. public is still rather unfamiliar with nanotechnology. Those who have some knowledge mainly have gotten it from TV and the Internet. The content of current media reports is perceived as fairly positive. Knowledge of scientific methods is unrelated to benefit and risk perceptions, at least when other predictors are controlled. In contrast, positive beliefs about science (e.g., its impact on economy or health) and more sophisticated epistemological beliefs about the nature of scientific knowledge are moderately linked to more positive perceptions of nanotechnology. The only exception is the perception of scientific uncertainty: This is associated with less positive evaluations. Finally, higher engagement with science is associated with higher risk perceptions. These findings show that laypersons who are engaged with science and who are aware of the inherent uncertainty of scientific evidence might perceive nanotechnology in a somewhat more differentiated way, contrary to how it is portrayed in the media today.
ween people residing no more than 5 miles from an interstate highway to those living no less than 16 miles from an interstate highway. The results of the analysis are divided into 4 sections: A. Sample Identification; B. Overall and Group Attitudes to Certain Special Precautionary Actions For Transporting Spent Fuel; C. Subgroup Attitudes toward the Transportation of Spent Fuel; D. Risk Perceptions of People Living No More than 5 Miles vs. People Living No Less than 16 Miles from and Interstate Highway. Generally conclusions are also provided
Increasing life expectancies and more years spent living with chronic illnesses mean that increasing numbers of older adults will require nursing care. However, most nurses prefer not to work with older adults, and many nursing students have limited knowledge and negative attitudes towards aging and older adults. This study examined the knowledge…
Flood, Meredith Troutman; Clark, Robert B.
Biotechnology has a considerable importance in Turkish biology curriculum. This study was designed to explore or indicate Turkish high school and university students' knowledge and attitudes toward biotechnology. A total number of 352 high school and 276 university students were invited to the study. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ)…
Usak, Muhammet; Erdogan, Mehmet; Prokop, Pavol; Ozel, Murat
Entering ("n"?=?475) and graduating ("n"?=?454) students at 3 master's of social work programs in the northeast were compared regarding their knowledge and attitudes concerning working with substance abusing clients. In comparison to entering students, graduating students demonstrated modestly higher levels of knowledge,…
Senreich, Evan; Straussner, Shulamith Lala A.
Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the level of knowledge about and attitude toward and sources of information about epilepsy.Methods: Seventy individuals with epilepsy (IWE and 56 control participants (CPs received Epilepsy Knowledge Scale, Epilepsy Attitude Scale and information forms which required answers to related open-ended questions.Results: There was a significant difference between the initial and current amount of epilepsy knowledge of the IWE. The IWE evaluate their epilepsy knowledge as adequate more than CPs, however as general, both groups stated inadequate epilepsy knowledge. Also, the IWE had more knowledge about epilepsy, but there was no difference in the attitudes toward epilepsy between IWE and CPs. The most frequently reported source of information by IWE was “doctors and other health staff”, and “family and acquaintances” by CPs.Conclusion: The level of knowledge about epilepsy was increasing with the passage of time among the IWE. As the most cited source of information, health staff have an important role in providing information to IWE. The study also indicates the need of national campaigns in order to increase the knowledge of epilepsy and create more favorable attitudes toward epilepsy.
Background: Various explanations of sexual offending in men with intellectual disability (ID) have stressed sexual deviance and a lack of developmental socio-sexual knowledge. Method: Using the normative dataset of people with ID from the development of the "Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Assessment Tool--Revised" (SSKAAT-R: Griffiths &…
Lunsky, Yona; Frijters, Jan; Griffiths, Dorothy M.; Watson, Shelley L.; Williston, Stephanie
Although there are numerous ways to obtain accurate information about sexuality, research suggests that many American adults do not have accurate sexuality and sexual health knowledge. This research investigated selected sexual knowledge and attitudes of adults in Indiana. A representative sample of men (n = 158) and women (n = 340) aged 18 to 89…
Clark, Christina A.; Baldwin, Kathleen L.; Tanner, Amanda E.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the melanoma and sun protection knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of college students attending a large Midwestern university. Further, gender and skin type (fair, medium, or dark) were examined as potential intervening variables. Results indicate that the college students studied had low knowledge levels…
Cottrell, Randall; McClamroch, Leslie; Bernard, Amy L.
Knowledge, anxiety, and attitudes about the elderly were assessed in 113 university students using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Anxiety about Aging Scale, and the Fraboni Scale on Ageism. No significant differences in knowledge or anxiety based on age or gender were found in the sample. Female participants in the sample were found to be…
Allan, Linda J.; Johnson, James
Objective: To assess students' human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants/ Methods: Students (N = 1,282) at a large, public university in the Northeast United States completed a questionnaire during February 2008 assessing HPV knowledge, prevalence, transmission, cervical cancer risk and stigma; sexual behavior,…
Sandfort, Jessica R.; Pleasant, Andrew
This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian school teachers and counselors toward epilepsy. A sample of 259 teachers and counselors completed the two-part questionnaire. Validity was assessed using an informed panel of judges, and test-retest reliability was established. The results showed average knowledge of epilepsy and generally favorable attitudes toward students with epilepsy. Although participants revealed apt knowledge about the causes and symptoms of epilepsy, they demonstrated poor knowledge about methods of dealing with seizures. However, participants scored high on items relating to the equality of rights and the need for further support. Findings indicated that although participants showed favorable attitudes, more information and awareness about epilepsy should be provided to teachers and counselors within the school systems of Jordan. PMID:22683285
Alkhamra, Hatem; Tannous, Adel; Hadidi, Muna; Alkhateeb, Jamal
Nurses play an important role in managing children's pain. The nurse's accurate assessment, appropriate intervention, and evaluation of pain relief measures are necessary for positive patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge and attitudes of pediatric nurses regarding the child's pain. The Pediatric Nurses' Knowledge and Attitude Survey (PNKAS) was used to evaluate the nurses' knowledge and attitudes. The PNKAS consists of 40 questions. In this study, 29.9% of nurses had a diploma and 40.6% associate's, 25.0% bachelor's, and 4.5% master's degree, and respondents had an everage 6.1 years pediatric nursing experience. The total mean score on the PNKAS scale was 38.2%. The highest score was 65%, and the lowest score 15%. The findings of the survey show that pediatric nurses in Turkey have insufficient knowledge regarding pain management and could benefit from additional education on that issue. PMID:24315279
Ekim, Ayfer; Ocakc?, Ayse Ferda
Full Text Available Introduction.With respect to the importance of nutritional counselling during pregnancy, the improtance of knowledge, attitude and practice of health care providers is undisputable. In this study the knowledge, attitude and practice of the health care providers in the city of shiraz with respect to the nutritional counseling in pregnancy was investigated. Methods. The survey was done upon all who practicing in MCH unit of heath care centers in the city of shiraz. The intended information was gathered using a checklist and questionnaire from 75 heath care providers. Results. Knowledge is in middle level in 60 percent, attitude is positive in 98.7 percent and practice is poor in 90.67 percent of samples. Midwifery school graduations have more knowledge than other (P < 0.05. Discussion. Education of nutritional sciences for health care providers has an important role in health promotion. During special situations such as pregnancy, this matter is more important.
This paper argues that teachers' beliefs and attitudes affect not only their instructional decisions and human relationships, but also their willingness to seek professional knowledge, particularly when such knowledge contradicts their beliefs. Results obtained from a case study on K-5 staff development through inquiry are used to illustrate what…
Objective: This study examined the relationship between ethnic background and parental views of healthy body size, concerns surrounding overweight and attitudes to perceived causes of overweight in childhood. Method: A self-report questionnaire was designed to explore parental attitudes towards childhood weight. Sampling deliberately…
Trigwell, J.; Watson, P. M.; Murphy, R. C.; Stratton, G.; Cable, N. T.
The aim of this study is to examine the relationships between chemistry laboratory anxiety, chemistry attitudes, and self-efficacy. Participants were 395 university students. Participants completed the Chemistry Laboratory Anxiety Scale, the Chemistry Attitudes Scale, and the Self-efficacy Scale. Results showed that chemistry laboratory anxiety…
Kurbanoglu, N. Izzet; Akin, Ahmet
Few studies have examined maternal attitudes toward infant body size, but extant work suggests there might be less negativity toward overweight sizes and less positivity toward thin sizes for infants than older children. Fifty mothers of 12 to 25 month-old infants completed questionnaires examining attitudes toward infants', children's and their…
Holub, Shayla C.; Dolan, Elaine A.
A sample of 250 early childhood teachers were surveyed to identify their computer attitudes. Found a general sequence of stages that early childhood teachers go through when implementing the computer into the classroom: a stage of focus on buying computers; a stage of confusion; a stage of pulling it all together; and finally, a stage of full…
Full Text Available The study reports on an investigation of the impact of a Science-Technology-Society (STS approach in promoting more positive student attitudes toward science that are recommended by current reform documents. A total of 609 students from grades six through nine were selected for a survey of attitudes in two class sections assigned as either experimental (STS oriented class or control group (textbook oriented class. The results indicate that students in classes taught with an STS approach develop more positive attitudes toward science when compared to students in classes taught with a textbook-oriented approach. The STS approach to science teaching works equally well for male and female students regarding student attitudes toward science. Significant differences were not found between male and female students in terms of improving positive attitudes concerning science study.
We propose a method for estimating subjective beliefs, viewed as a subjective probability distribution. The key insight is to characterize beliefs as a parameter to be estimated from observed choices in a well-defined experimental task and to estimate that parameter as a random coefficient. The experimental task consists of a series of standard lottery choices in which the subject is assumed to use conventional risk attitudes to select one lottery or the other and then a series of betting choices in which the subject is presented with a range of bookies offering odds on the outcome of some event that the subject has a belief over. Knowledge of the risk attitudes of subjects conditions the inferences about subjective beliefs. Maximum simulated likelihood methods are used to estimate a structural model in which subjects employ subjective beliefs to make bets. We present evidence that some subjective probabilities are indeed best characterized as probability distributions with non-zero variance.
Full Text Available Cancer appears to pose a major threat to the health of the Sudanese population. It is the third leading cause of death in the Sudan after malaria and pneumonia, accounting for 5% of all deaths. In 2005, approximately 22,000 people in the Sudan died from cancer and 17,000 of these people were less than 70 years old. This study was designed to: 1 assess nutrition knowledge and selected dietary beliefs related to cancer in Sudanese residing in Khartoum; 2 identify perceived barriers to the adoption of eating behaviors consistent with those recommended for cancer prevention; and 3 describe the food preferences and dietary practices in Sudanese residing in Khartoum. An interviewer-administered questionnaire elicited demographic information, cancer-related food and nutrition knowledge, food preferences, selected dietary beliefs, barriers to healthy eating and food practices from 182 participants between the ages of 18 and 35 years. More than 50% of females and males correctly identified the food lowest in fiber from a given list. Respondents were knowledgeable about the fat content of their traditional foods, but unaware of the different types of fat. Only 8.8% of the respondents thought that consumption of fruits and vegetables reduced cancer risk. Resondents perceived nutritionists as the most reliable source of information about nutrition and cancer, and the media as the best source of information on nutrition and healthy cooking. “Samin”, feta cheese, a variety of stews, “Zalabia”, lean meat, brown bread, sesame oil, dried okra, fried fish, and chicken were described as preferred food items by respondents. Daily salt/ sodium intake was described by 44% and 39% of the male and female respondents, respectively, as “high” (>2400 mg/day. The findings of this study have clear implications for aggressive nutrition education intervention programs with emphasis on the traditional foods of the Sudan.
Full Text Available Introduction: The importance of the periodontal health maintenance and promotion in diabetes mellitus has been supported. Evidence showed that many patients are unaware about effects of diabetes mellitus on oral health. The aim of this study is to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and practice of diabetic patients concerning the risk of periodontal disease and prevention. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 156 diabetic patients referring to Yazd Diabetic Research Center were recruited by random selection. Patients completed questionnaires, which included 29 questions about their knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health in diabetes mellitus. The data was scored and analyzed. Result: The results showed knowledge (58.64 and attitude (46.86 scores of diabetic patients were moderate, while their practice (24.3 score were poor. There is statistical significant relation between mean scores of knowledge, attitude and practice of patients with their educational level and age. Conclusion: This study showed knowledge, attitude and practice level of diabetic patients were insufficient on oral health care.
Fazele Atarbashi Moghadam
Background: Nowadays, organ transplantation is the treatment of choice for end-stage organ failure, which increases the importance of organ procurement. It seems that the attitude towards organ donation and transplantation affects people’s satisfaction. Moreover, health care personnel, especially physicians, should be familiar with transplantation rules and standards. It seems that understanding the knowledge and attitude of this group can affect the transplantation center policies. Objective: To assess knowledge and attitude of a group of Iranian physicians towards organ and tissue donation. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 560 Iranian physicians including nephrologists, urologists and internists were asked to fill out a validated questionnaire containing their demographics, knowledge and attitude towards organ and tissue donation and transplantation. Results: Of 560 participants, 435 (78%) agreed with organ donation after death and 285 (51%) agreed with living kidney donation. The most common reason provided by those who agreed with donation was “helping people” whereas the most common cause of disagreement was “to honor the body.” Only 32 (6%) physicians had no knowledge about transplantation rules. Complete awareness about theoretical basis and financial issues of transplantation was observed in 265 (47%) and 221 (40%) participants, respectively. Conclusion: Physicians had a good attitude towards organ and tissue transplantation although less than half of them had knowledge of transplantation rules and its theoretical basis and financial issues; therefore, additional awareness and education of physicians is needed in all areas of the organ donation process in Iran. PMID:25013681
Salmani Nadoushan, M.; Nozary Heshmati, B.; Shabanzadeh Pirsaraee, A.; Salmani Nodoushan, I.; Jafari Nadoushan, R.; Yazdi, F.
This study is interested in understanding curriculum as an international text and evaluating the connections between junior high school students’ global knowledge and attitudes and the required national curriculum in Taiwan. The study also examines whether the global knowledge and attitudes vary by demographic variables. By using the Global Knowledge Scale and Global Attitudes Scale, data were collected from 1,017 students in central Taiwan and analyzed by descriptive statistics, chi-square...
Su-ching Lin; Hsin-Yi Kung
This study was carried out to determine the effects of peer education on breast self-examination (BSE) knowledge and health beliefs. 180 female university students were trained in BSE by the nursing students. Students instructed in groups by their peers showed a much higher degree of BSE knowledge. It was also found that perceived confidence of the students educated both individually and in groups increased afterward. Study results further revealed that the methods used for peer instruction do not affect students' sub-dimensions of health beliefs differently after the education. PMID:19838894
Gürsoy, Ayla Akka?; Yi?itba?, Ca?la; Yilmaz, Fatma; Erdöl, Hacer; Bulut, Hacer Kobya; Mumcu, Havva Karadeniz; Calik, Kiymet Yesilçiçek; Kahriman, Ilknur; Hintistan, Sevilay; Nural, Nesrin
Socio-constructivist perspectives on adult education, as well as many practitioners in the field, assume that the teacher's interpersonal attitudes influence the process of knowledge construction on the part of the participants. The aim of this paper is to contribute to an empirical evaluation of this view, and in particular: (i) to understand whether the actions enacted by an educator toward learners may be taken as local cues of her underlying general interpersonal attitudes in and about th...
Tirassa, Maurizio; Mate, Davide; Brizio, Adelina
The success of tacit knowledge management lies in firms’ capabilities to attract and retain employees possessing unique knowledge. The purpose of the paper is to investigate students’ attitudes towards career in tourism in the context of tacit knowledge management. The study was conducted on the group of 345 undergraduates and graduates enrolled in tourism and hospitality studies in Poznan. Research revealed that majority of students plan short-term career in tourism, which entails tacit ...
Bednarska, Marlena A.; Olszewski, Marcin
Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to generate discussion and communication among a group of general dentists in Tehran on their viewpoints regarding denture adhesives. Have they accepted denture adhesive as a material to enhance denture retention, stability and function? Materials and Methods: In the summer of 2007, a questionnaire was mailed to 300 general dentists who were assigned with a random systematic sampling method from general dentists in Tehran. The questions were arranged in two parts of evaluating knowledge and attitude. In evaluation of knowledge, dentists were classified into groups of good, moderate, weak and lack of knowledge. In evaluation of attitude, dentists were classified into positive, moderate and negative groups. (Evaluating attitude was carried out in good and moderate groups of knowledge. Results: The study showed that 14%, 32% and 37% of the general dentists had respectively good, moderate and weak knowledge toward denture adhesive while 16.3% had no knowledge about this material. In evaluation of attitude through dentists with positive and moderate knowledge toward denture adhesive, 9.3%, 71.3% and 19.4% had respectively positive, moderate and negative attitude toward denture adhesive. The ?2 test showed a significant statistical relation between situation of knowledge and experiences of dentists. Discussion: This study demonstrated that the rate of knowledge of these 300 general dentists in Tehran towards denture adhesives has not been in a good situation. It is believed that denture adhesive be able to enhance the fitness of a denture and provide psychological relief to the patient. Dentists agreed that education, not only for practitioners but also for patients, would raise the advantageous features and reduce the misuse of denture adhesive. Education of the topic "Denture adhesive" should be more concerned in dental universities.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Studies on physicians and other health care professionals indicate that attitudes towards and beliefs in their work with patients, can affect the quality of health care, and patients' behaviour and compliance, thus an instrument is needed to survey pharmacists as healthcare providers. The aim of this study was to describe the development and psychometric validation of a survey instrument to assess attitudes and beliefs of pharmacists toward their work with patients (Pharmacists' Attitudes and Beliefs Scale, PABS. The aim of this research was to determine the reliability, validity and factor structure of a newly constructed instrument - PABS. Methods. The statements from the cognitive, affective, and behavioral areas were identified by literature review and selected to cover the behavior of pharmacists in providing pharmaceutical care at community settings. The initial 5- point Likert type scale of 30 items was constructed and after initial validation its revised form developed. The reliability, construct validity and factor structure of the scale were established. Results. The reliability of the scale was determined by the method of internal consistency, on a convenient sample of 123 community pharmacists. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.67. Factor analysis of principal components was performed and 7 factors with latent roots greater than 1 were extracted, explaining 64.92% of total variance, a single 30.84%, 8.20%, 6.55%, 5.63%, 5.01%, 4.68% and 4.01%. Based on the results of factor analysis in the development of the scale, some items in the scale were excluded (totally 7, so that the revised form of the PABS contained a total of 23 items. Conclusion. The initial PABS scale did not meet theoretical statistical criteria for reliability (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was < 0.7, but the findings indicated its potentially acceptable construct validity. The results support its use as a research tool to assess the behavior of pharmacists in daily practice, and provide its use as an indicator of quality in delivering pharmaceutical care. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41004
Full Text Available Background /Objective: Sixty percent of all smokers in the United States (U.S. try smoking cigarettes before they are 18 years old. Family and peer behavior (subjective norm, and attitude may influence young people to initiate smoking. The aims of this study were to 1 determine if attitude, subjective norm, and knowledge could predict smoking behaviors; 2 identify reasons for smoking; 3 determine if there were differences in attitudes toward smoking between smokers and non-smokers; and 4 determine smokers’ intent to quit. Methods: The population of interest included individuals age 30 or younger. The instrument, in the form of an online Tobacco Survey, was distributed via email, Facebook®, and other social media. The survey was created on Survey Monkey.com®. Data were collected for nine months and analyzed using SPSS® version 17 for Windows®. Results: Cronbach’s alpha for the primary factors were high to adequate, attitude a = .89, knowledge a = .71, and subjective norm a = .67. Results suggested subjective norm and attitude may predict smoking but knowledge was not a predictor. Over 70% of the smokers tried their first cigarette before the age of 18 years. Most reported reasons for smoking were alcohol consumption, smoking with friends in social settings, stress relief, and relaxation. Seventy-five percent of the smokers agreed that smoking was addictive and knowledge was high regarding the hazards of smoking. Less than 50% of the smokers planned to quit within the next year. Conclusions: Tobacco use among adolescents and young adults may be directly influenced by overall attitude and peer and family smoking behaviors. Knowledge of the hazards of smoking does not appear to influence smoking behaviors; therefore it is recommended health care providers, and others in a position to influence young people, focus on changing attitudes about smoking.
Barbara J. Ganley
This qualitative study describes the physical and verbal interactions of rural children and their parents regarding reading books aloud. The participants' attitudes and beliefs about sharing storybooks are also explored. The theoretical framework is based upon Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model. One interview was conducted with each participant and…
Barnyak, Natalie Conrad
This study was conducted to explore the relationships between teachers' Internet self-efficacy, beliefs about web-based learning and attitudes toward web-based professional development. The sample of this study included 421 teachers, coming from 20 elementary schools in Taiwan. The three instruments used to assess teachers' Internet self-efficacy…
Kao, Chia-Pin; Tsai, Chin-Chung
Objective: This comparative study evaluated the readability and test-retest reliability of a questionnaire designed to assess the attitudes, beliefs behaviours and sources of information about HIV/AIDS among young adults recruited from universities in the United States of America (USA), Turkey and South Africa. Design/Setting: The instrument was…
Balogun, Joseph; Abiona, Titilayo; Lukobo-Durrell, Mainza; Adefuye, Adedeji; Amosun, Seyi; Frantz, Jose; Yakut, Yavuz
The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) what effect the use of interactive computer-based simulations (ICBSs), the use of laboratory inquiry-based experiments (LIBEs), and the use of combinations of an ICBS and a LIBE, in a conceptually oriented physics course, have on science teachers' beliefs about and attitudes toward the use of these…
The purpose of this study is to find out whether university students' attitudes towards physics lesson, their self-efficacy beliefs and burnout levels predict their academic success in physics lessons. The research group consists of 641 university students of which 307 are girls (47.1%) and 334 boys (52.9%). The research data were collected…
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors relating to perceptions of online romantic relationships. One hundred seventy-seven people who had never been involved in an online romantic relationship completed a survey to assess relationships among perceptions of online romantic relationships and (a) amount of Internet use, (b) Internet affinity, (c) perceived realism of the Internet, and (d) romantic beliefs. Results reveal that amount of time spent online and affinity for the Internet are positively related to more favorable perceptions of online romantic relationships, whereas perceived realism and romantic beliefs were not related to perceptions of online romantic relationships. Romantic beliefs, therefore, may lend themselves to more conventional notions of relationships. Implications for and development and maintenance of online relationships, as impacted by social support networks, are discussed. PMID:16332163
Anderson, Traci L
Attitude, personality, and customer knowledge antecedents were compared in their predictive ability of 3 service-oriented forms of employee organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs): loyalty, service delivery, and participation. For the 1st study, 236 customer-contact employees provided data concerning their OCBs and the attitude, personality, and knowledge antecedents. The 2nd investigation relied on data provided by 144 contact employees from a network of university libraries. Using hierarchical regression in both studies, the authors found that each of the 3 types of service-oriented OCBs was best predicted by different subsets of the antecedents. Job attitudes accounted for the most unique variance in loyalty OCBs, personality accounted for the most unique variance in service delivery OCBs, and customer knowledge and personality jointly were the best predictors of participation OCBs. PMID:11302230
Bettencourt, L A; Gwinner, K P; Meuter, M L
Full Text Available The study was set to determine whether knowledge and attitudes toward organ dona-tion differ according to geographical location. Self-administered questionnaires were employed to collect data such as demographic characteristics, basic knowledge, attitudes and source of information about organ donation from subjects in rural and urban areas. The questionnaires were distributed randomly to 1,000 individuals in both areas during 2008. The data were analyzed in a descriptive fashion. Despite similarities in knowledge and attitudes of respondents in both areas, rural res-pondents were less likely to have information about organ donation, to report willingness to donate organs, and to have knowledge about "brain death" or the "organ donation card" than their counter-parts in urban areas. The study identified that the principle respondents? source of information about organ donation was the television. More than 90% of respondents in rural and urban areas reported that the contribution of health care providers in providing them with knowledge about organ dona-tion and transplantation was "none" or "little". Respondents identified several reasons, which may influence their decisions to donate organs. In conclusion, the deficit in knowledge and attitudes of rural respondents about organ donation may be justified by the lack of information about this signi-ficant issue. Accordingly, health facilities, local mass media and educational institutions should provide intensive educational programs to encourage the public donate organs.
Full Text Available Seventy to ninety percent of HIV-infected individuals have oral lesions that affect their quality-of-life. Caregivers play an important role in complementing the healthcare team. It is essential that the caregivers have optimal knowledge, beliefs and practices toward the management of care regarding oral-lesions in HIV-infected patients in caregiving institutions in Johannesburg, South Africa. To measure the knowledge, beliefs and practices relating to oral lesions in HIV infection amongst caregivers in caregiving institutions in Johannesburg. This cross-sectional pilot study conducted during 2005 and 2006 involved caregivers in palliative care institutions in Region 8, Johannesburg Metropolitan area (n= 52. Using a questionnaire, information obtained included demographics, knowledge, beliefs and practices with regard to oral care for HIV-positive patients. Principal component analysis was used to extract questionnaire items of t