WorldWideScience

Sample records for knowledge attitudes beliefs

  1. Belief in Rape Myths: The Role of Gender, Attitudes Toward Women and Knowledge of Rape.

    Latta, R. Michael

    Degree of belief in rape myths as determined by participant gender, attitudes about the role of women in contemporary society, and factual knowledge of rape was investigated in a sample of 118 male and 126 female college students. The results support the general assumption that a rape ideology exists which involves components of belief in rape…

  2. Community Knowledge, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Practices towards Children with Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus in Uganda

    Bannink, Femke; Stroeken, Koenraad; Idro, Richard; van Hove, Geert

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the findings of a qualitative study on knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and practices towards children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus in four regions of Uganda. Focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews were held with parents of children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus, policy-makers, and service…

  3. The Influence of Tobacco Countermarketing Ads on College Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs

    Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Hyland, Andrew; Rivard, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine which antitobacco messages were perceived effective in changing college students' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about tobacco use. Participants: College students (n = 1,020) were surveyed before and after viewing 4 30-second antitobacco advertisements in 1 of 3 theme categories--social norms, health consequences, or…

  4. Attitudes, beliefs and knowledge concerning antibiotic use and self-medication : a comparative European study

    Grigoryan, Larissa; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; Degener, John E.; Deschepper, Reginald; Lundborg, Cecilia Stalsby; Monnet, Dominique L.; Scicluna, Elizabeth A.; Birkin, Joan; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Although the relevance of cultural factors for antibiotic use has been recognized, few studies exist in Europe. We compared public attitudes, beliefs and knowledge concerning antibiotic use and self-medication between 11 European countries. Methods In total, 1101 respondents were interviewed

  5. Stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs toward bulimia nervosa: the importance of knowledge and eating disorder symptoms.

    Rodgers, Rachel Florence; Paxton, Susan J; McLean, Siân A; Massey, Robin; Mond, Jonathan M; Hay, Phillipa J; Rodgers, Bryan

    2015-04-01

    Widely held stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs toward bulimic eating disorders may lead to self-blame and reduced treatment seeking. Knowledge and familiarity with mental disorders may help decrease associated stigma. However, these relationships are not well understood in bulimia nervosa (BN). A community sample of 1828 adults aged 18 to 70 years completed a survey assessing stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs toward BN, knowledge and familiarity with the disorder, as well as levels of eating disorder symptoms. Knowledge of BN was negatively associated with three dimensions of stigmatization, personal responsibility (ρ = -0.28), unreliability (ρ = -0.19), and advantages of BN (ρ = -0.23). Familiarity revealed no association with stigmatization. Both men and women with high levels of eating disorder symptoms perceived BN as less serious than the participants with low levels of symptoms. Increasing community knowledge about bulimia may help mitigate stigmatization and perceived barriers to treatment. PMID:25751709

  6. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes and beliefs: Focus groups of parents, physicians and the general public

    Barnathan Julia A; Kim Jennifer S; Gupta Ruchi S; Amsden Laura B; Tummala Lakshmi S; Holl Jane L

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus gro...

  7. Language Teachers' Attitudes, Beliefs, Professional Knowledge, and Views on Professional Development: An Exploratory Study at a Preschool TEFL Setting

    Lin, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study of English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and professional knowledge about teaching EFL (TEFL) in a preschool setting in China. The investigation is structured on a two-dimensional grid based on Calderhead's (1996) categorisation of teachers' attitudes and beliefs and…

  8. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs Regarding Weight Gain During Pregnancy Among Hispanic Women

    Tovar, Alison; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Bermudez, Odilia I.; Hyatt, Raymond R.; Must, Aviva

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancy weight gain may be a risk factor for the development of obesity highlighting the importance of identifying psychosocial risk factors for pregnancy weight gain. The goal of this qualitative pilot study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding weight gain during pregnancy among predominantly Puerto Rican women, a group with higher rates of obesity as compared to non-Hispanic white women. We conducted four focus groups stratified by level of acculturation and BMI. Wom...

  9. Nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding organ and tissue donation and transplantation.

    Matten, M R; Sliepcevich, E M; Sarvela, P D; Lacey, E P; Woehlke, P L; Richardson, C E; Wright, W R

    1991-01-01

    The acute shortage of human organs and tissues for transplantation has been attributed in part to health professionals, including nurses, for their reluctance to recognize and refer suitable candidates for donation. In 1988, nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding organ and tissue donation and transplantation were assessed using a 70-item questionnaire. Respondents included 1,683 nurses employed in 62 rural and urban hospitals in the Midwest. Only 365 respondents (21.7 percent) re...

  10. Perspectives on Tobacco Product Waste: A Survey of Framework Convention Alliance Members’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs

    Sanas Javadian; Paula Stigler-Granados; Clifton Curtis; Francis Thompson; Laurent Huber; Novotny, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette butts (tobacco product waste (TPW)) are the single most collected item in environmental trash cleanups worldwide. This brief descriptive study used an online survey tool (Survey Monkey) to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among individuals representing the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA) about this issue. The FCA has about 350 members, including mainly non-governmental tobacco control advocacy groups that support implementation of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Fr...

  11. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of young, college student blood donors about Human immunodeficiency virus

    Anju Dubey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Young people, who tend to be healthy, idealistic, and motivated, are an excellent pool of potential voluntary unpaid blood donors. Recruiting and retaining young blood donors improves the long term safety and sufficiency of a country′s blood supply. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV should play an important role in prevention of disease transmission. Materials and Methods: This study was a questionnaire based survey, conducted to explore the levels of knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about HIV in young college student blood donors. Results: The results showed that the proportion of participants with comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission was lesser than expected. Increase in education level and male gender was found to be significantly associated with high HIV-related knowledge. The responses on the different aspects of HIV-related attitude were also varied and there is still stigma associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS even in the educated groups. Discussion: There was a spectrum of myths and misperceptions emphasizing the need of education that recognizes the social context of attitude towards HIV. Results from this study may contribute to the development of appropriate educational and training material for this group of donors which in turn, may assist in achieving the elusive goal of safe blood supply in future.

  12. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes and beliefs: Focus groups of parents, physicians and the general public

    Barnathan Julia A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted between January and July of 2006 in the Chicago area with parents of children with food allergy (3 groups, physicians (3 groups, and the general public (2 groups. A constant comparative method was used to identify the emerging themes which were then grouped into key domains of food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Results Parents of children with food allergy had solid fundamental knowledge but had concerns about primary care physicians' knowledge of food allergy, diagnostic approaches, and treatment practices. The considerable impact of children's food allergies on familial quality of life was articulated. Physicians had good basic knowledge of food allergy but differed in their approach to diagnosis and advice about starting solids and breastfeeding. The general public had wide variation in knowledge about food allergy with many misconceptions of key concepts related to prevalence, definition, and triggers of food allergy. Conclusion Appreciable food allergy knowledge gaps exist, especially among physicians and the general public. The quality of life for children with food allergy and their families is significantly affected.

  13. Attitude, belief and knowledge about blood donation and transfusion in saudi population

    Blood donation and transfusion are remarkably safe medical procedures. However, attitudes, beliefs and level of knowledge associated with blood donation and transfusion may affect such procedures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the attitude, belief and knowledge about blood donation and transfusion in Saudi Population. The present study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University Hospitals, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A well structured Arabic questionnaire was used to asses the attitude, belief and knowledge regarding blood donation and transfusion. The sample consisted of 335 male (55%) and 274 female (45%); the majority of the sample (65.84%) were non-donors. These non-donors (78.98%) were between the ages of 15-30 years. The 88.5% of the people who participated in the study believed that blood donation was not harmful, 20% of them stated that they would refuse blood transfusion even if they were in need because of the risk of acquiring infectious disease. 84.5% preferred direct donation, (49%) of the sample stated that they would accept blood donation only from relatives, 55.1% believed that blood transfusion was safe. However, 11.6% claimed to have acquired infectious disease after blood transfusion, 58% female in addition to 11.34% male preferred to receive blood from female donor and 69.5% did not know if the blood banks were in need of blood or not and 17.4% believed that all surgical procedures require blood transfusion. Different fears, mistrust in hospital and lack of information may serve as an important issue to be addressed when developing donors recruitment programs or campaigns to clear misconceptions about blood donation. In addition, public should know that numerous screening measures are implemented to ensure that blood donation is safe for the donor and that transfusion of the donated blood is safe for the recipient. (author)

  14. Teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention.

    Abrahams, N; Casey, K; Daro, D

    1992-01-01

    In considering the great responsibility placed upon teachers to involve themselves in child abuse prevention, education, and detection, the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse (NCPCA) conducted a nationwide survey of teachers from 40 school districts in 29 randomly selected counties. The survey explores teachers knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention. Five hundred and sixty-eight teachers responded, revealing that while the majority of teachers confront child abuse among their students, they are provided insufficient education on how to address it. Other findings are reported with respect to teachers' reporting behavior, potential barriers to reporting, child assault prevention programs, and corporal punishment in schools. PMID:1559171

  15. Oral Health Related Behaviour, Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs among Secondary School Students in Iringa Municipality

    Emmanuel, Athanase; Chang’endo, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    To determine oral health related behavior, knowledge, attitudes and beliefs among secondary school students in Iringa municipality. Cross-sectional descriptive study. All participants reported to brush their teeth at least once a day, only 24% brush twice a day. The use of plastic tooth brush was reported to be 97.1%. 72.7% of participants who reported to know about dental checkup and 84.6%, recommended the interval of dental check ups to be between one to six months. About 58.6% reported ...

  16. Knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of community health workers about hypertension in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa

    M.J. Sengwana

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the perceptions and attitudes of community health workers (CHWs about hypertension. The level of knowledge of hypertension, as well as their personal attitude towards this is crucial in the style and quality of their interventions. CHWs, whose role in health promotion is being increasingly recognised, can help contain or reduce the prevalence of hypertension by influencing the community to adopt healthy lifestyles. Forty-three CHWs employed by Zanempilo in two study areas, Sites B and C in Khayelitsha in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, were included in the study. Firstly, focus group discussions were conducted with 17 purposively selected CHWs to explore attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of hypertension. Secondly, interviews were conducted to assess their basic knowledge about causes, prevention and control of hypertension. The focus group discussions revealed that CHWs were uncertain about the causes of hypertension. They also found it difficult to grasp the fact that people without risk factors, such as overweight or a family history of hypertension, could be hypertensive. Many CHWs believe in traditional medicines and home-brewed beer as the best treatment for hypertension. They believe that people who take medical treatment become sicker and that their health deteriorates rapidly. Risk factors of hypertension mentioned during the structured interviews include inheritance, lack of physical activity, consuming lots of salty and fatty food. Conclusions drawn from the findings of the CHWs’ responses highlighted their insufficient knowledge about hypertension as a chronic disease of lifestyle. Meanwhile they are expected to play a role in stimulating community residents’ interest in the broad principle of preventive health maintenance and follow-up. Data obtained from this research can be used for the planning of health-promotion programmes. These should include preventing hypertension and improving primary management

  17. The Pluto debate: Influence of emotions on belief, attitude, and knowledge change

    Broughton, Suzanne H.

    In line with the "warming trend" (Sinatra, 2005), this study examined the influence of emotions during controversial conceptual change. Issues in science may trigger highly emotional responses (e.g., evolutionary theory). However, it is unclear whether these emotions facilitate or inhibit change. I investigated the nature of emotions engendered when learning about a controversial science topic, Pluto's reclassification, including the valence (positive/negative) and activation (activating/deactivating) of emotions (Pekrun et al., 2002). I also investigated whether belief, attitude, and/or conceptual change could be facilitated through rereading a refutation text and/or rereading during small group discussions. Refutation texts directly state a common misconception, refute it, and provide the scientific explanation as a plausible alternative (Hynd, 2001). Participants were randomly assigned to a group (reread text; reread text plus small group discussions). Participants in both groups read the same refutational text regarding the recent change in the definition of planet and Pluto's reclassification. The findings show that students' experienced a range of emotions towards Pluto's reclassification. Students reported experiencing more negative than positive emotions. Both positive and negative emotions were shown to be predictive of student's attitudes and attitude change. Emotions were also predictive of students' knowledge of planets and conceptual change. This suggests that emotions may have promoted deep engagement and critical thinking. Negative emotions may also be linked with resistance to attitude and conceptual change. The refutation text was effective in promoting belief change, attitude change, and conceptual change across both conditions. Students in both conditions reported more constructivist nature of science beliefs after rereading the text. Students also reported a greater level of acceptance about Pluto's reclassification. Conceptual change was

  18. U.S. healthcare providers' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions concerning Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Lin Jin-Mann S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a debilitating illness with particular difficulties for healthcare providers because there are no diagnostic signs or laboratory tests and because management aims to merely improve symptoms. Further complicating management, healthcare providers' awareness concerning CFS has not been rigorously assessed. The present study aimed to ascertain United States (U.S. healthcare providers' awareness of CFS and to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KAB related to diagnosis and management of the illness. This information forms the foundation for developing CFS educational strategies. Methods We combined convenience and probability samples to measure CFS KAB among healthcare providers. In the convenience sample, 1,255 healthcare providers (81% response rate from 13 professional conferences completed a 12-item form. Descriptive statistics were reported for 9 KAB item responses and chi-square tests were performed for examining their association with giving a diagnosis of CFS. We used principal component analysis to construct multidimensional subscales and perform a general linear model to examine factors associated with subscales. The probability sample involved data on 15 CFS-specific questions from 2006 and 2007 DocStyles web-based panel surveys collected from 2,750 physicians (average response rate 55%. We calculated descriptive and chi-square statistics. The significance was set at two-tailed with the alpha level of 0.05. Results Healthcare providers in both samples were aware of CFS and exhibited a high level of knowledge. Overall, 96% of respondents in the DocStyles (probability sample had heard about CFS. Healthcare providers in the conference (convenience sample demonstrated good KAB scores; physicians' scores were highest on KAB scales and lowest in perception. Nurses' scores were lowest in knowledge. More than 40% of physicians reported ever giving a CFS diagnosis and in the Doc

  19. Knowledge, attitudes and personal beliefs about HIV and AIDS among mentally ill patients in Soweto, Johannesburg

    G Jonsson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study was to determine knowledge, attitudes and personal beliefs regarding HIV and AIDS in a group of mentally ill patients attending outpatient clinics in Soweto, Johannesburg. Method. All patients attending four randomly chosen clinics in Soweto were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire after obtaining informed written consent. The 63-item questionnaire, developed from others specifically for this study, included questions on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics; knowledge on how HIV is acquired and spread; attitudes and beliefs regarding HIV and AIDS; and condom usage. The statements in the knowledge sections were used to calculate a composite score, which if greater than or equal to 75% was defined as ‘adequate knowledge’. Results. A total of 1 151 patients with mental illness participated in the study. The mean age was 41.9 years (standard deviation 11.6 and the majority were males (50%; single (55%, and had achieved only a secondary level of education (53.3%. Overall, most of the study population did not believe in the myths surrounding the spread and acquisition of HIV and AIDS. There were however, significant associations between a low level of education and the belief that HIV is acquired from mosquito bites (odds ratio (OR 1.61; 95% CI 1.19 - 2.18; p=0.002 and through masturbation or body rubbing (OR 1.76; 95% CI 1.34 - 2.33; p=0.000. Although more than 90% of the patients were aware of the facts regarding the spread of HIV, approximately 40% did not believe that one could acquire HIV through a single sexual encounter. The composite scoring for knowledge showed that less than half the patients had adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS. This was significantly associated with gender and level of education: females were 1.6 times (p<0.0004 and patients with Grade 8 or higher education 1.5 times more knowledgeable (p=0.002. Conclusion. Among mentally ill patients there is a both a lack of

  20. Doping in sport: a review of elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge.

    Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Zabala, Mikel

    2013-06-01

    Doping in sport is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied mainly from a biomedical point of view, even though psychosocial approaches are also key factors in the fight against doping. This phenomenon has evolved greatly in recent years, and greater understanding of it is essential for developing efficient prevention programmes. In the psychosocial approach, attitudes are considered an index of doping behaviour, relating the use of banned substances to greater leniency towards doping. The aim of this review is to gather and critically analyse the most recent publications describing elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport, to better understand the foundations provided by the previous work, and to help develop practical strategies to efficiently combat doping. For this purpose, we performed a literature search using combinations of the terms "doping", "sport", "elite athletes", "attitudes", "beliefs", "knowledge", "drugs", and "performance-enhancing substances" (PES). A total of 33 studies were subjected to comprehensive assessment using articles published between 2000 and 2011. All of the reports focused on elite athletes and described their attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport. The initial reasons given for using banned substances included achievement of athletic success by improving performance, financial gain, improving recovery and prevention of nutritional deficiencies, as well as the idea that others use them, or the "false consensus effect". Although most athletes acknowledge that doping is cheating, unhealthy and risky because of sanctions, its effectiveness is also widely recognized. There is a general belief about the inefficacy of anti-doping programmes, and athletes criticise the way tests are carried out. Most athletes consider the severity of punishment is appropriate or not severe enough. There are some differences between sports, as team-based sports and sports requiring motor skills could be less

  1. A systematic review of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about malaria among the South Asian population

    Regmi, Krishna; Kunwar, Anju; Ortega, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaria is one of the deadliest mosquito-borne diseases in the world. More than 80% of the total populations are at risk of malaria in the 22 countries in Asia and the Pacific. South Asia alone is home to an estimated 1.4 billion people at risk of contracting malaria. Despite the remarkable progress in reducing the burden of malaria, evidence of the disease based on knowledge of the social and cultural contexts from a South Asian perspective is limited. Our objective was to understand the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about malaria in South Asian communities. Methodology We conducted a systematic literature review, searching six databases, between 1990 and 2015, focusing on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about malaria in South Asia. Databases were searched using both ‘free terms’ and ‘index terms’ funnelled using Boolean operators and truncations. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were set, and included papers were scrutinised, employing a critical appraisal tool to find the best available evidences to support the study purpose. Results and discussion Evidence from 32 articles (26 quantitative, four qualitative and two mixed methods). General knowledge and awareness of the disease, its transmission, and control and preventative measures were generally found to be lacking amongst both the general public and healthcare professionals. In addition, the study shows that poor socio-economic factors – including limited access to services due to poor/limited availability – and issues of affordability are considered as major risk factors. Conclusion This review suggests the importance of increasing health awareness, mobilising the local or community healthcare professionals, for prevention as well as early detection and effective treatment of malaria among people who are at risk. Malaria is also a disease associated with poverty and socio-cultural factors; therefore, strong political will, wider partnerships between health and non-health sectors

  2. A systematic review of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about malaria among the South Asian population

    Krishna Regmi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria is one of the deadliest mosquito-borne diseases in the world. More than 80% of the total populations are at risk of malaria in the 22 countries in Asia and the Pacific. South Asia alone is home to an estimated 1.4 billion people at risk of contracting malaria. Despite the remarkable progress in reducing the burden of malaria, evidence of the disease based on knowledge of the social and cultural contexts from a South Asian perspective is limited. Our objective was to understand the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about malaria in South Asian communities. Methodology: We conducted a systematic literature review, searching six databases, between 1990 and 2015, focusing on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about malaria in South Asia. Databases were searched using both ‘free terms’ and ‘index terms’ funnelled using Boolean operators and truncations. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were set, and included papers were scrutinised, employing a critical appraisal tool to find the best available evidences to support the study purpose. Results and discussion: Evidence from 32 articles (26 quantitative, four qualitative and two mixed methods. General knowledge and awareness of the disease, its transmission, and control and preventative measures were generally found to be lacking amongst both the general public and healthcare professionals. In addition, the study shows that poor socio-economic factors – including limited access to services due to poor/limited availability – and issues of affordability are considered as major risk factors. Conclusion: This review suggests the importance of increasing health awareness, mobilising the local or community healthcare professionals, for prevention as well as early detection and effective treatment of malaria among people who are at risk. Malaria is also a disease associated with poverty and socio-cultural factors; therefore, strong political will, wider partnerships between health

  3. Using Teachers' Prior Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs to Develop In-Service Teacher Education Courses for Inclusion

    Symeonidou, Simoni; Phtiaka, Helen

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines one important dimension of inclusive education: the development of in-service teacher education courses. Using an example from Cyprus, it discusses the issue of contextualizing teacher training courses to suit teachers' prior knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about inclusion. The paper considers some of the findings of a survey…

  4. Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Beliefs, Attitudes, Knowledge Base, and Practices in Meeting the Needs of English Language Learners

    Gann, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The research centered on secondary mathematics teachers' beliefs, attitudes, knowledge base, and practices in meeting the academic and language needs of English language learners. Using socio-cultural theory and social practice theory to frame the study, the research design employed a mixed methods approach incorporating self-reported…

  5. Development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys: assessing knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public

    Pongracic Jacqueline A; Springston Elizabeth E; Kim Jennifer S; Gupta Ruchi S; Wang Xiaobin; Holl Jane

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Parents of children with food allergy, primary care physicians, and members of the general public play a critical role in the health and well-being of food-allergic children, though little is known about their knowledge and perceptions of food allergy. The purpose of this paper is to detail the development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among these three populations. Methods From 2006–2008, parents of f...

  6. Perspectives on Tobacco Product Waste: A Survey of Framework Convention Alliance Members' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs.

    Javadian, Sanas; Stigler-Granados, Paula; Curtis, Clifton; Thompson, Francis; Huber, Laurent; Novotny, Thomas E

    2015-08-01

    Cigarette butts (tobacco product waste (TPW)) are the single most collected item in environmental trash cleanups worldwide. This brief descriptive study used an online survey tool (Survey Monkey) to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among individuals representing the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA) about this issue. The FCA has about 350 members, including mainly non-governmental tobacco control advocacy groups that support implementation of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Although the response rate (28%) was low, respondents represented countries from all six WHO regions. The majority (62%) have heard the term TPW, and nearly all (99%) considered TPW as an environmental harm. Most (77%) indicated that the tobacco industry should be responsible for TPW mitigation, and 72% felt that smokers should also be held responsible. This baseline information may inform future international discussions by the FCTC Conference of the Parties (COP) regarding environmental policies that may be addressed within FCTC obligations. Additional research is planned regarding the entire lifecycle of tobacco's impact on the environment. PMID:26295244

  7. Perspectives on Tobacco Product Waste: A Survey of Framework Convention Alliance Members’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs

    Javadian, Sanas; Stigler-Granados, Paula; Curtis, Clifton; Thompson, Francis; Huber, Laurent; Novotny, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette butts (tobacco product waste (TPW)) are the single most collected item in environmental trash cleanups worldwide. This brief descriptive study used an online survey tool (Survey Monkey) to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among individuals representing the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA) about this issue. The FCA has about 350 members, including mainly non-governmental tobacco control advocacy groups that support implementation of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Although the response rate (28%) was low, respondents represented countries from all six WHO regions. The majority (62%) have heard the term TPW, and nearly all (99%) considered TPW as an environmental harm. Most (77%) indicated that the tobacco industry should be responsible for TPW mitigation, and 72% felt that smokers should also be held responsible. This baseline information may inform future international discussions by the FCTC Conference of the Parties (COP) regarding environmental policies that may be addressed within FCTC obligations. Additional research is planned regarding the entire lifecycle of tobacco’s impact on the environment. PMID:26295244

  8. Perspectives on Tobacco Product Waste: A Survey of Framework Convention Alliance Members’ Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs

    Sanas Javadian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette butts (tobacco product waste (TPW are the single most collected item in environmental trash cleanups worldwide. This brief descriptive study used an online survey tool (Survey Monkey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among individuals representing the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA about this issue. The FCA has about 350 members, including mainly non-governmental tobacco control advocacy groups that support implementation of the World Health Organization’s (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC. Although the response rate (28% was low, respondents represented countries from all six WHO regions. The majority (62% have heard the term TPW, and nearly all (99% considered TPW as an environmental harm. Most (77% indicated that the tobacco industry should be responsible for TPW mitigation, and 72% felt that smokers should also be held responsible. This baseline information may inform future international discussions by the FCTC Conference of the Parties (COP regarding environmental policies that may be addressed within FCTC obligations. Additional research is planned regarding the entire lifecycle of tobacco’s impact on the environment.

  9. Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs about Chronic Noncancer Pain in Primary Care: a Canadian Survey of Physicians and Pharmacists

    Lyne Lalonde; Vincent Leroux-Lapointe; Manon Choinière; Elisabeth Martin; David Lussier; Djamal Berbiche; Diane Lamarre; Robert Thiffault; Ghaya Jouini; Sylvie Perreault

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary care providers’ knowledge, attitudes and beliefs (KAB) regarding chronic noncancer pain (CNCP) are a barrier to optimal management. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and identify the determinants of the KAB of primary care physicians and pharmacists, and to document clinician preferences regarding the content and format of a continuing education program (CEP). METHOD: Physicians and pharmacists of 486 CNCP patients participated. Physicians completed the original version of the KnowP...

  10. Knowledge, attitude, beliefs and practices in HIV/AIDS in India:identifying the gender and rural-urban differences

    Indrajit; Hazarika

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To promote the use of preventive measures and raise awareness regardingHIV/AIDS in India.Methods:Data from the population-basedNFHS-3 survey2005-06 was used. In this study, information collected on87 961women aged15-49years and44 717 men aged15-54years was used in the final analysis. The data collected was stratified by gender and place of residence. Analyses of the variables related to the outcomes i.e. knowledge, attitude, belief and practices, was conducted usingChi-square test to calculate significant differences among proportions of categorical variables.Results: We found that knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention was low among women and rural residents. Most of the respondents had a non-discriminatory attitude towardsHIV positives and majority agreed that children should be educated onHIV/AIDS. The use of condoms and proportion of respondents who had undergoneHIV testing was found to be significantly low. We found a significant gap in the beliefs regarding ways to avoid HIV.Conclusions: There are significant gender and urban-rural differentials in India in terms of knowledge, attitude, beliefs and practices inHIV/AIDS. Information dissemination in India should be designed in a way that not only raises the level of awareness but also result in behavioral change.

  11. Are Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs Associated with Obesity among Low-Income Hispanic and African American Women Caretakers?

    Irene Acheampong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this descriptive study were to (1 describe nutrition knowledge, attitudes, beliefs (KAB, and self-efficacy among low-income African American and Hispanic women; (2 identify the associations these variables have on diet quality and weight status; (3 identify barriers to healthy eating. Data from three separate studies were combined and analyzed. The total sample included African Americans ( and Hispanics (. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were used to identify associations between KAB and body mass index (BMI and diet quality. The majority of African Americans had good knowledge in nutrition while Hispanics had fair knowledge. Attitudes toward eating a healthy diet were significantly associated with high fiber intake among African Americans and low fat consumption among Hispanics. A computed KAB score showed no significant relation to individuals' weight status or diet quality. However, attitudes and beliefs about healthy foods strongly correlated with participants' weight or diet consumption among Hispanics. The most common barrier to consuming a healthy diet reported by both groups was the cost of healthy foods. It is therefore recommended to address these variables when addressing obesity and poor dietary intake among low-income minority groups.

  12. Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding crab asthma in four communities of Newfoundlad and Labrator

    Jong, Michael; Neis, Barbara; Cartier, André; Horth-Susin, Lise; Howse, Dana

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. This study was conducted to learn from snow crab plants workers and others involved in the industry their knowledge and beliefs of health issues and potential solutions. Study design. This is a survey in four communities with different crab plant designs in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Methods. At the start of a meeting to discuss crab asthma participants were requested to complete the questionnaire. Results. 65% of 196 participants believed there were health problems associ...

  13. Attitudes and Beliefs in Advertising

    Pohořelá, Denisa

    2011-01-01

    Bachelor thesis of name „Attitudes and Belief in Advertising“ considers determination of general attitude towards advertising and testing of factors which effect advertising message´s consignee. Belief in advertising has character of general attitude or attitude towards brand. My bachelor abstract recognizes particulary these general attitudes. Working factors in advertising are: relation, politics, sex, symbolism, family. For this purpose questionnaire research was chosen. A part ...

  14. Immigrant Caregivers of Young Children: Oral Health Beliefs, Attitudes, and Early Childhood Caries Knowledge.

    Finnegan, Deborah A; Rainchuso, Lori; Jenkins, Susan; Kierce, Erin; Rothman, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of early childhood caries (ECC) is a global public health concern. The oral health knowledge of a caregiver can affect a child's risk for developing ECC. An exploratory study of the oral health knowledge and behaviors among caregivers of children 6 years of age and younger was conducted with a convenience sample of adults (n = 114) enrolled in English language or high school equivalency examination courses. The majority of study participants were born in Asia (47 %). Other birth regions included South America (16 %), Caribbean (16 %), Africa (10 %), and Central America (6 %). Study findings showed caregivers with low oral health knowledge were more likely to engage in behaviors that increase a child's risk for developing ECC. A statistically significant relationship was found between participants' rating of their child's dental health as poor and the belief that children should not be weaned from the nursing bottle by 12 months of age (P = 0.002), brushing should not begin upon tooth eruption (P = 0.01), and fluoride does not strengthen teeth and prevent dental caries (P = 0.005). Subjects who pre-chewed their child's food also exhibited behaviors including sharing eating utensils or a toothbrush with their child (P < 0.001). Additional caregiver behaviors included providing their child with a bottle containing cariogenic liquids in a crib (P < 0.001). As a result of this research, it is pertinent that culturally sensitive oral health promotion programs are developed and implemented to raise awareness and reduce the risk of dental disease among immigrant populations. PMID:26370378

  15. Prevalence of smoking habits, attitudes, knowledge and beliefs among Health Professional School students: a cross-sectional study

    Margherita Ferrante

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine smoking prevalence, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours/beliefs among Health Professional School students according to the Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS approach. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Catania University Medical Schools. The GHPSS questionnaires were self-administered. Logistic regression model was performed. The level of significance was p < 0.05. RESULTS: 422 students answered to the questionnaire. Prevalence of current smokers was 38.2%. 94.3% of the total sample believe that health professionals should receive specific training to quit smoking, but only 21.3% of the sample received it during the study courses. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high prevalence of smokers among health professionals and their key role both as advisers and behavioral models, our results highlight the importance of focusing attention on smoking cessation training addressed to them.

  16. Effects of palliative care training program on knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists: A preliminary quasi-experimental study

    Senthil P Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physiotherapists play an inherent role in the multidisciplinary palliative care team. Existing knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences influence their team participation in palliative care. Aims: The objective of this study was to assess the changes in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists who attended a palliative care training program. Settings and Design: Preliminary quasi-experimental study design, conducted at an academic institution. Materials and Methods: Fifty-two student physiotherapists of either gender (12 male, 40 female of age (20.51±1.78 years who attended a palliative care training program which comprised lectures and case examples of six-hours duration participated in this study. The study was performed after getting institutional approval and obtaining participants′ written informed consent. The lecture content comprised WHO definition of palliative care, spiritual aspects of life, death and healing, principles, levels and models of palliative care, and role of physiotherapists in a palliative care team. The physical therapy in palliative care-knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences scale (PTiPC-KABE Scale- modified from palliative care attitudes scale were used for assessing the participants before and after the program. Statistical Analysis: Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test at 95% confidence interval using SPSS 11.5 for Windows. Results: Statistically significant differences (P<0.05 were noted for all four subscales- knowledge (7.84±4.61 points, attitudes (9.46±8.06 points, beliefs (4.88±3.29 points and experiences (15.8±11.28 points out of a total score of 104 points. Conclusions: The focus-group training program produced a significant positive change about palliative care in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists.

  17. Epistemological Beliefs and Attitudes toward Inclusion in Preservice Teachers

    Silverman, Jenzi C.

    2007-01-01

    Previous investigations suggest that in addition to positive attitudes toward inclusion, high-level beliefs about knowledge and learning (i.e., epistemological beliefs) are essential for all teachers of students with disabilities in inclusive settings. This study examined the attitudes toward inclusion and epistemological belief status of 71…

  18. FDA Consumer Nutrition Knowledge Survey. Report II, 1975. A Nationwide Study of Food Shopper's Knowledge, Beliefs, Attitudes and Reported Behavior Regarding Food and Nutrition. Factors Related to Nutrition Labeling.

    Abelson, Herbert; And Others

    During 1973, a nationwide study for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was conducted which provided information on nutrition knowledge, beliefs about nutrition, and first reactions to nutrition labeling among food shoppers. This initial research provided a baseline measurement of nutrition knowledge and attitudes among consumers, and in 1975…

  19. Development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys: assessing knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public

    Pongracic Jacqueline A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents of children with food allergy, primary care physicians, and members of the general public play a critical role in the health and well-being of food-allergic children, though little is known about their knowledge and perceptions of food allergy. The purpose of this paper is to detail the development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among these three populations. Methods From 2006–2008, parents of food-allergic children, pediatricians, family physicians, and adult members of the general public were recruited to assist in survey development. Preliminary analysis included literature review, creation of initial content domains, expert panel review, and focus groups. Survey validation included creation of initial survey items, expert panel ratings, cognitive interviews, reliability testing, item reduction, and final validation. National administration of the surveys is ongoing. Results Nine experts were assembled to oversee survey development. Six focus groups were held: 2/survey population, 4–9 participants/group; transcripts were reviewed via constant comparative methods to identify emerging themes and inform item creation. At least 220 participants per population were recruited to assess the relevance, reliability, and utility of each survey item as follows: cognitive interviews, 10 participants; reliability testing ≥ 10; item reduction ≥ 50; and final validation, 150 respondents. Conclusion The Chicago Food Allergy Research surveys offer validated tools to assess food allergy knowledge and perceptions among three distinct populations: a 42 item parent tool, a 50 item physician tool, and a 35 item general public tool. No such tools were previously available.

  20. The Attitude, Belief, Support and Knowledge Level of the Youth and their Acceptance towards Agriculture Contract Farming

    Jegak Uli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Agriculture sector in Malaysia has been intensified through the Eight and Ninth Malaysian Plan. In order to further develop this sector, contract farming activities such as leech rearing, worm rearing, herbs and mushroom have been introduced to the community. But do the communities especially the youth have a positive acceptance towards this activity? Approach: This was a quantitative study. The respondents were among two agriculture learning institutions in Malaysia. From a simple random sampling, a total of 194 respondents were selected. The data collection took two months to be completed. Results: From the multiple linear regression employed, it can be concluded that attitude, belief and knowledge are the significant contributor for acceptance towards contract farming. Conclusion/Recommendation: It is recommended that more studies can be conducted to inspect the complexities related with youths participation in contract farming and special attention should be highlighted to identify what universities can do in strategizing specific agricultural courses that would motivate youth to possess a better acceptance towards contract farming.

  1. Comparative study on the knowledge-attitude-belief and practice to tobacco control between Chinese and foreign medical students in Soochow University

    Qiao-zhu ZUO; Sun, Liang; Qian-lan XI; Wang, Li-Yan; Cen-tao LIU; Ya-na MA

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Based on the survey of the knowledge-attitude-belief and practice to tobacco control between Chinese and foreign medical students in Soochow University, the authors intended to explore the current situation, differences and influencing factors of Chinese and foreign medical students, in order to provide a reference for tobacco control policies and measures set by the Medical College of Soochow University. Methods: By stratified sampling, we selected 200 Chinese medical students and...

  2. Knowledge of Arthropod Carnivory and Herbivory: Factors Influencing Preservice Elementary Teacher's Attitudes and Beliefs toward Arthropods

    Wagler, Ron; Wagler, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Human negativity toward arthropods has been well documented but the factors that contribute to this negativity have been elusive. This study explored knowledge of arthropod carnivory and herbivory as possible casual factors that contribute to the negative tendencies preservice elementary teachers have toward most arthropods. Specifically, this…

  3. Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, behaviour and breast cancer screening practices in Ghana, West Africa

    Opoku, Samuel Yaw; Benwell, Martin; Yarney, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Background Late presentation has been observed as the hallmark of breast cancer in Ghanaian women where over 60% of patients report with either stage 3 or 4 of the disease. This cross-sectional study aimed at exploring breast cancer related knowledge and practices in order to develop an appropriate socio-economic and cultural specific model to improve breast cancer care in Ghana. Methods The study which was conducted in Accra and Sunyani in Ghana used both quantitative and qualitative methods...

  4. Food and nutrition: attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge in the United Kingdom.

    Buttriss, J L

    1997-06-01

    In a study of 1700 members of the UK general public in 1992 in which face-to-face interviews were conducted, factors thought important in a healthy diet were (in descending order) more fiber, less sugar, less fat, less salt, and more starchy foods. Of common nutritional terms there was most confidence in explaining the meaning of fiber and least in the meaning of monounsaturated fatty acids. Most nutritional information came from the media but the credibility of this information was low. Fifty-three percent said that a conversation with their general practitioner (GP) was a source of advice they trusted. In a survey of 150 GPs and 50 practice nurses in 1992, lack of confidence was found to be common concerning the meaning of several nutritional terms, especially extrinsic sugars, NSP (nonstarch polysaccharide), and trans fatty acids. GPs were confident they could explain the link between diet and heart disease but were not sure about the value of starch in the diet. Both GPs and practice nurses were dissatisfied with their training in nutrition, both before and after registration. General practice staff thought that personal ill health was the most important motivator for dietary change among their patients. They thought that apathy and dietary conservatism were the most common barriers to people changing their diet. However, the public positioned lack of knowledge as the biggest obstacle. Surveys reported here showed that people's knowledge of sources of fat, calcium, and iron is often unreliable. PMID:9174508

  5. Effect of public knowledge, attitudes, and behavior on willingness to undergo colorectal cancer screening using the health belief model

    Majid A Almadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Success of colorectal cancer (CRC screening is dependent in part on the proportion of uptake by the targeted population. We aimed in this study to identify factors that were associated with willingness to undergo CRC screening based on the health belief model (HBM. Patients and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among citizens of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Demographic data collected included gender, age, education, marital status, employment status, a history of CRC in the family or knowing a friend with CRC, as well as income. A questionnaire was developed in Arabic based on the HBM and included enquiries on knowledge about CRC symptoms and risk factors, types of CRC screening tests, perceived risk of CRC, previously undergoing CRC screening, intent to undergo CRC screening, perceived barriers to CRC screening, perceived severity of CRC, as well as attitudes toward CRC and its screening. Results: Five hundred participants were included. The mean age was 41.0 years (SD 10.7. Males were 50% and only 6.7% of those between 50 and 55 years of age had undergone CRC screening. Of those surveyed, 70.7% were willing to undergo CRC screening. Also, 70.5% thought that CRC is curable, 73.3% believed it was preventable, whereas 56.7% thought it was a fatal disease. Neither gender, level of education, occupation, income, marital status, nor general knowledge about CRC was found to be associated with the willingness to undergo CRC screening. Recognizing that colonoscopy was a screening test (OR 1.55, 95% CI; 1.04-2.29 was associated with a strong desire to undergo CRC screening while choosing a stool-based test was associated with not willing to undergo CRC screening (OR 0.59, 95%CI; 0.38-0.91. Conclusion: We found that the majority of those interviewed were willing to undergo CRC screening and identified a number of barriers as well as potential areas that could be targeted in the promotion of CRC screening uptake if such a national

  6. Prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in relation to knowledge, attitudes/beliefs, and practices among university students in North-Eastern Nigeria

    James O Adisa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The involvement of communities in control of cervical cancer cannot be overemphasized, but this must take cognizance of their current knowledge, attitudes/beliefs, and practices (KABP of the people if it will be sustainable. This study assessed the prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN among university students and their level of KABP concerning cervical screening in Maiduguri North-Eastern, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty-two subjects (age range: 18-69 years were screened using pap smear screening method and acetowhite method. A structured questionnaire was administered on each subject to elicit information on KABP that could predispose them to the disease. Results: CIN was recorded in 12.8% of subjects with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion in 10.8% and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion 2.0% of the women, respectively. The average general level of knowledge of various aspect of was 43.3% average positive attitudes/beliefs about the disease was recorded in 17.1% of subject, while positive practices that could lead to prevention of the disease was obtained in 30.0%. Conclusion: The level of knowledge of the disease and screening is very low and together with high levels of negative attitudes and practices, will adversely affect control measures and therefore have to be addressed.

  7. The impact of authentic science inquiry experiences studying variable stars on high school students' knowledge and attitudes about science and astronomy and beliefs regarding the nature of science

    Richwine, Pebble Lea

    The purpose of this concurrent mixed methods study was to investigate the impact on high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding astronomy and beliefs about the nature of science after participating in an extended authentic, inquiry-oriented, research experience studying variable stars using a specifically designed curriculum guide "In the Hunt for Variable Stars." The study gathered quantitative data using a pretest posttest strategy on a modified form of an existing questionnaire called Students Attitudes Toward Astronomy and four student-supplied response content surveys. Qualitative methods included analysis of researcher's field notes, naturalistic observations, formal interviews, and students' artifacts. The methods and results of this study provided important baseline information to measure cognitive and affective changes resulting from an authentic scientific research experience for high school students. Ninety students participated in a targeted instructional sequence and their attitudes and knowledge were compared to 50 students in a comparable science course who were not provided an authentic research experience. The results obtained in this study strongly suggest that participation in research is successful at significantly increasing content knowledge. All four content surveys showed statistically significant increases for students in the intervention group as compared to the students in the non-intervention group. Qualitative results demonstrated that both groups of students initially held naive ideas about science and astronomy. After participation in the intervention, the most dramatic changes were observed in students' understanding of astronomy content. No substantial change was seen in students' attitudes toward Astronomy and science but there is evidence of some limited impacts on beliefs regarding the nature of science. In combination, the data resulting from this mixed-method study lend considerable weight to claim in contemporary

  8. Reducing the risk of heart disease among Indian Australians: knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding food practices – a focus group study

    Ritin Fernandez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Australia has a growing number of Asian Indian immigrants. Unfortunately, this population has an increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD. Dietary adherence is an important strategy in reducing risk for CHD. This study aimed to gain greater understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs relating to food practices in Asian Indian Australians. Methods: Two focus groups with six participants in each were recruited using a convenience sampling technique. Verbatim transcriptions were made and thematic content analysis undertaken. Results: Four main themes that emerged from the data included: migration as a pervasive factor for diet and health; importance of food in maintaining the social fabric; knowledge and understanding of health and diet; and elements of effective interventions. Discussion: Diet is a complex constructed factor in how people express themselves individually, in families and communities. There are many interconnected factors influencing diet choice that goes beyond culture and religion to include migration and acculturation. Conclusions: Food and associated behaviors are an important aspect of the social fabric. Entrenched and inherent knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and traditions frame individuals’ point of reference around food and recommendations for an optimal diet.

  9. ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN THE KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND BELIEFS TOWARDS MENTAL ILLNESS IN A TRADITIONAL FAST DEVELOPING COUNTRY

    Bener, Abdulbari; Ghuloum, Suhaila

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to examine the ethnic differences in knowledge, attitude and practice towards mental illness in a sample of Qatari and non-Qatari Arabs. Subjects and Methods: This is a cross sectional survey conducted in Primary Health Care centers, Qatar from October to June 2009. A representative sample of 3000 Qatari and non-Qatari Arabs above 20 years of age were approached and 2514 subjects (83.8%) gave consent to participate in this study. Results: Mo...

  10. Attitudes, beliefs, uncertainty and risk

    Greenhalgh, Geoffrey [Down Park Place, Crawley Down (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course

  11. Attitudes, beliefs, uncertainty and risk

    There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course chosen will be more favourable

  12. Effects of health belief model-based video training about risk factors on knowledge and attitude of myocardial infarction patients after discharge

    Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Borhani, Fariba; Asadi, Neda

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ischemic heart diseases are the most common cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to assess the effects of video training about risk factors based on health belief model on knowledge and attitude of myocardial infarction patients after discharge. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in 2010. Eighty patients were randomly assigned to either intervention or control group. Data was collected by a researcher-made questionnaire. RESULTS: Study results showed that the mean score of knowledge about disease, diet, physical activity and perceived benefit, severity, and susceptibility after video training was increased significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Using videos for educating myocardial infarction patients is a useful method for preventing recurrence of the disease. PMID:22091231

  13. The effect of coach and player injury knowledge, attitudes and beliefs on adherence to the FIFA 11+ programme in female youth soccer

    McKay, Carly; Steffen, Kathrin; Romiti, Maria; Finch, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Background: Injury knowledge and beliefs influence uptake of prevention programmes, but the relationship between knowledge, beliefs and adherence remains unclear. Aim: To describe injury knowledge and beliefs among youth female soccer coaches and players, and to identify the relationship between these factors, different delivery strategies of the FIFA 11+ programme and adherence. Methods: A subcohort analysis from a cluster-randomised controlled trial of 31 female soccer teams (co...

  14. Contributing Factors on Malaysia Preschool Teachers' Belief, Attitude and Competence in Using Play Activities

    Jantan, Hafsah Binti; Bin Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Yahya, Fauziah Hj; Saleh, Halimatussadiah Binti; Ong, Mohd Hanafi Bin Azman

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on preschool teachers' belief, attitude, knowledge and competence in using play in Malaysia. Its purpose is to find out indicators significantly contribute to belief, attitude, knowledge and competence in play of preschool teachers in Malaysia. The method used was factor analysis in order to confirm indicators in each variable…

  15. Clean delivery practices in rural northern Ghana: a qualitative study of community and provider knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs

    Moyer Cheryl A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge, attitudes and practices of community members and healthcare providers in rural northern Ghana regarding clean delivery are not well understood. This study explores hand washing/use of gloves during delivery, delivering on a clean surface, sterile cord cutting, appropriate cord tying, proper cord care following delivery, and infant bathing and cleanliness. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using NVivo 9.0. Results 253 respondents participated, including women with newborn infants, grandmothers, household and compound heads, community leaders, traditional birth attendants, and formally trained health care providers. There is widespread understanding of the need for clean delivery to reduce the risk of infection to both mothers and their babies during and shortly after delivery. Despite this understanding, the use of gloves during delivery and hand washing during and after delivery were mentioned infrequently. The need for a clean delivery surface was raised repeatedly, including explicit discussion of avoiding delivering in the dirt. Many activities to do with cord care involved non-sterile materials and practices: 1 Cord cutting was done with a variety of tools, and the most commonly used were razor blades or scissors; 2 Cord tying utilized a variety of materials, including string, rope, thread, twigs, and clamps; and 3 Cord care often involved applying traditional salves to the cord - including shea butter, ground shea nuts, local herbs, local oil, or “red earth sand.” Keeping babies and their surroundings clean was mentioned repeatedly as an important way to keep babies from falling ill. Conclusions This study suggests a widespread understanding in rural northern Ghana of the need for clean delivery. Nonetheless, many recommended clean delivery practices are ignored. Overarching themes emerging from this study included the increasing use of

  16. Investigate the Relationship between Belief in a Just World, Multicultural Knowledge, Multicultural Awareness, and Social Justice Advocacy Attitudes of Practicing School Counselors

    Jones, Shenika Juanita

    2013-01-01

    The school counseling profession is governed by national standards to promote the academic, personal, social, and career development of all students. There is an emphasis on outlining professional dispositions for school counselors. Yet, the personal values, beliefs, and attitudes that influence their interactions with students and the carrying…

  17. The interactions between an orthodox Christian worldview and environmental attitudes and beliefs; for the purpose of developing better instructional practice in support of environmental/ecological attitudes and knowledge

    Keys, Robert S.

    Students bring with them to the classroom a wide variety of beliefs and attitudes about the environment and its associated issues. One worldview belief structure prominently discussed in ecological discussions is the worldview of orthodox Christianity. This study uses both quantitative and qualitative measures to analyze the degree to which the orthodox Christian worldview of students influences their environmental attitudes and beliefs. Surveys were conducted with 281 undergraduate pre-service elementary teaching students enrolled in a science methods course to determine the degree to which orthodox Christian worldviews and ecological worldviews interact with one another. From this pool of students, 16 students representing both positive and neutral-negative orthodox Christian worldviews and ecological worldviews were interviewed to determine how orthodox Christian students may differ from non-orthodox Christian students in their attitudes and beliefs about the environment. Analysis revealed that students with orthodox Christian worldview beliefs do not as a general rule use their orthodox Christian worldview beliefs in the discussion of their environmental beliefs and attitudes. Exceptions to this may occur when environmental issues touch on orthodox Christian worldview beliefs which have a bearing on matters of origin, life purpose, or destiny. These interactions between ecological and orthodox Christian worldviews have implications for the teaching of environmental issues to students in that the orthodox Christian worldview of students is not likely to hinder the appropriation of concepts associated with environmental issues. However, moving students with an orthodox Christian worldview to a view where they become actively involved in environmental issue resolution may require educators to situate curriculum in such a way as to invoke the students' orthodox Christian worldview beliefs.

  18. An Analysis of the Candidate Teachers' Beliefs Related to Knowledge, Learning and Teaching

    Bay, Erdal; Vural, Ömer Faruk; Demir, Servet; Bagceci, Birsen

    2015-01-01

    Candidate teachers have several beliefs related to their knowledge, learning and teaching. The purpose of this study is to analyze the beliefs of candidate teachers about knowledge, learning and teaching. Candidate teachers were assigned a scale and from the answers "belief points" were obtained based on their attitudes about these three…

  19. Epistemological Beliefs and Knowledge among Physicians: A Questionnaire Survey

    Pe�a, Adolfo; Paco, Ofelia; Peralta, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Background: All sciences share a common underlying epistemological domain, which gives grounds to and characterizes their nature and actions. Insofar as physicians depend on scientific knowledge, it would be helpful to assess their knowledge regarding some theoretical foundations of science. Objectives: 1.To assess resident physicians? knowledge of concepts and principles underlying all sciences. 2. To determine, to what extent physicians? epistemological beliefs and attitudes are compatible ...

  20. EPISTEMOLOGICAL BELIEFS AND KNOWLEDGE AMONGST PHYSICIANS: A QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY

    Dr. Adolfo Peña.

    2002-01-01

    Background: All sciences share a common underlying epistemological domain, which gives grounds to and characterizes their nature and actions. Insofar as physicians depend on scientific knowledge, it would be helpful to assess their knowledge regarding some theoretical foundations of science. Objectives: 1.To assess resident physicians' knowledge of concepts and principles underlying all sciences. 2. To determine, to what extent physicians' epistemological beliefs and attitudes are compatible ...

  1. Professor Attitudes and Beliefs about Teaching Evolution

    Barnes, Maryann Elizabeth

    Teaching evolution has been shown to be a challenge for faculty, in both K-12 and postsecondary education. Many of these challenges stem from perceived conflicts not only between religion and evolution, but also faculty beliefs about religion, it's compatibility with evolutionary theory, and it's proper role in classroom curriculum. Studies suggest that if educators engage with students' religious beliefs and identity, this may help students have positive attitudes towards evolution. The aim of this study was to reveal attitudes and beliefs professors have about addressing religion and providing religious scientist role models to students when teaching evolution. 15 semi-structured interviews of tenured biology professors were conducted at a large Midwestern universiy regarding their beliefs, experiences, and strategies teaching evolution and particularly, their willingness to address religion in a class section on evolution. Following a qualitative analysis of transcripts, professors did not agree on whether or not it is their job to help students accept evolution (although the majority said it is not), nor did they agree on a definition of "acceptance of evolution". Professors are willing to engage in students' religious beliefs, if this would help their students accept evolution. Finally, professors perceived many challenges to engaging students' religious beliefs in a science classroom such as the appropriateness of the material for a science class, large class sizes, and time constraints. Given the results of this study, the author concludes that instructors must come to a consensus about their goals as biology educators as well as what "acceptance of evolution" means, before they can realistically apply the engagement of student's religious beliefs and identity as an educational strategy.

  2. Knowledge, true belief, and virtuous fallibilism

    Martens, David

    2010-01-01

    I rebut a complex ad hominem argument against the thesis that true belief is sufficient for knowledge. According to the argument, the insufficiency of true belief for knowledge is guaranteed by our epistemic obligation not to think of ourselves as infallible. My rebuttal seeks clarity about the precise content of that obligation and emphasizes the variety of ways in which that thesis can be affirmed. Though I do not offer any positive argument for the sufficiency of true belief for knowled...

  3. Analysing lawyers’ attitude towards knowledge sharing

    Wole M. Olatokun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers’ attitudes toknowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated therelationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers’,and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA in the knowledgesharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection.Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. PrincipalComponent Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression wasapplied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance.Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the majordeterminants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was notsignificantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitudetowards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge,although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positiveknowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT usage was also foundto significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’.Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more ITinfrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers.

  4. Attitudes and beliefs among patients treated with mood stabilizers

    Hansen Hanne

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that attitudes and beliefs are important in predicting adherence in depressive and bipolar disorders. However, such attitudes and beliefs on mood stabilizers have not been analysed by socio-demographic and clinical variables. Methods The Mood Stabilizer Compliance Questionnaire (MSQC was mailed to a large population of patients with depressive or bipolar disorder representative of patients treated at their first contacts to hospital settings in Denmark. Results Of the 1005 recipients, 49.9 % responded to the letter and among these 256 indicated that they previously had been or currently were in treatment with a mood stabilizer. A large proportion of the patients (40 to 80 % had non-correct views on the effect of mood stabilizers. Older patients consistently had a more negative view on the doctor-patient relationship, more non-correct views on the effect of mood stabilizers and a more negative view on mood stabilizers. There was no difference in the attitudes and beliefs according to the type of disorder (depressive or bipolar, the number of psychiatric hospitalisations or according to the type of the current doctor (general practitioner, private psychiatrist, community psychiatry doctor, hospital doctor, other doctor. Conclusion There is a need of improving knowledge and attitudes toward diagnosis and treatment especially among elder patients as this may add to improve the prognosis of depressive and bipolar disorders.

  5. Beliefs and knowledge in chemistry teacher development

    Veal, William R.

    2004-03-01

    The primary objective of this research was to establish a link between preservice, secondary chemistry teachers' knowledge base and beliefs about teaching. The case study followed two preservice chemistry teachers through their methods course, practicum experience, and student teaching internship. Pedagogical content knowledge vignettes, following a microgenetic model, and other data sources were used to monitor participants' conceptual change over time. Participants had well-intentioned beliefs about teaching and chemistry. The interaction of epistemologies and beliefs was determined to be synergistic, such that they remained separate epistemological ideas. The beliefs about content were not changed whereas those for teaching did change; one focused on epistemic understanding and the other on subjective realization.

  6. Undergraduates' Attitudes Toward Science and Their Epistemological Beliefs: Positive Effects of Certainty and Authority Beliefs

    Fulmer, Gavin W.

    2013-08-01

    Attitudes toward science are an important aspect of students' persistence in school science and interest in pursuing future science careers, but students' attitudes typically decline over the course of formal schooling. This study examines relationships of students' attitudes toward science with their perceptions of science as inclusive or non-religious, and their epistemological beliefs about epistemic authority and certainty. Data were collected using an online survey system among undergraduates at a large, public US university (n = 582). Data were prepared using a Rasch rating scale model and then analyzed using multiple-regression analysis. Gender and number of science and mathematics courses were included as control variables, followed by perceptions of science, then epistemological beliefs. Findings show that respondents have more positive attitudes when they perceive science to be inclusive of women and minorities, and when they perceive science to be incompatible with religion. Respondents also have more positive attitudes toward science when they believe scientific knowledge is uncertain, and when they believe knowledge derives from authority. Interpretations of these findings and implications for future research are discussed.

  7. Effect of the science teaching advancement through modeling physical science professional development workshop on teachers' attitudes, beliefs and content knowledge and students' content knowledge

    Dietz, Laura

    The Science Teaching Advancement through Modeling Physical Science (STAMPS) professional development workshop was evaluated for effectiveness in improving teachers' and students' content knowledge. Previous research has shown modeling to be an effective method of instruction for improving student and teacher content knowledge, evidenced by assessment scores. Data includes teacher scores on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI; Hestenes, Wells, & Swackhamer, 1992) and the Chemistry Concept Inventory (CCI; Jenkins, Birk, Bauer, Krause, & Pavelich, 2004), as well as student scores on a physics and chemistry assessment. Quantitative data is supported by teacher responses to a post workshop survey and classroom observations. Evaluation of the data shows that the STAMPS professional development workshop was successful in improving both student and teacher content knowledge. Conclusions and suggestions for future study are also included.

  8. Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviour intentions for three bowel management practices in intensive care: effects of a targeted protocol implementation for nursing and medical staff

    Knowles, Serena; Lam, Lawrence T; McInnes, Elizabeth; Elliott, Doug; Hardy, Jennifer; Middleton, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Background Bowel management protocols have the potential to minimize complications for critically ill patients. Targeted implementation can increase the uptake of protocols by clinicians into practice. The theory of planned behaviour offers a framework in which to investigate clinicians’ intention to perform the behaviour of interest. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of implementing a bowel management protocol on intensive care nursing and medical staffs’ knowledge, attitude, subjectiv...

  9. Investigation of Students' Epistemological Beliefs and Attitudes towards Studying

    Onen, Aysem Seda

    2011-01-01

    This study consists of the analysis on the relationship between the epistemological beliefs of secondary level students and their attitudes towards studying. The sampling of the study was formed by 440 students studying at Grade 10, 11 and 12 in secondary schools. The Epistemological Belief Questionnaire and the Attitudes towards Studying Scale,…

  10. Attitudes toward the physically disabled: beliefs and their evaluation.

    Rosenbaum, C; Katz, S

    1980-01-01

    The composition and structure of attitudes toward the physically disabled were studied using Fishbein's theoretical framework and methodology in which an individual's attitude toward any object is assumed to be (1) a function of his beliefs about the object, and (2) the evaluative aspects of these beliefs. This is stated algebraically as: [Formula: see text]. The subjects for the study were 52 workers employed in a large public construction company in Israel. They were asked to state their beliefs about the characteristics of physically disabled persons. Using the Semantic Differential Technique, the most frequent beliefs expressed were used to construct (a) a scale which measured the evaluative aspect of the belief, and (b) a scale to measure the probability dimension of each belief. In addition, an obtained measure of attitude towards disabled persons was elicited, and in order to test the validity this scale the Attitude Towards Disabled Persons was also given. The estimated attitude score for each subject was obtained using the above formula. A correlation of r = .91 (p < .01) between the Fishbein attitude score and the obtained attitude score was found. The correlations between the Fishbein attitude score and the ATDP was r = .78 (p < .01). These correlations provide support for the main hypothesis. In addition, the study demonstrated the advisability of assessing attitudes towards the physically disabled as they relate to specific roles that the disabled person has in various life areas and not as a general attitude. PMID:6450175

  11. Attitudes and beliefs about hypnosis: A multicultural study

    Capafons, Antonio; Mendoza, María Elena; Espejo Tort, Begoña; Green, Joseph P.; Lopes-Pires, Carlos; Selma Martín, Maria Luisa; Flores, Daniela; Morariu, Marcela; Ioana CRISTEA (DRĂGULIN); David, Daniel; Pestana, José; Carvalho, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effects of having personal experience and infor-mation about hypnosis over the beliefs and attitudes toward hypnosis, using a sample of students from Spain, United States, Portugal and Romania. The factor structure of the Revised Valencia Scale of Attitude s and Beliefs toward Hypnosis-Client Version, as well as its psychometric properties are also analyzed. An explorat ory factor analysis of the scale was conducted and an 8-factor model solution simila...

  12. Tobacco Smoking Habits, Attitudes, and Beliefs among Albanian Nurse Students

    Ylli Vakeffliu; Silvana Bala; Rudina Pirushi; Kujtime Vakeffliu; Jul Bushati; Melani, Andrea S

    2013-01-01

    Background. Available information about tobacco smoking habits, attitudes, and beliefs among Albanian nurse students shows some discrepancies and requires further investigation. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional school-based survey using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire in the Tirana Nurse University in December 2012 about tobacco smoking habits, attitudes, and beliefs. Results. Sixty hundred fifty one students (mean age 20.0 years; males 19%, females 81%) completed the questio...

  13. Making Theory Relevant: The Gender Attitude and Belief Inventory

    McCabe, Janice

    2013-01-01

    This article describes and evaluates the Gender Attitude and Belief Inventory (GABI), a teaching tool designed to aid students in (a) realizing how sociological theory links to their personal beliefs and (b) exploring any combination of 11 frequently used theoretical perspectives on gender, including both conservative theories (physiological,…

  14. Knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy among Malaysian Chinese

    Hasan, Syed Shahzad; Wei, Wayne W. G.; Ahmadi, Keivan; Ahmed, Syed Imran; Yong, Alen K. S.; Anwar, Mudassir

    2010-01-01

    Background: Epileptics are often socially discriminated due to the negative public attitudes, misconceptions and false beliefs. Thus, the main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy among Malaysian Chinese. Methods: A cross-sectional study by using a 23-item validated, self-administered questionnaire was carried out in urban areas, selected through stratified sampling. A Chinese population was randomly selected in the stratified areas ...

  15. Knowledge and Attitudes toward Epilepsy among Malaysian Chinese

    Chrishantha Abeysena; Shahzad S Hasan; Wayne WG Wei; Keivan Ahmadi; Imran S Ahmed; Alen KS Yong; Mudassir Anwar

    2010-01-01

    Background: Epileptics are often socially discriminated due to the negative public attitudes, misconceptions and false beliefs. Thus, the main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy among Malaysian Chinese.Methods: A cross-sectional study by using a 23-item validated, self-administered questionnaire was carried out in urban areas, selected through stratified sampling. A Chinese population was randomly selected in the stratified areas of Penang, Ipoh,...

  16. Knowledge, Beliefs and Perception of Leprosy

    Nidhi Jaswal; BG Banerjee; Sinha, Anil K.; Sukhbir Singh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: For intervention to be effective, it is essential that the knowledge, beliefs and perception of a specific social group are taken into account. This is particularly true of leprosy where the problems of social stigma and ostracism are more prominent than the disease itself. There are many misconceptions about the cause, methods of transmission, and treatment. The main objectives of the study were to examine the socio-demographic profile of persons with leprosy and to explore their k...

  17. Women's knowledge and beliefs regarding breast cancer

    Grunfeld, E A; Ramirez, A J; Hunter, M. S.; Richards, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    Approximately 20–30% of women delay for 12 weeks or more from self-discovery of a breast symptom to presentation to a health care provider, and such delay intervals are associated with poorer survival. Understanding the factors that influence patient delay is important for the development of an effective, targeted health intervention programme to shorten patient delay. The aim of the study was to elicit knowledge and beliefs about breast cancer among a sample of the general female population,...

  18. Religion and HIV in Tanzania: influence of religious beliefs on HIV stigma, disclosure, and treatment attitudes

    Ostermann Jan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Religion shapes everyday beliefs and activities, but few studies have examined its associations with attitudes about HIV. This exploratory study in Tanzania probed associations between religious beliefs and HIV stigma, disclosure, and attitudes toward antiretroviral (ARV treatment. Methods A self-administered survey was distributed to a convenience sample of parishioners (n = 438 attending Catholic, Lutheran, and Pentecostal churches in both urban and rural areas. The survey included questions about religious beliefs, opinions about HIV, and knowledge and attitudes about ARVs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess how religion was associated with perceptions about HIV, HIV treatment, and people living with HIV/AIDS. Results Results indicate that shame-related HIV stigma is strongly associated with religious beliefs such as the belief that HIV is a punishment from God (p Conclusion The decision to start ARVs hinged primarily on education-level and knowledge about ARVs rather than on religious factors. Research results highlight the influence of religious beliefs on HIV-related stigma and willingness to disclose, and should help to inform HIV-education outreach for religious groups.

  19. Knowledge, inclusion attitudes, stigma and beliefs regarding intellectual disability and schizophrenia among the UK public: The role of ethnicity, religion and contact

    Scior, K.

    2013-01-01

    Lay people’s understanding about a health condition and their perceptions of the condition can have far reaching consequences. Where ignorance, and misinformed beliefs about the condition or its causes prevail this may lead to stigma, prejudice and discrimination, and can have negative consequences for help seeking. These processes have been extensively studied in relation to mental illness, particularly schizophrenia and depression. In contrast, in the intellectual disability field empirical...

  20. A comparative study of the quality of life, knowledge, attitude and belief about leprosy disease among leprosy patients and community members in Shantivan Leprosy Rehabilitation centre, Nere, Maharashtra, India

    Madhavi J Mankar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leprosy a chronic infectious affliction, is a communicable disease that posses a risk of permanent and progressive disability. The associated visible deformities and disabilities have contributed to the stigma and discrimination experienced by leprosy patients, even among those who have been cured. Aims and Objectives: 1 To assess the knowledge, attitude and belief about leprosy in leprosy patients compared with community members. 2 To find the perceived stigma among leprosy patients. 3. To evaluate the quality of life in leprosy patients as compared to community members using WHO Quality of Life assessment questionaire (WHOQOL- BREF. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at Leprosy Rehabilitation Centre, Shantivan, Nere in Panvel Taluka, district Raigad from October - December 2009. A pre-designed and pre-structured questionaire was used to evaluate knowledge, attitude and perceived stigma among leprosy patients and community members. WHO Quality of life questionaire (WHOQOL-BREF was used to assess quality of life in leprosy patients and controls. Data analysis was done with the help of SPSS package. Result: Among the cases and control, 43.13% of cases were aware that leprosy is an infectious disease compared to 20.69% of control. 68.62% of cases had knowledge of hypopigmented patches being a symptom of leprosy compared to the 25.86% in control. There was overall high level of awareness about disease, symptoms, transmission and curability in leprosy patients as compared to control. Among control group, 43.10% of population said that they would not like food to be served by leprosy patients as compared to 13.73% in study group. It was seen that the discrimination was much higher in female leprosy patients as compared to male leprosy patients. The mean quality of life scores for cases was significantly lower than those for control group in physical and psychological domain but not in the social relationship and

  1. Gauging the Acceptability of HIV Vaccines: An Exploratory Study Examining Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs among Injecting Drug Users in Viet Nam

    Nguyen, France

    2007-01-01

    In contrast to other countries in Southeast Asia, the HIV/ AIDS epidemic is in the initial stages in Viet Nam, although the rates have increased notably since 1997. This study examined attitudes towards the use of an HIV vaccine (when one becomes available) as a means for preventing the disease. Since injecting drug users are the great majority of…

  2. Attitudes towards animal use and belief in animal mind

    Knight, Sarah; Vrij, Aldert; Cherryman, Julie; Nunkoosing, Karl

    2004-01-01

    Animals are used by humans in many ways, yet science has paid little attention to the study of human-animal relationships (Melson 2002). In the present study participants (n= 96) completed a questionnaire on attitudes towards animal use and individual differences were examined to determine which characteristics might underlie these attitudes (‘belief in animal mind’, age, gender, experience of animals, vegetarianism, political stance, and living area). It emerged that participants held differ...

  3. Knowledge, Beliefs and Perception of Leprosy

    Nidhi Jaswal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: For intervention to be effective, it is essential that the knowledge, beliefs and perception of a specific social group are taken into account. This is particularly true of leprosy where the problems of social stigma and ostracism are more prominent than the disease itself. There are many misconceptions about the cause, methods of transmission, and treatment. The main objectives of the study were to examine the socio-demographic profile of persons with leprosy and to explore their knowledge, beliefs and perception about the disease and its initial symptoms, within a specific socio-cultural milieu. Method: Semi-structured interviews were held with a persons with leprosy at various clinics and care-homes for affected persons in and around Chandigarh, India. Those who had completed their treatment and those who were still undergoing treatment were included in the study. Data collection was done through case studies and in-depth interviews. Results: The name of the disease varied across different geo-cultural zones. Many respondents who were afflicted with only red patches and had no ulcers, believed that they suffered from a skin disease which would turn into leprosy if proper medication was not received. The perception of 64.9 % of the respondents was that leprosy resulted from supernatural causes like God’s punishment, karma, and sin. Conclusion: There is a need to educate persons with leprosy and their families about the etiology of the disease.

  4. Understanding residential energy conservation through attitudes and beliefs

    Marilyn A Brown; Susan M Macey

    1983-01-01

    The role of beliefs, attitudes, social influence, and intentions as predictors of residential energy conservation behaviour is explored in the context of Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action. Empirical analysis of survey data from Decatur, Illinois provides support for the theory and insight into barriers to energy conservation.

  5. Geography Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs Regarding Classroom Management

    Dikmenli, Yurdal; Çifçi, Taner

    2016-01-01

    This study scrutinizes geography teachers' attitude and belief levels regarding classroom management. As a matter of fact, classroom management is one of the prominent areas emphasized by all educators. Descriptive correlational survey model was used in the study. Study group includes 58 geography teachers working in Sivas province during the…

  6. EPISTEMOLOGICAL BELIEFS AND KNOWLEDGE AMONGST PHYSICIANS: A QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY

    Dr. Adolfo Peña.

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: All sciences share a common underlying epistemological domain, which gives grounds to and characterizes their nature and actions. Insofar as physicians depend on scientific knowledge, it would be helpful to assess their knowledge regarding some theoretical foundations of science. Objectives: 1.To assess resident physicians' knowledge of concepts and principles underlying all sciences. 2. To determine, to what extent physicians' epistemological beliefs and attitudes are compatible with the scientific paradigm. Design: A questionnaire was administered to 161 resident physicians at three hospitals in Lima, Peru. Results: 237 resident physicians were selected, 161 (68% of whom agreed to answer the survey. 67% of respondents indicated they did not know what epistemology is, 21% were able to correctly define epistemology; 24% of the residents knew the appropriate definition of scientific theory. No respondents knew the philosophical presumptions of science; and 48% took a relativistic stand towards knowledge. Conclusions: There appear to be deficiencies in the knowledge of scientific theoretical foundations among physicians.

  7. High school students' scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward physics: a structural equation model

    Kapucu, Serkan; Bahçivan, Eralp

    2015-05-01

    Background: There are some theoretical evidences that explain the relationships between core beliefs (i.e., epistemological beliefs) and peripheral beliefs (self-efficacy in learning) in the literature. The close relationships of such type of beliefs with attitudes are also discussed by some researchers. Constructing a model that investigates these relationships by considering theoretical and empirical evidences can empower researchers to discuss these relationships more comprehensively. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships among Turkish high school students' scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and their attitudes toward physics. Sample: A total of 632 high school students participated in this study; however, 269 female and 229 male (a total of 498) high school students' data were used. Design and methods: Three distinct instruments that measure scientific epistemological beliefs, self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward physics were combined into a unique questionnaire form and it was distributed to high school students. To explore the relationships among these variables, structural equation modeling was used. Results: The results showed that scientific epistemological belief dimensions uncovered by the nature of knowing (source and justification) significantly and positively related to both self-efficacy in learning physics and attitudes toward other important physics dimensions. Additionally, self-efficacy in learning physics significantly and positively predicted attitudes toward multiple physics dimensions (importance, comprehension and requirement). However, epistemological belief dimensions related to the nature of knowledge (certainty and development) did not have significant impact on self-efficacy in learning physics or attitudes toward physics. Conclusions: This study concludes that there are positive and significant relationships among Turkish high school students' scientific

  8. Environmental Knowledge and Beliefs among Grade 10 Students in Australia.

    Eyers, Vivian George

    To develop environmental education in Australia, a survey of tenth-grade students was undertaken. Thirty knowledge items and ten belief items were constructed. A panel of environmentalists and educators identified best responses for the knowledge items, and a common reference point, preservation of homo sapiens, for the belief items, so a…

  9. Attitudes and beliefs about hand hygiene among paediatric residents: a qualitative study

    Dixit, Devika; Hagtvedt, Reidar; Reay, Trish; Ballermann, Mark; Forgie, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the knowledge that contaminated hands play an important role in the transmission of healthcare-associated pathogens, and that hand hygiene (HH) reduces the transmission of these organisms, healthcare worker's adherence with HH is poor. Objective To understand the common beliefs and attitudes held by paediatric residents about HH. Design Qualitative study design. Setting Tertiary care paediatric hospital in Edmonton, Canada. Methods Semistructured interviews were conducted a...

  10. Female science teacher beliefs and attitudes: implications in relation to gender and pedagogical practice

    Zapata, Mara; Gallard, Alejandro J.

    2007-10-01

    Beliefs and attitudes resulting from the unique life experiences of teachers frame interactions with learners promoting gender equity or inequity and the reproduction of social views about knowledge and power as related to gender. This study examines the enactment of a female science teacher's pedagogy (Laura), seeking to understand the implications of her beliefs and attitudes, as framed by her interpretations and daily manifestations, as she interacts with students. Distinct influences inform the conceptual framework of this study: (a) the social organization of society at large, governed by understood and unspoken patriarchy, present both academically and socially; (b) the devaluing of women as "knowers" of scientific knowledge as defined by a western and male view of science; (c) the marginalization or "feminization" of education and pedagogical knowledge. The findings reflect tensions between attitudes and beliefs and actual teacher practice suggesting the need for awareness within existing or new teachers about their positions as social agents and the sociological implications related to issues of gender within which we live and work, inclusive of science teaching and learning.

  11. Health Professionals’ Attitudes and Beliefs About Breastfeeding

    Radzyminski, Sharon; Callister, Lynn Clark

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this descriptive study was to investigate how health-care providers perceived their role in breastfeeding and maternal support. Data was collected via interviews of 53 health-care professionals that provided care to breastfeeding women. The emerging themes included (a) understanding the benefits of breastfeeding: often lacking current knowledge, (b) lacking consistency: gaps between knowledge of benefits and actual clinical practice, (c) not knowing how to help: lack of assessment ...

  12. Belief and Attitudes surrounding Childhood Autism in Ghana

    Manu, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a life-long invisible impairment with an unknown etiology. Current literature shows an increase in the diagnosis of autism worldwide. This qualitative study explores the attitudes and beliefs which surround childhood autism in Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted with four (4) parents whose children have autism and three (3) key informants; a Religious Leader, a Health Worker and an Administrator of a Special school in Accra, Ghana. A semi-structured interview guide was used fo...

  13. Albinism in Malawi : A qulitative Study on Attitudes and Beliefs

    2005-01-01

    Albinism is an inherited, genetic condition. People with albinism exhibit little or no pigment in eyes, skin or hair, and often have problems with vision and sensitive skin. Albinism in Malawi is a qualitative project that has set out to examine attitudes and beliefs related to people living with albinism in Malawi. The aim has been to assess what implications albinism has on the lives of those born with it, and for their closest network of family and friends. Individual, in-depth...

  14. Assessment of Rape-Supportive Attitudes and Beliefs in College Men: Development, Reliability, and Validity of the Rape Attitudes and Beliefs Scale

    Burgess, Gerald H.

    2007-01-01

    Discussed is the development and psychometric analysis of a measure of rape-supportive attitudes and beliefs called the Rape Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (RABS), intended for the use with college men. Items were developed from a literature review of "rape myths" that were correlated to some measure of sexual aggression. An exploratory factor…

  15. Belief and Investing: Preferences and Attitudes of the Faithful

    Mark Brimble1

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This Australian study seeks to better understand the disparity between the positive attitudes towards Socially Responsible Investing (SRI and the level of investment in SRI (Saulwick &Associates 2001; Watmore & Bradley 2001; Williams 2007; Arjalies 2010, by examining both the attitudes to SRI and the investment choices that are made. It is hypothesised that those who are more committed to religious belief principles are more likely to invest in SRI.To test this 322 people from two large Queensland organisations were surveyed in relation to their investment attitudes and preferences. Results show that those who are more religious are no more likely to invest in SRI, and that the level of importance placed on SRI and financial criteria are similar in most instances for the more and less religious. In addition, women who are religious place more importance on conservative general investment criteria than less ornon-religious women.

  16. Child Sexual Abuse Myths: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Individual Differences

    Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.

    2010-01-01

    Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…

  17. Beliefs about Knowledge, Knowing, and Learning: Differences across Knowledge Types in Physics

    Muis, Krista R.; Gierus, Bogusia

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined whether students' epistemic and learning beliefs varied across different knowledge types in physics. On the basis of various beliefs frameworks, the authors predicted that individuals' beliefs would vary within a domain across the same content when presented conceptually versus procedurally. Participants were 81 high…

  18. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Motivations towards Blood Donation among King Abdulaziz Medical City Population

    Najd Alfouzan

    2014-01-01

    Background. Blood donation is remarkably safe medical procedure. However, attitudes, beliefs, and level of knowledge may affect it. Objectives. To measure the level of knowledge regarding blood donation, find out positive and negative attitudes, identify the obstacles, and suggest some motivational factors. Methodology. A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC). Participants were selected by convenient nonrandom sampling technique. A self-created questionnair...

  19. Antibiotic Resistance and Usage—A Survey on the Knowledge, Attitude, Perceptions and Practices among the Medical Students of a Southern Indian Teaching Hospital

    Khan A K, Afzal; Banu, Gausia; K K, Reshma

    2013-01-01

    Background: Examining the knowledge, attitude, perceptions and practices (KAP) of the medical students regarding antibiotic resistance (ABR) and use can help us in devising suitable educational interventions for them, tailored according to their earlier held knowledge, beliefs, capabilities and experience.

  20. The Effect of Candidate Teachers' Educational and Epistemological Beliefs on Professional Attitudes

    Onen, Aysem Seda

    2011-01-01

    While teacher's cognitive skills are described with epistemological beliefs, the attitudes towards their profession, teaching styles and disciplinary actions are mainly associated with their educational beliefs. This study aiming to determine the effect of relation between candidate teachers' educational and epistemological beliefs on their…

  1. Development of a Brief Survey on Colon Cancer Screening Knowledge and Attitudes Among Veterans

    Franklin Medio, PhD

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Poor knowledge of and negative attitudes toward available screening tests may account in part for colorectal cancer screening rates being the lowest among 17 quality measures reported for the Department of Veterans Affairs health care system, the largest integrated health system in the United States. The purpose of this study was to develop a brief assessment tool to evaluate knowledge and attitudes among veterans toward colorectal cancer screening options. Methods A 44-item questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about colorectal cancer and screening and was then administered as part of an ongoing randomized controlled trial among 388 veterans receiving care in a general medicine clinic. Sixteen candidate items on colorectal cancer knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs were selected for further evaluation using principal components analysis. Two sets of items were then further analyzed. Results Because the Cronbach a for beliefs was low (a = 0.06, the beliefs subscale was deleted from further consideration. The final scale consisted of seven items: a four-item attitude subscale (a = 0.73 and a three-item knowledge subscale (a = 0.59. Twelve-month follow-up data were used to evaluate predictive validity; improved knowledge and attitudes were significantly associated with completion of flexible sigmoidoscopy (P = .004 and completion of either flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (P = .02. Conclusion The two-factor scale offers a parsimonious and reliable measure of colorectal cancer screening knowledge and attitudes among veterans. This colorectal Cancer Screening Survey (CSS may especially be useful as an evaluative tool in developing and testing of interventions designed to improve screening rates within this population.

  2. Attitude Formation of Benefits Satisfaction: Knowledge and Fit of Benefits

    Gery Markova, Foard Jones

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the theoretical framework of the Theory of Reasoned Action [6], we examine benefits satisfactionas an attitude formed by the beliefs about benefits (i.e., benefits knowledge and the perceived value ofthese benefits (i.e., fit of benefits to individual needs. We use questionnaires to gather data from arandom sample of 591 employees in a large county agency in the South-eastern United States. The datasupport that knowledge of benefits is associated with enhanced benefits satisfaction and mediates theeffect of explanations about benefits on satisfaction. The results provide strong evidence that benefitsperceived to suit employee needs generate highest benefits satisfaction. Employees satisfied with theirbenefits are less likely to consider leaving the organization. The tested model is a starting point for futurestudies to apply the extended Theory of Reasoned Action [1] and incorporate perceived behaviouralcontrol and subjective norms (i.e., co-workers’ attitudes in forming benefits satisfaction. Understandingemployees’ affective and cognitive reactions to compensation, including benefits, can render betterpractices. Companies should use information campaigns to improve employee beliefs about benefits.Better attentiveness to individual needs and preferences can maximize the utility of a benefits plan andimprove its acceptance. We replicate and extend past research in a parsimonious model of benefitssatisfaction with a random sample of public sector employees.

  3. Librarians' Attitudes toward Knowledge Management

    Aharony, Noa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop an understanding of the factors that support or constrain the individual's sharing knowledge in the organization. The current study seeks to explore whether personality (self-efficacy and self-esteem) and situational (cognitive appraisal: threat versus challenge) characteristics influence participants'…

  4. Quine on Logic, Propositional Attitudes, and the Unity of Knowledge

    André Leclerc

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available I shall examine Quine’s conception of logic, of propositional attitudes, and of the unity of knowledge in order to show that there are some tensions in Quine’s system. I first propose a conception of the use or application of logic, stating that logic strictly speaking applies to intentional phenomena or to things that presuppose the existence of intentional phenomena. Then, I consider briefly Quine’s philosophy of logic and discuss some issues. In Quine’s philosophy, logic stays at the very center of the web of our beliefs; it is central in science and ordinary knowledge as well. Then I examine Quine’s tendency to “quine” the mental, given his own maxim of minimum mutilation. Finally, I consider Quine’s thesis of the unity of knowledge, the thesis that there is continuity from ordinary to scientific knowledge. If I am right about the use of logic and the presence of the propositional attitude idiom in ordinary knowledge and social sciences and humanities, I think there is a problem of consistency in Quine’s system, and that Quine himself pointed to a part of the solution.

  5. Exploring Student Students’ Attitudes and Beliefs Towards E-Portfolios and Technology in Education

    Gemma TUR; Marín, Victoria I.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on student teachers’ attitude towards technology in education and e-portfolio processes. Attitude is closely related to teachers’ beliefs and the later have been defined as second-order barriers. While an important effort has been made to overcome first-order barrier such as resources, training and support, it cannot be observed that technology has been successfully introduced in education. Therefore, second-order barriers such as attitudes and beliefs are being considere...

  6. Evaluation of physician's attitude and knowledge

    Sekineh Shafia; Jobin Hemati; Leila Meskini; Aliraza Khalilian

    2008-01-01

    (Received 19 Jun, 2008; Accepted 20 Oct, 2008) Abstract This study aimed to determine the knowledge and attitudes to wards homeopathy among general practitioner and specialist physicians in Sari.Our results indicate Sari physicians had not sufficient knowledge obout homeopathy; but they liked collaboration with homeopaths for treatment of their patients and have courses for homeopathy education. J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2008; 18(66): 102-103(Persian

  7. Attitudes and beliefs among Mexican Americans about type 2 diabetes.

    Coronado, Gloria D; Thompson, Beti; Tejeda, Silvia; Godina, Ruby

    2004-11-01

    Hispanics in the United States have a disproportionately high risk for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes) compared with non-Hispanic whites. Little is known of the attitudes and beliefs about diabetes in this group. Using data from six focus groups of 42 Mexican Americans (14 men and 28 women), we characterized perceptions about the causes of and treatments for type 2 diabetes. Many participants believed diabetes is caused by having a family history of the disease, eating a diet high in fat or sugar, and engaging in minimal exercise. Experiencing strong emotions such as fright (susto), intense anger (coraje), or sadness and depression (tristeza) was also thought to precipitate diabetes. Nearly all participants expressed the belief that it is important to follow doctors' recommendations for diet and exercise, oral medication or insulin; many also cited herbal therapies, such as prickly pear cactus (nopal) and aloe vera (savila) as effective treatments. These findings may be useful in designing interventions to reduce the burden of diabetes in Hispanic populations. PMID:15531816

  8. On the Relationship of Attitudes towards Substance Abuse with Irrational Beliefs and Academic Procrastination

    abolghasem yaghoobi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship of irrational beliefs and academic procrastination with attitudes towards drug abuse in students. Method: This was a correlational that was carried out on a sample of 254 senior high school students in Kermanshah. Students were selected via random cluster sampling and filled in Jones Irrational Beliefs Test (1968, Solomon & Rothblum's Academic Procrastination (1984 and Rahmati’s Attitude to Drug Use (2001. Results: The results showed that irrational beliefs and procrastination were positively correlated with attitudes towards drug use. In addition, regression analysis showed that irrational beliefs and academic procrastination could account for the total of 38.9 percent of variance pertaining to attitudes towards drug use. Conclusion: It can be argued that academic procrastination and irrational beliefs underlie addiction; therefore, they should be considered in the treatment and prevention of addiction.

  9. Consumer attitudes, knowledge, and consumption of organic yogurt.

    Van Loo, Ellen J; Diem, My Nguyen Hoang; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim

    2013-04-01

    The segment of organic products occupies an increasingly important place in dairy assortments. The European Union (EU) introduced a new EU organic logo in 2010 with the aim of harmonizing its organic sector and boosting consumer trust in organic food. This study focuses on organic yogurt and investigates consumer awareness and knowledge of the new EU logo. Consumers evaluate organic yogurt as superior compared with conventional yogurt on healthiness, environmental friendliness, quality, and safety. More frequent buyers of organic yogurt have a stronger belief that organic yogurt is superior. The willingness-to-pay for organic yogurt ranged from a premium of 15% for nonbuyers to 40% for habitual buyers, indicating the market potential for this product. A structural equations model reveals the positive association between knowledge, attitudes, and the frequency of purchasing and consuming organic yogurt. Nevertheless, consumer awareness of the EU organic logo remains rather low, which suggests a need for more effective information campaigns and marketing actions. PMID:23415537

  10. Knowledge and Attitudes toward Epilepsy among Malaysian Chinese

    Chrishantha Abeysena

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epileptics are often socially discriminated due to the negative public attitudes, misconceptions and false beliefs. Thus, the main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy among Malaysian Chinese.Methods: A cross-sectional study by using a 23-item validated, self-administered questionnaire was carried out in urban areas, selected through stratified sampling. A Chinese population was randomly selected in the stratified areas of Penang, Ipoh, Klang valley, and Kuala Lumpur and was asked to complete the questionnaire.Results: Among 382 (74.6% respondents, 16.2% believed that epilepsy is a type of mental illness. Majority (90.8% accepted that epileptics can become useful members of the society however, only 16% agreed to marry them. About 57% of respondents recognised epilepsy as nervous system problem. Significant relationships between education level and statements such as, epileptics are as intelligent as everyone else (p=0.009, epilepsy can be successfully treated with drugs (p=0.037 and epileptics can be successful in their chosen career (p=0.009, were found.Conclusions: The general Chinese population in the selected areas of peninsular Malaysia had relatively good knowledge and positive attitudes toward certain aspects of epilepsy at the time of the investigation. However, minority of the study participants demonstrated prejudice and discriminatory behaviour towards people with epilepsy.

  11. Counselor Beliefs and Perceived Knowledge Regarding Clients with Learning Disabilities

    Bell, Tamekia R.

    2012-01-01

    Clients with learning disabilities constitute a cultural group that has not been extensively studied. The professional literature has found that counselors have reported the need for additional training in working with clients with disabilities. This study explored counselors' beliefs and perceived knowledge regarding counseling clients with…

  12. Saudi Arabian Teachers' Knowledge and Beliefs about ADHD

    Abed, Mohaned; Pearson, Susan; Clarke, Paula; Chambers, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is considered one of the most frequently diagnosed psychiatric childhood disorders. It affects 3-7% of school-aged children, interfering with their academic performance and social interactions. This study explored the knowledge and beliefs of teachers in Saudi Arabia about children with ADHD. The…

  13. Interconnections of Knowledge and Beliefs in Teaching Mathematics

    Holm, Jennifer; Kajander, Ann

    2012-01-01

    As part of a 5-year project that examined teachers' knowledge and beliefs about mathematics and teaching mathematics, interviews were conducted with preservice elementary teachers during their certification year. The transcripts of five of these sets of pretest/posttest interviews were chosen as illustrative of the significant challenges that…

  14. Correlates of Social Work Students' Abortion Knowledge and Attitudes: Implications for Education and Research.

    Begun, Stephanie; Bird, Melissa; Ramseyer Winter, Virginia; Massey Combs, Katie; McKay, Kimberly

    2016-07-01

    Researchers have established that individuals' abortion knowledge is positively associated with their support of abortion rights. However, social workers' personal beliefs regarding abortion are under-researched, even though social workers are often employed in health promotion and education roles in which the topic of abortion is encountered. The current study examines the results of a nationwide survey of social work students (N = 504) and explores the relationship between social work students' abortion knowledge and abortion attitudes. Less abortion knowledge was significantly associated with antichoice attitude endorsement. Implications for social work research, training, and education are subsequently discussed. PMID:27092856

  15. Knowledge plus Attitude in Radiation Protection

    Since the introduction of the Basic Safety Standards recommendations, the scope of the radiation protection was broadening. On behalf of the incorporation of radiation protection of the patient in medical exposures, the different groups of professionals involved: physicians, medical physicists, radiation protection officers, regulators, etc., have to work together. The objective of radiation protection, that is, to reduces doses from practices, to prevent potential exposures, to detect its occurrence as well as to evaluate and spread such abnormal situations, will be obtained only if it were possible to joint two basic conditions: knowledge and attitude. It should be well known the differences between the backgrounds needed to be for example, a medical physicist or an R.P.O., However, their attitude to solve an eventual problem involving radiation protection should be the same; as well as the behavior of the specialized physician and regulators, in order to add towards common goals. In this work, we show as an example the curricula contents about radiation protection of the cancer of medical physics in the Universidad Nacional de San Martin (UNSAM), and the corresponding module on medical exposures from the Post-Graduate course on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, held since the 80s in Buenos Aires by the National Commission of Atomic Energy, ARN, IAEA, and the Universidad de Buenos Aires. On the other hand, we describe different attitudes which leads or could start major radiological accidents, regardless the level of knowledge in radiation protection. We conclude that the larger numbers of accidents are due to problems in the attitude than in the level of knowledge of the person involved. Consequently; we suggest emphasizing the discussion on how to generate positive attitudes in every professional involucrated, independently of its cognitive profile or level. (Author) 2 refs

  16. Attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of caregivers and rehabilitation providers about disabled children’s sleep health: a qualitative study

    Chen, Xiaoli; Gelaye, Bizu; Velez, Juan Carlos; Pepper, Micah; Gorman, Sara; Barbosa, Clarita; Zafonte, Ross D.; Redline, Susan; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with disabilities are more likely to have sleep disturbances than children without disabilities. Identifying attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and perceptions of caregivers and health professionals is essential in developing effective intervention programs to improve disabled children’s sleep health. However, no such qualitative data about adults who have key roles in the life and daytime activities of children with disabilities are available. This qualitative study aimed to...

  17. Attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of caregivers and rehabilitation providers about disabled children’s sleep health: a qualitative study

    Chen, Xiaoli; Gelaye, Bizu; Velez, Juan Carlos; Pepper, Micah; Gorman, Sara; Barbosa, Clarita; Zafonte, Ross D.; Redline, Susan; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with disabilities are more likely to have sleep disturbances than children without disabilities. Identifying attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and perceptions of caregivers and health professionals is essential in developing effective intervention programs to improve disabled children’s sleep health. However, no such qualitative data about adults who have key roles in the life and daytime activities of children with disabilities are available. This qualitative study aimed to ...

  18. Revising beliefs based in evidence versus affect: Effects on knowledge acquisition and conceptual change

    Griffin, Thomas D.

    Theoretical treatments on the issue of conceptual change have paid little attention to the distinction between acquiring knowledge that conflicts with prior beliefs and revising prior beliefs in light of that new knowledge. Models of conceptual change that fail to make the knowledge-belief distinction can produce faulty predictions and interpretations, and prevent us from discovering the factors that independently impact knowledge acquisition and belief revision. Beliefs vary widely in whether they are based in coherence with known evidence and conceptual representations versus their promotion of affective values and goals. Study 1 provided empirical demonstrations of the prevalence of affect-based beliefs, the high degree of both between- and within-person variability in belief basis, and the validity of self-reports in assessing that variation. Study 2 supported present arguments about why the popular educational constructs of personal epistemology are not useful for understanding the evidence-affect basis of beliefs. This variability in belief basis represents variability in the coherence and specificity of the conceptual structure underlying different beliefs. Thus, the effects of prior beliefs on knowledge acquisition and subsequent belief revision may depend upon the underlying evidence-affect basis of prior beliefs. Study 1 provided data suggesting that belief revision is a separate process and not a mere by-product of acquiring belief-conflicting knowledge, and that revision is less likely when prior beliefs are initially held for affective reasons. Study 3 supported current predictions that comprehension of belief-conflicting and belief-consistent information is better when prior beliefs are evidence- rather than affect-based. In addition, the comprehension of belief-conflicting and belief-consistent information was equivalent. The widespread, but previously untested, assumption that prior beliefs impede the learning of belief-conflicting information may

  19. Organ donation, awareness, attitudes and beliefs among post graduate medical students

    Bapat Usha; Kedlaya Prashanth; Gokulnath

    2010-01-01

    Organ transplantation is the most preferred treatment modality for patients with end-stage organ disease. There is an inadequate supply of cadaver organs commensurate with need. Health-care professionals are the critical link in augmenting public awareness about organ donation. Their attitudes and beliefs can influence the public opinion. This study aims at understanding the awareness, attitudes, and beliefs among the medical postgraduate students. A total of 123 post-graduates of a medical c...

  20. Beliefs, attitudes and phobias among Mexican medical and psychology students towards people with obesity

    Lucero Soto; Ana Lilia Armendariz-Anguiano; Montserrat Bacardí-Gascón; A. Jiménez Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Background: A high prevalence of stigmatizing attitude among healthcare personnel towards obese people has been reported. Objective: To evaluate the beliefs, attitudes and phobias that Mexican medical and psychology students have towards obese people. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 528 students enrolled at the Autonomous University of Baja California in psychology and medical schools. Weight, height and waist circumference were evaluated. Beliefs about obesity were assess...

  1. On the Relationship of Attitudes towards Substance Abuse with Irrational Beliefs and Academic Procrastination

    abolghasem yaghoobi; hossain mohagheghi; ladan amiri; keivan sfandiari

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship of irrational beliefs and academic procrastination with attitudes towards drug abuse in students. Method: This was a correlational that was carried out on a sample of 254 senior high school students in Kermanshah. Students were selected via random cluster sampling and filled in Jones Irrational Beliefs Test (1968), Solomon & Rothblum's Academic Procrastination (1984) and Rahmati’s Attitude to Drug Use (2001). Results: The resul...

  2. Sustained antiretroviral treatment adherence in survivors of the pre-HAART era: attitudes and beliefs

    Fumaz, Carmina R.; Muñoz-Moreno, Jose A.; Molto, Jose; Ferrer, Maria Jose; López-Blázquez, Raquel; Negredo, Eugenia; Paredes, Roger; Gómez, Guadalupe; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to assess adherence of HIV-1?infected patients who started treatment in the pre-HAART era, and to determine variables associated with better adherence, including relevant attitudes and beliefs. This is a cross-sectional study enrolling patients who had received antiretroviral therapy for ≥10 years. Adherence was evaluated through self-reporting and plasma drug concentrations. Treatment variables, attitudes and beliefs were collected du...

  3. Hispanic adults' beliefs, attitudes, and intentions regarding the female condom.

    Bogart, L M; Cecil, H; Pinkerton, S D

    2000-04-01

    The present study used the theory of planned behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1985) augmented by AIDS knowledge to investigate factors influencing intentions of Hispanic adults to use the female condom. A total of 146 persons (75 women and 71 men; mean age, 27 years) recruited from community-based organizations completed an anonymous survey regarding intentions to use the female condom with their main sex partner. The TPB model had greater predictive utility for women's, than for men's, female condom use intentions. For men, attitudes and norms did not predict female condom use intentions, but greater AIDS knowledge was related to lower intentions to use the female condom, above and beyond the TPB constructs. Perceived behavioral control, operationalized as self-efficacy, significantly increased the predictive utility of the TPB model for women's female condom use intentions but not for men's. Behavior change strategies to increase female condom use are discussed in light of these findings. PMID:10833679

  4. Family resemblance in fat intake, nutrition attitudes and beliefs: a study among three generations of women.

    Stafleu, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis nutrition attitudes, beliefs, and fat intake in three generations of women are described. The aim of the study was twofold: the development of methods, and to study family resemblance in food habits. Based on literature study and qualitative pilot studies a questionnaire on beliefs an

  5. Weight Control Beliefs, Body Shape Attitudes, and Physical Activity among Adolescents

    Martin, Scott B.; Rhea, Deborah J.; Greenleaf, Christy A.; Judd, Doryce E.; Chambliss, Heather O.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Relatively little is known about how perceived weight controllability influences important psychological health factors among adolescents. Thus, the purpose of this study is to explore adolescents' weight controllability beliefs and how those beliefs influence weight-related attitudes and behaviors. Methods: Adolescents (N = 369, mean…

  6. Attitudes and beliefs of university science professors toward the discipline of education

    Fogelberg, Katherine

    Because professional development (PD) is about persuasion and influence, it makes sense to use an influence framework when trying to determine the reasons current university-level PD has been fairly ineffective in changing teacher practice to date. This research used the theory of reasoned action (TRA) to determine if university natural science professors' attitudes and beliefs toward the discipline of education (DE), a construct not recognized in the current literature, were positive or negative. The study also looked to discover some of the major influences on the participants' attitudes and beliefs toward DE. A method bricolage was used to analyze data from 10 participants in two separate phases in an attempt to establish a replicable Discourse Analysis methodology for analyzing attitudes and beliefs, and to investigate the major influences on the formation of these attitudes and beliefs. The findings indicate that in general the participants' had positive beliefs in and about DE with negative attitudes toward DE and that the majority of the participants' views of teaching were formed by a number of significant influences. However, the participants' attitudes and beliefs toward DE are complicated by several issues, the most prominent being that this cohort's ideas about DE are based upon their PD experiences, which were generally delivered by centers for teaching excellence (CTEs) or equivalent entities. This research needs to be extended to determine the generalizability of these findings, as well as to provide evidence-based research to support the re-thinking of how PD is delivered at the university level.

  7. Patient’s Knowledge, Perception and Belief about the Reasons of Low Back Pain

    SS Tavafian

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic low back pain (LBP hold various knowledge, perceptions and beliefs about their pain which are based on prior learning and social conditions. Since LBP is a bio- psycho-social phenomenon and there are not any reports about awareness and attitude of Iranian patients’ views regarding it, this descriptive study was employed to earn this information P to apply its results in health education planning. For data gathering, deeply interviewing with 24 patients were performed. Volunteer patients were from Rheumatology Research Center of Tehran University of Medical Science from July 1st to Sep 1st 2003 who had inclusive criteria such as: 18 years old or more, suffering from LBP more than 90 d and not having experience of surgical operation in last two years. Interviews were individually held at rheumatic disease center which was convenient to the participants and were being continued to earn data saturation regarding patient’s knowledge, perception and belief about LBP. The findings showed that the most popular risky behavior for LBP was hard manual activities, also this study revealed that knowledge of the patients about LBP and its risk factors was little and LBP was not understood by the majority of patients (74%.Only a few people (11% believed risk factors and risky behaviors could deteriorate it. From this study it can be concluded that health educators should emphasize on perception and attitude of the patients regarding LBP for changing behavior and complying of recommended body mechanics.

  8. Selected Demographics, Attitudes, and Beliefs about Diversity of Preservice Teachers

    Dedeoglu, Hakan; Lamme, Linda L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, preservice teachers' demographic variables such as race, innercity program experiences, religious affiliation, and cross-cultural friendships are examined to see if they influence the preservice teachers' beliefs on issues of diversity. The data are from a Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale and a Professional Beliefs About…

  9. Teachers' Knowledge and Beliefs About Child Sexual Abuse.

    Márquez-Flores, María Mercedes; Márquez-Hernández, Verónica V; Granados-Gámez, Genoveva

    2016-07-01

    Child sexual abuse is one of the main types of abuse still to be addressed within the field of education, yet the education system itself can serve as a primary tool for its prevention. A better understanding of teachers' knowledge and beliefs about child sexual abuse will allow us to establish key starting points from which to utilize the system for prevention. Four hundred and fifty teachers participated in this study, completing a questionnaire regarding their knowledge and beliefs about child sexual abuse. The study revealed that over half the teachers, 65.3% (n = 294), had never received any type of training in child sexual abuse education and that the majority were not familiar with methods of identifying child sexual abuse, 90.7% (n = 279). Various mistaken beliefs were identified among the participating teachers, such as pathological profiles of abusers, that the vast majority of child sexual abuse implies violent behavior, and that there cannot be abusers the same age as the victim. These results indicate that knowledge deficiencies do exist about child sexual abuse among teachers and highlight the need for training in this field. PMID:27472508

  10. Beliefs and Attitudes of Pre-Service Teachers towards Teaching Children with Disabilities.

    Rao, Shaila M.; Lim, Levan

    This study evaluated the attitudes and beliefs of 68 undergraduate preservice teachers in the fourth year of a teacher training program at the National Institute of Education (Singapore). The preservice teachers completed a survey of attitudes toward different assumptions of inclusion, perceptions of self-efficacy, and competence. Results suggest…

  11. Teachers' Readiness to Implement Nutrition Education Programs: Beliefs, Attitudes, and Barriers

    Perikkou, Anastasia; Kokkinou, Eleni; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Teachers' attitudes about school food environments and their readiness to implement school-based nutrition programs were investigated. A total of 1,436 primary-school teachers filled out a questionnaire on their demographic and professional characteristics and their attitudes, beliefs, and barriers for implementing health educational programs. The…

  12. High School Students' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs, Self-Efficacy in Learning Physics and Attitudes toward Physics: A Structural Equation Model

    Kapucu, Serkan; Bahçivan, Eralp

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are some theoretical evidences that explain the relationships between core beliefs (i.e., epistemological beliefs) and peripheral beliefs (self-efficacy in learning) in the literature. The close relationships of such type of beliefs with attitudes are also discussed by some researchers. Constructing a model that investigates…

  13. Mother's Beliefs, Attitudes, and Decision Making Related to Infant Feeding Choices.

    Radzyminski, Sharon; Callister, Lynn Clark

    2016-01-01

    All mothers at some point make a decision about whether to breast- or formula feed their infant. Marital status, education, age, culture, and confidence have all been identified as variables affecting this decision. Previous research has concentrated on the decision-making process in breastfeeding mothers. This qualitative descriptive study investigated the beliefs, attitudes, and decisions of both breast- and formula-feeding mothers. Four categories were identified influencing maternal decision making: (a) infant nutritional benefits, (b) maternal benefits, (c) knowledge about infant feeding, and (d) personal and professional support. Analysis of the data indicated that mothers differed in their choice depending on whether they were infant- or maternal-centered and that most women combine both methods of feeding. PMID:26848247

  14. The effects of beliefs about knowledge and learning on students' self-regulated studying

    Almahasneh, Randa

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between students' beliefs about knowledge and learning, and operations they used to study a text. Specifically, it examined the relationships among students' beliefs about knowledge and learning, their selection of learning tactics, their metacognitive processes, and achievement. Moreover, this study assessed the hierarchical structure of beliefs by investigating students' beliefs about knowledge and learning and their effect on students' learning at t...

  15. Knowledge and beliefs regarding agricultural pesticides in rural Guatemala

    Popper, Roger; Andino, Karla; Bustamante, Mario; Hernandez, Beatriz; Rodas, Luis

    1996-03-01

    Throughout Central America, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and the Zamorano Pan-American Agricultural School support a Safe Pesticide Use program. In 1993, a study of results was carried out among farmers and housewives in eastern Guatemala. Aspects of the methodology included: (1) participation of extension workers in all aspects of the study; (2) small, region-focused samples (eight cells, 30 interviews per cell); (3) comparison to control groups of untrained farmers and housewives; (4) a traditional questionnaire for studying acquisition of specific knowledge; and (5) a flexible instrument for building a cognitive map of knowledge and beliefs regarding pesticides. The cognitive map is a step toward applying modern psychocultural scaling, an approach already well developed for medicine and public health, to environmental problems. Positive results detected include progress at learning the meaning of colors on containers that denote toxicity and where to store pesticides. Pesticide application problems detected were mention by farmers of highly toxic, restricted pesticides as appropriate for most pest problems and of insecticides as the correct solution to fungus problems, and the widespread belief that correct pesticide dosage depends on number of pests seen rather than on land or foliage surface. Health-related problems detected were admission by a vast majority of housewives that they apply highly toxic pesticides to combat children's head-lice; low awareness that pesticides cause health problems more serious than nausea, dizziness, and headaches; and a common belief that lemonade and coffee are effective medicines for pesticide poisoning.

  16. The role of values in public beliefs and attitudes towards commercial wind energy

    Mandates for renewable energy lead to siting disputes, because meeting the mandates requires the development of renewable energy production facilities. Proposals for one common form of renewable energy, commercial wind farms, are frequently met with forceful local opposition. Dissatisfied with simplistic explanations for this opposition (i.e., NIMBY), social scientists have urged a more nuanced understanding of public attitudes towards wind energy and other renewables. Based on a survey of residents of coastal Michigan, this article explores the role of general values and beliefs in shaping attitudes towards the potential development of commercial wind energy projects in or near respondents’ communities. Structural equation modeling reveals that support of commercial wind energy depends largely on a belief that wind farms will provide economic benefits to the community. Underlying values have substantial and important indirect effects on beliefs regarding the likely economic outcomes of wind farm development. Altruistic values buoy wind energy attitudes, while values of traditionalism diminish wind energy support. The pivotal role of values in attitudes towards renewables lends support for more participatory development processes. - Highlights: ► Predictors of attitudes towards commercial wind energy development are examined. ► Support is influenced by beliefs in community economic benefit. ► Underlying values have substantial and important indirect effects on beliefs. ► Altruistic values buoy attitudes towards wind energy. ► Values associated with traditionalism diminish wind energy support

  17. Preschool Teachers' Sensitivity to Mathematics in Children's Play: The Influence of Math-Related School Experiences, Emotional Attitudes, and Pedagogical Beliefs

    Anders, Yvonne; Rossbach, Hans-Günther

    2015-01-01

    Without a doubt, math-related pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), pedagogical beliefs, and emotional attitudes are considered important dimensions of preschool teachers' professional competence. This research, however, documents that they are still understudied. This study focuses on certain aspects of the described dimensions: the sensitivity…

  18. Connecting Knowledge, Belief, Values and Action: Informing Climate Literacy by Using Autobiographies to Articulate Environmental Worldviews

    Owens, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Climate literacy is evolving as a specific subset of science and environmental literacy. Through a longitudinal analysis of environmental autobiographies of an internationally and religiously diverse group of environmental sciences majors at a Historically Black College or University (HBCU) in the southern U.S., this presentation will explore: 1) sources and impact of religious beliefs on students' environmental worldview; 2) conflicts between religious, community and scientific values; and 3) navigating the tensions between trust in a religious deity as well as scientific methods and processes. Lester Milbrath states that "beliefs empower and deceive us." The media, as well as significant people and institutions, including religious institutions, socialize us and contribute to individual and societal worldviews. "We so thoroughly accept our culture's beliefs about how the world works that we hardly ever think about them even though they underlie everything we think and do." Beliefs, attitudes, and values comprise an important component of environmental literacy, a praxis-oriented concept from the field of environmental education, which is defined as: [T]he capacity to perceive and interpret the relative health of environmental systems and take appropriate action to maintain, restore, or improve the health of those systems . . . Environmental literacy should be defined in terms of observable behaviors. (Disinger and Roth 1992, 2). Environmental literacy draws upon six areas: environmental sensitivity; knowledge; skills; beliefs, attitudes and values; personal investment and responsibility; and active involvement. It involves particular ways of thinking, acting, and valuing (Roth 1992). Religious beliefs, or lack thereof, shape worldviews, thereby influencing individual and societal environmental and more specifically, climate literacy. For example, Western Christianity espouses a hierarchical anthropocentric worldview, putting God infinitely above human beings, and

  19. The Perceptions of Teachers Regarding Their Knowledge, Beliefs, and Practices of Brain-Based Learning Strategies

    Ridley, Janice Rebecca Becky

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to assess K-12 teachers' perceptions of knowledge, beliefs, and practices toward brain-based learning strategies, how their knowledge relates to their beliefs and practices, and how their beliefs relate to their classroom practices. This research also investigated relationships between teachers'…

  20. High School Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Biotechnology Applications

    Ozel, Murat; Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology and its various applications. In addition, whether students' knowledge and attitudes differed according to age and gender were also explored. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and the Biotechnology Attitude…

  1. Hydration: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of UK Dietitians

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate dietitians’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding hydration and patient care. Methods. A cross-sectional online survey was administered to UK dietitians via the British Dietetic Association monthly newsletter and included 18 items on hydration knowledge (n=8), attitudes (n=4), and practices (n=6). KAP scores were calculated by adding the total number of correct knowledge responses and by ranking attitude and practice responses on a L...

  2. Organ donation knowledge, willingness, and beliefs of motor vehicle clerks.

    Rodrigue, James R; Fleishman, Aaron; Fitzpatrick, Sean; Boger, Matthew

    2014-11-27

    Motor vehicle (MV) clerks are at the epicenter of organ donor registration. We show that MV clerks (n = 225) in two northeastern states have knowledge gaps and negative beliefs about organ donation. A majority believe it may be possible to buy organs on the black market (81%) and that recovery from brain death is possible (65%), whereas nearly half believe that doctors might not work as hard to save the life of a registered donor (46%). Organ procurement organizations should conduct formal educational programming with MV staff, considering their prominent role in the donor registration process. PMID:25222015

  3. Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes of Institutionalized and Noninstitutionalized Retarded Adolescents

    Hall, Judy E.; Morris, Helen L.

    1976-01-01

    Sixty-one noninstitutionalized and 61 institutionalized educable mentally retarded adolescents were psychometrically assessed on three measures: sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and self-concept. (Author)

  4. An Ongoing Investigation of Science Literacy: Results of a 22-Year Study Probing Students' Knowledge and Attitude Towards Science

    Impey, C.; Buxner, S.; Antonellis, J.; CATS

    2013-04-01

    This talk presents findings related to our ongoing work investigating students' knowledge and attitudes towards science and technology. We present an overview of research studies and findings including a comparison of the science literacy measures of University of Arizona students compared to national studies, conceptions related to astrology, views of radiation, and students' pseudoscience and religious beliefs. We discuss implications for instructors and researchers interested in improving students' science literacy scores and diagnosing alternative beliefs.

  5. Consumers’ avoidance of information on red meat risks: information exposure effects on attitudes and perceived knowledge

    Gaspar, Rui; Luís, Sílvia; Seibt, Beate; Lima, Maria Luísa; Marcu, Afrodita; Rutsaert, Pieter; Fletcher, Dave; Verbeke, Wim; Barnett, Julie

    2015-01-01

    In accordance with cognitive dissonance theory, individuals generally avoid information that is not consistent with their cognitions, to avoid psychological discomfort associated with tensions arising from contradictory beliefs. Information avoidance may thus make risk communication less successful. To address this, we presented information on red meat risks to red meat consumers. To explore information exposure effects, attitudes toward red meat and perceived knowledge of r...

  6. Etiology and attitudes: beliefs about the origins of homosexuality and their implications for public policy.

    Overby, L Marvin

    2014-01-01

    Using survey data from the 2008 election cycle, this article updates and extends analysis of public attitudes regarding various aspects of homosexuality. Continued expansion of public belief in a biological root to homosexuality is found, and variations in such opinions are explored. Public attitudes toward the emerging issue of gay adoption is also examined, finding both similarities with and important differences from attitudes toward same-sex civil unions, although both are profoundly influenced by underlying attitudes regarding the causes of homosexuality. PMID:24325311

  7. Attitudes and beliefs regarding spiritual care. A survey of cancer nurses.

    Taylor, E J; Highfield, M; Amenta, M

    1994-12-01

    Why nurses neglect spiritual care issues remains unclear. Therefore, a questionnaire designed to assess oncology nurse clinicians' attitudes and beliefs about spiritual care was mailed to a stratified, random sample of 700 Oncology Nursing Society members within the United States. Data from the 181 respondents were analyzed using descriptive and multivariate statistics (for quantitative items) and content analysis (for essay questions). Analysis of data revealed both a positive regard for spiritual care within nursing, and relationships between beliefs and attitudes about spiritual care and self-reported spiritually, religiosity, ethnicity, work role, and education. Recommendations are for inclusion of theoretical and practical aspects of spiritual care in nursing education and for further investigation of nurses' attitudes and beliefs regarding spiritual care. PMID:7820826

  8. Health professionals’, expert patients’ and dieters’ beliefs and attitudes about obesity

    McConnon, A.; Gribble, R; Raats, MM; Stubbs, J; Shepherd, R

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research has suggested that patients and treatment providers hold different beliefs and models of obesity. This could impact consistency and quality of interventions for weight management. This study investigated the attitudes and beliefs of health professionals, commercial weight management advisors (expert patients) and overweight and obese dieters, towards obesity. Methods: Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire from 287 health professionals, 85 expert pati...

  9. The influence of consumers' environmental beliefs and attitudes on energy saving behaviours

    With a heightened focus on the concept of sustainability in the past few decades, government, business and individuals have become increasingly aware of the need to reduce our environmental footprint. Consequently there has been much research on consumer environmental behaviour, and the beliefs, norms and attitudes that influence this behaviour. In this article we develop a conceptual framework of consumer environmental behaviour and its antecedents, and test hypotheses within the framework by means of a survey of green consumers. The results show that general environmental beliefs do influence norms on environmental actions and prices, but only norms on price are correlated with environmental attitudes; both intrinsic and extrinsic environmental drivers together with social norms and community influence are associated with environmental attitudes, but cost barriers may have a negative influence. It was also found that there was a strong association between environmental attitudes and energy saving behaviours but the latter was not in any way influenced by government policies or subsidies. - Highlights: ► We model consumer environmental behaviour and its antecedents. ► Environmental beliefs influence environmental norms on actions and prices. ► Environmental price norms are correlated with environmental attitudes. ► Environmental drivers, social norms and community influence are associated with attitudes. ► Strong association found between environmental attitudes and behaviour.

  10. Upper Midwestern U.S. consumers and ethanol: Knowledge, beliefs and consumption

    This study uses multivariate statistical methods to explore the beliefs of upper Midwestern U.S. residents about global climate change, and possible consumer responses to determine their willingness to pay more for cellulosic ethanol from multiple feedstocks. A mail survey was sent to residents of Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin to determine baseline knowledge, attitudes and beliefs on several aspects of these issues, with a focus on the emerging market for cellulosic ethanol. First, survey responses were compiled and principal components analysis was used to reduce the dimensionality of the data. This resulted in seven factors and a theoretical framework to help understand consumers' beliefs about climate change and possible energy policy responses. Second, these results were combined with insights from previous studies that were used as input for further research hypotheses and multivariate analyses. The factor scores from principal components analysis along with the some of the key control variables (i.e., gender, income, and rural/urban) served as independent variables in three revised multiple regression models of consumer's willingness to pay (WTP) their fair share of any additional cost of cellulosic ethanol, as reported in an earlier study. Four explanatory variables were found to be significant determinants of WTP in every model: environment, energy consumption, and climate change; concerns about climate change impacts; inability to stop climate change; and gasoline prices and consumption. These results suggest strong public support and consumer WTP for cellulosic ethanol production in the region.

  11. [Do regional and generational differences in attitudes toward "Luck Resource Belief" exist?].

    Murakami, Koshi

    2016-04-01

    This article examines whether belief in superstitions and folklore differs by age and degree of modernization specifically. This study investigated regional and generational differences in attitudes toward "Luck Resource Belief," a notion regarding luck. The 500 Japanese participants in our sample were stratified by place of residence, age, and income. The results reflected gender differences, but not regional or generational differences with regard to the "Luck Resource Belief" scale scores. Based on these results, the hypothesis that the mass media plays a major role in the dissemination of information about superstitions and folklore is discussed in this context. PMID:27180517

  12. Investigating Students’ Environmental Knowledge, Attitude, Practice and Communication

    Jamilah Ahmad; Shuhaida Md. Noor; Nurzali Ismail

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between students’ knowledge, attitude and practice of the environment and effective communication of environmental messages. For this purpose, a knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) survey was conducted, involving 895 students from 16 higher learning institutions in Malaysia. The findings revealed that students in general, have a good level of environmental knowledge. However, knowledge does not necessarily lead to practice. There was a weak relation...

  13. Attitudes, Beliefs, and Attendance in a Hybrid Course

    Yudko, Errol; Hirokawa, Randy; Chi, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Since online learning technology, such as streaming video, was introduced to the college distance-learning environment, there has been a need to study the attitudes of college students toward the use of this modality in hybrid courses. Understanding students' attitudes toward using online materials and the impact on class attendance is not only…

  14. Influencing University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes toward Breastfeeding

    Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these…

  15. Jordanian School Counselors' Knowledge about and Attitudes toward Diabetes Mellitus

    Tannous, Adel G.; Khateeb, Jamal M.; Khamra, Hatem A.; Hadidi, Muna S.; Natour, Mayada M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian school counselors toward diabetes mellitus. A sample of 295 counselors completed a questionnaire consisting of two parts concerning knowledge and attitudes. The face validity of the questionnaire was assessed using an informed panel of judges, and its reliability was established…

  16. Zoo Visitor Knowledge and Attitudes toward Gorillas and Chimpanzees

    Lukas, K. E.; Ross, S. R.

    2005-01-01

    The authors conducted an evaluation of visitor knowledge and conservation attitudes toward African apes at Chicago's Lincoln Park Zoo. Using S. R. Kellert's and J. Dunlap's (1989) analysis of zoo visitor knowledge and attitudes as a model, they modified and administered a survey to 1,000 visitors to the ape facility. On average, visitors correctly…

  17. Observation on Impact of Knowledge, Attitude, Belief and Practice (KABP) Intervention on Reproductive Knowledge and Behavior of Artificial Abortion Adolescents%知信行干预对人工流产青少年生殖知识及行为的影响观察

    林淑红

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of knowledge, attitude, belief and practice (KABP) intervention on the awareness of female reproductive knowledge and behavior in artificial abortion adolescents under 20 years old. Methods One hundred and fifty- eight female adolescents underwent artificial abortion in Outpatient Department of Beijing Haidian Hospital from November 2011 to April 2012 were randomly divided into control group and treatment group. Control group was given conventional care, while treatment group received KABP intervention care. Questionnaires about sexual and reproductive health knowledge designed by medical professionals were used in the survey. Before and after the nursing care, the awareness of reproductive and contraceptive knowledge, behavior and the score of psychological anxiety were compared between the two groups. Results Among the 158 female adolescents surveyed, the number of sexual debut increased with the age increased, and the number of first pregnancy mainly focused on the age group of 16~ years. After KABP intervention, the awareness rate of contraceptive knowledge and contraception rate in the patients were 91.46% and 85.37% respectively, which were significantly higher than those of control group (68.42% and 85.37%), (P0.05). After KABP intervention, the scores of psychological anxiety on one day before surgery, one week after surgery and one month after surgery in intervention group were all significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05). Conclusions KABP intervention is conducive to greatly improving the awareness of female reproductive knowledge and behavior in artificial abortion adolescents. Medical staff, schools, and families should give regular KABP education so as to reduce the harmfulness for the female adolescents.%目的 探讨知信行干预对20岁以下青少年人工流产女性生殖知识掌握程度及行为情况的影响. 方法 将2011年11月- 2012年4月在北京市

  18. Bioidentical hormone therapy: Nova Scotia pharmacists’ knowledge and beliefs

    Whelan AM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate Nova Scotia (NS pharmacists’ knowledge and beliefs regarding the use of bioidentical hormones (BHs for the management of menopause related symptoms. Methods: Using Dillman’s tailored design methodology, an invitation to complete the web-based questionnaire was emailed to pharmacists in NS as part of the Dalhousie College of Pharmacy Continuing Pharmacy Education Department’s (CPE weekly email update. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Of approximately 1300 e-mails sent, 113 pharmacists completed the questionnaire (response rate 8.7%. The majority of respondents (94% knew that BHs were not free from adverse drug reactions. More than 50% were aware that conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate were not examples of BHs. For seven of eleven knowledge questions, 33-45% indicated that they did not know the answer. When asked about their beliefs regarding BHs, many believed that BHs were similar in efficacy (49% or more effective (21% than conventional hormone therapy (CHT for vasomotor symptoms. Most respondents also believed that both BHs and CHT had similar safety profiles. Additionally, responding pharmacists indicated that more education would be helpful, especially in the area of safety and efficacy of BHTs compared to CHT. Conclusion: NS pharmacists knew BHs were not free of adverse effects, however knowledge was lacking in other areas. This may reflect the level of coverage of this topic in pharmacy school curriculums and in the pharmacy literature. Results indicate a need for additional education of NS pharmacists with respect to BHs, which could be accomplished through modification of undergraduate pharmacy programs and supplementary CPE.

  19. Knowledge, attitude and practices of Egyptian industrial and tourist workers towards HIV/AIDS.

    El-Sayyed, N; Kabbash, I A; El-Gueniedy, M

    2008-01-01

    This study explored knowledge, attitudes and practices towards HIV/AIDS infection among 1256 Egyptian industrial and tourism workers aged 16-40 years. Compared with industrial workers, tourism workers had a significantly better perception of the magnitude of the HIV/AIDS problem worldwide as well as in Egypt and of the likelihood of the problem worsening. Knowledge of tourism workers was also significantly better about causative agent of AIDS and methods of transmission. Both groups had negative attitudes towards patients living with HIV/AIDS concerning their right to confidentiality and to work. Both groups had a positive attitude towards behaviour change for protection from HIV/AIDS, principally via avoidance of extramarital sexual relations and adherence to religious beliefs. Use of condoms as a way to avoid HIV/AIDS was reported by only 0.4% of workers. PMID:19161085

  20. Knowledge and attitudes of university students regarding HIV/AIDS: an urban--rural difference.

    Lal, P; Kumar, A; Ingle, G K; Gulati, N

    1994-12-01

    A total of 322 students from two colleges of Delhi University, one located in urban and the other in the rural area were surveyed to assess and compare their knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding HIV/AIDS. A pretested and self-administered questionnaire containing mostly close ended questions was used. Observations revealed that majority of the students were aware of various aspects of HIV/AIDS. However, they also had some misconceptions particularly regarding transmission of the disease. The science and urban students had significantly more knowledge as compared to their counter parts, there by leading to more positive attitudes among them. Findings suggest intensification of AIDS education campaign focussed on removal of misconceptions and changing negative attitudes, more so amongst rural students. Science students can prove as a potential source of peer communication to the non-science students both in urban as well as rural areas. PMID:7759799

  1. University Students’ Beliefs, Awareness and Attitudes regarding the Target Culture Learning in an EFL Context

    Gutsul, Müge Çiçek

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The present study aimed at finding out the university students’ general approach to the target culture learning in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context by investigating the three sub-categories of beliefs, awareness and attitudes. The purpose of this study is to discover what students think about the target culture learning, how much they are aware of the target culture, and what their attitudes are towards the target culture learning. For this purpose, a number of related...

  2. Recruiting the next generation: a study of attitudes, values, and beliefs

    Wilcox, Andrew G.

    2001-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This study examines the attitudes, values, and beliefs of teenagers regarding military service. Specifically, the study looks at generational theory, the characteristics and views of the so-called 'Millennial' generation, factors that influence attitudes toward military service, and recruiting strategies used by the Navy and Marine Corps. The study identifies the uniqueness of the next generation of youth, or Millennials, because of th...

  3. Research on Chinese College English Teachers’ Classroom Code-switching: Beliefs and Attitudes

    Xiaoli Cheng

    2013-01-01

    This article documents the beliefs and attitudes of Chinese college English teachers towards classroom code-switching. The findings suggest that teachers’ code-switching is commonplace in class, although most of them still hold negative attitude toward it. Besides, students’ ability is regarded as the most significant factor affecting teachers’ code-switching, and the first language (L1) is mainly used to teach grammar and abstract words. The conclusion is that, in Chinese E...

  4. Beliefs, attitudes and phobias among Mexican medical and psychology students towards people with obesity

    Lucero Soto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high prevalence of stigmatizing attitude among healthcare personnel towards obese people has been reported. Objective: To evaluate the beliefs, attitudes and phobias that Mexican medical and psychology students have towards obese people. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 528 students enrolled at the Autonomous University of Baja California in psychology and medical schools. Weight, height and waist circumference were evaluated. Beliefs about obesity were assessed with the BAOP scale, attitudes towards obese people by the ATOP scale and obesity phobias by the F-scale. Results: Participants achieved a mean F-scale score of 3.4. Only seven per cent showed neutral or positive attitudes towards obesity (≤ 2.5. Less fat phobia was associated with beliefs that obesity was not a result of the person's self-control (p = 0.0001 and had better attitudes towards obese people (p = 0.0001. Men had higher risk of fat phobia (OR = 1.5. Conclusions: High prevalence of phobias and negative attitudes towards obesity was observed. Men had higher stigma.

  5. Epidemiology of noise-induced tinnitus and the attitudes and beliefs towards noise and hearing protection in adolescents.

    Annick Gilles

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous research showed an increase of noise-induced symptoms in adolescents. Permanent tinnitus as a consequence of loud music exposure is usually considered as noise-induced damage. The objective was to perform an epidemiological study in order to obtain prevalence data of permanent noise-induced tinnitus as well as temporary tinnitus following noise exposure in a young population. In addition the attitudes and beliefs towards noise and hearing protection were evaluated in order to explain the use/non-use of hearing protection in a young population. METHODS: A questionnaire was completed by 3892 high school students (mean age: 16.64 years old, SD: 1.29 years. The prevalence of temporary and permanent tinnitus was assessed. In addition the 'Youth Attitudes to Noise Scale' and the 'Beliefs About Hearing Protection and Hearing Loss' were used in order to assess the attitudes and beliefs towards noise and hearing protection respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of temporary noise-induced tinnitus and permanent tinnitus in high school students was respectively 74.9% and 18.3%. An increasing prevalence of temporary tinnitus with age was present. Most students had a 'neutral attitude' towards loud music and the use of hearing protection was minimal (4.7%. The limited use of hearing protection is explained by a logistic regression analysis showing the relations between certain parameters and the use of hearing protection. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the very high prevalence of tinnitus in such a young population, the rate of hearing protection use and the knowledge about the risks of loud music is extremely low. Future preventive campaigns should focus more on tinnitus as a warning signal for noise-induced damage and emphasize that also temporary symptoms can result in permanent noise-induced damage.

  6. Electronic banking in Finland : consumer beliefs, attitudes, intentions and behaviors

    Karjaluoto, Heikki

    2002-01-01

    This study focuses on developing a theoretical model with a practicaljustification within the field of electronic banking. We ground our discussion on the framework of consumer behavior and electronic banking by linking attitude research and electronic business research. Thus, the purpose of this dissertation is to determine those factors that influence the formation of consumer attitude toward electronic banking. Another important aspect of this study is to develop more insights into how att...

  7. Adoption of Mobile Devices in Teaching: Changes in Teacher Beliefs, Attitudes and Anxiety

    Chiu, Thomas K. F.; Churchill, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Beliefs, attitudes and anxiety levels of schoolteachers are important factors influencing the acceptance, adoption and integration of mobile devices in teaching. To understand how to sustain device use, we need to understand what influences teachers and how such factors can change. We adopted a quasi-experimental design using pre- and…

  8. Professional Socialization in Nurse Anesthesia Educational Programs: Attitudes and Beliefs of Faculty Members and Recent Graduates

    Buettner, Kevin Charles

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand professional socialization in nurse anesthesia educational programs through an exploration of the attitudes and beliefs of faculty members and recent graduates. Participants for this cross-sectional, quasi-experimental online study included a convenience sample of 178 nurse anesthesia faculty…

  9. Preservice Teachers' Beliefs and Attitude about Teaching and Learning Mathematics through Music: An Intervention Study

    An, Song A.; Ma, Tingting; Capraro, Mary Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This article presents exploratory research investigating the integration of music and a mathematics lesson as an intervention to promote preservice teachers' attitude and confidence and to extend their beliefs toward teaching mathematics integrated with music. Thirty students were randomly selected from 64 preservice teachers in a southern…

  10. Preservice Preschool Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Attitudes toward Teaching Profession

    Elaldi, Senel; Yerliyurt, Nazli Sila

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate preservice preschool teachers' self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes toward the teaching profession. The population of the present study consisted of 855 (Female = 729) preservice preschool teachers studying at the Faculty of Education, Cumhuriyet University, in the fall semester of the 2015-2016 academic…

  11. Beliefs and Attitudes of Primary School Teachers in Mumbai, India towards Children Who Stutter

    Pachigar, Vinati; Stansfield, Jois; Goldbart, Juliet

    2011-01-01

    Beliefs and attitudes of teachers in Mumbai, India, towards children who stutter were investigated using questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Questionnaires were completed by 58 teachers, four of whom were subsequently interviewed. Results from the questionnaires showed that teachers believed that a child's environment influenced…

  12. Attitudes and beliefs affect frequency of eating out in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    Attitudes and beliefs reflecting cultural values can have a positive or negative influence on eating behaviors. Eating out may negatively affect diet quality through increased fat intake and larger portion sizes. In a representative sample of the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) consisting of 1601 Af...

  13. Religiosity and Spirituality among Persons with Spinal Cord Injury: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Practices

    Marini, Irmo; Glover-Graf, Noreen M.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 157 persons with spinal cord injury completed the "Spirituality and Spinal Cord Injury Survey" in relation to their spiritual and/or religious attitudes, beliefs, and practices in terms of adapting to their disability. Factor analysis accounting for 69% of the variance revealed four factors related to Spiritual Help and Improvement…

  14. Examining Shifts in Preservice Teachers' Beliefs and Attitudes toward Writing Instruction

    Hall, Anna H.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of integrating self-reflection, focused instruction, and field practice in a semester-long language arts course in order to shift early childhood preservice teachers' (PSTs) beliefs and attitudes about writing instruction, as well as their development and planned use of tools for…

  15. Effectiveness of Case-Based Learning Instruction on Epistemological Beliefs and Attitudes toward Chemistry

    Cam, Aylin; Geban, Omer

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of case-based learning instruction over traditionally designed chemistry instruction on eleventh grade students' epistemological beliefs and their attitudes toward chemistry as a school subject. The subjects of this study consisted of 63 eleventh grade students from two intact classes…

  16. Public Awareness, Attitudes and Beliefs regarding Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review

    Scior, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    The general public's responses to people with intellectual disabilities influence the likely success or failure of policies aimed at increasing their social inclusion. The present paper provides a review of general population based research into awareness, attitudes and beliefs regarding intellectual disability published in English between 1990…

  17. Preservice Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs about Democratic Classroom Practice: Influences on Intentions for Pedagogical Integration

    Pryor, Caroline R.; Pryor, Brandt W.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated preservice teachers' intentions to integrate democratic practice into their teaching and the influence of attitudes and beliefs on intentions. Participants were 76 undergraduates from 3 social studies methods classes. A theory of reasoned action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) guided instrument development. Intention was…

  18. Is There Concordance in Attitudes and Beliefs between Parents and Scientists about Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    Fischbach, Ruth L.; Harris, Mark J.; Ballan, Michelle S.; Fischbach, Gerald D.; Link, Bruce G.

    2016-01-01

    There is no reported investigation comparing concordance in attitudes and beliefs about autism spectrum disorder between parents of children with autism spectrum disorder and scientists who research autism spectrum disorder. To investigate the level of concordance between these groups on causes of autism, priorities of research, perceived stigma,…

  19. Attitudes and Beliefs Associated with Mammography in a Multiethnic Population in Israel

    Baron-Epel, Orna

    2010-01-01

    This article highlights beliefs, attitudes, and barriers that are associated with mammography use in four distinct cultural and ethnic groups in Israel: veteran, ultra-orthodox, and immigrant Jewish and Arab women. A random telephone survey of 1,550 women was performed. Information from claims records concerning mammography use was obtained for…

  20. The Attitudes & Beliefs on Classroom Control Inventory-Revised and Revisited: A Continuation of Construct Validation

    Martin, Nancy K.; Yin, Zenong; Mayall, Hayley

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the psychometric properties of the revised Attitudes and Beliefs of Classroom Control Inventory (ABCC-R). Data were collected from 489 participants via the ABCC-R, Teacher Efficacy Scale, Problems in School Questionnaire, and a demographic questionnaire. Results were in keeping with the construct. The…

  1. Teacher Education and Preparation: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Perceptions of Preparedness about Teaching the Culturally Diverse Student

    San Miguel May, Rozanna

    2010-01-01

    The researcher of this study endeavored to determine if a treatment of a multicultural awareness presentation, multicultural coursework, and field experiences impacted teacher candidates' attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of preparedness about teaching culturally diverse students. Today, as evidenced by disaggregation of test scores, and dropout…

  2. Towards a Typology of Parental Behaviors, Attitudes, and Beliefs about School

    Pelletier, Daniel; Collerette, Pierre; Turcotte, Gilles; Beaulieu, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    The social and academic experiences of children and adolescents in school are a major concern for parents and their characteristics as protection or risk factors for their children's adaptation has been extensively studied. However, few studies have dealt with the behaviors, attitudes and beliefs of parents about the schools their children…

  3. Exploring Stakeholders' Attitudes and Beliefs regarding Behaviors that Prevent the Spread of Invasive Species

    Prinbeck, Gwenn; Lach, Denise; Chan, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior was used as a framework for investigating recreationists' attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral control beliefs pertaining to behaviors that reduce the spread of invasive species. A series of focus groups comprised of gardeners, fishers, hunters, and boaters was convened in Oregon, USA. Findings indicate six…

  4. The Effect of a Modified Moore Method on Attitudes and Beliefs in Precalculus

    Bailey, Brad; Cooper, Thomas E.; Briggs, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    As part of a study on the effects of teaching with a Modified Moore Method (MMM), a survey containing 20 items from Schoenfeld's (1989) investigation of attitudes and beliefs about mathematics was administered to students in undergraduate precalculus classes. The study included one section of precalculus taught with an MMM, a student-centered and…

  5. Professors' Influence on Students' Beliefs, Values, and Attitudes in the Classroom

    Emmanuel, Glory; Delaney, Harold

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews how psychology research has defined beliefs, values, and attitudes (BVAs); how they relate to each other; and how they may be influenced, especially in the academic setting. The purpose of this article is to (a) describe the nature of and the interrelationships between BVAs, (b) discuss their relevance to the academic…

  6. Development and Validation of a Preschool Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs toward Science Teaching Questionnaire

    Maier, Michelle F.; Greenfield, Daryl B.; Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about preschool teachers' attitudes and beliefs toward science teaching, in part, because the field lacks valid and reliable measures of these teacher-related factors. To address this need, the current study developed and validated a rating scale (P-TABS) using a statewide sample of Head Start teachers (N = 507). A series of…

  7. Relationship between Teachers' Job Satisfaction and Their Attitudes towards Students' Beliefs and Motivation

    Salehi, Hadi; Taghavi, Elham; Yunus, Melor Md

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have been done in the developed countries due to the importance of job satisfaction; however, only a limited number of studies have been conducted on teachers' job satisfaction in Iran. This study is an attempt to investigate the relationship between teachers' job satisfaction and their attitudes towards students' beliefs and…

  8. Alcohol makes others dislike you: reducing the positivity of teens’ beliefs and attitudes toward alcohol use

    A. de Graaf

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the effects of the portrayal of negative consequences of alcohol use on beliefs and attitudes toward alcohol consumption. In a between-subjects experiment (N = 108), participants were randomly assigned to watch one of three conditions. One group of participants watched a version of

  9. Study of Youths’ Knowledge, Behavior, and Attitude towards Consanguineous Marriages

    M Hasanzadeh-Nazarabadi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Consanguineous marriages are traditionally favoured in most of Asian and African countries especially in the Muslim countries. However, it is apparent that these kinds of marriage are a major factor of some genetic disorders inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Although there is a long history of consanguineous marriage in Iran, the information on its prevalence is too poor. The aim of this study was to define the frequency of consanguineous marriage in Mashhad City, Khorasan Province, Iran as well as its correlations to the youths’ attitude and their knowledge about the genetic consequences of inbreeding. The concerning information was obtained by administration of a direct questionnaire including 50 open and closed questions. The subjects were 500 young people (with a mean age of 21.4 yr who were selected during a quota sampling. The results of this study revealed that most of the youth did not have favorable information about the consequences of genetic disorders of inbreeding. There was a higher rate of consanguinity in the rural rather than the urban population. The traditional beliefs and the authority of the parents who had also experienced consanguineous marriage were other predominating factors of inbreeding.

  10. Knowledge, attitudes, and practice of tuberculosis among Maasai in Simanjiro district, Tanzania.

    Haasnoot, Pieter Jacob; Boeting, Tijs Evert; Kuney, Moignet Ole; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of this study are to determine knowledge, attitudes, and practice among Maasai concerning tuberculosis (TB), and to gain insight into the role of traditional healers in diagnosis and treatment. We conducted a descriptive-explorative study using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews collating information to assess and compare TB knowledge, attitudes, and practice. The study population consisted of the Maasai population. The Maasai have insufficient understanding concerning TB. Schooling has a significant positive effect on knowledge. The Maasai believe TB is manifest as a punishment from god and is treatable with herbs, roots, and bark. The Maasai have numerous other erroneous health assumptions and beliefs concerning TB. Traditional healers act as family doctors and play a key role in TB treatment initiation and adherence. Traditional healers have substantial influence over primary diagnosis and treatment of TB. Education could positively affect initiation of diagnosis and treatment, resulting in better TB control. PMID:20889888

  11. Gender Role Attitudes and Male Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration: Normative Beliefs as Moderators.

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Reidy, Dennis E; Hall, Jeffrey E

    2016-02-01

    Commonly used dating violence prevention programs assume that promotion of more egalitarian gender role attitudes will prevent dating violence perpetration. Empirical research examining this assumption, however, is limited and inconsistent. The current study examined the longitudinal association between gender role attitudes and physical dating violence perpetration among adolescent boys (n = 577; 14 % Black, 5 % other race/ethnicity) and examined whether injunctive (i.e., acceptance of dating violence) and descriptive (i.e., beliefs about dating violence prevalence) normative beliefs moderated the association. As expected, the findings suggest that traditional gender role attitudes at T1 were associated with increased risk for dating violence perpetration 18 months later (T2) among boys who reported high, but not low, acceptance of dating violence (injunctive normative beliefs) at T1. Descriptive norms did not moderate the effect of gender role attitudes on dating violence perpetration. The results suggest that injunctive norms and gender role attitudes work synergistically to increase risk for dating violence perpetration among boys; as such, simultaneously targeting both of these constructs may be an effective prevention approach. PMID:25831994

  12. The Knowledge Gap Versus the Belief Gap and Abstinence-Only Sex Education.

    Hindman, Douglas Blanks; Yan, Changmin

    2015-08-01

    The knowledge gap hypothesis predicts widening disparities in knowledge of heavily publicized public affairs issues among socioeconomic status groups. The belief gap hypothesis extends the knowledge gap hypothesis to account for knowledge and beliefs about politically contested issues based on empirically verifiable information. This analysis of 3 national surveys shows belief gaps developed between liberals and conservatives regarding abstinence-only sex education; socioeconomic status-based knowledge gaps did not widen. The findings partially support both belief gap and knowledge gap hypotheses. In addition, the unique contributions of exposure to Fox News, CNN, and MSNBC in this process were investigated. Only exposure to Fox News was linked to beliefs about abstinence-only sex education directly and indirectly through the cultivation of conservative ideology. PMID:25950234

  13. Primary care physicians' attitudes and beliefs towards chronic low back pain: an Asian study.

    Regina W S Sit

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain is a serious global health problem. There is substantial evidence that physicians' attitudes towards and beliefs about chronic low back pain can influence their subsequent management of the condition.(1 to evaluate the attitudes and beliefs towards chronic low back pain among primary care physicians in Asia; (2 to study the cultural differences and other factors that are associated with these attitudes and beliefs.A cross sectional online survey was sent to primary care physicians who are members of the Hong Kong College of Family Physician (HKCFP. The Pain Attitudes and Beliefs Scale for Physiotherapist (PABS-PT was used as the questionnaire to determine the biomedical and biopsychosocial orientation of the participants.The mean Biomedical (BM score was 34.8+/-6.1; the mean biopsychosocial (BPS score was 35.6 (+/- 4.8. Both scores were higher than those of European doctors. Family medicine specialists had a lower biomedical score than General practitioners. Physicians working in the public sector tended to have low BM and low BPS scores; whereas physicians working in private practice tended to have high BM and high BPS scores.The lack of concordance in the pain explanatory models used by private and public sector may have a detrimental effect on patients who are under the care of both parties. The uncertain treatment orientation may have a negative influence on patients' attitudes and beliefs, thus contributing to the tension and, perhaps, even ailing mental state of a person with chronic LBP.

  14. Knowledge, attitude, and practices of infertility among Saudi couples

    Abolfotouh MA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Abdullah A Alabdrabalnabi,2 Rehab B Albacker,3 Umar A Al-Jughaiman,4 Samar N Hassan5 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2University of Dammam, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Faisal University, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1 to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2 to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF clinic. Methods and materials: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ≤ 0.05. Results: A generally poor level of knowledge (59% and a neutral attitude (76% toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%, black magic (67.5%, intrauterine devices (71.3%, and contraceptive pills (42.9%. The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility

  15. First Year Medical Students′ AIDS Knowledge and Attitude

    Amalraj Edwin R

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of knowledge, sexual practices and attitude of medical students towards AIDS/ HIV. Objective: To assess the knowledge, sexual practices and attitudes of medical students in relation to HIV/AIDS. Study Design: Cross- sectional. Participants: 409 first year medical students. Study variables: Sex knowledge, sexual practices, Attitudes, Risk perception. Results: 92% of the students had heard about AIDS predominantly through mass media. Many students had misconception about transmission of HIV infection should not be allowed to work in the clinic or hospital. 36% of male and 9% of female students admitted indulging in safe sexual practices mostly with their friends.

  16. Knowledge formalization for vector data matching using belief theory

    Ana-Maria Olteanu-Raimond

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays geographic vector data is produced both by public and private institutions using well defined specifications or crowdsourcing via Web 2.0 mapping portals. As a result, multiple representations of the same real world objects exist, without any links between these different representations. This becomes an issue when integration, updates, or multi-level analysis needs to be performed, as well as for data quality assessment. In this paper a multi-criteria data matching approach allowing the automatic definition of links between identical features is proposed. The originality of the approach is that the process is guided by an explicit representation and fusion of knowledge from various sources. Moreover the imperfection (imprecision, uncertainty, and incompleteness is explicitly modeled in the process. Belief theory is used to represent and fuse knowledge from different sources, to model imperfection, and make a decision. Experiments are reported on real data coming from different producers, having different scales and either representing relief (isolated points or road networks (linear data.

  17. Stroke-Related Knowledge, Lifestyle Behaviours and Health Beliefs in Singaporean Chinese: Implications for Health Education

    Wong, Wai Pong; Yeung, Meredith; Loh, Susan; Lee, Mina; Ghazali, F.; Chan, C. J.; Feng, S.; Liew, Y. V.; Seah, P. F.; Wee, J.; Wang, J.; Huang, X.; Dean, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to describe stroke-related knowledge (risk factors, warning signs and emergency response), lifestyle behaviours and health beliefs among Singaporean Chinese, and to identify any factors associated with such knowledge, behaviours and beliefs. Design: This was a cross-sectional study design employing…

  18. Rape Myth Beliefs and Bystander Attitudes among Incoming College Students

    McMahon, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The bystander approach to rape prevention is gaining popularity on college campuses, although research is limited. This study explored bystander attitudes and their relationship with rape myths in a sample of college students. Participants: Surveys from 2,338 incoming undergraduate students at a large, northeastern university were…

  19. Outreach as seen by the Spanish professional astronomers: a survey of beliefs, attitudes, and activities

    Rodríguez Hidalgo, I.; Díaz Vilela, L. F.

    A survey of outreach related beliefs, attitudes, and activities of the Spanish professional astronomers is presented. More than one hundred scientists answered an ad-hoc drawn up questionnaire, whose results have been analysed statistically. This feedback form is an improved version of that used in a previous research carried out by the authors with a sample of members of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Díaz Vilela & Rodríguez Hidalgo 2005). Some of the studied items are the actual time and effort devoted to outreach by a researcher, the role of outreach within his work, the valuation of outreach activities in his curriculum, socially, or economically, the opinion about who should have the responsibility of organising and performing popularisation tasks, etc. Three kinds of studies have been performed: the descriptive one is based on the frequencies and means of variables; a Principal Component Analysis was applied to get a shorter number of belief-attitude dimensions; and an inferential one, derived from a Multiple Regression Analysis which provides a reliable description of the beliefs-attitudes scale grouping outreach related beliefs into 6 components, 3 of them more significant. A simple regression allows us to predict about a 50% of the variance of the outreach practices.

  20. Measures of Knowledge and Attitude Toward Preventive Cardiology.

    Allred, Charlene A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The development and validation of an inventory of preventive cardiology at the University of Virginia is described. The inventory contains two instruments designed to measure medical students' preinstructional and postinstructional knowledge of and attitude toward preventive cardiology. (Author/MLW)

  1. Korean women: breast cancer knowledge, attitudes and behaviors

    Ryujin Lisa T; Sadler Georgia R; Ko Celine; Nguyen Emily

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Clustered within the nomenclature of Asian American are numerous subgroups, each with their own ethnic heritage, cultural, and linguistic characteristics. An understanding of the prevailing health knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors of these subgroups is essential for creating population-specific health promotion programs. Methods Korean American women (123) completed baseline surveys of breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors as part of an ...

  2. Knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of dental students towards obesity

    Awan, K.H.; Khan, S.; Z. Abadeen; Khalid, T.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Obesity is a chronic medical condition associated with various oral health problems. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of dental students towards obesity. Material and methods: Second-, third-, and fourth-year dental students completed a self-administered questionnaire. An ethics committee approved the study. Participants were asked questions focused on three areas: (i) knowledge, (ii) perceptions, and (iii) attitudes about obesity. Data an...

  3. Exploring Student Students’ Attitudes and Beliefs Towards E-Portfolios and Technology in Education

    Gemma TUR

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on student teachers’ attitude towards technology in education and e-portfolio processes. Attitude is closely related to teachers’ beliefs and the later have been defined as second-order barriers. While an important effort has been made to overcome first-order barrier such as resources, training and support, it cannot be observed that technology has been successfully introduced in education. Therefore, second-order barriers such as attitudes and beliefs are being considered nowadays in order to address the lack of innovative use of technology by teachers. It has been argued that the introduction of technology has to be directed towards the empowerment of cognitive and high-level thinking skills and has to be used based on student-centred approaches. Building e-portfolios and helping students which grow and curate their own Personal Learning Environments (PLE are two approaches to go beyond technology-centered models. E-Portfolios are viewed as part of students’ PLE so social media are used to enhance both e-portfolio processes and students’ PLEs. The research is based on a survey in four groups of students at the local branch in Ibiza of the University of the Balearic Islands. The participants have previously built their e-portfolios with Web 2.0 tools during one semester. Students are asked to document their learning weekly and reflect on the change experienced in the way they think about educational issues. Students are also asked to use new tools and social media services to give evidence of their own learning. The survey is based on a Likert scale so as to be able to analyse the students’ attitude and beliefs towards their e-portfolio and technology in education. The results show that a generally positive attitude is developed by students. Conclusions highlight the slight difference in student teachers’ attitude between technology and specific e-portfolio processes.

  4. Testing the Role of Parental Debt Attitudes, Student Income, Dependency Status, and Financial Knowledge Have in Shaping Financial Self-Efficacy among College Students

    Heckman, Stuart J.; Grable, John E.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the determinants of personal finance knowledge among college students and to test how this knowledge affects students' perceived self-efficacy beliefs in dealing with personal financial issues. In this study, a test of parental attitudes towards debt, students' income level, and dependency status related to…

  5. Attitudes About Human Trafficking: Individual Differences Related to Belief and Victim Blame.

    Cunningham, Katherine C; Cromer, Lisa DeMarni

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is believed to oppress millions of people worldwide. Despite increased media attention and public awareness campaigns in recent years, no empirical research has examined public attitudes about human trafficking. The present study examined gender, sexual trauma history, and attitudes about human trafficking as they related to belief of a sex-trafficking scenario and willingness to blame the victim for the situation. Undergraduate students (N = 409) at a large private university in the Northeastern United States completed measures in which they responded to a vignette portraying sex trafficking in the United States. Participants also reported their personal trauma history and completed a Human Trafficking Myths Scale. Results indicated that gender and human trafficking myth acceptance, but not sexual trauma history, were significantly related to participants' belief of the sex-trafficking scenario and their perception of the victim's responsibility. Potential implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25389189

  6. Epistemological Beliefs and Knowledge Sharing in Work Teams: A New Model and Research Questions

    Weinberg, Frankie J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a knowledge-sharing model that explains individual members' motivation to share knowledge (knowledge donation and knowledge collection). Design/methodology/approach: The model is based on social-constructivist theories of epistemological beliefs, learning and distributed cognition, and is organized…

  7. Motives, beliefs and attitudes towards waterpipe tobacco smoking: a systematic review

    Akl, Elie A; Jawad, Mohammed; Lam, Wai Yim; Co, Christopher N; Obeid, Rawad; Irani, Jihad

    2013-01-01

    Background In spite of the negative health effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking, its use is becoming more common. The objective of this study is to systematically review the medical literature for motives, beliefs and attitudes towards waterpipe tobacco smoking. Methods We electronically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the ISI the Web of Science in January 2012. We included both quantitative and qualitative studies. We selected studies and abstracted data using standard systematic review method...

  8. The changing academic environment and diversity in students study philosophy, beliefs and attitudes in higher education

    Mohammad Alauddin; Adrian Ashman

    2014-01-01

    Student populations in higher education in Australia and elsewhere in the developed world have experienced significant diversity over the past two decades. The existing literature has provided limited clarity about the effects of this diversity on the dimensions underpinning students’ study philosophy domain. Based on a large data set from a leading Australian university, this paper analyses students’ study philosophy, beliefs and attitudes towards teaching and learning. Factor analysis e...

  9. Beliefs, Attitudes, and Practices of Principals with Respect to Hiring Diverse Teachers

    Singh, Gursev

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the beliefs, attitudes, and practices of principals with regard to equity and inclusion specific to hiring teachers from diverse backgrounds. A qualitative design and narrative analysis guided this study. Twelve principals and vice-principals from six high schools in one school district in Ontario participated in the study by answering questions on a self-completion web questionnaire. The findings were analyzed using four categories with regard to hirin...

  10. Teachers' beliefs and attitudes about the use of cooperative learning in local primary English classrooms

    Yuet, Tsz-ying; 越芷盈

    2015-01-01

    Many researches studies indicate that cooperative learning has a lot of positive impacts on students’ learning including academic performance, social skills and cognitive skills. Cooperative learning is also found to help students’ success in their learning. This study reports the findings of 6 in-service primary English teachers’ attitudes and beliefs towards the use of cooperative learning in Hong Kong’s classrooms. Teachers with different years of teaching experiences working in the same s...

  11. IMPORTANCE OF BELIEFS, ATTITUDES AND VALUES IN THE FRAME OF HUMAN RESOURCE MOTIVATION

    Claudia , MOISE

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with a complex and original field of analyse – the role that concepts such as beliefs, attitudes and values can entail in the modern human resources management techniques that are dealing with employee’s motivation. Nowadays employees have a complex approach regarding motivation. Especially when we speak about big organisations such as multinational companies, we will find complex jobs having many tasks and a complicated network of inter-relations within the organisation. In...

  12. The attitudes, beliefs and behaviours of GPs regarding exercise for chronic knee pain: a systematic review

    Foster Nadine E

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Joint pain, specifically chronic knee pain (CKP, is a frequent cause of chronic pain and limitation of function and mobility among older adults. Multiple evidence-based guidelines recommend exercise as a first-line treatment for all patients with CKP or knee osteoarthritis (KOA, yet healthcare practitioners' attitudes and beliefs may limit their implementation. This systematic review aims to identify the attitudes, beliefs and behaviours of General Practitioners (GPs regarding the use of exercise for CKP/KOA. Methods We searched four electronic databases between inception and January 2008, using subject headings to identify studies examining the attitudes, beliefs or behaviours of GPs regarding the use of exercise for the treatment of CKP/KOA in adults aged over 45 years in primary care. Studies referring to patellofemoral pain syndrome or CKP secondary to other causes or that occurring in a prosthetic joint were excluded. Once inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, study data were extracted and summarised. Study quality was independently reviewed using two assessment tools. Results From 2135 potentially relevant articles, 20 were suitable for inclusion. A variety of study methodologies and approaches to measuring attitudes beliefs and behaviours were used among the studies. Quality assessment revealed good reporting of study objective, type, outcome factors and, generally, the sampling frame. However, criticisms included use of small sample sizes, low response rates and under-reporting of non-responder factors. Although 99% of GPs agreed that exercise should be used for CKP/KOA and reported ever providing advice or referring to a physiotherapist, up to 29% believed that rest was the optimum management approach. The frequency of actual provision of exercise advice or physiotherapy referral was lower. Estimates of provision of exercise advice and physiotherapy referral were generally higher for vignette-based studies

  13. Hearing in young adults. Part I: The effects of attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices

    Hannah Keppler; Ingeborg Dhooge; Bart Vinck

    2015-01-01

    There is great concern regarding the development of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in youth caused by high sound levels during various leisure activities. Health-orientated behavior of young adults might be linked to the beliefs and attitudes toward noise, hearing loss, and hearing protector devices (HPDs). The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of attitudes and beliefs toward noise, hearing loss, and HPDs on young adults′ hearing status. A questionnaire and an audi...

  14. Faculty of Education Students’ Computer Self-Efficacy Beliefs and their Attitudes towards Computers and Implementing Computer Supported Education

    Hasan Güner Berkant

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates faculty of education students’ computer self-efficacy beliefs and their attitudes towards computers and implementing computer supported education. This study is descriptive and based on a correlational survey model. The final sample consisted of 414 students studying in the faculty of education of a Turkish university. The results show that male students have higher computer self-efficacy beliefs; major and class level variables do not affect students' computer attitud...

  15. Impact of reading a scientific journal issue about hypnosis on the beliefs and attitudes towards hypnosis among psychologists

    M. Elena Mendoza; Antonio Capafons; Begoña Espejo

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the influence of receiving scientific information about hypnosis over Spanish psychologists" beliefs and attitudes toward hypnosis. The Valencia Scale on Attitudes and Beliefs toward Hypnosis-Therapist (VSABH-T) was administered to 2434 Spanish psychologists. A retest and a second retest were carried out,and between these testing administrations a monograph issue focused on hypnosis was published in a journal that all members of the Spanish Psychological ...

  16. Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Understanding of Anxiety (PABUA): Development and psychometric properties of a measure.

    Wolk, Courtney Benjamin; Caporino, Nicole E; McQuarrie, Susanna; Settipani, Cara A; Podell, Jennifer L; Crawley, Sarah; Beidas, Rinad S; Kendall, Philip C

    2016-04-01

    The Parental Attitudes, Beliefs, and Understanding of Anxiety (PABUA) was developed to assess parental beliefs about their child's anxiety, parents' perceived ability to cope with their child's anxiety and to help their child manage anxious symptoms, and to evaluate parents' understanding of various parenting strategies in response to their child's anxiety. The study evaluated the PABUA in mother-child dyads (N=192) seeking treatment for youth anxiety. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a three-factor solution and identified PABUA scales of Overprotection, Distress, and Approach (with Cronbach's alpha ranging from .67 to .83). Convergent and divergent validity of PABUA scales was supported by the pattern of associations with measures of experiential avoidance, beliefs related to children's anxiety, empathy, trait anxiety, and depressive symptoms; parent-reported family functioning; parent- and youth-reported anxiety severity; and parent-reported functional impairment (n=83). Results provide preliminary support for the PABUA as a measure of parental attitudes and beliefs about anxiety, and future studies that investigate this measure with large and diverse samples are encouraged. PMID:26970877

  17. English professional football players concussion knowledge and attitude

    Joshua M. Williams; Jody L. Langdon; James L. McMillan; Thomas A. Buckley

    2016-01-01

    Background: Concussions are a common pathology in football and multiple misconceptions exist amongst the players and managers. To address these misconceptions, and potentially reduce concussion associated sequela, effective educational interventions need to be developed. However, the current knowledge and attitude status must be ascertained to appropriately develop these interventions. The purpose of this study was to assess the concussion knowledge and attitude of English professional footballers. Methods: Twenty-six participants from one English Football League Championship club completed the study. A mixed methods approach included the Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitudes Survey (RoCKAS) and a semi-structured interview. The RoCKAS contains separate knowledge (0–25) and attitude (15–75) scores and was followed by a semi-structured interview consisting of concussion knowledge, attitude, and behavior related questions. Results: The mean score on the RoCKAS knowledge was 16.4 ± 2.9 (range 11–22) and the attitude score was 59.6 ± 8.5 (range 41–71). The interview responses identified inconsistencies between the RoCKAS and the intended behaviors, endorsing multiple concussion misconceptions, and revealed barriers to concussion reporting. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that Championship Level English footballers have moderate concussion knowledge, safe attitudes, and good concussion symptom recognition when assessed with pen and paper questionnaires. However, within the semi-structured interview many respondents reported unsafe concussion behaviors despite accurately identifying the potential risks. Further, multiple barriers to concussion reporting were identified which included perceived severity of the injury, game situations, and the substitution rule. These findings can help form the foundation of educational interventions to potentially improve concussion reporting behaviors amongst professional footballers.

  18. Responsibility Attitudes in Obsessive-Compulsive Patients: The Contributions of Meta-Cognitive Beliefs and Worry

    Changiz Rahimi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive patients are distressed by intrusivethoughts, which are related to unreal threats. These patientsfeel that they are responsible for harming themselves and others.While controlling worry and meta-cognitive beliefs, thepresent study aimed at comparing the responsibility attitudesin obsessive compulsive patients with those in normal subjectsto determine whether the difference in responsibility attitudesbetween two groups was significant.Methods: A group of 15 patients were compared with normalsubjects (n=15 who matched the patient group in terms ofgender, age and education. All subjects filled the ResponsibilityAttitude Scale, the Penn, State Worry Questionnaire andthe Meta-cognition Questionnaire -30. The findings were analyzedusing descriptive statistics as well as student t and ANCOVAtests.Results: Responsibility attitudes in obsessive patients weresignificantly higher than those in normal subjects (P<0.001,when patient worries and meta-cognitive beliefs were notcontrolled. However, after controlling patient's worry andmeta-cognitive beliefs there was no significant differencebetween responsibility attitudes in normal and obsessive–compulsive group.Conclusion: The findings might suggest that responsibilityattitude is not strongly related to obsessive-compulsive symptoms.It seems that it is a characteristic caused by basic metacognitivebeliefs, because the relationship between the responsibilityand the symptoms was dependent on meta-cognition.Therefore, in studying the etiology and treatment of obsessivecompulsive disorders focus on the responsibility attitudesalone cannot be very helpful.

  19. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Preservice Teachers' Responses to the Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom Control Inventory.

    Henson, Robin K.; Roberts, J. Kyle

    This study examined the factorial invariance of scores from the Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom Control Inventory (ABCC) (Martin and others, 1998) for 243 undergraduate preservice teachers. Although the original ABCC was developed with inservice teachers, use of the instrument to study the classroom beliefs of preservice teachers had not been…

  20. Diversity attitudes and group knowledge processing in multicultural organizations

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The ability to locate, share, and use knowledge is vital for effective functioning of organizations. However, such knowledge processing can be complicated by increasing cultural diversity. Recent studies have suggested that a group’s diversity attitudes may increase group outcomes. In this study...

  1. Female genital mutilation (FGM): Australian midwives' knowledge and attitudes.

    Ogunsiji, Olayide

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a women's health and human rights issue attracting global interest. My purpose in this qualitative study was to report the knowledge and attitudes of Australian midwives toward FGM. Verbatim transcription and thematic analysis of semistructured interviews with 11 midwives resulted in these themes: knowledge of female genital mutilation and attitude toward female genital mutilation. Significant gaps in knowledge about FGM featured prominently. The midwives expressed anger toward FGM and empathy for affected women. Recommendations include increased information on FGM and associated legislation among midwives and other health providers in countries where FGM may be encountered. PMID:25558808

  2. Development of a Scale to Measure Laypersons' Beliefs about Medical Knowledge

    Barnes, Laura L. B.; Wheeler, Denna L.; Laster, Bonnie B.; McGaugh, Miriam; Morse, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Literature on participatory health care suggests that, though many patients desire basic information, a substantial number prefer a passive role. This variability is explored as a function of laypersons' beliefs about the nature of medical knowledge, referred to as epistemological beliefs, through the evaluation of a newly-developed…

  3. Exploring Differences in Practicing Teachers' Valuing of Pedagogical Knowledge Based on Teaching Ability Beliefs

    Fives, Helenrose; Buehl, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    In this investigation, we assessed 443 teachers' beliefs with the "Teaching Ability Belief Scale" (TABS) and the "Importance of Teaching Knowledge Scale" (ITKS). Using cluster analysis, we identified four groups of teachers based on their responses to the TABS reflecting "Innate," "Learned,"…

  4. Knowledge, beliefs, and risk factors for osteoporosis among African-American and Hispanic women.

    Geller, S E; Derman, R

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop and conduct a needs and risk instrument to assess knowledge of osteoporosis risk factors, identify beliefs and attitudes about this disease, and delineate the presence and/or absence of healthy behaviors associated with osteoporosis among African American and Hispanic women. The survey findings suggest that African-American and Hispanic women are not well-versed in behaviors that would promote and maintain optimal bone mass. Consequently, they are not practicing appropriate lifestyle and dietary habits to decrease their risk of osteoporosis. Such behaviors include inadequate physical activity, inadequate calcium intake, cigarette smoking, and long-term steroid use. Less than 10% of women in the study were getting adequate daily dietary calcium intake, with only 13% taking daily calcium supplements to augment this deficit and less than one-half of women exercising at a minimal level (20 minutes/3 times a week). Women in this study also had limited knowledge about osteoporosis, perceived this condition to be less of a health threat as compared to breast cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease, and very few had the perception that being Hispanic or African American was a factor to consider in assessing their risk of osteoporosis. Our findings suggest that osteoporosis education and prevention initiatives are needed, specifically for African-American and Hispanic women, to promote healthy behaviors, identify women at-risk, and encourage early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:12653376

  5. Changes in Participants’ Scientific Attitudes and Epistemological Beliefs During an Astronomical Citizen Science Project

    Price, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Citizen science projects offer opportunities for non-scientists to take part in scientific research. While their contribution to scientific data collection has been well documented, there is limited research on changes that may occur to their volunteer participants. In this study, we investigated (1) how volunteers’ attitudes towards science and beliefs in the nature of science changed over six months of participation in an astronomy-themed citizen science project and (2) how the level of project participation accounted for these changes. To measure attitudes towards science and beliefs about the nature of science, identical pre- and post-tests were used. We used pre-test data from 1,375 participants and post-test data collected from 175 participants. Responses were analyzed using the Rasch Rating Scale Model. The pre-test sample was used to create the Rasch scales for the two scientific literacy measures. For the pre/post-test comparisons, data from those who completed both tests were used. Fourteen participants who took the pre/post-tests were interviewed. Results show that overall scientific attitudes did not change, p = .812. However, we did find significant changes related towards two scientific attitude items about science in the news (positive change; p self-efficacy (negative change, p self-efficacy is not due to a lowering of esteem but rather a greater appreciation for what they have yet to learn.

  6. Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Blood Donation in Rural Puducherry, India

    Umakant G Shidam, Subitha Lakshminarayanan, Suman Saurabh, Gautam Roy

    2015-01-01

    "Background: Blood and blood components save lives in various conditions. In India there is a need of about 8 million units of blood per year and only one-third of this is obtained from voluntary donors. Assessment of awareness and attitude regarding blood donation will help in designing effective health education strategy to improve blood donation. Objectives: To assess the knowledge and attitude regarding blood donation among individuals aged 18-60 years in rural Puducherry. Meth...

  7. Attitudes and beliefs towards early ART initiation in MSM with primary HIV infection

    Victoria Parsons

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: ART initiation in primary HIV infection (PHI could reduce risk of transmission to sexual partners at a time of high viraemia, although health benefit for the individual remains unknown. We examined attitudes to early ART and associated beliefs in men who have sex with men (MSM with PHI. Materials and Methods: Semi-structured face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with 13 MSM aged ≥16 years attending a central London HIV clinic, within 12 months of date of estimated HIV seroconversion. Audio recordings of interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. Results: Median age was 33 years (range 22–47, majority were white British (n=8, educated to university level (n=11 and were not on ART (n=10. Great diversity in ART knowledge and expectations around starting were observed, with some men assuming they would be prescribed ART immediately upon diagnosis. Deferral until CD4<350 came as a surprise and counterintuitive when put into the context of treating other diseases. For many, the decision to start ART was a balance of current and future health and quality of life. Fear of side effects was prevalent, with many believing them inevitable and a reason to avoid early ART. A perceived lack of “good quality” evidence showing a health benefit of early ART caused confusion. Avoiding the decision to start or deferring to their HIV clinician was common, however reported clinicians’ views also varied. Some men voiced a desire to be proactive and start early ART to control viral replication. In these cases men also reported a belief that ART could be temporary as they expected a cure in their lifetime. Men commonly described feeling “infected” and reducing this infectiousness was seen as a major benefit of ART; not purely to reduce the risk of transmission to sexual partners but to facilitate disclosure to partners, reduce anxiety and guilt and restore sexual confidence commonly lost after HIV diagnosis

  8. A shorter and multidimensional version of the Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey (GABS-23).

    Bouju, Gaëlle; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Boutin, Claude; Gorwood, Philip; Le Bourvellec, Jean-Damien; Feuillet, Fanny; Venisse, Jean-Luc; Grall-Bronnec, Marie

    2014-06-01

    The Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey (GABS) is a questionnaire which explores gambling-related dysfunctional beliefs in an unidimensional way. The present research aims to investigate the dimensionality of the scale. 343 undergraduate student gamblers and 75 pathological gamblers seeking treatment completed the GABS and the south oaks gambling screen. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the original one-factor structure of the GABS did not fit the data effectively. We then proposed a shorter version of the GABS (GABS-23) with a new five-factor structure, which fitted with the data more efficiently. The comparisons between students (problem vs. non-problem gamblers) and pathological gamblers seeking treatment indicated that the GABS-23 can discriminate between problem and non-problem gamblers as efficiently as the original GABS. To ensure the validity and the stability of the new structure of the GABS-23, analyses were replicated in an independent sample that consisted of 628 gamblers (256 non problem gamblers, 169 problem gamblers who are not treatment-seeking and 203 problem gamblers seeking treatment). Analyses showed satisfactory results, and the multidimensional structure of the GABS-23 was then confirmed. The GABS-23 seems to be a valid and useful assessment tool for screening gambling-related beliefs, emotions and attitudes among problem and non-problem gamblers. Moreover, it presents the advantage of being shorter than the original GABS, and of screening irrational beliefs and attitudes about gambling in a multidimensional way. The five-factor model of the GABS-23 is discussed based on the theory of locus of control. PMID:23334576

  9. Classroom Management Training, Teaching Experience and Gender: Do These Variables Impact Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs toward Classroom Management Style?

    Martin, Nancy K.; Yin, Zenong; Mayall, Hayley

    2006-01-01

    This study represents a continuation of research efforts to further refine the Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom Control (ABCC) Inventory. The purposes of this study were to investigate the: (1) impact of classroom management training on classroom management style; (2) differences in attitudes toward classroom management between novice and…

  10. The Impact of Electronic Health Records on Healthcare Professional's Beliefs and Attitudes toward Face to Face Communication

    Nickles, Kenneth Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The impact of electronic health records on healthcare professional's beliefs and attitudes toward face to face communication during patient and provider interactions was examined. Quantitative survey research assessed user attitudes towards an electronic health record system and revealed that healthcare professionals from a wide range of…

  11. Computational problem solving in university physics education : Students’ beliefs, knowledge, and motivation

    Bodin, Madelen

    2012-01-01

    Solving physics problem in university physics education with a computational approach requires knowledge and skills in several domains, for example, physics, mathematics, programming, and modelling. These competences are in turn related to students' beliefs about these domains as well as about learning, and their motivation to learn. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the role of university physics students' knowledge, beliefs and motivation when solving and visualizing a physics p...

  12. Understanding teacher development: case study of knowledge and beliefs in English language teaching in Mexico

    Lemus Hidalgo, Maria Esther

    2014-01-01

    This thesis reports on a case study that discusses the interconnection between the knowledge, beliefs and practices of teachers of English as a foreign language in a state university in Mexico. Previous research suggests that there is a knowledge base for teaching that is significant for teachers irrespective of the subject they teach. Research also indicates that teaching practices are shaped by teachers’ beliefs about the nature of language, the nature of the learning process and the nat...

  13. Informed Consent - Attitudes, knowledge and information concerning prenatal examination

    Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; Hvidman, Lone; Olesen, Frede

      Background:Prenatal screening has become an ever increasing part of antenatal care in the western part of the world. Providing women with information enabling an informed consent to prenatal examinations has been widely recommended, with women accepting or declining the screening tests offered in...... full understanding of pros and contra.Objective and hypothesis:To summarize current knowledge of women's expectations and attitudes concerning prenatal examinations as well as the amount of knowledge possessed by pregnant women undergoing prenatal examinations. Reasons for accepting or declining a...... estimates is low and possible consequences if the test reveals a problem is seldom considered beforehand. A woman's attitude to prenatal examinations is found decisive for up-take of prenatal tests, with no association between a woman's attitude towards prenatal examinations and her knowledge of those tests...

  14. Adverse Drug Reactions: Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Pharmacy

    Maryam Etminani-Isfahani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality and contribute to excessive health care costs. Detection and reporting of ADRs could decrease these consequences. The present study was designed to assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP of pharmacy students towards ADRs monitoring and reporting.Methods: A questionnaire was prepared to investigate the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP of pharmacy students regarding ADR reporting. The questionnaire consisting of 17 questions (7 questions on knowledge, 5 on attitudes and 5 on practice were given to pharmacy students randomly.Results: A total of 71 respondents participated in the study. 70% of participants had favorable general knowledge about ADRs but more than 60% of their professional knowledge was not satisfying. 60% of respondent believed that educational intervention will improve participating of health care professional in ADRs reporting. 63% of respondent observed ADRs cases but about 95% of them had never reported an ADR.Conclusion: In overall, pharmacy students have poor knowledge, attitude and practice towards ADRs reporting and pharmacovigilance. This suggests the need of suitable changes in the undergraduate teaching curriculum and additional training among the students regarding ADRs.

  15. Athlete support personnel and anti-doping: Knowledge, attitudes, and ethical stance.

    Mazanov, J; Backhouse, S; Connor, J; Hemphill, D; Quirk, F

    2014-10-01

    Athlete support personnel (ASP) failing to meet responsibilities under the World Anti-Doping Code risk sanction. It is unclear whether the poor knowledge of responsibilities seen in sports physicians and coaches applies to other ASP (e.g., administrators, chiropractors, family, nutritionists, physiotherapists, psychologists, and trainers). A purposive sample of Australian ASP (n = 292) responded to a survey on knowledge of anti-doping rules (35 true/false questions), ethical beliefs and practice, and attitudes toward performance enhancement. Some ASP declined to participate, claiming doping was irrelevant to their practice. Physicians were most knowledgeable (30.8/35), with family and trainers the least (26.0/35). ASP reported that improvements were needed to support anti-doping education (e.g., basis for anti-doping) and practice (e.g., rules). ASP also had a slightly negative attitude toward performance enhancement. Linear regression showed that being a sports physician, providing support at the elite level, and 15 years of experience influenced knowledge. The results confirm gaps in knowledge, suggesting that stronger engagement with ASP anti-doping education and practice is needed. Applying the principles of andragogy could help foster active engagement through emphasis on active inquiry, rather than passive reception of content. Future work on the context within which ASP experience anti-doping is needed, exploring acquisition and translation of knowledge into practice. PMID:23692367

  16. Comparison of patterns of use, beliefs, and attitudes related to waterpipe between beginning and established smokers

    Ward Kenneth D

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare patterns of use, beliefs, and attitudes related to waterpipe smoking between university students (beginning smokers and café customers (established smokers in Aleppo Syria, in order to explore the evolution of this smoking method. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among representative samples of university students (total 587, 48.4% men, mean age 22 years, and waterpipe users among cafe' customers (total 268, 60% men, mean age 30 years in Aleppo, Syria. We used interviewer-administered questionnaire inquiring about pattern of waterpipe smoking (initiation, frequency, situational characteristics of use (partner, place, sharing, beliefs related to waterpipe smoking (harmful/addictive properties of waterpipe, attitudes related to waterpipe smoking (confidence in quitting, will to quit, motivation for quitting, past year quit attempt, and cigarette smoking. Results Daily and regular patterns of smoking become more prevalent with increased duration of smoking, but intermittent smoking remains the predominant pattern of waterpipe use. Women seem to be drawn later to the habit, which seem to escape the usual taboo against women's cigarette smoking. Patterns and context of waterpipe use tend to change with progress of the practice affecting frequency, setting, and sharing of waterpipe. Unlike beginners, established waterpipe smokers seem more smoking-method oriented, more hooked on the habit, less willing to quit, and less likely to foresee challenges to quitting. Conclusion Use patterns and attitudes related to waterpipe smoking evolve to accommodate the change in dependence and life circumstances of the smoker. Most of use features, beliefs, attitudes, as well as time-course seem unique to this smoking method requiring novel approach to intervention.

  17. Effects of Beliefs and Concerns on User Attitudes toward Online Social Network Advertising and Their Ad Clicking Behavior

    Imran Mir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since last few years social network sites (SNSs have rapidly grown in popularity and user acceptance globally. They have become the main place for social interaction, discussion and communication. Today, many businesses advertise their products on SNSs. The current study aims to assess the effects of SNSs consumers/users’ beliefs and concerns of social network advertising (SNA on their attitudes toward SNA and SNS banner ad-clicking behavior. Data was collected from a sample of 397 university students of Pakistan. Results show the beliefs of SNA as informative and entertaining have positive effects on user attitudes toward SNA and their ad-clicking behavior. Similarly, user concern of SNA as irritating has negative effects on both their attitudes toward SNA and ad-clicking behavior. Good for economy is an important socioeconomic belief which affects user attitudes toward SNA positively. The overall results indicate that utilitarian and hedonic aspects of SNA make SNS banner ads effective.

  18. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Motivations towards Blood Donation among King Abdulaziz Medical City Population

    Najd Alfouzan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Blood donation is remarkably safe medical procedure. However, attitudes, beliefs, and level of knowledge may affect it. Objectives. To measure the level of knowledge regarding blood donation, find out positive and negative attitudes, identify the obstacles, and suggest some motivational factors. Methodology. A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC. Participants were selected by convenient nonrandom sampling technique. A self-created questionnaire was used for data collection. Results. The study included 349 individuals. About 45.8% of the participants claimed that they have a history of blood donation. Reported causes for not donating blood were blood donation not crossing their mind (52.4%, no time for donation (45%, and difficulty in accessing blood donation center (41.3%. Reported motivating factors for donating blood were one day off (81.4%, mobile blood donation caravans in public areas (79.1%, token gifts (31.5%, and finally paying money (18.9%. Conclusion. People in the age group 31–50 years, males, higher education and military were more likely to donate blood as well as People who showed higher knowledge level and positive attitude towards blood donation. More educational programs to increase the awareness in specific targeted populations and also to focus on some motivational factors are recommended.

  19. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Motivations towards Blood Donation among King Abdulaziz Medical City Population.

    Alfouzan, Najd

    2014-01-01

    Background. Blood donation is remarkably safe medical procedure. However, attitudes, beliefs, and level of knowledge may affect it. Objectives. To measure the level of knowledge regarding blood donation, find out positive and negative attitudes, identify the obstacles, and suggest some motivational factors. Methodology. A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC). Participants were selected by convenient nonrandom sampling technique. A self-created questionnaire was used for data collection. Results. The study included 349 individuals. About 45.8% of the participants claimed that they have a history of blood donation. Reported causes for not donating blood were blood donation not crossing their mind (52.4%), no time for donation (45%), and difficulty in accessing blood donation center (41.3%). Reported motivating factors for donating blood were one day off (81.4%), mobile blood donation caravans in public areas (79.1%), token gifts (31.5%), and finally paying money (18.9%). Conclusion. People in the age group 31-50 years, males, higher education and military were more likely to donate blood as well as People who showed higher knowledge level and positive attitude towards blood donation. More educational programs to increase the awareness in specific targeted populations and also to focus on some motivational factors are recommended. PMID:25431668

  20. Knowledge of risk factors, beliefs and practices of female healthcare professionals towards breast cancer in a tertiary institution in Lagos, Nigeria

    Odusanya Olumuyiwa O; Ibrahim Nasiru A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Breast cancer is the leading female malignancy in Nigeria. Screening for early detection has led to reduction in mortality from the disease. It is known that attitudes of physicians and motivation by community nurses influence uptake of screening methods by women. This study aims to investigate knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, beliefs about treatment and practice of screening methods among a cohort of female healthcare professionals in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods A cro...

  1. Female adolescents' perceptions, beliefs, motivations, and attitudes in the negotiation of science texts

    Bennett, Camille

    This study was an investigation of female adolescents' perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs towards science and reading science-related texts. Three surveys were used to collect data from 253 middle school students in Grade 7 and Grade 8 and six interviews were conducted with students. The interviews allowed a deeper analysis of the value students placed on science and on reading science-related texts. The quantitative data were collected through the following surveys: Test of Science Related Attitudes, Motivation for Reading Informational Books in School adapted, and Metacognitive Awareness Reading Strategies Inventory adapted. The purpose of the surveys was to provide a comprehensive picture of students' self-reported perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs towards science and the motivation to engage. Literacy processes and practices make engagement and learning in science possible; however, intrinsic motivation and cognitive strategies are critical influential components that educators cannot overlook. The female adolescents in this study expressed greater competence when involved in learning science through inquiry experimentation integrated with literacy presented in different formats.

  2. Bioterrorism education effect on knowledge and attitudes of nurses

    Nahid Aghaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The most important way against bioterrorism is reinforcement of knowledge of health and medical team to diagnose and rapid reaction during these events. Aims: To assess the effect of bioterrorism education on knowledge and attitudes of nurses. Settings and Design: the setting of study was one of the infectious disease wards, emergency rooms or internal wards of the hospitals under supervision of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: In this pre-experimental study, 65 nurses who had all inclusion criteria are selected by accessible sampling method. Data on nurses knowledge and attitudes toward bioterrorism were collected using a self-administered questionnaire before and after two two-h sessions education. After a month of education, the units responded to questionnaire again. Statistical Analysis Used: A descriptive statistics Wilcoxon tests and Spearman correlation coefficient were used. Results: Before education, the majority of units (96.9% had low knowledge about bioterrorism (0-33.3% score of 100%,whereas after education, the majority of them (100% had good knowledge(well done (66.7-100% score of 100%. And majority of units (96.9% before education had indifferent attitude toward bioterrorism (33.4-66.6% score of 100%, whereas a majority of them (98.5% after education had positive attitude (66.7-100% score of 100%. Conclusions: The education has a positive effect on nurses′ knowledge and attitudes and it can be a guideline for administrators of the Ministry of Health and medicine for planning to achieve the goals of preventive and defense against bioterrorism.

  3. Bioterrorism education effect on knowledge and attitudes of nurses

    Aghaei, Nahid; Nesami, Masoumeh Bagheri

    2013-01-01

    Context: The most important way against bioterrorism is reinforcement of knowledge of health and medical team to diagnose and rapid reaction during these events. Aims: To assess the effect of bioterrorism education on knowledge and attitudes of nurses. Settings and Design: the setting of study was one of the infectious disease wards, emergency rooms or internal wards of the hospitals under supervision of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: In this pre-experimental study, 65 nurses who had all inclusion criteria are selected by accessible sampling method. Data on nurses knowledge and attitudes toward bioterrorism were collected using a self-administered questionnaire before and after two two-h sessions education. After a month of education, the units responded to questionnaire again. Statistical Analysis Used: A descriptive statistics Wilcoxon tests and Spearman correlation coefficient were used. Results: Before education, the majority of units (96.9%) had low knowledge about bioterrorism (0-33.3% score of 100%),whereas after education, the majority of them (100%) had good knowledge(well done) (66.7-100% score of 100%). And majority of units (96.9%) before education had indifferent attitude toward bioterrorism (33.4-66.6% score of 100%), whereas a majority of them (98.5%) after education had positive attitude (66.7-100% score of 100%). Conclusions: The education has a positive effect on nurses’ knowledge and attitudes and it can be a guideline for administrators of the Ministry of Health and medicine for planning to achieve the goals of preventive and defense against bioterrorism. PMID:23723614

  4. Filipina American women's breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors

    Ryujin Lisa; Sadler Georgia; Ko Celine M; Dong Adam

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Filipino Americans are the fastest growing Asian minority group in the United States. There is limited knowledge about their breast cancer knowledge, screening practices and attitudes. Methods As part of the evaluation of the Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program, 248 Filipino American women completed baseline and follow-up surveys, while an additional 58 took part in focus groups. Results Compliance with annual clinical breast exam guidelines among women 40 t...

  5. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND CHALLENGES OF EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING AMONG PRIMIGRAVIDAS

    Kiragu, Reginah; Neupane, Jharna Elizabeth; Kandel, Sudha

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate types of primigravidas´ knowledge regarding exclusive breastfeeding; to explore their attitudes towards and identify the possible challenges they experienced during exclusive breastfeeding period. The goal of the study was to provide knowledge for nurses and professional teams to comprehend the reasons behind early cessation of exclusive breastfeeding by new mothers, hence revising a new most competent course to boost exclusivity of breastfeeding a...

  6. Mothers and vaccination: knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour in Italy.

    I.F. Angelillo; G. Ricciardi; Rossi, P.; Pantisano, P.; E. Langiano; Pavia, M.

    1999-01-01

    The study evaluates knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of mothers regarding the immunization of 841 infants who attended public kindergarten in Cassino and Crotone, Italy. Overall, 57.8% of mothers were aware about all four mandatory vaccinations for infants (poliomyelitis, tetanus, diphtheria, hepatitis B). The results of a multiple logistic regression analysis showed that this knowledge was significantly greater among mothers with a higher education level and among those who were older at ...

  7. Nutrition Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of College Sportsmen

    Nazni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Nutrition is an important component of any physical fitness program. The main dietary goal for active individuals is to obtain adequate nutrition to optimize health fitness and to increase sports performance. The present study aims to assess the nutrition knowledge, attitude and practice among the selected athletes. Methods Athletes from five different private colleges situated in Salem District, Tamilnadu, India were selected. A total number of 102 athletes, 32 sportsmen belong to Volleyball discipline, 25 belongs to weightlifter discipline and 45 belong to runners discipline in sports. All the selected athletes were including in the study. The Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP questionnaire contained ten questions about nutrition knowledge, nine questions about attitudes, and ten questions about dietary practice were collected from the selected athletes. Dietary composition of the sportsmen is also assessed. The collected data was coded and used for evaluation. Results Results about KAP revealed that 42 per cent of the volleyball players had good nutritional knowledge (60–69per cent compared to weight lifters (43per cent who had satisfactory (50–59per cent knowledge about nutrition. Twenty nine per cent of the runners had very good (70–79per cent knowledge about nutrition. Regarding food consumption pattern intake of cereals, other vegetables and milk was found to be less compared to the RDA for the athletes. Among the three disciplines sports persons, the mean nutrient intake of the runners is high compared to volleyball and weight lifters. Conclusion The sports disciplines strongly affected the nutrition knowledge, attitudes and practices of sportsmen. The overall scores indicate that most sportsmen had good knowledge of nutrition and supplements.

  8. Construction of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Questionnaire for Assessing Plagiarism

    M Mirfakhraei; Cheraghi, Z; A Doosti Irani; Cheraghi, P; J Poorolajal

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine quest...

  9. Unmarried Mother's Knowledge and Attitudes toward Emergency Contraceptive Pills

    Gyeong Mi Lee; Hyo Jung Koh; Hye Young Kim

    2013-01-01

    PurposeThis study was conducted to identify relationships among knowledge and attitudes of unmarried mothers toward emergency contraceptive pills.MethodsData were collected through structured questionnaires from 135 unmarried mothers enrolled in 7 single mothers' facilities nationwide. Data were analyzed using the SPSS/WIN 17.0 program for descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Scheffe-test, and Pearson correlation coefficients.ResultsFor knowledge about emergency contraceptive pills, there w...

  10. Parents' knowledge, attitude, and practice on childhood immunization

    Jolsna Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Although childhood immunization practices and attitudes are satisfactory, majority do not have specific knowledge on vaccines and the duration of protection they offer. Socio-demographic factors had a significant influence on the immunization status. Hence, efforts should be focused on improving them also besides educating them about vaccines to improve their knowledge. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(6.000: 1201-1207

  11. Attitudes and beliefs about chronic pain among nurses- biomedical or behavioral? A cross-sectional survey

    Venkatesan Prem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Studies have documented that nurses and other health care professionals are inadequately prepared to care for patients in chronic pain. Several reasons have been identified including inadequacies in nursing education, absence of curriculum content related to pain management, and attitudes and beliefs related to chronic pain. Aims: The objective of this paper was to assess the chronic pain-related attitudes and beliefs among nursing professionals in order to evaluate the biomedical and behavioral dimensions of their perceptions on pain. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional survey of 363 nurses in a multispecialty hospital. Materials and Methods: The study utilized a self-report questionnaire - pain attitudes and beliefs scale (PABS - which had 31 items (statements about pain for each of which the person had to indicate the level at which he or she agreed or disagreed with each statement. Factor 1 score indicated a biomedical dimension while factor 2 score indicated a behavioral dimension to pain. Statistical Analysis Used: Comparisons across individual and professional variables for both dimensions were done using one-way ANOVA and correlations were done using the Karl-Pearson co-efficient using SPSS version 11.5 for Windows. Results: The overall factor 1 score was 52.95 ± 10.23 and factor 2 score was 20.93 ± 4.72 (P = 0.00. The female nurses had a higher behavioral dimension score (21.1 ± 4.81 than their male counterparts (19.55 ± 3.67 which was significant at P< 0.05 level. Conclusions: Nurses had a greater orientation toward the biomedical dimension of chronic pain than the behavioral dimension. This difference was more pronounced in female nurses and those nurses who reported "very good" general health had higher behavioral dimension scores than those who had "good" general health. The study findings have important curricular implications for nurses and practical implications in palliative care.

  12. Epistemological Beliefs and Epistemic Strategies in Self-Regulated Learning

    Richter, Tobias; Schmid, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    How do epistemological attitudes and beliefs influence learning from text? We conceptualize epistemological attitudes and beliefs as components of metacognitive knowledge. As such, they serve an important function in regulating the use of epistemic strategies such as knowledge-based validation of information and checking arguments for internal…

  13. Teachers' Attitudes toward and Knowledge of Child Maltreatment

    Kenny, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: The purpose of this study was to determine teachers' self-reported knowledge of the signs and symptoms of child maltreatment, reporting procedures, legal issues surrounding child abuse and their attitudes toward corporal punishment. In addition, a factor analysis was performed on the Educators and Child Abuse Questionnaire (ECAQ)…

  14. Biotechnology: An Assessment of Agricultural Science Teachers' Knowledge and Attitudes

    Mowen, Diana L.; Roberts, T. Grady; Wingenbach, Gary J.; Harlin, Julie F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore agricultural science teachers' knowledge levels and attitudes toward biotechnology topics. The average agricultural science teacher in this study was a 37-year-old male who had taught for 12 years. He had a bachelor's degree and had lived or worked on a farm or ranch. He had not attended…

  15. Knowledge and Attitudes toward Hookah Usage among University Students

    Holtzman, Adam L.; Babinski, Dara; Merlo, Lisa J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Hookah smoking is a popular form of tobacco use on university campuses. This study documented use, attitudes, and knowledge of hookah smoking among college students. Participants: The sample included 943 university students recruited between February 2009 and January 2010. Respondents ("M" age = 20.02) included 376 males, 533…

  16. Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students

    Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

    2010-01-01

    The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…

  17. Improving Nursing Home Staff Knowledge and Attitudes about Pain

    Jones, Katherine R.; Fink, Regina; Pepper, Ginny; Hutt, Eveyln; Vojir, Carol P.; Scott, Jill; Clark, Lauren; Mellis, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Effective pain management remains a serious problem in the nursing home setting. Barriers to achieving optimal pain practices include staff knowledge deficits, biases, and attitudes that influence assessment and management of the residents' pain. Design and Methods: Twelve nursing homes participated in this intervention study: six…

  18. Secondary School Teachers' Knowledge and Attitudes towards Renewable Energy Sources

    Liarakou, Georgia; Gavrilakis, Costas; Flouri, Eleni

    2009-01-01

    Investigating knowledge, perceptions as well as attitudes of the public that concern various aspects of environmental issues is of high importance for Environmental Education. An integrated understanding of these parameters can properly support the planning of Environmental Education curriculum and relevant educational materials. In this survey we…

  19. Nutrition knowledge, attitude, and behavior of Taiwanese elementary school children.

    Lin, Wei; Yang, Hsiao-Chi; Hang, Chi-Ming; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand nutrition knowledge, attitude, and behavior in Taiwanese elementary school children, and the relationship of these various components. The results indicated that children's knowledge was fair in nutrition basics, but poor in 'the physiological function of nutrients', 'relationships between diet/nutrients and disease', and 'the daily serving requirement for different food groups'. Children in general valued the importance of nutrition, but they did not concern the health benefit of foods in food selections. Their dietary quality was not satisfactory, and the diet of most children did not meet the recommended serving requirements for milk, vegetable, fruit, and cereals and grains groups. Positive relationships were found among nutrition knowledge, attitude, caring- about-nutrition behavior and dietary quality score. The restraint or disinhibited eating behavior of 4th to 6th graders was not serious, but a large number of children already performed some self-controlling practices to avoid obesity, but not frequently. One fourth of the students skipped meals, especially breakfast, and one quarter of 4th to 6th graders prepared their own breakfast; which may have some impact on children's diet quality. A gap was found between nutrition knowledge, attitude and eating behavior, especially vegetable and fruit consumption, indicating that the attitude toward eating for health was not strong in this age group. Future nutrition education for school children should not only include food serving requirements of food groups, but also apply appropriate theories to improve the motivation for healthy eating. PMID:17723993

  20. Nutrition Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of College Sportsmen

    Nazni; Vimala

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Nutrition is an important component of any physical fitness program. The main dietary goal for active individuals is to obtain adequate nutrition to optimize health fitness and to increase sports performance. The present study aims to assess the nutrition knowledge, attitude and practice among the selected athletes. Methods Athletes from five different private colleges situated in Salem District, Tamilnadu, India were sele...

  1. Knowledge and Attitudes about Colon Cancer Screening among African Americans

    James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…

  2. Oral health knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of adults in China

    Zhu, Ling; Petersen, Poul Erik; Wang, Hong-Ying;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe oral health behaviour, illness behaviour, oral health knowledge and attitudes among 35-44 and 65-74-year-old Chinese; to analyse the oral health behaviour profile of the two age groups in relation to province and urbanisation, and to assess the relative effect of socio-beh...

  3. Interrelationships among Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors and Body Satisfaction

    Dissen, Anthony R.; Policastro, Peggy; Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about interrelationships among nutrition knowledge, attitude, dietary intake, and body satisfaction, which are important variables that play a role in nutrition education interventions. This paper aims to focus on these interrelationships. Design/methodology/approach: Students (n = 279; 20.12 plus or minus 1.75SD years)…

  4. Hydration: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of UK Dietitians

    Pauline Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate dietitians’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP regarding hydration and patient care. Methods. A cross-sectional online survey was administered to UK dietitians via the British Dietetic Association monthly newsletter and included 18 items on hydration knowledge (n=8, attitudes (n=4, and practices (n=6. KAP scores were calculated by adding the total number of correct knowledge responses and by ranking attitude and practice responses on a Likert scale. Results. 97 dietitians completed the online survey and displayed varying levels of KAP regarding hydration and patient care. The mean unweighted scores were knowledge 5.0 (±1.3 out of 8; attitude 13.9 (±1.3 out of 16; practice 14.9 (±2.6 out of 24. Dietitians appeared to be guided by clinical reasoning and priorities for nutrition care. Conclusions. There may be scope to further assess and potentially enhance the KAP of dietitians regarding hydration and patient care. Innovative approaches to hydration promotion are warranted and may include focusing on dietitians’ personal hydration status, increasing communication with other healthcare professionals, and partnering with patients to take a proactive role in hydration monitoring.

  5. Ethnicity Knowledge and Attitudes toward Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.

    Goh, David S.

    This study examined the effects of race/ethnicity and degree of acculturation on knowledge and attitudes about human immunodeficiency virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Subjects were 274 college students from 5 racial/ethnic groups (Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, Asian Americans, U.S. born, having an Asian origin with families that…

  6. Sun Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors among Beachgoing Adolescents

    Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…

  7. Assessing the Impact of an Interactive Mobile Game on Tobacco-Related Attitudes and Beliefs: The Truth Campaign's "Flavor Monsters".

    Rath, Jessica M; Williams, Valerie; Rubenstein, Rebecca; Smith, Lexi; Vallone, Donna

    2015-12-01

    Given that over 97 percent of American teens play videogames, it is not surprising that many "games for health" target youth. Although tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, few digital games focus on preventing this behavior. The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to determine if youth will play a game with tobacco-related information and themes and (2) to explain the relationship between the truth(®) (Legacy, Washington, DC) campaign's "Flavor Monsters" gameplay and shifts in game-related tobacco knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. First, two versions of the game, with different amounts of tobacco-related content, were developed to examine the influence of tobacco-related content on player engagement, length of play, awareness of the truth brand, and receptivity to the game. No statistically significant differences were found for engagement (P=0.81), length of play (P=0.10), or awareness of the truth brand (P=0.67). Using an online survey through a preexisting online panel of 13-24 year olds, a longitudinal (n=693) design was used whereby exposure to messages varied naturally over time. Because of the large number of anti-tobacco industry attitude questions, we created an Anti-Tobacco Industry (ATI) Index based on the results of a factor analysis. Although gameplay was not a predictor of lower levels of intention to smoke, level mastered was a significant positive predictor of ATI Index attitudes score at 3 months, controlling for baseline ATI Index score, age, gender, and ever cigarette use (P=0.002). Longitudinal findings indicate a cumulative and enduring effect, suggesting that anti-tobacco content can be successfully integrated within a mobile game to help increase anti-tobacco attitudes. PMID:26230971

  8. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding pandemic h1n1 influenza among medical and dental residents and fellowships in Shiraz, Iran

    Mehrdad Askarian

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: High knowledge is not sufficient lonely for improve attitude and practices.It seems that traditional educational models are not efficient and governments should emphasize to advanced and motivational education methods including health belief model and motivational interview at postgraduate levels. Perhaps younger students, dentists and males have less motivation to change their attitude and behavior, so we can focuses our interventions in these groups.

  9. Organ donation, awareness, attitudes and beliefs among post graduate medical students

    Bapat Usha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation is the most preferred treatment modality for patients with end-stage organ disease. There is an inadequate supply of cadaver organs commensurate with need. Health-care professionals are the critical link in augmenting public awareness about organ donation. Their attitudes and beliefs can influence the public opinion. This study aims at understanding the awareness, attitudes, and beliefs among the medical postgraduate students. A total of 123 post-graduates of a medical college hospital in South India participated in the study. A specially de-signed questionnaire was used in assessment. Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS Windows version 10.0. The mean age of the postgraduate students was 28.32 ± 3.5 years, 54% were males, 62% belonged to Christian religion, 69% were single, 77% were from nuclear families, 87% had urban background, and 54% were from upper socio-economic strata. About 97% said they were aware of organ donation through media, 23 unders-tood the concept of "cadaver" as "brain-death" and 93% were able to distinguish between brain-death and persistent vegetative state. Eighty-nine percent wished to donate their organs, 77% did not believe in body disfigurement and 87% did not believe in rebirth without the donated organs, if they pledged their organs. Sixty-nine percent were willing to donate the organs of their family members. Eighty percent were willing to receive organs from family and cadaver, 40% were willing to donate a child′s organs, 95% did not believe that organ donation is against their religion, 87% disagreed with the notion that doctors would not impart adequate care if they were pledged organ donors and 79% agreed that doctors would not declare death prematurely, if they had pledged their organs during life. There was a statis-tically significant correlation between attitudes, beliefs and demographics. In conclusion, the concept of brain-death was clearly understood by only a small number

  10. Epistemic beliefs and knowledge creation among upper-secondary students in transdisciplinary education for sustainable development

    Maria Grice

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the epistemic beliefs of upper-secondary school students (n=208 involved in a transdisciplinary project regarding sustainable development. Specifically the dimensions of knowledge and knowing are explored and interpreted through a questionnaire, the Survey of Epistemological Beliefs in Transdisciplinary Education (SEBTE. A three-dimensional framework underpins the self-report paper-and-pencil questionnaire. Results from exploratory factor analysis suggest five factors or dimensions: Transdisciplinary knowledge, Quick knowledge, Certain knowledge, Simple knowledge and Collaborative knowledge. According to multiple regression analysis (MRA, three out of those dimensions of epistemic beliefs have a positive impact on the students’ appreciation of the school project. Variables male and technoscientific students had a negative impact. The educational context of transdisciplinary education for sustainable development can be understood in terms of the learning metaphor of knowledge creation. Knowledge about students’ epistemic beliefs is assumed to be a useful insight to both in-service and pre-service teachers embarking on transdisciplinary projects.

  11. College Women and Breast Cancer: Knowledge, Behavior, and Beliefs regarding Risk Reduction

    Burak, Lydia; Boone, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although breast cancer prevention should begin in youth, many young women are not aware of the modifiable lifestyle risk factors for the disease. Purpose: The purposes of this study were to examine the breast cancer-related knowledge, behaviors, and beliefs of young women; to determine whether knowledge about lifestyle risks was…

  12. Epistemic beliefs and knowledge creation among upper-secondary students in transdisciplinary education for sustainable development

    Maria Grice

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the epistemic beliefs of upper-secondary school students (n=208) involved in a transdisciplinary project regarding sustainable development. Specifically the dimensions of knowledge and knowing are explored and interpreted through a questionnaire, the Survey of Epistemological Beliefs in Transdisciplinary Education (SEBTE). A three-dimensional framework underpins the self-report paper-and-pencil questionnaire. Results from exploratory factor analysis suggest five factors or...

  13. The influence of knowledge, perceptions, and beliefs, on hand hygiene practices in nursing homes

    Aiello, Allison E.; Malinis, Maricar; Knapp, Jennifer K.; Mody, Lona

    2008-01-01

    There are few studies that have assessed factors influencing infection control practices among health care workers (HCW) in nursing homes. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of HCWs (N = 392) in 4 nursing homes to assess whether knowledge, beliefs, and perceptions influence reported hand hygiene habits. Positive perceptions and beliefs regarding effectiveness of infection control in nursing homes were associated with reported appropriate glove use and fingernail characteristics, respective...

  14. Comparing Primary Student Teachers' Attitudes, Subject Knowledge and Pedagogical Content Knowledge Needs in a Physics Activity

    Johnston, Jane; Ahtee, Maija

    2006-01-01

    This research explores and compares primary student teachers' attitudes, subject knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) in physics in two institutions in England and Finland, using a practical physics activity and questionnaire. Teaching of physics activities was rated unpopular both in Finland and England, although English students…

  15. Contraceptive knowledge, attitude and practice among rural women

    To assess the knowledge, attitude regarding family planning and the practice of contraceptives among rural women. One-hundred women between the ages 15-45, living with their husbands and coming from rural area (villages) were interviewed. Women who were pregnant, had a child younger than 2 years, or had any medical disorder were excluded. Their knowledge, attitude and practice on contraceptives were evaluated with the help of a predesigned questionnaire. The other variables used were the age of women, parity and educational status. Descriptive analysis was conducted to obtain percentages. Out of 100 interviewed women with mean age of 29.7 years, 81(81%) had some knowledge about family planning methods. The media provided information of contraceptives in 52 out of 81 (64%) women. Regarding the usage of contraceptive methods, only 53 (53%) of the respondents were using some sort of contraception. Barrier method (condoms) was in practice by 18 (33.9%) and 12 (22.6%) of women had already undergone tubal ligation. The women using injectables and intrauterine contraceptive devices were 10 (18.8%) and 7 (13.2%) respectively. Six were using oral contraceptive pills (11.3%). Positive attitude towards contraception was shown by 76 (76%) of them, while 41(41%) stated their husbands positive attitude towards contraception. In the present study, there was a low contraceptive use among women of rural origin despite good knowledge. Motivation of couples through media and health personnel can help to achieve positive attitude of husbands for effective use of contraceptives. (author)

  16. Attitudes towards and Beliefs about HIV Testing among Latino Immigrant MSM: A Comparison of Testers and Nontesters

    Solorio, Rosa; Forehand, Mark; Simoni, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Latino immigrant men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk for HIV and delayed diagnosis. An exploratory study using qualitative interviews that assess the beliefs and attitudes of 54 Latino immigrant MSM in Seattle, Washington, is presented. The goal of this research is to determine whether attitudinal differences exist between participants who had and had not been tested and to use any insight into the development of a media campaign to promote testing. Over one-third of the men have never been tested for HIV. Nontesters are more likely to be men who have sex with men and women, have less knowledge about HIV risks, perceive their sexual behaviors as less risky, and deflect HIV-related stigma. Testers are more likely to be self-identified as being gays. Both groups believe that fear of a positive result is the main barrier to testing. Both groups believe that family members have negative attitudes towards HIV testing and that having Latino staff at HIV testing sites hinders confidentiality. Financial concerns with regard to the cost of testing were also expressed by both groups. Based on these insights, recommended strategies for the development of HIV prevention and testing campaigns are made. PMID:24455221

  17. Attitudes and beliefs about placebo surgery among orthopedic shoulder surgeons in the United Kingdom.

    Karolina Wartolowska

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To survey surgeons on their beliefs and attitudes towards the use of placebo in surgery. METHODS: British orthopedic shoulder surgeons, attending a national conference in the United Kingdom, were asked to complete a self-report online questionnaire about their beliefs and attitudes towards the use of placebo related to surgical intervention. The survey included questions about ethical issues, the mechanism of placebo effects, and any concerns regarding its use. RESULTS: 100 surgeons who participated in the survey believed that placebo surgery is ethically acceptable (96%, especially as a part of a clinical trial (46%. Respondents thought that a placebo effect in surgery is real i.e. has a scientific basis (92%, that placebo can be therapeutically beneficial (77%, and that it involves psychological mechanisms (96%. Over half of the respondents (58% have used a surgical procedure with a significant placebo component at least once in their professional career. Their main concern about placebo use in surgery was that it might involve an element of deception. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Surgeons generally agreed that a placebo component to surgical intervention might exist. They also supported placebo use in clinical trials and considered it ethical, providing it does not involve deception of patients. More studies are needed, particularly among other surgical specialties and with larger numbers of participants, to better understand the use of placebo in surgery.

  18. The Development of Instruments to Measure Attitudes toward Abortion and Knowledge of Abortion

    Snegroff, Stanley

    1976-01-01

    This study developed an abortion attitude scale and abortion knowledge inventory that may be utilized by health educators, counselors, and researchers for assessing attitudes toward abortion and knowledge about it. (SK)

  19. Knowledge and attitude on renewable energy amongst teachers in Malaysia

    As teachers are one of the more important agents for disseminating information, a study was done to gauge the knowledge and attitude concerning Renewable Energy (RE) and Energy Efficiency (EE) amongst teachers in Malaysia. Results from the study have shown that teachers do not have adequate knowledge on the concept of RE. They also viewed education as the best strategy in ensuring the success of RE practices. Although there is an interest to know more about RE, the teachers felt that they were inadequately trained to teach this subject in schools, that there are not enough teachers to teach the subject in the schools and that this topic should be integrated as part of co-curricular activities. CETREE, as a centre for education and training in Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency has already started a curriculum to train teachers on the awareness of Renewable Energy (RE) and Energy Efficiency (EE). Result of this study indicates that more training and campaigns need to be implemented at school levels to promote the awareness on RE and EE. This paper will also discuss knowledge and attitude as important factors to consider in creating awareness on RE for the next generation. Teachers need to acquire the knowledge and positive attitude toward these concepts to become successful change agents. Media preference amongst teachers concerning ways to educate the public on RE will also be highlighted

  20. Experiencing simulated aging improves knowledge of and attitudes toward aging.

    Yu, Chiu-Yen; Chen, Kuei-Min

    2012-05-01

    Nursing assistants provide 90% of the functional and psychosocial care of older adults in nursing homes. Without knowledge of the normal physical changes of aging, it would be difficult to provide them with appropriate quality care. This quasi-experimental study aimed to test the effects of the Elderly Simulation Program on nursing assistants' knowledge about aging, attitudes toward older adults, and the motivation to care for older adults in nursing homes. The program has two parts: a 1-hour lecture about aging changes and a 1-hour simulation of the roles of an older adult, a caregiver, and a "rusher" (20 minutes for each role). A convenience sample of 83 full-time nursing assistants was recruited from nursing homes in Taiwan. The participants were assigned to an experimental (n = 43) or a control group (n = 40). The experimental group received the Elderly Simulation Program intervention, whereas the control group did not participate in any educational programs. Data were collected before the intervention and 4 wk after the program was completed. Results indicated that 4 wk after the intervention, the experimental group participants' knowledge about aging and attitudes toward older adults had significantly improved (all P job continuing education of nursing assistants in long-term care facilities to enhance their knowledge about aging and their attitudes towards older adults. PMID:22568571

  1. Urban and rural immigrant Latino youths' and adults' knowledge and beliefs about mental health resources.

    García, Carolyn Marie; Gilchrist, Lauren; Vazquez, Gabriela; Leite, Amy; Raymond, Nancy

    2011-06-01

    Immigrant Latino youth experience mental health problems in the U.S. Cultural beliefs and knowledge may influence help-seeking behaviors. Two hundred thirty-four immigrant Latino respondents between 12 and 44 years of age completed a questionnaire assessing knowledge of and cultural beliefs regarding mental health resources for adolescents, symptoms, and help-seeking. Multivariate analyses showed that rural respondents were significantly less likely to know of mental health resources than urban-based immigrant Latinos. Knowledge and belief outcomes were also affected by age, gender, and length of time living in the community. Immigrant Latinos appear willing to seek professional help for mental health problems but may not know how to access this type of care, or may lack available services. Future research to inform interventions that increase awareness of accessible mental health services is suggested. Findings support systems-level changes including increased availability of culturally-specific mental health services, especially in rural areas. PMID:20835762

  2. Attitude and Knowledge of Hyperthyroid Patients to Radioiodine Treatment

    The purpose of this study is to survey the attitude and knowledge of radiation and radioiodine treatment in hyperthyroid patients. One-hundred-eighty-seven hyperthyroid patients who were sent for radioactive iodine treatment at Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital were requested to fill the questionnaires before and after receiving the information about radioiodine treatment. The questionnaires consisted of 15 questions of which the first five were about the attitude to radiation and radioiodine treatment. The rest was about an information on hyperthyroidism and radioiodine treatment. For data analysis, firstly the percentage of correct answer of each question was calculated and compared between pre-and post-test. Secondly all patients were categorized into 2 groups according to their education: up to high school, and undergraduate or higher. The attitude and the understanding about radioiodine treatment were analyzed in each group. If the average percentage was greater than 80, patients has positive attitude of good understanding. The results showed that post-test gives higher percentages of correct answers for all questions with an average of 24.6% improvement. For up to high school group, the attitude improved from 81.6% to 98.6% and the understanding about radioiodine treatment improved from 92.2% to 100%. Similarly, for the undergraduate or higher group, the attitude improved from 87% to 97.8% and the understanding about radioiodine treatment was 100% for both pre- and post-intervention. It may be concluded that our education intervention is informative and improves the patients, attitude and understanding about radiation

  3. Breastfeeding Education in Term of Knowledge and Attitude through Mother Support Group

    Lina Handayani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and attitude are important factors for successful breastfeeding practice. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of knowledge and attitude on breastfeeding among Indonesian mothers who joined mother support group (MSG program. This was a community based cross-sectional study. There were 221 mothers participated on this study. Multiple regression was used to asses the influence of knowledge and attitude on breastfeeding. Result of the study showed that knowledge and attitude influence breastfeeding practice.

  4. An exploration of the knowledge and attitudes towards breastfeeding among a sample of Chinese mothers in Ireland

    Zhou, Qianling

    2010-11-23

    Abstract Background Psychological factors are important in influencing breastfeeding practices. This retrospective study explored knowledge and attitudes related to breastfeeding of Chinese mothers living in Ireland. Methods A cross-sectional self-administrated survey written in Chinese was distributed to a convenience sample of 322 immigrant Chinese mothers mainly via Chinese supermarkets and Chinese language schools in Dublin, with the involvement of the snowball method to increase sample size. Maternal breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes were described, their associations with socio-demographic variables were explored by Chi-square analysis, and their independent associations with breastfeeding behaviours were estimated by binary logistic regression analyses. Results In spite of considerable awareness of the advantages of breastfeeding (mean score = 4.03 ± 0.73), some misconceptions (e.g. \\'mother should stop breastfeeding if she catches a cold\\') and negative attitudes (e.g. breastfeeding inconvenient, embarrassing, and adverse to mothers\\' figure) existed, especially among the less educated mothers. Cultural beliefs concerning the traditional Chinese postpartum diet were prevalent, particularly among those who had lived in Ireland for a shorter duration (P = 0.004). Psychological parameters had strong independent associations with breastfeeding practices in this study. Those who had lower awareness score (OR = 2.98, 95% CI: 1.87-4.73), more misconceptions and negative attitudes (P < 0.05), and weaker cultural beliefs (P < 0.05) were less likely to breastfeed. Conclusions Findings highlight a need to focus resources and education on correcting the misconceptions identified and reversing the negative attitudes towards breastfeeding among Chinese mothers in Ireland, in particular those with primary\\/secondary level of education. Mothers\\' cultural beliefs should also be acknowledged and understood by healthcare providers.

  5. Health professionals' factual knowledge and changing attitudes toward transsexuals.

    Franzini, L R; Casinelli, D L

    1986-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs), obstetrician-gynecologists, urologists, psychiatrists and clinical psychologists (total N = 202) were randomly surveyed to assess their knowledge of the syndrome of transsexuality and their attitudes toward transsexual patients and sex reassignment surgery. A low return rate, though, requires that the present data be interpreted prudently. Where possible, the current findings were compared with the attitudinal data published in 1966 by Green, Stoller and MacAndrew. Over this interval an increasingly liberal and favorable trend in attitudes was noted amongst all medical specialties. 'Liberal' refers to a willingness to recommend a surgical remedy and 'favorable' refers to a less psychopathological perspective of the syndrome and greater social acceptance of these individuals. In the present sample GPs tend to hold the most conservative views, while clinical psychologists consistently endorse the most liberal positions. No differences emerged among the five groups of health care professionals on the factual knowledge assessment. PMID:3704690

  6. Secondary School Teachers' Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Renewable Energy Sources

    Liarakou, Georgia; Gavrilakis, Costas; Flouri, Eleni

    2009-04-01

    Investigating knowledge, perceptions as well as attitudes of public that concern various aspects of environmental issues is of high importance for Environmental Education. An integrated understanding of these parameters can properly support the planning of Environmental Education curriculum and relevant educational materials. In this survey we investigated knowledge and attitudes of secondary school teachers in Greece towards renewable energy sources, particularly wind and solar energy systems. A questionnaire with both open and close questions was used as the main methodological instrument. Findings revealed that although teachers were informed about renewable energy sources and well disposed towards these sources, they hardly expressed clear positions regarding several issues about wind and solar energy technologies and farms. Moreover such themes are limited integrated in teaching either as extra curricular educational programs or through the curriculum. These findings cannot confirm that teachers could influence students' opinion towards renewable energy systems. Thus, authorities should invest more in Environmental Education and relevant Teachers' Education.

  7. Health-related beliefs and consumer knowledge as determinants of fish consumption

    Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    samples from Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Spain. The sample consisted of 4786 respondents, aged 18-84 years, who were responsible for food purchasing and cooking in the household. Results: European consumers had a very strong belief that eating fish is healthy. Consumers' belief...... that eating fish is healthy, their interest in healthy eating and objective fish-related nutrition knowledge, positively, but only weakly, influenced fish consumption frequency. Subjective knowledge was found to be a stronger predictor of fish consumption than the previously noted factors. Age and education...... and other types of public information campaigns) will be insufficient to achieve higher levels of compliance with fish consumption recommendations....

  8. Impact of a lecture abour empirical bases of hypnosis on beliefs and attitudes toward hypnosis among Cuban health professionals.

    Martín, Marta; Capafons, Antonio; Espejo Tort, Begoña; Mendoza, Elena; Guerra, Mayda; Enriquez Santos, José Angel; Díaz-Purón, Sandra; Garcia Guirado, Ismael; Sosa Castilla, Dolores

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether a lecture on hypnosis can modify attitudes and misconceptions about hypnosis. The sample consisted of 97 health professionals from institutions of Havana City. Group 1 consisted of 46 participants who received a lecture on hypnosis. Group 2 consisted of 51 participants who received a lecture about Urology. The Valencia Scale of Attitudes and Beliefs toward HypnosisTherapist was applied before and after the lecture. Results indicated that there were ...

  9. Knowledge and Attitudes about Organ Donation among commerce college students

    Rakesh Shah, Alpesh Patel, Vaibhav Ramanuj, Nitin Solanki

    2015-01-01

    "Introduction: Organ transplants save thousands of lives every year. Lack of information is one of the leading causes for poor organ donation. So this study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes about organ donation among commerce college students. Materials and methods: In this cross sectional study desired information was collected from 200 students of a commerce college of Ahmedabad using a predesigned close ended questionnaire data through face-to-face interaction....

  10. Public Health Nurses’ Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Climate Change

    Polivka, Barbara J.; Chaudry, Rosemary V.; Mac Crawford, John

    2011-01-01

    Background: Climate change affects human health, and health departments are urged to act to reduce the severity of these impacts. Yet little is known about the perspective of public health nurses—the largest component of the public health workforce—regarding their roles in addressing health impacts of climate change. Objectives: We determined the knowledge and attitudes of public health nurses concerning climate change and the role of public health nursing in divisions of health departments i...

  11. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF SELF MEDICATION IN SOUTHWEST ETHIOPIA

    Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo et al.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-medication is the selection and use of medicines by individuals to treat selfrecognised illnesses or symptoms and an important initial response to illnesses if successfully used. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of self medication among Medical Sciences Faculty students of Jimma University.METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in Medical sciences Faculty students in 2009.The faculty and the three schools were selected by lott...

  12. Nursing faculties’ knowledge and attitude on evidence-based practice

    Mehrdad, Neda; Joolaee, Soodabeh; Joulaee, Azadeh; Bahrani, Naser

    2012-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based practice (EBP) is one of the main professional competencies for health care professionals and a priority for medicine and nursing curriculum as well. EBP leads to improve effective and efficient care and patient outcomes. Nurse educators have responsibility to teach the future nurses, and an opportunity to promote patient outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe nurse educators’ knowledge and attitude on EBP. Materials and Methods: This was a descr...

  13. Patient Safety in Medical Education: Students’ Perceptions, Knowledge and Attitudes

    Bahram Nabilou; Aram Feizi; Hesam Seyedin

    2015-01-01

    Patient safety is a new and challenging discipline in the Iranian health care industry. Among the challenges for patient safety improvement, education of medical and paramedical students is intimidating. The present study was designed to assess students' perceptions of patient safety, and their knowledge and attitudes to patient safety education. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 2012 at Urmia University of Medical Sciences, West Azerbaijan province, Iran. 134 students st...

  14. Open Access Journals: Knowledge and Attitudes among Cuban Health Researchers

    Sánchez Tarragó, Nancy; Fernández Molina, Juan Carlos

    2007-01-01

    A descriptive, cross-sectional study is presented whose objective was to determine the level of knowledge about and the attitudes toward open access journals among Cuban health researchers. To this end, a printed questionnaire was distributed between March and June 2007 to a group of researchers from Cuban national health institutes, who were chosen through stratified random sampling (160 researchers from 11 institutes). Variables included level of information about Open Access Movement terms...

  15. Sexuality in the elderly: knowledge and attitudes of professional caregivers

    Senra, Margarida; Saraiva, Horácio; Pinheira, Vítor

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Sexuality in the elderly still remains a taboo, especially in the institutional context. Demographic changes have been occurring these past few years which led to an increase in the number of institutionalized elders, as an attempt to respond their needs. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to know the levels of knowledge and attitudes of the professional caregivers, how these are related and how these relate with the socio demographic variables. METHODS: Quantitative, ...

  16. Cross-National Analysis of Beliefs and Attitude Toward Mental Illness Among Medical Professionals From Five Countries.

    Stefanovics, Elina; He, Hongbo; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Cavalcanti, Maria Tavares; Rocha Neto, Helio; Makanjuola, Victor; Ighodaro, Adesuwa; Leddy, Meaghan; Rosenheck, Robert

    2016-03-01

    This quantitative study sought to compare beliefs about the manifestation, causes and treatment of mental illness and attitudes toward people with mental illness among health professionals from five countries: the United States, Brazil, Ghana, Nigeria, and China. A total of 902 health professionals from the five countries were surveyed using a questionnaire addressing attitudes towards people with mental illness and beliefs about the causes of mental illness. Chi-square and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to compare age and gender of the samples. Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to confirm the structure and fit of the hypothesized model based on data from a previous study that identified four factors: socializing with people with mental illness (socializing), belief that people with mental illness should have normal roles in society (normalizing), non-belief in supernatural causes (witchcraft or curses), and belief in bio-psycho-social causes of mental illness (bio-psycho-social). Analysis of Covariance was used to compare four factor scores across countries adjusting for differences in age and gender. Scores on all four factors were highest among U.S. professionals. The Chinese sample showed lowest score on socializing and normalizing while the Nigerian and Ghanaian samples were lowest on non-belief in supernatural causes of mental illness. Responses from Brazil fell between those of the U.S. and the other countries. Although based on convenience samples of health professional robust differences in attitudes among health professionals between these five countries appear to reflect underlying socio-cultural differences affecting attitudes of professionals with the greater evidence of stigmatized attitudes in developing countries. PMID:25939823

  17. Attitudes and beliefs of Brazilian physical therapists about chronic low back pain: a cross-sectional study

    Maurício O. Magalhães

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To measure the attitudes and beliefs of Brazilian physical therapists about chronic low back pain and to identify the sociodemographic characteristics that are more likely to influence these attitudes and beliefs. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study with 100 Brazilian physical therapists who routinely work with chronic low back pain patients. The attitudes and beliefs were measured by the Pain Attitudes and Beliefs Scale for Physiotherapists (PABS.PT and the Health Care Providers' Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale (HC-PAIRS. Multivariate linear regression models were built to identify sociodemographic characteristics that could be associated with physical therapists' attitudes and beliefs. RESULTS: Mean scores on the biomedical and biopsychosocial factors of PABS.PT were 27.06 (SD 7.19 and 24.34 (SD 6.31, respectively, and the mean score on HC-PAIRS was 45.45 (SD 10.45. The score on PABS.PTbiomedical was associated with gender and years of professional experience. No variable was associated with the score on PABS.PTbiopsychosocial. The score on HC-PAIRS was significantly associated with the number of back pain patients seen by the physical therapist each month. These results indicate that male and less experienced physical therapists tend to follow a biomedical approach to the treatment of chronic low back pain patients, and that the lower the professional experience the stronger the belief in the relationship between pain and disability. CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian physical therapists are uncertain of the factors involved in the development and maintenance of chronic low back pain and about the relationship between pain and disability in these patients.

  18. Patient Safety in Medical Education: Students' Perceptions, Knowledge and Attitudes.

    Bahram Nabilou

    Full Text Available Patient safety is a new and challenging discipline in the Iranian health care industry. Among the challenges for patient safety improvement, education of medical and paramedical students is intimidating. The present study was designed to assess students' perceptions of patient safety, and their knowledge and attitudes to patient safety education. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 2012 at Urmia University of Medical Sciences, West Azerbaijan province, Iran. 134 students studying medicine, nursing, and midwifery were recruited through census for the study. A questionnaire was used for collecting data, which were then analyzed through SPSS statistical software (version 16.0, using Chi-square test, Spearman correlation coefficient, F and LSD tests. A total of 121 questionnaires were completed, and 50% of the students demonstrated good knowledge about patient safety. The relationships between students' attitudes to patient safety and years of study, sex and course were significant (0.003, 0.001 and 0.017, respectively. F and LSD tests indicated that regarding the difference between the mean scores of perceptions of patient safety and attitudes to patient safety education, there was a significant difference among medical and nursing/midwifery students. Little knowledge of students regarding patient safety indicates the inefficiency of informal education to fill the gap; therefore, it is recommended to consider patient safety in the curriculums of all medical and paramedical sciences and formulate better policies for patient safety.

  19. Couples’ knowledge and attitude about sexuality in pregnancy

    M. Heydari

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alteration in pattern of sexuality is known to be impressed by couples’ believes about women’s physical and psychological changes during pregnancy. The objective of this study is to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of couples about sexual relations during pregnancy. Methods: In a descriptive study from February to April 2005, two hundred sixty six consecutive pregnant women referring to a university hospital were asked to answer a questionnaire containing questions their sexual status and some demographic data. In 122 cases the answers of the spouses was collected also. The answers were compared in divided groups according to age range, duration of marriage, parity and educational status. Results: Fifty five percent of men and fifty eight percent of women had a negative attitude about sexual relations during pregnancy, and 60% of men and 75% of women presented incorrect knowledge about sexuality during pregnancy. Main reasons for decreased sexual relations in pregnancy were mentioned to be dysparaunia, and the fear of trauma to the baby, abortion, membrane rapture, preterm labor and infection. Conclusion: As couples’ knowledge and attitudes about sexuality affect their general sexual behavior during pregnancy it is crucial to provide proper consultation regarding sexual relations in prenatal care services.

  20. Unmarried Mother's Knowledge and Attitudes toward Emergency Contraceptive Pills

    Gyeong Mi Lee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThis study was conducted to identify relationships among knowledge and attitudes of unmarried mothers toward emergency contraceptive pills.MethodsData were collected through structured questionnaires from 135 unmarried mothers enrolled in 7 single mothers' facilities nationwide. Data were analyzed using the SPSS/WIN 17.0 program for descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Scheffe-test, and Pearson correlation coefficients.ResultsFor knowledge about emergency contraceptive pills, there were significant differences among who live with her before pregnancy, experience of past pregnancies, state of present pregnancy and preparation in using contraceptives. For attitude toward emergency contraceptive pills, there were significant differences according to age, education level and religion. There were significant positive relationships between knowledge and attitudes toward emergency contraceptive pills.ConclusionThe results of this study suggest that unmarried women should be better informed about emergency contraceptive pills, and reassured about their safety. Efforts are needed to disseminate up-to-date information to experts in sex education including nurses.

  1. [Knowledge, attitudes and practices for the prevention of diabetic foot].

    Natalia De Sá, Policarpo; Moura, Jayne Ramos Araujo; Júnior, Eugênio Barbosa De Melo; De Almeida, Paulo César; De Macêdo, Suyanne Freire; Da Silva, Ana Roberta Vilarouca

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the knowledge, attitudes and practices for the prevention of diabetic foot in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. This study was based on a cross-sectional survey conducted in two Family Health Units, in the city of Picos--PI, Brazil, with 85 diabetics of both sexes, by means of a semi-structured Knowledge, Attitude and Practice questionnaire. There was a predominance of females in the study (62.4%). On the topic of foot care, 49.4% had no knowledge on hygiene or what to observe in their feet. In relation to nail care, 56.5% were unaware of the correct way to cut nails. Regarding attitudes, 80% were willing to engage in self-care. In terms of practice, results showed that activities such as washing, drying, moisturizing and massaging were not executed together. It is therefore necessary to develop educational strategies to create awareness, both for diabetics and health professionals, on the effective prevention of diabetic foot. PMID:25508617

  2. Preservice Elementary Teachers' Science Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Science Content Knowledge

    Menon, Deepika; Sadler, Troy D.

    2016-07-01

    Self-efficacy beliefs that relate to teachers' motivation and performance have been an important area of concern for preservice teacher education. Research suggests high-quality science coursework has the potential to shape preservice teachers' science self-efficacy beliefs. However, there are few studies examining the relationship between science self-efficacy beliefs and science content knowledge. The purpose of this mixed methods study is to investigate changes in preservice teachers' science self-efficacy beliefs and science content knowledge and the relationship between the two variables as they co-evolve in a specialized science content course. Results from pre- and post-course administrations of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument-B (Bleicher, 2004) and a physical science concept test along with semi-structured interviews, classroom observations and artifacts served as data sources for the study. The 18 participants belonged to three groups representing low, medium and high initial levels of self-efficacy beliefs. A repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance design was used to test the significance of differences between the pre- and post-surveys across time. Results indicated statistically significant gains in participants' science self-efficacy beliefs and science conceptual understandings. Additionally, a positive moderate relationship between gains in science conceptual understandings and gains in personal science teaching efficacy beliefs was found. Qualitative analysis of the participants' responses indicated positive shifts in their science teacher self-image and they credited their experiences in the course as sources of new levels of confidence to teach science. The study includes implications for preservice teacher education programs, science teacher education, and research.

  3. Knowledge management and attitude towards nuclear energy: The Russian dimension

    The paper presented by the author at the first IAEA Knowledge Management Conference (2004, Saclay, France) was dedicated to the main achievements of the Soviet Union and Russia in generation and systematization of nuclear knowledge and in providing human resources for their application. Nevertheless, some well-known nuclear professionals consider the breach of the normal knowledge transfer process, which occurred when nuclear power plants have been transferred from the half-military nuclear complex with its high level of discipline to the civil 'boiler power industry' (quite unprepared for that), as one of the relevant causes of the Chernobyl accident. The crises of 1980-90ies (Chernobyl accident, changed political system, collapse of the USSR) have stopped the development of nuclear power industry and gave a severe blow to the nuclear knowledge management system. In present conditions, which can be surely described in the terms of 'nuclear renaissance', it seems important to trace, how the preserved and developing knowledge management system is influenced by the attitude towards nuclear energy in the country and in its 'components' (governmental authorities, energy community, public), as well as to follow up the role of nuclear professionals in forming the above attitude

  4. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of people toward epilepsy in a South Indian village

    Krishnaiah, Balaji; Alwar, Seenivasan P.; Ranganathan, Lakshmi N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: People living with epilepsy continue to suffer from enacted or perceived stigma that is based on myths, misconceptions, and misunderstandings that have persisted for many years. In the last decade, there has been an increase in individual literacy rate and increased access to technology in rural population. However, it is unclear if this has any effect on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) attitude toward epilepsy. Objective: Our primary aim is to evaluate KAP toward epilepsy. In addition, we also estimated the prevalence of stroke and epilepsy in rural South India. Materials and Methods: Using a 14-item questionnaire, we assessed KAP toward epilepsy and identified determinants of inappropriate attitudes toward people with epilepsy and 10-item questionnaires to assess the prevalence of epilepsy and stroke among 500 randomly selected populations in a Pattaravakkam village (Tamil Nadu, India). Results: About 87.7% of the people had heard or read about epilepsy. Negative attitudes appeared to be reinforced by beliefs that epilepsy is hereditary (23.1%), kind of insanity (22.6%), or as contagious (12.0%). The knowledge about the clinical characteristics and first aid to a person during a seizure was 25.8%. About 36.5% of people think that society discriminates people with epilepsy. Moreover, our prevalence study showed that 8.7% people are suffering from epilepsy and 3.7% had stroke previously and at the day of survey, the stroke prevalence is 3.3%. Conclusion: Even with increased literacy, technology, and communication devices, the KAP of people toward epilepsy is relatively low. General public education campaigns and specific school education campaigns children should be encouraged to increase the KAP toward epilepsy. The prevalence and pattern of epilepsy and stroke is on the higher side in the village of Pattaravakkam. Future research regarding the value of targeted education in improving KAP will be worthwhile. PMID:27365954

  5. Mothers' beliefs about knowledge, child development, and parenting strategies: expanding the goals of parenting programs.

    Bond, Lynne A; Burns, Catherine E

    2006-11-01

    This study examined the relationship between mothers' beliefs about knowledge (epistemology) and conceptions of child development and parent-child communication strategies. One hundred twenty mothers of preschool-aged children completed the Ways of Knowing measure and Parent Communication Strategies Interview; a subset of 38 also completed the Concepts of Development Questionnaire. Analyses revealed that mothers with more complex understanding of knowledge have less categorical and more multi-faceted conceptions of child development and are more likely to endorse parenting strategies that are less authoritarian and more cognitively challenging for children. EDITOR'S STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: Prevention programs designed to promote constructive parenting should foster parents' epistemological development (which guide beliefs and practices) rather than dwell on individual parent behaviors. The authors continue to develop the promising practice of tailoring interventions on the basis of parents' personal belief systems (see also Burns & Bond, 2004). PMID:17001521

  6. Characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa

    K Peltzer; P Seoka; S. Raphala

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa. The sample included 70 female sex workers from the Tzaneen and Phalaborwa area in the Limpopo Province. A modified form of snowball sampling known as “targeted” sampling was used for identifying female sex workers. Results showed an inadequate knowledge of HIV prevention methods and some incorrect beliefs about AIDS trans...

  7. Faculty of Education Students' Computer Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Their Attitudes towards Computers and Implementing Computer Supported Education

    Berkant, Hasan Güner

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates faculty of education students' computer self-efficacy beliefs and their attitudes towards computers and implementing computer supported education. This study is descriptive and based on a correlational survey model. The final sample consisted of 414 students studying in the faculty of education of a Turkish university. The…

  8. Chronic pain: the help-seeking behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of older adults living in the community.

    Cornally, Nicola; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2011-12-01

    Psychologic variables such as attitudes and beliefs may account for patients choosing not to seek treatment for pain; however, there is a dearth of empirical research to support this contention. The aim of this study was to explore the help-seeking behavior, individual characteristics, attitudes, and beliefs of older adults with chronic pain in an Irish community setting. A descriptive correlational design was used. A convenience sample of 72 older adults with chronic pain were recruited through two primary care practices. The research instruments used were a demographic questionnaire, the Level of Expressed Need Questionnaire, which measured help-seeking behavior, the Pain Attitudes Questionnaire, and the Pain Beliefs Questionnaire. Results revealed that individual characteristics associated with help-seeking behavior were female gender, increasing age, higher education, living alone, and severe pain. High levels of stoicism were reported, indicating that participants were more likely to believe they had superior pain control and courage in the face of pain and were not willing to disclose their pain to others. These attitudes were significantly associated with lower levels of expressed need for treatment. Participants had moderate age-related beliefs about the origin of pain, but those who believed pain had an organic cause were more likely to seek help. PMID:22117752

  9. Perceptions of Children's Television Advertising: An Empirical Investigation of the Beliefs and Attitudes of Consumer, Industry, and Government Respondents.

    Culley, James D.

    This paper summarizes the findings of a study investigating the beliefs and attitudes of six key respondent groups regarding issues surrounding television advertising and children. The six groups included in the study are spokesmen for Action for Children's Television (ACT); the presidents and top executive officers of advertising agencies…

  10. The Relationship between Attitudes of Prospective Physical Education Teachers towards Education Technologies and Computer Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    Kalemoglu Varol, Yaprak

    2014-01-01

    The aim of research is to investigate the relationship between attitudes of prospective physical education teacher towards education technologies and their computer self-efficacy beliefs. Relational research method has been used in the study. Study group consists of 337 prospective physical education teachers ("M"[subscript age] = 21.57…

  11. The Climate Change Attitude Survey: Measuring Middle School Student Beliefs and Intentions to Enact Positive Environmental Change

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    The Climate Change Attitude Survey is composed of 15 Likert-type attitudinal items selected to measure students' beliefs and intentions toward the environment with a focus on climate change. This paper describes the development of the instrument and psychometric performance characteristics including reliability and validity. Data were gathered…

  12. Current Kindergarten Parents' Attitudes toward and Beliefs about Children's Art Education in Majority Cities and Counties of Taiwan

    Hsiao, Ching-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Current kindergarten parents' attitudes toward and beliefs about children's art education in majority cities and counties of Taiwan were investigated. A review of the literature was conducted to identify several possible influences on parents' interpretation/ assessment of children's art education. Then, the researcher developed and distributed a…

  13. Examination of the Relationships between Fifth Graders' Self-Regulated Learning Strategies, Motivational Beliefs, Attitudes, and Achievement

    Ocak, Gurbuz; Yamac, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The aim of current study was to examine predictor and explanatory relationships between fifth graders' self-regulated learning strategies, motivational beliefs, attitudes towards mathematics, and academic achievement. The study was conducted on a sample of 204 students studying in the primary schools of Afyonkarahisar province. Motivated…

  14. Leadership Attitudes and Beliefs of Incoming First-Year College Students: A Multi-Institutional Study of Gender Differences

    Wielkiewicz, Richard M.; Fischer, Donald V.; Stelzner, Stephen P.; Overland, Maribeth; Sinner, Alyssa M.

    2012-01-01

    Incoming first-year college students (N = 4,292) were surveyed regarding attitudes and beliefs about leadership. Students' opinions about their leadership ability were high and were related to having an outgoing personality, as well as the number of high school activities in which they had been involved. In addition, students' understanding of…

  15. Grappling with the issue of homosexuality: perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs among high school students in Kenya

    Mucherah W

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Winnie Mucherah,1 Elizabeth Owino,2 Kaleigh McCoy,1 1Department of Educational Psychology, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA, 2Department of Educational Psychology, Moi University, Eldoret, Kenya Abstract: While the past decade has seen an improvement in attitudes toward homosexuality, negative attitudes are still prevalent in many parts of the world. In general, increased levels of education tend to be predictive of relatively positive attitudes toward homosexuality. However, in most sub-Saharan countries, it is still believed that people are born heterosexual and that nonheterosexuals are social deviants who should be prosecuted. One such country is Kenya, where homosexuality is illegal and attracts a fine or jail term. The purpose of this study was to examine high school students’ perceptions of homosexuality in Kenya. The participants included 1,250 high school students who completed a questionnaire on perceptions of homosexuality. The results showed that 41% claimed homosexuality is practiced in schools and 61% believed homosexuality is practiced mostly in single-sex boarding schools. Consistently, 52% believed sexual starvation to be the main cause of homosexuality. Also, 95% believed homosexuality is abnormal, 60% believed students who engage in homosexuality will not change to heterosexuality after school, 64% believed prayers can stop homosexuality, and 86% believed counseling can change students’ sexual orientation. The consequences for homosexuality included punishment (66%, suspension from school (61%, and expulsion from school (49%. Significant gender and grade differences were found. The implications of the study findings are discussed. Keywords: homosexuality, attitudes, beliefs, high school, Kenya

  16. Knowledge and Knowing in Mathematics and Pedagogy: A Case Study of Mathematics Student Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs

    Löfström, Erika; Pursiainen, Tuomas

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on mathematics student teachers' epistemological beliefs in mathematics and education. The study aimed at gaining insight into the challenges that students experience in the consolidation of knowledge in the two disciplines. The case study with three mathematics pre-service teachers utilised mathematical and pedagogical…

  17. Epistemological Beliefs and Their Relationship to the Knowledge of Preservice Secondary School Teachers

    Therriault, Geneviève; Harvey, Léon

    2013-01-01

    The authors analyse epistemological beliefs and their relationship to the knowledge developed by students engaged in a reorganized programme of training for secondary school teachers in Quebec. They examine two contexts for initial training: the training in their discipline that university students follow, and the practical training students…

  18. Kindergarten through Second-Grade Teachers' Knowledge and Beliefs about Dyslexia Assessment and Retention

    Foreman-Sinclair, Kimberly Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed research study was to investigate early assessment and identification for dyslexia in kindergarten through second grade, and to examine whether teachers' knowledge and beliefs lead to the practice of retaining students in grade rather than recommending formal dyslexia assessment. This study investigated both…

  19. The Development of Epistemological Theories: Beliefs about Knowledge and Knowing and Their Relation to Learning.

    Hofer, Barbara K.; Pintrich, Paul R.

    1997-01-01

    A critical and comprehensive review of a variety of research programs investigating students' thinking and beliefs about the nature of knowledge and knowing leads to the identification of nine theoretical and methodological issues that need to be resolved in future research on epistemological theories. (SLD)

  20. Knowledge, Beliefs, and Behaviors: Examining Human Papillomavirus-Related Gender Differences among African American College Students

    Bynum, Shalanda A.; Brandt, Heather M.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Annang, Lucy; Tanner, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Given recent approval for administration of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to men, it is important to assess the HPV-related perspectives of men and women. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in HPV knowledge, beliefs, and vaccine acceptance among college students attending 3 historically black…

  1. The Relationship between Mathematical Knowledge of Numbers and Operations and Mathematics Beliefs of Prospective Teachers

    Stiegelmeyer, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    This study surveyed 82 preservice elementary teachers using items from an instrument designed to predict student achievement based on a teacher's mathematics knowledge for teaching (MKT) in numbers and operations concepts. Additional mathematics beliefs items asked participants to rate their level of agreement with math myths and math anxiety…

  2. Nurses’ and Nursing Students’ Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Pediatric Pain

    Mario I. Ortiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nursing staff spend more time with patients with pain than any other health staff member. For this reason, the nurse must possess the basic knowledge to identify the presence of pain in patients, to measure its intensity and make the steps necessary for treatment. Therefore, a prospective, descriptive, analytical, and cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the knowledge and attitudes regarding pediatric pain in two different populations. The questionnaire, Pediatric Nurses Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (PKNAS, was applied to 111 hospital pediatric nurses and 300 university nursing students. The final scores for pediatric nurses and nursing students were 40.1 ± 7.9 and 40.3 ± 7.5, respectively. None of the sociodemographic variables predicted the scores obtained by the participants (P>0.05. There was a high correlation between the PKNAS scores of pediatric nurses and nursing students (r=0.86, P<0.001. It was observed that the degree of knowledge about pain and its treatment was very low in both groups. Due to this deficiency, pain in children remains inadequately managed, which leads to suffering in this population. It is necessary to increase the continued training in this subject in both areas.

  3. Nurses' and Nursing Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Pediatric Pain.

    Ortiz, Mario I; Ponce-Monter, Héctor A; Rangel-Flores, Eduardo; Castro-Gamez, Blanca; Romero-Quezada, Luis C; O'Brien, Jessica P; Romo-Hernández, Georgina; Escamilla-Acosta, Marco A

    2015-01-01

    Nursing staff spend more time with patients with pain than any other health staff member. For this reason, the nurse must possess the basic knowledge to identify the presence of pain in patients, to measure its intensity and make the steps necessary for treatment. Therefore, a prospective, descriptive, analytical, and cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the knowledge and attitudes regarding pediatric pain in two different populations. The questionnaire, Pediatric Nurses Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (PKNAS), was applied to 111 hospital pediatric nurses and 300 university nursing students. The final scores for pediatric nurses and nursing students were 40.1 ± 7.9 and 40.3 ± 7.5, respectively. None of the sociodemographic variables predicted the scores obtained by the participants (P > 0.05). There was a high correlation between the PKNAS scores of pediatric nurses and nursing students (r = 0.86, P < 0.001). It was observed that the degree of knowledge about pain and its treatment was very low in both groups. Due to this deficiency, pain in children remains inadequately managed, which leads to suffering in this population. It is necessary to increase the continued training in this subject in both areas. PMID:26543643

  4. Undergraduates' Attitudes toward Science and Their Epistemological Beliefs: Positive Effects of Certainty and Authority Beliefs

    Fulmer, Gavin W.

    2014-01-01

    Attitudes toward science are an important aspect of students' persistence in school science and interest in pursuing future science careers, but students' attitudes typically decline over the course of formal schooling. This study examines relationships of students' attitudes toward science with their perceptions of science as…

  5. Knowledge of risk factors, beliefs and practices of female healthcare professionals towards breast cancer, Morocco

    Samia Ghanem

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available le doctors were the only professional group that had satisfactory knowledge of risk factors while the nurses had an unsatisfactory knowledge with a mean score of 43%. A half of participants believed that that herbal therapy can cure breast cancer. 75% practice breast self-examination once a month and only 15% have ever had a mammogram. Age, profession and beliefs were not significantly associated with rate of BSE in this study; however this rate is influenced by knowledge of breast cancer risk factors. CONCLUSION: Results from this study suggest the need for continuing medical education programs aimed at improving knowledge of breast cancer among the nurses.

  6. Green Consumption: A Cross Cultural Study about Environmental Beliefs, Concerns, and Attitudes

    Pedro Luiz Côrtes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though young college students, from different countries, have ever growing access to information about environmental practices, this does not mean that they develop an awareness that leads to good practices of green consumption. Using a new scale, applied to 2372 college students from Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Portugal, and Spain, it was verified whether the perception of the environment of those youngsters is expressed by a construct which is reasonably structured by beliefs, concerns, and environment-friendly attitudes, through the analysis of the impacts caused by those dimensions onto their consumption practices. As a strategy for data analysis, was used exploratory factor analysis, with the use of the Mann-Whitney test on factors scores and Spearman correlation between the mean values of the factors. It was possible to conclude that, although there are similarities between the youngsters from Latin America and the group from Iberia (Spain and Portugal, there are significant differences on how such a perception is structured. The Iberians have an anthropocentric motivation, linked to the idea of preserving resources for the future, while the Latin Americans have a more holistic vision, in which the environmental beliefs play a role of an important background. Between the two groups there are also differences regarding the possibility to conciliate economical development with environmental conservation. It was noted that the green consumption is an answer to the environmental concerns for both groups, which are less influenced by other dimensions, and this fact could impact the marketing strategies towards those groups.  

  7. The environmental history in pediatric practice: a study of pediatricians' attitudes, beliefs, and practices.

    Kilpatrick, Nikki; Frumkin, Howard; Trowbridge, Jane; Escoffery, Cam; Geller, Robert; Rubin, Leslie; Teague, Gerald; Nodvin, Janice

    2002-01-01

    We conducted a mail survey of practicing pediatricians in Georgia to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding recording patients' environmental histories. Of 477 eligible pediatricians, 266 (55.8%) responded. Fewer than one in five reported having received training in environmental history-taking. Pediatricians reported that they strongly believe in the importance of environmental exposures in children's health, and 53.5% of respondents reported experience with a patient who...

  8. URINARY INCONTINENCE: KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES, AND PREVALENCE AMONG OLDER ARGENTINE FEMALES

    Jauregui JR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of Argentine women 65 years of age and older regarding urinary incontinence (UI. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 238 community-dwelling Argentine women 65 years of age and older was conducted in San Justo, Argentina. Data were collected by in-person interviews. Results: Regarding knowledge, 232 (97.5% of the women surveyed were familiar with the term urinary incontinence, but 152 (63.9% falsely believed that UI is a normal part of aging and 163 (68.5% did not know about pelvic exercises or a surgical option to treat UI. A total of 106 (44.5% women reported symptoms of UI. Discussion: Older Argentine women are misinformed about UI. Interventions are necessary to increase their knowledge and healthcare seeking behaviors.

  9. Emergency nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and experiential survey on advance directives.

    Jezewski, Mary Ann; Feng, Jui-Ying

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine emergency nurses' knowledge of, attitudes toward, and experiences with advance directives (ADs). This was a descriptive, correlation, mailed survey study sent to a random sample of members of the Emergency Nurses Association. The results, based on the responses of 579 emergency nurses, found that the nurses were not very knowledgeable about ADs in general (68% correct) and even less knowledgeable about the Patient Self-Determination Act (PSDA) (51% correct) and their state laws (56% correct). The nurses were experienced with ADs but they were less confident in their ability to assist patients with completing ADs. Forty-seven percent of the nurses agreed that actively assisting some terminally ill patients to die should be made legal. Nurses need information pertaining to ADs in general, the PSDA, and their individual state laws. This could increase their level of confidence in being able to effectively assist patients to understand and complete ADs. PMID:17693216

  10. Knowledge and beliefs about breastfeeding are not determinants for successful breastfeeding.

    Ishak, Shareena; Adzan, Nur Azeanny M; Quan, Lee K; Shafie, M Hasli; Rani, Nor Azila; Ramli, Kazzoma G

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional prospective study was performed to assess knowledge and attitude toward breastfeeding among mothers in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia and its influence on their breastfeeding practices. Two hundred thirteen women who had delivered healthy babies at term were enrolled. A structured questionnaire containing demographic data and the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Score were used, followed by a telephone interview after 8 weeks to determine the feeding outcome. Women of Malay ethnicity with higher education level who had received breastfeeding counseling had a significantly more favorable attitude toward breastfeeding. Ethnicity was found to be a significant determinant in the success of breastfeeding, whereas returning to work was a major reason for discontinuing breastfeeding. In ensuring a successful breastfeeding practice, apart from knowledge and attitude, issues surrounding culture and traditions as well as improving deliverance of readily available support should be addressed. PMID:24893127

  11. Effects of an Educational Workshop on Pediatric Nurses' Attitudes and Beliefs About Family-Centered Bedside Rounds.

    Montgomery, Lara; Benzies, Karen; Barnard, Chantelle

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the effects of an educational workshop on nurses' (N=36) attitudes and beliefs toward family-centered bedside rounds (FBR) using a single group, pretest/posttest design on two pediatric inpatient units at an academic tertiary-care center in Western Canada. The theory of planned behavior was used to develop the Nurses Attitudes and Behaviors about Rounds (NABAR) questionnaire. There were statistically significant increases between pretest and posttest scores on nurses' intentions, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control related to FBR, and on providing education to families about FBR. A brief, educational workshop can positively affect nurses' attitudes and beliefs about FBR. Future research should include additional psychometric evaluation of the NABAR. PMID:26614612

  12. Knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices about colorectal cancer among adults in an area of Southern Italy

    Marinelli Paolo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer for both sexes in developed countries. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices regarding CRC of adults in Italy. Methods A random sample of 1165 adults received a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics; knowledge regarding definition, risk factors, and screening; attitudes regarding perceived risk of contracting CRC and utility of screening tests; health-related behaviors and health care use; source of information. Results Only 18.5% knew the two main modifiable risk factors (low physical activity, high caloric intake from fat and this knowledge was significantly associated with higher educational level, performing physical activity, modification of dietary habits and physical activity for fear of contracting CRC, and lower risk perception of contracting CRC. Half of respondents identified fecal occult blood testing (FOBT as main test for CRC prevention and were more knowledgeable those unmarried, more educated, who knew the main risk factors of CRC, and have received advice by physician of performing FOBT. Personal opinion that screening is useful for CRC prevention was high with a mean score of 8.3 and it was predicted by respondents' lower education, beliefs that CRC can be prevented, higher personal perceived risk of contracting CRC, and information received by physician about CRC. An appropriate behavior of performing FOBT if eligible or not performing if not eligible was significantly higher in female, younger, more educated, in those who have been recommended by physician for undergo or not undergo FOBT, and who have not personal history of precancerous lesions and familial history of precancerous lesions or CRC. Conclusion Linkages between health care and educational systems are needed to improve the levels of knowledge and to raise CRC screening adherence.

  13. Attitudes of the knowledgeable toward the transportation of spent fuel

    The purpose of the paper is to discuss the recent data analysis of a mail-in survey which investigated the attitudes of people having some knowledge of the nuclear industry. The survey contained 74 items which solicited 4 major types of information. Thirty-seven items investigated respondents' perception of risk concerning spent fuel transportation, 12 examined respondents' confidence in certain governing agencies' abilities of managing the safe transportation of spent fuel, 19 examined respondents' attitudes toward certain special precautionary actions for spent fuel transport, and 6 requested demographic data. The 637 people who responded to the survey were divided into 5 mutually exclusive groups for analysis. These included: safety professionals, government employees, employees of the nuclear industry, employees of environmental organizations, and Native Americans. The safety, government, and Native American groups were divided into subgroups for further analysis. Overall and group responses concerned with special precautionary actions for the transportation of spent fuel were examined. Native American, safety, and government subgroup responses to items which examined respondents' perceived risks, confidence in certain governing agencies, and attitudes concerning special precautionary actions for the transportation of spent fuel were also investigated. Additionally, risk perceptions of spent fuel transport was compared between people residing no more than 5 miles from an interstate highway to those living no less than 16 miles from an interstate highway. The results of the analysis are divided into 4 sections: A. Sample Identification; B. Overall and Group Attitudes to Certain Special Precautionary Actions For Transporting Spent Fuel; C. Subgroup Attitudes toward the Transportation of Spent Fuel; D. Risk Perceptions of People Living No More than 5 Miles vs. People Living No Less than 16 Miles from and Interstate Highway. Generally conclusions are also provided

  14. Attitudes and knowledge of nurses on organ legacy and transplantation

    Vlaisavljević Željko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nurses represent an important link in mediating between the potential donors and their relatives’ consent to organ and tissue transplantation. The message of the Health Department to potential donors about the importance of organ donation was supported by the Serbian Orthodox Church, the army and other institutions through media campaigns. Nurses could contribute to this action by their personal example. Objective. The aim of this study was identification and bivariate analysis of nurse attitude about organ donation, their knowledge about the importance of transplantation as treatment methods, as well as the connection between work experience and education level with the formation of attitudes and new skills. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 291 nurses from the Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, filled in the questionnaire on the effect of correlation between the length of the service and level of education on knowledge and attitudes toward organ transplantation and organ donation. Results. Out of 291 respondents, 67.4% have completed the nursing school and 32.6% have higher education. The majority (63.9% of respondents knew that the EEG was the most valid method for determining brain death. The question regarding the possibility of buying organs was answered correctly by 68.7% of respondents. A large majority (91% would accept organ transplant, if needed, but only 32.0% would be organ donors, and only 0.3% owned a donor card. In contrast, one third of nurses were already blood donors. Conclusion. In case of necessary transplantation, nurses would accept someone else’s organ, though they do not possess donor cards, but just few would donate their organs. It is possible that prejudice arises from ignorance and distrust in the health policy of the Republic of Serbia. However, besides negative attitude, nurses have expressed interest in learning and professional development in the area of transplantation.

  15. Effects of Knowledge on Attitude Formation and Change Toward Genetically Modified Foods.

    Zhu, Xiaoqin; Xie, Xiaofei

    2015-05-01

    In three waves, this study investigates the impact of risk and benefit knowledge on attitude formation toward genetically modified (GM) foods as well as the moderating effect of knowledge level on attitude change caused by receiving information. The data in Wave 1 (N = 561) demonstrate that both benefit and risk knowledge either directly contribute to attitude formation or indirectly affect attitudes through the mediating roles of benefit and risk perceptions. Overall, benefit and risk knowledge affect consumer attitudes positively and negatively, respectively. In Wave 2, 486 participants from Wave 1 were provided with information about GM foods, and their attitudes were assessed. Three weeks later, 433 of these participants again reported their attitudes. The results indicate that compared with the benefit and mixed information, risk information has a greater and longer lasting impact on attitude change, which results in lower acceptance of GM foods. Furthermore, risk information more strongly influences participants with a higher knowledge level. The moderating effect of knowledge on attitude change may result from these participants' better understanding of and greater trust in the information. These findings highlight the important role of knowledge in attitude formation and attitude change toward GM foods as well as the necessity of considering the determinants of attitude formation in attitude change studies. PMID:25693867

  16. Knowledge and Beliefs About Breastfeeding Are Not Determinants for Successful Breastfeeding

    Ishak, Shareena; Adzan, Nur Azeanny M.; Quan, Lee K.; Shafie, M. Hasli; Rani, Nor Azila; Ramli, Kazzoma G.

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional prospective study was performed to assess knowledge and attitude toward breastfeeding among mothers in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia and its influence on their breastfeeding practices. Two hundred thirteen women who had delivered healthy babies at term were enrolled. A structured questionnaire containing demographic data and the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Score were used, followed by a telephone interview after 8 weeks to determine the feeding outcome. Women of Malay eth...

  17. Korean women: breast cancer knowledge, attitudes and behaviors

    Ryujin Lisa T

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Clustered within the nomenclature of Asian American are numerous subgroups, each with their own ethnic heritage, cultural, and linguistic characteristics. An understanding of the prevailing health knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors of these subgroups is essential for creating population-specific health promotion programs. Methods Korean American women (123 completed baseline surveys of breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors as part of an Asian grocery store-based breast cancer education program evaluation. Follow-up telephone surveys, initiated two weeks later, were completed by 93 women. Results Low adherence to the American Cancer Society's breast cancer screening guidelines and insufficient breast cancer knowledge were reported. Participants' receptiveness to the grocery store-based breast cancer education program underscores the importance of finding ways to reach Korean women with breast cancer early detection information and repeated cues for screening. The data also suggest that the Asian grocery store-based cancer education program being tested may have been effective in motivating a proportion of the women to schedule a breast cancer screening between the baseline and follow-up surveys. Conclusion The program offers a viable strategy to reach Korean women that addresses the language, cultural, transportation, and time barriers they face in accessing breast cancer early detection information.

  18. Nursing faculties’ knowledge and attitude on evidence-based practice

    Mehrdad, Neda; Joolaee, Soodabeh; Joulaee, Azadeh; Bahrani, Naser

    2012-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based practice (EBP) is one of the main professional competencies for health care professionals and a priority for medicine and nursing curriculum as well. EBP leads to improve effective and efficient care and patient outcomes. Nurse educators have responsibility to teach the future nurses, and an opportunity to promote patient outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe nurse educators’ knowledge and attitude on EBP. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study conducted in nursing faculties of two major universities of medical sciences affiliated to Ministry of Health and Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran. Data were gathered using a three-section questionnaire. Content and face validity was further enhanced by submitting it to nursing research and education experts. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11 software. Results: According the results, nursing faculties’ knowledge of EBP was mainly moderate (47.1%). Significant statistical relationship was found between the level of knowledge with education and teaching experience in different nursing programs. Nurses generally held positive attitudes toward EBP (88.6%) and there was no statistical significant relationship with demographic variables. Conclusion: Nursing educators are in a position to influence nursing research in clinical practice in the future. Therefore, it is critical to achieve implementation of EBP and be a change agent for a paradigm shift toward EBP. PMID:23922597

  19. Knowledge and attitudes of physiotherapy students towards obesity

    A. Awotidebe

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has been recognised as a risk factor for non-communicable diseases, with more than one billion adults worldwide who are overweight, of which approximately 300 million are obese. Obesity puts an individual in danger of a shorter life expectancy and at risk for developing chronic diseases of life style, which includediabetes, cardio vascular disease and musculoskeletal disorders such as arthritis and back pain. Wide spread negative attitudes towards obese people have been observed which are equally prevalent among health care professionals.  This study was based on the need to determine the knowledge and attitudes towards obese people among physiotherapy students, as they are well suited to address theintricacies of obesity and its related conditions. One hundred and seventy five students from a university in the Western Cape, South Africa, completed a structured, self-administered questionnaire that was adopted from the Obesity Risk Knowledge and Fat Phobia Scale. The study sample demonstrated average levels of knowledge regarding obesity with scores ranging from 3 to 9 on a scale of 10 with a mean score of 6.05. A n overwhelming majority of the participants(> 80% viewed obesity as largely a behavioural problem while nearly all the participants (97.6% characterised obese people as lazy, unattractive, insecure and with lower self-esteem. This study has reinforced the need for a morefocussed approach to the education of physiotherapy students around obesity and obesity-related conditions, as well asthe management thereof.

  20. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Mothers Regarding Infant Feeding Practices

    Sushma Sriram

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Present study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers towards infant feeding practices. Materials and methods: The mothers of infants, coming to a tertiary care centre, Ahmedabad, on outpatient basis were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire. Total 150 mothers were interviewed. Results: Out of the total, 18% mothers were illiterate.58.67% mothers have been counselled by doctor about feeding. Regarding breast feeding, 96% knew about exclusive breast feeding up to 6months. 90.67% think that colostrum is good for baby.34.67% mothers have given pre-lacteal feeds, tea and jaggery was most common.84.67% mothers knew that they should take extra food during lactation. Father (36% most commonly help in feeding while 31.33% don’t get any domestic help.78.67% women consult doctor for feeding problems. Most common reason of stopping breast feeding was inadequate milk secretion(54.67%.18% think that feeding should be stopped during illness. 75.33% women were completely satisfied with their feeding practices. Conclusion-Mothers had good knowledge about infant feeding practices. Inspite of good knowledge there are lacunae in the practices of mothers due to social and economic reasons. Level of education has positive impact on infant feeding practices. Counselling by doctors had a better impact on the attitude and practices of mothers. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(2.000: 147-150

  1. Saudi school students’ knowledge, attitude and practice toward medicines

    Eldalo, Ahmed S.; Yousif, Mirghani A.; Abdallah, Mustafa Awad

    2013-01-01

    The current study was aimed to assess Saudi school students’ knowledge, attitude and practice about medicines. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used anonymously among 15–20 year-old adolescents attending tertiary schools in Taif City, KSA. A total of 1022 students completed the questionnaires. Only 15.4% of the respondents knew the medicines’ uses. Most of the students 79.6% affirmed that they used to take medicines after consulting physicians, and 45.1% of the students thought that tablet size affects the medicine’s efficacy. More than half of the students knew that high temperatures affect the efficacy of medicines, there was a significant difference between rural and urban areas (P = 0.005). Physicians (50.6%) and community pharmacists (15.7%), were the main students’ reliable sources of information about medicines. The majority of the students 70.5% were interested in learning more about medicines. The younger students ⩽18 years wish to learn more than the older ones (P < 0.014). The study showed that Saudi school students aged 15–20 years old have poor knowledge, misconception and negative attitudes about medicines. Low level of knowledge may expose adolescents to health-related problems. Educational efforts are important to improve students’ practice toward medicines. PMID:25061406

  2. Comparison of fertility ratios, attitudes and beliefs of Polish and Czech women

    Andrzej Brodziak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to estimate some basic data related to the fertility in the chosen groups of Polish and Czech women. We have tried to acquire and analyze the attitudes and beliefs of these women in motherhood and the desire to have children. These data enable to verify the interdisciplinary hypothesis explaining the decline of birth rate and low fertility in European countries. Materials and methods: The authors performed the survey by means of a questionnaire formulated after a comprehensive discussion of possible reasons of birth rate decline. They have tried through the questions of the survey to verify the hypothesis that the decline is the result of the cumulative mental changes occurring in contemporary societies. The questionnaire completed 90 Polish women students pursuing complementary studies of nursing in Higher School of Applied Sciences in Nysa, during the academic year 2012/2013. The questionnaire also completed 53 Czech women students pursuing part-time studies and training at the Tomas Bata University in Zlin (the Czech Republic. Results: The above surveyed 90 Polish women gave birth to 132 children, so fertility rates is 1.46. The average age at the birth of the first child was 24.7 years, of the second child 27.5 and of the third child 31.7 years. The surveyed 53 Czech women gave birth to 86 children, so fertility rates is 1.62. The average age at birth of the first child was 24.7 years, of the second child 27.2 and of the third child 27,5 years. The authors present also convictions, beliefs and attitudes of the women under study. Conclusions: The multifaceted and interdisciplinary hypothesis (theoretical model formulated at the outset of our work, can be useful for attempts to estimate the pro-family attitudes in different populations of women. The results in the light of compliance with the proposed theoretical model allow for the formulation of proposals for action, which would counteract the

  3. Knowledge, attitudes and practices in the provision of nutritional care.

    Fletcher, Antoinette

    2012-02-01

    The nutritional care of patients is one of the primary responsibilities of all registered nurses (Persenius et al, 2008). A poor nutritional status can lead to malnutrition, which can have serious consequences for an individual\\'s quality of life (Field and Smith, 2008). This paper commences with an introduction to the concept of nutrition, provides an overview of nutritional guidelines and nutritional screening tools which identify those at risk of malnutrition. It reviews the literature on nurses\\' knowledge, attitudes and practices in the provision of nutritional care and debates challenges and opportunities encountered to help nurses ensure adequate patient nutrition.

  4. Knowledge, attitude and compliance with tuberculosis treatment, Lusaka, Zambia

    Mweemba, P.; Haruzivishe, C.; Siziya, Seter; Chipimo, Peter Jay; Cristenson, K.; Johansson, E

    2008-01-01

    More than 1.5 million TB cases occur in sub-Saharan Africa every year. Lack of compliance to TB treatment has contributed to the steady rise of TB incidence in Zambia. The prevalence of TB was 511 per 100,000 population in 2000. Much of the increase in incidence has been attributed to co-infection with HIV, there are HIV rates of 70-80% in TB patients Objectives: To determine knowledge, attitude and compliance with TB treatment by PTB patients attending chest clinic at a tertiary hospital....

  5. Evaluating Oral Hygiene Knowledge and Attitude of Pregnant Women

    J Hamissi; Bakianian Vaziri, P.; A Davalloo

    2010-01-01

    "nBackground: The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge and attitude of pregnant women in Qazvin Province, central Iran, Relating to oral Hygiene."nMethods: The study group comprised of 760 pregnant women living in Qazvin, center of Iran in 2004. The questions were formulated to evaluate information without the need for dental examination. The age groups between 17-41 years old were randomly selected and a question was given to woman in three family planning center. St...

  6. The Hungarian youth's knowledge and attitude in the nuclear field

    The Young People for the Nuclear Energetics (FINE) was established in 1999 as the Hungarian branch of the Young Generation Network. Our purpose is to remove the misbelieves and fears arisen around the nuclear techniques and mainly the nuclear energetics and to reply the questions brought up by the Hungarian youth in this topic. In this year our main activity was to take part in the Student Island festival with a Nuclear-tent. In this paper our experience is delineated what we drawn with the help of our programmes about the attitude and the knowledge of the youth. (authors)

  7. Tobacco control education, attitudes and beliefs of Nigerian health profession students

    Oluwatunmise Awojobi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study is to explore tobacco control-related education of health profession students and demonstrate variations according to course of study. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey of 154 of third year nursing, pharmacy, medical and dental students in a tertiary institution in Lagos, Nigeria. The validated Global Health Professional Students survey questionnaire was used to collect data on recall of tobacco-related training, attitudes to tobacco control and beliefs about the role of health professionals in tobacco control. This was voluntary and anonymous. Descriptive and univariate analysis were conducted. Results: Only 11.8(n=18 of all respondents recalled being trained on all possible items of formal tobacco-related training. Pharmacy students had significantly low levels of training recall (χ[sup]2[/sup][sub](3[/sub]=9.88; p=0.02. Nursing students were reported to have the most positive attitudes to tobacco control with the highest mean score of 4.27 (95= 3.88-4.66. However, there was no significant difference in attitudes to tobacco control. Compared to other students, Nursing students were significantly less likely to believe that as health professionals they had a role in tobacco-control (χ[sup]2[/sup][sub](3[/sub] = 8.06; p=0.045. Conclusions: Many respondents believed they have a role in providing cessation interventions and that specific training should be part of the education they receive. However, fewer respondents report receiving such training. The education and training of these samples of health profession students needs to place more emphasis on their role in tobacco control if they are to effectively function as health promoting health professionals in preventing tobacco-related diseases.

  8. Dentists and eating disorders--knowledge, attitudes, management and experience.

    Johansson, Ann-Katrin; Nohlert, Eva; Johansson, Anders; Norring, Claes; Tegelberg, Ake

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to explore the level of knowledge and attitudes among dentists in relation to patients with eating disorders (ED) and evaluate the extent to which patients with ED are identified and/or treated in the dental setting. A postal questionnaire was constructed and sent to all dentists (n = 367) in two Swedish counties during November 2005. The questionnaire comprised 29 questions or statements in the following categories: demographics, general knowledge of ED and its oral consequences, experience of and attitudes towards patients with ED and interaction within the health care system, for example, referrals and treatment options regarding this patient group. The response rate was 70% (n = 258). Perceived knowledge about ED was most commonly obtained from media sources, namely newspapers, television, etc. Few dentists knew that there existed specialized referral units for ED patients in their county. The majority of dentists stated that they had seen only a few such patients during their practice. Even though the perceived level of general knowledge about ED among female dentists appeared to be better than among male dentists, they also found it more difficult to inform the patient/relatives about their suspicion of the condition. Female dentists referred to specialists significantly more frequently than did males. Eighty-six percent of responders reported that they needed more training in dental management of patients with ED. Knowledge and clinical experience of dentists as regards patients with ED were found to be low. The level of education in this area needs to be improved, which would have the potential to encourage dentists to become more involved in secondary and tertiary prevention and management of ED. PMID:19522312

  9. Knowledge, attitudes and practices about tuberculosis in zenúes indigenous and habitants of a rural area of Colombia.

    Jaiberth Antonio Cardona-Arias

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous and rural area residents are groups at high risk for tuberculosis. The strategies ofhealth promotion and disease prevention must be based on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice(CAP that communities have on this topic. Objective: to describe the CAP about tuberculosisand its association with socio-demographic aspects in Indigenous and rural area residents ofCordoba, Colombia, 2012, and assess the validity and reliability of the scale CAP. Materials andmethods: cross sectional study in 300 individuals, 100 Zenú indigenous and 200 peasants. Datawere collected through primary source, analyzes were performed using summary measures, frequencyand nonparametric statistics tests in SPSS 20. Results: CAP showed good reliability andvalidity of appearance, content and construct. In knowledge 76% presented a satisfactory level,the attitudes 77% were unsatisfactory and the 48% had good practices. There was no statisticalassociation of CAP with sex or religious beliefs, the ethnicity were statistically significant differencesin knowledge and practices. The age was statistically associated with knowledge, educationshowed association with the practices. Conclusion: there was an adequate level of knowledge abouttuberculosis, while attitudes and practices were unsatisfactory; the main factors associated withCAP were ethnicity, age and education.

  10. An Investigation of Somali Women’s Beliefs, Practices, and Attitudes about Health, Health Promoting Behaviours and Cancer Prevention

    S. A. Francis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study examined Somali women's perception of health/access to care, examined their knowledge and attitudes about cancer prevention, and discussed strategies to improve service provision and education. Using a multidisciplinary approach, twelve face-to-face interviews were conducted with Somali women ages 18 and older, residing in a mid-western city. Open coding was used to categorize and reflect the interview statements and to identify reoccurring themes. Somali women are concerned about a variety of health issues and cited the role of culture and religion in developing prevention strategies.   Participants emphasized the use of religious leaders, health care advocates, oral traditions, and translators in providing culturally appropriate health care services. Religion and culture play a prominent role in the Somali community and impact beliefs about health and wellness.  Health practitioners need to work closely with individuals and community leaders to tailor services that are culturally appropriate and accessible.       

  11. Knowledge and beliefs about malaria transmission and practices for vector control in Southern Mexico Conocimientos y creencias acerca del paludismo y prácticas para el control de vectores en el sur de México

    Américo David Rodríguez; Rosa Patricia Penilla; Mario Henry-Rodríguez; Janet Hemingway; Angel Francisco Betanzos; Juan Eugenio Hernández-Avila

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the knowledge and beliefs about malaria transmission and practices for vector control in eight villages on the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted during May and June 1995 in Chiapas, Mexico. A questionnaire to investigate family structure, knowledge on malaria transmission, preventive measures and attitudes towards seeking treatment was applied to both family heads of a sample of households. Associations wer...

  12. An exploration of the knowledge and attitudes towards breastfeeding among a sample of Chinese mothers in Ireland

    Kearney John M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological factors are important in influencing breastfeeding practices. This retrospective study explored knowledge and attitudes related to breastfeeding of Chinese mothers living in Ireland. Methods A cross-sectional self-administrated survey written in Chinese was distributed to a convenience sample of 322 immigrant Chinese mothers mainly via Chinese supermarkets and Chinese language schools in Dublin, with the involvement of the snowball method to increase sample size. Maternal breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes were described, their associations with socio-demographic variables were explored by Chi-square analysis, and their independent associations with breastfeeding behaviours were estimated by binary logistic regression analyses. Results In spite of considerable awareness of the advantages of breastfeeding (mean score = 4.03 ± 0.73, some misconceptions (e.g. 'mother should stop breastfeeding if she catches a cold' and negative attitudes (e.g. breastfeeding inconvenient, embarrassing, and adverse to mothers' figure existed, especially among the less educated mothers. Cultural beliefs concerning the traditional Chinese postpartum diet were prevalent, particularly among those who had lived in Ireland for a shorter duration (P = 0.004. Psychological parameters had strong independent associations with breastfeeding practices in this study. Those who had lower awareness score (OR = 2.98, 95% CI: 1.87-4.73, more misconceptions and negative attitudes (P Conclusions Findings highlight a need to focus resources and education on correcting the misconceptions identified and reversing the negative attitudes towards breastfeeding among Chinese mothers in Ireland, in particular those with primary/secondary level of education. Mothers' cultural beliefs should also be acknowledged and understood by healthcare providers.

  13. Faculty Perceptions, Knowledge, and Attitudes Toward Interprofessional Education and Practice.

    Hinderer, Katherine A; Klima, Dennis; Truong, Hoai-An; Rangel, Adriana G; Brown, Voncelia; Talley, William; Dougherty, Patrick; Joyner, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    As interprofessional education (IPE) is incorporated into health professions programs, it is essential to understand faculty perceptions, knowledge, and attitudes about IPE and interprofessional practice (IPP). A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. Seventy-one faculty from three campuses of two rural public universities representing seven different programs participated. Despite limited IPE experience, faculty appreciated IPE and IPP. Notably, many felt undervalued by other professions. Participants acknowledged the importance of working with other professions (mean 2.69±0.53), participating on IP teams (2.61±0.52), and integrating IPP in patient care (2.60±0.52). Faculty reported low IPE knowledge (1.74±0.66) and confidence in IPE teaching ability (1.74±0.67). These findings demonstrate a need for faculty development in both IPE and IPP across all health disciplines. PMID:26937886

  14. Taking Geoscience to Public Schools: Attitude and Knowledge Relationships

    Silliman, J. E.; Hansen, A.; McDonald, J.; Martinez, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program is an ongoing project that is designed to strengthen geoscience education in South Texas public schools. It began in June 2003 and is funded by the National Science Foundation. This outreach program involves collaboration between Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi and four independent school districts in South Texas with support from the South Texas Rural Systemic Initiative, another NSF-funded project. Additional curriculum support has been provided by various local and state organizations. Across Texas, fifth grade students are demonstrating a weakness in geoscience concepts as evidenced by their scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills. As a result, fifth and sixth grade public school students from low-income school districts were selected to participate in this program. At this age students are already making decisions that will affect their high school and college years. The main purpose of this project is to encourage these students, many of whom are Hispanic, to become geoscientists. This purpose is accomplished by enhancing their geoscience knowledge, nurturing their interest in geoscience and showing them what careers are available in the geosciences. Educators and scientists collaborate to engage students in scientific discovery through hands-on laboratory exercises and exposure to state-of-the-art technology (laptop computers, weather stations, telescopes, etc.). Students' family members become involved in the geoscience learning process as they participate in Family Science Night activities. Family Science Nights constitute an effective venue to reach the public. During the course of the Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program, investigators have measured success in two ways: improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience concepts and change in students' attitudes towards geoscience. Findings include significant improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience. Students also report more positive

  15. A Three-Lesson Teaching Unit Significantly Increases High School Students' Knowledge about Epilepsy and Positively Influences Their Attitude towards This Disease.

    Simon, Uwe K; Gesslbauer, Lisa; Fink, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is not a regular topic in many countries' schools. Thus many people harbor misconceptions about people suffering from this disease. It was our aim to a) examine what grade ten students know and believe about epilepsy, and b) to develop and test a teaching unit to improve their knowledge and attitude. The test group comprised eight grade ten classes from six different Austrian high schools (54 girls and 51 boys aged 14-17), the control group (no intervention) five grade ten classes from the same schools (26 girls and 37 boys aged 14-17). The teaching unit consisted of three 45-min lessons using different methods and material. Changes in knowledge about and attitude towards epilepsy as a result of the intervention were psychometrically assessed in a pre-test intervention post-test design (along with a follow-up assessment two months after the intervention) by means of a questionnaire capturing different facets of epilepsy-related knowledge and attitude. Across all knowledge/attitude domains, students of the test group had a significantly improved knowledge about and a more positive attitude towards epilepsy and people suffering from it after the teaching unit. However, starting levels were different between the five knowledge/attitude domains tested. Medical background knowledge was lowest and consequently associated with the highest increase after the intervention. This study shows that epilepsy-related knowledge of many grade ten high school students is fragmentary and that some harbor beliefs and attitudes which require improvement. Our comprehensive but concise teaching unit significantly increased knowledge about epilepsy and positively influenced attitude towards individuals with epilepsy. Thus we recommend implementing this unit into regular school curricula. PMID:26919557

  16. A Three-Lesson Teaching Unit Significantly Increases High School Students’ Knowledge about Epilepsy and Positively Influences Their Attitude towards This Disease

    Simon, Uwe K.; Gesslbauer, Lisa; Fink, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is not a regular topic in many countries’ schools. Thus many people harbor misconceptions about people suffering from this disease. It was our aim to a) examine what grade ten students know and believe about epilepsy, and b) to develop and test a teaching unit to improve their knowledge and attitude. The test group comprised eight grade ten classes from six different Austrian high schools (54 girls and 51 boys aged 14–17), the control group (no intervention) five grade ten classes from the same schools (26 girls and 37 boys aged 14–17). The teaching unit consisted of three 45-min lessons using different methods and material. Changes in knowledge about and attitude towards epilepsy as a result of the intervention were psychometrically assessed in a pre-test intervention post-test design (along with a follow-up assessment two months after the intervention) by means of a questionnaire capturing different facets of epilepsy-related knowledge and attitude. Across all knowledge/attitude domains, students of the test group had a significantly improved knowledge about and a more positive attitude towards epilepsy and people suffering from it after the teaching unit. However, starting levels were different between the five knowledge/attitude domains tested. Medical background knowledge was lowest and consequently associated with the highest increase after the intervention. This study shows that epilepsy-related knowledge of many grade ten high school students is fragmentary and that some harbor beliefs and attitudes which require improvement. Our comprehensive but concise teaching unit significantly increased knowledge about epilepsy and positively influenced attitude towards individuals with epilepsy. Thus we recommend implementing this unit into regular school curricula. PMID:26919557

  17. Nurses knowledge, attitude and practice in prevention of ICU syndrome

    Ali Dadgari

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intensive care unit ICU syndrome is a disorder, in which patients in an ICU or a similar setting experience anxiety, hallucination and become paranoid, severely disoriented in time and place, very agitated, or even violent, etc. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of nurses with regards to prevention of ICU syndrome (Delirium. Methods: Subjects of this research were 56 nurses with including criteria of registration in nursing, university degree and at least one month experience of working in open heart surgery ICUs. The data was gathered from 3 clusters in university hospitals equipped with open heart surgery ICUs in Tehran. All subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire. Moreover all subjects were observed in all shifts. During observation, two researchers observed each subject simultaneously to achieve higher accuracy of observations. Descriptive and analytic statistics were applied to analysis the data. Results: The finding of the study showed that more than 53% of the subjects had passed a continuing education course, but less than 46% of them never passed a training course on ICU. According to this research, subjects, work experience in ICUs had significant relation on their knowledge with regard to prevention of ICU psychosis. However, it has not significant relation to their attitude and skill. Conclusion: According to the results of the study, subjects have little chance to be familiar with the concepts and elements of ICU syndrome in their university program. The finding also indicated that many subjects in this study were not familiar with the important concepts such as sleep deprivation, sensory overload and sensory deprivation, etc. Ongoing progression in high-tech ICUs brings about continuing nursing education programs for all nurses. The results also showed that stress factor in ICU, such as high mortality, isolation, high workload etc. Gradually influences nurses,attitude in

  18. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding gemstone therapeutics in a selected adult population in Pakistan

    Qidwai Waris

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gemstones have been in use as part of alternative and complementary medicine for years. However, our understanding of the perceived healing powers of gemstones is limited. An extensive literature search revealed that there is a dearth of validated information on this subject. This study was therefore undertaken to explore the various aspects of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the public towards gemstone therapeutics. Methods A survey was performed in the Community Health Centre of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Pakistan. Data collection was done via a face-to-face interview based on a structured, pre-tested questionnaire. Participants included all willing persons between 18–75 years of age approached prior to their appointments at the Community Health Centre. Results The survey response rate was 86% (400/465. More than half (63% of the study population was aware of the use of gemstone therapy. One hundred fifty-six individuals believed that gemstone use impacts health. Of this group, 39% believed that gemstone use increases physical strength. 62% believed that gemstone use is based on superstitious beliefs, whereas 28% opined that it is based on religious beliefs. 38% had used gemstones therapeutics formerly, while 24% were current users. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age status and education status were significant (p Conclusion More than half of our sample population is aware of the use of the gemstones for their various effects. Willingness to use gemstones is associated with the beliefs about the impact of gemstone therapy on health. Friends and family seem to be the major role players influencing people's willingness to use gemstones. CAM modalities should be recognized and considered as an important therapeutic option. We feel that gemstone therapy is a relatively unexplored area and more studies should, therefore, be conducted to gather more validated information on the subject.

  19. Knowledges and Attitudes in Province of Trabzon Regarding Anti-Smoking Legislation

    Gamze Can

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze smoking related beliefs, attitudes and knowledge on anti-smoking legislation among some cafe workers, business owners and customers about smoking ban in their worklaces in province of Trabzon. Agreed to participate in the study to 87 business owner, 140 office employees and 465 customers in total, including 692 people face to face with the survey technique was applied. The 75.3% of those who participated in the study of law is thought necessary. The number of those who believe in the necessity of law is increasing with education level (p<0.0005. Smoking ban was found more necessary by non-smokers than who current smokers and have quit smoking (p<0.0005. There is a no difference between the man and woman about the necessity of law (p=0.403. The 35.6 % of business owners , 53.5 % of customers, 41.4 % of the office staff is considering the law be applied (p=0.021. The 33.9% of current smokers, 62% non-smoking, 54.3% of those who have quit smoking is considering that ban can be applied. There was statistically significant difference among groups(p<0.0005. The number of those who believe in belief that the ban can be applied is increasing with education level (p=0.015. There is a no difference between the man and woman on belief about the ban can be applied (p=0.339. The adoption of the law in our country in terms of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and social measures have been taken an important step in the way of implementation. The our research that was made immediately preceding the entering into application of the law, was very positive support on law compliance. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 275-280

  20. Effect of socioeconomic status on caregivers' knowledge and beliefs regarding child health care in Savelugu Nanton, Ghana

    Hekli, Patience

    2009-01-01

    Overview: A primary caregivers’ knowledge about child health can have a significant impact on her practices, which in turn can affect child growth and development. The main objective of the study was to explore the level of caregiver’s knowledge and beliefs about the treatment of diarrhoea and child nutrition and to find out whether caregivers’ socio-economic status influences their knowledge and beliefs. Methods: In this study, the data used were from the Savelugu- Nanton Household ...

  1. Adolescents' expected civic participation: the role of civic knowledge and efficacy beliefs.

    Manganelli, Sara; Lucidi, Fabio; Alivernini, Fabio

    2014-07-01

    In the present study we examined the role of civic knowledge and efficacy beliefs as factors that can promote adolescents' expectations to participate in civic activities, while also taking into consideration the influences of socio-economic background and gender differences. Structural equation modelling techniques were used to examine data from the International Civic and Citizenship Study, collected from 3352 eighth grade Italian students. Gender was found to significantly moderate some relationships between the variables, while efficacy beliefs, rather than civic knowledge, positively influenced expected civic participation. Socio-economic background influenced all the variables included in the study, but it had a very small direct influence on adolescents' expected civic participation. It therefore appears that adolescents' expected civic participation can be encouraged by making them more confident about their civic and political abilities. These results extend our understanding of civic engagement in adolescents, and can inform policies aiming to promote it. PMID:24931566

  2. Examining beginning biology teachers' knowledge, beliefs, and practice for teaching natural selection

    Sickel, Aaron J.

    The teacher is the most important school-based factor in student learning. Thus, in order to improve student learning, we must examine how teachers learn to teach. My overarching research agenda centers upon K-16 science teacher learning and development. Within this agenda, I conduct studies focused on two strands of research: 1) How teachers learn to teach science using constructivist and inquiry-oriented teaching strategies; and 2) How teachers learn to teach biological evolution. This dissertation merges the two strands together, and consists of four related manuscripts that address how beginning biology teachers learn to teach natural selection using constructivist and inquiry-oriented teaching strategies. In the first manuscript, I reviewed the evolution education literature focused on K-12 teachers’ knowledge, beliefs, and practice for teaching evolution. Based upon findings across the studies, I articulated five goals for preparing teachers to teach evolution. The second and third manuscripts are longitudinal empirical studies focused on three beginning biology teachers learning to teach natural selection using the 5E instructional model and interactive classroom simulations. The fourth manuscript is a practitioner article that explains how to teach natural selection simulations using a constructivist, analogy-based teaching strategy. Findings that cut across the four manuscripts are organized into the following themes: (A) The participants developed some common types of knowledge for teaching natural selection, yet also developed in unique ways. All participants developed knowledge of the horizontal curriculum. Yet, participants also developed different types of knowledge. For example, participants who had taken an evolution course developed more integrated pedagogical content knowledge for teaching the core concepts of natural selection. The participant who integrated discipline-level knowledge for teaching science through inquiry with topic

  3. Pharmacy students’ knowledge and attitudes about antibiotics in Kosovo

    Fejza, Albina; Kryeziu, Zeqir; Kadrija, Kushtrim; Musa, Malbora

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude among Pharmacy students of the University of Prishtina in regards to the antibiotics. Methods: 144 pharmacy students at the University of Prishtina were recruited in this study to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The total number of questions in this questionnaire was eight (8), covering two (2) major themes: self-report of the current and past antibiotic use and behavior; and anticipated prescription behavior of antibiotics upon graduation. The data was statistically analyzed through using SPSS for Windows. Descriptive analysis was employed, and the results were expressed in frequency and percentages. Results: The results showcased a good knowledge of antibiotic among students. The most common answer of students’ knowledge about antibiotics was good or moderate (82 %), while 63.2% of the subjects used antibiotics by self-decision, most of them (45 %) for sore throat. Upon graduation, 56.9 % of the students will not sell antibiotics without prescription and 85.4% think that module for rational use of antibiotics is very necessary to be inside the pharmacy syllabus. Conclusion: The study showed good and moderate knowledge of pharmacy students regarding the antibiotics. Half of them use antibiotics by self-decision but the majority of them stated that they will not serve the antibiotics without medical prescription. Specific modules and training for proper antibiotic use should be implemented within the Pharmacy program in The Faculty of Medicine. PMID:27011780

  4. HIV, AIDS, and Universal Precautions: The Optometry Curriculum's Effect on Students' Knowledge, Attitudes and Implementation.

    Rosengren, Kenneth J.; Zoltoski, Rebecca K.

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed entering optometry students (n=404) and again during their fourth year (n=314) for knowledge about and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS. Analysis indicated significant improvement from pre- to post-test for general HIV/AIDS knowledge and optometric-specific HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes. For universal precautions implementation, no change in…

  5. Medical students’ sexuality – beliefs and attitudes [Seksualność studentów medycyny – przekonania i postawy

    Müldner-Nieckowski, Łukasz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ability and readiness to talk with patients about sexual problems not only depend on education in sexual physiology and pathology, but also on the doctors’ beliefs and attitudes towards sexuality. Considering importance of these matters, the authors decided to collect and evaluate the data regarding attitudes and cognitive schemata of medical students. Aim. Analysis of selected convictions and attitudes towards sex life of IV-th grade students of medicine. Methods. There was self-report Questionnaire on Satisfaction with Sexual Life (KSS2 applied. Medical students filled-out the questionnaire when attending the courses of Psychopathology of neurotic disorders or Psychotherapy. Results. Analysis of the collected data revealed differentiation of the studied group in regard of beliefs and attitudes towards sex life, dialogue about sex in erotic relationships, and seeking for professional help. Regarding some aspects, significant differences between women and men occurred. The following factors, which may negatively influence medical doctor’s competencies in domain of sexual health, were identified: discomfort considering their own sexuality, avoidance of sexual drive, negative moral judgment of sexual activity. Conclusions. Assessment of influence of students’ and doctors’ own sexuality on their competencies in diagnostics and treatment requires further studies. There is a clear indication to look for the means for prophylaxis and correction of ineffective attitudes and convictions of future doctors’, as professional sexual education or interpersonal trainings.

  6. Agenda-setting effects of sun-related news coverage on public attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer.

    Dixon, Helen; Warne, Charles; Scully, Maree; Dobbinson, Suzanne; Wakefield, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The topics and framing of news stories relevant to skin cancer prevention have shifted over time. This study examined agenda-setting effects of such news stories on public attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer. Content analysis data on 516 articles published in two major daily newspapers in Melbourne, Australia, from 1994 to 2007 were combined with circulation data to generate indices of potential news exposure. Associations between these indices and cross-sectional telephone survey data from the same period on 6,244 adults' tanning attitudes and perceived susceptibility to skin cancer were examined using logistic regression models, accounting for the temporal precedence of news content. Pro-sun protection stories on attitudes and behavior were associated with older adults not thinking a tan looks healthy. Pro-sun protection stories on solaria were associated with less preference for a deep tan among young adults who like to suntan. Stories on vitamin D that were unsupportive of or ambiguous about sun protection were associated with a number of pro-tan attitudes among younger adults. Results indicate news coverage during 1994-2007 served an important agenda-setting role in explaining the public's attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer. Vitamin D stories appeared most influential, particularly among young adults. PMID:23485415

  7. Knowledge, Beliefs, and Psychosocial Effect of Acne Vulgaris among Saudi Acne Patients

    Magdy A Darwish; Al-Rubaya, Ahmed A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge, beliefs, and psychosocial effect of acne vulgaris among acne patients attending referral dermatology clinic in Al-Khobar city. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted on all Saudi acne patients (males and females) attending referral dermatology clinic in Al-Khobar Governmental Hospital. The data were collected by using a structured self-administered questionnaire. Results. Like other studies conducted before, we ...

  8. Screening and managing cannabis use: comparing GP’s and nurses’ knowledge, beliefs, and behavior

    Norberg Melissa M; Gates Peter; Dillon Paul; Kavanagh David J; Manocha Ramesh; Copeland Jan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background General practitioners (GPs) and nurses are ideally placed to address the significant unmet demand for the treatment of cannabis-related problems given the numbers of people who regularly seek their care. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences between GPs and nurses’ perceived knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors toward cannabis use and its screening and management. Methods This study involved 161 nurses and 503 GPs who completed a survey distributed via conference ...

  9. Knowledge of risk factors, beliefs and practices of female healthcare professionals towards breast cancer, Morocco

    Samia Ghanem; Meriem Glaoui; Siham Elkhoyaali; Mohamed Mesmoudi; Saber Boutayeb; Hassan Errihani

    2011-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women in Morocco. Screening for early detection has led to reduction in mortality from the disease. It is known that female healthcare professionals have greater influence on women's positive perception of breast cancer and motivation to practice screening methods for early detection of the disease. This study aims to investigate knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, beliefs about treatment and practice of screening methods among...

  10. American Indian University Students' Knowledge, Beliefs, and Behaviors Associated with HIV/AIDS

    Sileo, Nancy M.; Sileo, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    Manuscript considers results of a research study that assesses American Indian university students' factual knowledge, understanding, and perceptions of susceptibility to HIV/AIDS, and relationships between their attitudes and decisions to engage in HIV-risk behaviors. Participants responded to a 57-item scaled survey and several demographic…

  11. Racial Differences in HPV Knowledge, HPV Vaccine Acceptability, and Related Beliefs among Rural, Southern Women

    Cates, Joan R.; Brewer, Noel T.; Fazekas, Karah I.; Mitchell, Cicely E.; Smith, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Because cervical cancer mortality in the United States is twice as high among black women as white women and higher in rural areas, providing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to rural black adolescents is a high priority. Purpose: To identify racial differences in knowledge and attitudes about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine…

  12. Young People and the Environment in Australia: Beliefs, Knowledge, Commitment and Educational Implications

    Connell, Sharon; Fien, John; Sykes, Helen; Yencken, David

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of research in Australia on the nature of young people's attitudes, knowledge and actions. This paper reports on the findings from one such study of Australian high school students. The research was based on a survey of 5,688 students form Melbourne and Brisbane. These young people identified protection of the environment…

  13. Attitudes and knowledge of Iranian nurses about hospice care

    Saber Azami-Aghdash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Due to expansion of chronic diseases and increase of health care costs, there is a need for planning and delivering hospice care for patients in their final stages of life in Iran. The aim of the present study is to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of nurses about delivering hospice care for End of Life (EOL patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 with a sample size of 200 nurses that were selected by convenient (available sampling. The data collection instrument was a self-administered questionnaire whose validity was approved by experts′ opinions and its reliability was approved by test-retest method. Results : Among all participants of this study, 87% were female. The mean age of nurses was 32.00 ± 6.72. From all respondents 62% stated that they have no knowledge about hospice care and 80% declared that need for hospice care is increasing. Most of the participants felt that, appropriate services are not presented to patients in the final stages of their lives. About 80% believed that hospice care leads to reduction of health care costs, improvement of physical, mental and social health of patients and finally improvement of the quality of health care services. There was a significant relationship between age, employment history and level of education of nurses and their attitude and knowledge about how this service is provided. Conclusion : In view of the increase in chronic illnesses and the costs of caring, the need for provision of hospice care is felt more and more every day. However the awareness level of nurses about these services is low. Therefore the need for including these issues in nursing curriculum and holding scientific courses and seminars in this field is needed.

  14. Indigenous health beliefs, attitudes and practices among VhaVenda: A challenge to the promotion of HIV/AIDS prevention strategies

    F.M. Mulaudzi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the syndromic management of HIV/AIDS is based on a biomedical model that focuses on the ABC (Abstain, Be faithful, Condomise model. The ABC model overlooks the issue of indigenous cultural practices, sexual behaviours, knowledge and attitudes of the society. A grounded theory study was used for the research. The population for the research on which this article is reporting, was selected from the Vhavenda ethnic group using purposive sampling. In-depth interviews were held at the participants’ own homes. The outcome of the study on which this article is reporting, may assist in identifying indigenous health beliefs, attitudes and practices that will assist in curbing the spread of HIV/AIDS. The findings revealed that cultural practices, such as premarital counselling, polygamy and widow inheritance, are believed to be influential in making women more susceptible to sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. The practice of abstinence, as emphasised at initiation schools, should be incorporated into current policies and preventative practices. The findings further demonstrate that policy-makers who formulated the HIV/AIDS strategy have limited knowledge of the health beliefs, attitudes and practices of the people they serve. They thus find it difficult to draw up promotion and prevention strategies that meet the needs of the community. It is therefore imperative that our health-care training curriculum be reviewed to make provision for the incorporation of sound and effective indigenous practices to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS and to eliminate or refine practices that are harmful and detrimental to people’s health. The cultural practices that were proved reliable and effective will be recommended for integration into health education.

  15. A Cross Sectional Study of Public Knowledge and Attitude towards Antibiotics in Putrajaya, Malaysia

    Lim, Ka Keat; Teh, Chew Charn

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to assess public knowledge and attitudes regarding antibiotic utilization in Putrajaya, Malaysia. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among public attending a local hospital. The four-part questionnaire collected responses on demographic characteristics, recent use of antibiotics, knowledge and attitude statements. Cronbach’s alpha for knowledge and attitude statements were 0.68 and 0.74 respectively. Only questionnaires wi...

  16. HPV vaccination among ethnic minorities in the UK: knowledge, acceptability and attitudes

    Marlow, L. A. V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination offers a unique opportunity for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. Studies suggest that knowledge and attitudes about the vaccine are likely to influence uptake. One limitation of most studies assessing HPV vaccine knowledge, attitudes and acceptability is their under representation of ethnic minorities. It is important to ensure that our understanding of HPV knowledge and attitudes include all ethnic groups in the UK. This article re...

  17. U.S. and Canadian pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviors toward dietary supplements: a systematic review

    Boon Heather

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although dietary supplements (DS are widely sold in pharmacies, the legal, ethical, and practice responsibilities of pharmacists with respect to these products have not been well defined. This systematic review of pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviours toward DS is intended to inform pharmacy regulators' and educators' decision making around this topic. Methods Eligible studies were identified through a systematic database search for all available years through to March 2006. Articles were analyzed for this review if they included survey data on U.S. or Canadian pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, or professional practice behaviors toward DS published in 1990 or later. Results Due to the heterogeneity of the data, it was not possible to draw a conclusion with respect to pharmacists' general attitudes toward DS. Approximately equal numbers of pharmacists report positive as well as negative attitudes about the safety and efficacy of DS. There is strong agreement among pharmacists for the need to have additional training on DS, increased regulation of DS, and quality information on DS. In addition, survey data indicate that pharmacists do not perceive their knowledge of DS to be adequate and that pharmacists do not routinely document, monitor, or inquire about patients' use of DS. Despite this, a large proportion of pharmacists reported receiving questions about DS from patients and other health care practitioners. Conclusion Further research is needed to explore the factors that influence pharmacists' beliefs and attitudes about DS, to accurately evaluate pharmacists' knowledge of DS, and to uncover the reasons why pharmacists do not routinely document, monitor, or inquire about patients' use of DS.

  18. Avoiding food waste by Italian consumers: related beliefs, attitudes, behaviour and the importance of planning and shopping routines

    Contò, Francesco; Mariantonietta FIORE; Conte, Alessandra; Pellegrini, Giustina

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades, food waste has generated an immense amounts across the food life cycle, determining serious environmental, social and economic issues. Reducing the amount of food waste is a key element in developing a sustainable food system.The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation between food waste and belief, attitudes and behaviours at the household level so exploring its possible drivers among Italian consumers: how people could reduce or avoid the amount of foo...

  19. Attitudes and beliefs about deceased organ donation in the Arabic-speaking community in Australia: a focus group study

    Ralph, Angelique F; Alyami, Ali; Allen, Richard D M; Howard, Kirsten; Craig, Jonathan C.; Chadban, Steve J; Irving, Michelle; Tong, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the beliefs and attitudes to organ donation in the Arabic-speaking community. Design Arabic-speaking participants were purposively recruited to participate in 6 focus groups. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Participants 53 participants, aged 19–77 years, and originating from 8 countries, participated in 1 of 6 focus groups. Participants identified as Christian (73%), Islam (26%), Buddhist (2%) or did not identify with any religion (2%). Results 6 themes (with su...

  20. Beliefs, attitudes and subjective norms as predictors of preventive behavioral intentions in offspring of people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Eduardo Muñoz Bautista; Judith Cavazos Arroyo; Ana Paola Sánchez Lezama

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze beliefs, attitudes and subjective norms as predictors of preventive behavioral intention in offspring of parents with type 2 diabetes mellitus in two cities in the state of Hidaldo, Mexico. Methods: This is a quantitative, nonexperimental, explanatory and cross-sectional study. Through a two-stage probabilistic sample, 246 subjects (between 15 and 59 years old) whose parents were enrolled in a diabetes program in the social security service were interviewed in a personal...

  1. The effect of motivational interviewing on oral healthcare knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of parents and caregivers of preschool children: an exploratory cluster randomised controlled study

    Naidu, Rahul; Nunn, June; Irwin, Jennifer D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Motivational Interviewing (MI) has been used across primary healthcare and been shown to be effective in reducing the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) in preschool children. This study aimed to compare the effect of MI, in contrast to traditional dental health education (DHE), on oral health knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviours among parents and caregivers of preschool children in Trinidad. Method The design of this exploratory study included a cluster randomised ...

  2. Application of common knowledge and belief operators in case of disruptive technologies

    Aurimas Gircys

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Paper is a case study of console market, where the console makers are identified as group G which shares a distributed knowledge of current consumer expectations. According to the basic logic, it is reasonable to expect that if it is commonly known that a choice A is better than a choice B, any agent i will prefer the choice instead of the inferior one. In case some console makers chose a completely different outcome which is rather based on belief instead of common knowledge.

  3. Exploring Smoking Cessation Attitudes, Beliefs, and Practices in Occupational Health Nursing.

    Ganz, Ollie; Fortuna, Grace; Weinsier, Stephanie; Campbell, Kay; Cantrell, Jennifer; Furmanski, William L

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore occupational health nurses' attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding the delivery of smoking cessation services to workers. The study included 707 members of the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses (AAOHN) who completed a one-time survey during the fall of 2012. Results indicated that occupational health nurses believed that evidence-based treatments are at least somewhat effective and that they should provide smoking cessation services to their workers; however, a majority of occupational health nurses reported that they did not have appropriate smoking cessation training or guidelines in their workplaces. Occupational health nurses would benefit from training in the use of smoking cessation guidelines and evidence-based smoking cessation interventions, which could be used in their clinical practice. Employers should ensure that workplace policies, such as providing coverage for cessation services, facilitate smokers' efforts to quit. Employers can benefit from many of these policies through cost savings via reduced health care costs and absenteeism. PMID:26187173

  4. Older patients in the acute care setting: rural and metropolitan nurses' knowledge, attitudes and practices.

    Courtney, M; Tong, S; Walsh, A

    2000-04-01

    Many studies reporting nurses' knowledge of and attitudes toward older patients in long-term care settings have used instruments designed for older people. However, nurses' attitudes toward older patients are not as positive as their attitudes toward older people. Few studies investigate acute care nurses' knowledge of and attitudes toward older patients. In order to address these shortcomings, a self-report questionnaire was developed to determine nurses' knowledge of, and attitudes and practices toward, older patients in both rural and metropolitan acute care settings. Rural nurses were more knowledgeable about older patients' activities during hospitalisation, the likelihood of them developing postoperative complications and the improbability of their reporting incontinence. Rural nurses also reported more positive practices regarding pain management and restraint usage. However, metropolitan nurses reported more positive attitudes toward sleeping medications, decision making, discharge planning and the benefits of acute gerontological units, and were more knowledgeable about older patients' bowel changes in the acute care setting. PMID:11111426

  5. Survey of knowledge and attitude about AIDS among six areas

    Guo Xin; Cheng Yi-min; Li Ying; Huang Na; Wu Jun-qing; Ru Xiao-mei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the circumstances, influencing factors, and the extent of discrimination and prejudice towards AIDS. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. One county from each of the six provinces was selected. 800 respondents were then chosen from each province through cluster sampling. A closed-ended questionnaire was used to study the demographic characteristics, AIDS knowledge, and related attitudes towards AIDS. Results: In this survey, 3,095 respondents (64.5%) feared AIDS; 66.5% of respondents thought AIDS patients or HIV infectors should be treated separately; 40.1% of respondents thought that AIDS patients or HIV carriers should have been confined in freedom; and 1,497 respondents (31.2%)said that they were not willing to donate to AIDS patients. Discrimination and prejudice towards AIDS among the six regions were different partially (P<0.01). Conclusion: Discrimination and prejudice commonly occur. Gender, characteristics of the registered residence, educational level, and knowledge about AIDS are the main factors related to discrimination and prejudice. Many respondents had prejudice against AIDS, because they were lacking correct knowledge about the transmission ways of AIDS. Among the six regions, discrimination and prejudice were lowest in a region in Henan province and highest in Jiangsu province.

  6. Beliefs and attitudes among Italian high school students toward people with severe mental disorders.

    Serra, Marianna; Lai, Alessandra; Buizza, Chiara; Pioli, Rosaria; Preti, Antonio; Masala, Carmelo; Petretto, Donatella Rita

    2013-04-01

    The negative attitudes surrounding mental disorders and their treatment are a major obstacle to the correct identification and treatment of emerging psychopathologies. The purpose of this study was to investigate mental health literacy in a large and representative sample of high school students in Italy, via a booklet containing several questionnaires delivered to 1032 teenagers. The items in the questionnaires probed knowledge about mental health and illness, stigmatization, stereotypes, behaviors, opinions, and attitudes. In general, the students had a reasonable knowledge of mental disorders and were able to distinguish these from somatic disorders. However, a large portion of the students nourished some misconceptions about mental disorders and was also rather skeptical about the effectiveness of treatment or the chance of recovery for people with severe mental disorders. Nevertheless, roughly half of the students reported being willing to provide help to someone with a mental disorder when in need. Poor mental health literacy is a major barrier to seeking help and receiving effective treatment. Young people are the ideal target of raising awareness and antistigma campaigns because they are at a higher risk for developing a psychopathology. PMID:23538976

  7. Patients' attitude and knowledge about oral anticoagulation therapy

    Amara, Walid; Larsen, Torben B; Sciaraffia, Elena; Hernández Madrid, Antonio; Chen, Jian; Estner, Heidi; Todd, Derick; Bongiorni, Maria G; Potpara, Tatjana S; Dagres, Nikolaos; Sagnol, Pascal; Blomstrom-Lundqvist, Carina

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this European Heart Rhythm Association survey was to assess the attitude, level of education, and knowledge concerning oral anticoagulants (OACs) among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) taking vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs) or antiplatelets. A...... total of 1147 patients with AF [mean age 66 ± 13 years, 529 (45%) women] from 8 selected European countries responded to this survey. The overall use of OACs and antiplatelets was 77 and 15.3%, respectively. Of the patients taking OACs, 67% were on VKAs, 33% on NOACs, and 17.9% on a combination of OACs...... and antiplatelets. Among patients on VKAs, 91% correctly stated the target international normalized ratio (INR) level. The proportion of patients on VKA medication who were aware that monthly INR monitoring was required for this treatment and the proportion of patients on NOAC who knew that renal...

  8. Nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitudes: is ignorance bliss

    This executive summary highlights the major findings of a nuclear power mail-out survey administered to a random sample of Washington State residents, a random sample of residents (nuclear neighbors) from the region around the Hanford Reservation, and a random sample of members of a Washington State environmental interest group. The purpose of the research was threefold. The first was to determine from what sources people have received their information about nuclear power, from what sources they would like to receive additional information, and what kinds of additional information they would like to receive. A second purpose was to determine how much respondents already knew about nuclear power and nuclear waste disposal. The third purpose was to determine how one's knowledge about nuclear power was related to one's attitude about building more nuclear power plants. The findings are presented in summary form

  9. Knowledge, attitude and practice of hospital staff management.

    Lakbala, Parvin; Lakbala, Mahboobeh

    2013-07-01

    The proper handling and disposal of biomedical waste (BMW) is very imperative. There is a defined set of rules for handling BMW worldwide. Unfortunately, laxity and lack of adequate training and awareness in the execution of these rules leads to staid health and environment apprehension. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of hospital staff to BMW management. The cross-sectional study was conducted on 261 healthcare workers from 9 hospitals, which were randomized from 32 hospitals. The most important finding was a significant (P BMW management. Twenty-nine (19.9%) members of government hospital staff and 37 (32.2%) members of staff from the private sector agreed that BMW management is not just the government's responsibility, but one that every member of personnel should share. This finding will help to address the issue more appropriately, and plan for better training programs and monitoring of BMW management systems in hospitals. PMID:23585502

  10. Exploring knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to alcohol in Mongolia

    Demaio, Alessandro R; Dugee, Otgontuya; de Courten, Maximilian;

    2013-01-01

    The leading cause of mortality in Mongolia is Non-Communicable Disease. Alcohol is recognised by the World Health Organization as one of the four major disease drivers and so, in order to better understand and triangulate recent national burden-of-disease surveys and to inform policy responses to...... alcohol consumption in Mongolia, a national Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices survey was conducted. Focusing on Non-Communicable Diseases and their risk factors, this publication explores the alcohol-related findings of this national survey.......The leading cause of mortality in Mongolia is Non-Communicable Disease. Alcohol is recognised by the World Health Organization as one of the four major disease drivers and so, in order to better understand and triangulate recent national burden-of-disease surveys and to inform policy responses to...

  11. Health professionals' knowledge, attitude and practices towards pharmacovigilance in Nepal

    Palaian S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacovigilance can be helpful in protecting consumers from harmful effects of medicines. Healthcare professionals should consider Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR reporting as their professional obligation and should be aware of the existing pharmacovigilance mechanisms in their countries. In Nepal, pharmacovigilance activities were initiated in 2004. Objectives: The present study evaluated the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of the healthcare professionals towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance in Manipal Teaching Hospital (MTH, a tertiary care teaching hospital attached to the regional pharmacovigilance center in western Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2007 using a pretested (Cronbach alpha=0.72 questionnaire having 25 questions (15 questions on knowledge, 5 on attitude and 5 on practice. The correct/positive responses were given a score of ‘2’ and the wrong/negative responses ‘1’, maximum possible score of ‘50’. Results: A total of 131 responses were obtained among which 42 were incomplete and remaining 89 [females 49 (55.1%] were analyzed. Of the 89 professionals, 29 (32.6% were doctors, 46 (51.8 nurses and 14 (15.7% pharmacists. The mean age was 28.32 (SD=8.46 years and the median (interquartile range of duration of the service 14.5 (6-36 months. The total KAP scores was 40.06 (SD=3.51 for doctors, 38.92 (SD=4.83 for pharmacists, and 35.82 (SD=3.75 for nurses. Among the 89 professionals, 59 (62.3% had not reported even a single ADR to the pharmacovigilance center. Conclusion: The healthcare professionals at the MTH had a poor KAP towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance and there is a need for educational and awareness intervention for these professionals.

  12. The status of tobacco use and knowledge, and attitudes relating to smoking among female students in a Bengbu medical school

    Yulong Qi; Cuizhu Mei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To learn the status of tobacco use, and the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among female students in Bengbu Medical College. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, questionnaires were completed by 634 female students in the medical college in 2007,including the prevalence of current smoking, their knowledge of the effects of tobacco use on health, and attitudes towards the smoking behaviors of young women. Results: Only 6.9% of female medical students were former smokers, and 4.9% of them were current smokers. There was no significant difference in the current smoking rate among the students from each department surveyed. Female students from urban areas were more likely to be current or attempted smokers than those from rural areas. The proportion of the students who were aware of the health risks of smoking was less than 45%. The students from the Department of Nursing had more knowledge regarding the harmful health effects of smoking than those from the other departments. There was no significant difference in attitudes towards the smoking behaviors of young women among the students from each department. Compared with female students from rural areas, the female students from urban areas were significantly more likely to think that a young woman who smoked was cool, mature and charming. Conclusion: The smoking prevalence of the female students in Bengbu Medical College is high. They are not aware of the smoking related risks and have erroneous beliefs and perceptions about female smoking behaviors.

  13. Emergency contraceptive pills: Exploring the knowledge and attitudes of community health workers in a developing Muslim country

    Azeem Sultan Mir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unsafe abortion is a major Public health problem in developing countries, where women make several unsafe attempts at termination of the unintended pregnancy before turning to health services. Community health workers can act as a bridge between the community and their health facilities and can use Emergency Contraceptive Pills to significantly reduce the mortality and morbidity related to unsafe abortions. Aims: This study explores the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Lady Health Supervisor of the National Program for Family Planning, district Rawalpindi, regarding emergency contraception pills. Materials and Methods: The cross sectional survey was conducted during the monthly meeting of Lady Health Supervisors. Self administered, anonymous and voluntary questionnaire consisting of 17 items, regarding demographic profile, awareness, knowledge, attitudes and practices, was used. Results: Insufficient knowledge, high misinformation and strongly negative attitudes were revealed. More than half did not know that emergency contraceptive pills do not cause abortion. About four fifths believed that emergency contraceptive pills will lead to ′evil′ practices in society. More than four fifths recognized that the clients of National Program for Family Planning need emergency contraceptive pills. The attitudes were significantly associated with knowledge (P=0.034, Fisher′s Exact Test. Conclusion: The awareness of emergency contraceptive pills is high. Serious gaps in knowledge have been identified. There is a clear recognition of the need of emergency contraceptive pills for the clients of National Program for Family Planning. However, any strategy to introduce emergency contraceptive pills must cater for the misplaced beliefs of the work force.

  14. Perception of nursing students about couples' violence: knowledge, beliefs and professional role

    Assumpció Rigol-Cuadra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to analyse the knowledge, beliefs and perception of the professional role that nursing students have, about exerted violence against women in relationships.METHOD: a descriptive qualitative study following the ecological model through 16 focus groups realized with 112 students from four nursing courses of four Spanish universities.RESULTS: the analytical categories were: knowledge, professional role, and beliefs about ones behaviour before the victim and the abuser. Students are unfamiliar with the characteristics of abuse, guidelines, protocols and screening questions and demand patterns for specific intervention. They do not identify their own professional role, be it delegated or specialized. Beliefs regarding their behaviour with the victim, not guided by professional criteria, perceive violence as a specific situation and disassociate the prevention of health care. They perceive the abuser as mentally ill, justifying the tolerance or delegation of performances.CONCLUSIONS: students define preconceived ideas about couples' violence. Speeches reproduce and reinforce stereotypical myths, values indicative of inadequate training for nursing studies which raises the need to fortify the competencies in relation to intimate couples' violence in the curriculum.

  15. Salient Beliefs of Pre-Service Primary School Teachers Underlying an Attitude "Liking or Disliking Physics"

    Kapucu, S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the salient beliefs of pre-service primary school teachers (PPSTs) about why they like or dislike physics and to explore whether these beliefs predict their teaching beliefs about physics. A total of 267 PPSTs (Male = 137, Female = 130) participated in the study. Qualitative data analyses were used and the…

  16. Conservative Beliefs, Attitudes Toward Bisexuality, and Willingness to Engage in Romantic and Sexual Activities With a Bisexual Partner.

    Feinstein, Brian A; Dyar, Christina; Bhatia, Vickie; Latack, Jessica A; Davila, Joanne

    2016-08-01

    Negative attitudes toward bisexuals have been documented among heterosexuals as well as lesbians/gay men, and a common theme is that bisexuals would not be suitable romantic or sexual partners. While gender, sexual orientation, and attitudes toward bisexuality influence people's willingness to engage in romantic or sexual activities with a bisexual partner, there are other individual differences that may contribute. The current study examined the associations between four types of conservative beliefs and willingness to engage in romantic/sexual activities with a bisexual partner in a sample of heterosexuals and lesbians/gay men (N = 438). Attitudes toward bisexuality were examined as a mediator of these associations. In general, results indicated that higher social dominance orientation, political conservatism, and essentialist beliefs about the discreteness of homosexuality were associated with lower willingness to engage in romantic/sexual activities with a bisexual partner. Further, more negative attitudes toward bisexuality mediated these associations. There were several meaningful differences in these associations between heterosexual women, heterosexual men, lesbian women, and gay men, suggesting that influences on people's willingness to be romantically or sexually involved with a bisexual partner may differ for different gender and sexual orientation groups. Implications for reducing stigma and discrimination against bisexual individuals are addressed. PMID:26712126

  17. Qualitative study of knowledge and attitudes to biobanking among lay persons in Nigeria

    Igbe Michael A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in biobanking for collection of specimens for non-communicable diseases research has grown in recent times. This paper explores the perspectives of Nigerians on donation of specimen for the biobanking research. Methods We conducted 16 Focus Group Discussions (FGD with individuals from different ethnic, age and socio-economic groups in Kano (North, Enugu (Southeast, Oyo States (Southwest and Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory (Central of Nigeria. We used topic guides and prompt statements to explore the knowledge and understanding of interviewees to general issues about biobanking of biospecimens, their use and specifically about role of biobanking in non-communicable diseases research. Results A total of 123 individuals participated in 16 focus group discussions in 2011. Our participants had limited knowledge of the concept of biobanking but accepted it once they were educated about it and saw it as a worthwhile venture. Half of our study participants supported use of broad consent, a quarter supported restricted consent while the remaining quarter were in favour of tiered consent. Most discussants support shipment of their samples to other countries for further research, but they prefer those collaborations to be done only with competent, ethical researchers and they would like to receive feedback about such projects. The majority preferred health care as a benefit from participation, particularly for any unexpected condition that may be discovered during the course of the research instead of financial compensation. Participants emphasized the need to ensure that donated samples were not used for research that contradicts their religious beliefs. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that our participants accepted biobanking once they understand it but there were different attitudes to elements of biobanking such as type of consent. Our study highlights the need to carefully document population attitudes to elements

  18. A Follow-Up Community Survey of Knowledge and Beliefs About Cancer and Genetics.

    Sweeney, Shannon M; Hastrup, Janice L; Hyland, Andrew; Rivard, Cheryl

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess changes since the launch of the US Surgeon General's campaign in the public's beliefs about the role of genetics in the etiology of cancer, as well as changes in recording family health history. We conducted a survey of 480 Western New York adults, assessing: (1) experiences with cancer, (2) beliefs about cancer and genetics, and (3) practices of recording family health history. Most respondents were aware of the importance of family history. The sample also showed increased knowledge about cancer and genetics compared with a previous survey. However, only 7 % kept written records that included medical conditions, which was not different from a previous survey. Time constraints, apathy, and reluctance to find out negative health information were the most reported barriers. Results suggest a need for continued education of the public, with increased emphasis on written family health records. PMID:25976378

  19. Knowledge of risk factors, beliefs and practices of female healthcare professionals towards breast cancer in a tertiary institution in Lagos, Nigeria

    Odusanya Olumuyiwa O

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the leading female malignancy in Nigeria. Screening for early detection has led to reduction in mortality from the disease. It is known that attitudes of physicians and motivation by community nurses influence uptake of screening methods by women. This study aims to investigate knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, beliefs about treatment and practice of screening methods among a cohort of female healthcare professionals in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire to assess the knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, beliefs about treatment and practice of screening methods among 207 female doctors, nurses and other healthcare professionals working in a university teaching hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Stratified random sampling method was employed. Chi square test, analysis of variance and Mantel-Haenszel test were performed in data analysis using SPSS v10.0 and Epi Info version 6 statistical packages. Results Female doctors obtained a mean knowledge score of 74% and were the only professional group that had satisfactory knowledge of risk factors. Majority (86% believed that early breast cancer is curable while half of participants believed that prayer can make breast cancer disappear from the affected breast. Eighty three percent practice breast self-examination (BSE once a month and only 8% have ever had a mammogram. Age, knowledge of risk factors, profession and beliefs were not significantly associated with rate of BSE in this study. Conclusion Results from this study suggest the need for continuing medical education programmes aimed at improving knowledge of breast cancer among female healthcare providers other than doctors.

  20. Salt intake belief, knowledge, and behavior: a cross-sectional study of older rural Chinese adults.

    Zhang, Jing; Wu, Tao; Chu, Hongling; Feng, Xiangxian; Shi, Jingpu; Zhang, Ruijuan; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhang, Jianxin; Li, Nicole; Yan, Lijing; Niu, Wenyi; Wu, Yangfeng

    2016-08-01

    Excess sodium consumption is a major cause of high blood pressure and subsequent vascular disease. However, the factors driving people's salt intake behavior remains largely unknown. This study aims to assess the relationship of salt intake behaviors with knowledge and belief on salt and health among older adults in rural China.A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4693 older participants (men ≥50 and women ≥60 years old) randomly selected from 120 rural villages in 5 northern provinces in China. Healthy salt intake behavior was defined as either not eating pickled foods or not adding pickles/soy sauce/salt when food was not salty enough in prior 3 months.There were 81% participants having healthy salt intake behavior. Healthy salt intake behavior was more common among women (P < 0.01) and was positively associated with age (P < 0.01) and poorer health status (P < 0.01), but negatively associated with years in school (P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex, years in school, and health status, participants who believed in the harm of high salt intake were more likely to have healthy salt intake behavior, compared with those who did not believe (Odds Ratio = 1.6, P < 0.001). Knowledge of salt intake was not significantly related to healthy salt intake behavior.Our study demonstrated that belief in the harm of high salt intake rather than knowledge about salt and health was associated with healthy salt intake behavior, independent of age, sex, years in school, and health status. Future population salt reduction programs should place more emphasis on establishing health beliefs rather than only delivering salt-related knowledge.Clinical trial registration number of the study is NCT01259700. PMID:27495056

  1. Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes, and Confidence of Australian General Practice Registrars

    Caryl A. Nowson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and confidence were assessed in General Practice Registrars (GPRs throughout Australia. Of approximately 6,000 GPRs invited to complete a nutrition survey, 93 respondents (2% completed the online survey, with 89 (20 males, 69 females providing demographic and educational information. Fifty-one percent had graduated from medical school within the last two years. From a list of 11 dietary strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk, respondents selected weight loss (84%, reducing saturated fats (90%, a maximum of two alcoholic drinks/day (82%, and increasing vegetables (83% as “highly appropriate” strategies, with only 51% indicating that salt reduction was “highly appropriate.” Two-thirds of registrars felt “moderately” (51% or “very” confident (16% providing nutrition advice. Most of them (84% recalled receiving information during training, but only 34% recalled having to demonstrate nutritional knowledge. The results indicate that this group of Australian GPRs understood most of the key dietary recommendations for reducing cardiovascular risk but lacked consensus regarding the recommendation to reduce salt intake and expressed mixed levels of confidence in providing nutritional advice. Appropriate nutrition education before and after graduation is recommended for GPRs to ensure the development of skills and confidence to support patients to make healthy dietary choices and help prevent chronic diseases.

  2. Knowledge and attitude of older women towards menopause

    Objective: To determine the knowledge and attitude towards menopause among postmenopausal women seeking gynecological treatment. Results: The mean age of respondents was 54.4 years. Fifty-two (74.3%) women knew about menopause, 39 (55.7%) were aware of symptomatology while only 7(10%) knew sequelae of menopause. Fifty-three (75.5%) women were satisfied with cessation of menstruation and only 17 (24.3%) desired to continue menstruation. Twenty-four (34.3%) respondents were unhappy with their menopausal status. Thirty-two (45.7%) women were content with their present sexual relations, 18 (25.7%) were dissatisfied and 20 (28.6%) had no sexual activity. Fifty-two (74.3%) women felt a need for health education on menopause in educational institutions. Thirty-three (47.1%) considered treatment of menopause necessary. Four (5.7%) were aware of any treatment of menopause and 55 (78.6%) desired to learn more about menopause. Conclusion: Women have different views about menopause, few see it as a medical condition requiring treatment, whereas majority consider it is a natural transition. There was breath of knowledge regarding significance of menopause. (author)

  3. Filipina American women's breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors

    Ryujin Lisa

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filipino Americans are the fastest growing Asian minority group in the United States. There is limited knowledge about their breast cancer knowledge, screening practices and attitudes. Methods As part of the evaluation of the Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program, 248 Filipino American women completed baseline and follow-up surveys, while an additional 58 took part in focus groups. Results Compliance with annual clinical breast exam guidelines among women 40 to 49 years old was 43%, and annual mammography use among women 50 and over was 56%. The Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program and complementary focus group study identified multiple barriers that hindered women from attending education programs, with time as the most frequently reported barrier. Conclusion The Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program was reported to be a culturally acceptable and effective way of disseminating breast cancer information and one that addressed the women's most frequently reported barrier, lack of time.

  4. Attitudes and Beliefs of Nonspecialist and Specialist Trainee Health and Physical Education Teachers toward Obese Children: Evidence for "Anti-Fat" Bias

    Lynagh, Marita; Cliff, Ken; Morgan, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the beliefs and attitudes of preservice health and physical education (HPE) specialist and nonspecialist schoolteachers toward obese children. Methods: A total of 177 nonspecialist and 62 HPE specialist trainee teachers completed a series of pen-and-paper validated measures of attitudes and beliefs…

  5. Knowledge and attitudes of nurses towards alcohol and related problems: the impact of an educational intervention

    Janaina Soares; Divane Vargas; Maria Lucia Oliveira de Souza Formigoni

    2013-01-01

    An exploratory study of quasi-experimental approach that aimed to verify the impact of an educational intervention on attitudes and knowledge of nurses towards alcohol use and associated problems. The sample included 185 nurses, divided into two groups: 84 submitted to a training course and formed the experimental group. Data were collected through a knowledge survey and an attitude scale. The attitudes of the participants of both groups were positive. There were no significant differences be...

  6. Development of a Sex Knowledge and Attitude Test for the Moderately and Mildly Retarded. Final Report.

    Edmonson, Barbara; And Others

    The Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Test was designed to measure the attitudes and knowledge of retarded individuals in fourteen areas: (1) anatomy/terminology; (2) dating; (3) marriage; (4) intimacy; (5) intercourse; (6) pregnancy, childbirth and childrearing; (8) masturbation; (9) homosexuality; (10) alcohol and drugs; (11) community risks…

  7. Measuring Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours Concerning Sustainable Development among Tenth Grade Students in Manitoba

    Michalos, Alex C.; Creech, Heather; Swayze, Natalie; Kahlke, P. Maurine; Buckler, Carolee; Rempel, Karen

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present standardized measures of tenth grade students' knowledge, attitudes and behaviours concerning sustainable development as those concepts are understood in the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and we test the hypothesis that knowledge and favourable attitudes toward SD lead to favourable…

  8. Ethnic Differences in Knowledge and Attitudes about BRCA1 Testing in Women at Increased Risk.

    Hughes, Chanita; Gomez-Caminero, Andres; Benkendorf, Judith; Kerner, Jon; Isaacs, Claudine; Barter, James; Lerman, Caryn

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge about the inheritance of breast cancer and attitudes about genetic testing for breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility in women at increased risk were studied in Caucasian and African-American women (N=407). Participants had at least one first-degree relative with cancer. Differences in knowledge and attitudes toward risk may be attributed…

  9. An Experimental Study of the Relationship between Attitude toward and Knowledge of Educational Research.

    Napier, John D.

    1978-01-01

    The relationship between gain in attitude toward and increases in knowledge of educational research was investigated in preservice social studies teachers. Results indicated that increases in knowledge did not result in gains in attitude. There were no significant differences between individual-workbook and lecture-workbook instructional…

  10. Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes of Preservice and Inservice Teachers in Educational Measurement

    Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali Mahdi; Al-Musawai, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Optimal outcomes of the educational assessment of students require that teachers should have adequate knowledge of, strong skills in, and favourable attitudes toward educational measurement. The present study investigated differences between preservice and inservice teachers' knowledge of, perceived skills in, and attitudes toward educational…

  11. A Scale for the Assessment of Attitudes and Knowledge Regarding Sexuality in the Aged.

    White, Charles B.

    This paper presents the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale (ASKAS), an instrument designed to assess the particular aspects of sexual knowledge and attitudes as they relate to the aged. Development of ASKAS items from a survey of existant physiological research on sexuality in older adults and a review of social-psychological writing on…

  12. Instrumentation for the Measurement of Inmates' Drug Use, Knowledge, and Attitudes.

    Miller, Richard E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes instruments developed to measure inmates' (N=150) drug use, knowledge, and attitudes. A drug use inventory, a drug attitude scale, and a drug knowledge test were examined for validity. Each measurement tool was subjected to item analysis for internal consistency. Implications and suggestions are discussed concerning inmate drug…

  13. Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Knowledge, Use, and Attitudes of Academic Librarians

    Hendrix, Dean

    2007-01-01

    To assess their knowledge, use, and attitudes regarding peer-to-peer (P2P) applications, this study surveyed academic librarians (n = 162) via a mail-in survey. Correlations between the sample characteristics (age, gender, year of MLS, type of library job) and P2P knowledge, use, and attitudes were also explored. Overall, academic librarians…

  14. Plants Have a Chance: Outdoor Educational Programmes Alter Students' Knowledge and Attitudes towards Plants

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2011-01-01

    Outdoor educational programmes are generally believed to be a suitable alternative to conventional biology settings that improve participants' environmental attitudes and knowledge. Here we examine whether outdoor educational programmes focused solely on practical work with plants influence participants' knowledge of and attitudes towards plants.…

  15. Medical and Psychology Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Aging and Sexuality

    Snyder, Rachel J.; Zweig, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study surveys medical and doctoral psychology students (N = 100) from an urban northeastern university regarding knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality and aging using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale, and measures of interest in gerontology, academic/clinical exposure to aging and…

  16. Examining Athletes' Attitudes toward Using Anabolic Steroids and Their Knowledge of the Possible Effects.

    Anshel, Mark H.; Russell, Kenneth G.

    1997-01-01

    Examined the relationships between athletes' (N=291) knowledge about the long-term effects of anabolic steroids and their attitudes toward this type of drug. Results show low correlation between greater knowledge and attitudes about the use of steroids in sports, suggesting that drug education programs regarding steroids may have limited value.…

  17. HIV-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours among College Students in China

    Tung, Wei-Chen; Hu, Jie; Efird, Jimmy Thomas; Yu, Liping; Su, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitudes, sources of HIV information and behaviours related to HIV, and to explore the difference in the HIV knowledge and attitudes between genders and school years among college students in China. Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional. Setting: 475 college students from two universities in China. Method: Data…

  18. The knowledge, attitudes and behaviors on immunization of healthcare workers

    Zehra Karacaer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study was to identify the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of healthcare workers (HCWs working in our center about Hepatitis B Virus (HBV, seasonal flu (SF and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR vaccinations and reasons not to be vaccinated. Methods: This study was a descriptive survey conducted among HCWs of our hospital between 1 to 31 May 2014. The data were collected by a face-to-face questionnaire form consisting of 41 questions. Collected data were analyzed via SPSS 22,0, p <0.05 was considered significant Results: 219 HCWs participated in the study. The study group included 113 men. A median age of 39 years (minmax: 24-66. The median service duration of HCWs was 17 years (min-max: 1-35. Education levels of personnels were primary (primary -secondary-high school, colleges-university, master's degree-PhD ( respectively 45, 136, 38 people. The median score of correct information, the right attitude and the correct behavior were 7 (min-max: 1-10, 35 (min-max: 27-47, 5 (min-max: 0- 9, respectively. People who never got vaccinated against SF and who got vaccinated every year were calculated 46.6% and 20.1%. H1N1, HBV and measles vaccination rate were 46.6%, 82.6% and 18.3%, respectively. Not believing vaccine's protectiveness for SF (34,9%, concerned about safety for H1N1(44,4%, neglected for HBV (36,8%, got sick before for measles (36,3% were the factors most influential in refusal to get vaccinated. Conclusions: It is important that correct and sufficient information is accessed on issues such as effectiveness, side effects of vaccines in order to increase the rate of vaccination of HCWs [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(5.000: 353-363

  19. Knowledge, attitude and practice of condom use by women of an impoverished urban area

    Smalyanna Sgren da Costa Andrade

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Assessing the adequacy of knowledge, attitude and practice of women regarding male and female condoms as STI/HIV preventive measures. METHOD An evaluative Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP household survey with a quantitative approach, involving 300 women. Data collection took place between June and August 2013, in an informal urban settlement within the municipality of João Pessoa, Paraiba, Northeast Brazil. RESULTS Regarding the male condom, most women showed inadequate knowledge and practice, and an adequate attitude. Regarding the female condom, knowledge, attitude and practice variables were unsatisfactory. Significant associations between knowledge/religious orientation and attitude/education regarding the male condom were observed. CONCLUSION A multidisciplinary team should be committed to the development of educational practices as care promotion tools in order to improve adherence of condom use.

  20. Public child welfare staff knowledge, attitudes, and referral behaviors for an evidence based parenting program

    Daniel J. Whitaker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of the public child welfare work force influence implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP as most research has focused on the private workforce. This paper reports on public child welfare staff knowledge, attitudes, and practices in a state implementing the EBP, SafeCare®. A survey of public child welfare staff (N = 222 was conducted to assess knowledge, familiarity, and referral barriers and practices. Knowledge of and familiarity with SafeCarewere low, especially among front line staff (case managers. Attitudes toward SafeCare were fairly positive, but somewhat less so than attitudes toward a standard, non-evidenced based parenting program. Case managers were significantly less likely to have made a referral (15% than other staff (46%. Job tenure had few effects on familiarity, knowledge, attitudes, or referrals. The strongest predictors of having made referrals were familiarity with SafeCare and job position.

  1. Knowledge, Beliefs, and Health Care Practices Relating to Treatment of HIV in Vellore, India

    Chomat, Anne Marie Belz; Wilson, Ira B.; Wanke, Christine A; Selvakumar, A.; John, K. R.; Isaac, Rita

    2009-01-01

    In India, little is known about health care-seeking behavior among HIV-infected individuals. Similarly, little is known about how HIV is being treated in the community, in particular by Indian Systems of Medicine (ISM) providers. Therefore, while ART implementation programs continue to expand, it is important to determine whether the knowledge, attitudes, and treatment practices of HIV-infected individuals and their health care providers are aligned with current treatment recommendations. We ...

  2. Unpacking Teachers' Language Ideologies: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Practiced Language Policies in Schools in Alsace, France

    Young, Andrea S.

    2014-01-01

    In France, most teachers still receive scant training in how to support plurilingual children in their learning of and through the language of instruction. In the absence of relevant, in-depth knowledge about language, we believe that many teachers are practising language policies based on beliefs rooted in ideologies unsupported by research…

  3. Knowledge, attitudes and practices about human papillomavirus in educated adolescents

    Castro Reyes Elkin Mauricio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: cervical cancer (CC is the second most frequent cancer in women in theworld, South America and Colombia. It represents the fourth cause of death by cancerin the world, the third cause in South America and the first cause in Colombia. The interesanprincipalrisk factor is the persistent infection with the Human Papillomavirus (HPV. TheCC can be prevented and the patient can be treated if it is detected early.Objective: to establish the knowledge, attitudes and practices about HumanPapillomavirus (HPV in adolescent students of secondary.Methods: an analytical, observational and cross sectional study was performed withthe application of a survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP, to studentsof secondary of two schools of the city of Cartagena, Colombia, between July andDecember of 2011.Results: 10.8% of the polled adolescents replied that they knew the condilomatosis,infectious disease of sexual transmission caused by HPV and 20,1% have knowledgeabout the connection between cervical cancer and HPV infection.Conclusion: there is low knowledge about HPV infection and its association with CC,just like good attitudes with respect to the use of prevention methods of HPV infectionand early detection methods of CC and inadequate practices, mainly in the vaccinationprogramming against HPV. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2012;3(2:275-281RESUMEN:frecuente en mujeres en el mundo, América Latina y Colombia. Representa la cuartacausa de muerte por cáncer en el mundo, la tercera en America del Sur y la primera enColombia. El factor de riesgo principal es la infección persistente con el Virus del PapilomaHumano (VPH. El CACU puede prevenirse y curarse si se detecta tempranamente.Objetivo: establecer conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas acerca del VPH enadolescentes estudiantes de secundaria.Metodología: estudio observacional analítico de corte transversal realizado con laaplicación de una encuesta de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (CAP, a

  4. Teacher Beliefs about Teaching Children with Dyslexia/Learning Difficulties in Mainstream Primary Schools in Greece

    Riga, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The study is designed to capture teacher knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards the teaching and learning of children with dyslexia/ learning difficulties within the Greek context. It provides insights into understanding about teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion, which can shape professional identity. The umbrella research question is: how can teachers’ experiences of, and beliefs and attitudes about, children with learning difficulties/dyslexia influence teachers’ attitudes towards inclu...

  5. The effect of breast cancer health education on the knowledge, attitudes, and practice: a community health center catchment area.

    Ouyang, Yan-Qiong; Hu, Xiaoyan

    2014-06-01

    Studies indicate that women in China are not frequently carrying out breast cancer prevention practices. This is assumed to be due to lack of knowledge and/or lack of personalized instruction. This study was to explore the effect of breast cancer health education on women's knowledge and attitudes on breast cancer and breast self-examination, behavior related to breast self-examination among women living in the catchment area of a community health center. A pretest and posttest assessment of a 1-h health education session was conducted with 38 participants. A telephone reminder and questionnaires were administered at 1 and 3 months after the education. Three instruments were administered at each contact to assess the knowledge and attitudes on breast cancer and behavior related to breast self-examination and accuracy of breast self-examination before education, 1- and 3-month follow-ups after education. The findings showed the incidence of self-examination, and scores on the accuracy of breast self-examination practice were significantly increased immediately following the intervention and at 1- and 3-month follow-ups. Furthermore, the scores of the health belief regarding perceived benefits, perceived competency, and perceived seriousness significantly improved. The current findings imply community-based intervention could be used to teach women about the general knowledge of breast cancer and how to perform breast self-examination correctly, especially for women who are lack of such information. PMID:24504664

  6. Diet-nutrition-related cancer prevention knowledge and beliefs of Sudanese in Khartoum: A descriptive study

    Adelia Bovell-Benjamin; Essam Elmubarak

    2013-01-01

    Cancer appears to pose a major threat to the health of the Sudanese population. It is the third leading cause of death in the Sudan after malaria and pneumonia, accounting for 5% of all deaths. In 2005, approximately 22,000 people in the Sudan died from cancer and 17,000 of these people were less than 70 years old. This study was designed to: 1) assess nutrition knowledge and selected dietary beliefs related to cancer in Sudanese residing in Khartoum; 2) identify perceived barriers to the ad...

  7. Skin Cancer Knowledge, Beliefs, Self-Efficacy, and Preventative Behaviors among North Mississippi Landscapers

    Nahar, Vinayak K.; M. Allison Ford; Hallam, Jeffrey S.; Bass, Martha A.; Amanda Hutcheson; Michael A. Vice

    2013-01-01

    There are slightly over one million workers in the landscape service industry in the US. These workers have potential for high levels of solar ultraviolet radiation exposure, increasing their risk of skin cancer. A cross-sectional sample of 109 landscapers completed a self-administered questionnaire based on Health Belief Model (HBM). The participants correctly answered 67.1% of the knowledge questions, 69.7% believed they were more likely than the average person to get skin cancer, and 87.2%...

  8. A study of attitudes, beliefs and organisational barriers related to safe emergency oxygen therapy for patients with COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) in clinical practice and research

    O'Driscoll, B Ronan; Bakerly, Nawar Diar; Caress, Ann-Louise; Roberts, June; Gaston, Miriam; Newton, Mark; Yorke, Janelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients can be harmed by receiving too little or too much oxygen. There is ongoing disagreement about the use of oxygen in medical emergencies. Methods This was a mixed methods study (survey, telephone interviews and focus groups) involving patients, the public and healthcare professionals (HCPs). Results 62 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 65 members of the public, 68 ambulance crew members, 22 doctors, 22 nurses and 10 hospital managers took part. For five factual questions about oxygen therapy, the average score for correct answers was 28% for patients with COPD, 33% for the general public and 75% for HCPs. The HCPs had an average score of 66% for five technical questions. Patients (79%) and members of the public (68%) were more likely than HCPs (36%) to believe that oxygen was beneficial in most medical emergencies and less likely to have concerns that it might harm some people (35%, 25% and 68%). All groups had complex attitudes about research into oxygen use in medical emergencies. Many participants would not wish for themselves or their loved ones to have their oxygen therapy determined by a randomised protocol, especially if informed consent was not possible in an emergency situation. Conclusions We have found low levels of factual knowledge about oxygen use among patients with COPD and the general public and many false beliefs about the potential benefits and harms of using oxygen. HCPs had a higher level of factual knowledge. All groups had complex attitudes towards research into emergency oxygen use. PMID:27252870

  9. Beliefs, attitudes and subjective norms as predictors of preventive behavioral intentions in offspring of people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Eduardo Muñoz Bautista

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze beliefs, attitudes and subjective norms as predictors of preventive behavioral intention in offspring of parents with type 2 diabetes mellitus in two cities in the state of Hidaldo, Mexico. Methods: This is a quantitative, nonexperimental, explanatory and cross-sectional study. Through a two-stage probabilistic sample, 246 subjects (between 15 and 59 years old whose parents were enrolled in a diabetes program in the social security service were interviewed in a personal manner. Results: It was observed that the reduction in the risk of developing diabetes affects the intent of developing preventive behaviors mediated by attitude toward prevention (p=0.000, which is the most important predictor of that intention (p=0.000. Subjective norms also have a significant impact on the preventive behavioral intention (p=0.000, although the preventive attitude is not affected by beliefs regarding the development (p=0.095 and severity of the disease (p=0.056. Conclusion: The application of the model allowed the identification of relevant aspects to support health promotion, oriented to influence the processes of change in social behavior, in a population at risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p43

  10. Do attitudes toward societal structure predict beliefs about free will and achievement? Evidence from the Indian caste system.

    Srinivasan, Mahesh; Dunham, Yarrow; Hicks, Catherine M; Barner, David

    2016-01-01

    Intuitive theories about the malleability of intellectual ability affect our motivation and achievement in life. But how are such theories shaped by the culture in which an individual is raised? We addressed this question by exploring how Indian children's and adults' attitudes toward the Hindu caste system--and its deterministic worldview--are related to differences in their intuitive theories. Strikingly, we found that, beginning at least in middle school and continuing into adulthood, individuals who placed more importance on caste were more likely to adopt deterministic intuitive theories. We also found a developmental change in the scope of this relationship, such that in children, caste attitudes were linked only to abstract beliefs about personal freedom, but that by adulthood, caste attitudes were also linked to beliefs about the potential achievement of members of different castes, personal intellectual ability, and personality attributes. These results are the first to directly relate the societal structure in which a person is raised to the specific intuitive theories they adopt. PMID:25754516

  11. Twenty-Year Survey of Scientific Literacy and Attitudes Toward Science - Investigating the Relationship Between Students' Knowledge and Attitudes

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, J.; Impey, C.; CATS

    2010-01-01

    Data from a twenty-year investigation into the science literacy of undergraduates (see Impey et al., this meeting) was used to explore responses to questions, derived from policy driven projects (e.g. NSF Science Indicators). Responses from almost 10,000 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory astronomy courses from 1989 to 2009 have been analyzed based on students’ responses to forced-choice and open-ended science literacy questions as well as Likert scale belief questions about science and technology. Science literacy questions were scored based on work by Miller (1998, 2004). In addition, we developed an extensive emergent coding scheme for the four open-ended science questions. Unique results as well as trends in the student data based on subgroups of codes are presented. Responses to belief questions were categorized, using theoretically derived categories, remodeled and confirmed through factor analysis, into five main categories; belief in life on other planets, faith-based beliefs, belief in unscientific phenomena, general attitude toward science and technology, and ethical considerations. Analysis revealed that demographic information explained less than 10% of the overall variance in students’ forced-answer scientific literacy scores. We present how students’ beliefs in these categories relate to their scientific literacy scores. You can help! Stop by our poster and fill out a new survey that will give us important parallel information to help us continue to analyze our valuable data set. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  12. Where have all the skeptics gone?: Patterns of new age beliefs and anti-scientific attitudes in preservice primary teachers

    Yates, Gregory C. R.; Chandler, Margaret

    2000-12-01

    Is belief in the paranormal alive and well within preservice teachers? In this survey 232 undergraduates (including 202 preservice primary teachers) were asked to react to a series of eight statements reflecting paranormal New Age beliefs rated earlier by a faculty panel as “totally unbelievable.” Overall, the students' modal response was expressed as “no particular opinion,” although for five of the eight items the modal respónse was “slightly believable.” It was found that only four students within the sample consistently rejected all eight statements. The frequency of ‘believers’ outnumbered the ‘skeptics’ in relation to three items (beliefs in UFOs, psychic seances, and Nostradamus). New Age factor scores were not significantly related to undergraduate faculty or year level, to holding anti-scientific beliefs or to a measure of TV-viewing, and did not correlate significantly with the personality scale Need for Cognition. Females evidenced higher New Age scores than males, but attitudes to science were unrelated to gender.

  13. Female genital mutilation: Survey of paediatricians' knowledge, attitudes and practice.

    Sureshkumar, Premala; Zurynski, Yvonne; Moloney, Susan; Raman, Shanti; Varol, Nesrin; Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2016-05-01

    The study objective was to determine paediatricians' experience with female genital mutilation (FGM) in Australian children and adolescents. A cross-sectional, pilot-tested national survey of paediatricians practising in Australia and contributing to the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit was conducted. Clinicians' knowledge, attitudes and clinical experience with FGM, awareness of clinical guidelines and education/training needs were recorded. Of 1311 paediatricians surveyed, 497 (38%) responded. Fifty-seven percent were aged 50 years or more, and 51.3% were males. Over half believed that FGM was performed in children in Australia and most were aware of its complications, but few asked about or examined for FGM. Fifty (10.3%) had seen at least one case of FGM in girls aged FGM is illegal in Australia (93.9%), agreed all types of FGM were harmful (97.4%) and agreed that FGM violated human rights (98.2%). Most (87.6%) perceived FGM as a traditional cultural practice, although 11.6% thought it was required by religion. The majority (81.8%) knew notification of FGM to child protection authorities was mandatory. Over half (62.0%) were aware of the WHO Statement on FGM, but only 22.0% knew the WHO classification of FGM. These novel data indicate a minority of paediatricians in Australia have clinical experience with or education about FGM. Educational programs, best-practice clinical guidelines and policies are required to address knowledge gaps and help paediatricians identify, manage and prevent FGM in children. PMID:27045807

  14. Public Knowledge and Attitude towards Essential Tremor: A Questionnaire Survey

    Sherif eShalaby

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Public awareness of and attitude towards disease is an important issue for patients. Public awareness of essential tremor (ET has never been studied.Methods: We administered a ten-minute, 31-item questionnaire to 250 consecutive enrollees. These included three samples carefully chosen to have a potential range of awareness of ET: 100 individuals ascertained from a vascular disease clinic, 100 individuals from a general neurology clinic, and 50 Parkinson’s disease (PD patients. Results: Leaving aside PD patients, only 10-15% of enrollees had ever heard of or read about ET. Even among PD patients, only 32.7% had ever heard of or read about ET. After providing enrollees with three synonymous terms for ET (‘benign tremor’, ‘kinetic tremor’, ‘familial tremor’, approximately 40% of non-PD enrollees and 51.0% with PD had ever heard or read about the condition. Even among participants who had heard of ET, approximately 10% did not know what the main symptom was, 1/3 were either unsure or thought ET was the same disease as PD, 1/4 thought that ET was the same condition as frailty- or aging-associated tremor, 2/3 attributed it to odd causes (e.g., trauma or alcohol abuse, only 1/3 knew of the existence of therapeutic brain surgery, fewer than 1/2 knew that children could have ET and 3/4 did not know of a celebrity or historical figure with ET. Hence, lack of knowledge and misconceptions were common.Conclusions: Public knowledge of the existence and features of ET is overall poor. Greater awareness is important for the ET community.

  15. Knowledge, attitude, and behavior among Saudis toward cancer preventive practice

    Kandasamy Ravichandran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine self-reported knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices on cancer among Saudis. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from Saudis aged 15 years or more, who attended one of the randomly selected 20 Primary Health Centers (PHC or the four major private hospitals located in the Riyadh region, either as patients or their escorts. The association between the variables was evaluated by the Chi square test. Results: The study population consisted of 618 males and 719 females. Among the female respondents 23.1% reported that they practiced breast self-examination (BSE; 14.2 and 8.1%, respectively, had clinical breast examination (CBE and mammography. However, 10.0 and 16.1% of the females, aged 40 years and older, reported having had mammograms and CBE, respectively. The BSE performers were more educated, knew someone with cancer, and had heard of the cancer warning signal. Both educational level and ′heard of cancer warning signal′ were significantly related to CBE. Cancer information was received from television / radio by 65.1% and from the physician by 29.4%. Even though 69.4% believed that cancer could be detected early, a vast majority (95.8% felt early detection of cancer was extremely desirable and 55.1% said their participation was definite in any screening program. A majority of the respondents (92.6% insisted on the need for physician recommendation to participate and 78.1% expected that any such program should be conducted in the existing hospitals / clinics. Conclusion: Culturally sensitive health education messages should be tailored to fulfill the knowledge gap among all population strata. Saudis will benefit from partnerships between public health educators and media to speed up the dissemination of cancer information.

  16. Knowledge and attitudes of healthcare professionals regarding alternative treatments

    Alexandros Andrikopoulos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there seems to be an interest in complementary treatments, with the result that there is a noticeable increase in their use. Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate knowledge and attitudes of healthcare professionals who work in a medium-sized general hospital, regarding employing alternative treatments in everyday practice. Method and material: The sample of the study comprised of 234 healthcare professionals from a General Hospital. A special, valid and anonymous questionnaire was used. Data collection took place from March to May 2013, and the SPSS 17.0 software was used for the statistical analysis (p < 0.05. Results: The majority of the participants were married (62.3% female (75.6% nurses (56.9% of higher education level (46.1%, aged 47,08 ± 9,18 years. The majority knew what alternative treatments were and how they could be applied (79.2%, n=186, while 79 persons (33.8% reported having used at least once some kind of an alternative treatment and 61.5% (n=143 of them said they were fairly/very satisfied with the results. 91% (n=211 of the participants said supervision should be necessary for the use of alternative treatments, and most of them were informed about those treatments by other healthcare professionals (38.8%, family or friends (38%, and the Internet (34,6%. Conclusions: Alternative treatments are a modern therapeutic approach that improves cooperation; healthcare professionals should acquire specialised knowledge regarding complementary treatments.

  17. Evaluating Oral Hygiene Knowledge and Attitude of Pregnant Women

    J Hamissi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge and attitude of pregnant women in Qazvin Province, central Iran, Relating to oral Hygiene."nMethods: The study group comprised of 760 pregnant women living in Qazvin, center of Iran in 2004. The questions were formulated to evaluate information without the need for dental examination. The age groups between 17-41 years old were randomly selected and a question was given to woman in three family planning center. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS."nResults: 94.4% responded the questionnaire and participated in statistical procedure. 73.1% of the patients used to brush their teeth at least twice a day and also 70.3% used to brush their teeth after meal."nConclusion: Health authorities should strengthen the implementation of community- based oral disease prevention and health promotion programmes. More importance must be given to oral health care center in family planning centers.

  18. Energy conservation attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors in science laboratories

    Energy use per square foot from science research labs is disproportionately higher than that of other rooms in buildings on campuses across the nation. This is partly due to labs’ use of energy intensive equipment. However, laboratory management and personnel behavior may be significant contributing factors to energy consumption. Despite an apparent increasing need for energy conservation in science labs, a systematic investigation of avenues promoting energy conservation behavior in such labs appears absent in scholarly literature. This paper reports the findings of a recent study into the energy conservation knowledge, attitude and behavior of principle investigators, laboratory managers, and student lab workers at a tier 1 research university. The study investigates potential barriers as well as promising avenues to reducing energy consumption in science laboratories. The findings revealed: (1) an apparent lack of information about options for energy conservation in science labs, (2) existing operational barriers, (3) economic issues as barriers/motivators of energy conservation and (4) a widespread notion that cutting edge science may be compromised by energy conservation initiatives. - Highlights: ► Effective energy conservation and efficiency depend on social systems and human behaviors. ► Science laboratories use more energy per square foot than any other academic and research spaces. ► Time, money, quality control, and convenience overshadow personnel’s desire to save energy. ► Ignorance of conservation practices is a barrier to energy conservation in labs.

  19. A comparison of breastfeeding women's, peer supporters' and student midwives' breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes.

    Darwent, Kirsty L; Kempenaar, Larissa E

    2014-05-01

    In the United Kingdom over 90% of women do not breastfeed for as long as they would like, despite widespread knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding. Negative attitudes and low levels of knowledge in staff supporting breastfeeding may be a contributing factor. This paper reports on the breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes in two key workforce groups; student midwives (n = 19) and Breastfeeding Network peer supporters (n = 36) and compares them with breastfeeding women (n = 23). All three groups had high knowledge and attitude scores, but peer supporters had significantly higher levels than student midwives or breastfeeding women. Student midwives' knowledge of breastfeeding was higher than breastfeeding women's but they had similar breastfeeding attitude scores. The higher knowledge and attitude scores in peer supporters may be attributed to the effectiveness of their training, which includes challenging their existing breastfeeding attitudes and debriefing their personal breastfeeding experience. It is suggested that midwives' breastfeeding attitudes are affected by their community culture and their personal experience of breastfeeding. It is proposed that midwifery training should continue to embrace a biopsychosocial model, including training to improve breastfeeding attitudes, particularly for professionals from areas where breastfeeding is not the cultural norm, or who have had negative personal breastfeeding experiences. PMID:24594280

  20. Resident Physicians and Cancer Health Disparities: a Survey of Attitudes, Knowledge, and Practice.

    Mejia de Grubb, Maria C; Kilbourne, Barbara; Zoorob, Roger; Gonzalez, Sandra; Mkanta, William; Levine, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Workforce development initiatives designed to mitigate cancer health disparities focus primarily on oncologists rather than on primary care providers (PCPs) who could be better positioned to address the issue at the preventive and community levels. The purpose of this project was to assess primary care resident physicians' self-perceived attitudes and comfort level in addressing cancer health disparities. Resident physicians in their first- through third-year of training in family, internal, preventive/occupational medicine, and obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) at three academic centers responded to a 13-question survey in the spring of 2013. Descriptive and chi-square statistics were performed to analyze responses to (1) attitudes about cross-cultural communication and understanding, (2) knowledge about sources of cancer health disparities, (3) self-reported preparedness to provide cross-cultural cancer care and skills to manage specific situations, and (4) relevance of cancer-disparity education to clinical practice. A total of 78 (70.9 %) residents responded to the survey. Twenty three (29.5 %) of the respondents felt they did not understand the socio-demographic characteristics of their patients' communities, and 20 (25.6 %) did not feel capable of discussing current cancer-related care guidelines when the patients' personal beliefs conflict with their own. Few of the relationships between residency program and location with outcome measures met the criteria for statistical significance. Family medicine residents were the most likely to report in that it was hard to interact with persons from other cultures. As PCPs will play a key role in addressing cancer health disparities, effective educational opportunities in cancer care by primary care residents are warranted. PMID:25943900

  1. Evidence-based practice in radiology: Knowledge, attitude and perceived barriers to practice among residents in radiology

    Aim: We examinted the attitude, knowledge and perceived barriers to evidence-based practice of radiology (EBPR) among residents in radiology. Study design and setting: We used the McColl questionnaire (1) and the BARRIERS scale (2) to assess the issues among radiology trainees attending an annual refresher course. Ninety six residents from 32 medical colleges from Southern India attended the course. Results: Eighty (83.3%) residents, 55 male and 25 female of age range 24–34 years, consented and returned the questionnaire. The majority of the participants had a positive attitude towards EBPR. However, 45% were unaware of sources for evidence based literature although many had access to Medline (45%) and the internet (80%). The majority (70%) were aware of the common technical terms (e.g. odds ratio, absolute and relative risk) but other complex details (e.g. meta-analysis, clinical effectiveness, confidence interval, publication bias and number needed to treat) were poorly understood. Though majority of residents (59%) were currently following guidelines and protocols laid by colleagues within their departments, 70% of residents were interested in learning the skills of EBPR and were willing to appraise primary literature or systematic reviews by themselves. Insufficient time on the job to implement new ideas (70.1%); relevant literature is not being complied in one place (68.9%); not being able to understand statistical methods (68.5%) were considered to be the major barriers to EBPR. Training in critical appraisal significantly influence usage of bibliographic databases (p < 0.0001). Attitude of collegues (p = 0.006) influenced attitude of the trainees towards EBPR. Those with higher knowledge scores (p = 0.02) and a greater awareness of sources for seeking evidence based literature (p = 0.05) held stronger beliefs that EBPR significantly improved patient care. Conclusions: The large knowledge gap related to EBPR suggests the need to incorporate structured

  2. Can education alter attitudes, behaviour and knowledge about organ donation? A pretest–post-test study

    McGlade, D.; Pierscionek, B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The emergence of evidence suggests that student nurses commonly exhibit concerns about their lack of knowledge of organ donation and transplantation. Formal training about organ donation has been shown to positively influence attitude, encourage communication and registration behaviours and improve knowledge about donor eligibility and brain death. The focus of this study was to determine the attitude and behaviour of student nurses and to assess their level of knowledge about organ...

  3. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice toward Infant Oral Healthcare among the Pediatricians of Mysore: A Questionnaire Survey

    Indira, MD; Dhull, Kanika Singh; Nandlal, B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The aim of this study was to study the knowledge, attitude and practice of the pediatricians toward infant oral healthcare and the objective was to determine what can improve the knowledge, attitude and practice toward infant oral healthcare. Materials and methods: A systematic random survey of pediatricians in Mysore received a questionnaire pertaining to individual details, knowledge level and approach toward infant oral healthcare. Results: Most of pediatricians acknow...

  4. Association between Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on Cardiovascular Disease among Women in Kelantan, Malaysia

    Ranimah Yahya; Rosediani Muhamad; Harmy Mohamed Yusoff

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been realized as a primary cause of death in women for almost a century. However, the relationship between women’s knowledge, their wish and action on practicing heart healthy lifestyle is still vague. Aim and Objectives: This research aimed to determine the association between knowledge and attitude, knowledge and practice and attitude and practice on cardiovascular disease among women in Kelantan. Methods/ Study Design: A cross sectional study ...

  5. A survey on knowledge, attitude, and practice of emergency department practitioners in musculoskeletal injuries

    Levent ALTINEL; Bozan, Eray; YURUMEZ, Yusuf; Demirel, Reha; Yavuz, Yucel

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: A knowledge, attitude, and practice study was conducted in relation to musculoskeletal injuries among emergency department practitioners working in the town of Afyon, Turkey. Methods: Of 40 practitioners working at emergency health services in Afyon, 32 (80%) responded to a 20-item questionnaire that inquired about their knowledge, attitude and practice. A 100-point scoring system was used for the first half of the questionnaire including 10 questions about their knowledge, and...

  6. Nutritional Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices among HIV-positive Individuals in India

    Anand, Deepika; Puri, Seema

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive study investigated the nutrition-related knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) in India. Data relating to nutritional KAP and sociodemographic profile were gathered from a sample of 400 PLHIV from New Delhi, India, using preset multiple-choice questionnaire. The knowledge on HIV/AIDS was low; nutritional knowledge was moderate as 80% of respondents could answer 4 out of 7 questions correctly. The attitude toward disease and food wa...

  7. Perceptions of risk in the management of nuclear wastes: Mapping elite and mass beliefs and attitudes

    This report describes the results of a set of five surveys designed to assess the perceived risks of nuclear waste management policy in Colorado and New Mexico. Within these states, mail surveys of randomly selected samples were taken of members of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, members of the Sierra Club, members of business associations, and state legislators. In addition, a telephone sample of randomly selected households was conducted in Colorado and New Mexico. Using these data, the perceptions of the risk of nuclear waste management -- from production of nuclear energy through permanent storage of nuclear wastes -- are compared for each of the five samples. The degree of trust in, and the perceived political influence of, the more prominent policy actors are assessed. Certain cognitive attributes, including degree of subjective certainty regarding beliefs about risks of nuclear wastes, and likelihood of altering perceived risks when confronted with new information, are compared across samples. In addition, the sample scores from rudimentary knowledge tests about the characteristics of radiation are compared. The relationships among the knowledge scores, cognitive attributes and risk perceptions are evaluated. Perceptions of the balance of media coverage are measured, as are the possible direct and indirect roles of media exposure in risk perception. Aggregate models, testing an array of hypotheses about the bases of nuclear waste risk perceptions, are conducted. These tests indicate that risk perceptions are related to a complex set of factors, and that these factors may differ significantly across the different sub-populations. Finally, the relationships between risk perception and political participation -- including registering to vote, political party affiliation, and level of political activism -- are analyzed. 5 figs., 33 tabs

  8. Astrology Beliefs among Undergraduate Students

    Sugarman, Hannah; Impey, Chris; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie

    2011-01-01

    A survey of the science knowledge and attitudes toward science of nearly 10000 undergraduates at a large public university over a 20-year period included several questions addressing student beliefs in astrology and other forms of pseudoscience. The results from our data reveal that a large majority of students (78%) considered astrology "very" or…

  9. Exploring knowledge, belief and experiences in sexual and reproductive health in immigrant Hispanic women.

    Quelopana, Ana M; Alcalde, Cristina

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the transformation of immigrant women's knowledge, belief and experience with regard to sexual and reproductive health after living in the US. Four focus groups (N = 24) were held with Hispanic women ≥18 years old. We identified two main themes (Fertility/Knowledge and Gender power) with five subthemes (Sex education, Contraception and unintended pregnancy, Men versus women, Intimate partner violence, and Immigrating to the US). Most of these women were raised in a very restricted family context where talking about sex was viewed as sinful. In spite of their own experiences of sexual silence and the consequences to their lives, women valued the positive changes achieved by immigrating to the US; they felt empowered to make their own decisions regarding reproductive health. PMID:23475348

  10. Knowledge, Belief, and Science Education - A Contribution from the Epistemology of Testimony

    Ferreira, Tiago Alfredo S.; El-Hani, Charbel N.; da Silva-Filho, Waldomiro José

    2016-07-01

    This article intends to show that the defense of "understanding" as one of the major goals of science education can be grounded on an anti-reductionist perspective on testimony as a source of knowledge. To do so, we critically revisit the discussion between Harvey Siegel and Alvin Goldman about the goals of science education, especially where it involves arguments based on the epistemology of testimony. Subsequently, we come back to a discussion between Charbel N. El-Hani and Eduardo Mortimer, on the one hand, and Michael Hoffmann, on the other, striving to strengthen the claim that rather than students' belief change, understanding should have epistemic priority as a goal of science education. Based on these two lines of discussion, we conclude that the reliance on testimony as a source of knowledge is necessary to the development of a more large and comprehensive scientific understanding by science students.

  11. The Puerto Rican Prison Experience: A Multicultural Understanding of Values, Beliefs, and Attitudes.

    Rivera, Edil Torres; Wilbur, Michael P.; Roberts-Wilbur, Janice

    1998-01-01

    Counselors are challenged to use a nontraditional, multicultural approach with Puerto Rican inmates, to strive to understand their values, beliefs, experiences, and behaviors; and to question their own underlying assumptions and linear models of therapy. Five specific recommendations are made, and a comparison of beliefs and values is appended.…

  12. Knowledge levels and attitudes of health care professionals toward patients with hepatitis C infection

    Farahnaz Joukar; Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei; Fatemeh Soati; Panah Meskinkhoda

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To study knowledge levels and attitudes of health care providers toward patients with hepatitis C virus infection in Guilan,a northern province of Iran.METHODS:This cross-sectional study was performed on 239 health care professionals from the Razi Hospital,including doctors,nurses,and operating room technicians.The questionnaires consisted of questions on demographic characteristics,knowledge levels,and attitudes toward hepatitis C patients.The questionnaire was tested in a pilot study and validated by Cronbach's alpha coefficient.Data were analyzed using SPSS16 software.RESULTS:The mean ± SD knowledge score was 17.43 ± 2.65 (from a total of 22).51.9% of the participants achieved scores higher than the mean.There was a significant relationship between knowledge score and age (P =0.001),gender (P =0.0001),occupational history (P =0.0001),and educational history (P =0.027).There was also a significant relationship between attitude level and age (P =0.002),gender (P =0.0001),occupational history (P =0.0001),and educational history (P =0.035).Physicians were significantly more knowledgeable and showed more positive attitudes.There was a positive correlation between knowledge and attitude scores (P =0.02).CONCLUSION:Discriminatory attitudes are common among health care providers toward hepatitis C patients.It is therefore necessary to improve their knowledge level and attitude toward this disease.

  13. knowledge and attitudes of educated parents about carrying children in private cars

    Gholamreza Khademi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Children due to their small size and insufficient mental and physical abilities, are not able to defend themselves against accident, therefore childhood is the riskiest period of life. Different factors affect accidents occurrence and damages caused by them. The aim of present study was to assess knowledge and attitudes of parents regarding how to keep children in private cars. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive analytical study with easy sampling method which was performed during summer of 2013 on 170 personnel of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. All participants signed an informed consent form, and then they received two questionnaires regarding demographic information and knowledge & attitude. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 16, using descriptive statistical tests, chi square and Mann Whitney tests. Results: Knowledge of parents regarding how to carry children in private cars was in medium level and their attitude was weak. Gender did not affect knowledge and attitude level significantly (p>0.005. Conclusion: Since knowledge level of parents was at medium level and their attitude was weak, researchers recommend performing educational classes to introduce parents with accidents and traffic dangers especially how to carry children in private cars to improve children's safety. Keywords: knowledge, attitude, parents, damages caused by accidents, children How to cite this article: Khademi G, Nazeri N, Hamedi A, Abdollahpour N, Sezavar M, Gholami H. Knowledge and attitudes of educated parents about carrying children in private cars. J Saf Promot Inj Prev. 2015; 3(3:141-6.

  14. Knowledge and Beliefs about Developmental Dyslexia in Pre-Service and In-Service Spanish-Speaking Teachers

    Soriano-Ferrer, Manuel; Echegaray-Bengoa, Joyce; Joshi, R. Malathesa

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated knowledge, misconceptions, and lack of information about dyslexia among pre-service (PST) and in-service (IST) Spanish-speaking teachers in Spain and Peru. Two hundred and forty-six pre-service teachers and 267 in-service teachers completed the Knowledge and Beliefs about Developmental Dyslexia Scale (KBDDS).…

  15. Relationship among Food-Safety Knowledge, Beliefs, and Risk-Reduction Behavior in University Students in Japan

    Takeda, Sayaka; Akamatsu, Rie; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Marui, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify whether university students who have both food-safety knowledge and beliefs perform risk-reduction behaviors. Design: Cross-sectional research using a questionnaire that included food-safety knowledge, perceptions, risk-reduction behavior, stages for the selection of safer food based on the Transtheoretical Model, and…

  16. Assessing the Impact of an Interactive Mobile Game on Tobacco-Related Attitudes and Beliefs: The Truth Campaign's “Flavor Monsters”

    Williams, Valerie; Rubenstein, Rebecca; Smith, Lexi; Vallone, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Given that over 97 percent of American teens play videogames, it is not surprising that many “games for health” target youth. Although tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, few digital games focus on preventing this behavior. The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to determine if youth will play a game with tobacco-related information and themes and (2) to explain the relationship between the truth® (Legacy, Washington, DC) campaign's “Flavor Monsters” gameplay and shifts in game-related tobacco knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. First, two versions of the game, with different amounts of tobacco-related content, were developed to examine the influence of tobacco-related content on player engagement, length of play, awareness of the truth brand, and receptivity to the game. No statistically significant differences were found for engagement (P=0.81), length of play (P=0.10), or awareness of the truth brand (P=0.67). Using an online survey through a preexisting online panel of 13–24 year olds, a longitudinal (n=693) design was used whereby exposure to messages varied naturally over time. Because of the large number of anti-tobacco industry attitude questions, we created an Anti-Tobacco Industry (ATI) Index based on the results of a factor analysis. Although gameplay was not a predictor of lower levels of intention to smoke, level mastered was a significant positive predictor of ATI Index attitudes score at 3 months, controlling for baseline ATI Index score, age, gender, and ever cigarette use (P=0.002). Longitudinal findings indicate a cumulative and enduring effect, suggesting that anti-tobacco content can be successfully integrated within a mobile game to help increase anti-tobacco attitudes. PMID:26230971

  17. The Impact of ICT Training Through Wikis on In-Service EFL Teachers: Changes in Beliefs, Attitudes, and Competencies

    Yamith José Fandiño Parra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of information and communication technology (ICT invites teachers to abandon traditional roles and act more as mentors, exploring the new media themselves as learners and thus acting as role models for their students (Fitzpatrick & Davies, 2003. For turning students into producers of online content and creating a collaborative learning environment, wikis appear to help foreign language teachers to infuse ICT in their classrooms (Kovacic, Bubas & Zlatovic, 2007. Within this context, results from an action research project carried out in four public schools suggest that beliefs, attitudes, and competencies can be impacted positively when working on the use of new technologies with in-service English teachers.

  18. Validação para a população portuguesa do Sexuality Attitudes and Beliefs Survey (SABS)

    Dias, Hélia; Sim-Sim, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Descrever o processo de validação para a língua portuguesa do Sexuality Attitudes and Beliefs Survey (SABS) e suas respectivas propriedades psicométricas. Métodos: Estudo metodológico e quantitativo. Participaram 49 estudantes de enfermagem. Após o desenvolvimento da tradução do SABS, atendendo à equivalência semântica, idiomática e conceitual do conteúdo dos seus itens, procedeu-se à determinação das qualidades psicométricas. Resultados: Ao nível da confiabilidade, o...

  19. Attitudes towards obesity in the Swedish general population: the role of one's own body size, weight satisfaction, and controllability beliefs about obesity.

    Hansson, Lena M; Rasmussen, Finn

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the associations of different socio-demographic and psychological factors with attitudes towards obesity. Individuals with different weight status (N=2436) were drawn from an annual population-based survey in Sweden, and data on attitudes towards obesity (ATOP) and predictor variables were assessed in 2008. The strongest predictor of ATOP was controllability beliefs about obesity (β=0.83). Thus, greater controllability beliefs about obesity predicted more negative attitudes. Sex and weight satisfaction were also independently associated with ATOP. However, there was no, or only a weak, association between weight satisfaction and ATOP among individuals with normal weight or overweight. And the higher the weight satisfactions of individuals with obesity, the more positive were their attitudes. It seems that stigma-reduction strategies in the general public should address the uncontrollable factors in the aetiology of obesity. However, more research is needed to understand the underlying causes of people's attitudes towards obesity. PMID:24268600

  20. Emotional Intelligence, Pain Knowledge, and Attitudes of Nursing Students in Hong Kong.

    Chan, Joanne C Y; Hamamura, Takeshi

    2016-04-01

    Research on nursing students' pain knowledge and attitudes is limited. Although emotions play a role in pain assessment, no study has examined the associations between emotional intelligence and pain knowledge and the attitudes of nursing students. This cross-sectional quantitative study aimed to address this research gap by assessing the pain knowledge and attitudes of nursing students in Hong Kong and examining associations between emotional intelligence and the pain knowledge and attitudes of nursing students. A total of 104 postgraduate nursing students (45 Year 1 students and 59 Year 3 students) completed a questionnaire that included demographic information, the Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale (SEIS) and the Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (KASRP). Data analyses included descriptive statistics, correlational analyses, chi-square test and t-tests. The pain knowledge and attitudes of both Year 1 students (M = 20.40, SD = 3.78) and Year 3 students (M = 21.36, SD = 3.15) were suboptimal, t(102) = -1.41, p = .16. Year 1 students had higher emotional intelligence (M = 122.44, SD = 8.90) than Year 3 students (M = 117.71, SD = 14.34), t(98.35) = 2.07, p = .04. For Year 1 students, emotional intelligence was negatively correlated with pain knowledge and attitudes, but the correlation was not significant (r = -.15, p = .33). For Year 3 students, emotional intelligence, pain knowledge and attitudes were negatively correlated, but the correlation was significant (r = -.31, p = .02). These results suggest that nursing students' pain knowledge and attitudes could be improved. Implications for nurse educators to enhance emotional intelligence and pain education for nursing students are discussed. PMID:27108083

  1. Public understanding of science and the perception of nanotechnology: the roles of interest in science, methodological knowledge, epistemological beliefs, and beliefs about science

    In this article, we report data from an online questionnaire study with 587 respondents, representative for the adult U.S. population in terms of age, gender, and level of education. The aim of this study was to assess how interest in science and knowledge as well as beliefs about science are associated with risk and benefit perceptions of nanotechnology. The findings suggest that the U.S. public is still rather unfamiliar with nanotechnology. Those who have some knowledge mainly have gotten it from TV and the Internet. The content of current media reports is perceived as fairly positive. Knowledge of scientific methods is unrelated to benefit and risk perceptions, at least when other predictors are controlled. In contrast, positive beliefs about science (e.g., its impact on economy or health) and more sophisticated epistemological beliefs about the nature of scientific knowledge are moderately linked to more positive perceptions of nanotechnology. The only exception is the perception of scientific uncertainty: This is associated with less positive evaluations. Finally, higher engagement with science is associated with higher risk perceptions. These findings show that laypersons who are engaged with science and who are aware of the inherent uncertainty of scientific evidence might perceive nanotechnology in a somewhat more differentiated way, contrary to how it is portrayed in the media today.

  2. Breastfeeding attitudes and knowledge in bachelor of science in nursing candidates.

    Vandewark, Aurora C

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding is an important health topic worldwide, although lack of breastfeeding knowledge is noted among health-care professionals. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes in undergraduate nursing students at the beginning and end of their clinical education. An electronic survey, based on the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale and the Breastfeeding Knowledge Questionnaire, was administered. Attitude scores did not differ significantly between groups. Total knowledge scores between groups differed modestly (p = .006). Correlations between total knowledge and total attitude scores were found (r[89] = .482, p nursing education effectively teaches breastfeeding and that breastfeeding advocacy through patient education is a crucial nursing role. PMID:25364217

  3. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF SELF MEDICATION IN SOUTHWEST ETHIOPIA

    Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo et al.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Self-medication is the selection and use of medicines by individuals to treat selfrecognised illnesses or symptoms and an important initial response to illnesses if successfully used. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of self medication among Medical Sciences Faculty students of Jimma University.METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in Medical sciences Faculty students in 2009.The faculty and the three schools were selected by lottery method .Then, within the faculty respective number of students for each School was determined by proportion from the total sample size. Data was collected randomly from each School using self administered questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0RESULTS: From a total of 403 (100% participants,95 (45.89% students practiced self medication in the past two months for commonly perceived illnesses such as headache 35 (36.85%, abdominal pain 29 (30.55% and cough 33 (23.16% using mainly analgesics 40(49.38% and antibiotics 29 (35.80% mostly from drug retail outlets 88(92.63. Fifty seven (60.00% respondents can recall the dose, frequency and duration of the medicine while 38 (40% did not know. Sixty five (68.42% students agreed to practice self medication irrespective of the seriousness of illnesses.CONCLUSION: Self mediation was widely practiced for minor symptoms with both OTC and prescription only drugs. Most of respondents use self medication irrespective of the seriousness of the illnesses. Lack of proper information and the ease of access from drug outlets were the most important problems.

  4. Youth sexual health in Nunavut: a needs based survey of knowledge, attitudes and behaviour

    Cole, Madeleine

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. This study attempts to address the need for culturally specific data on beliefs and behaviours in order to design and implement appropriate public health interventions. The goal of the health promotion booklet that followed the study is to give youth a tool that will promote healthy choices and give non-judgmental information about sexuality. Study Design and Methods. Knowledge gaps and beliefs about birth control, healthy sexuality and sexual health education were assessed throug...

  5. Knowledge and Attitude Towards Epilepsy Among Biology Teachers in Fars Province, Iran

    Ali Akbar ASADI-POOYA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThis study investigates the awareness and perception on “epilepsy” amongst biology teachers in Fars province, Iran.Materials & MethodsA sample of high school biology teachers in Fars province, Iran, filled out an investigator designed questionnaire including questions about their knowledge and attitude concerning “epilepsy”. There were 17 questions in the questionnaire. Nine questions addressed the knowledge and the rest were about attitude and perception.ResultsForty two teachers completed the questionnaires. More than two-thirds of the participants had a fairly desirable awareness about the definition; whereas, only approximately 40% knew something about the etiology and treatment of epilepsy. More than two-thirds of the participants had a positive attitude towards epilepsy; however, misconceptions and negative attitudes were observed.ConclusionEducational programs for biology teachers and also other teachers are necessary to improve their knowledge, attitude and perception about epilepsy.

  6. Knowledge and attitudes of nurses towards alcohol and related problems: the impact of an educational intervention

    Janaina Soares

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available An exploratory study of quasi-experimental approach that aimed to verify the impact of an educational intervention on attitudes and knowledge of nurses towards alcohol use and associated problems. The sample included 185 nurses, divided into two groups: 84 submitted to a training course and formed the experimental group. Data were collected through a knowledge survey and an attitude scale. The attitudes of the participants of both groups were positive. There were no significant differences between groups in relation to knowledge. The strongest predictors of positive attitudes were possessed preparation to act with chemical dependents (OR = 2.18, "have received increased workload during graduation on the theme, 'alcohol and other drugs'" (OR = 1.70, and "completed graduate school" (OR = 2.59. The educational intervention had a positive impact on the attitudes of nurses towards alcoholics, work and interpersonal relationships with such clientele.

  7. Mental health first aid training for the Chinese community in Melbourne, Australia: effects on knowledge about and attitudes toward people with mental illness

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate in members of the Chinese community in Melbourne the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training on knowledge about mental disorders and on attitudes to people with mental illness. The hypotheses were that at the end of the training participants would have increased knowledge of mental disorders and related treatments, and decreased negative attitudes towards people with mental disorders. Methods Respondents were 108 participants of three MHFA training workshops for the Chinese community in Melbourne conducted by a qualified MHFA trainer. Participants completed the research questionnaire prior to the commencement of the training (pre-test) and at its completion (post-test). The questionnaires assessed participants' ability to recognize a mental disorder (depression and schizophrenia) described in the vignettes, knowledge about the professional help and treatment, and negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Results Between pre- and post-test there was significant improvement in the recognition of mental disorders, beliefs about treatment became more concordant with health professionals, and negative attitudes reduced. Conclusion The MHFA training course for general members of the Chinese community in Melbourne produced significant positive change in the level of mental health literacy and reductions in stigmatizing attitudes. The evidence from this study, together with the accumulated evidence of the benefits of MHFA training in the general Australian community, suggests that this approach should be scaled up to a level where it can have an impact on the whole of the Chinese community in Australia. PMID:20576137

  8. Mental health first aid training for the Chinese community in Melbourne, Australia: effects on knowledge about and attitudes toward people with mental illness

    Wong Daniel FK

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate in members of the Chinese community in Melbourne the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA training on knowledge about mental disorders and on attitudes to people with mental illness. The hypotheses were that at the end of the training participants would have increased knowledge of mental disorders and related treatments, and decreased negative attitudes towards people with mental disorders. Methods Respondents were 108 participants of three MHFA training workshops for the Chinese community in Melbourne conducted by a qualified MHFA trainer. Participants completed the research questionnaire prior to the commencement of the training (pre-test and at its completion (post-test. The questionnaires assessed participants' ability to recognize a mental disorder (depression and schizophrenia described in the vignettes, knowledge about the professional help and treatment, and negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Results Between pre- and post-test there was significant improvement in the recognition of mental disorders, beliefs about treatment became more concordant with health professionals, and negative attitudes reduced. Conclusion The MHFA training course for general members of the Chinese community in Melbourne produced significant positive change in the level of mental health literacy and reductions in stigmatizing attitudes. The evidence from this study, together with the accumulated evidence of the benefits of MHFA training in the general Australian community, suggests that this approach should be scaled up to a level where it can have an impact on the whole of the Chinese community in Australia.

  9. Patients’ knowledge and beliefs concerning gout and its treatment: a population based study

    Harrold Leslie R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For patients to effectively manage gout, they need to be aware of the impact of diet, alcohol use, and medications on their condition. We sought to examine patients’ knowledge and beliefs concerning gout and its treatment in order to identify barriers to optimal patient self-management. Methods We identified patients (≥18 years of age cared for in the setting of a multispecialty group practice with documentation of at least one health care encounter associated with a gout diagnosis during the period 2008–2009 (n = 1346. Patients were sent a questionnaire assessing knowledge with regard to gout, beliefs about prescription medications used to treat gout, and trust in the physician. Administrative electronic health records were used to identify prescription drug use and health care utilization. Results Two hundred and forty patients returned surveys out of the 500 contacted for participation. Most were male (80%, white (94%, and aged 65 and older (66%. Only 14 (6% patients were treated by a rheumatologist. Only a minority of patients were aware of common foods known to trigger gout (e.g., seafood [23%], beef [22%], pork [7%], and beer [43%]. Of those receiving a urate-lowering medication, only 12% were aware of the short-term risks of worsening gout with initiation. These deficits were more common in those with active as compared to inactive gout. Conclusion Knowledge deficits about dietary triggers and chronic medications were common, but worse in those with active gout. More attention is needed on patient education on gout and self-management training.

  10. The Interrelationship of Science Experiences, Beliefs, Attitudes, and Self-Efficacy: A Case Study of a Pre-Service Teacher with Positive Science Attitude and High Science Teaching Self-Efficacy

    Mahsa Kazempour

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative case study aimed to focus on the experiences and subsequent science and science teaching beliefs, attitudes, and self-efficacy of an elementary pre-service teacher, Heather, with extremely positive attitude and high self-efficacy. For this particular population of pre-service teachers, possessing a high science teaching self-efficacy alone is not sufficient to assume reform-based beliefs and teaching practices. This study was unique in that it concurrently explored the relationship between attitude, beliefs, and self-efficacy before and after the course. Initially, Heather’s attitude and self-efficacy with respect to science and science teaching were closely interrelated and a product of her own intrinsic interest in science and her unique K-12 experiences. Her beliefs appeared to have been shaped by both her actual science experiences and what she had witnessed in the classrooms. Heather’s course experiences shaped her post beliefs about science and science teaching, which consequently altered her attitude and confidence.

  11. Epistemological Beliefs of Prospective Preschool Teachers and Their Relation to Knowledge, Perception, and Planning Abilities in the Field of Mathematics: A Process Model

    Dunekacke, Simone; Jenßen, Lars; Eilerts, Katja; Blömeke, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Teacher competence is a multi-dimensional construct that includes beliefs as well as knowledge. The present study investigated the structure of prospective preschool teachers' mathematics-related beliefs and their relation to content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. In addition, prospective preschool teachers' perception and planning…

  12. Knowledge and attitude of nurses to Community Psychiatry services in Edo state, Nigeria

    Amiegheme F.E

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community Psychiatry involves support and treatment of people with mental disorder in a domiciliary setting instead of mental hospital. The attitude of the public towards mental illness and mentally ill person is generally negative. Knowledge and attitude of nurses towards this topic is important because they deal directly patients, families and the community as negative attitude will hinder quality service. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitude of Registered Nurses (RNs towards Community Psychiatric services. Methods: A descriptive survey design was used for this study. A systematic random sampling method was used to select one hundred and fifty respondents. The research instrument for this study was self- developed structured questionnaire design in line with the variables to be measured. Descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages, independent t–test and Pearson Moment Correlation Coefficient analysis were used to analyze all data. Results: The study revealed that RNs with positive attitude have a higher mean value than Registered Nurses with negative attitude towards Community Psychiatric services. There is also a significant relationship between the knowledge and attitude of RNs and their participation in community psychiatric services. Conclusion: RNs disseminate information and care for mentally ill people and their relations, signifying a need for a positive knowledge and attitude that will enable the RNs to enter a personal relationship with the patient which is necessary for rehabilitation.

  13. Frogs Sell Beer: The Effects of Beer Advertisements on Adolescent Drinking Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior.

    Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.; Bloomgren, Barry W., Jr.; Atti, Jule A.; Norman, Jessica A.

    This present research reveals how beer advertising affects adolescents' knowledge of beer brands, drinking attitudes, and drinking behaviors. In addition to traditional psychological approaches for measuring media effects on alcohol-related behaviors and attitudes, market research advertising tracking methods were included to permit a clearer and…

  14. KNOWLEDGE: A POSSIBLE TOOL IN SHAPING MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS HOMOSEXUALITY

    Dunjić-Kostić, Bojana; Pantović, Maja; Vuković, Vuk; Randjelović, Dunja; Totić-Poznanović, Sanja; Damjanović, Aleksandar; Jašović-Gašić, Miroslava; Ivković, Maja

    2012-01-01

    Background: The attitudes of medical professionals towards homosexuals can influence their willingness to provide these individuals with medical help. The study evaluated the medical professionals’ knowledge about homosexuality and their attitudes towards it. Subjects and methods: The sample consisted of 177 participants (physicians n=79 and students n=98). The study respondents anonymously completed three questionnaires (socio-demographic questionnaire, the questionnaire on knowl...

  15. Knowledge, attitude and behavior regarding osteoporosis among women in three age groups: Shariati hospital, Tehran

    Kaghaz kanani R.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis threatens the aged population especially the menopausal women and can lead to life long disability and death. Appropriate knowledge and behavior have an important role in prevention of osteoporosis. In this study the knowledge, attitude and behavior of women regarding osteoporosis is assessed and compared in different age groups.Methods: This cross sectional study includes 390 women in reproductive, premenopausal and menopausal age groups who had come to Shariati hospital clinics and each had answered the designed questionnaire. The questionnaires were scored and analyzed. Women's knowledge, attitude and behavior were assessed and compared by X2 test in the three age groups and P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: 15-30% of women didn't know what osteoporosis is and in 380 of them attitude or behavior was not good. Education had a significant effect on knowledge of women in reproductive and premenopausal ages (P=0.002, 0.04 respectively, but had no effect on their attitude or behavior. Age had a significant effect on knowledge and attitude (P=0.001 but had no effect on behavior. Age had significant effect on the knowledge that exercise can prevent osteoporosis (P=0.014 but not on attitude or behavior. Age had no effect on knowledge, attitude or behavior of daily calcium intake to prevent osteoporosis. (P=0.123, 0.12, 0.153 respectively 93% to 95% of women thought the risks of osteoporosis are less than cardiovascular disease or breast cancer.Conclusions: 15-30% of women didn't know what osteoporosis is. The total knowledge about osteoporosis was low. Although 22-75% of women younger than 54 years old had knowledge about the predisposing factors but their attitude or behavior was not good.

  16. Food Allergy Knowledge and Attitudes among School Nurses in an Urban Public School District.

    Twichell, Sarah; Wang, Kathleen; Robinson, Humaira; Acebal, Maria; Sharma, Hemant

    2015-01-01

    Since food allergy knowledge and perceptions may influence prevention and management of school-based reactions, we evaluated them among nurses in an urban school district. All District of Columbia public school nurses were asked to anonymously complete a food allergy knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Knowledge scores were calculated as percentage of correct responses. Attitude responses were tabulated across five-point Likert scales, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The knowledge questionnaire was completed by 87% of eligible nurses and the attitude questionnaire by 83%. The mean total knowledge score was 76 ± 13 with domain score highest for symptom recognition and lowest for treatment. Regarding attitudes, most (94%) felt food allergy is a serious health problem, for which schools should have guidelines (94%). Fewer believed that nut-free schools (82%) and allergen-free tables (44%) should be implemented. Negative perceptions of parents were identified as: parents of food-allergic children are overprotective (55%) and make unreasonable requests of schools (15%). Food allergy knowledge deficits and mixed attitudes exist among this sample of urban school nurses, particularly related to management of reactions and perceptions of parents. Food allergy education of school nurses should be targeted to improve their knowledge and attitudes. PMID:27417367

  17. Food Allergy Knowledge and Attitudes among School Nurses in an Urban Public School District

    Sarah Twichell

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since food allergy knowledge and perceptions may influence prevention and management of school-based reactions, we evaluated them among nurses in an urban school district. All District of Columbia public school nurses were asked to anonymously complete a food allergy knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Knowledge scores were calculated as percentage of correct responses. Attitude responses were tabulated across five-point Likert scales, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The knowledge questionnaire was completed by 87% of eligible nurses and the attitude questionnaire by 83%. The mean total knowledge score was 76 ± 13 with domain score highest for symptom recognition and lowest for treatment. Regarding attitudes, most (94% felt food allergy is a serious health problem, for which schools should have guidelines (94%. Fewer believed that nut-free schools (82% and allergen-free tables (44% should be implemented. Negative perceptions of parents were identified as: parents of food-allergic children are overprotective (55% and make unreasonable requests of schools (15%. Food allergy knowledge deficits and mixed attitudes exist among this sample of urban school nurses, particularly related to management of reactions and perceptions of parents. Food allergy education of school nurses should be targeted to improve their knowledge and attitudes.

  18. Using Qualitative Research Methods to Assess the Degree of Fit between Teachers' Reported Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Their Practical Knowledge during Teacher Education

    Wyatt, Mark

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for qualitative research into teachers' self-efficacy beliefs so that the relationship between these beliefs and other cognitions possessed by teachers, including their practical knowledge, can be better understood by teacher educators. Teachers' self-efficacy beliefs may need supporting if they seem too low or…

  19. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario.

    Parizeau, Kate; von Massow, Mike; Martin, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste. PMID:25445261

  20. Beliefs and Attitudes of Medical Students from Public and Private Universities in Malaysia towards Individuals with HIV/AIDS

    Koh Kwee Choy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the findings from a survey assessing the beliefs regarding testing, confidentiality, disclosure, and environment of care and attitudes towards care of people with HIV/AIDS (PLHWA, in 1020, 4th and 5th year medical students, from public and private medical universities in Malaysia. A self-administered validated questionnaire based on the UNAIDS Model Questionnaire with a 5-point Likert scale (5, strongly disagree; 4, disagree; 3, neutral; 2, agree; 1, strongly agree was used as a survey tool. The survey included demographic data and data on undergraduate training received on HIV/AIDS. Statistical significance in the demographic data and training received by respondents was evaluated using the chi-square test while the independent Student’s t-test was used for comparison of means between public and private universities. A value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant with 95% confidence interval. Our study revealed less than 20% of medical students received adequate training to care for PLHWA. They had prevalent negative beliefs regarding testing, confidentiality, disclosure and environment of care towards PLHWA although in giving care to PLHWA, their attitudes were largely positive and nondiscriminatory.

  1. Public Place Smoke-Free Regulations, Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Related Beliefs, Awareness, Attitudes, and Practices among Chinese Urban Residents

    Dan Wu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the association between smoke-free regulations in public places and secondhand smoke exposure and related beliefs, awareness, attitudes, and behavior among urban residents in China. Methods: We selected one city (Hangzhou as the intervention city and another (Jiaxing as the comparison. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection, and implemented at two time points across a 20-month interval. Both unadjusted and adjusted logistic methods were considered in analyses. Multiple regression procedures were performed in examining variation between final and baseline measures. Results: Smoke-free regulations in the intervention city were associated with a significant decline in personal secondhand smoke exposure in government buildings, buses or taxis, and restaurants, but there was no change in such exposure in healthcare facilities and schools. In terms of personal smoking beliefs, awareness, attitudes, and practices, the only significant change was in giving quitting advice to proximal family members. Conclusions: There was a statistically significant association between implementation of smoke-free regulations in a city and inhibition of secondhand tobacco smoking exposure in public places. However, any such impact was limited. Effective tobacco control in China will require a combination of strong public health education and enforcement of regulations.

  2. Breast Health Intervention Effects on Knowledge and Beliefs Over Time Among Chinese American Immigrants--a Randomized Controlled Study.

    Lee-Lin, Frances; Pedhiwala, Nisreen; Nguyen, Thuan; Menon, Usha

    2015-09-01

    Chinese American immigrant women, nonadherent with mammography in the past 12 months, (N = 300) were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial designed to change knowledge and beliefs and increase mammogram use. This report describes intervention effects on changes in knowledge and beliefs between the control and educational groups over four time points (baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months). Variables measured included knowledge, perceived susceptibility, perceived general barriers to mammography, perceived benefits to mammography, and four cultural barriers to mammography (crisis orientation, modesty, use of Eastern medicine, reliance on others). At all three post-intervention time points, women in the education group had significantly higher knowledge scores than those in the control group, regardless of whether they had completed a mammogram during the study. Women in the education group reported higher perceived susceptibility to breast cancer at 3-month post-intervention. At 3- and 6-month post-intervention, regardless of mammogram screening completion, women reported lower concerns about modesty related to mammography when compared to the control group. By the 12-month post-intervention, women in the education group reported significantly fewer perceived barriers than the control group. A targeted breast health program successfully changed breast health knowledge and beliefs that were sustained for up to 6-12 months. Education targeted to women's knowledge and beliefs has significant potential for decreasing disparity in mammogram use among Chinese American immigrant women. PMID:25200949

  3. Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Blood Donation in Rural Puducherry, India

    Umakant G Shidam, Subitha Lakshminarayanan, Suman Saurabh, Gautam Roy

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Though the awareness regarding blood donation was high, the practice of voluntary blood donation was remarkably low. Education and motivation through various media is recommended to eliminate misbelieves and to reinforce positive attitudes towards blood donation."

  4. Oral health knowledge, attitude and practices among health professionals in King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh

    Mohammad Abdul Baseer

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Oral health knowledge among the health professionals working in KFMC, Riyadh was lower than what would be expected of these groups, which had higher literacy levels in health care, but they showed a positive attitude toward professional dental care.

  5. Knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test and its relation with female age 1

    Silveira, Nara Sibério Pinho; Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Nicolau, Ana Izabel Oliveira; Oriá, Mônica Oliveira Batista; Pinheiro, Patricia Neyva da Costa; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to verify the association among the knowledge attitude and practice of women in relation to the smear test and the age range. Method: a cross-sectional research was undertaken, associated with the knowledge, attitude and practice survey at a Primary Health Care service. The sample consisted of 775 women, distributed in three age ranges: adolescent, young and elderly. Results: although high rates of inappropriate knowledge were found in all age ranges, it was significantly higher among the adolescents (p=0.000). A similar trend was found in the attitude component, with percentages of inappropriateness in adolescence that drop as age advances (p=0.000). Nevertheless, no statistical difference among the groups was found in terms of practice (p=0.852). Conclusion: the study demonstrated a relation between the age range and knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test. PMID:27305183

  6. Improving nutrient management practices in agriculture: The role of risk-based beliefs in understanding farmers' attitudes toward taking additional action

    Wilson, Robyn S.; Howard, Gregory; Burnett, Elizabeth A.

    2014-08-01

    A recent increase in the amount of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) entering the western Lake Erie basin is likely due to increased spring storm events in combination with issues related to fertilizer application and timing. These factors in combination with warmer lake temperatures have amplified the spread of toxic algal blooms. We assessed the attitudes of farmers in northwest Ohio toward taking at least one additional action to reduce nutrient loss on their farm. Specifically, we (1) identified to what extent farm and farmer characteristics (e.g., age, gross farm sales) as well as risk-based beliefs (e.g., efficacy, risk perception) influenced attitudes, and (2) assessed how these characteristics and beliefs differ in their predictive ability based on unobservable latent classes of farmers. Risk perception, or a belief that negative impacts to profit and water quality from nutrient loss were likely, was the most consistent predictor of farmer attitudes. Response efficacy, or a belief that taking action on one's farm made a difference, was found to significantly influence attitudes, although this belief was particularly salient for the minority class of farmers who were older and more motivated by profit. Communication efforts should focus on the negative impacts of nutrient loss to both the farm (i.e., profit) and the natural environment (i.e., water quality) to raise individual perceived risk among the majority, while the minority need higher perceived efficacy or more specific information about the economic effectiveness of particular recommended practices.

  7. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario

    Highlights: • We combined household waste stream weights with survey data. • We examine relationships between waste and food-related practices and beliefs. • Families and large households produced more total waste, but less waste per capita. • Food awareness and waste awareness were related to reduced food waste. • Convenience lifestyles were differentially associated with food waste. - Abstract: It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste

  8. Household-level dynamics of food waste production and related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours in Guelph, Ontario

    Parizeau, Kate, E-mail: kate.parizeau@uoguelph.ca [Department of Geography, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada); Massow, Mike von [School of Hospitality, Food, and Tourism Management, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada); Martin, Ralph [Plant Agriculture Department, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • We combined household waste stream weights with survey data. • We examine relationships between waste and food-related practices and beliefs. • Families and large households produced more total waste, but less waste per capita. • Food awareness and waste awareness were related to reduced food waste. • Convenience lifestyles were differentially associated with food waste. - Abstract: It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste.

  9. Pharmacological interventions for ADHD: how do adolescent and adult patient beliefs and attitudes impact treatment adherence?

    McCarthy S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Suzanne McCarthy School of Pharmacy, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Abstract: Adherence to medication can be problematic for patients, especially so for patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Effective medications are available for the treatment of ADHD; however, nonadherence rates for ADHD medication range from 13.2%–64%. The reasons for nonadherence can be complex. This review aims to look at how the beliefs and attitudes of adolescents and adults impact ADHD treatment adherence. Keywords: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, medication, stimulant, attitude, belief, adherence 

  10. Knowledge and attitude of pediatricians and Family Physicians in Chennai on Pediatric Dentistry: A survey

    Rangeeth Bollam Nammalwar; Priyaa Rangeeth

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to study the knowledge and attitude of the pediatricians and family physicians on the dental counterpart, i.e. pediatric dentistry and the objective of this study were to determine what can improve the knowledge and attitude on pediatric dentistry and suggest certain methodologies to more participation of physicians in improving oral health. Materials and Methods: A systematic random survey of 400 pediatricians and 400 family physicians received a que...

  11. ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA PATIENTS TOWARDS THEIR DISEASE

    Gaude; Nicasia; Sindhury; Jyothi

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is chronic inflammatory, airway hyper-responsiveness, reversible disorder which occurs at any age, and requires special attention towards management of drug therapy. There is lack of patients awareness in having the complete knowledge about the disease, attitude towards disease management, medication adherence behavior and treatment outcomes. The objective of the present study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of the patients towards their disease in improving the ...

  12. Eating disorders - knowledge, attitudes, management and clinical experience of Norwegian dentists

    Johansson, Ann-Katrin; Johansson, Anders; Nohlert, Eva; Norring, Claes; Åstrøm, Anne N; Tegelberg, Åke

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitudes and clinical experience with regard to patients with eating disorders (ED) among Norwegian dentists. Methods: In 2010, a questionnaire was sent to all dentists in Norway (N = 4282) comprising 33 questions related to demographics of the participating dentists, their knowledge of ED (general and oral health aspects), clinical experience, attitudes and perceived management preferences. Results: The participation rate w...

  13. The Students\\' Knowledge, Attitude and Performance about Prevention of Using of Ecstasy

    Mitra Zolfaghari; Mana Hekmat

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: In recent decades because of stimulant and hallucinogenic properties of ecstasy, it has been found so many users among adolescent and youth people. The aim of present study was the study of students' knowledge, attitude and performance related to prevention of using of ecstasy. Method: This descriptive – analytic study has done in 400 female students of government schools of zone no. 17. The sample selected by clustering random sampling and their knowledge, attitude, and perform...

  14. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF PRIMARY HEALTH CARE DOCTORS AND NURSES IN HYPERTENSION OF PREGNANCY

    Gandeh, Mohammad B.S.; Milaat, Waleed A.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the status of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of doctors and nurses in Primary Health Care (PHC) centers with regard to hypertension in pregnancy and to identify factors associated with KAP in Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia. Methodology: Using a self-administered comprehensive questionnaire, all available doctors and nurses in PHC centers of the Al-Khobar area were approached to determine their knowledge, attitude and practice in hypertension during pregnancy. Questionnai...

  15. Knowledge and attitudes toward organ donation: a community-based study comparing rural and urban populations

    Alghanim Saad

    2010-01-01

    The study was set to determine whether knowledge and attitudes toward organ dona-tion differ according to geographical location. Self-administered questionnaires were employed to collect data such as demographic characteristics, basic knowledge, attitudes and source of information about organ donation from subjects in rural and urban areas. The questionnaires were distributed randomly to 1,000 individuals in both areas during 2008. The data were analyzed in a descriptive fashion. Despite simi...

  16. The Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Canadian Master of Physical Therapy Students Regarding Peer Mentorship

    Quesnel, Martine; King, Judy; Guilcher, Sara; Evans, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To describe Canadian Master of Physical Therapy (MPT) students' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding peer mentorship. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional survey study was conducted. An online questionnaire was sent to 945 MPT students via e-mail, using a modified Dillman approach. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics to describe the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Canadian MPT students. Results: A total of 260 MPT students (27.5%) responded to the quest...

  17. Knowledge and attitude of dental trauma among dental students in Saudi Arabia

    Al-Shamiri, Hashem Motahir; Alaizari, Nader Ahmed; Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali; Tarakji, Bassel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the level of knowledge and attitude of Saudi dental students in the management of dental trauma in children. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire comprising 17 close-ended questions was used in this survey. The questions were divided into three parts including: Personal and professional profile; knowledge assessment; attitude toward dental trauma. Data of 307 respondents were analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social...

  18. Evidence-Based Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, practice and perceived barriers among nurses in Oman

    Ali A. Ammouri; Raddaha, Ahmad A.; Preethy Dsouza; Renu Geethakrishnan; Noronha, Judith A.; Arwa A. Obeidat; Lina Shakman

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ practices, attitudes, knowledge/skills and perceived barriers in relation to evidence-based practice (EBP) in Oman. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between February and November 2012. A self-reported 24-item questionnaire was used to measure EBP practices, attitudes and knowledge/skills among a convenience sample of 600 nurses working in four governmental hospitals in Muscat, Oman. Responses were scored on...

  19. Knowledge and Attitude about AndropauseAmong General Physicians in Shiraz, Iran 2014

    Maliheh Abootalebi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Andropause in men refers to the clinical and biochemical syndrome associated with advanced age and characterized by a deficiency in serum testosterone levels. With the increase in aging male population and life span in Iran and focus on quality of life, andropause will become a major health issue that needs to be addressed in order to prevent disability. The results of some research have shown that there is still low level of knowledge and attitude toward andropause among health professionals. This study aimed at assessing the level of knowledge and attitude of general physicians regarding andropause in 2014. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 402 general physicians in Shiraz. A researcher-made questionnaire was developed for assessing the level of knowledge and attitude of general physicians about andropause. SPSS 18 was used to analyze the data, and descriptive statistics, ANOVA and Pearson correlation were applied for data analysis. Results: The mean score of knowledge and attitude about andropause was 29.4 out of 76 and 35.1 out of 45, respectively. The findings showed a poor level of knowledge and positive attitude toward andropause among general physicians. There was a significant relationship between occupational status and knowledge about andropause (P<0.001. There was a statistically significant relationship between attitude and demographic characteristics (P<0.05.The correlation between knowledge and attitude toward andropause was not statistically significant (P=0.548. Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicate the need for designing educational interventions to improve the knowledge and attitude of andropause among general physicians.

  20. Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of the Urban Poor Concerning Solid Waste Management: A Case Study

    M.d. Wahid Murad; Chamhuri Siwar

    2007-01-01

    This study has developed three Logistic Regression Models to determine and analyze the factors that could affect knowledge, attitude and behavior of the urban poor concerning solid waste management. To pursue the objective, the study has collected primary data from the level of living conditions of the poor residing in the squatters and low-cost flats of Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia. The empirical results of the study are exciting as they provide evidence to the effect that knowledge, attitude...