AIM: This paper reports an exploration of Nepalese adolescents' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of HIV/AIDS. BACKGROUND: Nepal is confronted with an increasing incidence of HIV/AIDS among adolescents and young adults. A priority of nurses and other health professionals in Nepal is the prevention of the spread of HIV infection. The first step in prevention is assessing the HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional correlational design was carried out in 2003 in a private school in Kathmandu, Nepal. A total of 150 adolescents participated in the study. Two instruments were used: a demographic questionnaire and the Youth Survey, which included questions on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs. FINDINGS: The majority of the adolescents had a moderate level of overall HIV/AIDS knowledge, but lacked knowledge in the areas of mode of transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS. Approximately 79% thought that AIDS was a big problem and 67% were afraid of getting AIDS. However, only 16.7% reported that they were likely to get AIDS, and 18.7% did not perceive living in Kathmandu as a risk for HIV/AIDS. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study will help policymakers and healthcare professionals develop a culturally sensitive and needs specific educational programme for urban Nepalese adolescents. The findings may also have lessons for public health and school nurses working in similar contexts. Nurses, and more specifically public health nurses in Nepal, need to play an active role in the development and implementation of educational programs on HIV/AIDS. Research needs to be done in rural as well as urban areas of Nepal on adolescents' HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and beliefs.
Mahat G; Scoloveno MA
BACKGROUND: Hospital environmental service workers (ESWs) play an important role in interrupting the chain of infection because the environment is a reservoir for nosocomial pathogens. Improving ESWs' knowledge through education has been shown to improve ESW cleaning, but the behavioral determinants of their work have not been studied. Understanding and targeting ESWs' attitudes and beliefs may inform strategies to improve environmental cleaning. METHODS: With the theory of planned behavior as framework, we used questionnaires and focus groups to examine intensive care unit ESWs' attitudes, beliefs [behavioral, normative, and control], and control) and intent about their job. Baseline quantitative microbial cultures of high-touch services were performed before and after cleaning. After an educational intervention addressing their attitudes, beliefs, and general infection control knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and microbial contamination were reassessed. RESULTS: Beliefs were uniformly strong (4.5/5-5/5), and normative beliefs correlated best with intent to clean (R(2) = 0.3). Themes elicited from the focus groups included "me versus them," lack of appreciation, pride in work, and "if it were me." The rate of environmental contamination was significantly improved after the intervention (P = .0074 vs P = .0023, respectively); the measured relationship among attitudes, beliefs, and intent was not significantly changed. CONCLUSION: ESWs' attitudes and beliefs about their job may impact their intent to clean and in turn the effectiveness of their efforts. Understanding and addressing these attitudes and beliefs can be used to inform strategies for sustained improvement of environmental cleaning.
Matlow AG; Wray R; Richardson SE
The use of genetics in medical research is one of the most important avenues currently being explored to enhance human health. For some, the idea that we can intervene in the mechanisms of human existence at such a fundamental level can be at minimum worrying and at most repugnant. In particular, religious doctrines are likely to collide with the rapidly advancing capability for science to make such interventions. The key ingredient for acceptance of genetics, on the other hand, is prototypically assumed to be scientific literacy - familiarity and understanding of the critical facts and methods of science. However, this binary opposition between science and religion runs counter to what is often found in practice. In this paper, we examine the association between religiosity, science knowledge and attitudes to medical genetics amongst the British public. In particular, we test the hypothesis that religion acts as a 'perceptual filter' through which citizens acquire and use scientific knowledge in the formation of attitudes towards medical genetics in various ways.
Allum N; Sibley E; Sturgis P; Stoneman P
Full Text Available Background and Design: This study evaluates the patients’ knowledge, opinions and attitudes about psoriasis.Materials and Methods: A total of 111 patients over the age of 18, clinically and histopathologically diagnosed with chronic plaque-type psoriasis were included in the study. Patients who have psychiatric illness and inadequate intelligence were excluded. A questionnaire including items on knowledge, opinions and attitudes on psoriasis were filled out by the patients and the results were analyzed statistically.Results: One hundred-eleven (45 female, 66 male) patients were included in our study. 6.3% of patients did not know the diagnosis of their disease. 68.5% of patients thought that psoriasis was a contagious disease while18% thought that psoriasis was a hereditary condition. 88.3% of patients declined that they were informed about the disease by the doctor. 62.2% of patients believed that they had adequate information about psoriasis. 51.4% of patients believed that doctors gave them enough information about psoriasis. 44.1% of patients knew that psoriasis was aggravated by stress while 38.7% did not know any of the aggravating factors of psoriasis. 70.3% of patients believed that psoriasis would spread if not treated. Patients mostly (98.2%) had idea about topical treatment options. 82% of patients were afraid of having psoriasis on their face. 5.4% of patients were uncomfortable with the idea of their partners’ having psoriasis. 72.1%, 88.3%, 72.1% of patients reported no negative effect of psoriasis on their relations with friends, family members, work or school life, respectivelyDiscussion: Our results showed that psoriasis patients do not have adequate knowledge about the disease. We think that dermatologists should pay more attention to inform and raise awareness of patie
Asl? Küçükünal; ?lknur K?vanç Altunay; Ezgi Akta?; Gül?en Tükenmez Demirci
|The purpose of this study was to investigate school psychologists' attitudes toward lesbians and gay males. Aspects of school psychologists' knowledge, beliefs, current practices, and levels of preparedness related to issues of sexual orientation were also explored. A sample of 288 school psychologists (215 females and 73 males, mean age = 44…
Savage, Todd A.; Prout, H. Thompson; Chard, Kathleen M.
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension is an important public health problem in Colombia. One of the principal reasons for the poor effectiveness of interventions is the lack of knowledge and understanding of beliefs about this disease and its treatment. OBJECTIVE: Profiles were determined for the atitudes, knowledge and beliefs of patients about antihypertensive drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a sample of 202 hypertensive patients from a private clinical center in Bogotá, Colombia, the beliefs, knowledge and attitudes about antihypertensive treatment was determined by the use of Morisky-Green test, and Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire. RESULTS: Of these patients, 48% forgot to take the prescribed medication occasionally, 68% believed that if doctors had more time with patients, they will prescribe fewer medicines, and 40% did not know what physiological systems can be damaged by hypertension. CONCLUSION: This study reinforces the necessity of improving the communication strategies of health professionals in the support of a positive clinician-patient relationship.
HIV/AIDS continues to grow exponentially in sub-Saharan Africa. Early HIV/AIDS care is essential for early interventions to increase quality of life and reduce mortality. The objectives of the study were: (1) to determine the relationship among attitudes, spiritual beliefs, cultural beliefs, social beliefs and knowledge on health-seeking behaviors (HSB) of Gambian adults living with HIV/AIDS; and (2) to provide preliminary data on psychometric characteristics of the newly developed HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs Patient Questionnaire. The descriptive design included 93 adults aged 21 to 65 years. Correlation and hierarchical regression analyses were used. Bivariate analyses demonstrated significant relationships between all five variables and HSB at p =.03. Additionally, 11% of the variance in HSB was explained by the combined contribution of the five variables. Attitudes significantly contributed to the variance, F(1, 90) =4.865; p =.03; spiritual beliefs, though not statistically significant, had clinical significance. The unique contributions of this study are the separation of the variable attitudes from beliefs and knowledge, which independently explained HSB. Spiritual beliefs and attitudes are critical in developing appropriate HIV/AIDS interventions. Furthermore, the HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs Patient Questionnaire provides a valid means for measuring attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of HIV/AIDS for use in future research.
Full Text Available This paper reports data from a survey conducted with 260 Bahamian adolescents assessing their knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about AIDS. The results revealed that these adolescents have a high level of knowledge about AIDS. In fact, these adolescents are as knowledgeable about AIDS as adolescents in their normed group, which consisted of low-income African American adolescents. Further, neither males nor females differed in their perceptions about their risk for getting AIDS and in their perceptions about the effectiveness of condoms in preventing the spread of AIDS. Implications for the development of AIDS prevention programmes for Bahamian adolescents are discussed.
Rodgers, Antoinette Y.; Rolle, Carolyn
Full Text Available Abstract Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted between January and July of 2006 in the Chicago area with parents of children with food allergy (3 groups), physicians (3 groups), and the general public (2 groups). A constant comparative method was used to identify the emerging themes which were then grouped into key domains of food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Results Parents of children with food allergy had solid fundamental knowledge but had concerns about primary care physicians' knowledge of food allergy, diagnostic approaches, and treatment practices. The considerable impact of children's food allergies on familial quality of life was articulated. Physicians had good basic knowledge of food allergy but differed in their approach to diagnosis and advice about starting solids and breastfeeding. The general public had wide variation in knowledge about food allergy with many misconceptions of key concepts related to prevalence, definition, and triggers of food allergy. Conclusion Appreciable food allergy knowledge gaps exist, especially among physicians and the general public. The quality of life for children with food allergy and their families is significantly affected.
Gupta Ruchi S; Kim Jennifer S; Barnathan Julia A; Amsden Laura B; Tummala Lakshmi S; Holl Jane L
BACKGROUND: The Summit of Independent European Vaccination Experts (SIEVE) recommended in 2007 that efforts be made to improve healthcare workers' knowledge and beliefs about vaccines, and their attitudes towards them, to increase vaccination coverage. The aim of the study was to compile and analyze the areas of disagreement in the existing evidence about the relationship between healthcare workers' knowledge, beliefs and attitudes about vaccines and their intentions to vaccinate the populations they serve. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search in four electronic databases for studies published in any of seven different languages between February 1998 and June 2009. We included studies conducted in developed countries that used statistical methods to relate or associate the variables included in our research question. Two independent reviewers verified that the studies met the inclusion criteria, assessed the quality of the studies and extracted their relevant characteristics. The data were descriptively analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 2354 references identified in the initial search, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. The diversity in the study designs and in the methods used to measure the variables made it impossible to integrate the results, and each study had to be assessed individually. All the studies found an association in the direction postulated by the SIEVE experts: among healthcare workers, higher awareness, beliefs that are more aligned with scientific evidence and more favorable attitudes toward vaccination were associated with greater intentions to vaccinate. All the studies included were cross-sectional; thus, no causal relationship between the variables was established. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that interventions aimed at improving healthcare workers' knowledge, beliefs and attitudes about vaccines should be encouraged, and their impact on vaccination coverage should be assessed.
Herzog R; Álvarez-Pasquin MJ; Díaz C; Del Barrio JL; Estrada JM; Gil Á
Full Text Available The social work profession has been undergoing a period of change and has been encouraged to prove the effectiveness of clinical interventions by scientific evidence. This study was therefore designed to describe the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of a sample of Romanian social work professionals to evidence-based practice (EBP). 62 social workers were required to complete a 37-item closed ended questionnaire, which collected information on demographic data, practice settings, knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding EBP. Respondents agreed that the use of EBP was necessary and that the quality of patient care was better when evidence was used, with the younger physiotherapists at the fore front. About 50% of the respondents had access to online information; the majority of these respondents only had time to access the internet more at home rather than at work place. The primary barrier to implementing EBP was insufficient time. The respondents had a positive attitude towards EBP and were interested in improving the skills necessary to implement EBP. There was a need to increase the use of EBP in clinical practice and decision making among social workers. The respondents who were recently licensed and those with post-graduate education expressed more positive attitudes toward EBP than those who were not. Results also point out the issue of appreciative inquiry (AI) as a key-component in successful implementation of EBP in social work clinical settings.
Mihai-Bogdan IOVU; Patricia RUNCAN
This study aimed to build a baseline profile of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of Iraqis toward HIV/AIDS. Questionnaire interviews were conducted in 2006 with 335 people attending HIV testing centres in Baghdad. Most respondents (82.7%) had heard about AIDS, mainly from the mass media (71.0%), and 91.9% knew that AIDS is an infectious disease, most commonly via sexual relationships (74.9%). There was no association between knowledge level and acceptance of caring for an HIV-positive relative or marrying an HIV-positive partner, but there was a significant association between low knowledge level and negative attitudes towards sharing food, sitting on the bus and working at the same place with an HIV-positive individual.
Hayyawi AH; Al-Marayaty AY; Salman WS; Hamed W
BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccination is routinely offered to health care workers in the U.K. to prevent nosocomial spread to patients and illness among health care workers. Despite its importance uptake has been low in the U.K. AIMS: To describe the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of health care workers towards influenza vaccination offered as part of occupational health and to understand their relative importance in promoting uptake of influenza vaccine. We also sought to make comparisons with other vaccines more readily accepted as part of occupational health. METHODS: An online survey was distributed by e-mail to health care workers in the South Central Strategic Health Authority. The questionnaire included the following: demographic characteristics; vaccination status; and knowledge, attitudes and behaviour towards influenza, MMR and hepatitis B vaccination. We used logistic regression to identify the independent predictors of receipt of influenza vaccine. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 998 health care workers representing just over 1% of health care workers in the region. Of those, 69% thought that overall benefits of influenza vaccination were greater than the risks and inconvenience (versus 92% for hepatitis B and 86% for MMR). The following predicted receipt of influenza vaccine: belief that influenza poses a risk to one's own health (OR 3.74; 95% CI 2.45-5.71); belief that influenza vaccine is harmful (OR 0.25; 95% CI 0.16-0.37); and belief that influenza vaccine will protect patients (OR 2.96; 95% CI 1.89-4.62). CONCLUSIONS: Staff knowledge, attitudes and beliefs concerning influenza and its vaccine are an important predictor of uptake and should be a target for campaigns to promote uptake.
Mytton OT; O'Moore EM; Sparkes T; Baxi R; Abid M
This study investigated the association of religiosity with sexuality and AIDS knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices of 1,817 black first-year students in South Africa. On a structured questionnaire, consenting students rated themselves on scales of religiosity, attitudes toward homosexuality, intrafamilial communication about contraception, AIDS attitudes, and AIDS knowledge. Negative attitudes toward homosexuality were significantly associated with negative attitudes towards AIDS, high knowledge of AIDS, and high religiosity. Religious commitment diminished propensity to engage in sexual intercourse and delayed age for onset of sexual intercourse.
Nicholas L; Durrheim K
[en] Blood donation and transfusion are remarkably safe medical procedures. However, attitudes, beliefs and level of knowledge associated with blood donation and transfusion may affect such procedures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the attitude, belief and knowledge about blood donation and transfusion in Saudi Population. The present study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University Hospitals, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A well structured Arabic questionnaire was used to asses the attitude, belief and knowledge regarding blood donation and transfusion. The sample consisted of 335 male (55%) and 274 female (45%); the majority of the sample (65.84%) were non-donors. These non-donors (78.98%) were between the ages of 15-30 years. The 88.5% of the people who participated in the study believed that blood donation was not harmful, 20% of them stated that they would refuse blood transfusion even if they were in need because of the risk of acquiring infectious disease. 84.5% preferred direct donation, (49%) of the sample stated that they would accept blood donation only from relatives, 55.1% believed that blood transfusion was safe. However, 11.6% claimed to have acquired infectious disease after blood transfusion, 58% female in addition to 11.34% male preferred to receive blood from female donor and 69.5% did not know if the blood banks were in need of blood or not and 17.4% believed that all surgical procedures require blood transfusion. Different fears, mistrust in hospital and lack of information may serve as an important issue to be addressed when developing donors recruitment programs or campaigns to clear misconceptions about blood donation. In addition, public should know that numerous screening measures are implemented to ensure that blood donation is safe for the donor and that transfusion of the donated blood is safe for the recipient. (author)
With growing numbers of reported HIV cases in The People's Republic of China, PRC health officials face the same information dissemination problems that have plagued other nations for a decade. The purpose of this study was to begin to understand Chinese college students' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about HIV/AIDS as well as the cultural barriers which may prevent the acceptance of AIDS public service efforts. Focus group interviews were conducted with 76 college students at Xiamen University, PRC. Interviews revealed that many inaccurate beliefs exist regarding the AIDS disease and its modes of transmission. While many of the respondents reported that fate was the determining factor in trans mission of HIV, most felt distanced--physically, morally and culturally--from those at risk.
Treise D; Walsh-Childers K; Dai S; Swain KA
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating illness with particular difficulties for healthcare providers because there are no diagnostic signs or laboratory tests and because management aims to merely improve symptoms. Further complicating management, healthcare providers' awareness concerning CFS has not been rigorously assessed. The present study aimed to ascertain United States (U.S.) healthcare providers' awareness of CFS and to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KAB) related to diagnosis and management of the illness. This information forms the foundation for developing CFS educational strategies. Methods We combined convenience and probability samples to measure CFS KAB among healthcare providers. In the convenience sample, 1,255 healthcare providers (81% response rate) from 13 professional conferences completed a 12-item form. Descriptive statistics were reported for 9 KAB item responses and chi-square tests were performed for examining their association with giving a diagnosis of CFS. We used principal component analysis to construct multidimensional subscales and perform a general linear model to examine factors associated with subscales. The probability sample involved data on 15 CFS-specific questions from 2006 and 2007 DocStyles web-based panel surveys collected from 2,750 physicians (average response rate 55%). We calculated descriptive and chi-square statistics. The significance was set at two-tailed with the alpha level of 0.05. Results Healthcare providers in both samples were aware of CFS and exhibited a high level of knowledge. Overall, 96% of respondents in the DocStyles (probability) sample had heard about CFS. Healthcare providers in the conference (convenience) sample demonstrated good KAB scores; physicians' scores were highest on KAB scales and lowest in perception. Nurses' scores were lowest in knowledge. More than 40% of physicians reported ever giving a CFS diagnosis and in the DocStyles (probability) sample more than 80% of physicians correctly identified CFS symptoms. Physicians reported professional journals, the Internet, and continuing education programs as the top 3 sources from which they obtain CFS information. Conclusions Findings from these combined samples fill a gap in the evidence-base of U.S. healthcare providers' and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs concerning CFS. Importantly, respondents in both samples expressed similar knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and perceptions. Awareness was high and negative attitudes were low. The primary areas for future education should address diagnosis and management of CFS and should be delivered through those venues providers indicated they primarily use. Data from this study provide a benchmark for evaluation the success of these future efforts.
Brimmer Dana J; Fridinger Frederick; Lin Jin-Mann S; Reeves William C
This study was conducted on prison inmates in Sindh to determine whether HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitudes and beliefs can predict their practices which risk HIV infection. A pre-designed questionnaire was administered in this cross-sectional study to collect the data on HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, practices and demographic variables in a systematic sample of 3,395 prison inmates during July 1994. The data on responses of inmates to HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs were analyzed and a clear interpretable factor structure emerged for each set of questions labeled as knowledge, attitude and beliefs. Similarly based on responses of inmates to practice questions, three factors emerged and were labeled as heterosexuality, homosexuality and drugs. The standardized factor scores of inmates for each of these six factors were computed and used in further analyses. Multiple linear regression analyses were carried out separately using heterosexuality, homosexuality and drugs factors score as dependent variables to identify if any of the independent variables (demographic variables, knowledge beliefs and attitude) predict these practice factors. The model for heterosexuality explained 23% of the variance and included HIV/AIDS related knowledge, beliefs, age, ethnicity and marital status and duration of imprisonment (F = 84.33, p < 0.001; R2= 23.0). The predictors in the model for homosexuality together explained 10% of the variance and included significant contribution by belief, martial status, ethnicity, education, age and duration of imprisonment (F = 24.76, p < 0.001; R2= 0.10). The model for drugs had significant contributions from HIV/AIDS related beliefs, marital status and ethnicity (F = 20.10, p < 0.001; R2= 0.03). Implications of prevention program based on these results are considered.
Akhtar S; Luby SP; Rahbar MH; Azam I
Doping in sport is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied mainly from a biomedical point of view, even though psychosocial approaches are also key factors in the fight against doping. This phenomenon has evolved greatly in recent years, and greater understanding of it is essential for developing efficient prevention programmes. In the psychosocial approach, attitudes are considered an index of doping behaviour, relating the use of banned substances to greater leniency towards doping. The aim of this review is to gather and critically analyse the most recent publications describing elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport, to better understand the foundations provided by the previous work, and to help develop practical strategies to efficiently combat doping. For this purpose, we performed a literature search using combinations of the terms "doping", "sport", "elite athletes", "attitudes", "beliefs", "knowledge", "drugs", and "performance-enhancing substances" (PES). A total of 33 studies were subjected to comprehensive assessment using articles published between 2000 and 2011. All of the reports focused on elite athletes and described their attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport. The initial reasons given for using banned substances included achievement of athletic success by improving performance, financial gain, improving recovery and prevention of nutritional deficiencies, as well as the idea that others use them, or the "false consensus effect". Although most athletes acknowledge that doping is cheating, unhealthy and risky because of sanctions, its effectiveness is also widely recognized. There is a general belief about the inefficacy of anti-doping programmes, and athletes criticise the way tests are carried out. Most athletes consider the severity of punishment is appropriate or not severe enough. There are some differences between sports, as team-based sports and sports requiring motor skills could be less influenced by doping practices than individual self-paced sports. However, anti-doping controls are less exhaustive in team sports. The use of banned substance also differs according to the demand of the specific sport. Coaches appear to be the main influence and source of information for athletes, whereas doctors and other specialists do not seem to act as principal advisors. Athletes are becoming increasingly familiar with anti-doping rules, but there is still a lack of knowledge that should be remedied using appropriate educational programmes. There is also a lack of information on dietary supplements and the side effects of PES. Therefore, information and prevention are necessary, and should cater to the athletes and associated stakeholders. This will allow us to establish and maintain correct attitudes towards doping. Psychosocial programmes must be carefully planned and developed, and should include middle- to long-term objectives (e.g. changing attitudes towards doping and the doping culture). Some institutions have developed or started prevention or educational programmes without the necessary resources, while the majority of the budget is spent on anti-doping testing. Controls are obviously needed, as well as more efficient educational strategies. Therefore, we encourage sporting institutions to invest in educational programmes aimed at discouraging the use of banned substances. Event organizers and sport federations should work together to adapt the rules of each competition to disincentivize dopers. Current research methods are weak, especially questionnaires. A combination of qualitative and quantitative measurements are recommended, using interviews, questionnaires and, ideally, biomedical tests. Studies should also examine possible geographical and cultural differences in attitudes towards doping.
Morente-Sánchez J; Zabala M
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the knowledge, attitude and beliefs about safe motherhood practices amongst pregnant women residing in the urban slum of the city of Jaipur, India.The study recruited 100 pregnant women from one of the urban slums of a selected district. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered on the selected sample. Overall, the results show low levels of awareness among rural pregnant women. Two major axes of investigation were used - age and education. In both instances, no significant differences for knowledge levels was found amongst pregnant women.The findings indicate that appropriate communication strategies should be designed and implemented amongst the most vulnerable section of society, especially through health education campaigns, in order to have a constructive outcome in the near future.
Manju Sharma; Sudhanshu Sharma
A knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices (KABP) survey was performed among Barbadian secondary schoolchildren 11-16 years old in January 1990. The survey sought to assess the children's knowledge of AIDS and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission; their attitudes toward people with HIV/AIDS; their sexual practices; and changes needed in education programs seeking to reduce childhood HIV transmission. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used. The survey sample was derived by selecting every eleventh student on the rosters of all the secondary schools in Barbados. All of the survey respondents completed the questionnaire on the same day, having been assembled examination-style for that purpose. The results showed high levels of correct knowledge about the principal routes of HIV transmission. However, a considerable proportion of the respondents harbored incorrect beliefs regarding mosquito transmission and dangers to blood donors, and many showed uncertainty or incorrect knowledge regarding possible HIV transmission by biting, spitting, or use of public toilets. About a third of the children (51.4% of the boys and 18.7% of the girls) said they had experienced sexual intercourse, though only 20% reported being sexually active in the year preceding the survey. Three-quarters of the sexually experienced group said they knew how to use condoms, but only a third said there was any time when they had used protection during sexual intercourse. Overall, the results indicate that education efforts prior to the survey had been effective, but that reinforcement of such efforts as well as their extension into the primary schools is warranted. Further research directed at helping these efforts to encourage more meaningful changes in sexual behavior is also needed.
Walrond E; Jones F; Hoyos M; Souder M; Ellis H; Roach T
BACKGROUND: To reduce mortality and morbidity associated with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), individuals who experience ACS symptoms should seek treatment promptly. However, for this to be possible, they must adopt appropriate attitudes and beliefs about ACS symptoms and have the prerequisite knowledge to respond to those symptoms. AIM: This paper details the results of a cross-sectional Irish study that measured knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about ACS in patients diagnosed with ACS. METHODS: A total of 1947 patients were enrolled in the study. Recruitment took place across five academic teaching hospitals in Dublin, Ireland. Knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about ACS were measured using the ACS Response Index questionnaire. RESULTS: Almost half the patients (n=49.5%) demonstrated high knowledge levels (i.e. >70% of correct answers) about ACS symptoms. The majority recognized chest pain/pressure (98.9%) and left arm pain (90.2%) as symptoms. Many failed to associate jaw pain, heartburn and/or indigestion (44.7%), nausea and vomiting (47.6%), and neck pain (42.5%) with a heart attack. Higher knowledge levels were independently associated with higher levels of education (p=0.007), a history of angina (p=0.001), and attitudes (p=<0.001) and beliefs (p=<0.001) that are consistent with positively decisive responses to ACS symptoms. CONCLUSION: Despite having experienced an ACS event, overall knowledge levels were poor. Higher knowledge levels were associated with better attitudes and beliefs, indicating the inextricable relationship between all three components. Educational programmes should incorporate all three components so that prompt behaviour can be initiated when symptoms arise.
O'Brien F; O'Donnell S; McKee G; Mooney M; Moser D
The increasing incidence of breast cancer in the Arab world, coupled with a relatively early age of onset, raises concern for the presence of hereditary risk factors in this population. However, due to potential structural and cultural barriers, Arab Americans make up the smallest percentage of individuals tested for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome in the United States. The objectives of this qualitative pilot focus group of 13 Arab-American women were to explore attitudes, knowledge and beliefs regarding hereditary breast cancer in the Arab-American community in metropolitan Detroit, identify barriers that would prevent women from seeking hereditary cancer screening/testing and determine who women would talk to about inherited cancer. Results indicated that cultural beliefs and personal experiences with cancer influenced the women's perspectives on hereditary cancer risk. A high level of secrecy about cancer within Arab-American families was present, which may prevent accurate risk assessment and referral for genetic services. Other identified barriers that may influence hereditary risk assessment included stigma, fears and misconceptions of cancer. While these barriers were present, participants also expressed a strong need for education and tailored cancer risk information for their community.
Mellon S; Gauthier J; Cichon M; Hammad A; Simon MS
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nigeria is one of the major African countries in which incidences of polio infection persist in spite of several eradication efforts. The preponderance of paralytic poliomyelitis particularly in the northern part of Nigeria raises the question as to whether parents of children affected with polio know how polio is contracted and spread, whether having a disabled child affects the parents’ attitude towards these children, and what they believe about poliomyelitis in view of their socio-cultural and belief system in the sub-region. Zamfara State, in the north-west of Nigeria is one of the endemic areas where resistance to the global campaign on polio eradication was very high. Therefore this study was conducted to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents/primary caregivers of children affected with paralytic poliomyelitis in Zamfara State. Methods This study is a cross-sectional survey in which the multistage probability sampling technique was used to randomly select two local government areas in Zamfara State where consenting parents/primary caregivers of children with paralytic poliomyelitis were purposively selected. The knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents were assessed with the aid of a 4-part 52-item structured researcher administered questionnaire and the data obtained were analyzed. Results Two hundred and seventeen parents/primary caregivers participated in the study. One hundred and forty-two, (65.4%) reported good, 51 (23.8%) reported fair, while 24 (11%) of participants reported poor knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis. More respondents 120 (55.3%) showed a positive attitude towards children with paralytic poliomyelitis. Younger age (P=0.016) and paid employment (P=0.020) were positively associated with good knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis. Female gender (P=0.020), higher educational level (P=0.015), being employed (P=0.010) and having from middle to high household income (P=0.016) were positively associated with a positive attitude toward children with paralytic poliomyelitis. Most respondents showed a reasonable belief over the cause of their children’s condition rather than the erroneous traditional belief that paralytic poliomyelitis is caused by spirit forces. Conclusions It is of great concern that the good knowledge, positive attitude and reasonable belief by parents/primary caregivers about paralytic poliomyelitis observed in this study did not play a prominent role in preventing susceptibility of children in north-west Nigeria to paralytic poliomyelitis. It is imperative that Nigerian policy makers should device more strategic measures toward the prevention of paralytic poliomyelitis in this sub region.
Ogwumike Omoyemi O; Kaka Bashir; Adeniyi Ade F
A representative sample of 611 French pediatricians was interviewed on their knowledge, attitudes, beliefs towards and practices regarding childhood obesity through a 39-item Likert format questionnaire. A vast majority of the respondents regarded obesity as an illness (86.4%), 70.2% were aware that without any treatment an obese child has a high risk to remain obese in adulthood, 84% reported that managing obesity is part of their responsibility in the routine practice and 89.3% affirmed to systematically inform parents of obese children on health risks associated with obesity. At the same time, 82.4% were convinced that managing obesity is bound to fail and only 46.5% that it is professionally gratifying. However, doctors who followed a vocational training dedicated to obesity felt themselves more efficient in managing childhood obesity (p<0.01), those who knew the national recommendations were also less likely to report that the management of childhood obesity leads to a failure (p<0.05). Probably one of the main result of our study concerns doctors' perception of the relative impact of the different etiologic factors of obesity. Beside sedentary life, poor eating behavior, lack of parental concern and heredity which are cited by more than three-fourth of the pediatricians, an economic situation more and more insecure and a food industry increasingly more powerful are reported for the first time by doctors themselves, respectively by 59.9% and 60.8% of them, to kill the goodwill of health professionals. These findings reinforce the idea that the solution to the obesity problem does not lie just within the doctor's office and stress the need for prompt regulatory actions to curb obesity.
Franc C; Van Gerwen M; Le Vaillant M; Rosman S; Pelletier-Fleury N
The purposes of this descriptive study were to (1) describe nutrition knowledge, attitudes, beliefs (KAB), and self-efficacy among low-income African American and Hispanic women; (2) identify the associations these variables have on diet quality and weight status; (3) identify barriers to healthy eating. Data from three separate studies were combined and analyzed. The total sample included African Americans (N = 92) and Hispanics (N = 272). Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were used to identify associations between KAB and body mass index (BMI) and diet quality. The majority of African Americans had good knowledge in nutrition while Hispanics had fair knowledge. Attitudes toward eating a healthy diet were significantly associated with high fiber intake among African Americans and low fat consumption among Hispanics. A computed KAB score showed no significant relation to individuals' weight status or diet quality. However, attitudes and beliefs about healthy foods strongly correlated with participants' weight or diet consumption among Hispanics. The most common barrier to consuming a healthy diet reported by both groups was the cost of healthy foods. It is therefore recommended to address these variables when addressing obesity and poor dietary intake among low-income minority groups.
Acheampong I; Haldeman L
Full Text Available This study examines demographic, cognitive and behavioral factors that predict pediatric dog-bite injury risk in rural China. A total of 1,537 children (grades 4–6) in rural regions of Anhui, Hebei and Zhejiang Provinces, China completed self-report questionnaires assessing beliefs about and behaviors with dogs. The results showed that almost 30% of children reported a history of dog bites. Children answered 56% of dog-safety knowledge items correctly. Regressions revealed both demographic and cognitive/behavioral factors predicted children’s risky interactions with dogs and dog-bite history. Boys behaved more riskily with dogs and were more frequently bitten. Older children reported greater risks with dogs and more bites. With demographics controlled, attitudes/beliefs of invulnerability, exposure frequency, and dog ownership predicted children’s self-reported risky practice with dogs. Attitudes/beliefs of invulnerability, dog exposure, and dog ownership predicted dog bites. In conclusion, both demographic and cognitive/behavioral factors influenced rural Chinese children’s dog-bite injury risk. Theory-based, empirically-supported intervention programs might reduce dog-bite injuries in rural China.
Jiabin Shen; Shaohua Li; Huiyun Xiang; Shulan Pang; Guozhang Xu; David C. Schwebel
Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey was done among students of four senior secondary schools including two boys and two girls schools of rural Delhi to know the knowledge, attitude, belief and practices regarding AIDS. A large majority (83.0%) of students though had heard about AIDS, yet majority of them did not know the possible methods for prevention of AIDS. There were only 27.1% girls who knew about regular condom usage. Half of them had permissible attitude for pre-maritial sex, while sexual activity was observed in one-fourth students. Students were less reluctant to discuss about AIDS than sex, and teachers were preferred as compared to parents in this regard. School is an ideal setting to educate adolescents regarding HIV/AIDS transmission and safer sex behaviour.
Sharma A; Sehgal V
This study examined pre-service mathematics teachers' knowledge of history of mathematics and their attitudes and beliefs towards using history of mathematics in mathematics education based on year level in teacher education program and gender. The sample included 1,593 freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior pre-service middle school (grades 4-8) mathematics teachers from nine universities in Turkey. Data were collected through Knowledge of History of Mathematics Test and Attitudes and Beliefs towards the Use of History of Mathematics in Mathematics Education Questionnaire. Results indicate that pre-service teachers have moderate knowledge of history of mathematics and positive attitudes and beliefs towards using history of mathematics. Their knowledge scores increase as the year level in teacher education program advanced. Males' knowledge scores are significantly higher than females' scores in the first 2 years. This situation reverses in the last 2 years, but it is not statistically significant. Pre-service teachers have more positive attitudes and availing beliefs towards using history of mathematics as they progress in their teacher education program. Females have greater attitudes and beliefs mean scores than males in each of the years. The results indicate that the teacher education program may have enhanced the pre-service teachers' knowledge of history of mathematics by related courses. However, the moderate knowledge scores indicate that there is a need for revision of these courses. The pre-service teachers' positive attitudes and beliefs towards using history of mathematics stress the importance of teacher education program in order to prepare them for implementing this alternative strategy in the future.
Alpaslan, Mustafa; I??ksal, Mine; Haser, Çi?dem
Public knowledge and beliefs about injury prevention are currently poorly understood. A total of 1030 residents in the State of Queensland, Australia, responded to questions about injury prevention in or around the home, on the roads, in or on the water, at work, deliberate injury and responsibility for preventing deliberate injury allowing for comparison with reported injury prevalence data. Overall, the youngest members of society were identified as being the most vulnerable to deliberate injury with young adults accounting for 59% of responses aligning with reported data. However, younger adults failed to indicate an awareness of their own vulnerability to deliberate injury in alcohol environments even though 61% of older respondents were aware of this trend. Older respondents were the least inclined to agree that they could make a difference to their own safety in or around the home but were more inclined to agree that they could make a difference to their own safety at work. The results are discussed with a view to using improved awareness of public beliefs about injury to identify barriers to the uptake of injury prevention strategies (e.g. low perceived injury risk) as well as areas where injury prevention strategies may receive public support. PMID:21491289
Titchener, K; Haworth, N; Lennon, A
Public knowledge and beliefs about injury prevention are currently poorly understood. A total of 1030 residents in the State of Queensland, Australia, responded to questions about injury prevention in or around the home, on the roads, in or on the water, at work, deliberate injury and responsibility for preventing deliberate injury allowing for comparison with reported injury prevalence data. Overall, the youngest members of society were identified as being the most vulnerable to deliberate injury with young adults accounting for 59% of responses aligning with reported data. However, younger adults failed to indicate an awareness of their own vulnerability to deliberate injury in alcohol environments even though 61% of older respondents were aware of this trend. Older respondents were the least inclined to agree that they could make a difference to their own safety in or around the home but were more inclined to agree that they could make a difference to their own safety at work. The results are discussed with a view to using improved awareness of public beliefs about injury to identify barriers to the uptake of injury prevention strategies (e.g. low perceived injury risk) as well as areas where injury prevention strategies may receive public support.
Titchener K; Haworth N; Lennon A
BACKGROUND: Little research has been conducted to investigate students' attitudes, knowledge and beliefs regarding lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender parents seeking health care for their children. DESIGN: Descriptive, comparative study. Validated scales were used to assess students' attitudes, knowledge and beliefs and gay affirmative practice. Three open ended questions assessed beliefs regarding lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender parents accessing health care for their children. METHOD: Nursing and medical students completed questionnaires about attitudes to homosexuality. Associations between variables were assessed using chi-square tests of independence, and differences between nursing and medical student groups were assessed using the Mann-Whitney U-test or the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance test. Responses to the open ended questions were evaluated, coded and described. RESULTS: Knowledge and attitudes about homosexuality were significantly associated with students' race, political voting behaviour, religious beliefs and having a friend who is openly lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender. CONCLUSIONS: It is important to develop strategies to address the existence of prejudicial attitudes among student health professionals and prevent discriminatory practices towards lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender parents when seeking health care for their children. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Educators can develop programs that provide students with knowledge and skills to ensure lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender families receive effective health care when they access services for their children.
Chapman R; Watkins R; Zappia T; Nicol P; Shields L
Full Text Available Background: Physiotherapists play an inherent role in the multidisciplinary palliative care team. Existing knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences influence their team participation in palliative care. Aims: The objective of this study was to assess the changes in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists who attended a palliative care training program. Settings and Design: Preliminary quasi-experimental study design, conducted at an academic institution. Materials and Methods: Fifty-two student physiotherapists of either gender (12 male, 40 female) of age (20.51±1.78 years) who attended a palliative care training program which comprised lectures and case examples of six-hours duration participated in this study. The study was performed after getting institutional approval and obtaining participants? written informed consent. The lecture content comprised WHO definition of palliative care, spiritual aspects of life, death and healing, principles, levels and models of palliative care, and role of physiotherapists in a palliative care team. The physical therapy in palliative care-knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences scale (PTiPC-KABE Scale)- modified from palliative care attitudes scale were used for assessing the participants before and after the program. Statistical Analysis: Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test at 95% confidence interval using SPSS 11.5 for Windows. Results: Statistically significant differences (PConclusions: The focus-group training program produced a significant positive change about palliative care in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences among student physiotherapists.
Kumar Senthil; Jim Anand; Sisodia Vaishali
Full Text Available Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To examine smoking prevalence, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours/beliefs among Health Professional School students according to the Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS) approach. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Catania University Medical Schools. The GHPSS questionnaires were self-administered. Logistic regression model was performed. The level of significance was p (more) Prevalence of current smokers was 38.2%. 94.3% of the total sample believe that health professionals should receive specific training to quit smoking, but only 21.3% of the sample received it during the study courses. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high prevalence of smokers among health professionals and their key role both as advisers and behavioral models, our results highlight the importance of focusing attention on smoking cessation training addressed to them.
Ferrante, Margherita; Saulle, Rosella; Ledda, Caterina; Pappalardo, Roberto; Fallico, Roberto; La Torre, Giuseppe; Fiore, Maria
BACKGROUND: and context. Uncontrolled and exponentially increasing population is one of the biggest obstacles in the socioeconomic progress and prosperity of a nation. AIMS: and objectives. The present study was undertaken to evaluate contraceptive practices among eligible couples living in the rural areas of Punjab and their perception, knowledge, attitude, and behavior toward various family planning methods. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional descriptive study was done by the interview method to evaluate the various individual determinants toward contraceptive practices among 1123 married women and their husbands aged between 15 and 49 years. Eligible couples (5477) from in and around the hospital were registered at the rural health center of our institute. Statistical analysis was carried out using nonparametric tests such as percentand ?(2) test. RESULTS: . Contraceptive prevalence was found to be 78.1% and the most commonly used method was surgical sterilization (42.3%). Among the spacing methods, condoms, oral contraceptive pills, and intrauterine contraceptive devices (Cu-T) were used by 36.4%, 7.4%, and 5.5% of the couples, respectively while traditional methods were preferred by 8.3% of the women. Weakness, menstrual dis infertility, weight gain, etc were few of the side effects that were perceived by women as the main hurdle in the use of contraceptives. Irrespective of the method of contraception used, 33.3% of the women reported unwanted pregnancy, most commonly among the users of condoms (79.1%). Sixpercent of the women were not satisfied with the gender composition of their family and desired a male child. CONCLUSIONS: . Increased use of modern contraceptives requires community-wide and multifaceted interventions that aim at countering negative perceptions about modern methods.
Bajwa SK; Bajwa SJ; Ghai GK; Singh K; Singh N
As a result of sub-optimal immunization levels, measles has re-emerged in the EU since 2008 (30 567 cases in 2011), and nearly half of the cases reported are in France. Our objectives were to assess knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices of French general practitioners (GPs) towards measles and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination. In 2012, we surveyed 329 GPs in southeastern France. Forty-five percent reported that they saw patients with measles in 2011. They considered the risk of complications low among 2-5-year-old children and young adults without co-morbidity. Twenty percent knew that two MMR doses are 99% effective in preventing measles. Nearly all (95%) GPs stated that they verified the MMR status for patients <30 years old in 2011 (42% systematically, 37% often, 15% sometimes). Seventy-nine percent reported proposing MMR vaccination to non-immune relatives in contact with a patient with measles. Participation in continuing medical education courses and considering measles to be a serious disease were independently associated with such post-exposure vaccination. GPs considered the following were potential barriers to the second dose of MMR (MMR2): parents/patients' belief that measles is harmless (80%), parents/patients' fear of the vaccine's side effects (50%), difficulty in documenting vaccination (48%) and lack of reminders for MMR2 (16%). Finally, some GPs also had misconceptions about the severity of measles (13%) and the usefulness of MMR2 (12%), which also served as barriers. In conclusion, it is essential to raise GPs' awareness of this disease and fill any gaps in their knowledge, by providing them with evidence-based information on measles and MMR vaccination.
Pulcini C; Massin S; Launay O; Verger P
Full Text Available Introduction: Considering the significance of mental health as an inseparable part of human health, and in view of its high prevalence and severe long disabling effect, and the role that people's knowledge and belief have in utilizing mental health services, this research was performed with the purpose of studying the effects of mental health education on the awareness, belief and attitude of high school girl students at pre-university phase, in the year 2001-2002 in Tehran. Methods:In this quasi-experimental study, Tehran's 7Th educational district was selected for the study. With the application of randomized cluster sampling method, 150 high school girl students from two pre-University phases were chosen. Samples were evaluated at two stages, before the implementation of the educational program and after, by using a questionnaire including the awareness level of mental problems (anxiety, depression), their attitude towards mental problems, self-concept and existing variables. The results were analyzed, using paired T test, one way variance analysis and Schaffer test. Findings: Results of paired T-test between the mean score of knowledge, components of health belief model and self concept scores of students indicated significant difference before and after educational program implemented (P<0.0005). Results: Mental health education has a positive effect on knowledge, beliefs, attitude and self-concept of people. This study is considered to be a beginning to more future research in this field
M Erfani Khanghahi; F Shafiei; R Tavakoli
An Arabic version of the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes Inventory [POSHA-E; St Louis, K. O. (2005), a global instrument to measure public attitudes about stuttering. ("The ASHA Leader," 22, 2-13)] was administered to 424 Arab parents of preschool and school age children in 18 government schools across all six governorates in Kuwait. The…
Al-Khaledi, Maram; Lincoln, Michelle; McCabe, Patricia; Packman, Ann; Alshatti, Tariq
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents of children with food allergy, primary care physicians, and members of the general public play a critical role in the health and well-being of food-allergic children, though little is known about their knowledge and perceptions of food allergy. The purpose of this paper is to detail the development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among these three populations. Methods From 2006–2008, parents of food-allergic children, pediatricians, family physicians, and adult members of the general public were recruited to assist in survey development. Preliminary analysis included literature review, creation of initial content domains, expert panel review, and focus groups. Survey validation included creation of initial survey items, expert panel ratings, cognitive interviews, reliability testing, item reduction, and final validation. National administration of the surveys is ongoing. Results Nine experts were assembled to oversee survey development. Six focus groups were held: 2/survey population, 4–9 participants/group; transcripts were reviewed via constant comparative methods to identify emerging themes and inform item creation. At least 220 participants per population were recruited to assess the relevance, reliability, and utility of each survey item as follows: cognitive interviews, 10 participants; reliability testing ? 10; item reduction ? 50; and final validation, 150 respondents. Conclusion The Chicago Food Allergy Research surveys offer validated tools to assess food allergy knowledge and perceptions among three distinct populations: a 42 item parent tool, a 50 item physician tool, and a 35 item general public tool. No such tools were previously available.
Gupta Ruchi S; Kim Jennifer S; Springston Elizabeth E; Pongracic Jacqueline A; Wang Xiaobin; Holl Jane
Full Text Available Problem statement: Agriculture sector in Malaysia has been intensified through the Eight and Ninth Malaysian Plan. In order to further develop this sector, contract farming activities such as leech rearing, worm rearing, herbs and mushroom have been introduced to the community. But do the communities especially the youth have a positive acceptance towards this activity? Approach: This was a quantitative study. The respondents were among two agriculture learning institutions in Malaysia. From a simple random sampling, a total of 194 respondents were selected. The data collection took two months to be completed. Results: From the multiple linear regression employed, it can be concluded that attitude, belief and knowledge are the significant contributor for acceptance towards contract farming. Conclusion/Recommendation: It is recommended that more studies can be conducted to inspect the complexities related with youths participation in contract farming and special attention should be highlighted to identify what universities can do in strategizing specific agricultural courses that would motivate youth to possess a better acceptance towards contract farming.
Jegak Uli; Jeffrey L. D?Silva; Hayrol A.M. Shaffril; Bahaman A. Samah
Full Text Available Traditional birth attendants (TBAs) are still mainly being utilized in the rural areas even in the presence of the formal health care facilities. Studies reveal that the utilization of TBAs is beneficial in some other contexts with some support and supervision from the western health sector. In order to develop further training for TBAs the researchers deemed it necessary to assess their knowledge, attitudes and beliefs related to HIV/AIDS, prenatal care, delivery and postnatal care.
G.G. Mchunu; B.R. Bhengu
Native American women in the Northern Plains have a high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and high incidence of cervical disease and cervical cancer. HPV vaccination coverage is shown to be lower among nonwhite populations and disparity populations. We assessed HPV knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs towards HPV and HPV vaccination during a community-based participatory research project among tribal youth, young adults, parents, and health professionals. In 2009, we recruited a total of 73 individuals to participate in four tribal focus groups: tribal health providers, (n=10), Indian Health Service providers (n=7), young adult women ages 19-26 (n=22), girls (14-18) (n=18), and parents (n=16). Of these, 62 (84.93 %) completed a survey, which included 10 healthcare providers, 22 young adults, 14 teens, and 16 parents. We employed a qualitative thematic analysis of focus group transcript data and conducted frequency analysis of survey data, which were both reviewed and triangulated by a Community Advisory Board. Based on the results of this study, the tribal community advisory board identified local tribal settings for interventions to increase HPV vaccination coverage through health education classes and a school-based vaccination clinic. In addition to tribal community-wide education events to increase awareness of HPV disease, the HPV vaccine, provider-specific training was identified as a potential intervention. These community-based focus group findings underscore the importance of locally and cultural tailored educational interventions to further increase HPV knowledge and HPV vaccination among disparate populations like American Indian adolescent and young adult women.
Schmidt-Grimminger D; Frerichs L; Black Bird AE; Workman K; Dobberpuhl M; Watanabe-Galloway S
OBJECTIVES: We had for aim to learn about medical students' knowledge and perspectives on antibiotic prescribing and bacterial resistance. METHODS: Penultimate and final year students at a French medical school were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey in summer 2012. RESULTS: The response rate was 20% (60/297). Penultimate and final year students gave similar answers. Students felt more confident in diagnosing an infection, and less confident in choosing the correct dose and interval of antibiotic administration. Seventy-nine percent of students wanted more training on antibiotic treatments. Sixty-nine percent of students knew that antibiotic prescriptions were inappropriate or unnecessary in 21-60% of the cases, and 95% believed that these prescriptions were unethical. Only 27% knew that more than 80% of antibiotic prescriptions were made in community practice. Students believed that the most important causes of resistance were that too many prescriptions were made and broad-spectrum antibiotic use; 27% believed poor hand hygiene was "not at all important". Ninety-four percent believed resistance was a national problem, and 69% mentioned it as a problem in their hospital. Sixty-three percent thought that the antibiotics they would prescribe would contribute to resistance, and 96% thought resistance would be a greater problem in the future. Twenty-two percent knew MRSA bacteremia rates had decreased over the past decade in France. CONCLUSIONS: Medical students are aware that antibiotic resistance is a current and growing problem. They would like more training on antibiotic selection.
Dyar OJ; Howard P; Nathwani D; Pulcini C
Foreign-born individuals represent the majority of TB cases in the US/Canada. Little is known about their TB knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KAB). Cross-sectional survey was conducted in 22 sites in the US/Canada among foreign-born adults with active TB. Multiple regression was used to examine KAB factors against covariates. Of 1,475 participants interviewed, most answered the six knowledge items correctly. Significant predictors of correct knowledge included region of origin, education, income, age, visa status, place of diagnosis, BCG vaccination, and TB symptoms. Significant predictors of higher perceived risk/stigma scores included region of origin, age, place of diagnosis, English fluency, time in the US/Canada, TB symptoms, and household rooms. This study examines associations between TB KAB and patient and disease characteristics in foreign-born individuals in the US/Canada. The findings call for improved health education, along with efforts to reduce stigma and enhance realistic risk assessments.
Colson PW; Couzens GL; Royce RA; Kline T; Chavez-Lindell T; Welbel S; Pang J; Davidow A; Hirsch-Moverman Y
There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course chosen will be more favourable than if the alternative had been adopted.
Greenhalgh, Geoffrey [Down Park Place, Crawley Down (United Kingdom)
Full Text Available Background: The main purpose of this study was to identify and describe knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards HIV infection and risky sexual behaviour in female medical freshmen in order to evaluate the possibility of female medical student-based peer education.Methods: Researchers surveyed 560 freshmen: 280 medical students and 280 non medical students at two Italian Universities, collecting the data through anonymous, self administered questionnaires. Data were codified and statistical analysis was computed using Statistica and Openstat 4 software.Results: Female medical freshmen showed higher levels of knowledge and risk perception about HIV infection, and higher levels of self-awareness in preventing infection when compared with non-medical freshmen. Moreover, medical student’s had a lower rate of sexual activity and a higher rate of condom usage.Conclusions: Our data leads to the hypothesis that the involvement of female medical students in developing and providing safe sex education may be an important and effective way of better enhancing young people’s knowledge, attitude and behaviour towards the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.
Maria Anna Coniglio; Sarina Pignato; Enza Sidoti; Giuseppe Tringali; Marina Marranzano; Giuseppe Giammanco
Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducción. La hipertensión arterial es uno de los grandes problemas de salud pública. Una de las principales razones del escaso avance en la efectividad de las intervenciones es la falta de conocimiento de los factores determinantes psicológicos y sociales, como son las creencias sobre la enfermedad y su tratamiento. Objetivo. Valorar las actitudes del paciente respecto al tratamiento antihipertensivo y sus creencias. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estu (more) dio transversal descriptivo en una muestra aleatoria de 202 pacientes adultos hipertensos adscritos a un centro privado de atención ambulatoria en Bogotá, Colombia. Se utilizó el test de Morisky-Green para valorar las actitudes del paciente respecto al tratamiento antihipertensivo y, la versión española del Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQGeneral), para valorar las creencias del paciente. Resultados. Alrededor del 48 % de los pacientes refiere olvidar en algún momento tomar el medicamento antihipertensivo. El 68 % considera que si los médicos tuvieran más tiempo para los pacientes, recetarían menos medicamentos. Alrededor del 40 % no sabe que órganos pueden lesionarse como consecuencia de la tensión arterial elevada. Conclusiones. El presente estudio coloca de manifiesto las necesidades de mejorar las estrategias de comunicación de los profesionales de salud, quienes pueden no estar valorando la importancia de desarrollar habilidades de comunicación para mantener una relación efectiva con sus pacientes. Abstract in english Introduction. Hypertension is an important public health problem in Colombia. One of the principal reasons for the poor effectiveness of interventions is the lack of knowledge and understanding of beliefs about this disease and its treatment. Objective. Profiles were determined for the atitudes, knowledge and beliefs of patients about antihypertensive drugs. Materials and methods. In a sample of 202 hypertensive patients from a private clinical center in Bogotá, Colombia (more) , the beliefs, knowledge and attitudes about antihypertensive treatment was determined by the use of Morisky-Green test, and Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire. Results. Of these patients, 48% forgot to take the prescribed medication occasionally, 68% believed that if doctors had more time with patients, they will prescribe fewer medicines, and 40% did not know what physiological systems can be damaged by hypertension. Conclusion. This study reinforces the necessity of improving the communication strategies of health professionals in the support of a positive clinician-patient relationship.
Buendía, Jefferson Antonio
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge, attitudes and practices of community members and healthcare providers in rural northern Ghana regarding clean delivery are not well understood. This study explores hand washing/use of gloves during delivery, delivering on a clean surface, sterile cord cutting, appropriate cord tying, proper cord care following delivery, and infant bathing and cleanliness. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using NVivo 9.0. Results 253 respondents participated, including women with newborn infants, grandmothers, household and compound heads, community leaders, traditional birth attendants, and formally trained health care providers. There is widespread understanding of the need for clean delivery to reduce the risk of infection to both mothers and their babies during and shortly after delivery. Despite this understanding, the use of gloves during delivery and hand washing during and after delivery were mentioned infrequently. The need for a clean delivery surface was raised repeatedly, including explicit discussion of avoiding delivering in the dirt. Many activities to do with cord care involved non-sterile materials and practices: 1) Cord cutting was done with a variety of tools, and the most commonly used were razor blades or scissors; 2) Cord tying utilized a variety of materials, including string, rope, thread, twigs, and clamps; and 3) Cord care often involved applying traditional salves to the cord - including shea butter, ground shea nuts, local herbs, local oil, or “red earth sand.” Keeping babies and their surroundings clean was mentioned repeatedly as an important way to keep babies from falling ill. Conclusions This study suggests a widespread understanding in rural northern Ghana of the need for clean delivery. Nonetheless, many recommended clean delivery practices are ignored. Overarching themes emerging from this study included the increasing use of facility-based delivery, the disconnect between healthcare providers and the community, and the critical role grandmothers play in ensuring clean delivery practices. Future interventions to address clean delivery and prevention of neonatal infections include educating healthcare providers about harmful traditional practices so they are specifically addressed, strengthening facilities, and incorporating influential community members such as grandmothers to ensure success.
Moyer Cheryl A; Aborigo Raymond; Logonia Gideon; Affah Gideon; Rominski Sarah; Adongo Philip B; Williams John; Hodgson Abraham; Engmann Cyril
Full Text Available Abstract in spanish FUNDAMENTO: Analizar los conocimientos de la población femenina de Mallorca sobre las causas del cáncer, las creencias sobre diagnóstico y tratamiento y su actitud ante la prevención. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo transversal en una muestra aleatoria de población (n=124) de mujeres entre 40 y 69 años. El cuestionario recoge variables socio-demográficas, factores de riesgo, primeros síntomas, creencias sobre el diagnóstico y tratamiento y actitudes ante la prevenc (more) ión. RESULTADOS: El tabaco (92.7%; IC:88.1-97.3) y el alcohol (85.7%; IC:79.4-92.0) son las causas mejor identificadas. También la presencia de un bulto en un pecho (92.6%; IC:87.9-97.2) y los cambios en una mancha o verruga cutánea (89.7% ; IC:84.2-95.2%). Infravaloran el papel de la dieta (44.4%; IC:35.1-53.8) y sobrevaloran los agentes medioambientales. El conocimiento y la práctica de la autoexploración mamaria se asocian directamente con el nivel educativo (p Abstract in english BACKGROUND: To analyze the knowledge of the facts on the part of the female population of Mallorca with regard to the causes of cancer, the beliefs regarding diagnosis and treatment and their attitude toward prevention. METHODS: A descriptive cross-section study of a random population sample (n=124) of women within the 40-69 age range. The questionnaire includes socio-demographic variables, risk factors, early warning symptoms and beliefs regarding diagnosis and treatment (more) and attitudes toward prevention. RESULTS: Cigarette smoking (92.7%;CI:88.1-97.3) and drinking alcoholic (85.7%; CI:79.4-92.0) are the most well-identified causes. Also the presence of a lump in the breast (92.6%;CI:87.9-97.2) and changes in a mole or wart on the skin (89.7% ; CI:84.2-95.2%). The underestimate the role of the diet (44.4%; CI:35.1-53.8) and overestimate the environmental factors. The knowledge and use of self-examination procedures on the breast are associated directly with the degree of education (p
Cabeza, Elena; Catalán, Gustavo; Avellà, Antoni; Llobera, Joan; Pons, Onofre
Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers’ attitudes to knowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated the relationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers’, and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) in the knowledge sharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection. Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. Principal Component Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression was applied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance.Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the major determinants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was not significantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitude towards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge, although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positive knowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT) usage was also found to significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’.Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more IT infrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers.
Wole M. Olatokun; Isioma N. Elueze
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of people about malaria in a semiurban area near Rawalpindi and Islamabad. DESIGN: Descriptive Cross Sectional Study.SETTING: A cross sectional survey was conducted in a semi urban area of model village Humaknear Rawalpindi and Islamabad. METHOD: Universal questionnaire was used to assess theknowledge, attitude and practices about malaria. The head of family (Male or Female) was interviewed bystructured Questionnaire. RESULTS: In 85% of respondents opinion malaria is a dangerous disease and97% were in favor of protective measures against malaria. Regarding the protective measures 56% were infavor of mosquito net. By the use of mosquito net or repellent 98% of respondents attitude was preventionagainst the mosquito bite. 93% respondents answered that they would like to know about details of malariaproblem. Regarding the practices 72% of respondents, family members suffered from malaria during thepast. 70% of respondents, recognized the malaria on their own by recognizing signs and symptoms ofmalaria, and doctor diagnosed 5%. 70% were planning protection from mosquito bite and 5% were doingself-medication. During malaria season 32% were taking Chemoprophylaxis. 66% were planning tosafeguard their family from mosquito bite and 40% were using mosquito nets. 30% of respondents wereusing mosquito repellents when they were going out of home. Those who were using chemical mat 68%were using regularly and 32% were occasional user. CONCLUSION: The study explores that there is needfor more accurate knowledge transmission from media and health workers and effective health educationprograms and energetic malaria control and eradication steps.
Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers’ attitudes toknowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated therelationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers’,and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) in the knowledgesharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection.Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. PrincipalComponent Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression wasapplied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance.Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the majordeterminants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was notsignificantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitudetowards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge,although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positiveknowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT) usage was also foundto significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’.Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more ITinfrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers.
Wole M. Olatokun; Elueze I. Nneamaka
The existing research base on public attitudes about genetics shows that people's attitudes vary according to the specific technologies and purposes to which genetic knowledge is applied. Genetic testing is viewed highly favorably, genetically modified food is viewed with ambivalence, and cloning is viewed negatively. Attitudes are favorable for uses that maintain a perceived natural order and unfavorable for uses that are perceived to change it. Public concerns about control of genetic information and eugenics are evident, but their strength and relevance to policy preference are unclear. The pattern of attitudes can be explained by theories of attitude formation, and the existing base of information can be deepened and given more explanatory and predictive power by integrating future research into the various traditions that theorize attitude formation.
A range of health behaviors was related to beliefs concerning health practices and health knowledge. A questionnaire dealing with health-related practices, health beliefs and knowledge of health risk factors was answered by 166 male and 179 female students aged 18-30 years at Stockholm University. Female students reported engaging in better health behavior than males. Beliefs about the importance of health behaviors were closely related to their frequency of occurrence. There was only a weak relationship between health behaviors and knowledge of specific health matters. It is concluded that health attitudes rather than health knowledge determine health behavior.
Näslund GK; Fredrikson M
OBJECTIVE: To describe community health workers' attitudes and beliefs toward the elderly. METHODS: Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in with 213 community health workers (CHWs) at 12 primary care units and 29 family health centers in the city of Marília, State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. Data were collected by means of a sociodemographic questionnaire, a scale of attitudes toward aging (Neri Scale), and a questionnaire to assess gerontological knowledge (the Palmore-Neri-Cachioni Aging Quiz). The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences v. 16.0 was used for data analysis. RESULTS: Community health workers predominantly consisted of young female adults, married, with more than 12 years of schooling and who worked in this activity for over 6 years. Most CHWs reported having experience with elderly people and having elderly people in the family. However, less than half of them received training on the topic of aging. As for attitudes towards the elderly, CHWs stressed both positive aspects such as their wisdom and generosity and negative aspects such as slowness and strictness. They showed low gerontological knowledge, which was directly associated with the training received. Many CHWs stereotyped the elderly as dissatisfied and dependent. CONCLUSIONS: Changing attitudes and improving knowledge on aging are critical for meeting health care demands of elderly people. More appropriate training of CHWs is key for providing adequate primary care to elderly population.
Ferreira VM; Ruiz T
BACKGROUND: Generic substitution has been implemented in many countries, but knowledge about patients' attitudes, beliefs and experiences is still sparse. AIM: To assess associations between generic switching and patients' attitudes, beliefs and experiences with previous generic switching. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional study comprising questionnaire responses from 2,476 randomly selected patients aged 20 years or older and living in the Region of Southern Denmark, who had redeemed substitutable drugs. METHODS: The questionnaire included items on beliefs about medicine, views on generic medicine and confidence in the healthcare system. Only prescriptions issued by the general practitioners were included. For each patient, we focused on one purchase of a generically substitutable drug (index drug). Patients were identified by means of a dispensing database. RESULTS: Earlier generic switches within the index ATC code were statistically significantly associated with experience of a generic switch (adjusted OR 5.93; 95 % CI 4.70-7.49). Having had more than five earlier switches within other ATC codes and having negative views on generic medicines reduced the odds of experiencing a generic switch. No associations were found between generic substitution and gender, drug group, number of different drugs used by the patient, confidence in the health care system and beliefs about medicine in general. CONCLUSION: Patients who had once experienced a generic switch were more likely to accept a future generic switch within the same ATC code. Negative views on generic medicines were negatively associated with switching, while beliefs about medicine and confidence in the healthcare system had no influence.
Rathe J; Larsen P; Andersen M; Paulsen M; Jarbøl D; Thomsen J; Soendergaard J
Abstract Background Generic substitution has been implemented in many countries, but knowledge about patients’ attitudes, beliefs and experiences is still sparse. Aim To assess associations between generic switching and patients’ attitudes, beliefs and experiences with previous generic switching. Design and setting A cross-sectional study comprising questionnaire responses from 2476 randomly selected patients aged 20 years or older and living in the Region of Southern Denmark, who had redeemed substitutable drugs. Methods The questionnaire included items on beliefs about medicine, views on generic medicine and confidence in the healthcare system. Only prescriptions issued by the general practitioners were included. For each patient we focused on one purchase of a generically substitutable drug (index drug). Patients were identified by means of a dispensing database. Results Earlier generic switches within the index ATC code were statistically significantly associated with experience of a generic switch (adjusted OR 5.93 95% CI 4.70; 7.49). Having had more than 5 earlier switches within other ATC codes and having negative views on generic medicines reduced the odds of experiencing a generic switch. No associations were found between generic substitution and gender, drug group, number of different drugs used by the patient, confidence in the health care system and beliefs about medicine in general. Conclusion Patients who had once experienced a generic switch were more likely to accept a future generic switch within the same ATC code. Negative views on generic medicines were negatively associated with switching, while beliefs about medicine and confidence in the healthcare system had no influence.
Østergaard Rathe, Jette; Larsen, Pia Veldt
South Asian (SA) taxi drivers potentially possess a double epidemiologic risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to their ethnicity and occupation. This study investigates SA taxi drivers' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs about general health, CVD and approaches to reduce CVD risk. Five focus groups were conducted with 31 SA taxi drivers in the participants' primary language (Bengali, Hindi, Urdu or Punjabi). Audio-recordings of the sessions were transcribed, translated and entered into ATLAS.ti 6.2 for coding and analysis. SA drivers in an urban setting perceive themselves to be at high risk for CVD because of high work-related stress, physical inactivity, poor diet and poor health care access. Participants attributed their occupation to increasing risk for heart disease; none believed that being SA increased their risk. Interventions to lower CVD risk among SA taxi drivers should be multi-level and involve the individual drivers and the taxi industry. PMID:22843321
Gany, Francesca M; Gill, Pavan P; Ahmed, Ayaz; Acharya, Sudha; Leng, Jennifer
|Presents the Sex Knowledge and Attitude Test (SKAT), designed to measure knowledge, attitudes and degree of experience in a variety of sexual behaviors, and to be used as a teaching and research instrument. (Author)|
Miller, William R.; Lief, Harold I.
Many people believe that an informed and thoughtful citizenry is essential to the maintenance of democratic ideals within the United States and the spread of those ideals abroad. Since the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the evidence that Americans consider issues of human dignity and rights when making judgments about the U.S. government's war on terror has been mixed. In our study, we assessed the relative contributions of ideological, belief, and cognitive-motivational factors to the prediction of human rights and civil liberties attitudes. Individuals scoring high on measures of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and the belief that the structure of knowledge is simple were the most likely to support restrictions on human rights and civil liberties as part of the war on terror. In a subsequent regression analysis, individuals scoring higher on personal need for structure or exhibiting lower levels of epistemological belief complexity tended to score higher on RWA. Additionally, men were generally more likely to support restrictions on rights and liberties and to score higher on RWA than were women. PMID:18605179
Crowson, H Michael; DeBacker, Teresa K
This study, aiming to determine the relationship between pre-service teachers' beliefs about education and their attitudes towards utilizing computers and internet, is a descriptive study in scanning model. The sampling of the study consisted of 270 pre-service teachers. The potential relationship between the beliefs of pre-service teachers about…
Onen, Aysem Seda
Although COPD is a debilitating pulmonary condition, many studies have shown awareness of the disease to be low. This article presents data on attitudes and beliefs about COPD in subjects with respiratory symptoms participating in the BREATHE study in the Middle East and North Africa region. This study was a large general population survey of COPD conducted in ten countries of the region (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey and United Arab Emirates), together with Pakistan, using a standardised methodology. A total of 62,086 subjects were screened, of whom 2,187 fulfilled the "epidemiological" definition of COPD. A detailed questionnaire was administered to these subjects, which documented knowledge about the disease, attitudes to care, beliefs about COPD and satisfaction with treatment. 1,392 subjects were analysable. Overall, 58.6% of subjects claimed to be very well or adequately informed about their respiratory condition. Two-thirds of subjects reported receiving information about COPD from their physician and 10.6% from television; the internet was cited by 6% and other health professionals or patient associations by < 1%. Several inappropriate beliefs were identified, with 38.9% of respondents believing that there were no truly effective treatments, 73.7% believing that their respiratory condition would get progressively worse regardless of treatment and 29.6% being unsure what had caused their respiratory problems. Although 81% of respondents believed that smoking was the cause of most cases of COPD in general, only 51% accepted that it was the cause of their own respiratory problems. Treatment satisfaction was relatively high, with 83.2% of respondents somewhat or very satisfied with their physician's management, in spite of the fact that only 47.5% considered that their physician's advice had helped them manage their respiratory symptoms a lot. In conclusion, awareness of COPD in the region is suboptimal and treatment expectations are undervalued. Better patient education and more effective patient-physician communication are clearly required.
Sayiner A; Alzaabi A; Obeidat NM; Nejjari C; Beji M; Uzaslan E; Nafti S; Khan JA; Tageldin MA; Idrees M; Rashid N; El Hasnaoui A
This study investigated preservice teachers' beliefs and attitudes about teaching culturally and linguistically diverse students when progressing through specially designed courses. Data were collected using the Teacher Multicultural Attitude Survey and semi-structured interviews. Analyses indicated that preservice teachers who received more…
This study examined the determinants of Black parents' intention to have their daughters receive the HPV vaccine. Relationships between behavioral beliefs regarding the HPV vaccine, HPV vaccine attitudes, and HPV vaccine intentions among Black parents were explored. A descriptive correlational design and mediation model were used to explain the hypothesized relationships. HPV parental attitudes were significantly related to vaccine intention (r = .865, p < .001). A significant relationship between HPV vaccine behavioral beliefs and HPV vaccine attitudes was found among Black parents (r = .239, p < .001). Parental vaccine attitudes completely mediated the relationship between HPV vaccine behavioral beliefs and parental HPV vaccine intention. Understanding relevant factors associated with parental intent to have their daughters vaccinated are essential to reducing opposition to the HPV vaccine and increase vaccination rates among Black female adolescents.
A Comparative Study of the Quality of Life, Knowledge, Attitude and Belief About Leprosy Disease Among Leprosy Patients and Community Members in Shantivan Leprosy Rehabilitation centre, Nere, Maharashtra, India.
BACKGROUND: Leprosy a chronic infectious affliction, is a communicable disease that posses a risk of permanent and progressive disability. The associated visible deformities and disabilities have contributed to the stigma and discrimination experienced by leprosy patients, even among those who have been cured. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: 1) To assess the knowledge, attitude and belief about leprosy in leprosy patients compared with community members. 2) To find the perceived stigma among leprosy patients. 3). To evaluate the quality of life in leprosy patients as compared to community members using WHO Quality of Life assessment questionaire (WHOQOL- BREF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted at Leprosy Rehabilitation Centre, Shantivan, Nere in Panvel Taluka, district Raigad from October - December 2009. A pre-designed and pre-structured questionaire was used to evaluate knowledge, attitude and perceived stigma among leprosy patients and community members. WHO Quality of life questionaire (WHOQOL-BREF) was used to assess quality of life in leprosy patients and controls. Data analysis was done with the help of SPSS package. RESULT: Among the cases and control, 43.13% of cases were aware that leprosy is an infectious disease compared to 20.69% of control. 68.62% of cases had knowledge of hypopigmented patches being a symptom of leprosy compared to the 25.86% in control. There was overall high level of awareness about disease, symptoms, transmission and curability in leprosy patients as compared to control. Among control group, 43.10% of population said that they would not like food to be served by leprosy patients as compared to 13.73% in study group. It was seen that the discrimination was much higher in female leprosy patients as compared to male leprosy patients. The mean quality of life scores for cases was significantly lower than those for control group in physical and psychological domain but not in the social relationship and environmental domain. The mean quality of life scores for male cases were lower in each domain as compared to male control group but the difference was not significant except in the physical and enviornmental domain. The mean quality of life scores for female cases were lower in each domain as compared to female control group and the difference was not significant except in the psychological domain. CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant difference in physical domain in male leprosy patients and psychological domain in female leprosy patients as compared with their respective gender controls. The leprosy patients were more aware about the infectious nature of the disease, symptoms, transmission, and curability than the control group. A negative attitude was seen towards the leprosy patients in the society.
Mankar MJ; Joshi SM; Velankar DH; Mhatre RK; Nalgundwar AN
This study examined the determinants of Black parents' intention to have their daughters receive the HPV vaccine. Relationships between behavioral beliefs regarding the HPV vaccine, HPV vaccine attitudes, and HPV vaccine intentions among Black parents were explored. A descriptive correlational design and mediation model were used to explain the hypothesized relationships. HPV parental attitudes were significantly related to vaccine intention (r = .865, p HPV vaccine behavioral beliefs and HPV vaccine attitudes was found among Black parents (r = .239, p HPV vaccine behavioral beliefs and parental HPV vaccine intention. Understanding relevant factors associated with parental intent to have their daughters vaccinated are essential to reducing opposition to the HPV vaccine and increase vaccination rates among Black female adolescents. PMID:23749339
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the eating disorder mental health literacy of psychiatrists. METHOD: A sample of psychiatrists completed a questionnaire measuring knowledge of and attitudes towards eating disorders. Knowledge questions were based on the academic literature, standard diagnostic criteria and national guidelines on the management of eating disorders. Attitude items covered beliefs about the aetiology and treatment of eating disorders, confidence levels in diagnosis and management and the use of compulsory measures in anorexia nervosa. RESULTS: Psychiatrists’ knowledge of eating disorders was variable with specific gaps in both diagnosis and management. Psychiatrists felt more confident in diagnosing eating disorders than managing these conditions. Attitudes towards eating disorders were less stigmatizing than those seen in other health professionals. DISCUSSION: There is a clear need for greater education of psychiatrists regarding the diagnosis and management of eating disorders. Implementing training programmes and making information readily available could contribute to addressing these issues.
Jones WR; Saeidi S; Morgan JF
Although COPD is a debilitating pulmonary condition, many studies have shown awareness of the disease to be low. This article presents data on attitudes and beliefs about COPD in subjects with respiratory symptoms participating in the BREATHE study in the Middle East and North Africa region. This study was a large general population survey of COPD conducted in ten countries of the region (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey and United Arab Emirates), together with Pakistan, using a standardised methodology. A total of 62,086 subjects were screened, of whom 2,187 fulfilled the "epidemiological" definition of COPD. A detailed questionnaire was administered to these subjects, which documented knowledge about the disease, attitudes to care, beliefs about COPD and satisfaction with treatment. 1,392 subjects were analysable. Overall, 58.6% of subjects claimed to be very well or adequately informed about their respiratory condition. Two-thirds of subjects reported receiving information about COPD from their physician and 10.6% from television; the internet was cited by 6% and other health professionals or patient associations by < 1%. Several inappropriate beliefs were identified, with 38.9% of respondents believing that there were no truly effective treatments, 73.7% believing that their respiratory condition would get progressively worse regardless of treatment and 29.6% being unsure what had caused their respiratory problems. Although 81% of respondents believed that smoking was the cause of most cases of COPD in general, only 51% accepted that it was the cause of their own respiratory problems. Treatment satisfaction was relatively high, with 83.2% of respondents somewhat or very satisfied with their physician's management, in spite of the fact that only 47.5% considered that their physician's advice had helped them manage their respiratory symptoms a lot. In conclusion, awareness of COPD in the region is suboptimal and treatment expectations are undervalued. Better patient education and more effective patient-physician communication are clearly required. PMID:23290705
Sayiner, Abdullah; Alzaabi, Ashraf; Obeidat, Nathir M; Nejjari, Chakib; Beji, Majed; Uzaslan, Esra; Nafti, Salim; Khan, Javaid Ahmed; Tageldin, Mohamed Awad; Idrees, Majdy; Rashid, Nauman; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader
BACKGROUND: Religion shapes everyday beliefs and activities, but few studies have examined its associations with attitudes about HIV. This exploratory study in Tanzania probed associations between religious beliefs and HIV stigma, disclosure, and attitudes toward antiretroviral (ARV) treatment. METHODS: A self-administered survey was distributed to a convenience sample of parishioners (n = 438) attending Catholic, Lutheran, and Pentecostal churches in both urban and rural areas. The survey included questions about religious beliefs, opinions about HIV, and knowledge and attitudes about ARVs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess how religion was associated with perceptions about HIV, HIV treatment, and people living with HIV/AIDS. RESULTS: Results indicate that shame-related HIV stigma is strongly associated with religious beliefs such as the belief that HIV is a punishment from God (p < 0.01) or that people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have not followed the Word of God (p < 0.001). Most participants (84.2%) said that they would disclose their HIV status to their pastor or congregation if they became infected. Although the majority of respondents (80.8%) believed that prayer could cure HIV, almost all (93.7%) said that they would begin ARV treatment if they became HIV-infected. The multivariate analysis found that respondents' hypothetical willingness to begin ARV treatme was not significantly associated with the belief that prayer could cure HIV or with other religious factors. Refusal of ARV treatment was instead correlated with lack of secondary schooling and lack of knowledge about ARVs. CONCLUSION: The decision to start ARVs hinged primarily on education-level and knowledge about ARVs rather than on religious factors. Research results highlight the influence of religious beliefs on HIV-related stigma and willingness to disclose, and should help to inform HIV-education outreach for religious groups.
Zou J; Yamanaka Y; John M; Watt M; Ostermann J; Thielman N
AIMS: This paper describes Australian paediatric nurses' knowledge of and attitudes toward fever and its management and the predictors of their intentions to administer paracetamol to a febrile child. BACKGROUND: Despite evidence-based support for the beneficial effects of fever over the past three decades, health professionals' negative attitudes toward fever and their reliance on antipyretics to reduce it have persisted and continue to be reported in the literature. METHODS: A self-report questionnaire was used. An instrument was developed, piloted by test-retest and revised prior to data collection. Fifty-one paediatric nurses working in medical wards of a metropolitan paediatric hospital in Australia participated. RESULTS: Nurses' mean knowledge score about the physiology of fever, general fever management and antipyretics was 62%, which was not as high as expected. Participants reported positive attitudes toward the benefits of fever, the necessity for its reduction in children with pre-existing cardiac or respiratory conditions and towards regular antipyretic administration masking the infective process. Negative attitudes included disbelief that temperature is often unrelated to illness severity. Conflicting attitudes toward febrile convulsions were highlighted by beliefs that antipyretic therapy prevents these and that antipyretics do not prevent initial febrile convulsions. Predictors of intentions to administer paracetamol were beliefs about the effectiveness of paracetamol and nurses' beliefs about the expectations of others in relation to paracetamol administration. Nurses reported strong intentions to administer paracetamol to the next febrile child they cared for. Limitations of the study include the use of a nurse manager for recruitment and collecting the data at only one site. CONCLUSIONS: Fever management is an integral aspect of paediatric nursing. For its consistent rational management, nurses must have appropriate knowledge and positive attitudes. This highlights the need for continuing education in fever management.
Walsh AM; Edwards HE; Courtney MD; Wilson JE; Monaghan SJ
Data from ethnically diverse north-western Thailand with recent migrants from Myanmar (Burma) and China allow testing of hypotheses concerning between- and within-community differences in predominantly Yunnanese Chinese, Hmong and Lahu ethnic minority villages versus ethnic majority Thai villages. Topics include knowledge of HIV transmission, prevention and treatment, avoidance of people infected with HIV and constraints to use of health services. Respondents include women with one or more children under age five and their husbands/partners. Ethnicity is consistently associated with socioeconomic characteristics, knowledge of HIV transmission, prevention and treatment, avoidance of people living with HIV and AIDS, and constraints to use of services. Chinese community residents had the lowest levels of knowledge of HIV, especially with regard to mother-to-child transmission, the most intent to avoid contact with people living with HIV and AIDS, and the highest levels of constraints to using services, including ineligibility for government healthcare and limited Thai language ability. Associations of counselling with Thai language ability, and more knowledge and less avoidance of people living with HIV and AIDS, suggest that language-appropriate health education may help overcome disparities.
Research has shown that negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men are common and widespread in Western societies. However, few studies have addressed attitudes toward transgender individuals. In addition, although research has shown that homophobic harassment and bullying is highly common among adolescents, little is known about adolescent's attitudes toward sexual minorities. This study aimed to fill these gaps in knowledge, by investigating adolescents' attitudes toward transgender individuals and possible attitudinal correlates of those attitudes. Participants (N?=?188; 62 males and 126 females) were recruited in high schools in Lisbon, Portugal. Age ranged from 15 to 19 years (M?=?17; SD = .96). Participants completed a questionnaire booklet measuring attitudes toward transgender individuals, lesbians, and gay men, and gender role beliefs. Results revealed that attitudes toward transgender individuals were significantly correlated with all attitude measures. Specifically, it was revealed that those participants who endorsed negative attitudes toward transgender individuals were also endorsing of negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men and tended to adhere to traditional gender roles. A significant gender effect was found with males being more negative toward sexual minorities than females, but these negative attitudes were more extreme toward gay men than toward lesbian women. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Costa PA; Davies M
Full Text Available Background: All sciences share a common underlying epistemological domain, which gives grounds to and characterizes their nature and actions. Insofar as physicians depend on scientific knowledge, it would be helpful to assess their knowledge regarding some theoretical foundations of science. Objectives: 1.To assess resident physicians' knowledge of concepts and principles underlying all sciences. 2. To determine, to what extent physicians' epistemological beliefs and attitudes are compatible with the scientific paradigm. Design: A questionnaire was administered to 161 resident physicians at three hospitals in Lima, Peru. Results: 237 resident physicians were selected, 161 (68%) of whom agreed to answer the survey. 67% of respondents indicated they did not know what epistemology is, 21% were able to correctly define epistemology; 24% of the residents knew the appropriate definition of scientific theory. No respondents knew the philosophical presumptions of science; and 48% took a relativistic stand towards knowledge. Conclusions: There appear to be deficiencies in the knowledge of scientific theoretical foundations among physicians.
Dr. Adolfo Peña.
The potential of risky sexual behaviors and adolescent unplanned pregnancy has become a primary issue in the health care system for aborigines in eastern Taiwan. Using aboriginal nurses to provide information on sexual behaviors may have potential in promoting healthy sexual practices among aborigines. The purposes of this study were to explore Taiwanese aboriginal nurses beliefs. attitudes, and values about sexuality. Several health centers in eastern Taiwan were randomly selected to recruit participants in the year 2000. A self-report questionnaire was administered to 206 female nurses (mean age = 28.4, SD = 7.4) who worked in various clinical units. The results revealed that aboriginal nurses hold moderately positive beliefs, attitudes, and values about sexuality. The conflict between aboriginal nurses' belief and value systems about sexuality was clear. A conflict between aboriginal nurses' value systems and patients behaviors also existed. Strategies to help aboriginal nurses to be more aware of their beliefs, attitudes, and values about sexuality should be an essential issue in the practice and education of nurses.
Contextualizar os conhecimentos, atitudes e crenças face ao VIH/SIDA: um contributo para aperfeiçoar o caminho a percorrer/ Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about HIV/AIDS: contributions for the understanding of the problem
Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Reconhecendo que a implementação de estratégias direccionadas para os mais jovens tem surgido como um vector fundamental à regressão da epidemia, o objectivo primordial deste estudo consistiu em avaliar os conhecimentos, as atitudes e as crenças face ao VIH/SIDA dos jovens do distrito de Vila Real, que frequentavam os 10º, 11º e 12º anos de escolaridade e, deste modo, apresentar-se como uma contribuição para o aperfeiçoamento das intervenções preventivas. Pa (more) ra este propósito foi utilizada uma amostra estratificada por sexo e ano de escolaridade, constituída por 1.152 estudantes, dos quais 480 eram do sexo masculino e 672 do sexo feminino, sendo a média de idades de 16 anos. Para a recolha de dados, utilizou-se um inquérito estruturado com base nas recomendações do documento "Research Package on KABP-Knowleddge, Attitudes, Beliefs and Practices", composto por 60 perguntas agrupadas em oito blocos temáticos. Dos resultados obtidos, constatou-se que a maioria dos estudantes não referiu actividade sexual (67,7%). Dos que mencionaram já ter tido relações sexuais, 49,3%, eram do sexo masculino e 20,2% do sexo feminino. Quanto ao número de parceiros sexuais tidos durante a vida, predominou, para o sexo feminino, um parceiro sexual, enquanto para o sexo masculino mais de três parceiros sexuais. Apesar da maior parte dos estudantes ter utilizado preservativo durante as relações sexuais e ter referido conhecimentos sobre este método de prevenção, foi de sublinhar que alguns não referiram a sua utilização (14,5%). Uma apreciação global, quanto aos conhecimentos sobre VIH/SIDA, apontou para um bom nível de conhecimentos, merecendo alguma atenção as questões relativas à possibilidade de identificação dos indivíduos infectados através do seu aspecto físico e ao facto de as pessoas portadoras do vírus padecerem da doença, cuja percentagem de respostas incorrectas foi considerável. Os estudantes revelaram uma subvalorização do risco, com apenas 46,3% a admitir alguma possibilidade de contágio, sendo os estudantes do sexo masculino e os que tinham conhecimentos sobre SIDA a admitirem em média uma maior possibilidade de contágio. A maioria dos estudantes referiu uma percepção de ameaça grave para a saúde, reconheceu que não existe possibilidade de cura e que a maior parte das pessoas serão vítimas da doença. Como nota de síntese, queremos sublinhar o valor inegável da Promoção da Saúde em contexto escolar, como forma de assegurar o desenvolvimento saudável dos jovens, quando tem como pressupostos estruturantes o processo de capacitação do ser humano para agir e intervir no decurso da sua vida. Abstract in english Recognizing that the implementation of strategies guided for the more youth has been appearing as a fundamental vector to the regression of the epidemic, the primordial main of this study consisted of evaluating the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about HIV/AIDS, of the youth of the district of Vila Real, that attend the 10th, 11th and 12th grade, and this way, to present as a contribution for the improvement of the preventive interventions. For that purpose a sample was (more) used stratified by sex and year of education, constituted by 1.152 students, of which 480 were male and 672 female, being the average of 16 year-old ages. For the collection of data an inquiry was used structured on the basis of the recommendations of the document "Research Package on KABP ?Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs and Practices", composed by 60 questions, grouped in eight thematic blocks. From the obtained results it was verified that most of the students didn?t refer sexual activity (67.7%). Of the students that mentioned to have already had sexual relationships, 49.3%, are male and 20.2% female. As for the number of sexual partners they had, for the feminine sex, a sexual partner prevailed, while for the masculine sex prevailed more than three sexual partners. In spite of most of the students have declared to have used c
Monteiro, Maria João; Vasconcelos-Raposo, José
A study conducted in Brisbane, Queensland, assessed homeless youths' knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Data obtained from 40 homeless youths aged 15 to 19 years were compared with that from controls. The findings identified a significantly lower level of accurate knowledge of AIDS by the homeless youth on questions related to the transmission of AIDS and on measures to prevent infection. Furthermore, homeless youth exhibited higher levels of at-risk behaviours for the contraction of AIDS. No significant differences regarding attitudes and beliefs about the disease were found. A subgroup of particularly high-risk youth is identified and described. Given the established knowledge deficits, homeless youth were also assessed for educational measures to which they might respond favourably. Implications for future educational programmes are described. It is concluded that homeless youth are comparatively ignorant of AIDS and comparatively at risk of contracting the disease.
Matthews BR; Richardson KD; Price J; Williams G
The Sex Knowledge and Attitude Test (SKAT) was designed to measure knowledge, attitudes and degree of experience in a variety of sexual behaviors, and to be used as a teaching and research instrument. The SKAT has been administered to over 35,000 students, approximately two-thirds of whom have been medical students. SKAT has served two major objectives: to measure changes in knowledge and attitudes after a course or program in human sexuality and to demonstrate the deficiencies of medical and nursing education in preparing health professionals to aid patients with sexual problems. Additional types of research using the SKAT are suggested.
Miller WR; Lief HI
Results from a consumer survey comprising 400 face-to-face interviews with Flemish consumers (Belgium), which was conducted in the summer of 2000, reveal four consumer segments based on beliefs and attitude towards genetically modified (GM) food, namely: the Halfhearted, the Green Opponents, the Balancers, and the Enthusiasts. While 23.5% of the respondents have positive attitudes (the Enthusiasts) towards GM food, 15.5% are reluctant (the Green Opponents). The other 61.0% of the respondents have rather neutral (the Balancers) to slightly negative (the Halfhearted) attitudes towards GM food. Each of these identified segments can be further profiled in terms of socio-economic and demographic characteristics, knowledge, general attitudes including trust, information needs, consulted and trusted information sources and channels, and purchase intentions. These insights will provide the necessary input for the development of an effective segmented communication strategy.
Verdurme A; Viaene J
Discussed is the development and psychometric analysis of a measure of rape-supportive attitudes and beliefs called the Rape Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (RABS), intended for the use with college men. Items were developed from a literature review of "rape myths" that were correlated to some measure of sexual aggression. An exploratory factor…
Burgess, Gerald H.
AIMS: This paper reports a study to determine nurses' attitudes towards pain assessment tools and the relationship of these attitudes to education and experience. BACKGROUND: The issue of pain management is of interest to caregivers nationally and internationally. For example, in the United States of America, the National Health and Medical Research Council set guidelines to assist clinicians in pain management. Research on whether healthcare teams use pain assessment tools has yielded contradictory findings. METHODS: Using an open-ended questionnaire developed for this study, which was based on Fishbein and Ajzen expectancy-value model, a convenience sample of 52 nurses on an acute care unit were asked: (1) What do you believe about the assessment of pain? (2) What do you believe about the use of pain assessment tools? and (3) What do you believe about the use of pain assessment tools in improving the patient's outcome? The nurses then rated their attitudes about each belief and how each belief made them feel. The data were collected in 2003. Results. When Fishbein and Ajzen's formula for calculating attitude was used, attitude scores ranged from -6 to 28 with an overall mean score of +8.3. The amount of education and experience of each nurse and the attitude measure in regard to the use of pain assessment tools were compared. CONCLUSIONS: The Fishbein and Ajzen model provides a useful way to obtain information on the attitude of nurses towards the use of pain assessment instruments. To provide further information, this study with an open-ended instrument should be followed with a fixed-response survey with a larger sample size and in various settings.
Layman Young J; Horton FM; Davidhizar R
Utilizing data from a mailed questionnaire of Knoxville and area residents (N = 286), this study examined a number of key issues in conceptualizing the relationship between situational and personal characteristics of residential energy consumers, conservation behavior, and energy use. The review of literature raises three issues in need of further analysis: (1) clarifying the link between knowledge of energy conservation and behavior, (2) clarifying the link between consumer attitudes, beliefs, and opinions and conservation behavior, and (3) examining relationships among determinants of conservation behavior at different causal levels. Chapter III addresses the first issue. The bivariate association between energy knowledge and behavior is not very strong (r = .01 to .20). Chapter IV approaches the second question by comparing the utility of two attitude-behavior models for predicting conservation behavior. Results indicate that they are relatively equivalent when the behavior is under consumer's control. Chapter 5 addresses the problem of causal order. Results indicate that home ownership functions both as a resource factor affecting behavioral options as well as influencing energy beliefs and attitudes. Homeowners tend to be more committed to personal conservation and to view the energy problem as more serious. A second finding is that general energy beliefs do play a role in guiding behavior.
Full Text Available This Australian study seeks to better understand the disparity between the positive attitudes towards Socially Responsible Investing (SRI) and the level of investment in SRI (Saulwick &Associates 2001; Watmore & Bradley 2001; Williams 2007; Arjalies 2010), by examining both the attitudes to SRI and the investment choices that are made. It is hypothesised that those who are more committed to religious belief principles are more likely to invest in SRI.To test this 322 people from two large Queensland organisations were surveyed in relation to their investment attitudes and preferences. Results show that those who are more religious are no more likely to invest in SRI, and that the level of importance placed on SRI and financial criteria are similar in most instances for the more and less religious. In addition, women who are religious place more importance on conservative general investment criteria than less ornon-religious women.
Mark Brimble1; Victoria Vyvyan; Chew Ng
Intuitively, there is a difference between knowledge and mere belief. Contemporary philosophical work on the nature of this difference has focused on scenarios known as "Gettier cases." Designed as counterexamples to the classical theory that knowledge is justified true belief, these cases feature agents who arrive at true beliefs in ways which seem reasonable or justified, while nevertheless seeming to lack knowledge. Prior empirical investigation of these cases has raised questions about whether lay people generally share philosophers' intuitions about these cases, or whether lay intuitions vary depending on individual factors (e.g. ethnicity) or factors related to specific types of Gettier cases (e.g. cases that include apparent evidence). We report an experiment on lay attributions of knowledge and justification for a wide range of Gettier Cases and for a related class of controversial cases known as Skeptical Pressure cases, which are also thought by philosophers to elicit intuitive denials of knowledge. Although participants rated true beliefs in Gettier and Skeptical Pressure cases as being justified, they were significantly less likely to attribute knowledge for these cases than for matched True Belief cases. This pattern of response was consistent across different variations of Gettier cases and did not vary by ethnicity or gender, although attributions of justification were found to be positively related to measures of empathy. These findings therefore suggest that across demographic groups, laypeople share similar epistemic concepts with philosophers, recognizing a difference between knowledge and justified true belief. PMID:23489589
Nagel, Jennifer; Juan, Valerie San; Mar, Raymond A
Intuitively, there is a difference between knowledge and mere belief. Contemporary philosophical work on the nature of this difference has focused on scenarios known as "Gettier cases." Designed as counterexamples to the classical theory that knowledge is justified true belief, these cases feature agents who arrive at true beliefs in ways which seem reasonable or justified, while nevertheless seeming to lack knowledge. Prior empirical investigation of these cases has raised questions about whether lay people generally share philosophers' intuitions about these cases, or whether lay intuitions vary depending on individual factors (e.g. ethnicity) or factors related to specific types of Gettier cases (e.g. cases that include apparent evidence). We report an experiment on lay attributions of knowledge and justification for a wide range of Gettier Cases and for a related class of controversial cases known as Skeptical Pressure cases, which are also thought by philosophers to elicit intuitive denials of knowledge. Although participants rated true beliefs in Gettier and Skeptical Pressure cases as being justified, they were significantly less likely to attribute knowledge for these cases than for matched True Belief cases. This pattern of response was consistent across different variations of Gettier cases and did not vary by ethnicity or gender, although attributions of justification were found to be positively related to measures of empathy. These findings therefore suggest that across demographic groups, laypeople share similar epistemic concepts with philosophers, recognizing a difference between knowledge and justified true belief.
Nagel J; Juan VS; Mar RA
Full Text Available Introduction Poor knowledge of and negative attitudes toward available screening tests may account in part for colorectal cancer screening rates being the lowest among 17 quality measures reported for the Department of Veterans Affairs health care system, the largest integrated health system in the United States. The purpose of this study was to develop a brief assessment tool to evaluate knowledge and attitudes among veterans toward colorectal cancer screening options. Methods A 44-item questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about colorectal cancer and screening and was then administered as part of an ongoing randomized controlled trial among 388 veterans receiving care in a general medicine clinic. Sixteen candidate items on colorectal cancer knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs were selected for further evaluation using principal components analysis. Two sets of items were then further analyzed. Results Because the Cronbach a for beliefs was low (a = 0.06), the beliefs subscale was deleted from further consideration. The final scale consisted of seven items: a four-item attitude subscale (a = 0.73) and a three-item knowledge subscale (a = 0.59). Twelve-month follow-up data were used to evaluate predictive validity; improved knowledge and attitudes were significantly associated with completion of flexible sigmoidoscopy (P = .004) and completion of either flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (P = .02). Conclusion The two-factor scale offers a parsimonious and reliable measure of colorectal cancer screening knowledge and attitudes among veterans. This colorectal Cancer Screening Survey (CSS) may especially be useful as an evaluative tool in developing and testing of interventions designed to improve screening rates within this population.
Michael S. Wolf, PhD, MPH; Alfred Rademaker, PhD; Charles L. Bennett, MD, PhD; M. Rosario Ferreira, MD; Nancy C. Dolan, MD; Marian Fitzgibbon, PhD; Terry C. Davis, PhD; Franklin Medio, PhD; Dachao Liu, MA; June Lee
IMPORTANCE Research has shown that preschool-aged children spend considerable time with media, and risks and benefits for cognitive and behavioral outcomes exist depending on what is watched and how it is watched. OBJECTIVE To examine the associations among child race/ethnicity, parental beliefs/attitudes about television (TV) and child development, and TV viewing habits of young children, and to assess reasons for existing racial/ethnic disparities in children's media use. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Parents completed demographic questionnaires, reported on attitudes regarding media's risks and benefits to their children, and completed 1-week media diaries where they recorded all of the programs their children watched. Enrollment was from March 13, 2009, to April 12, 2010. The study was conducted at 2 metropolitan Seattle pediatric clinics and an academic practice network, each serving a diverse population of patients, and involved a community-based sample of 596 parents of children aged 3 to 5 years. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Parental beliefs/attitudes regarding screen time and TV viewing habits of young children. RESULTS Overall, children watched an average (SD) of 462.0 (315.5) minutes of TV per week. African American children watched more TV per week than non-Hispanic white children (mean [SD], 638.0 [450.9] vs 431.0 [282.6] minutes; P?.01); however, these differences were no longer statistically significant after controlling for attitudes and demographic covariates (eg, family socioeconomic status). It is important to note that socioeconomic status confounded the results for race/ethnicity, and the association between race/ethnicity and media time across the sample was no longer statistically significant after adjusting for family socioeconomic status. However, significant differences were found between parents of ethnically/racially diverse children and parents of non-Hispanic white children regarding the perceived positive effects of TV viewing, even when parental education and family income were taken into account. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Differences in parental beliefs/attitudes regarding the effects of media on early childhood development may help explain growing racial/ethnic disparities in child media viewing/habits, but more research is needed to understand the cultural nuances of the observed differences.
Njoroge WF; Elenbaas LM; Garrison MM; Myaing M; Christakis DA
Full Text Available AbstractBackground and purpose : Neonatal icer is one of the common problems in neonates caused by different etiologies. Because of CNS complications which causes mortality or mental relardation, neonatal icter is very important. According to the role of knowledge and attitude of the mothers and inappropriate referral of the neonates to physician, effectiveness of treatment and prevention of serious complication, we studied the knowledge and the sttitude about neonatal icter among mothers in Sari.Materials and methods : This was a decriptive crossectional research. Study population were mothers of neonates at the public and private hospitals. Sampling method was stratified and simple. The tool for data collection was questionnaire consisted of demographic variables, 16 questions for knowledge and 14 questions for attitude about neonatal icter with 16 and 28 scores respectively. Validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by experts consultant and reliability by test method. After data collection and definition of level of the knowledge and attitude, analysis was performed by SPSS software using X2, t test abd ANOVA.Results : Totally 400 mothers were studied. Age of them was 25.81 ± 4.88, 4.25% of them were at the high risk age for pregnancy, 52% were urban and 4.5% were illiterate. Also 42.3% had prenatal care, mostly (64.4%) by specialist physician. Most of the mothers were in the low (42.3%) or moderate (23.3%) socioeconomic status, 76.5% of the mothers had low knowledge, 23.3% moderate and only 1.3% have high level of knowledge about the neonatal icter. This knowledge significantly was related with elder age mothers, higher level of education, higher socioeconomic state and history of icter in the pervious child (P=0.000). The attitude about neonatal icter was inappropriate in 19.3% of the mothers, relatively appropriate in 60.3% and appropriate in 20.5% . This Attitude was significantly related with elder age and higher level of education of the mothers, living in urban areas, higher socioeconomic state and higher number of childs (p=0.000).Conclusion: Most of the mothers had low level of knowledge and attitude about the neonatal icter. Therefore serious attention and designing of appropriate intervention for improvement of the knowledge on attitude about neonatal icter are essential.
V. Gaffari; K. Vahidshani; B.A. Taleshi
PURPOSE: Determine the extent to which Latino smokers are using effective interventions for smoking cessation, with particular focus on nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Related aims were to explore cultural, attitudinal, knowledge, and socioeconomic variables associated with treatment use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional telephone survey of two groups of Colorado adult smokers: Latinos (n = 1010) and non-Latino whites (n = 519). SETTING: Colorado. METHODS: Computer-assisted telephone survey in either Spanish or English. Survey addressed sociodemographic variables; smoking and cessation history; knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about smoking and quitting; and experiences in and attitudes toward the health care setting. PARTICIPANTS: Latino and non-Latino white adult Colorado residents who reported being regular smokers. RESULTS: Colorado Latinos report using NRT substantially less often than do non-Latino whites residing in the state. This and other differences in the study were more pronounced in Latinos characterized as low acculturation on the basis of a language preference variable. Latinos smoke somewhat less than non-Latino whites and report lower levels of dependence. They appear to be motivated to quit but endorse attitudes and beliefs antithetical to NRT use. Health care access was lower among Latinos, and this was related to lower reports of lifetime NRT use. Receipt of recommended practitioner intervention (the "five As") did not differ by ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggested that use of effective cessation interventions among Latinos may be enhanced by education about nicotine addiction and NRT. Policy change to increase health care access also showed promise.
Zinser MC; Pampel FC; Flores E
Full Text Available (Received 19 Jun, 2008; Accepted 20 Oct, 2008) Abstract This study aimed to determine the knowledge and attitudes to wards homeopathy among general practitioner and specialist physicians in Sari.Our results indicate Sari physicians had not sufficient knowledge obout homeopathy; but they liked collaboration with homeopaths for treatment of their patients and have courses for homeopathy education. J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2008; 18(66): 102-103(Persian
Sekineh Shafia; Jobin Hemati; Leila Meskini; Aliraza Khalilian
A small but statistically significant positive correlation (r = .17) was found in a sample of 279 13- to 16-yr.-old students in Wales between scores on the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity and on a new Index of Paranormal Belief. These data suggest that there is little common variance between attitude toward Christianity and belief in the paranormal.
Williams E; Francis LJ; Robbins M
Full Text Available Background & Aim: Inter-partner relationships as part of a somatic-affective interaction have important role in supporting of familial relations. In this regard, knowledge of couples about their specific role against their spouses and the ways of having correct sexual relationship is essential. This correct knowledge might help spouses to understand their husband/wife and would promote family's cultural status and would be transmitted to next generations. This study carried out to determine the knowledge level and beliefs of couples attending marriage counseling centers toward correct sexual relationships. Methods & Materials: This is a cross-sectional study. A total of 300 individuals (150 couples), attending marriage counseling centers in the north and east of Tehran recruited for the study using random selection method. Data were collected using a questionnaire including knowledge and beliefs assessment questions. Results: Mean knowledge score for men and women were 12.3±2.5 and 10.1±1.8, respectively (P=0.23). Knowledge level of participants with higher education (P=0.00); and those aged 25-29 years (P=0.65) were higher than others. 11.3% of women and 13.1% of men did not have appropriate attitudes toward correct sexual relationships (P=0.35).Conclusion: Although knowledge level of respondents was just above the half of the complete score, the overall beliefs toward sexual relationships were positive.
Noohi S; Azar M; Shafiee Kandjani AR; Tajik A
The purpose of this study was to analyze smoking related beliefs, attitudes and knowledge on anti-smoking legislation among some cafe workers, business owners and customers about smoking ban in their worklaces in province of Trabzon. Agreed to participate in the study to 87 business owner, 140 offic...
Gamze Can; Murat Topbas; Asuman Yavuzyilmaz; Funda Oztuna; Emine Can
The segment of organic products occupies an increasingly important place in dairy assortments. The European Union (EU) introduced a new EU organic logo in 2010 with the aim of harmonizing its organic sector and boosting consumer trust in organic food. This study focuses on organic yogurt and investigates consumer awareness and knowledge of the new EU logo. Consumers evaluate organic yogurt as superior compared with conventional yogurt on healthiness, environmental friendliness, quality, and safety. More frequent buyers of organic yogurt have a stronger belief that organic yogurt is superior. The willingness-to-pay for organic yogurt ranged from a premium of 15% for nonbuyers to 40% for habitual buyers, indicating the market potential for this product. A structural equations model reveals the positive association between knowledge, attitudes, and the frequency of purchasing and consuming organic yogurt. Nevertheless, consumer awareness of the EU organic logo remains rather low, which suggests a need for more effective information campaigns and marketing actions. PMID:23415537
Van Loo, Ellen J; Diem, My Nguyen Hoang; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim
This article aims to contribute to dengue control programs through a review of recent studies on knowledge, beliefs, and practices concerning dengue and dengue prevention. The results show that adequate knowledge of dengue and prevention methods are found in close association with high rates of domiciliary infestation by Aedes aegypti. This suggests that traditional education strategies, although efficient in transmitting information, have failed to change population behavior. Qualitative studies reveal two important issues that appear to explain these attitudes: representations of dengue and risks associated with mosquitoes and difficulties in avoiding infestation of household water recipients due to sanitation problems in communities. PMID:15608846
Claro, Lenita Barreto Lorena; Tomassini, Hugo Coelho Barbosa; Rosa, Maria Luiza Garcia
This article aims to contribute to dengue control programs through a review of recent studies on knowledge, beliefs, and practices concerning dengue and dengue prevention. The results show that adequate knowledge of dengue and prevention methods are found in close association with high rates of domiciliary infestation by Aedes aegypti. This suggests that traditional education strategies, although efficient in transmitting information, have failed to change population behavior. Qualitative studies reveal two important issues that appear to explain these attitudes: representations of dengue and risks associated with mosquitoes and difficulties in avoiding infestation of household water recipients due to sanitation problems in communities.
Claro LB; Tomassini HC; Rosa ML
The vital issues at stake in the credibility and effectiveness of AIDS prevention programs for young people have led to the emergence of a trend in research focused on the study of adolescents' understanding of AIDS, their attitudes and behaviour towards it, and their beliefs about it. This research can be classified under the three main ways of approaching the problem: 1) results of inquiries about knowledge, attitudes and behaviour; 2) research centred on beliefs and their consequences on a social and individual level; 3) reports and analysis of prevention programs. The results obtained by the different authors bring to light certain characteristics among the adolescent population, notably, their understanding of the disease, their attitudes towards people who are HIV positive, their sexual behaviour, their beliefs about AIDS, and the general direction of the prevention programs which are best adapted to this particular population.
Ferron C; Laurent-Beq A; Deschamps JP
Paediatricians were surveyed about baby walker knowledge, attitudes, and practice. Advising about walkers was associated with working in community paediatrics, treating walker related injuries, knowledge about walkers, and positive attitudes towards walker health promotion. Greater knowledge about walkers was associated with more negative attitudes to walkers. Educating paediatricians and parents about the risks of, and alternatives to using walkers is important. PMID:14670775
Rhodes, K; Kendrick, D; Collier, J
Paediatricians were surveyed about baby walker knowledge, attitudes, and practice. Advising about walkers was associated with working in community paediatrics, treating walker related injuries, knowledge about walkers, and positive attitudes towards walker health promotion. Greater knowledge about walkers was associated with more negative attitudes to walkers. Educating paediatricians and parents about the risks of, and alternatives to using walkers is important.
Rhodes K; Kendrick D; Collier J
The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology and its various applications. In addition, whether students' knowledge and attitudes differed according to age and gender were also explored. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and the Biotechnology Attitude…
Ozel, Murat; Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol
Since the introduction of the Basic Safety Standards recommendations, the scope of the radiation protection was broadening. On behalf of the incorporation of radiation protection of the patient in medical exposures, the different groups of professionals involved: physicians, medical physicists, radiation protection officers, regulators, etc., have to work together. The objective of radiation protection, that is, to reduces doses from practices, to prevent potential exposures, to detect its occurrence as well as to evaluate and spread such abnormal situations, will be obtained only if it were possible to joint two basic conditions: knowledge and attitude. It should be well known the differences between the backgrounds needed to be for example, a medical physicist or an R.P.O., However, their attitude to solve an eventual problem involving radiation protection should be the same; as well as the behavior of the specialized physician and regulators, in order to add towards common goals. In this work, we show as an example the curricula contents about radiation protection of the cancer of medical physics in the Universidad Nacional de San Martin (UNSAM), and the corresponding module on medical exposures from the Post-Graduate course on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, held since the 80s in Buenos Aires by the National Commission of Atomic Energy, ARN, IAEA, and the Universidad de Buenos Aires. On the other hand, we describe different attitudes which leads or could start major radiological accidents, regardless the level of knowledge in radiation protection. We conclude that the larger numbers of accidents are due to problems in the attitude than in the level of knowledge of the person involved. Consequently; we suggest emphasizing the discussion on how to generate positive attitudes in every professional involucrated, independently of its cognitive profile or level. (Author) 2 refs
Understanding the factors that influence health beliefs, attitudes, and service use among Haitians in the United States is increasingly important for this growing population. We undertook a qualitative analysis to explore the factors related to cancer screening and utilization of health services among Haitians in Boston. Key informant interviews (n=42) and nine focus groups (n=78) revealed that Haitians experience unique barriers to health services. These include language barriers, unfamiliarity with preventive care, confidentiality concerns, mistrust and stigma concerning Western medicine, and a preference for natural remedies. Results suggest that many Haitians could benefit from health system navigation assistance, and highlight the need for comprehensive, rather than disease-focused programs, to decrease stigma and increase programmatic reach. Faith-based organizations, social service agencies, and Haitian media were identified as promising channels for disseminating health information. Leveraging positive cultural traditions and existing communication networks could increase the impact of Haitian health initiatives.
Allen JD; Mars DR; Tom L; Apollon G; Hilaire D; Iralien G; Cloutier LB; Sheets MM; Zamor R
Full Text Available This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes in relation to AIDS in women over 50 years of age. The study included women from the Center for the Study of the Elderly - NETI, of the Federal University of Santa Catarina - UFSC. To achieve the proposed objectives, a descriptive-exploratory qualitative approach was chosen. A semi-structured interview was used as the data collection technique. It was identified that knowledge about AIDS and risk attitudes toward the disease, arise from the permanence of the concept of risk groups, from the dynamics of power inherent in gender relationships in our society, and from the lack of effectiveness and sustainability of public policies on AIDS prevention which effectively reach this segment of the population, as well as a lack of strategies to effectively make such policies operational.
Alessandra Tourinho; Elza Berger Salema Coelho; Carlos Frederico Tourinho dos Santos
Hispanics in the United States have a disproportionately high risk for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes) compared with non-Hispanic whites. Little is known of the attitudes and beliefs about diabetes in this group. Using data from six focus groups of 42 Mexican Americans (14 men and 28 women), we characterized perceptions about the causes of and treatments for type 2 diabetes. Many participants believed diabetes is caused by having a family history of the disease, eating a diet high in fat or sugar, and engaging in minimal exercise. Experiencing strong emotions such as fright (susto), intense anger (coraje), or sadness and depression (tristeza) was also thought to precipitate diabetes. Nearly all participants expressed the belief that it is important to follow doctors' recommendations for diet and exercise, oral medication or insulin; many also cited herbal therapies, such as prickly pear cactus (nopal) and aloe vera (savila) as effective treatments. These findings may be useful in designing interventions to reduce the burden of diabetes in Hispanic populations.
Coronado GD; Thompson B; Tejeda S; Godina R
Hispanics in the United States have a disproportionately high risk for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes) compared with non-Hispanic whites. Little is known of the attitudes and beliefs about diabetes in this group. Using data from six focus groups of 42 Mexican Americans (14 men and 28 women), we characterized perceptions about the causes of and treatments for type 2 diabetes. Many participants believed diabetes is caused by having a family history of the disease, eating a diet high in fat or sugar, and engaging in minimal exercise. Experiencing strong emotions such as fright (susto), intense anger (coraje), or sadness and depression (tristeza) was also thought to precipitate diabetes. Nearly all participants expressed the belief that it is important to follow doctors' recommendations for diet and exercise, oral medication or insulin; many also cited herbal therapies, such as prickly pear cactus (nopal) and aloe vera (savila) as effective treatments. These findings may be useful in designing interventions to reduce the burden of diabetes in Hispanic populations. PMID:15531816
Coronado, Gloria D; Thompson, Beti; Tejeda, Silvia; Godina, Ruby
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common cancer affecting women worldwide. Although a great deal of progress has been made in the health sciences, early diagnosis, and increasing community awareness, breast cancer remains a life-threatening illness. In order to reduce this threat, breast cancer screening needs to be implemented in all communities where possible. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine health beliefs, attitudes and behaviors about breast cancer and breast self-examination of Turkish women. METHODS: Data were collected from a sample of 656 women, using an adapted Turkish version of Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS), between January and May 2011, in Ordu province of Turkey. RESULTS: The results showed that 67.7% of women had knowledge about and 55.8% performed BSE, however 60.6% of those who indicated they practiced BSE reported they did so at irregular intervals. CHBMS subscales scores of women according to women's age, education level, occupation, family income and education level of the women's mothers, family history of breast cancer, friend and an acquaintance with breast cancer, knowledge about breast cancer, BSE and mammography were significantly different. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of women about the risks and benefits of early detection of breast cancer positively affect their health beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Health care professionals can develop effective breast health programs and can help women to gain good health behavior and to maintain health.
Erbil N; Bölükba? N
INTRODUCTION: Patients with leprosy may be affected psychologically and socially by the negative attitude of society toward leprosy, caused by widespread ignorance and prevailing stereotypes surrounding the disease. This study aimed to determine the knowledge and attitudes toward leprosy among students at the University of Guadalajara. METHODOLOGY: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 1,300 students over 18 years of age from various Thematic University Centres in Guadalajara. Students' degree subjects included the health sciences, humanities, exact sciences (i.e., chemistry, physics), arts, biological-agricultural sciences, and administration. Students were randomly selected regardless of gender and all students were enrolled in either the first, second, or third year of their undergraduate studies. RESULTS: Overall, students showed an intermediate level of knowledge of leprosy. Results showed that 67% correctly responded that leprosy is an infectious disease, 64% knew of the presence of skin lesions, and 60% knew that a microbe causes the disease. Furthermore, 45% correctly responded that leprosy is a disease associated with poverty and 40% responded that leprosy is disabling. Only 31% stated that leprosy is curable. Negative attitudes were evident regarding the question of employing a leprosy patient (57%) and having a leprosy patient as a spouse or partner (30%). Discussion: The results revealed that there is insufficient knowledge of and poor attitudes toward leprosy among students at the University of Guadalajara. It is necessary to improve current health education measures by using updated educational strategies to reduce the stigma of leprosy and the segregation of leprosy patients and their families.
Graciano-Machuca O; Velarde-de la Cruz EE; Ramirez-Dueñas MG; Alvarado-Navarro A
STUDY QUESTION: How good is fertility knowledge and what are treatment beliefs in an international sample of men and women currently trying to conceive? SUMMARY ANSWER: The study population had a modest level of fertility knowledge and held positive and negative views of treatment. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Few studies have examined general fertility treatment attitudes but studies of specific interventions show that attitudes are related to characteristics of the patient, doctor and context. Further, research shows that fertility knowledge is poor. However, the majority of these studies have examined the prevalence of infertility, the optimal fertile period and/or age-related infertility in women, in university students and/or people from high-resource countries making it difficult to generalize findings. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A cross-sectional sample completed the International Fertility Decision-making Study (IFDMS) over a 9-month period, online or via social research panels and in fertility clinics. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Participants were 10 045 people (8355 women, 1690 men) who were on average 31.8 years old, had been trying to conceive for 2.8 years with 53.9% university educated. From a total of 79 countries, sample size was >100 in 18 countries. All 79 countries were assigned to either a very high Human Development Index (VH HDI) or a not very high HDI (NVH HDI). The IFDMS was a 45-min, 64-item English survey translated into 12 languages. The inclusion criteria were the age between 18 and 50 years and currently trying to conceive for at least 6 months. Fertility knowledge was assessed using a 13-item correct/incorrect scale concerned with risk factors, misconceptions and basic fertility facts (range: 0-100% correct). Treatment beliefs were assessed with positive and negative statements about fertility treatment rated on a five-point agree/disagree response scale. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Average correct score for Fertility Knowledge was 56.9%, with greater knowledge significantly related to female gender, university education, paid employment, VH HDI and prior medical consultation for infertility (all P < 0.001). The mean agreement scores for treatment beliefs showed that agreement for positive items (safety, efficacy) was correlated with agreement for negative items (short/long-term physical/emotional effects) (P > 0.001). People who had given birth/fathered a child, been trying to conceive for less than 12 months, who had never consulted for a fertility problem and who lived in a country with an NVH HDI agreed less with negative beliefs. HDI, duration of trying to conceive and help-seeking were also correlates of higher positive beliefs, alongside younger age, living in an urban area and having stepchildren. Greater fertility knowledge was associated with stronger agreement on negative treatment beliefs items (P < 0.001) but was unrelated to positive treatment beliefs items. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: There was volunteer bias insofar as more women, people of higher education and people with fertility problems (i.e. met criteria for infertility, had consulted a medical doctor, had conceived with fertility treatment) participated and this was true in VH and NVH HDI countries. The bias may mean that people in this sample had better fertility knowledge and less favourable treatment beliefs than is the case in the general population. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Educational interventions should be directed at improving knowledge of fertility health. Future prospective research should be aimed at investigating how fertility knowledge and treatment beliefs affect childbearing and help-seeking decision-making.
Bunting L; Tsibulsky I; Boivin J
OBJECTIVES: To deternine whether there are racial differences in patients' health-related attitudes, beliefs, and experiences regarding invasive cardiac procedures, and to develop psychometrically and conceptually valid scales and single items to assess these dimensions. METHODS: A survey was designed and administered to 854 white and black patients with ischemic heart disease at five VA medical centers. Patients were queried about the domains proposed to be important to treatment decision making by the Health Decision Model: sociodemographic characteristics, social interactions, health care experiences, patient preferences for care, knowledge about diseases and potential treatments, and health beliefs. Using multitrait analysis, the psychometric properties of scales assessing these domains were examined. It was then assessed whether there were racial differences in scale or individual item scores using chi2 and t test analyses. RESULTS: The analyses yielded eight psychometrically valid scales: disease severity, patient evaluation of physician's interpersonal style, patient evaluations of VA care, satisfaction with treatment decision making, perceived urgency of catheterization, vulnerability to catheterization, bodily impact of catheterization, and attitudes toward religion. There were only racial differences on mean scores for the latter scale. Individual item analyses indicated that black patients were less likely to have been encouraged by friends or family to have cardiac catheterization, and had less personal or familial experiences with this or other surgical procedures. In contrast to expectations, white patients were more likely to be skeptical of medical care. CONCLUSIONS: The multiple dimensions of white and black patients' health-related attitudes, beliefs, and experiences were examined, and few differences were found. These results suggest that racial differences in patients' attitudes, beliefs, and experiences are not a likely source of racial disparities in cardiac care. Future research will examine the association of beliefs, attitudes and experiences with actual use of invasive cardiac procedures.
Kressin NR; Clark JA; Whittle J; East M; Peterson ED; Chang BH; Rosen AK; Ren XS; Alley LG; Kroupa L; Collins TC; Petersen LA
BACKGROUND: All general practitioners (GPs) are expected to have an appraisal from 2002 and the first cohort will experience revalidation in 2005. Although there is a link between appraisal and revalidation, this has yet to be clarified. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of GPs towards revalidation and appraisal. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. SETTING: Lincolnshire, UK. PARTICIPANTS: General practitioners. METHOD: In 2000 a self-administered postal questionnaire survey was sent to all 343 GP principals on the list of Lincolnshire Health Authority. The questionnaire consisted of 47 attitudinal statements on appraisal and revalidation. It also included open questions on concerns about appraisal and revalidation and questions on attributes of responders. RESULTS: Of the 343 GPs sent questionnaires, 272 (79%) replied. Lincolnshire GPs had more positive attitudes towards appraisal than towards revalidation. They welcomed appraisal provided that it had local ownership and took into account their views and concerns on the process. Other factors that correlated with a positive attitude towards appraisal included agreement that the purpose of appraisal is educational and that it should result in an agreed development plan. Those who had a positive view of appraisal were more likely to agree set objectives. Previous experience of appraisal either as an appraiser or appraisee was associated with a positive attitude towards appraisal. General practitioners who felt they had more control over the process tended to be more positive. General practitioners who were in favour of appraisal were also more likely to be in favour of revalidation and agree that appraisal formed part of the revalidation process. They were less likely to feel that there was a hidden agenda on the part of government and more likely to agree that revalidation would provide evidence of acceptable care being provided to patients. Time involved and lack of resources were the two main concerns. CONCLUSIONS: A better understanding of knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards appraisal will ultimately help in setting up a successful appraisal system for GPs. The current emphasis on appraisal as an educational tool will help to foster positive attitudes. The relationship between appraisal and revalidation needs to be clarified. Concerns relating to lack of time and resources for appraisal and revalidation need to be addressed by primary care organisations.
Middlemass J; Siriwardena AN
An intelligent agent will often be uncertain about various properties of its environment, and when acting in that environment it will frequently need to quantify its uncertainty. For example, if the agent wishes to employ the expected-utility paradigm of decision theory to guide its actions, it will need to assign degrees of belief (subjective probabilities) to various assertions. Of course, these degrees of belief should not be arbitrary, but rather should be based on the information available to the agent. This paper describes one approach for inducing degrees of belief from very rich knowledge bases, that can include information about particular individuals, statistical correlations, physical laws, and default rules. We call our approach the random-worlds method. The method is based on the principle of indifference: it treats all of the worlds the agent considers possible as being equally likely. It is able to integrate qualitative default reasoning with quantitative probabilistic reasoning by providing a ...
Bacchus, F; Halpern, J Y; Koller, D; Bacchus, Fahiem; Grove, Adam; Halpern, Joseph Y.; Koller, Daphne
Religion is a system of thoughts and behaviour that is common for a group or society, and which gives the individual a frame of orientation, and something to adore and pray to. The religious person believes in something named God or gods. The adult person's image of God is partly formed by the child's experiences of its own parents. The religious orientation itself seems more important than the contents of the religious beliefs or moral attitudes for the person's personality and mental health. The religious person may have his religion as the goal and meaning for his life, may use his religion to get relief, trust, and social acceptance, and may compromise with his religion for economic and social advantages, or he may be doubting and seeking in his religious orientation. Neither orthodox nor liberal beliefs, neither a strict conservative Christian nor a more lenient, humanistic morality seem to have importance for mental health or psychiatric symptom load. Religious belief may be conducive to mental illness, but may also function therapeutically. Some vignettes show this. Religious beliefs and a religious community may change the personality and affect the mental health of the religious believer. On the other side, character and life events may affect religious orientation, beliefs and moral attitudes.
Religion is a system of thoughts and behaviour that is common for a group or society, and which gives the individual a frame of orientation, and something to adore and pray to. The religious person believes in something named God or gods. The adult person's image of God is partly formed by the child's experiences of its own parents. The religious orientation itself seems more important than the contents of the religious beliefs or moral attitudes for the person's personality and mental health. The religious person may have his religion as the goal and meaning for his life, may use his religion to get relief, trust, and social acceptance, and may compromise with his religion for economic and social advantages, or he may be doubting and seeking in his religious orientation. Neither orthodox nor liberal beliefs, neither a strict conservative Christian nor a more lenient, humanistic morality seem to have importance for mental health or psychiatric symptom load. Religious belief may be conducive to mental illness, but may also function therapeutically. Some vignettes show this. Religious beliefs and a religious community may change the personality and affect the mental health of the religious believer. On the other side, character and life events may affect religious orientation, beliefs and moral attitudes. PMID:10327854
This small-scale exploratory study investigated a group of French university students' beliefs about the English language and English language learning, and the impact these beliefs had on the learners' L2 attitudes and motivation. The study employed a three-phased research paradigm. The first phase...
La formación de enfermeras y el fenómeno de las drogas en Colombia: conocimientos, actitudes y creencias A formação dos enfermeiros e o fenômeno das drogas na Colômbia: conhecimentos, atitudes e crenças Nursing education and the drugs phenomenon in Colombia: knowledge, attitudes and beliefs
Full Text Available La Investigación, tuvo como objetivo, caracterizar en la formación de enfermeras los conocimientos, las actitudes y creencias relacionadas con el fenómeno de las drogas. Estudio descriptivo, muestra total 100% (n=159), estudiantes de ultimo semestre de los programas de pregrado de enfermería. Resultados, se conocieron las actitudes y creencias sobre Alcohol, Drogas, Alcohol y Drogas, y los conocimientos que sobre el fenómeno de las drogas, tienen los estudiantes. Se identifico abordaje de las relaciones entre la Salud Internacional. Conclusión, los futuros enfermeros de la Región Central de Colombia, poseen preparación teórica sobre el alcohol y las drogas, asumen actitudes positivas, presentan debilidades prácticas, para actuar frente a esa problemática. Comprenden las relaciones entre la salud general, salud internacional y sus interrelaciones con el fenómeno de las drogas, indican que pueden ser actores en sus contextos internacionales, nacionales y regionales.A pesquisa teve como objetivo caracterizar a formação dos enfermeiros através do conhecimento, atitudes e crenças relacionadas com o fenômeno das drogas. É um estudo descritivo, com uma amostra composta por 159 (100%) estudantes do último semestre do programa de graduação de enfermagem ano. Pelos resultados, se conheceram as atitudes e crenças sobre os problemas relacionados ao álcool, álcool e drogas e drogas e ainda sobre o conhecimento que os estudantes tem sobre o tema Saúde Internacional. Conclusão: os futuros enfermeiros na Região Central da Colômbia possuem preparo teórico sobre álcool e drogas, possuem atitudes positivas, mas apresentam dificuldades na prática para atuar frente a essa problemática. Compreendem as relações entre a saúde geral, saúde internacional e as suas inter-relações com o fenômeno das drogas, indicam que podem ser atores em seus contextos internacionais, nacionais e regionais.The objective of the research was to confer a distinction on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs in nurse formation, related with drugs problem. Descriptive study, Total sample 100% (n=159) from nursing pregrade Programs. Results: the attitudes and beliefs Alcohol, Drugs, Alcohol and Drugs were known, and the knowledge that students have about drugs phenomenon. It identifies the relationship between International. Conclusion: the newly nurses Central Region of Colombia, theoretical preparation about Alcohol and Drugs, they assume positive attitudes, they show weakness in practice, to perform against this problem. They understand the relation between general health, international health and them with drugs problem, because all of this, it indicates they can be a great help in their international, nationals and regional contexts.
Evelyn Vásquez Mendoza; Sandra Cristina Pillon
Although cosmetic tanning and unprotected solar exposure are common, little is known about general attitudes, beliefs and behaviour regarding the use of sunbeds. We sought to determine the frequency of sunbeds use in a select sample and to assess the knowledge and beliefs regarding this behaviour. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 648 employees work for Bradford Hospitals NHS Trust. The questionnaire explored demographic information (including hair and skin type, family history with skin cancer), frequency of sunbeds use, knowledge about the risks of UV exposure and motivations for practising this behaviour. Four hundred and eighteen women and 52 men completed the questionnaire, making a response rate of 73%. Nearly half of respondents (207; 44%) reported using sunbeds to some extent; of those 12% reported frequent use. Appearance ('to look better') was the most popular reason given by respondents for using sunbeds, followed by 'feel healthy'. Frequency of using sunbeds was found to be negatively correlated with the age of respondents and the existence of family experience with skin cancer, and strongly associated with the opinion that it is safer to use a sunbed than subathing outdoors, the female sex and smoking. It is clear from this study that the psychological factors that influence sunbeds use are complex and that so far public education campaigns have had little impact on it. This study highlights some of these psychological factors.
Amir Z; Wright A; Kernohan EE; Hart G
Health disparities among Latinos have been associated with acculturation, but there is a lack of consensus about how acculturation variables translate into health beliefs that can be used to target attitude and behavior change interventions. Transcripts from three qualitative studies including 64 Latino immigrant adults were analyzed through inductive reasoning to assess relationships between more or less acculturated attitudes, and demographic variables. In the three topic areas of gender roles, sex education, and seeking professional help, attitudes ranged from conservative (less acculturated) to liberal (more acculturated), but did not seem associated with age, education or years in the United States. When dealing with specific health topics, it is not possible to infer specific attitudes, strength of attitudes or level of acculturation of intervention recipients. To develop sound, culturally competent interventions, it is necessary to assess the targets' beliefs and attitudes and tailor messages in specific contexts. PMID:22350810
Villar, Maria Elena; Concha, Maritza; Zamith, Rodrigo
Understanding trends in population perceptions of cancer is essential in identifying groups that may benefit from more targeted strategies in cancer prevention and detection. We report the prevalence of knowledge and attitudes with respect to various aspects of cancer in two independent national probability samples of 4,073 Austrian adults aged 15 years or above, and we describe the association of these variables with age, gender, marital status, and education. In-home interviews were conducted in September 1995 and in August 2005. Perceptions of cancer causes, positive personal experiences with cancer cures, and knowledge of cancer cures and causes generally improved across all groups. Those with less education were less likely to believe that cancer could be cured in 1995, a difference that resolved in 2005. Less encouragingly, education-based disparities persisted for factors such as knowledge of the importance of early detection in cancer cure and experiences with cancer cures. Differences in other subgroups, although existent, were only modest. Prevention education strategies should consider targeted approaches that aim to reduce disparities in cancer perception among those with less formal education.
Schernhammer E; Haidinger G; Waldhör T; Vargas R; Vutuc C
Understanding trends in population perceptions of cancer is essential in identifying groups that may benefit from more targeted strategies in cancer prevention and detection. We report the prevalence of knowledge and attitudes with respect to various aspects of cancer in two independent national probability samples of 4,073 Austrian adults aged 15 years or above, and we describe the association of these variables with age, gender, marital status, and education. In-home interviews were conducted in September 1995 and in August 2005. Perceptions of cancer causes, positive personal experiences with cancer cures, and knowledge of cancer cures and causes generally improved across all groups. Those with less education were less likely to believe that cancer could be cured in 1995, a difference that resolved in 2005. Less encouragingly, education-based disparities persisted for factors such as knowledge of the importance of early detection in cancer cure and experiences with cancer cures. Differences in other subgroups, although existent, were only modest. Prevention education strategies should consider targeted approaches that aim to reduce disparities in cancer perception among those with less formal education. PMID:20432076
Schernhammer, Eva; Haidinger, Gerald; Waldhör, Thomas; Vargas, Roberto; Vutuc, Christian
Climate literacy is evolving as a specific subset of science and environmental literacy. Through a longitudinal analysis of environmental autobiographies of an internationally and religiously diverse group of environmental sciences majors at a Historically Black College or University (HBCU) in the southern U.S., this presentation will explore: 1) sources and impact of religious beliefs on students' environmental worldview; 2) conflicts between religious, community and scientific values; and 3) navigating the tensions between trust in a religious deity as well as scientific methods and processes. Lester Milbrath states that "beliefs empower and deceive us." The media, as well as significant people and institutions, including religious institutions, socialize us and contribute to individual and societal worldviews. "We so thoroughly accept our culture's beliefs about how the world works that we hardly ever think about them even though they underlie everything we think and do." Beliefs, attitudes, and values comprise an important component of environmental literacy, a praxis-oriented concept from the field of environmental education, which is defined as: [T]he capacity to perceive and interpret the relative health of environmental systems and take appropriate action to maintain, restore, or improve the health of those systems . . . Environmental literacy should be defined in terms of observable behaviors. (Disinger and Roth 1992, 2). Environmental literacy draws upon six areas: environmental sensitivity; knowledge; skills; beliefs, attitudes and values; personal investment and responsibility; and active involvement. It involves particular ways of thinking, acting, and valuing (Roth 1992). Religious beliefs, or lack thereof, shape worldviews, thereby influencing individual and societal environmental and more specifically, climate literacy. For example, Western Christianity espouses a hierarchical anthropocentric worldview, putting God infinitely above human beings, and human beings above nature. The creation stories of Genesis have been used both implicitly and explicitly to justify domination and exploitation of the earth and its resources. Autobiographies may be used as a reflective pedagogical tool to help students to identify various components of their respective environmental worldviews that may influence their overall environmental and climate literacy. Narrative responses to guiding questions prompt students to reflect on beliefs, trust, and values. This research will inform the development of culturally relevant and scientifically sound approaches to climate change education.
Owens, M. A.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine Mexican American knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about colorectal cancer and barriers to receiving colorectal cancer screening exams. DESIGN: We developed an open-topic focus group schedule that addressed knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about screening for colorectal cancer and identified cultural issues to be considered when developing educational interventions to increase screening participation. Focus groups were used to elicit participant responses. SETTING: Two small communities (colonias) along the US-Mexico border. SUBJECTS: Mexican Americans ages > or = 50 years. RESULTS: A total of 43 individuals (20 men and 23 women) participated in the focus groups, each of which lasted approximately 90 minutes. Few focus group participants had ever heard of colorectal cancer or specific screening exams to detect early forms of cancer. Participants identified cost of medical care and embarrassment about receiving colorectal exams as barriers to screening participation. Respondents commonly expressed fatalistic attitudes about their chances of recovering from cancer, some preferred not to know if they had cancer or believed that they would refuse treatment if diagnosed with cancer. Nevertheless, many participants noted that strong support from family and friends or a strong will would allow one to survive cancer. CONCLUSION: Interventions to improve participation in screening services for colorectal cancer should focus on reducing the influences of cost and embarrassment and improving levels of knowledge about colorectal cancer and the need for screening.
Coronado GD; Farias A; Thompson B; Godina R; Oderkirk W
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between osteoporosis knowledge, beliefs and calcium intake among college students. This study also examined perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers and self-efficacy related to osteoporosis prevention. Participants: Seven hundred and ninety two (n = 792) men and women ages 17 - 31 of all ethnicities at a mid-western regional university in the US participated in the study. Methods: The Osteoporosis Knowledge Test, Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale, and Osteoporosis Preventing Behaviors Survey were utilized. Each of these tools were previously validated and found reliable. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were completed. Results: Participants did not perceive themselves as susceptible to osteoporosis and perceived minimal barriers to calcium intake. Their knowledge was minimal concerning alternate sources of calcium. Conclusions: Prevention programs should aim to increase osteoporosis knowledge of risk factors and osteoprotective behaviors and to decrease high-risk behaviors during college years when behavior changes can have the strongest impact on bone health.
Ellen Edmonds; Lori W. Turner; Stuart L. Usdan
|This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian school counselors toward diabetes mellitus. A sample of 295 counselors completed a questionnaire consisting of two parts concerning knowledge and attitudes. The face validity of the questionnaire was assessed using an informed panel of judges, and its reliability was established…
Tannous, Adel G.; Khateeb, Jamal M.; Khamra, Hatem A.; Hadidi, Muna S.; Natour, Mayada M.
PURPOSE: Stereotypes toward stuttering and people who stutter (PWS) are widespread in the general public irrespective of age, level of education, culture, geographic location and profession. Negative attitudes held by persons of authority like teachers can lead to social, economic and educational obstacles in the lives of PWS. METHOD: The current study used an Arabic translation of an adapted version of the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes-Stuttering (POSHA-S) to explore Arab teachers' knowledge and attitudes toward stuttering as well as strategies they adopt to cope with the problem in class. The participants were 262 in-service and 209 pre-service public school teachers in Kuwait. The results are contrasted to those of Arab parents in Kuwait reported earlier. RESULTS: Although many of the teachers knew a person who stutters well and were sensitive in their interactions with PWS, major findings of this study suggest that many were misinformed about the causes of stuttering and held stereotypical views about PWS, comparable to those reported in the literature. Very few differences were noted between opinions of teachers who were still in training and those who were practicing for an average of 11 years. CONCLUSION: The study underscores the need for awareness campaigns that target not only teachers who are currently working but also those still in training to dispel misconceptions about stuttering and ensure a better educational environment for PWS. EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES: At the end of this activity the reader will be able to: (1) describe knowledge of stuttering and attitudes toward students who stutter and classroom strategies perceived to be helpful by pre-service and in-service teachers in Kuwait; (2) identify stereotypes toward stuttering across cultures, professions and geographic locations; and (3) list similarities and differences in attitude and knowledge of stuttering between parents and teachers.
Abdalla FA; St Louis KO
OBJECTIVES: To explore clinician beliefs and attitudes about home haemodialysis in global regions where the prevalence of home haemodialysis is low, and to identify barriers to developing home haemodialysis services and possible strategies to increase acceptance and uptake of home haemodialysis. DESIGN: Semistructured interviews, thematic analysis. SETTING: 15 dialysis centres in Italy, Portugal, France, Germany, Sweden and Argentina. PARTICIPANTS: 28 nephrologists and 14 nurses caring for patients receiving in-centre haemodialysis. RESULTS: We identified four major themes as being central to clinician beliefs about home haemodialysis in regions without established services: external structural barriers (ready access to dialysis centres, inadequate housing conditions, unstable economic environment); dialysis centre characteristics (availability of alternative treatments, competing service priorities, commercial interests); clinician responsibility and motivation (preserving safety and security, lack of awareness, knowledge and experience, potential to offer lifestyle benefits, professional interest and advancement); and cultural apprehension (an unrelenting imposition, carer burden, attachment to professional healthcare provision, limited awareness). CONCLUSIONS: Despite recognising the potential benefits of home haemodialysis, clinicians practicing in Europe and South America felt apprehensive and doubted the feasibility of home haemodialysis programmes. Programmes that provide clinicians with direct experience of home haemodialysis could increase acceptance and motivation for home-based haemodialysis, as might service prioritisation and funding models that favour home haemodialysis.
Tong A; Palmer S; Manns B; Craig JC; Ruospo M; Gargano L; Johnson DW; Hegbrant J; Olsson M; Fishbane S; Strippoli GF
INTRODUCTION: Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1) to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2) to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinic. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ? 0.05. RESULTS: A generally poor level of knowledge (59%) and a neutral attitude (76%) toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%), black magic (67.5%), intrauterine devices (71.3%), and contraceptive pills (42.9%). The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility treatment by 6.7% and 44.2% of IVF patients, respectively. Compared with fertile patients, IVF patients were significantly less likely to favor divorce (38.5% versus 57.6%; P = 0.001) or marriage to a second wife (62.5% versus 86.2%; P < 0.001), if the woman could not have a baby. The patients with infertility had more favorable attitudes toward fertility drugs (87.5% versus 68.4%; P = 0.003) and having a test tube baby (92.4% versus 70.3%; P < 0.001). Child adoption was accepted as an option for treatment by the majority of IVF patients (60.6%) and fertile outpatients (71.5%). Alternative treatments previously practiced by the IVF patients to improve fertility include practicing Ruqia (61%), using alternative medicine (42%), engaging in physical exercise (39%), eating certain foods (22%), and quitting smoking (12%). CONCLUSION: These findings have implications for health care providers regarding the reluctance that couples experiencing fertility problems may have, at least initially, to accept some interventions required for the couple to conceive.
Abolfotouh MA; Alabdrabalnabi AA; Albacker RB; Al-Jughaiman UA; Hassan SN
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nurses play a pivotal role in pain management. Unrelieved pain significantly interferes with patient's quality of life and is of great concern to nurses. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge level and attitudes of nurses related to pain management. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted in an urban hospital. A total of 84 registered nurses were recruited using a modified version of questionnaire of Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain. RESULTS: The findings showed that respondents possessed good knowledge (99.12±14.810) and attitude (66.00 ±10.415) towards pain management. Fifty five respondents (66%) responded as positive to cultural beliefs affecting their pain management and 65 respondents (77%) viewed that their personal experiences had influenced their practice in pain management. Another 45 respondents (54%) reported they have attended pain course. There was no significant difference in pain management between respondents' year of service, cultural belief and personal experiences (p=>0.05). In terms of knowledge towards to pain management, respondents' age groups of more than 40 years were noted to possess better knowledge (p=0.046), unmarried respondents (p=0.018), and attended pain course (p=0.001) were significant. Attitude towards to pain management was not significant (p?0.05). CONCLUSION: Nurses' knowledge and attitudes scores were impressive but there is room for further improvement to pain management. Continuing education organized by the hospital had significant impact on the nurses. However, this education course has to be reinforced from time to time in order to improve patients' pain experiences.
Ho SE; Ho CC; Pang Yuen H; Lexshimi R; Choy YC; Jaafar MZ; Cardosa M; Das S
American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) suffer a disproportionate burden of diabetes and kidney failure. For those with chronic kidney disease, transplantation may be the most effective treatment option. However, low rates of organ donation and transplantation are reported for AI/ANs, who face significant barriers in accessing the transplant waiting list. They are also less likely than Whites to consent to become organ donors. We partnered with five tribal colleges and universities to conduct focus groups to assess knowledge, cultural beliefs, and behaviors related to organ donation and transplantation among AI/AN college students. Focus group data were used to develop a culturally targeted media campaign and outreach strategy aimed at increasing rates of consent to donate organs. Community knowledge typically drew from direct family experience with chronic illness. Study findings confirmed that attitudes about organ donation were influenced by cultural beliefs. Nevertheless, many participants supported organ donation even when it conflicted with cultural and spiritual beliefs about keeping the body intact for burial. Participants also expressed mistrust of the local health care system, suggesting that trust issues might interfere with health messaging on this topic. This is the first study to examine sociocultural beliefs about organ donation among AI/AN college students. Through focus group findings, study staff were better positioned to develop culturally relevant outreach materials. Rising rates of chronic illness among AI/ANs ensure that organ donation and transplantation will be a long-term feature of the health landscape in AI/AN communities. Targeted health messaging must be part of the strategy to reduce donor shortages. PMID:23504267
Jernigan, Meghan; Fahrenwald, Nancy; Harris, Raymond; Tsosie, Ursula; Baker, Lannesse Olivina; Buchwald, Dedra
Sexual attitudes and knowledge of graduate nursing students were compared with those of sophomore medical students in a large, urban Midwestern university and also with the national normative values for nonmedical graduate students. The Sex Knowledge and Attitude Test (SKAT) was used to collect data. Graduate nursing students did not differ significantly in the attitude and knowledge of human sexuality when compared with sophomore medical students. Graduate nonmedical students were not significantly more knowledgeable, but were significantly more tolerant toward human sexuality than sophomore medical students and graduate nursing students. The fundamental implication is the need for more constructive education in human sexuality as a planned part of the nursing curricula. PMID:6906463
Kuczynski, H J
Sexual attitudes and knowledge of graduate nursing students were compared with those of sophomore medical students in a large, urban Midwestern university and also with the national normative values for nonmedical graduate students. The Sex Knowledge and Attitude Test (SKAT) was used to collect data. Graduate nursing students did not differ significantly in the attitude and knowledge of human sexuality when compared with sophomore medical students. Graduate nonmedical students were not significantly more knowledgeable, but were significantly more tolerant toward human sexuality than sophomore medical students and graduate nursing students. The fundamental implication is the need for more constructive education in human sexuality as a planned part of the nursing curricula.
To examine differences in knowledge, attitudes, and related practices among adopters and nonadopters of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, the researchers conducted 83 in-depth interviews with 18- to 26-year-old women. The study identified knowledge-attitude-practice gaps in the context of the HPV vaccine to explain why diffusion of a preventive innovation (such as the HPV vaccine) requires targeted risk communication strategies in order to increase demand. Salient findings included similarities between vaccinated and unvaccinated women's lack of knowledge and uncertainties about HPV and cervical cancer. Vaccinated women who had no knowledge of HPV or no-risk/low-risk perceptions of HPV reported receiving vaccination, indicating HPV risk protection behavior could precede knowledge acquisition for vaccinated women. These vaccinated women identified an interpersonal network supportive of vaccination and reported supportive social influences. Among unvaccinated women, unsupportive vaccination attitudes included low perceived personal risk of HPV. In contrast, unvaccinated women often cited erroneous beliefs that HPV could be avoided by abstinence, monogamy, and knowledge of their partners' sexual history as reasons that the vaccine was not personally relevant. Unvaccinated women cited interpersonal influences that activated short- and long-term vaccination safety and efficacy concerns. Different levels of fear regarding the HPV vaccine may underlie (a) attitudinal differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated women in perceived vaccination value and (b) attitude-practice gaps.
Cohen EL; Head KJ
To examine differences in knowledge, attitudes, and related practices among adopters and nonadopters of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, the researchers conducted 83 in-depth interviews with 18- to 26-year-old women. The study identified knowledge-attitude-practice gaps in the context of the HPV vaccine to explain why diffusion of a preventive innovation (such as the HPV vaccine) requires targeted risk communication strategies in order to increase demand. Salient findings included similarities between vaccinated and unvaccinated women's lack of knowledge and uncertainties about HPV and cervical cancer. Vaccinated women who had no knowledge of HPV or no-risk/low-risk perceptions of HPV reported receiving vaccination, indicating HPV risk protection behavior could precede knowledge acquisition for vaccinated women. These vaccinated women identified an interpersonal network supportive of vaccination and reported supportive social influences. Among unvaccinated women, unsupportive vaccination attitudes included low perceived personal risk of HPV. In contrast, unvaccinated women often cited erroneous beliefs that HPV could be avoided by abstinence, monogamy, and knowledge of their partners' sexual history as reasons that the vaccine was not personally relevant. Unvaccinated women cited interpersonal influences that activated short- and long-term vaccination safety and efficacy concerns. Different levels of fear regarding the HPV vaccine may underlie (a) attitudinal differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated women in perceived vaccination value and (b) attitude-practice gaps. PMID:23767775
Cohen, Elisia L; Head, Katharine J
With a heightened focus on the concept of sustainability in the past few decades, government, business and individuals have become increasingly aware of the need to reduce our environmental footprint. Consequently there has been much research on consumer environmental behaviour, and the beliefs, norms and attitudes that influence this behaviour. In this article we develop a conceptual framework of consumer environmental behaviour and its antecedents, and test hypotheses within the framework by means of a survey of green consumers. The results show that general environmental beliefs do influence norms on environmental actions and prices, but only norms on price are correlated with environmental attitudes; both intrinsic and extrinsic environmental drivers together with social norms and community influence are associated with environmental attitudes, but cost barriers may have a negative influence. It was also found that there was a strong association between environmental attitudes and energy saving behaviours but the latter was not in any way influenced by government policies or subsidies. - Highlights: ? We model consumer environmental behaviour and its antecedents. ? Environmental beliefs influence environmental norms on actions and prices. ? Environmental price norms are correlated with environmental attitudes. ? Environmental drivers, social norms and community influence are associated with attitudes. ? Strong association found between environmental attitudes and behaviour.
This article documents the beliefs and attitudes of men toward intimate partner violence in Pakistan. Men's beliefs and attitudes toward partner violence are shaped by the life-long process of gender socialization, where the role of wife is projected as submissive and docile. Drawing on eight in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions (FGDs) conducted in Lahore and Sialkot, this article presents how men perceive and justify partner violence within the context of Pakistani society. The data show that the construct of "ideal wife" inculcated among men fits into Foucault's notion of "docile bodies," which are subjected to control, discipline, and violent punishment.
Zakar R; Zakar MZ; Kraemer A
This study addresses the relations between AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior change among university students. A questionnaire covering such issues and personal background variables was administered to 750 students at the University of Zagreb. Over-all, 62.7% of the knowledge items were answered correctly, while functional, self-protective aspects of knowledge proved to be much better than general knowledge. On the average, attitudinal responses were moderately liberal. Both self-reported change in risk-reduction behavior and personal concern due to the appearance of AIDS were very small. Correlations of risk-reducing behavior with permissive (.15) and restrictive (.14) attitude orientations and with general and functional knowledge (.08) were modest. The level of personal concern correlated neither with permissive attitudes nor with functional knowledge, while it correlated negatively with restrictive attitudes (-.20) and with general knowledge (-.08). Substantial association was only established between functional knowledge and permissive (.51) and restrictive attitude orientations (-.23). It is concluded that, in addition to knowledge and attitudes, a number of factors which restrain desired behavioral adjustment should be considered in anti-AIDS campaigns, such as perceived level of exposure to HIV in a particular environment, young age-specific illusion of invulnerability, peer norms, and others.
Ajdukovi? D; Ajdukovi? M
PURPOSE Negative attitudes and beliefs about depression treatment may prevent many young adults from accepting a diagnosis and treatment for depression. We undertook a study to determine the association between depressive symptom severity, beliefs about and attitudes toward treatment, subjective soc...
Van Voorhees, Benjamin W.; Fogel, Joshua; Houston, Thomas K.; Cooper, Lisa A.; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Ford, Daniel E.
Background: The incidence of skin cancer, including melanoma, continues to increase. Teenagers are especially vulnerable, as are young females. The incidence of melanoma among young women in their twenties and thirties has begun to increase again. These young people are also the population that frequent tanning salons. Objective: This voluntary, anonymous, New York University, Institutional Review Board-approved survey was given to students in grades 9 through 12 to ascertain their understanding of what causes skin cancers and the dangers of excessive sun exposure and tanning salons. Methods and materials: An Institutional Review Board-approved, 22-question survey was administered anonymously to more than 450 students with 368 returned responses. The survey was administered to students in grades 9 through 12 at two high schools in New York and New Jersey. Results: More than 80 percent of students view movie stars as tan and almost 60 percent see "tan" people as better looking. In addition, more than 90 percent believe that a tan does not prevent further damage to the skin (as opposed to the customary belief that a "base" tan can protect against extreme sun exposures, such as when on a tropical vacation). There appears to be a disconnect between knowledge and sun tanning behaviors. Most teenagers still believe that tans are attractive and teenage girls continue to use tanning salons and tan naturally. We need to address the connection between sun tanning in youth and skin cancers years later. Legislation to limit access of tanning salons to teenagers needs to be enacted. PMID:20967182
Ashinoff, Robin; Levine, Vicki J; Steuer, Alexa B; Sedwick, Carly
Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of knowledge, sexual practices and attitude of medical students towards AIDS/ HIV. Objective: To assess the knowledge, sexual practices and attitudes of medical students in relation to HIV/AIDS. Study Design: Cross- sectional. Participants: 409 first year medical students. Study variables: Sex knowledge, sexual practices, Attitudes, Risk perception. Results: 92% of the students had heard about AIDS predominantly through mass media. Many students had misconception about transmission of HIV infection should not be allowed to work in the clinic or hospital. 36% of male and 9% of female students admitted indulging in safe sexual practices mostly with their friends.
Amalraj Edwin R; Chandrasekaran Nirmala; Solomon Sunithi; Sumbandam Raja P
AIMS: The aims of this study were (1) to estimate what proportion of rural females had received cervical screening, (2) to assess knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and demographics that influence cervical screening, and (3) to predict cervical screening accessibility based on demographic factors, knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes that influence cervical screening. METHODS: The study sample consisted of randomly selected, sexually active, rural females between 12 and 84 years of age. Five hundred fourteen females responded to an individually administered questionnaire. RESULTS: Of the 514 participants, 91% had never had cervical screening and 81% had no previous knowledge of cervical screening tests; 80% of the group expressed positive beliefs about cervical screening tests after an educational intervention. Females who were financially independent were 6.61% more likely to access cervical screening compared with those who were dependent on their husbands. Females in mining villages were 4.47% more likely to access cervical screening than those in traditional rural reserve villages. Females in resettlement villages were 20% less likely to access cervical screening than those in traditional rural reserve villages. CONCLUSIONS: Accessibility of screening services could be improved through planning and implementation of screening programs involving community leaders and culturally appropriate messages. The government should incorporate the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in its immunization program for adolescents, and health education should be intensified to encourage women and their partners to comply with diagnostic and treatment regimens.
Mupepi SC; Sampselle CM; Johnson TR
Objectives: What attitudes do medical students express about AIDS and does their knowledge correlate with these attitudes. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of purposively selected 400 students of 1st and 2nd MBBS, Medical College Baroda was conducted during July 2008. They were asked to complete a ...
Shaikh Mohsin, Sunil Nayak, Vipul Mandaviya
A survey of the sexual attitudes and knowledge of general practitioners in Wessex found that GP trainees and those in practice for less than 10 years were less conservative and better informed than doctors in practice for 20 years or more, The results suggest that the attitudes of the doctors are de...
Elstein, M; Gordon, A D; Buckingham, M S
Full Text Available Pubic lice (Pthirus pubis) maintain a worldwide parasitic population infesting two to over 10 percent of human populations, continuing a presence that has been constant since early evidence 10,000 years ago. Outbreaks in the 1970s have been recorded, but incomplete records preclude description of a definitive population cycle. Current levels of infestation in a US college student population were investigated in this study. Knowledge and opinions of students were also recorded in an online survey administered to college students taking a basic health course at a mid-sized East Coast University. In a group of 817 students, 35 reported experience with pubic lice or other STD infection. Knowledge, beliefs, and treatment attitudes were examined for the 782 students who did not have experience with either pubic lice or STD infection. These students deemed antibiotics as a viable treatment for pubic lice infestation. They also indicated negative attitudes toward the use of pesticide crèmes, which are the most useful prescription. Symptoms and transmission myths in student answers are described.
Alice L. Anderson; Elizabeth Chaney
The development and validation of an inventory of preventive cardiology at the University of Virginia is described. The inventory contains two instruments designed to measure medical students' preinstructional and postinstructional knowledge of and attitude toward preventive cardiology. (Author/MLW)
Allred, Charlene A.; And Others
Treating persons with epilepsy (PWE) in developing countries may be different from elsewhere. Knowledge and attitudes of PWE are known to be associated with seizure control. This study aims to evaluate factors related with the knowledge and attitudes of PWE in northeastern Thailand. A cross-sectional survey using questionnaires and interviews was undertaken at the Khon Kaen University epilepsy clinic. The questionnaire comprised 22 questions (14 knowledge questions and 8 attitude questions). Two hundred three PWE participated in the study with a mean age of 36.5 years. Four factors were significantly associated with the knowledge about epilepsy, which included education level, age, epilepsy duration, and a history of experiencing antiepileptic medication side effects. In addition, there were four factors significantly associated with the attitudes about epilepsy, which included seizure control, education level, epilepsy duration, and marital status. There is a need to provide more education, preferably community based, to help PWE obtain more accurate information.
Saengsuwan J; Boonyaleepan S; Srijakkot J; Sawanyawisuth K; Tiamkao S
|The current study investigates how two groups of mathematically gifted pupils with learning difficulties (MG/LD) change/do not change their attitudes towards, and beliefs about, mathematics over five weeks during which they received two different instructional programs in mathematics. Thirty pupils (16 girls and 14 boys), aged 10 years to 11…
Full Text Available Objective: The development of effective psychoeducational programs for the management of schizophrenia requires an understanding of attitudes towards and beliefs about the disorder in families of affected probands. In order to establish the need for adaptation of Western psychoeducational programs, these variables were investigated in Xhosa speaking families in South Africa. Design: Xhosa speaking family members of patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia were recruited on a voluntary basis, and interviewed with a structured belief and attitudes questionnaire adapted from previous studies in the West. Setting: The study population was drawn from both urban and rural Xhosa communities in South Africa. Subjects: 100 Xhosa speaking family members participated in the study. Results: Family members most often recommended treatment with psychotropic medications (88%) and traditional healers (32%), and least often recommended psychotherapy (4%) and meditation (1%). Of the respondents who recommended traditional healing methods, 92% also recommended simultaneous use of allopathic treatment. Conclusion: Attitudes towards and beliefs about schizophrenia in family members of patients with schizophrenia may differ substantially from those described in previous work in the West. An understanding of local attitudes and beliefs is crucial for the successful development of local psychoeducational programs.
N.I. Mbanga; D.J.H. Niehaus; N.C. Mzamo; C.J. Wessels; A. Allen; R.A. Emsley; D.J. Stein
Although the language teaching profession has long emphasized the use of the target language in the classroom, student teachers face various challenges in their efforts to conduct class in their target language. This case study focused on 10 student teachers with respect to (1) their initial attitudes and beliefs about using the target language,…
Bateman, Blair E.
As part of a study on the effects of teaching with a Modified Moore Method (MMM), a survey containing 20 items from Schoenfeld's (1989) investigation of attitudes and beliefs about mathematics was administered to students in undergraduate precalculus classes. The study included one section of precalculus taught with an MMM, a student-centered and…
Bailey, Brad; Cooper, Thomas E.; Briggs, Karen S.
OBJECTIVE: This study explored oral health beliefs, knowledge and behaviour among a sample of United Kingdom Chinese. DESIGN: A quota sample of Chinese people, stratified by age and gender, were interviewed by trained and standardised Chinese interviewers using a piloted, validated semi-structured questionnaire. SUBJECTS: One hundred and fifty-six Chinese people--with similar number of teenagers, younger adults and older people--resident in the North East of England. SETTING: Chinese communities. OUTCOME MEASURE: Reported dental knowledge, beliefs and behaviours. RESULTS: Regardless of gender and age, the majority of respondents believed that it was natural for people to lose all their teeth in old age. Less than half were convinced that they would be able to keep their own teeth for life. The majority of the sample considered that they were susceptible to dental diseases, the consequences of which were thought to be serious. Approximately half presumed that dental diseases were preventable, although the aetiology of dental caries, periodontal disease and tooth loss was poorly understood. While 94% claimed to brush their teeth as part of routine dental care, dental visiting and dietary restriction of sugar intake were reported only in 61% and 30% of the sample respectively. Inter-generational differences were marked; older people tended to have a fatalistic attitude and were least likely to attend the dentist. CONCLUSIONS: A low level of dental awareness was found among the UK Chinese. In order to facilitate effective health promotion and treatment services, the extent of Chinese people's traditional oral health beliefs and behaviour must be taken into account.
Kwan SY; Williams SA
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. METHODS: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) questionnaire was developed as a standard tool in order to assess perception of subjects toward plagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission.
Poorolajal J; Cheraghi P; Irani AD; Cheraghi Z; Mirfakhraei M
Background This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively. Results: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (P<0.001). Conclusions: This knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) questionnaire was developed as a standard tool in order to assess perception of subjects toward plagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission.
Poorolajal, J; Cheraghi, P; Irani, A Doosti; Cheraghi, Z; Mirfakhraei, M
Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism.Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively.Results: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (P<0.001).Conclusions: This knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) questionnaire was developed as a standard tool in order to assess perception of subjects toward plagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission.
J Poorolajal; P Cheraghi; A Doosti Irani; Z Cheraghi; M Mirfakhraei
To date the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy modified for bipolar disorder has been inconsistent and sometimes disappointing. However studies exploring cognitive style in bipolar disorder have not identified the unique patterns of beliefs specific to bipolar disorder. The current study examin...
Alatiq, Y; Crane, C; Williams, JM; Goodwin, GM
The objective of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes toward menopause among young and middle-aged Mexican women and men, as well as the menopausal-related symptoms that middle-aged women report or expect and that other participants think a menopausal woman experiences. The beliefs about and attitudes toward Menopause Questionnaire and the Greene Climacteric Scale were answered by 395 Mexicans between the ages of 20 and 60 years. Comparing middle-aged participants, the most negative attitudes toward menopause were held by surgically menopausal women, and the most positive attitudes by naturally postmenopausal women. Younger participants showed more negative attitudes when compared to those in middle age (with exception of surgically menopausal women). There was a positive correlation between negative attitudes and menopausal-related symptoms either experienced by perimenopausal and naturally postmenopausal women, or expected by young and premenopausal women. No significant correlation was found between attitudes and symptoms in the groups of surgically menopausal women or the men. These findings are discussed in light of differences between genders and age cohorts.
Marvan ML; Castillo-López RL; Arroyo L
OBJECTIVE: Injuries are among the 10 leading causes of death for all ages in Vietnam, and road traffic fatalities account for approximately half of those deaths. Despite having what is considered to be one of the most stringent alcohol legislations in the region, alcohol involvement in road traffic crashes remains high. This study aims to illustrate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices around alcohol use and drinking and driving by age and sex in 3 provinces in Vietnam. METHODS: This study was conducted between January and February 2011, surveying randomly selected road users over the age of 17 years at gas stations in 3 provinces: Ha Nam, Ninh Binh, and Bac Giang, Vietnam. Data were collected for one week at each gas station. A knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) survey was administered in 7 time blocks of 90 min throughout the day, from 07:30 am to 9:30 pm. RESULTS: There were a total of 633 respondents almost evenly divided among the 3 provinces. Males accounted for 69.1 percent of respondents; the majority were 36 years of age or younger. Despite the belief that drinking and driving will increase the risk of a crash, a significant proportion of respondents (44.9%) reported drinking and driving; 56.7 percent admitted to drinking and driving within the last month. Drinking and driving was more common among males, with approximately 60.2 percent indicating a history of drinking and driving. This proportion was particularly high among males aged 17 to 26 (71.4%). It was found that preferred alternatives to drinking and driving when available were leaving with a nondrinker (42%), resting until "feeling conscious" (23%), and drinking less (20%). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that, in general, alcohol use and drinking and driving remain a problem in Vietnam, a major concern given that the country is rapidly motorizing and likewise increasing the likelihood of road traffic crashes in the absence of effective interventions. To target drinking and driving in Vietnam we call for a multifaceted approach, including social marketing and public education campaigns, enhanced enforcement, and programs that either limit the number of drinks to drivers or young individuals or those that provide alternatives to drinking and driving.
Tran NT; Bachani AM; Pham VC; Lunnen JC; Jo Y; Passmore J; Nguyen PN; Hyder AA
Full Text Available Problem statement: As number of Persons Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWAs) increases, caring for them is a new rising problem. The World Health Organization encourages caring these people at home. Patients themselves also prefer to stay at home than staying in hospital. Adequate knowledge and positive attitude are important factors in providing better care for a patient. Approach: This study was conducted to assess level of knowledge and describe attitudes existing between family members of PLWAs. A cross-sectional study was conducted on PLWAs to assess the basic level of knowledge and attitude regarding AIDS. One hundred family members of PLWAs were selected using simple random sampling. A three-part questionnaire was delivered to measure HIV/AIDS-related attitude and knowledge. Results: Mean score of participants were 10.69±2.05 of a maximum of 14 points in knowledge. Knowledge on some aspect of the disease was quite high in the study group; Mean score was 25.42±6.05 from a maximum of 40 points in attitude. Female gender, higher income and education level were associated with a greater level of knowledge. Parents in comparison with other relatives and persons older than 60 usually had lower level of knowledge. Patients with higher income or education level also had more positive attitude toward patient. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggest that the family members of patients living with AIDS have a satisfactory level of essential knowledge on HIV/AIDS. Most of them have good attitudes toward person with HIV/AIDS. However, there are some misconceptions about the routes of transmission that can be problems on the way of providing homebased care.
Jamshidi M. Mahin; Davoodian Parivash; Abdoul H. Madani; Allemohammad Azadeh; Amiri Zinab; Daryanavard Ali; Golvardi Y.M. Sadegh; Pourbahri Maryam; Moosavi Afsaneh
BACKGROUND: Most pregnant women in Denmark say they have not talked to their midwives about alcohol in pregnancy, and they have mostly been advised that some alcohol intake is all right. From 1999 to 2007, the Danish National Board of Health advised pregnant women that some alcohol intake was acceptable. Since 2007, the recommendation has been alcohol abstinence. The aim of this study was to describe the attitudes toward, knowledge about, and information practice concerning alcohol drinking in pregnancy among midwives in Denmark in 2000 and 2009 and how their answers related to the 2 different official recommendations at the time. METHODS: In 2000, we invited all midwives in the antenatal care center at Aarhus University Hospital. Ninety-four percent were interviewed about their attitudes toward and beliefs and knowledge about alcohol during pregnancy. Questions were also asked about information on alcohol provided to pregnant women. Identical questions were asked to all midwives (100%) in the antenatal care center in 2009. RESULTS: In 2000, most midwives (69%) considered some alcohol intake in pregnancy acceptable, mostly on a weekly level, and only 28% advised abstinence. Binge drinking, on the other hand, was considered harmful by most. There was considerable inter-person variation in the participants' attitudes and what they recommended to pregnant women. In 2009, substantially more midwives (48%) considered abstinence to be best, and significantly, more midwives (61%) gave this advice to pregnant women. Participants had received information on alcohol mostly in a professional context. Their knowledge about the official recommendations about alcohol was good, but many did not inform about the official recommendation. CONCLUSIONS: The attitudes toward and beliefs and knowledge about drinking in pregnancy among midwives have changed along with a change in official policy. The change was mostly independent of personal characteristics of the midwives, including age, gender, and place of work.
Kesmodel US; Kesmodel PS
Objective: The bystander approach to rape prevention is gaining popularity on college campuses, although research is limited. This study explored bystander attitudes and their relationship with rape myths in a sample of college students. Participants: Surveys from 2,338 incoming undergraduate students at a large, northeastern university were…
Objective: This study examined weight bias among students training in health disciplines and its associations with their perceptions about treating patients with obesity, causes of obesity, and observations of weight bias by instructors and peers. Design and Methods: Students (N = 107) enrolled in a post-graduate health discipline (Physician Associate, Clinical Psychology, Psychiatric Residency) completed anonymous questionnaires to assess the above variables. Results: Students reported that patients with obesity are a common target of negative attitudes and derogatory humor by peers (63%), health-care providers (65%), and instructors (40%). Although 80% of students felt confident to treat obesity, many reported that patients with obesity lack motivation to make changes (33%), lead to feelings of frustration (36%), and are non-compliant with treatment (36%). Students with higher weight bias expressed greater frustration in these areas. The effect of students' weight bias on expectations for treatment compliance of patients with obesity was partially mediated by beliefs that obesity is caused by behavioral factors Conclusions: Weight bias is commonly observed by students in health disciplines, who themselves report frustrations and stereotypes about treating patients with obesity. These findings contribute new knowledge about weight bias among students and provide several targets for medical training and education.
Puhl RM; Luedicke J; Grilo CM
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the relationships Belief Dimensions and attitude of viewers towards TVadvertising. Earlier research was mainly explored in the west with some finding were positive and some beingnegative on certain aspects of viewers perception. Whilst this study is exploratory in nature in understanding therelationship between Belief Dimensions and attitude of viewers towards TV advertising. Generally the Thai TVviewers tend to have a more negative attitude towards TV advertising. Three Belief dimension were found to besignificant towards TV advertising and theses are informational benefits, negative contents and offensive. Threewere not significant and these are availability, advertising format and non-informative. The result shows anumber of implications for the management of business organization in particular the advertising agencies. Theyneed to address the issue of peoples’ perception being negative towards TV adverting; secondly combine thedemographic characteristics and belief dimensions to maximize advertising’s reach and effectiveness. Byunderstanding the viewer profile advertising agencies may be able to do a better media planning and focus oncreativity and presentation.
Chuthamas Chittithaworn; Md. Aminul Islam; Orachot Thooksoon
PURPOSE: There is increasing global interest in sustainability and the environment. A hospital/health care food service facility consumes large amounts of resources; therefore, efficiencies in operation can address sustainability. Beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours about environmentally friendly practices in hospital/health care food services were explored in this study. METHODS: Questionnaires addressed environmentally friendly initiatives in building and equipment, waste management, food, and non-food procurement issues. The 68 participants included hospital food service managers, clinical dietitians, dietary aides, food technicians, and senior management. Data analysis included correlation analysis and descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Average scores for beliefs were high in building and equipment (90%), waste management (94%), and non-food procurement (87%), and lower in food-related initiatives (61%) such as buying locally, buying organic foods, buying sustainable fish products, and reducing animal proteins. Average positive scores for behaviours were positively correlated with beliefs (waste management, p=0.001; food, p=0.000; non-food procurement, p=0.002). Average positive scores for attitude in terms of implementing the initiatives in health care were 74% for building and equipment, 81% for waste management, 70% for non-food procurement, and 36% for food. CONCLUSIONS: The difference in food-related beliefs, behaviours, and attitudes suggests the need for education on environmental impacts of food choices. Research is recommended to determine facilitators and barriers to the implementation of green strategies in health care. As food experts, dietitians can lead changes in education, practice, and policy development.
Wilson ED; Garcia AC
Full Text Available Objective:This is a qualitative research that aims to explore the mothers’ knowledge and practices regarding infant nutrition and breastfeeding. Forty mothers with infants aged 9-15 months- and with varing different backgrounds in education, social and economic structure, formed the study groups.Method:The data was collected by means of depth interviews useing of a semi-structured questionnaire.Results:After the analysis the mothers’ words during the interviews were classified under these main themes: 1-Procedures affecting mothers’ breastfeeding decision 2-Knowledge and beliefs regarding breast-milk, 3-Breastfeeding practices, 4-Factors influencing the decisions of feeding with non-breast milk products 5-Mothers’ knowledge and attitudes to complementary nutritients/foods. Breastfeeding is a common habit in Turkey. In our study all of the infants were breastfed. But the mother’sanxiety about the sufficiency of breast-milk and social pressure leads to starting with complementary nutritients/foods early. Education must emphasize exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months and following the weight gain of the infant as the major indicator for assessment of its sufficiency. Although the economic level of the family affects the selection of the complementary foods, supervision is necessary for mothers who do not know enough about the quality of the foods and time of addition to the diet. i Mothers prefer one to one interviews with health professionals and using printed materials about infant nutrition.Conclusion:Before preparing community-based programs to improve infant nutrition, the mothers’ opinions, beliefs and needs, should be taken into account.
Gizem Saml?; Bülent Kara; Pemra Cöbek Ünalan; Bülent Saml?; Nazan Sarper; Ay?e Sevim Gökalp
OBJECTIVE: A program providing free immunization against human papillomavirus (HPV) was launched in the province of Quebec in 2008. A survey was conducted to describe the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of young women in Quebec regarding HPV infections. METHOD: In 2009, a questionnaire was sent by mail to 2,400 women, 24 years of age, randomly selected from the Quebec provincial health insurance database (RAMQ). RESULTS: The overall response rate was 56%. More than 80% of participants had heard of HPV and HPV vaccine. Less than half knew the mode of transmission of HPV. More than 80% of participants knew the causes of cervical cancer. Most women said they were dissatisfied with the information received on HPV. Only 5% of participants had received the HPV vaccine. The average age at first sexual intercourse was 17 years. More than 80% of participants had been screened for cervical cancer with an average age for screening initiation of 18 years. CONCLUSION: This study provided basic data from a representative sample of women, 24 years of age, in Quebec. Although most women surveyed had heard of HPV and the vaccine, gaps remained in their knowledge in addition to a dissatisfaction about the information they received. A better way to inform the young adult population should be developed.
Kiely M; Sauvageau C; Dubé E; Deceuninck G; De Wals P
Full Text Available This paper describes the Jodï horticultural system, including belief, knowledge and practice aspects. The horticulturalpractices of the Jodï were previously characterized as ‘incipient cultivation’ but such practices were poorly described anddocumented. The antiquity of cultivation among this group is suggested by the prominence and significance of horticulturalproducts and techniques in myth and ritual. Our field observations uncovered a fairly sophisticated system of plantmanagement in swiddens, house gardens, trail gardens and natural forest gaps. An inventory of 67 cultivated plant specieswas documented, of which 36 are utilized for food, 20 for magical or medicinal purposes, and 11 for technology. The Jodïprolong the productive phase of their gardens for five years or more through successive planting-harvesting-replantingoperations. Jodï swiddens display an elaborate polycultivated appearance and they possess at least five principal crops:plantain/banana, maize, yams, sweet potato, and sweet manioc. Another distinctive feature is the extensive use of naturalgaps in the forest canopy as cultivation zones. The results of this study suggest that while Jodï horticultural practice iswell integrated with a nomadic, foraging-dependent lifestyle, nevertheless this system does not deserve to be labeled as‘incipient’ and instead is more integral than was recognized previously.
Stanford Zent; Egleé Zent
The success of mammal cloning in 1997 has brought the issue of human cloning into public discussion. Human cloning has several aspects and potential applications for use in both reproductive and non-reproductive matters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning in Israel. Data from 120 respondents (68 health professionals and 52 non-health professionals), all Jewish, Hebrew speaking with at least 15 years of education each, were collected using two questionnaires that dealt with knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning. Results showed that although health professionals had significantly more knowledge that non-health professionals, all respondents had poor knowledge about cloning. No difference in attitudes was found between the groups. Most respondents opposed human cloning, but more positive attitudes toward non-reproductive cloning were found. The results are discussed in the context of the deficit model. The findings indicate a need to provide information about human cloning to allow people to form their attitudes based on factual knowledge. PMID:17312628
Barnoy, Sivia; Ehrenfeld, Malka; Sharon, Rina; Tabak, Nili
The success of mammal cloning in 1997 has brought the issue of human cloning into public discussion. Human cloning has several aspects and potential applications for use in both reproductive and non-reproductive matters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning in Israel. Data from 120 respondents (68 health professionals and 52 non-health professionals), all Jewish, Hebrew speaking with at least 15 years of education each, were collected using two questionnaires that dealt with knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning. Results showed that although health professionals had significantly more knowledge that non-health professionals, all respondents had poor knowledge about cloning. No difference in attitudes was found between the groups. Most respondents opposed human cloning, but more positive attitudes toward non-reproductive cloning were found. The results are discussed in the context of the deficit model. The findings indicate a need to provide information about human cloning to allow people to form their attitudes based on factual knowledge.
Barnoy S; Ehrenfeld M; Sharon R; Tabak N
The ability to locate, share, and use knowledge is vital for effective functioning of organizations. However, such knowledge processing can be complicated by increasing cultural diversity. Recent studies have suggested that a group’s diversity attitudes may increase group outcomes. In this study, based on a sample consisting of 489 members of multicultural academic departments, we set out to investigate the relationship between openness to diversity (linguistic, social category, value, and informational) and group knowledge processing (knowledge location, knowledge needed, bring knowledge to bear, and personal knowledge). We found openness to linguistic and informational diversity to have positive associations with all group knowledge processing variables. Openness to value diversity was positively associated with most group knowledge processing variables, while openness to social category diversity only had a positive effect on personal knowledge.
Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan
People living with HIV (PWHIV) face negative attitudes that isolate and discourage them from accessing services. Understanding negative attitudes and the social environment can lead to more effective health promotion strategies and programs. However, a scale to measure attitudes has been lacking. We developed and validated attitudes toward PWHIV Scale to examine trends in attitudes toward PWHIV in Quebec in 1996, 2002, and 2010. We also examined the relationship between negative attitudes toward PWHIV, homophobia, and knowledge about HIV transmission. The scale included 16 items and had a five-factor structure: F1 (fear of being infected), F2 (fear of contact with PWHIV), F3 (prejudicial beliefs toward groups at high risk of HIV), F4 (tolerance regarding sexual mores and behaviors), and F5 (social support for PWHIV). The validity and reliability of the scale were assessed and found to be high. Overall, Quebecers had positive attitudes toward PWHIV, with more negative attitudes observed in subgroups defined as male, ?50 years of age, <14 years of education, higher levels of homophobia, and below-average knowledge about HIV transmission. Scores were stable between 1996 and 2002, and increased in 2010. Negative attitudes were correlated with higher levels of homophobia and lesser knowledge about HIV transmission. The lowest scores for each factor were observed in the same subgroups that had low overall scores on the Attitudes Scale. The findings from this study can be used to intensify interventions that promote compassion for PWHIV, address attitudes toward homosexuality, and encourage greater knowledge about the transmission of HIV in these subgroups.
Adrien A; Beaulieu M; Leaune V; Perron M; Dassa C
BACKGROUND: The presence of pain is one of the main reasons why people seek health care, however pain is often undertreated. Inadequate treatment has been linked to health care professionals' failure to assess pain and to intervene appropriately. It may also result from the limited attention given to pain management in nursing curricula. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to explore the current knowledge and attitudes regarding pain management among baccalaureate nursing students and the factors that might influence such knowledge and attitudes, and nursing students perceived barriers to adequate pain management during clinical practice. METHODS: The descriptive design included a sample of 240 baccalaureate nursing students in three nursing schools in three governmental universities in Jordan. The Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain scale was used to measure knowledge and attitudes regarding pain management. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and independent sample t test. Data were collected over a period of three months from April 2012 to June 2012. RESULTS: Of the 340 distributed questionnaires; 240 completed questionnaires were returned. The data showed that nursing students were found to have inadequate knowledge and attitudes related to pain and its management. The mean correct score for the entire scale was 34.1%. (SD=9.9). Findings revealed that there were significant differences found in the students' scores related to pain management training and frequency of using pain assessment tools (p<0.05).The most frequently identified barriers were lack of knowledge and training regarding pain management followed by not using pain assessment tools by nurses who are working in the clinical areas. CONCLUSION: The study findings demonstrated that nursing students have insufficient knowledge and attitudes regarding pain and its management and could benefit from additional education and training on that issue.
Al-Khawaldeh OA; Al-Hussami M; Darawad M
Full Text Available Introduction. Ability and readiness to talk with patients about sexual problems not only depend on education in sexual physiology and pathology, but also on the doctors’ beliefs and attitudes towards sexuality. Considering importance of these matters, the authors decided to collect and evaluate the data regarding attitudes and cognitive schemata of medical students. Aim. Analysis of selected convictions and attitudes towards sex life of IV-th grade students of medicine. Methods. There was self-report Questionnaire on Satisfaction with Sexual Life (KSS2) applied. Medical students filled-out the questionnaire when attending the courses of Psychopathology of neurotic disorders or Psychotherapy. Results. Analysis of the collected data revealed differentiation of the studied group in regard of beliefs and attitudes towards sex life, dialogue about sex in erotic relationships, and seeking for professional help. Regarding some aspects, significant differences between women and men occurred. The following factors, which may negatively influence medical doctor’s competencies in domain of sexual health, were identified: discomfort considering their own sexuality, avoidance of sexual drive, negative moral judgment of sexual activity. Conclusions. Assessment of influence of students’ and doctors’ own sexuality on their competencies in diagnostics and treatment requires further studies. There is a clear indication to look for the means for prophylaxis and correction of ineffective attitudes and convictions of future doctors’, as professional sexual education or interpersonal trainings.
Müldner-Nieckowski, ?ukasz; Soba?ski, Jerzy A.; Klasa, Katarzyna; Dembi?ska, Edyta; Rutkowski, Krzysztof
Research on the human papillomavirus vaccine has largely focused on parents' attitudes toward vaccinating their young daughters. Yet, little is known about the factors that influence human papillomavirus vaccination in college-age women who are still eligible for the vaccine. This study examined attitudes toward the human papillomavirus vaccine in 150 college-age women who had received the vaccine and 58 who had not. The Health Belief Model was used to predict vaccine intentions and to compare vaccinated and unvaccinated women. Women's self-efficacy, social environment, and perceptions of the vaccine predicted vaccine intentions and behaviors. Interventions might include these factors to promote vaccination.
Schaefer Ziemer K; Hoffman MA
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to examine the influence of receiving scientific information about hypnosis over Spanish psychologists’ beliefs and attitudes toward hypnosis. The Valencia Scale on Attitudes and Beliefs toward Hypnosis-Therapist (VSABH-T) wasadministered to 2434 Spanish psychologists. A retest and a second retest were carried out, and between these testing administrations a monograph issue focused on hypnosis was published in a journal that all members of the Spanish Psychological Association received. Results indicated that psychologists who read this monograph, in general terms, changed their misconceptions about hypnosis for correct beliefs and their negative attitudes toward hypnosis for positive ones. Moreover, the VSABH-T was useful for detecting changes in psychologists’ beliefs and attitudes toward hypnosis.
M. Elena Mendoza; Antonio Capafons; Begoña Espejo
Attitudes toward the use of nuclear energy pose fundamental issues in the political debate about how to meet future energy needs. Development of new nuclear power facilities faces significant opposition both from knowledgeable individuals who display an understanding of the risks attached to various forms of power generation and those who follow strict politically based ideological dogmas. This article employs data from a 2005 Eurobarometer survey of UK citizens to examine the influence of both political preferences and knowledge in explaining support of nuclear power. Findings reveal that attitudes about nuclear power are highly politically motivated while the influence of knowledge about radioactive waste is dependent upon beliefs about the consequences of nuclear energy use. Perceptions of being informed about radioactive waste and trust in sources providing information about radioactive waste management also predict attitudes toward nuclear power generation.
Costa-Font J; Rudisill C; Mossialos E
[en] This executive summary highlights the major findings of a nuclear power mail-out survey administered to a random sample of Washington residents, a random sample of nuclear neighbors from the region around the Hanford Reservation, and a random sample of Washington environmentalists. The purpose of the research was twofold. First, it investigated the relationship of human values to one's attitude about the continued development of nuclear power. Second, it investigated the relationship of general energy beliefs and beliefs about specific nuclear power issues to one's attitude about the continued development of nuclear power. The findings are presented in summary form by posing and answering questions of policy relevance to the Department of Energy
BACKGROUND: Radiographs are an essential part of most clinical dental examinations and diagnoses. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of parents towards dental radiographs for their children. METHODS: A 21-item questionnaire, covering parental level of radiation knowledge and socio-demographics was applied. Sliding scales were used to assess attitude towards dental radiographs. RESULTS: There were 1467 questionnaires distributed between five primary schools in the Perth (Western Australia) metropolitan area, with 309 surveys (21%) returned for collection. Most parents displayed a low level of knowledge, but had a positive attitude towards dental radiographs. Parents with children who have previously had dental radiographs perceived dental radiographs as 'good', 'useful' and 'pleasant'. A higher level of education and parents with children who have previously had radiographs were significantly associated with a higher level of knowledge about dental radiography. Parents who had higher scores on questions assessing radiation knowledge were more likely to perceive dental radiographs as 'safe' and 'beneficial'. CONCLUSIONS: Most parents have a positive attitude towards dental radiographs on their children. However, the majority of parents lack knowledge regarding dental radiography, especially regarding the risks involved.
Chiri R; Awan S; Archibald S; Abbott PV
Athlete support personnel (ASP) failing to meet responsibilities under the World Anti-Doping Code risk sanction. It is unclear whether the poor knowledge of responsibilities seen in sports physicians and coaches applies to other ASP (e.g., administrators, chiropractors, family, nutritionists, physiotherapists, psychologists, and trainers). A purposive sample of Australian ASP (n?=?292) responded to a survey on knowledge of anti-doping rules (35 true/false questions), ethical beliefs and practice, and attitudes toward performance enhancement. Some ASP declined to participate, claiming doping was irrelevant to their practice. Physicians were most knowledgeable (30.8/35), with family and trainers the least (26.0/35). ASP reported that improvements were needed to support anti-doping education (e.g., basis for anti-doping) and practice (e.g., rules). ASP also had a slightly negative attitude toward performance enhancement. Linear regression showed that being a sports physician, providing support at the elite level, and 15 years of experience influenced knowledge. The results confirm gaps in knowledge, suggesting that stronger engagement with ASP anti-doping education and practice is needed. Applying the principles of andragogy could help foster active engagement through emphasis on active inquiry, rather than passive reception of content. Future work on the context within which ASP experience anti-doping is needed, exploring acquisition and translation of knowledge into practice.
Mazanov J; Backhouse S; Connor J; Hemphill D; Quirk F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Joint pain, specifically chronic knee pain (CKP), is a frequent cause of chronic pain and limitation of function and mobility among older adults. Multiple evidence-based guidelines recommend exercise as a first-line treatment for all patients with CKP or knee osteoarthritis (KOA), yet healthcare practitioners' attitudes and beliefs may limit their implementation. This systematic review aims to identify the attitudes, beliefs and behaviours of General Practitioners (GPs) regarding the use of exercise for CKP/KOA. Methods We searched four electronic databases between inception and January 2008, using subject headings to identify studies examining the attitudes, beliefs or behaviours of GPs regarding the use of exercise for the treatment of CKP/KOA in adults aged over 45 years in primary care. Studies referring to patellofemoral pain syndrome or CKP secondary to other causes or that occurring in a prosthetic joint were excluded. Once inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, study data were extracted and summarised. Study quality was independently reviewed using two assessment tools. Results From 2135 potentially relevant articles, 20 were suitable for inclusion. A variety of study methodologies and approaches to measuring attitudes beliefs and behaviours were used among the studies. Quality assessment revealed good reporting of study objective, type, outcome factors and, generally, the sampling frame. However, criticisms included use of small sample sizes, low response rates and under-reporting of non-responder factors. Although 99% of GPs agreed that exercise should be used for CKP/KOA and reported ever providing advice or referring to a physiotherapist, up to 29% believed that rest was the optimum management approach. The frequency of actual provision of exercise advice or physiotherapy referral was lower. Estimates of provision of exercise advice and physiotherapy referral were generally higher for vignette-based studies (exercise advice 9%-89%; physiotherapy referral 44%-77%) than reviews of actual practice (exercise advice 5%-52%; physiotherapy referral 13-63%). Advice to exercise and exercise prescription were not clearly differentiated. Conclusions Attitudes and beliefs of GPs towards exercise for CKP/KOA vary widely and exercise appears to be underused in the management of CKP/KOA. Limitations of the evidence base include the paucity of studies directly examining attitudes of GPs, poor methodological quality, limited generalisability of results and ambiguity concerning GPs' expected roles. Further investigation is required of the roles of GPs in using exercise as first-line management of CKP/KOA.
Cottrell Elizabeth; Roddy Edward; Foster Nadine E
BACKGROUND: Joint pain, specifically chronic knee pain (CKP), is a frequent cause of chronic pain and limitation of function and mobility among older adults. Multiple evidence-based guidelines recommend exercise as a first-line treatment for all patients with CKP or knee osteoarthritis (KOA), yet healthcare practitioners' attitudes and beliefs may limit their implementation. This systematic review aims to identify the attitudes, beliefs and behaviours of General Practitioners (GPs) regarding the use of exercise for CKP/KOA. METHODS: We searched four electronic databases between inception and January 2008, using subject headings to identify studies examining the attitudes, beliefs or behaviours of GPs regarding the use of exercise for the treatment of CKP/KOA in adults aged over 45 years in primary care. Studies referring to patellofemoral pain syndrome or CKP secondary to other causes or that occurring in a prosthetic joint were excluded. Once inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, study data were extracted and summarised. Study quality was independently reviewed using two assessment tools. RESULTS: From 2135 potentially relevant articles, 20 were suitable for inclusion. A variety of study methodologies and approaches to measuring attitudes beliefs and behaviours were used among the studies. Quality assessment revealed good reporting of study objective, type, outcome factors and, generally, the sampling frame. However, criticisms included use of small sample sizes, low response rates and under-reporting of non-responder factors. Although 99% of GPs agreed that exercise should be used for CKP/KOA and reported ever providing advice or referring to a physiotherapist, up to 29% believed that rest was the optimum management approach. The frequency of actual provision of exercise advice or physiotherapy referral was lower. Estimates of provision of exercise advice and physiotherapy referral were generally higher for vignette-based studies (exercise advice 9%-89%; physiotherapy referral 44%-77%) than reviews of actual practice (exercise advice 5%-52%; physiotherapy referral 13-63%). Advice to exercise and exercise prescription were not clearly differentiated. CONCLUSIONS: Attitudes and beliefs of GPs towards exercise for CKP/KOA vary widely and exercise appears to be underused in the management of CKP/KOA. Limitations of the evidence base include the paucity of studies directly examining attitudes of GPs, poor methodological quality, limited generalisability of results and ambiguity concerning GPs' expected roles. Further investigation is required of the roles of GPs in using exercise as first-line management of CKP/KOA.
Cottrell E; Roddy E; Foster NE
Citizen science projects offer opportunities for non-scientists to take part in scientific research. While their contribution to scientific data collection has been well documented, there is limited research on changes that may occur to their volunteer participants. In this study, we investigated (1) how volunteers’ attitudes towards science and beliefs in the nature of science changed over six months of participation in an astronomy-themed citizen science project and (2) how the level of project participation accounted for these changes. To measure attitudes towards science and beliefs about the nature of science, identical pre- and post-tests were used. We used pre-test data from 1,375 participants and post-test data collected from 175 participants. Responses were analyzed using the Rasch Rating Scale Model. The pre-test sample was used to create the Rasch scales for the two scientific literacy measures. For the pre/post-test comparisons, data from those who completed both tests were used. Fourteen participants who took the pre/post-tests were interviewed. Results show that overall scientific attitudes did not change, p = .812. However, we did find significant changes related towards two scientific attitude items about science in the news (positive change; p < .001, p < .05) and one related to scientific self-efficacy (negative change, p < .05). These changes were related to the participants’ social activity in the project. Beliefs in the nature of science significantly increased between the pre- and post-tests, p = .014. Relative positioning of individual items on the belief scale did not change much and this change was not related to any of our recorded project activity variables. The interviews suggest that the social aspect of the project is important to participants and the change in self-efficacy is not due to a lowering of esteem but rather a greater appreciation for what they have yet to learn.
Full Text Available Background: Obsessive patients are distressed by intrusivethoughts, which are related to unreal threats. These patientsfeel that they are responsible for harming themselves and others.While controlling worry and meta-cognitive beliefs, thepresent study aimed at comparing the responsibility attitudesin obsessive compulsive patients with those in normal subjectsto determine whether the difference in responsibility attitudesbetween two groups was significant.Methods: A group of 15 patients were compared with normalsubjects (n=15) who matched the patient group in terms ofgender, age and education. All subjects filled the ResponsibilityAttitude Scale, the Penn, State Worry Questionnaire andthe Meta-cognition Questionnaire -30. The findings were analyzedusing descriptive statistics as well as student t and ANCOVAtests.Results: Responsibility attitudes in obsessive patients weresignificantly higher than those in normal subjects (P<0.001),when patient worries and meta-cognitive beliefs were notcontrolled. However, after controlling patient's worry andmeta-cognitive beliefs there was no significant differencebetween responsibility attitudes in normal and obsessive–compulsive group.Conclusion: The findings might suggest that responsibilityattitude is not strongly related to obsessive-compulsive symptoms.It seems that it is a characteristic caused by basic metacognitivebeliefs, because the relationship between the responsibilityand the symptoms was dependent on meta-cognition.Therefore, in studying the etiology and treatment of obsessivecompulsive disorders focus on the responsibility attitudesalone cannot be very helpful.
Changiz Rahimi; Mahbobeh Haghighi
PURPOSE: Research shows obesity bias to undermine the patient-doctor relationship and lead to substandard care. The authors developed and tested an instrument to measure medical students' attitudes and beliefs about obese patients. METHOD: The authors conducted a literature search to identify validated measures of obesity bias. Because they identified no appropriate scale, they decided to design a novel survey instrument: the Nutrition, Exercise and Weight Management (NEW) Attitudes Scale. An expert panel generated items which focus groups of third-year medical students then discussed. Next, experienced medical educators judged and weighted the remaining revised items. Then, second- and fourth-year medical students completed the scale alongside two previously validated measures of obesity bias, the Anti-Fat Attitudes Questionnaire (AFA) and Beliefs About Obese Persons Scale (BAOP). Third-year students completed the NEW Attitudes Scale before and after a simulated encounter with an obese standardized patient instructor. The authors tested the validity and reliability. RESULTS: The final instrument comprised 31 items. A sample of 201 judges rated the items. A sample of 111 second- and fourth-year medical students completed the survey (mean score 24.4, range -37 to 76 out of a possible -118 to 118; higher scores indicate more positive attitudes). Pearson correlations between the NEW Attitudes Scale and AFA and BAOP were, respectively, -0.47 and 0.23. Test-retest reliability was 0.89. Students scored 27% higher after completing the standardized patient-instructor encounter (P < .001). CONCLUSION: The NEW Attitudes Scale has good validity and reliability and may be used in future studies.
Ip EH; Marshall S; Vitolins M; Crandall SJ; Davis S; Miller D; Kronner D; Vaden K; Spangler J
BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about how perceived weight controllability influences important psychological health factors among adolescents. Thus, the purpose of this study is to explore adolescents' weight controllability beliefs and how those beliefs influence weight-related attitudes and behaviors. METHODS: Adolescents (N = 369, mean age = 13.14, SD = 0.95) enrolled in physical education completed a survey packet, which included demographic questions and items targeting obesity, body shape, and weight controllability beliefs. RESULTS: Participants believed that fat children have weight problems because they consume too many calories, are lazy, have access to junk food, and lack self-control. Those who endorsed high weight controllability beliefs were more likely to indicate that a thin person, as compared to a fat person, would enjoy physical activity and be coordinated, have higher levels of personal weight and body shape satisfaction, and engage in vigorous physical activity more days per week. CONCLUSIONS: Perceived weight controllability may be an important construct to study further, particularly in relationship to health- and weight-related attitudes and behaviors.
Martin SB; Rhea DJ; Greenleaf CA; Judd DE; Chambliss HO
BACKGROUND: Research has suggested that patients and treatment providers hold different beliefs and models of obesity. This could impact upon the consistency and quality of interventions for weight management. The present study investigated the attitudes and beliefs of health professionals, commercial weight management advisors (expert patients) and overweight and obese dieters, towards obesity. METHODS: Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire from 287 health professionals, 85 expert patients and 116 dieters. Respondents gave their views on obesity causation and consequences, and the most efficacious means to manage obesity. Demographic data and self-reported height and weight were also collected. Factor analysis, analysis of variance and t-tests were used to analyse the data. RESULTS: Health professionals, expert patients and dieters held similar models of obesity, identifying the same causes (lifestyle causes), consequences (medical consequences) and treatments (current recommended options) of obesity/overweight. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study indicate a broader similarity between beliefs and attitudes of those involved in obesity treatment and those that they aim to treat than was previously assumed. The concordance of beliefs between patients and treatment providers is an encouraging finding and may have important implications for public health strategies in this area.
McConnon A; Gribble R; Raats MM; Stubbs J; Shepherd R
This study aimed to establish Egyptian women's attitudes and beliefs about female genital cutting (FGC) or mutilation by applying a questionnaire module about violence to a subsample of 5,249 married women from a total of 19,474 women who participated in the 2005 Egypt Demographic Health Survey. Women were interviewed to determine if they had been exposed to marital violence in the year prior to the survey, their attitudes and beliefs about FGC, and if they physically abused their children. The association of beliefs about FGC with maternal physical abuse was examined, adjusting for exposure to marital violence and other socio-demographic variables. Of the women surveyed 16.4% and 3.4% had been exposed to physical and sexual violence, respectively, during the year prior to the survey. Around 76% of the women surveyed intended to continue the FGC practice, and 69.8% had slapped or hit their children during the year prior to the survey. Holding positive beliefs about the practice of FGC or intending to continue it was associated with maternal physical abuse and this has significant implications for health and welfare workers in Egypt and for society in general.
Afifi M; von Bothmer M
This study aimed to establish Egyptian women's attitudes and beliefs about female genital cutting (FGC) or mutilation by applying a questionnaire module about violence to a subsample of 5,249 married women from a total of 19,474 women who participated in the 2005 Egypt Demographic Health Survey. Women were interviewed to determine if they had been exposed to marital violence in the year prior to the survey, their attitudes and beliefs about FGC, and if they physically abused their children. The association of beliefs about FGC with maternal physical abuse was examined, adjusting for exposure to marital violence and other socio-demographic variables. Of the women surveyed 16.4% and 3.4% had been exposed to physical and sexual violence, respectively, during the year prior to the survey. Around 76% of the women surveyed intended to continue the FGC practice, and 69.8% had slapped or hit their children during the year prior to the survey. Holding positive beliefs about the practice of FGC or intending to continue it was associated with maternal physical abuse and this has significant implications for health and welfare workers in Egypt and for society in general. PMID:17958676
Afifi, Mustafa; von Bothmer, Margareta
Separation is a central step in the process of stigmatizing persons with mental disorders. We examine whether belief in a continuum of symptoms from mental health to mental illness is associated with less stigmatizing attitudes. In a representative population survey in Germany (n=3642), using case-vignettes of persons suffering from schizophrenia, depression or alcohol dependence, we measured belief in a continuity of symptoms, emotional reactions and desire for social distance related to the person described in the vignette. While 42% of respondents agreed in symptom continuity for depression, this percentage was 26% for schizophrenia and 27% for alcohol dependence. Continuum beliefs were associated in general with more positive emotional reactions and less desire for social distance. This relationship was strongest for schizophrenia, followed by alcohol dependence. Continuum beliefs thus seem to be associated with less stigmatizing attitudes, particularly regarding schizophrenia and alcohol dependence. Educational information on the continuous nature of most psychopathological phenomena could usefully be integrated in anti-stigma messages.
Schomerus G; Matschinger H; Angermeyer MC
|In this study the relationship between pre-service chemistry teachers' beliefs about teaching and their pedagogical content knowledge were investigated. The sample of the study consists of 99 pre-service chemistry teachers attending Hacettepe University, Faculty of Education. As data collection tools the adapted form of "Beliefs About Teaching…
Oskay, Ozge Ozyalcin; Erdem, Emine; Yilmaz, Ayhan
Clearly, medical professionals and educators must mobilize in supporting personal, professional and public AIDS education efforts. AIDS health education should continue to emphasize facts and dispel myths about risk associated with blood donation, casual contact, mosquitos and sharing eating utensils. Messages should encourage counseling, testing for those at risk and resource referrals, and should urge compassion. The noted differences in demographic categories indicate a need to expand sampling within sub-populations, specifically non-white populations, younger adults and medical professionals. Emphasis on gathering further, more specific behavioral information should be incorporated into community-based prevention programs. Continued assessment of sources of information, referral for AIDS-related services and prevalent AIDS policies should be incorporated statewide.
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to measure knowledge and attitudes of nursing about pain management in patients before education, immediately after, and 6 months later. The end-point measure was Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems quarterly scores and percentile rank. DESIGN: This longitudinal, quasi-experimental, quantitative study used survey method with pretest and posttest scores to measure immediate learning and 6 months later to measure sustained changes in knowledge and attitudes for nurses in this facility. SETTING: The setting was a 360-bed acute care community hospital in the midsouth. SAMPLE: The sample consisted of approximately 206 bedside nurses who worked in an acute care facility and 164 final posttest participants. METHODS: The survey was used in a group setting immediately prior to a didactic learning experience. Immediately after the session, a posttest survey was administered. The 6-month follow-up occurred via an online module developed by the principal investigator. A repeated-measures analysis of variance, a pairwise comparison with a paired t test, and a Bonferroni correction were performed to determine if sustained knowledge and attitudes have changed. FINDINGS: Posttest scores were significantly higher than pretest scores on the Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain immediately after a didactic education session and 6 months later (P < .017). CONCLUSIONS: Six months later, scores remained higher than pretest or immediate posttest scores. IMPLICATIONS: Nurses with a stronger knowledge base may lead to better pain management, improved outcomes, and higher patient satisfaction scores.
Jarrett A; Church T; Fancher-Gonzalez K; Shackelford J; Lofton A
This study aimed to determine knowledge about, attitudes to and practices associated with AIDS among sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic attenders in the Cape Peninsula. A questionnaire containing open and closed questions in the appropriate language (English, Afrikaans or Xhosa) was administered by trained clinic staff to 306 patients in 9 of the 29 STD clinics in the region. The median age of attenders was 25 years. The median period of residence in the peninsula was 7 years. There was inadequate awareness of the asymptomatic carrier state, the incurability of AIDS and ways to prevent AIDS. Sexual practice was a high risk: 70.4% of male attenders reported 2 or more partners since the beginning of the year (average 9 months); 39.5% of men reported more than one episode of STD in the previous 2 years. Prostitution was perceived to be common in attenders' communities. There was a low perception of risk to self, and intention to change behaviour was low. More information about AIDS was requested by 98% of patients. These findings are discussed with reference to the health belief model, Fischbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action and Catania et al.'s AIDS risk reduction model. This study supports the urgent need for AIDS education and counselling programmes for patients with STDs in the region. Recommendations include the need to address the beliefs and attitudes that affect behaviour, as well as to convey knowledge.
Blecher MS; Steinberg M; Pick W; Hennink M; Durcan N
Full Text Available One of the applications applied most nowadays is web based instruction (WBI). Although there are many studies on WBI, no study which researched the relations between beliefs for WBI, WBI tools acceptance levels and web pedagogical content knowledge (WPCK) of science and technology pre-service teachers was found among these studies. The aim of this study is to examine this relation. In accordance with this aim, the study group of the study consisted of 363 pre-service teachers. The data collected from pre-service teachers under the research were collected with scales of belief, tools acceptance and WPCK towards WBI. 3 scales were used for the data collection in the research. The data were analyzed with structural equation modeling in the research. As a result of the research, behavioral and contextual beliefs in WBI beliefs were medium level. Perceived usefulness, ease of use, perceived attitude and intention positively affect WBI tools acceptance levels of pre-service teachers. When the relation between beliefs, tools acceptance levels and web pedagogical content knowledge of science and technology education pre-service teachers towards WBI is analyzed, it is seen that beliefs towards WBI affect acceptance levels of WBI tools and WBI tools acceptance levels affect web pedagogical content knowledge.
Mehmet Bar?s HORZUM; Ozlem CANAN GUNGOREN
BACKGROUND: Baby walkers are a commonly used item of nursery equipment. Between 12% and 50% of parents whose infant uses a walker report that their child has suffered a walker-related injury. Health visitors' knowledge, attitudes and practice with regard to walkers and related health education has not been explored so far. AIM: The aim of the study was to describe health visitors' knowledge of walkers and walker-related injuries, their attitudes towards walkers and current practice with regard to walker health education, and to examine the relationship between knowledge and attitudes and knowledge and practice. METHOD: A survey was carried out with 64 health visitors prior to participation in a randomized controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of an educational package in reducing baby walker use. RESULTS: The response rate was 95%. Half of the health visitors always discussed walkers postnatally, most frequently at the 6-9 month check. Most did not usually discuss the frequency of walker-related injuries. Most had negative attitudes towards walkers, but believed that parents hold positive attitudes to them and that it is hard to persuade parents not to use them. Health visitors had a limited knowledge of walker use and walker-related injuries. Those giving advice on walkers most often had higher knowledge scores than those giving advice less often (P = 0.03). Those with higher knowledge scores held more negative attitudes towards walkers (rs = 0.29, P = 0.023) and believed parents to have more positive attitudes towards walkers (rs = -0.49, P < 0.001). Few health visitors had resources to discuss walkers. CONCLUSIONS: Health visitor advice regarding walkers needs to be given earlier in the postnatal period than is currently common practice, and they need more knowledge about walker use and related injuries. Education about baby walkers needs to be incorporated into undergraduate and in-service education, which may need to include the development of skills in exploring reasons why parents use walkers and in negotiating alternatives to their use. The provision of audio-visual aids for discussing walkers might also be helpful.
Kendrick D; Illingworth R; Hapgood R; Woods AJ; Collier J
Full Text Available Objectives:This study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of practicing nurses onmedication administration and medication errors.Materials and Methods:A questionnaire assessing knowledge on medication errors and attitude of the stafftowards medication errors was distributed to 170 nurses working in Gulf Medical CollegeHospital, Ajman.Analyses were made by appropriate statistical test procedures.Results:In the present study, 67.1% possessed the qualification of GNM (explain) and the remainingwere graduates. Twenty one questions were asked to elicit the knowledge regarding medicationerrors. Mean knowledge score was 15.1±2.6 among participants with graduate level educationwhereas it was 14.2±2.8 for those with GNM as education level.
JOLLY JOHNSON; MERLIN THOMAS
Context: The most important way against bioterrorism is reinforcement of knowledge of health and medical team to diagnose and rapid reaction during these events. Aims: To assess the effect of bioterrorism education on knowledge and attitudes of nurses. Settings and Design: the setting of study was one of the infectious disease wards, emergency rooms or internal wards of the hospitals under supervision of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: In this pre-experimental study, 65 nurses who had all inclusion criteria are selected by accessible sampling method. Data on nurses knowledge and attitudes toward bioterrorism were collected using a self-administered questionnaire before and after two two-h sessions education. After a month of education, the units responded to questionnaire again. Statistical Analysis Used: A descriptive statistics Wilcoxon tests and Spearman correlation coefficient were used. Results: Before education, the majority of units (96.9%) had low knowledge about bioterrorism (0-33.3% score of 100%),whereas after education, the majority of them (100%) had good knowledge(well done) (66.7-100% score of 100%). And majority of units (96.9%) before education had indifferent attitude toward bioterrorism (33.4-66.6% score of 100%), whereas a majority of them (98.5%) after education had positive attitude (66.7-100% score of 100%). Conclusions: The education has a positive effect on nurses’ knowledge and attitudes and it can be a guideline for administrators of the Ministry of Health and medicine for planning to achieve the goals of preventive and defense against bioterrorism.
Aghaei, Nahid; Nesami, Masoumeh Bagheri
CONTEXT: The most important way against bioterrorism is reinforcement of knowledge of health and medical team to diagnose and rapid reaction during these events. AIMS: To assess the effect of bioterrorism education on knowledge and attitudes of nurses. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: the setting of study was one of the infectious disease wards, emergency rooms or internal wards of the hospitals under supervision of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this pre-experimental study, 65 nurses who had all inclusion criteria are selected by accessible sampling method. Data on nurses knowledge and attitudes toward bioterrorism were collected using a self-administered questionnaire before and after two two-h sessions education. After a month of education, the units responded to questionnaire again. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: A descriptive statistics Wilcoxon tests and Spearman correlation coefficient were used. RESULTS: Before education, the majority of units (96.9%) had low knowledge about bioterrorism (0-33.3% score of 100%),whereas after education, the majority of them (100%) had good knowledge(well done) (66.7-100% score of 100%). And majority of units (96.9%) before education had indifferent attitude toward bioterrorism (33.4-66.6% score of 100%), whereas a majority of them (98.5%) after education had positive attitude (66.7-100% score of 100%). CONCLUSIONS: The education has a positive effect on nurses' knowledge and attitudes and it can be a guideline for administrators of the Ministry of Health and medicine for planning to achieve the goals of preventive and defense against bioterrorism.
Aghaei N; Nesami MB
The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…
Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara
The purpose of this study was to explore agricultural science teachers' knowledge levels and attitudes toward biotechnology topics. The average agricultural science teacher in this study was a 37-year-old male who had taught for 12 years. He had a bachelor's degree and had lived or worked on a farm or ranch. He had not attended…
Mowen, Diana L.; Roberts, T. Grady; Wingenbach, Gary J.; Harlin, Julie F.
Investigating knowledge, perceptions as well as attitudes of the public that concern various aspects of environmental issues is of high importance for Environmental Education. An integrated understanding of these parameters can properly support the planning of Environmental Education curriculum and relevant educational materials. In this survey we…
Liarakou, Georgia; Gavrilakis, Costas; Flouri, Eleni
Full Text Available Objective: To know attitudes and knowledge of nursing personnel regarding HIV/AIDS patients in the Hospital General de Huelva. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Sample: Nursing staff of the Hospital General de Huelva (Registered nurses and Nursing auxiliar personnel) randomised selected (N=980, n=88). Selected subjects were asked to answer a validated questionnaire including questions about personal and professional characteristics, attitudes about HIV+/AIDS patients and knowledge about HIV infection. Additionally, 8 interviews were performed to Nursing staff who suffered occupational accidents with HIV contaminated fluids. Another 8 interviews were performed to HIV+/AIDS patients about the nurses attitudes when working with them. Results: Participating subjects were worried about the risk of infection. A low rate of knowledge about HIV infection was observed. Conclusion: A modification of some attitudes of Nursing staff is mandatory as well as an improvement of specific knowledge about HIV infection and measures to avoid the infection in a professional setting. Strategies to improve nurses abilities when working with HIV+/AIDS patients should be provided.
Angeles Merino Godoy
To investigate the knowledge and attitudes of Thai dental practitioners regarding patients with HIV, a cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaires was conducted. The questionnaires requested demographic information and included questions evaluating the knowledge and attitude of dental practitioners towards HIV. The results were analyzed using Scheffe method for multiple comparisons at the 95 percent confidence level. Out of 1,200 questionnaires sent, 446 questionnaires were returned (response rate 37.2 percent). The subjects included final (sixth)-year dental students (11.9 percent), general dentists (29.1 percent), specialist dentists (15.5 percent), dental hygienists (30.5 percent), and dental assistants (13 percent). More than 80 percent of the dental practitioners correctly answered the questions testing their basic knowledge of HIV such as routes of transmission and common opportunistic infections. However, knowledge about HIV pathogenesis, complications, and advances in HIV management was lacking. Dental hygienists and dental assistants had statistically significant lower scores in knowledge about HIV than other groups. Sixty-seven percent of dental practitioners said they feel worried when treating patients with HIV, and 20.4 percent said they would deny treatment for patients with HIV if possible. While knowledge about HIV may be adequate among dental practitioners in Thailand, greater effort should be put into emphasizing positive attitudes towards patients with HIV.
Rungsiyanont S; Lam-Ubol A; Vacharotayangul P; Sappayatosok K
OBJECTIVES: To describe the attitudes and beliefs of physiotherapy students to chronic low back pain (LBP) and to investigate whether these attitudes change following exposure to a teaching module on chronic back pain. Also, to investigate the effect of current or previous LBP on student attitudes and beliefs. METHODS: Six hundred and eighteen third and fourth year undergraduate physiotherapy students completed the Health Care Providers' Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale (HC-PAIRS), 305 of these completing a further scale following exposure to a specialized teaching module about chronic back pain. The scale contains 15 statements that attribute patients' impairment and disability to pain. The student marked on a Likert scale how strongly they agreed with each item, with possible scores varying from 15-105. RESULTS: The mean HC-PAIRS scores for Year 3 physiotherapy students in 1998, 1999, and 2000 were 54.2 (SD = 8.7), 55 (SD = 9.4), and 50.9 (SD = 9.3) respectively. The mean HC-PAIRS score for Year 4 physiotherapy students in 1998 was 52 (SD = 8.9). There was no difference in HC-PAIRS scores between subjects with and without a history of LBP (HC-PAIRS score 50.5 vs. 50.0 P = 0.4). There was a significant difference between the before and after teaching scores for Year 3 students surveyed immediately following the teaching module (1998 Year 3 cohort, mean difference -6.6, 95% CI -8.6 to -4.5, 2000 Year 3 cohort, mean difference -7.7, 95% CI -10.9 to -4.6); however this result needs to be viewed with caution due to the number of students unable to be followed up. DISCUSSION: These results suggest that the attitudes and beliefs of third year physiotherapy students not exposed to teaching are similar to those of community providers. There is no difference between students with and without a history of LBP.
Latimer J; Maher C; Refshauge K
The purpose of this study is to understand knowledge about and general attitudes towards nutrition, dietary restriction attitudes, and dietary restriction behavior in the Taiwanese elderly, and the relationship of these various components to each other. Data from the Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (1999-2000) were used for analysis and included 1937 elderly persons aged over 65. The results indicated that the elderly had poor nutrition knowledge, especially about the relationship between nutrition and disease. Elderly nutrition attitudes were fair; they tended to disagree with misconceptions about "healthy" or functional foods and also had quite positive general eating attitudes. However, the Taiwanese elderly hold quite strong attitudes influenced by Chinese traditional or food-texture-related dietary restrictions. Elderly people frequently avoid eating foods considered unhealthy by modern medical science (e.g. high fat/cholesterol foods) as well as foods forbidden by Chinese traditional medicine (e.g. "heating" foods, "cooling" foods). Most of the elderly regularly eat three meals a day, however, they seldom pay attention to dietary and nutrition information. The most important sources of nutrition information are offspring or family members, TV, and medical practitioners. In general, elderly men with a higher educational level and living in less remote areas had better nutrition knowledge, held more positive nutrition attitudes, and kept to dietary restrictions less frequently. Elderly people's nutrition knowledge was positively related to their health-care attitudes, general eating attitudes, high- fat or high-cholesterol food restriction behavior, fermented or pickled food restriction behavior, attention to nutrition information, and regularity of meals. However, nutrition knowledge was inversely related to Chinese traditional or food-texture-related dietary restriction behaviors. The results of this study suggest that education of elderly people about nutrition is important, and the design of such nutrition education programs should consider the low educational levels of the elderly. Children or other family members may also be included in the program. The use of TV as a medium for nutrition education of the elderly may also be important for nutrition educators. PMID:16169832
Lin, Wei; Lee, Ya-Wen
The purpose of this study is to understand knowledge about and general attitudes towards nutrition, dietary restriction attitudes, and dietary restriction behavior in the Taiwanese elderly, and the relationship of these various components to each other. Data from the Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (1999-2000) were used for analysis and included 1937 elderly persons aged over 65. The results indicated that the elderly had poor nutrition knowledge, especially about the relationship between nutrition and disease. Elderly nutrition attitudes were fair; they tended to disagree with misconceptions about "healthy" or functional foods and also had quite positive general eating attitudes. However, the Taiwanese elderly hold quite strong attitudes influenced by Chinese traditional or food-texture-related dietary restrictions. Elderly people frequently avoid eating foods considered unhealthy by modern medical science (e.g. high fat/cholesterol foods) as well as foods forbidden by Chinese traditional medicine (e.g. "heating" foods, "cooling" foods). Most of the elderly regularly eat three meals a day, however, they seldom pay attention to dietary and nutrition information. The most important sources of nutrition information are offspring or family members, TV, and medical practitioners. In general, elderly men with a higher educational level and living in less remote areas had better nutrition knowledge, held more positive nutrition attitudes, and kept to dietary restrictions less frequently. Elderly people's nutrition knowledge was positively related to their health-care attitudes, general eating attitudes, high- fat or high-cholesterol food restriction behavior, fermented or pickled food restriction behavior, attention to nutrition information, and regularity of meals. However, nutrition knowledge was inversely related to Chinese traditional or food-texture-related dietary restriction behaviors. The results of this study suggest that education of elderly people about nutrition is important, and the design of such nutrition education programs should consider the low educational levels of the elderly. Children or other family members may also be included in the program. The use of TV as a medium for nutrition education of the elderly may also be important for nutrition educators.
Lin W; Lee YW
BACKGROUND: During the 1990s, most Western countries officially recommended that pregnant women abstain from alcohol. However, information about the potentially harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy does not necessarily equate to understanding, and information and knowledge may not be associated with pregnant women's own attitudes toward drinking. METHODS: From October to December 1998, we interviewed 439 Danish-speaking pregnant women who were referred for routine antenatal care at their first visit at 15 to 16 weeks of gestation. The women were interviewed about their attitudes toward and beliefs and knowledge about drinking during pregnancy. Questions were also asked about information on alcohol provided to the women. RESULTS: Seventy-six percent of the women considered some alcohol intake during pregnancy to be acceptable, mostly on a weekly level. Binge drinking, however, was considered to be harmful by 85%. These attitudes were not associated with knowledge about the official recommendation or whether the woman had talked to her general practitioner or midwife about alcohol during pregnancy. Most of the women had received information on alcohol from the mass media or relatives, but most women believed that information about alcohol during pregnancy could best be communicated to them by health personnel. Only 21% were aware of the official recommendation from the Danish National Board of Health. One third had discussed alcohol with their general practitioner or midwife, but these women had mostly been advised that some alcohol intake was acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the women considered some alcohol intake during pregnancy to be acceptable, mostly on a weekly level, and their attitudes were independent of their knowledge about the subject. Most of the women had not been informed about alcohol during pregnancy.
Kesmodel U; Schiøler Kesmodel P
|This study explores the impact of an urban ecology program on participating middle school students' understanding of science and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors. We gathered pre and post survey data from four classes and found significant gains in scientific knowledge, but no significant changes in student beliefs regarding the…
Hashimoto-Martell, Erin A.; McNeill, Katherine L.; Hoffman, Emily M.
(1) To explore attitudes and beliefs of neonatal nurses toward nursing care for dying neonates; (2) to estimate the influence of neonatal nurses' personal and professional characteristics on their attitudes towards end-of life care for dying infants. A cross-sectional design was used. A questionnaire was used to collect data from 80 neonatal nurses. Research setting was four level III NICUs at four medical centers around the central region of Taiwan. Research participants were neonatal nurses who had worked for at least 1 year in one of level III NICUs and had been directly involved with the care of dying infants. Research participants were 80 neonatal nurses (response rate 100 %). Research findings identified eight barriers hindering neonatal palliative care practice. These barriers were insufficient communication due to the lack of an in-service educational program; the lack of available counseling help for neonatal clinicians; inability to express personal opinions, values and beliefs towards neonatal palliative care; insufficient staffing; the lack of unit policies/guidelines for supporting palliative care; the technological imperative; parental demands and personal beliefs about death and previous experience caring for dying infants. Further studies are needed to explore each barrier and to provide in-service neonatal palliative care educational programs that are needed to decrease these barriers.
Chen CH; Huang LC; Liu HL; Lee HY; Wu SY; Chang YC; Peng NH
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the knowledge and beliefs about malaria transmission and practices for vector control in eight villages on the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted during May and June 1995 in Chiapas, Mexico. A questionnaire to investigate family structure, knowledge on malaria transmission, preventive measures and attitudes towards seeking treatment was applied to both family heads of a sample of households. Associations were analyzed by estimating odds ratios with confidence intervals and p values, using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression methods. RESULTS: Malaria knowledge was poor and only 48% associated malaria with mosquito bites. The perceived benefit of indoor residual spraying was associated to a reduction of mosquitoes, a reduction in the numbers of cockroaches and rats, but only 3% associated it directly with the prevention of malaria transmission. Most villagers (97.6%) agreed with the indoor residual spraying of insecticides. Ninety nine percent of villagers had mosquito bednets, 75.7% used them all year round. Other measures used by villagers to prevent mosquito bites were smoke and mosquito coils. Above 40% of villagers self-medicated when any member of the family had a fever episode, but 51% attended proper health services (community dispensary, private physician, health worker). About 61% used pesticides for agricultural or livestock purposes and 55% applied themselves. Women had a greater participation as family health promoters, with 70% of the housewives being in charge of the application of self-protection preventive measures. CONCLUSIONS: Educational programs aimed at increasing awareness on the participation of mosquitoes on malaria transmission could promote community participation in malaria control in the region. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html.
Rodríguez AD; Penilla RP; Henry-Rodríguez M; Hemingway J; Francisco Betanzos A; Hernández-Avila JE
This study examines breast cancer knowledge, attitudes and screening behaviors of Hispanic women living in the South Texas colonias of Maverick and Val Verde Counties. We used the Health Belief Model to analyze the effects of HBM constructs on clinical breast exam (CBE) and mammogram screening. Using a multistage systematic sampling approach we interviewed women living within these colonias. Logistic regression analysis was used to predict CBE and mammography screening behaviors. The results indicate that knowledge, susceptibility, barriers and source of health information were statistically significant in predicting CBE among these women. In addition, background variables such as marital status and health insurance were also significant in predicting CBE. Findings further indicate that source of health information, barriers, and health insurance significantly predicts mammography screening behaviors. Results suggest that for women living in colonias along the South Texas Border socio-demographic variables play a significant role in CBE and mammography utilization.
Sunil TS; Hurd T; Deem C; Nevarez L; Guidry J; Rios R; Guerra H; Ortiz J; Jones L
We examined the extent to which findings from the literature on naive physics and representational momentum studies are consistent with impetus beliefs postulating imparted internal energy as a source of motion. In a literature review, we showed that, for situations in which impetus theory and physical principles make different predictions, representational momentum effects are consistent with impetus beliefs. In three new experiments, we examined people's implicit and explicit knowledge of the effect of mass on the rate of ascending motion. The results suggest that implicit knowledge is consistent with impetus theory and is unaffected by explicit knowledge. Expert physicists, whose explicit knowledge is in accord with Newtonian principles, exhibited the same implicit impetus beliefs as novices when asked to respond in a representational momentum paradigm. We propose that, in situations in which an immediate response is required and one does not have specific contextual knowledge about an object's motion, both physics experts and novices apply impetus principles as a default heuristic.
Kozhevnikov M; Hegarty M
Full Text Available Background: Despite advances in medical science and modern technology, epilepsy remains as a stigmatized condition and negative public attitude toward epilepsy is a common phenomenon especially in developing countries such as Iran. It is the major factor causing serious social discrimination against people with epilepsy which in turn may be more devastating than the disorder itself. Thorough understanding of the knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy is essential to modify these negative attitudes. Methods: We conducted a face-to-face questionnaire interview survey in crowd locations of Tehran in August, 2004-April 2005. A total of 1079 persons all more than 15 years old were asked to fill the questionnaire. Results: Eighty eight percent of respondents had heard about epilepsy before, 42.2% of them knew one person with epilepsy. However, out of responses about the causes of epilepsy, 52/4% said it was caused by brain damage, 26.4% said it was an inherited disease,, 14.3% said it was due to fever, 34.8% believed stress as the cause of it and1.1% said evil spirits was the cause. 56.9% considered pregnancy to be appropriate for epileptics. 94% believed children with epilepsy could go to school and have normal education. Conclusion: According to this survey, public knowledge and attitudes about epilepsy in study population is not satisfactory. It is suggested that additional efforts must be made to increase the knowledge of the general population through education programs especially among school children.
K. Gharegozli; F. Abbasi siar; A.S Kolahi; J. Bolhari; GH. Zaman; Z.T. Keyhanidoost; P. Poortaherian
1. Because health care providers are the key professionals in advising patients about prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS, the degree to which spread can be prevented is at least partially a function of preventive and education measures taken by health care professionals. 2. Nurses surveyed believe that they do not have the right to refuse treatment to patients infected with HIV. 3. Twenty percent of health care professionals indicated they did not have adequate information concerning HIV, with the largest group being nurse executives in long-term care facilities. 4. The survey indicated that more efficient and effective educational methods should be used to increase health care practitioners' knowledge about AIDS.
Lewis J; Doyle K; Roemer L
Full Text Available Background: Epilepsy, one of the most common serious chronic brain disorders, is poorly understood by the public and has been associated with numerous misconceptions and beliefs. This, coupled with its sometimes dramatic clinical manifestations, has often resulted in a strong social stigma.Objective: This study was conducted to find out knowledge, attitudes and practices toward epilepsy among preparatory school students in Mekelle, North Ethiopia.Methods: A semi-structured questionnaire used previously by various authors was self-administered to 391 students studying in four preparatory schools in Mekelle, North Ethiopia.Results: About 85.7% had heard about epilepsy, 19.23% had read on the subject, 67.03% had known someone with epilepsy and 57.14% had witnessed a seizure. Those who would offer equal employment opportunities to people with epilepsy (PWE), refuse to associate with, or refuse to marry PWE represented 64%, 16.8%, and 44.8%, respectively. Negative attitudes seemed to be reinforced by beliefs that epilepsy is evil spirit (33.24%), contagious (28.6%) or a kind of insanity (51.6%). Majority of respondents (70.33%) opted for Holy water, followed by physicians (64.01%), traditional healer (44.78%) and prayers (32.14%).Conclusions: The study revealed practices and knowledge toward epilepsy were limited, especially with respect to epilepsy’s cause, manifestation, and management. Moreover, there were statistically significant differences between respondents attitude with respect to epilepsy based on age, gender, level of education, religion and school category.
Mulat Gedefa; Tesfaye Wolde; Gebremedhin Solomon
Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed at determining the knowledge attitude and nutritional practice of female middle school students in district 4 of Isfahan. Methods: This deh1ive study was performed on 120 female students. The data were collected through a three-part self-reported questionnaire (Demographic factors knowledge BASNEF Model). To investigate the nutritional performance the participants were interviewed to recall their previous 24-hour nutrition for three days. Results: The results indicated that 37.5% of students had poor nutritional knowledge and 90% of the students had a poor nutritional practice. The results of the BASNEF part indicated that mean of belief and evaluation of behavioral outcomes was 74.6 attitude toward the behavior was 64.64 normative belief was 72.8 subjective norms was 58.9 enabling factors was 54.2 and behavioral intention was 68.9. Conclusion: A low percentage of students had good nutritional practices and in majority of cases their nutritional practice does not accord with their nutritional knowledge and attitude. These results indicate the necessity of nutritional intervention in female students.
Mohammad-Mahdi Hazavehei; Asiyeh Pirzadeh; Mohammad-Hasan Entezari; Akbar Hasan-Zadeh; Nimah Bahraynian
Since the Environmental Movement began, adolescents' views have been largely ignored in studies of public opinion. The article presents a descriptive analysis of trends in the environmental attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of high school seniors from 1976 to 2005 using data from the Monitoring the Future study. Across a range of indicators, environmental concerns of adolescents show increases during the early 1990s and declines across the remainder of the three decades. Declining trends in reports of personal responsibility for the environment, conservation behaviors, and the belief that resources are scarce are particularly noteworthy. Across all years, findings reveal that youth tended to assign responsibility for the environment to the government and consumers rather than accepting personal responsibility. Recent declines in environmental concerns for this nationally representative sample of youth signal the need for a renewed focus on young people's views and call for better environmental education and governmental leadership.
Wray-Lake L; Flanagan CA; Osgood DW
As teachers are one of the more important agents for disseminating information, a study was done to gauge the knowledge and attitude concerning Renewable Energy (RE) and Energy Efficiency (EE) amongst teachers in Malaysia. Results from the study have shown that teachers do not have adequate knowledge on the concept of RE. They also viewed education as the best strategy in ensuring the success of RE practices. Although there is an interest to know more about RE, the teachers felt that they were inadequately trained to teach this subject in schools, that there are not enough teachers to teach the subject in the schools and that this topic should be integrated as part of co-curricular activities. CETREE, as a centre for education and training in Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency has already started a curriculum to train teachers on the awareness of Renewable Energy (RE) and Energy Efficiency (EE). Result of this study indicates that more training and campaigns need to be implemented at school levels to promote the awareness on RE and EE. This paper will also discuss knowledge and attitude as important factors to consider in creating awareness on RE for the next generation. Teachers need to acquire the knowledge and positive attitude toward these concepts to become successful change agents. Media preference amongst teachers concerning ways to educate the public on RE will also be highlighted.
Full Text Available Many hospitalizations in India are due to Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR) and resulting in morbidity and mortality in majority cases in addition to the huge economic burden. A survey was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and behavior of community pharmacists towards ADR related aspects. One hundred and twenty eight pharmacists from various Community pharmacies in two Districts of South India were consented in this survey. A questionnaire was prepared to investigate the knowledge, attitude and behavior of pharmacists regarding ADR reporting and distributed to the identified pharmacies. The data was collected and analyzed by ANOVA and t- test. Out of 342 community pharmacies approached, 128 (37.4%) community pharmacists consented to be part of the survey and the questionnaire given was filled and returned by them. Out of these respondents, only 39 (30.5%) pharmacists had knowledge about ADR, 15 (11.7%) and 14 (10.9%) were aware of National Pharmacovigilance Program (NPP) and regional reporting centers respectively. Only 54 (43%) agreed that ADR reporting is a professional obligation of pharmacist and none of the respondents reported ADRs. The main reason for not reporting any ADR was ‘they did not know how to report’ and ‘did not feel its beneficial’. This survey revealed that the community pharmacists were having least scores towards knowledge, attitude and behavior on ADRs in Indian Scenario.
Sandeep A; Mamatha GT; Bhimaray Krishnagoudar; Mahadevamma L; Ravi Katti Venkappa; Shaik Shafia Begum; Girish HR
BACKGROUND: Providing women with information enabling an informed consent to prenatal examinations has been widely recommended. OBJECTIVE: The primary purpose of this review is to summarise the current knowledge of the pregnant woman's expectations and attitudes concerning prenatal examinations, as well as the knowledge possessed by pregnant women undergoing prenatal examinations. Second, we explore their reasons for accepting or declining available screening tests. RESULTS: More than 90% of the pregnant women expressed a positive attitude toward screening procedures in pregnancy. Most often (70-96%), the pregnant women were found knowledgeable about the procedural and practical aspects, but were more seldom (31-81%) able to correctly identify the purpose of tracing fetal malformations. Some 29-65% were not familiar with the existence of a false negative result, and 30-43% were found unaware of the possibility of a false positive result. The risk of miscarriage in relation to amniocentetesis [AC] is unknown to 11-53%. Uptake rates are associated with attitudes toward prenatal examinations, but no knowledge of the test offered. A total of 88% considered their health care provider an important source of information, and 57% stated that this information has influenced their decision. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women favor prenatal examinations, but the choice of participation does not seem to be based on insight to enable full informed consent. Health care providers are perceived as an essential source of information.
Dahl K; Kesmodel U; Hvidman L; Olesen F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Young people are of particular importance in state policies against Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). We intended to assess the knowledge and attitude of high school students regarding AIDS in Iran. Methods Through a cluster-sampling, 4641 students from 52 high schools in Tehran were assessed by anonymous questionnaires in February 2002. Results The students identified television as their most important source of information about AIDS. Only a few students answered all the knowledge questions correctly, and there were many misconceptions about the routes of transmission. Mosquito bites (33%), public swimming pools (21%), and public toilets (20%) were incorrectly identified as routes of transmission. 46% believed that Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive (HIV positive) students should not attend ordinary schools. Most of the students wanted to know more about AIDS. In this study knowledge level was associated with students' attitudes and discipline (p Conclusion Although the knowledge level seems to be moderately high, misconceptions about the routes of transmission were common. There was a substantial intolerant attitude towards AIDS and HIV positive patients. We recommend that strategies for AIDS risk reduction in adolescents be developed in Iranian high schools.
Tavoosi Anahita; Zaferani Azadeh; Enzevaei Anahita; Tajik Parvin; Ahmadinezhad Zahra
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to establish baseline data about oral health knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of migrant and seasonal farm workers (MSFW). The study focused on MSFWs that are parents of preschool-aged children, and who utilized services at 3 migrant dental clinics. METHODS: An oral health knowledge attitudes and behaviors survey was developed and pilot tested in 2006. The resulting 34 item survey was administered by trained promotores de salud (community health workers) to 45 parents of preschoolers (15 at each clinic site) served by 3 migrant dental clinics. Parents answered questions as they pertained to their oldest preschooler (up to age 5). RESULTS: Dental visits in the last 12 months were reported for 26 (58%) of the children. Fifteen parents (33%) had a dental visit in the last year. Thirty-five parents (77/8%) reported their child's oral health to be good, and 21 (46.7%) reported their own to be good. Half of the children were enrolled in Head Start (HS). Of those, 18 (79%) had a dental visit in the last year, whereas 8 (36%) of those not enrolled in HS had a visit. Discrepancies existed for the age parents believed children should stop using a bottle and the age they actually did stop using a bottle. There were discrepancies in knowledge about decay causing drinks and consumption of drinks by preschool-aged children. CONCLUSIONS: MSFWs remain an underserved population with poor access to oral health care and multiple factors affecting oral health knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. A better understanding of influences on oral health knowledge, attitudes and behaviors within the population can assist in implementing appropriate interventions for the maintenance of good oral health in MSFW families. HS can have a positive impact on oral health for MSFW children.
Full Text Available Introduction: Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with ?high morbidity and mortality among patients. The data from NHMS III has reported that the ?present prevalence of DM in Malaysia has exceeded the projected prevalence for the year 2025 as ?estimated by the International Diabetes Federation.1 Assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and ?practices (KAP) is a crucial element of DM control.2 However, very few studies have focused on ?this area and there is paucity of KAP data among Malaysian diabetic patients. ?Objective: This cross-sectional study aims to assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices ??(KAP) towards DM and the association between the patients’ KAP and control of DM among ?patients with type II DM (T2DM).?Method: Diabetic patients were recruited using the convenient sampling method from an urban ?diabetes care centre managed by a non-government, non-profit organisation. KAP were assessed ?using a 25 item structured KAP questionnaire and control of DM was evaluated from the ?HbA1C and fasting blood glucose levels respectively.?Result: Seventy five patients with T2DM participated in this study. There was a strong ?association between knowledge and attitude as well as knowledge and practice (P7mmol/l.?Conclusion: Our data suggests that factors beyond knowledge and attitude contribute to disease ?management. The plausible factors could be poor self-management, lack of motivation, ?inadequate social support or lack of resources that are necessary for sustained life style ?modification behaviour. A patient/self-empowerment approach to diabetes care may enhance the ?efficiency of DM prevention and control programs in countries experiencing DM as a major ?public health problem.?
?1Shu Hui Ng; Kheng Hooi Chan; Zi Yang Lian; Yee Hooi Chuah; Aishath Noora ?Waseem; Amudha Kadirvelu
Full Text Available Abstract Background Exploring the stability of self-reports over time in observational studies may give valuable information for the planning of future interventions. The aims of the present study were: 1) to explore the consistency of parental self-reports of oral health habits, beliefs and attitudes towards child oral health care over a two-year period; 2) to evaluate possible differences in item scores and consistency between parents with different immigrant status; and 3) to assess the construct validity of items measuring parental beliefs and attitudes towards child oral health care. Methods The sample (S1, n = 304) included parents of 3-year-old children in Oslo, Norway; 273 mothers of western origin (WN-group) and 31 of non-western origin (IM-group). They were surveyed in 2002 (child age 3 years) and in 2004 (child age 5 years). Two additional samples of parents were also included; one with 5-year old children in 2002 (S2, n = 382) and one with 3-year-old children in 2004 (S3, n = 427). The questionnaire included items measuring child oral health habits and parental beliefs and attitudes towards child oral health care. Results In 2002, 76.8% of the parents reported that they started to brush their child's teeth before the age of 1 year. Eighty-five percent of them reported the same in 2004; 87.0% of the WN-group and 33.3% of the IM-group (P P P P Conclusion The results showed a fair to good consistency of parental self-reports from 2002 to 2004. They also indicate that parents with different cultural backgrounds should be evaluated separately and in a cultural context.
Skaret Erik; Espelid Ivar; Skeie Marit S; Haugejorden Ola
AIM: This paper reports an evaluation of the effectiveness of a peer education programme in developing paediatric nurses' evidence-based knowledge and attitudes towards fever management and the sustainability of these changes. BACKGROUND: In general, paediatric nurses' fever management knowledge seems to be mediocre. They believe fever to be harmful, causing febrile convulsions and brain damage. Antipyretics are administered to prevent febrile convulsions and alternate antipyretics are given when temperatures are not reduced. METHOD: A quasi-experiment was conducted from August 2002 to March 2003. An experimental group of Registered Nurses received the peer education programme and peer support and education were promoted for those unable to attend the sessions. A control group continued its normal practices. Seventy-seven nurses were eligible to attend the programme; 74.0% attended at least one session, 52% two or more. Questionnaire data were collected 1 month before and 1 and 4 months after the peer education programme from 56.3% to 77.8% of eligible experimental and 40.9% to 51.6% of eligible control group nurses. FINDINGS: Interaction effects between group and time were found in overall knowledge (P = 0.01), specifically knowledge of the physiology of fever (P = 0.001), and attitudes towards evidence-based fever management (P = 0.05). In addition, experimental group nurses demonstrated statistically significantly more knowledge of general fever management principles at 4 months after the intervention than control group nurses (P = 0.01), and compared with their own knowledge at baseline (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Educational programmes targeting practice change must be theoretically based and target knowledge, attitudes and barriers to change. The programme tested here, which incorporated peer education and support and facilitated group change, is adaptable to other practices, groups and settings.
Edwards H; Walsh A; Courtney M; Monaghan S; Wilson J; Young J
Abstract The present study examined responses on the Valencia Scale of Attitudes and Beliefs Toward Hypnosis-Client (VSABTH-C) version among a sample of American college students (N?=?448) and explored the relationship between VSABTH-C factor scores and measures of hypnotizability, fantasy proneness, and absorption. Scores across three factors (i.e., help, interest, and marginal factors) accounted for 12% of the variance in responsiveness to suggestions administered from the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A. Normative data on the VSABTH-C factors by hypnotizability level and individual VSABTH-C item factor loadings are provided.
Full Text Available Organ transplantation is the most preferred treatment modality for patients with end-stage organ disease. There is an inadequate supply of cadaver organs commensurate with need. Health-care professionals are the critical link in augmenting public awareness about organ donation. Their attitudes and beliefs can influence the public opinion. This study aims at understanding the awareness, attitudes, and beliefs among the medical postgraduate students. A total of 123 post-graduates of a medical college hospital in South India participated in the study. A specially de-signed questionnaire was used in assessment. Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS Windows version 10.0. The mean age of the postgraduate students was 28.32 ± 3.5 years, 54% were males, 62% belonged to Christian religion, 69% were single, 77% were from nuclear families, 87% had urban background, and 54% were from upper socio-economic strata. About 97% said they were aware of organ donation through media, 23 unders-tood the concept of "cadaver" as "brain-death" and 93% were able to distinguish between brain-death and persistent vegetative state. Eighty-nine percent wished to donate their organs, 77% did not believe in body disfigurement and 87% did not believe in rebirth without the donated organs, if they pledged their organs. Sixty-nine percent were willing to donate the organs of their family members. Eighty percent were willing to receive organs from family and cadaver, 40% were willing to donate a child?s organs, 95% did not believe that organ donation is against their religion, 87% disagreed with the notion that doctors would not impart adequate care if they were pledged organ donors and 79% agreed that doctors would not declare death prematurely, if they had pledged their organs during life. There was a statis-tically significant correlation between attitudes, beliefs and demographics. In conclusion, the concept of brain-death was clearly understood by only a small number of medical postgraduate students. They how-ever, had positive attitudes and beliefs towards organ donation.
Bapat Usha; Kedlaya Prashanth; Gokulnath
Full Text Available This study was performed to determine the health beliefs about protection from colorectal cancer and reveal the knowledge levels regarding CRC screening tests in individuals above 50 years of age. The population of our descriptive study consisted of individuals above 50 years of age, total of 136 individuals were included who were registered at the Filiz Dolunay Family Health Center in Erzurum District Center. A structured questionnaire including demographic characteristics and Champion’s Health Belief Model Scale was applied to determine health beliefs. Statistical analysis was performed on computer by using t-test. The data were expressed by mean and percentage values. In conclusion, in the present study, the Turkish population exhibited low levels of knowledge and inadequate participation for CRC screening, while requiring an improvement with regard to common health beliefs.
Hasret Yalç?nöz Baysal; Nihan Türko?lu
Full Text Available We present results of a pseudolongitudinal study of attitudes and beliefs about physics from different cohort groups ranging from final-year high school students in the UK to physics faculty (N=637), using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) instrument. In terms of overall degree of expertlike thinking, we find little change in cohorts at different stages of their undergraduate degrees, with a flat profile of expertlike thinking across the years of an undergraduate degree. Significant differences in overall CLASS scores occur for cohorts across entry and exit points of the undergraduate program. At the entry boundary, our data for high school students provides strong evidence of a selection effect, with students who intend to major in physics at university displaying more expertlike views than those students who are merely studying the subject to final year in high school. A similar effect is suggested at the exit boundary but is not definitive.
Simon P. Bates*; Ross K. Galloway; Claire Loptson; Katherine A. Slaughter
Full Text Available Objectives: What attitudes do medical students express about AIDS and does their knowledge correlate with these attitudes. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of purposively selected 400 students of 1st and 2nd MBBS, Medical College Baroda was conducted during July 2008. They were asked to complete a pretested, prestructured, and designed written proforma and information was gathered. Results: About 18?lieved that urine is a potential source of infection while only 64% believed that tattooing can spread HIV. About 90% stressed upon HIV testing for patients before admission. 66% students are not willing for mouth-to-mouth resuscitation and 40 % were unwilling to assist in surgical procedure on HIV/AIDS patients. Conclusions: The results indicate that studentâ€™s knowledge about transmission was incomplete and their general willingness to provide care for patients with HIV, tempered by substantial concerns regarding the provision of such care.
Shaikh Mohsin, Sunil Nayak, Vipul Mandaviya
Background:Prenatal screening has become an ever increasing part of antenatal care in the western part of the world. Providing women with information enabling an informed consent to prenatal examinations has been widely recommended, with women accepting or declining the screening tests offered in full understanding of pros and contra.Objective and hypothesis:To summarize current knowledge of women's expectations and attitudes concerning prenatal examinations as well as the amount of knowledge possessed by pregnant women undergoing prenatal examinations. Reasons for accepting or declining a screening test offered, as well as the influence of information in the decision-making process is also explored. Methods:The review is based on systematic search strategy in the electronic databases Medline and Science Citation. Additional studies were identified through reference lists of individual papers obtained. Results:Women in general express a positive attitude towards screening procedures in pregnancy. Women are found most knowledgeable about procedural and practical aspects but are not always aware of the purposes or any limitations of the tests offered. Understanding and interpretation of risk estimates is low and possible consequences if the test reveals a problem is seldom considered beforehand. A woman's attitude to prenatal examinations is found decisive for up-take of prenatal tests, with no association between a woman's attitude towards prenatal examinations and her knowledge of those tests. Most women consider their doctor an important source of information, and state that information has influenced their decision. Conclusions: Pregnant women favor prenatal examinations, but participation does not seem to be based on an informed consent.
Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Information is the first step in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention. Ignorance about the disease and how the virus is transmitted can generate fear and prejudice towards those who are infected. AIM: To assess the awareness, attitudes, and beliefs of the general public toward HIV/AIDS in Hyderabad, the capital city of Andhra Pradesh. SETTING AND DESIGN: A cross-sectional study conducted for a period of 2 months in 2004 on 800 individuals living in Hyderabad. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey was conducted with a questionnaire titled ?General Population Behavioral Surveillance Survey.? The survey used a 5-part, 65-item questionnaire eliciting information about the knowledge of HIV (10 items), modes of transmission (20 items), ways of prevention (10 items), society?s attitude toward HIV (15 items), and finally evaluation of Government?s measures (10 items). RESULTS: Approximately 80.63% (645/800) of the study population were sketchily aware of HIV/AIDS, but had incorrect perceptions about the mode of transmission or prevention. Despite the vigorous outreach programmes, which the government and other organizations had carried out in the city, many people had several misconceptions about HIV or about people living with HIV/AIDS. CONCLUSION: As it was observed that awareness was more among the literates, the Government and Health educators should provide tailor-made education programmes for those at the lower education levels.
Sudha R; Vijay D; Lakshmi V
OBJECTIVE: to determine community midwives' knowledge, attitudes and practice with regard to baby walkers. DESIGN: survey, using questionnaires. SETTING: primary care, East Midlands, UK. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-five community midwives participating in a cluster randomised controlled trial to reduce baby walker use. FINDINGS: there was a 94% response. Seventy per cent of the midwives, felt that it was part of their role to discuss baby walkers, and 62% felt that giving advice about walkers before birth acceptable. The midwives had a limited knowledge of baby walker injury risk and only one midwife had any baby walker-related health education material. Three attitude scales were computed and indicated that the midwives held a negative view of baby walkers and were positive about baby walker health education, believing that parents hold a positive attitude to baby walkers. Those midwives who had used a walker with their own children were more positive about baby walkers and less positive about baby walker health education. KEY CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: midwives are willing to be involved in baby walker health education during pregnancy. However, they require evidence-based knowledge and materials rather than relying on personal experience.
Woods AJ; Hapgood R; Colier J; Kendrick D; Watts K; Illinworth R
Teachers of human sexuality classes are one of the most important factors in the success of school based programs; until recently, professionals involved in sex education acquired their expertise randomly and informally. The purpose of this paper is to report the effect of a 16 week sexuality education training program on attitudes and knowledge about human sexuality among teachers in a public school district. 39 participants (teachers, school nurses, and psychologists) were enrolled in a University of South Carolina course which consisted of lectures, group discussions, role playing, and films. The evaluation instrument used was the Sex Knowledge and Attitude Test (SKAT), and was administered to each participant before and after the course was given. Results show that there are significant changes in knowledge, acceptance and rejection of sexual myths, and attitudes concerning abortion and autoeroticism. The training course resulted in a shift deemed positive and conducive for teacher effectiveness in teaching sex education. There was a significant shift in a more liberal direction in all of the attitudinal scales except heterosexual relations. This positive change in attitudinal scores is essential for teachers who will be instructing students from a variety of family backgrounds. PMID:12314199
Vincent, M L; Bartley, G L; Clearie, A F
Abstract. Meningitis has a significant impact in the Sahel, but the mechanisms for transmission and factors determining a person's vulnerability are not well understood. Our survey examined the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of people in a meningitis-endemic area in the Upper East region of northern Ghana to identify social, economic, and behavioral factors that may contribute to disease transmission and possible interventions that might improve health outcomes. Key results suggest potential interventions in response to the risk posed by migration, especially seasonal migration, a lack of knowledge about early symptoms causing delayed treatment, and a need for further education about the protective benefits of vaccination.
Hayden MH; Dalaba M; Awine T; Akweongo P; Nyaaba G; Anaseba D; Pelzman J; Hodgson A; Pandya R
A total of 1,200 practicing Texas dentists were surveyed concerning AIDS knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. The results were analyzed and an analysis of variance indicated an inverse relationship between city population and avoidance behavior towards AIDS by dentists. Additionally, dentists in practice over 10 years manifested higher avoidance characteristics towards AIDS. Increased knowledge did not correlate with less avoidance behavior. The results of this study indicate that additional methods of educating dentists concerning HIV infection and AIDS, infection control, and the role of health care professionals concerning patients with infectious diseases are needed.
Dove SB; Cottone JA
Meningitis has a significant impact in the Sahel, but the mechanisms for transmission and factors determining a person's vulnerability are not well understood. Our survey examined the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of people in a meningitis-endemic area in the Upper East region of northern Ghana to identify social, economic, and behavioral factors that may contribute to disease transmission and possible interventions that might improve health outcomes. Key results suggest potential interventions in response to the risk posed by migration, especially seasonal migration, a lack of knowledge about early symptoms causing delayed treatment, and a need for further education about the protective benefits of vaccination. PMID:23775016
Hayden, Mary H; Dalaba, Maxwell; Awine, Timothy; Akweongo, Patricia; Nyaaba, Gertrude; Anaseba, Dominic; Pelzman, Jamie; Hodgson, Abraham; Pandya, Rajul
Full Text Available This study aimed to explore Iranian primary school students’ attitudes and knowledge about HIV/AIDS. The knowledge and attitudes of 597 primary school students from all areas of Ahwaz were assessed by anonymous questionnaires in November 2007. None of the students answered all the knowledge questions correctly, and results indicated that there were many misconceptions about the routes of transmission. Sneezing and coughing, contaminated food, water or hands were incorrectly identified as routes of transmission. The knowledge increased with age (P<0.001). The sources of pupils’ information primarily included: Television (66.8%), family members (20.2%), friends (10.6%) and school teachers (2.4%). Also some pupils believed that there was some treatment (38.3%) or an effective vaccine (63.4%) for HIV/AIDS. The result of this study revealed that most primary school students in Ahvaz had a lack of proper knowledge about HIV/AIDS. There is a need to promote an AIDS education in Ahvaz and also all Iranian schools, to improve socio-cultural factors in next years.
Shadi Sarahroodi; Fatemeh Jahanbakhsh Sefidi
Dentists are usually the first group who can examine patients for oral cancer and the early diagnosis highly depends on their knowledge. In this study, we aim to survey the Iranian dentists' knowledge, attitude, and behaviors regarding oral cancer. A valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire was designed and sent to 150 dentists. Responses to the questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Just one fifth of the dentists reported to perform oral cancer examination for all of their patients in age of 40 and above and about 34 % of them were knowledgeable. They mostly claimed that the lack of knowledge is the main barriers to the provision of routine oral cancer examinations. The opinion of dentists about the effectiveness of continuing education courses supports the development of these courses on oral cancer. Besides, more emphasis should be placed on oral cancer prevention in dental schools.
Razavi SM; Zolfaghari B; Foroohandeh M; Doost ME; Tahani B
AIMS: The aim of the present study was to explore medical students' beliefs and attitudes towards people with schizophrenia (PwS) prior to receiving any training in psychiatry and to assess the impact of the psychiatric placement on changing them. METHODS: A questionnaire addressing beliefs, attitudes and desired social distance from PwS was distributed to all final year medical students before the beginning of their 4-week undergraduate psychiatric placement and upon its completion. RESULTS: Students did not endorse stereotypes commonly attached to PwS, such as being dangerous, lazy or of lower intelligence, but they held the view that PwS are unpredictable and suffer from split personality. Furthermore, the baseline level of desired social distance was found to increase as the intimacy of the interaction increased, and the only variable associated with it was personal experience of serious mental illness. Moreover, the placement was found to have either no influence at all or in a negative direction. Upon its completion more students were found to believe that PwS cannot recover, have no insight into their condition, cannot make reasonable decisions, cannot work in regular jobs and are dangerous to the public. No difference was recorded in social distance scores. CONCLUSIONS: A close and critical examination of the various elements of the undergraduate placement in psychiatry is needed in order to develop an evidence-based, fully rounded education with an anti-stigma orientation.
Economou M; Peppou LE; Louki E; Stefanis CN
Full Text Available Introduction. In a time that economic classification of nations is largely dependant on their scientific output, our country "Iran" in comparison to it"s facilities, has fewer scienilfic producilon than accepted. For programming to increase quantity and quality of research, at first, should carefully recognise the present condition. This study was done to survay attitiude, knowledge and practice of students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services (IUMSHS) about research. Methods. Questionnaires were distribiuted among interns (n=234) who their names and sites had extracted. Students enterance year to university was between 1992 to 1994. So, they were at the end of their staying in university. Results. Average grade of knowledge was 2.92±2 (from whole grade= 10). This grade did not depend on stage of preparing thesis. The most true answer was in writing of purpose and the least was in sampling, medline and role of variables in study. Attitude in 78.2 percent, indicate agreement with necessity of learning research concept. 54.2 percent agree with necessity of participailon in at least one research project in educational period in university, but 41.8 percent believe that research activity in present condition is wasting the time. The answerers who at least had parilcipated in one research project were 11.9 percent and the highest knowledg"s grade was in these students. Discussion. Despite the positive attitude of interns to learn the research concept, their knowledge level in comparison with other Iranian univercities and other univercities" students in the world, was very low. Although more than half of them have positive attitude to participation in research project, their practice was insignificant. Radical changes in education system and management seems to be necessary.
M TALAEI; S ROOHI; B SABET; A.M BAGHAEI; P BAHMAN ZIARI
Full Text Available Objective: This study was aimed to assess public knowledge, belief and behavior towards antibiotics use in a general population in the Sultanate of Oman.Methods: A 12-item self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 850 prospective participants by researchers using quota sampling in two governorates of Oman. The data obtained were evaluated to assess the responses to individual questions related to knowledge, belief and behavior of antibiotic use. Median score of the respondents was correlated with participant demographics and status on use of antibiotics.Results: A total of 718 completed questionnaires were obtained giving a response rate of 85%. The median total score of the participants was 16 (Interquartile range: 6) out of a possible maximum score of 24. A moderate knowledge and behavior score was observed, while the belief score of the participants was low. A significant difference was observed in the median total score based on age group, educational qualification and employment status.Conclusion: Antibiotics are frequently used by the public. An inappropriate belief on antibiotic related aspects was observed and inappropriate behavior was noticed, which are reflections of insufficient knowledge and wrong beliefs. Interventions must be put in place to educate the public on appropriate antibiotic use.
Jimmy Jose; Beena Jimmy; Al Gahliya Mohammed Saif AlSabahi; Ghalya Abdullah Al Sabei
OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to assess public knowledge, belief and behavior towards antibiotics use in a general population in the Sultanate of Oman. METHODS: A 12-item self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 850 prospective participants by researchers using quota sampling in two governorates of Oman. The data obtained were evaluated to assess the responses to individual questions related to knowledge, belief and behavior of antibiotic use. Median score of the respondents was correlated with participant demographics and status on use of antibiotics. RESULTS: A total of 718 completed questionnaires were obtained giving a response rate of 85%. The median total score of the participants was 16 (Interquartile range: 6) out of a possible maximum score of 24. A moderate knowledge and behavior score was observed, while the belief score of the participants was low. A significant difference was observed in the median total score based on age group, educational qualification and employment status. CONCLUSION: Antibiotics are frequently used by the public. An inappropriate belief on antibiotic related aspects was observed and inappropriate behavior was noticed, which are reflections of insufficient knowledge and wrong beliefs. Interventions must be put in place to educate the public on appropriate antibiotic use.
Jose J; Jimmy B; Alsabahi AG; Al Sabei GA
The aims of this pilot study were to (1) determine if having a family history of osteoporosis impacts knowledge, health beliefs, and self-efficacy regarding osteoporosis among perimenopausal women aged 42–52 and to (2) describe the impact of an osteoporosis-specific educational intervention had on the knowledge, health beliefs, and self-efficacy of this population. Participants completed three surveys measuring knowledge, health beliefs, and self-efficacy related to osteoporosis before and two months after the educational program. At baseline, no differences were noted in knowledge of osteoporosis among women with and without a family history of osteoporosis, although women with a family history perceived a greater susceptibility for developing osteoporosis than women without the family history. Findings indicate that both groups increased in knowledge of osteoporosis (P < .001). Benefits of calcium increased in the women without a family history of osteoporosis (P < .001) and benefits of exercise increase in women with a family history of osteoporosis (P = .007). There were no significant statistical findings regarding self-efficacy between the two groups of women. Findings indicate that an osteoporosis-specific educational program improves perimenopausal women's knowledge and some health beliefs.
Endicott, Renee D.
OBJECTIVES: Data on community responses to two treatment issues critical for children and adolescents with mental health problems are addressed: stigma associated with receiving mental health care and the willingness to use psychiatric medication. METHODS: Using a representative sample of the U.S. population, the investigators interviewed 1,393 noninstitutionalized adult participants in the National Stigma Study-Children (NSS-C) (response rate 70%; margin of error +/- 4%). RESULTS: Many respondents believed that stigma results from mental health treatment during childhood (45% reported likely rejection at school) and that stigma continues to have negative ramifications into adulthood (43%). More than half (57%) were skeptical about confidentiality, and more than one-third (35%) expected parents of children with mental illness to experience self-stigma. Most respondents believed that psychiatric medications affect development (68%), give children a flat, "zombie"-like affect (53%), and delay solving "real" behavior-related problems (66%). Most (86%) believed that physicians overmedicate children for common behavioral problems. Women and persons with more education rather than less perceived less stigma resulting from treatment but reported more negative views on medication. Beliefs in medication efficacy and trust in physicians were associated with more positive cultural beliefs. CONCLUSIONS: Data on the contemporary cultural context surrounding treatment for children's mental health issues revealed substantial stigma concerns, particularly surrounding medication options. These beliefs and attitudes cannot be easily inferred from adults' sociodemographic characteristics.
Pescosolido BA; Perry BL; Martin JK; McLeod JD; Jensen PS
It is well established that the biomedical model falls short in explaining chronic musculoskeletal pain. Although many musculoskeletal therapists have moved on in their thinking and apply a broad biopsychosocial view with regard to chronic pain disorders, the majority of clinicians have received a biomedical-focused training/education. Such a biomedical training is likely to influence the therapists' attitudes and core beliefs toward chronic musculoskeletal pain. Therapists should be aware of the impact of their own attitudes and beliefs on the patient's attitudes and beliefs. As patient's attitudes and beliefs influence treatment adherence, musculoskeletal therapists should be aware that focusing on the biomedical model for chronic musculoskeletal pain is likely to result in poor compliance with evidence based treatment guidelines, less treatment adherence and a poorer treatment outcome. Here, we provide clinicians with a 5-step approach toward effective and evidence-based care for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. The starting point entails self-reflection: musculoskeletal therapists can easily self-assess their attitudes and beliefs regarding chronic musculoskeletal pain. Once the therapist holds evidence-based attitudes and beliefs regarding chronic musculoskeletal pain, assessing patients' attitudes and beliefs will be the natural next step. Such information can be integrated in the clinical reasoning process, which in turn results in individually-tailored treatment programs that specifically address the patients' attitudes and beliefs in order to improve treatment adherence and outcome.
Nijs J; Roussel N; Paul van Wilgen C; Köke A; Smeets R
Full Text Available Objective. Since communicating risk related to environmental hazards has consistently presented a challenge to government agencies and industries, our objective was to better understand the attitudes and beliefs of three communities, so as to help agencies and industries develop better risk communication interventions. Methods. We explored attitudes and beliefs about environmental risks in three diverse communities in Texas on the border with Mexico, in the county of El Paso. During the summer of 1995, using a door-to-door survey, we interviewed 147 individuals, using a questionnaire based upon an existing instrument. Interviews were conducted in three very different areas of the county: semirural low-income, urban low-income, and suburban upper-income. We randomly selected specific sections in each of the three communities for inclusion in the sample. We assessed attitudes and beliefs about regulations and experts, risk and hazards, and how to address environmental issues. Results. Attitudes and beliefs varied among the three communities, especially in the assessment of riskiness of various hazards. In general, there was mistrust of government agencies and of industries, a strong feeling that the environment can be improved, and a lack of understanding about what actions individuals might take to improve the environment. Discussion. Agencies need to find ways to increase their credibility with the public, and they should assess communities in order to understand the attitudes of the residents.
Byrd Theresa L.; VanDerslice James; Peterson Susan K.
A study of the nutrition knowledge and attitudes of shoppers in a new kind of cooperative food store indicated shoppers were primarily interested in cooperatives because of the food: its believed superiority in terms of growing conditions, freedom from processing, or nutritional value. Shoppers were skeptical of processed foods and believed organic foods, vitamin supplements, and other special nutrition measures are needed to ensure health. Working members and vegetarians were significantly less orthodox in their nutrition attitudes than nonworking members and nonvegetarians. Seventy-five percent of the sample thought nutrition information and the education function of the cooperative were important. Topics of greatest interest to these food cooperative shoppers were organic gardening, food preservation and preparation, and vegetarianism.
Ehlers KM; Fox H
A study of the nutrition knowledge and attitudes of shoppers in a new kind of cooperative food store indicated shoppers were primarily interested in cooperatives because of the food: its believed superiority in terms of growing conditions, freedom from processing, or nutritional value. Shoppers were skeptical of processed foods and believed organic foods, vitamin supplements, and other special nutrition measures are needed to ensure health. Working members and vegetarians were significantly less orthodox in their nutrition attitudes than nonworking members and nonvegetarians. Seventy-five percent of the sample thought nutrition information and the education function of the cooperative were important. Topics of greatest interest to these food cooperative shoppers were organic gardening, food preservation and preparation, and vegetarianism. PMID:7054260
Ehlers, K M; Fox, H
Full Text Available This study examined the belief, knowledge and perception on parents to immunization of children in Lagos State. Questionnaires were distributed to a sample of 1000 parents seeking for their opinion on various issues pertaining to their perception about child immunization. In addition, the study did a general literature review on immunization coverage in Nigeria taking into cognizance the beliefs of the Yoruba of South-West Nigeria to which the study area (Lagos State) is an integral part.The result shows that although, many parents have knowledge about the efficacy of vaccination for their children, yet culture overrides such knowledge in some cases. The result shows that gender of parents does not significantly affect their belief about immunization and their willingness to present children for routine immunization. However, marital status, education and religion significantly influence such belief.It is concluded that the culture and beliefs of the Yoruba in Lagos State is too complex to be ignored in any public health plan, if such plan is to be effectively and efficiently implemented.
Rasheed Kola Ojikutu
The purpose of the paper is to discuss the recent data analysis of a mail-in survey which investigated the attitudes of people having some knowledge of the nuclear industry. The survey contained 74 items which solicited 4 major types of information. Thirty-seven items investigated respondents' perception of risk concerning spent fuel transportation, 12 examined respondents' confidence in certain governing agencies' abilities of managing the safe transportation of spent fuel, 19 examined respondents' attitudes toward certain special precautionary actions for spent fuel transport, and 6 requested demographic data. The 637 people who responded to the survey were divided into 5 mutually exclusive groups for analysis. These included: safety professionals, government employees, employees of the nuclear industry, employees of environmental organizations, and Native Americans. The safety, government, and Native American groups were divided into subgroups for further analysis. Overall and group responses concerned with special precautionary actions for the transportation of spent fuel were examined. Native American, safety, and government subgroup responses to items which examined respondents' perceived risks, confidence in certain governing agencies, and attitudes concerning special precautionary actions for the transportation of spent fuel were also investigated. Additionally, risk perceptions of spent fuel transport was compared between people residing no more than 5 miles from an interstate highway to those living no less than 16 miles from an interstate highway. The results of the analysis are divided into 4 sections: A. Sample Identification; B. Overall and Group Attitudes to Certain Special Precautionary Actions For Transporting Spent Fuel; C. Subgroup Attitudes toward the Transportation of Spent Fuel; D. Risk Perceptions of People Living No More than 5 Miles vs. People Living No Less than 16 Miles from and Interstate Highway. Generally conclusions are also provided
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to determine women's knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and anal cancer and knowledge and attitudes toward the anal Pap test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A convenience sample of 370 women from the general population 21 years or older completed a 48-question preintervention survey; read an informational pamphlet about anal cancer, HPV, and anal Pap tests; and then completed a 21-question postintervention survey in Augusta, Atlanta, and Savannah, GA. The survey assessed their knowledge about anal cancer, HPV, and the anal Pap test and determined their attitudes toward the anal Pap test. Only preintervention results were considered in this article. Descriptive statistics were determined for all variables. RESULTS: Only 17.6% of women had previously heard of anal Pap tests, and the majority knew nothing (48.9%) or only a little (38.5%) about anal cancer. Yet, most women (78.6%) knew that anal Pap tests help to prevent anal cancer, and 86.2% knew that anal Pap tests are not only for people who have anal sex. Only a minority of women recognized known risk factors for anal cancer. Lack of knowledge about anal Pap tests (43.8%), pain or discomfort (41.3%), cost (24.0%), and embarrassment (21.2%) were the main reasons cited for not wanting an anal Pap test. CONCLUSIONS: Although most women had limited knowledge about anal cancer and anal Pap tests and few recognized known risk factors for anal cancer, women were receptive to screening. Further implementation of anal Pap testing for women may be improved by understanding women's limited knowledge and concerns.
Ferris D; Lambert R; Waller J; Dickens P; Kabaria R; Han CS; Steelman C; Fawole F
Traditional birth attendants (TBAs) can be invaluable in assisting to dispel myths commonly associated with natal/neonatal teeth. To ensure correct delivery of the message, baseline data of their beliefs is important. To assess the attitude and beliefs of some Nigerian TBAs to prematurely erupted teeth in infants, a total enumeration of the TBAs in the five urban Local Government Areas in Ibadan was conducted and 163 consenting TBAs were recruited using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The attitude of the TBAs was that of fear and shock (35.6%) while 30 (18.4%) will consider the child weird. Perceived causes of the variation include evil spirits (31.9%), contravening cultural taboos (9.2%), and prolonged gestation (4.9%). Beliefs on the effect of natal/neonatal teeth on the child include strange behavior (31.3%), child developing evil spiritual powers (41.1%), and mental retardation (3.1%). Practices included advising parents to get rid of/or hide the child (4.9%) and immediate extraction of the teeth with/without sacrifices (35.6%). There is an urgent need to address knowledge gaps by giving health education to TBAs. PMID:23376760
Bankole, Olubunmi; Taiwo, Juliana; Nasiru, Olukemi
Traditional birth attendants (TBAs) can be invaluable in assisting to dispel myths commonly associated with natal/neonatal teeth. To ensure correct delivery of the message, baseline data of their beliefs is important. To assess the attitude and beliefs of some Nigerian TBAs to prematurely erupted teeth in infants, a total enumeration of the TBAs in the five urban Local Government Areas in Ibadan was conducted and 163 consenting TBAs were recruited using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The attitude of the TBAs was that of fear and shock (35.6%) while 30 (18.4%) will consider the child weird. Perceived causes of the variation include evil spirits (31.9%), contravening cultural taboos (9.2%), and prolonged gestation (4.9%). Beliefs on the effect of natal/neonatal teeth on the child include strange behavior (31.3%), child developing evil spiritual powers (41.1%), and mental retardation (3.1%). Practices included advising parents to get rid of/or hide the child (4.9%) and immediate extraction of the teeth with/without sacrifices (35.6%). There is an urgent need to address knowledge gaps by giving health education to TBAs.
Bankole O; Taiwo J; Nasiru O
Dog bites are a significant pediatric public health challenge in rural China. This study evaluated the effect of various sources of dog-safety information on children's knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices with dogs. A total of 1925 children (grade 3-6) between 6 and 15 years old in four rural regions across China participated between May and September 2012. Results showed that teachers and especially parents were effective information sources for children to learn about dog safety. Learning from peers and children teaching themselves were ineffective education strategies. Multi-source learning (from both parents and teachers) did not differ from single-source learning (from parents but not teachers) but did exceed learning from teachers but not parents or no learning from adults. Older age was associated with greater safety knowledge but also riskier practices with dogs. Girls generally held more safety knowledge, less risky attitudes/beliefs and safer practices than boys. Neither age nor gender interacted with information sources on outcome measures. In conclusion, parents appear to play a major role in educating children in rural China on dog safety. Future dog safety interventions might focus on changing cognition and behavior as well as delivering basic knowledge to youth through teachers and especially parents. PMID:23792615
Shen, J; Li, S; Xiang, H; Pang, S; Xu, G; Yu, G; Schwebel, D C
Dog bites are a significant pediatric public health challenge in rural China. This study evaluated the effect of various sources of dog-safety information on children's knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices with dogs. A total of 1925 children (grade 3-6) between 6 and 15 years old in four rural regions across China participated between May and September 2012. Results showed that teachers and especially parents were effective information sources for children to learn about dog safety. Learning from peers and children teaching themselves were ineffective education strategies. Multi-source learning (from both parents and teachers) did not differ from single-source learning (from parents but not teachers) but did exceed learning from teachers but not parents or no learning from adults. Older age was associated with greater safety knowledge but also riskier practices with dogs. Girls generally held more safety knowledge, less risky attitudes/beliefs and safer practices than boys. Neither age nor gender interacted with information sources on outcome measures. In conclusion, parents appear to play a major role in educating children in rural China on dog safety. Future dog safety interventions might focus on changing cognition and behavior as well as delivering basic knowledge to youth through teachers and especially parents.
Shen J; Li S; Xiang H; Pang S; Xu G; Yu G; Schwebel DC
BACKGROUND: The attitudes toward people with epilepsy are influenced by the degree of knowledge of the condition. The social problems encountered by school children with epilepsy as a result of negative attitude and beliefs are quite enormous. OBJECTIVES: The study therefore looked at the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of teachers, who see a lot of epileptics, relate to them on a daily basis and have influence on them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey, using a self-administered questionnaire obtained from the author of a similar study in the United States, was carried out among 269 school teachers randomly selected from various secondary schools in Osogbo, the Osun State capital in South-West Nigeria. The questionnaire included the scale of attitudes toward persons with epilepsy and knowledge about epilepsy as well as demographic and teaching experience survey among others. RESULTS: Despite the high level of education of the teachers ranging from Masters Degree to National Certificate in Education, there were significant deficits in terms of general knowledge about epilepsy (70% of the respondents reported their general knowledge about epilepsy in the lower half of the scale). There was also poor knowledge of the first aids measures in the classrooms. Below one-third (29.2%) felt it was contagious and 40% of respondents reported that sufferers should not be kept in regular classes. However, their attitudes toward epilepsy were generally positive. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: We concluded that teachers need to have health education courses on common disease conditions such as epilepsy that are prevalent in school age; this might help to reduce the prejudice and increase the acceptance of epileptic individuals in the classrooms. Also, generally public health campaigns should be encouraged in this field.
Mustapha AF; Odu OO; Akande O
Background: Evidence-based practice (EBP) is one of the main professional competencies for health care professionals and a priority for medicine and nursing curriculum as well. EBP leads to improve effective and efficient care and patient outcomes. Nurse educators have responsibility to teach the future nurses, and an opportunity to promote patient outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe nurse educators’ knowledge and attitude on EBP. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study conducted in nursing faculties of two major universities of medical sciences affiliated to Ministry of Health and Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran. Data were gathered using a three-section questionnaire. Content and face validity was further enhanced by submitting it to nursing research and education experts. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11 software. Results: According the results, nursing faculties’ knowledge of EBP was mainly moderate (47.1%). Significant statistical relationship was found between the level of knowledge with education and teaching experience in different nursing programs. Nurses generally held positive attitudes toward EBP (88.6%) and there was no statistical significant relationship with demographic variables. Conclusion: Nursing educators are in a position to influence nursing research in clinical practice in the future. Therefore, it is critical to achieve implementation of EBP and be a change agent for a paradigm shift toward EBP.
Mehrdad, Neda; Joolaee, Soodabeh; Joulaee, Azadeh; Bahrani, Naser
Full Text Available Background: Millions of workers are occupationally exposed to dyes in the world, but little is known about their knowledge and attitudes toward the effects of dye on their health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the fabric dyers? and fabric printers? knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the health hazard of dyes. Materials and Methods: The present study was taken up in the Madurai district which is situated in the Southern Tamil Nadu, India. One hundred and forty-two workers employed in small-scale dyeing and printing units participated in a face-to-face confidential interview . Results: The mean age of fabric dyers and fabric printers was 42 years (?10.7). When enquired about whether dyes affect body organ(s), all the workers agreed that dye(s) will affect skin, but they were not aware that dyes could affect other parts of the body. All the workers believed that safe methods of handling of dyes and disposal of contaminated packaging used for dyes need to be considered. It was found that 34% of the workers were using personal protective equipment (PPE) such as rubber hand gloves during work. Conclusion: The workers had knowledge regarding the occupational hazards, and their attitudinal approach toward the betterment of the work environment is positive.
Paramasivam Parimalam; Raghavan Premalatha; Srinivasan Padmini; Kumar Ganguli
Full Text Available Background: Present study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers towards infant feeding practices. Materials and methods: The mothers of infants, coming to a tertiary care centre, Ahmedabad, on outpatient basis were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire. Total 150 mothers were interviewed. Results: Out of the total, 18% mothers were illiterate.58.67% mothers have been counselled by doctor about feeding. Regarding breast feeding, 96% knew about exclusive breast feeding up to 6months. 90.67% think that colostrum is good for baby.34.67% mothers have given pre-lacteal feeds, tea and jaggery was most common.84.67% mothers knew that they should take extra food during lactation. Father (36%) most commonly help in feeding while 31.33% don?t get any domestic help.78.67% women consult doctor for feeding problems. Most common reason of stopping breast feeding was inadequate milk secretion(54.67%).18% think that feeding should be stopped during illness. 75.33% women were completely satisfied with their feeding practices. Conclusion-Mothers had good knowledge about infant feeding practices. Inspite of good knowledge there are lacunae in the practices of mothers due to social and economic reasons. Level of education has positive impact on infant feeding practices. Counselling by doctors had a better impact on the attitude and practices of mothers. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(2.000): 147-150
Sushma Sriram; Priyanka Soni; Rashmi Thanvi; Nisha Prajapati; K M Mehariya
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and attitude of Sultan Qaboos University students towards premarital screening program.Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted at the students’ clinic from January to April 2011. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 590 unmarried Omani students of both genders. The questionnaire consisted of 3 main parts; the first part was based on socio-demographic data, the second part dealt with the students’ knowledge about the premarital screening program while the third part explored their attitudes towards the screening program.Results: Most of the participants (n=469; 79%) were aware about the availability of premarital screening program in Oman. The main sources of information were: school/college (n=212; 36%), media (n=209; 35%), family and friends (n=197; 33%), and/or health services (n=181, 31%). The vast majority of the participants (n=540; 92%) thought it is important to carry out premarital screening and agreed to do it. Around half of the participants (n=313; 53%) favored having premarital screening as an obligatory procedure before marriage and about one third (n=212; 36%) favored making laws and regulation to prevent marriage in case of positive results.Conclusion: Even though the majority of the participants thought it is important to carry out premarital screening; only half favored making it obligatory before marriage and one third favored making laws and regulations to prevent marriage in case of positive results. This reflects the importance of health education as a keystone in improving knowledge and attitude towards premarital screening program.
Rahma Al Kindi; Salha Al Rujaibi; Maya Al Kendi
To gain information about AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of junior high school students, 1,967 students in three junior high schools in an inner city school district were surveyed. Ages of the participants ranged from 11-16 years, and 48% were male. Ethnically, 33% were Asian, 31% African-American, 24% Latino, and 5% white. African-American students had greater AIDS general knowledge than Asians and similar general knowledge to Latinos and whites. Most students wanted to be taught about AIDS in school. Misconceptions about casual contagion of AIDS were common. Students with these misconceptions were more likely to believe that students with AIDS should not be allowed to attend school. A high proportion of students had engaged in high-risk behavior including sexual intercourse, drinking alcoholic beverages, and using street drugs. More boys than girls reported each of these activities. Of individuals having had sexual intercourse, a positive association was found between the belief that condoms are effective in preventing HIV infection and use of condoms. These findings support the possibility that improving knowledge about HIV transmission would result in more tolerance toward students with HIV infection and would result in less high-risk behavior.
Siegel D; Lazarus N; Krasnovsky F; Durbin M; Chesney M
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the computer attitudes and computer self-efficacy beliefs of students in the sample of PISA 2009 Turkey. It is examined whether computer self-efficacy beliefs and computer attitudes of students show variation by the variables of gender, type of school and region or not in the study. Moreover, the relation between computer self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes of students was analyzed. Since the study is a study aiming to examine computer self-efficacy beliefs and computer attitudes of students participating in PISA 2009 from Turkey in terms of various variables, it is a descriptive study. Computer self-efficacy belief scale and computer attitude scale were used as the tool of data collection in the research. In data analysis, construction validity of computer self-efficacy and computer attitude scales was examined by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), Cronbach alpha coefficient was calculated based on internal consistency and the differences between the groups were tested by the t test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). While computer self-efficacy beliefs of students do not differ by gender, computer attitudes are significantly different by gender and this difference has no practical significance. Computer self-efficacy beliefs and computer attitudes of students differ by type of school and region of school.
Cem Oktay GÜZELLER
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine gifted students’ knowledge of and attitudes towards biotechnology. A total of 62 gifted primary school students who were taught in science and art centers in Denizli and Kahramanmara? in 2010-2011 academic year participated in the study. The results indicated that most of the students (87%) had an awareness regarding genetically modified (GM) products. The results also revealed that students think that GM products have risks. Overall, the students thought that GM products should be used for the benefit of technology and people. Based on the findings from this study, some implications for biotechnology education are made.
Kadir Bilen; Murat Özel
The Young People for the Nuclear Energetics (FINE) was established in 1999 as the Hungarian branch of the Young Generation Network. Our purpose is to remove the misbelieves and fears arisen around the nuclear techniques and mainly the nuclear energetics and to reply the questions brought up by the Hungarian youth in this topic. In this year our main activity was to take part in the Student Island festival with a Nuclear-tent. In this paper our experience is delineated what we drawn with the help of our programmes about the attitude and the knowledge of the youth. (authors)
The Hungarian Youth for Nuclear (FINE) was established in 1999 as the Hungarian branch of the Young Generation Network. Our purpose is to remove the misconceptions and fears that have arisen around the nuclear techniques, mainly nuclear energetics, and to reply to the questions brought up by the Hungarian youth on this topic. This year, our main activity was to take part in the Student Island with a Nuclear-tent. In this paper we delineate our experience that we have gained with the help of our programmes about the attitude and knowledge of the Hungarian youth. (authors)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotic overuse and misuse for upper respiratory tract infections in children is widespread and fuelled by public attitudes and expectations. This study assessed knowledge, beliefs, and practices regarding antibiotic use for these paediatric infections among children's caregivers' in Trinidad and Tobago in the English speaking Caribbean. Methods In a cross-sectional observational study, by random survey children's adult caregivers gave a telephone interview from November 1998 to January 1999. On a pilot-tested evaluation instrument, respondents provided information about their knowledge and beliefs of antibiotics, and their use of these agents to treat recent episodes ( Results Of the 417 caregivers, 70% were female and between 18–40 years, 77% were educated to high school and beyond and 43% lived in urban areas. Two hundred and forty nine (60%) respondents scored high (? 12) on antibiotic knowledge and 149 (34%) had used antibiotics in the preceding year. More caregivers with a high knowledge score had private health insurance (33%), (p Conclusions In Trinidad and Tobago, caregivers scoring low on antibiotic knowledge have erroneous beliefs and use antibiotics inappropriately. Children in their care receive antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections without visiting a health clinic or a physician. Educational interventions in the community on the consequences of inappropriate antibiotic use in children are recommended. Our findings emphasise the need to address information, training, legislation and education at all levels of the drug delivery system towards discouraging self-medication with antibiotics in children.
Parimi Neeta; Pereira Lexley; Prabhakar P
Five hundred men who have sex with men (MSM), recruited through respondent driven sampling in Buenos Aires, Argentina, were interviewed in order to assess knowledge and beliefs about HIV infection. The mean proportion of HIV correct knowledge answers was 62 %; however participants whose sexual partners in the prior year included women (MSM&W) had lower frequencies of correct answers than participants with no women partners. Men with previous HIV testing experience and those who were HIV positive had higher HIV knowledge. In relation to HIV beliefs, less than half of participants responded correctly to each of the scenarios presented. Accurate answers for all items were more likely among those who only have sex with men. Men have basic HIV knowledge but also many misconceptions about transmission and prevention. Furthermore, MSM&W have less information than those who are exclusively MSM, probably related to the fact that information campaigns specifically targeted gay identified men.
Pando MA; Balan I; Marone R; Dolezal C; Barreda V; Carballo Dieguez A; Avila MM
Abstract Background For patients to effectively manage gout, they need to be aware of the impact of diet, alcohol use, and medications on their condition. We sought to examine patients’ knowledge and beliefs concerning gout and its treatment in order to identify barriers to optimal ...
Harrold Leslie R; Mazor Kathleen M; Peterson Daniel; Naz Nausheen; Firneno Cassandra; Yood Robert A
Objective: To evaluate the association between smoke-free regulations in public places and secondhand smoke exposure and related beliefs, awareness, attitudes, and behavior among urban residents in China. Methods: We selected one city (Hangzhou) as the intervention city and another (Jiaxing) as the ...
Tingzhong Yang; Abu S. Abdullah; Li Li; Ian R. H. Rockett; Yan Lin; Jun Ying; Wei Guo; Dan Wu; Mu Li
Incoming first-year college students (N = 4,292) were surveyed regarding attitudes and beliefs about leadership. Students' opinions about their leadership ability were high and were related to having an outgoing personality, as well as the number of high school activities in which they had been involved. In addition, students' understanding of…
Wielkiewicz, Richard M.; Fischer, Donald V.; Stelzner, Stephen P.; Overland, Maribeth; Sinner, Alyssa M.
This study gauges the impact of the incorporation of a college into a university on the attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of staff members who were not appointed in posts at the receiving institution. It is an account of the anger, fear and bias college lecturers experienced during the process of i...
Van der Westhuizen, Carol N.
BACKGROUND: Recent research has highlighted the issue of bullying in schools. However, little attention has been paid to the knowledge and beliefs of trainee teachers, who will hold a key position in reducing the problem of bullying in schools. AIMS: To determine (i) trainee teachers' beliefs about some aspects of school bullying; (ii) their recommended strategies for pupils to cope; (iii) their confidence in dealing with bullying issues as future teachers; (iv) the value of specific aspects of training; (v) the importance for these of sex, and primary/secondary training. SAMPLE: This comprised 270 students enrolled on either a one-year postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) course (N =197) or a four-year degree in education (BEd) course (N =73). Age ranged from 18-51 years (mean=28 years). METHODS: Questionnaire completed and returned within a 2-week period. RESULTS: Bullying was seen as an important issue. Some aspects of trainee teachers' knowledge of bullying were accurate, others less so. Telling teachers, and parents, were the strategies most highly recommended to pupils. The great majority were in favour of teacher training courses incorporating information regarding ways of combating bullying. However, they had less confidence about their ability to deal with bullying. Respondents expressed more confidence when dealing with victims rather than bullies and working with the parents of victims rather than the parents of bullies. CONCLUSION: It is important that teacher-training programmes incorporate information about school bullying, and are designed to take account of existing knowledge, and areas in which trainee teachers may feel less confident.
Nicolaides S; Toda Y; Smith PK
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine seniors' knowledge of and attitudes toward advance directive documents. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study in a primary care setting in the provinces of Albacete and Guadalajara, Spain (n = 464). RESULTS: A total of 86.2% (95% CI: 83.0-89.5) of the participants were unaware of advance directive documents and only 3.4% (95% CI: 1.7-5.3) had formalized one. These documents were positively viewed by 76.7% of the participants (95% CI: 72.8-80.7). The variables associated with positive attitudes toward advance directives in logistic regression were educational level (OR = 4.7; 95% CI: 2.6-8.4) and experience of a situation in which such a document would have helped (OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1-3.4). CONCLUSIONS: Seniors had positive attitudes toward advance directives, but the proportion of persons aware of these documents was low.
Andrés-Pretel F; Navarro Bravo B; Párraga Martínez I; de la Torre García MA; Jiménez Del Val MD; López-Torres Hidalgo J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological factors are important in influencing breastfeeding practices. This retrospective study explored knowledge and attitudes related to breastfeeding of Chinese mothers living in Ireland. Methods A cross-sectional self-administrated survey written in Chinese was distributed to a convenience sample of 322 immigrant Chinese mothers mainly via Chinese supermarkets and Chinese language schools in Dublin, with the involvement of the snowball method to increase sample size. Maternal breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes were described, their associations with socio-demographic variables were explored by Chi-square analysis, and their independent associations with breastfeeding behaviours were estimated by binary logistic regression analyses. Results In spite of considerable awareness of the advantages of breastfeeding (mean score = 4.03 ± 0.73), some misconceptions (e.g. 'mother should stop breastfeeding if she catches a cold') and negative attitudes (e.g. breastfeeding inconvenient, embarrassing, and adverse to mothers' figure) existed, especially among the less educated mothers. Cultural beliefs concerning the traditional Chinese postpartum diet were prevalent, particularly among those who had lived in Ireland for a shorter duration (P = 0.004). Psychological parameters had strong independent associations with breastfeeding practices in this study. Those who had lower awareness score (OR = 2.98, 95% CI: 1.87-4.73), more misconceptions and negative attitudes (P Conclusions Findings highlight a need to focus resources and education on correcting the misconceptions identified and reversing the negative attitudes towards breastfeeding among Chinese mothers in Ireland, in particular those with primary/secondary level of education. Mothers' cultural beliefs should also be acknowledged and understood by healthcare providers.
Zhou Qianling; Younger Katherine M; Kearney John M
Family resemblance in beliefs, attitudes and intentions towards the consumption of 20 foods that contribute to the fat intake was investigated in 97 adult women, their mothers and their grandmothers. Mean correlation for elements from the Fishbein and Ajzen theory of reasoned action between younger and middle generations ranged from 0.09 to 0.17 and between middle and older generations from 0.12 to 0.17. All significant correlations were positive. More statistically significant correlations were found for liking attitudes between the younger and middle generations (p < 0.05 for ten out of 20 correlations) than for other pairs. Between the older and younger generation the number of significant correlations could be due to chance alone. From the relative importance of liking and good/bad attitude on intention it appeared that liking contributed the most to the variance in intention scores. Health related beliefs and attitudes became of increasing importance in the older generations. From this study it can be concluded that mothers and their adult daughters resemble each other in beliefs, food preferences, attitudes and intentions, although resemblance is poor.
Stafleu A; Van Staveren WA; De Graaf C; Burema J; Hautvast JG
Full Text Available Introduction: Intensive care unit ICU syndrome is a disorder, in which patients in an ICU or a similar setting experience anxiety, hallucination and become paranoid, severely disoriented in time and place, very agitated, or even violent, etc. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of nurses with regards to prevention of ICU syndrome (Delirium). Methods: Subjects of this research were 56 nurses with including criteria of registration in nursing, university degree and at least one month experience of working in open heart surgery ICUs. The data was gathered from 3 clusters in university hospitals equipped with open heart surgery ICUs in Tehran. All subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire. Moreover all subjects were observed in all shifts. During observation, two researchers observed each subject simultaneously to achieve higher accuracy of observations. Descriptive and analytic statistics were applied to analysis the data. Results: The finding of the study showed that more than 53% of the subjects had passed a continuing education course, but less than 46% of them never passed a training course on ICU. According to this research, subjects, work experience in ICUs had significant relation on their knowledge with regard to prevention of ICU psychosis. However, it has not significant relation to their attitude and skill. Conclusion: According to the results of the study, subjects have little chance to be familiar with the concepts and elements of ICU syndrome in their university program. The finding also indicated that many subjects in this study were not familiar with the important concepts such as sleep deprivation, sensory overload and sensory deprivation, etc. Ongoing progression in high-tech ICUs brings about continuing nursing education programs for all nurses. The results also showed that stress factor in ICU, such as high mortality, isolation, high workload etc. Gradually influences nurses,attitude in ICU. So, it is strongly recommended to consider rotation of nurses in order not to impose high stress to ICU nurses.
Ali Dadgari; Farede Yaghmaie; Jasman Shahnazarian; Leyla Dadvar
PURPOSE: Through consultation with Canadian dietitian informants, we aimed to identify the desired knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSA) for preceptors, training opportunities, and the barriers that prevent preceptor training. METHODS: In this qualitative study, an open-ended survey was sent electronically to 100 key informants across Canada. Informants had experience as preceptors or with dietitian preceptors. Informants were asked to reflect upon the desired KSA, training needs, and barriers to training for dietitian preceptors. Categories of responses under each of these headings were developed on the basis of informants' responses. RESULTS: Forty-nine key informants completed the survey, for a 49% response rate. Of the respondents, 41% (20/49) were in clinical practice and 35% (17/49) worked in community/public health areas. The knowledge and skills domains consisted of themes related to teaching and learning, including assessing, planning, and evaluating. Attitudes expressed included considering learners as colleagues and the training of learners as a professional responsibility. Perceived barriers to training preceptors included workload demands and a lack of recognition from peers and employers for this work. Dietitian preceptor training opportunities ranged from no training to formal programs. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are integral to the basic understanding of the desired KSA and training needs of Canadian dietitian preceptors.
Nasser R; Morley C; Cook SL; Coleman J; Berenbaum S
This study examined whether explicit beliefs justifying aggression and implicit knowledge structures theorized to facilitate aggression both contributed to between-subjects differences in teen dating violence (TDV). In addition, this research examined the contribution of explicit and implicit cognitions in the prediction of within-subjects changes in TDV over a 6-month period. Participants were 147 14- to 17-year-olds (48 % female) recruited from courts and agencies providing services to adolescents in trouble because of antisocial behavior. Teens completed a measure of explicit beliefs justifying aggression, a speeded word-completion task designed to measure aggressive content in implicit knowledge structures, and a measure of TDV. Measures were completed at 3 assessments, spaced 3 months apart. Results indicated that explicit beliefs justifying aggression and implicit knowledge structures theorized to facilitate aggression both contributed independently to between-subjects differences in TDV. However, only explicit beliefs about aggression were associated with within-subjects changes in TDV over the 6-month study period. These findings highlight the importance of considering both explicit and implicit cognitions in attempting to understand the perpetration of TDV. PMID:23397150
Jouriles, Ernest N; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee; Kleinsasser, Anne L; Dodson, M Catherine
This study examined whether explicit beliefs justifying aggression and implicit knowledge structures theorized to facilitate aggression both contributed to between-subjects differences in teen dating violence (TDV). In addition, this research examined the contribution of explicit and implicit cognitions in the prediction of within-subjects changes in TDV over a 6-month period. Participants were 147 14- to 17-year-olds (48 % female) recruited from courts and agencies providing services to adolescents in trouble because of antisocial behavior. Teens completed a measure of explicit beliefs justifying aggression, a speeded word-completion task designed to measure aggressive content in implicit knowledge structures, and a measure of TDV. Measures were completed at 3 assessments, spaced 3 months apart. Results indicated that explicit beliefs justifying aggression and implicit knowledge structures theorized to facilitate aggression both contributed independently to between-subjects differences in TDV. However, only explicit beliefs about aggression were associated with within-subjects changes in TDV over the 6-month study period. These findings highlight the importance of considering both explicit and implicit cognitions in attempting to understand the perpetration of TDV.
Jouriles EN; Rosenfield D; McDonald R; Kleinsasser AL; Dodson MC
Is belief in the paranormal alive and well within preservice teachers? In this survey 232 undergraduates (including 202 preservice primary teachers) were asked to react to a series of eight statements reflecting paranormal New Age beliefs rated earlier by a faculty panel as “totally unbelievable.” Overall, the students' modal response was expressed as “no particular opinion,” although for five of the eight items the modal respónse was “slightly believable.” It was found that only four students within the sample consistently rejected all eight statements. The frequency of ‘believers’ outnumbered the ‘skeptics’ in relation to three items (beliefs in UFOs, psychic seances, and Nostradamus). New Age factor scores were not significantly related to undergraduate faculty or year level, to holding anti-scientific beliefs or to a measure of TV-viewing, and did not correlate significantly with the personality scale Need for Cognition. Females evidenced higher New Age scores than males, but attitudes to science were unrelated to gender.
Yates, Gregory C. R.; Chandler, Margaret
This study assessed gender differences in human papillomavirus (HPV) awareness (including knowledge), health beliefs, and behavioral intentions to prevent infection. The participants comprised 763 and 905 sexually active men and women, respectively. Gender differences were observed in HPV knowledge, health beliefs, and sociodemographics that were significantly correlated with behavioral intentions to prevent infection. There were gender differences in the factors related to behavioral intentions to prevent HPV. In multiple regression analysis, HPV knowledge was not related to behavioral intentions, whereas perceived benefits were related to behavioral intentions consistently among men and women, while the effects of perceived barriers were inconsistent. HPV awareness was very low regardless of gender. While HPV education is urgently required for men, enhancing HPV awareness, reinforcing positive perceptions of HPV prevention, and reducing unhealthy sexual behaviors are necessary for the entire Korean population.
OBJECTIVE: To identify men's knowledge and attitude towards early detection of breast cancer. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the outpatient clinics of King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Five hundred and fifty participants were selected by systemic randomization. The distributed questionnaire included: demographics, knowledge and its source on breast cancer, beliefs and practice regarding breast self-examination (BSE), mammography, and difficulties that may prevent women from seeking medical help. The questionnaire was filled anonymously and in private. RESULTS: The response rate was 90.9%, and most were employees (63.2%). Physicians represented 43.4% of the source of knowledge, followed by the internet (40.4%), and last, the media (30.4%). Breast mass was the most common symptom (36.6%), followed by change of breast size (26%) and pain (20.2%), while 24% did not know the symptoms of breast cancer. Approximately 13% believed that all cases of breast cancer ended with mastectomy. Only 57.6% were aware of the importance of BSE in early detection of breast cancer, and approximately 90% did not know the importance of mammography. CONCLUSION: Awareness campaigns aimed at husbands and men in general are to be strongly considered. They should encourage their wives and families to enroll in awareness and screening campaigns.
Al-Amoudi SM; Abduljabbar HS
Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to investigate the knowledge and attitudes among pharmacists in Oman towards the specific use and knowledge of herbal drugs. Methods: The study was conducted on 100 pharmacists employed in Oman. The data was collected using two self- administered questionnaire containing 7 and 11 closed ended questions in each, respectively. Results: The mean age of pharmacists was 32.6 (SD=5.6) years. The majority of pharmacists were interested in herbal information and their herbal information mainly comes from their previous classes during college. Most of them have belief on the effectiveness of herbal products. Pharmacists were more knowledgeable on specific therapeutic indications of herbal products rather than on other areas such as drug- herb interaction or side effects. Conclusion: In summary, Pharmacists need to be informed on the therapeutic indications, drug interactions, dose, active constituent and precautions of herbal products. Concerned bodies must also provide them with regular continuing education programs apart from putting their effects to incorporate relevant topics in herbal medicine in pharmacy curriculum.
Anas Younis Duraz; Shah Alam Khan
PURPOSE: This study was designed to examine the attitudes and beliefs of the parents of working adolescents related to the safety of the employment of their children. METHODS: A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted in 2003 among English-speaking parents of working adolescents aged 14-18 years in the continental United States. Questions addressed parental concerns about adolescents' employment and potential safety issues at work. RESULTS: Most parents expressed favorable attitudes about adolescent employment, although many expressed concerns about fatigue (48%), problems completing schoolwork (33%), or spending time with families (35%). Half of all parents indicated concerns about adolescents being present during a robbery, and 40-50% were concerned about adolescents working alone or not having adequate safety training. Parents were favorable to laws that regulate the teen work environment, although most (69%) also indicated that parents, not laws, should determine the work that teens do. CONCLUSIONS: Parents of working teens are favorable to their teens working, but they do have varied concerns about safety. Although many parents believe they should set the rules about teen work, they are also generally supportive of governmental regulation of hours and tasks. Helping parents understand child labor policies and consider evidence about work hazards may facilitate their ability to provide appropriate advice to their children.
Runyan CW; Schulman M; Dal Santo J; Bowling JM; Agans R
Full Text Available Background: Studying nursing students' opinions could be a useful guide for the formation of their professionalrole as well as their education and training.Aim: The present study's aim is to examine nurse students' opinion, beliefs and attitude regarding the conceptsof health, health care, health education, health ethics, illness, safety in health care and quality in health care, inan educational environment which promotes cooperative activities in class.Methodology: Seventy four nurse students of the University of Peloponnese participated in the present studyduring the winter semester of 2008-2009. They were asked to describe shortly the meaning of the study concepts,writing down their opinion on a questionnaire that included six questions. Their answers were evaluated usingthe method of content analysis and sorted to exhaustive and mutually exclusive categories.Results: Nursing Students were asked to describe the meaning of the concept of health, health care, healtheducation, health ethics, illness, safety in health care and quality in health care. The result of the students'opinion reveals the way they conceive their professional role, their education and their attitude in real workingconditions and, therefore, the quality of the services they provide and how well prepared they are to demand andto put in a claim for the quality in health care.Conclusions: Further empirical research could aim to replicate or contradict these findings, using a larger sampleand recruiting more university departments.
Vassiliki Ioannidi; Petros Kolovos; Sofia Vasileiadou; Maria Malliarou; Antonios Travlos; Sofia Zyga
Full Text Available Objective: Avian influenza cases have been detected in Turkey and human deaths have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of doctors concerning avian influenza.Method: A questionnaire was applied to a total of 172 doctors, 82 in the university, 46 in the state hospital and 44 in primary care clinics, in a district of Istanbul, in 2006.Results: The participant doctors were general practitioners(GPs) (27%), specialists(31%), and residents(42%). The male/female ratio was 48/52% and the median age value was 32(23-53). The mean knowledge score was 14.4±4.4; 15.9% of the doctors had low, 77% medium, 7% high knowledge level. Transmission (94%), symptoms in humans (94%) and preventive measures (89%) were well-known. The agent of avian flu, timing of the treatment, antiviral agents were less well-known. The GPs were more knowledgeable and felt more competent than the specialists and residents to give counselling; 53% felt competent and 74% responsible to give counselling. Half of the participants revealed a decrease in their habit of eating egg and chicken.Conclusion: Doctors need more information to enable early diagnosis and an early start to the therapy which would help to decrease fatality and to prevent the spread of the virus.
Arzu Uzuner; Pemra Ünalan Cöbek; Hande Aliba?; ?rem K?l?ç; Murat Sar?; Elif Karakoç; Akbar Akbarov
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the attitude and knowledge of urology residents concerning ionizing radiation, we undertook a survey of European urology residents. METHODS: The questionnaire was sent to 1184 urology residents within the database of the European Society of Residents in Urology (ESRU) by e-mail between November 2011 and January 2012. The questionnaire was composed of demographic questions and questions about the frequency of radiation exposure and use of radiation safety measures during fluoroscopy-guided endourologic procedures. In addition, there were questions about education programs and respondents' knowledge about diagnostic imaging modalities. RESULTS: A total of 124 questionnaires were returned from urology residents in 20 different European countries. All of the respondents reported that they were routinely exposed to ionizing radiation, and 69 (72.5%) were exposed more than 3 times per week. Despite the common but not sufficient use of lead aprons (75%), use of other radiation protection measures was very low. Although 55% of the respondents had attended an education program in Europe about radiation safety, attendance was highest in Poland (82.6%). The level of knowledge about ionizing radiation was low among urology residents, and approximately half of responders had no idea that commonly used imaging modalities have a fatal cancer risk. CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed the lack of knowledge and awareness about the importance of ionizing radiation protection among urology residents in Europe. We therefore suggest radiation safety courses in every step of medical life for doctors, especially for endourologists.
Söylemez H; Sancaktutar AA; Silay MS; Penbegül N; Bozkurt Y; Atar M; Altunoluk B; Bodakci MN; Hatipoglu NK
Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to assess the rate of tobacco consumption among professional athletes in Iran and assessing their knowledge and attitude in this regard.Methods: A total of 738 athletes from 10 different types of sports were evaluated. Athletes were all members of the priority leagues. After obtaining consent from the Physical Education Organization and coordination with the related federations, athletes were asked to fill out the standard questionnaire.Findings: All understudy subjects were males. The mean age was 28.4±2.7 yrs. The mean age of initiation of sport in these subjects was reported to be 12.3±4.01 yrs. A total of 178 (24.6%) subjects had experienced cigarette smoking and 308 (42.3%) had experienced hookah smoking. Sixty four subjects (9%) were current smokers. The mean score of knowledge about hazards of smoking was 5.6±0.9 among those who had experienced smoking. This score was 7.9±0.5 among those with no smoking experience (P=0.04).Conclusion: Rate of smoking among professional athletes is lower than general population average. So participation in organized sports may be a protective factor against tobacco use in people. Percentage of smoker athletes was significantly higher in individual sports compared to team sports. Experiencing hookah smoking was significantly higher than cigarette smoking among athletes. Athletes had good knowledge about hazards of smoking and had a positive attitude in this respect. Further studies are needed to evaluate reasons of cigarette and hookah smoking among athletes.
Zahra Hessami; Mahshid Aryanpur; Habib Emami; Mohammadreza Masjedi
Full Text Available Organic farming is gaining popularity all over the world as it can diversify agricultural production system toward attaining improved productivity, farm income as well as food safety. The rise of organic farming was driven partly by consumers' concern with food quality and safety, as well as the protection of the environment. Organic Farming produces safe and nutritious food as it helps prevent soil pollution by stopping risky chemical reactions in the soil and avoiding produce contamination, as well as soil erosion, by wind and rain. One of the important parties that can enable the country to produce more organic products through organic farming is the growers or farmers. The final decision of farmers to use a new practice like organic farming system is usually the result of their knowledge of the practices as well as their perception. Therefore, the main purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate the knowledge, perception or attitude, and practices of vegetable growers towards organic farming. A survey method through face-to-face interview by using structured questionnaire was used to collect data from a total of 31 vegetable growers in Kundasang, Sabah which was selected by using simple random sampling method. The findings of the study show that the knowledge of the respondents on organic farming especially pertaining to the use of chemical insecticides, herbicides and fertilizers is still need to be improved, their attitude is also still negative, and they are still dependent on conventional practices (i.e. chemical) especially to control pests and diseases.
Assis, K.; Mohd Ismail, H.A
BACKGROUND: To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding organ donation in a selected adult population in Pakistan. METHODS: Convenience sampling was used to generate a sample of 440; 408 interviews were successfully completed and used for analysis. Data collection was carried out via a face to face interview based on a pre-tested questionnaire in selected public areas of Karachi, Pakistan. Data was analyzed using SPSS v.15 and associations were tested using the Pearson's Chi square test. Multiple logistic regression was used to find independent predictors of knowledge status and motivation of organ donation. RESULTS: Knowledge about organ donation was significantly associated with education (p = 0.000) and socioeconomic status (p = 0.038). 70/198 (35.3%) people expressed a high motivation to donate. Allowance of organ donation in religion was significantly associated with the motivation to donate (p = 0.000). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher level of education and higher socioeconomic status were significant (p < 0.05) independent predictors of knowledge status of organ donation. For motivation, multiple logistic regression revealed that higher socioeconomic status, adequate knowledge score and belief that organ donation is allowed in religion were significant (p < 0.05) independent predictors. Television emerged as the major source of information. Only 3.5% had themselves donated an organ; with only one person being an actual kidney donor. CONCLUSION: Better knowledge may ultimately translate into the act of donation. Effective measures should be taken to educate people with relevant information with the involvement of media, doctors and religious scholars.
Saleem T; Ishaque S; Habib N; Hussain SS; Jawed A; Khan AA; Ahmad MI; Iftikhar MO; Mughal HP; Jehan I
Most campaigns of prevention from doping (use of certain substances by athlete that could have an effect like an artificial improvement of his (or her) physical and/or mental conditions) have been relied on the physicians considered as main actors in this field. However do the physicians have the necessary knowledge and attitudes and do they simply wish to take part pertinently in actions of doping prevention? This study has been conducted in order to examine their knowledge and attitudes in front of doping, to evaluate their role in the prevention campaign. So 280 french physicians have randomly been selected and interviewed by telephone. The response rate was about 62%. The selected population was made up of 173 physicians in which were 122 males and 51 females, the average age was 44.5 +/- 6.5 years. The questioned physicians seemed to have a few knowledge about doping, in particular through the eight families of prohibited substances in which they only mentioned anabolic steroids and amphetamines. Only 50% of them think doping can also concern children, therefore 33.6% had have to face this problem in the latest 12 months. For 86.5% of the questioned physicians, doping is a serious public health problem and 60% of them consider it as a kind of drug addiction. According to 60.9% of them, campaigns of prevention from doping are inefficient; and 92.5% would like to take part in it but 83.3% of them do not feel themselves prepared enough. The results are always similar with or without sports medicine diploma. Three different families of the physicians' attitudes are described. The physicians' involvement in doping prevention claims an action in two parts: to change their behaviours facing to doping they have to consider as any health issue, to provide them with prevention efficient "tools" for their sports patients. At last, considering doping as a public health issue and not only as a marginal practice restricted to the athletic elite is really essential. PMID:9417372
Most campaigns of prevention from doping (use of certain substances by athlete that could have an effect like an artificial improvement of his (or her) physical and/or mental conditions) have been relied on the physicians considered as main actors in this field. However do the physicians have the necessary knowledge and attitudes and do they simply wish to take part pertinently in actions of doping prevention? This study has been conducted in order to examine their knowledge and attitudes in front of doping, to evaluate their role in the prevention campaign. So 280 french physicians have randomly been selected and interviewed by telephone. The response rate was about 62%. The selected population was made up of 173 physicians in which were 122 males and 51 females, the average age was 44.5 +/- 6.5 years. The questioned physicians seemed to have a few knowledge about doping, in particular through the eight families of prohibited substances in which they only mentioned anabolic steroids and amphetamines. Only 50% of them think doping can also concern children, therefore 33.6% had have to face this problem in the latest 12 months. For 86.5% of the questioned physicians, doping is a serious public health problem and 60% of them consider it as a kind of drug addiction. According to 60.9% of them, campaigns of prevention from doping are inefficient; and 92.5% would like to take part in it but 83.3% of them do not feel themselves prepared enough. The results are always similar with or without sports medicine diploma. Three different families of the physicians' attitudes are described. The physicians' involvement in doping prevention claims an action in two parts: to change their behaviours facing to doping they have to consider as any health issue, to provide them with prevention efficient "tools" for their sports patients. At last, considering doping as a public health issue and not only as a marginal practice restricted to the athletic elite is really essential.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of an elective course on pharmacy students' perceptions, knowledge, and confidence regarding Medicare Part D, medication therapy management (MTM), and immunizations. DESIGN: Thirty-three pharmacy students were enrolled in a Medicare Part D elective course that included both classroom instruction and experiential training. ASSESSMENT: Students' self-reported confidence in and knowledge of Part D significantly improved upon course completion. End-of-course student perceptions about the relative importance of various aspects of MTM interventions and their confidence in performing MTM services significantly improved from those at the beginning of the course. Students' confidence in performing immunizations also increased significantly from the start of the course. CONCLUSION: A classroom course covering Medicare Part D with an experiential requirement serving beneficiaries can improve students' attitudes and knowledge about Medicare Part D and their confidence in providing related services to beneficiaries in the community.
Galal SM; Patel RA; Thai HK; Phou CM; Walberg MP; Woelfel JA; Carr-Lopez SM; Chan EK
Background: Despite scientific evidence on the positive effects of seafood consumption on human health, the consumption of fish remains below the recommended intake levels for the majority of Europeans. The present study aimed to explore cultural differences in potential determinants of fish consumption: consumers' knowledge and health-related beliefs, as well as the relationship between those variables, socio-demographics and fish consumption frequency, using data from five European countries. Methods: A cross-sectional consumer survey was carried out in 2004 with representative household samples from Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Spain. The sample consisted of 4786 respondents, aged 18-84 years, who were responsible for food purchasing and cooking in the household. Results: European consumers had a very strong belief that eating fish is healthy. Consumers' belief that eating fish is healthy, their interest in healthy eating and objective fish-related nutrition knowledge, positively, but only weakly, influenced fish consumption frequency. Subjective knowledge was found to be a stronger predictor of fish consumption than the previously noted factors. Age and education contributed, both directly and indirectly through knowledge, to explain fish consumption behaviour. However, the path coefficients in the estimated model were relatively low, which indicates that fish consumption frequency was also determined by factors other than health-related beliefs and consumers' knowledge. Conclusions: The findings of the present study suggest that communication should focus on health-related benefits other than fish consumption alone. Communicating that eating fish is healthy and stressing the health benefits of fish alone, as is still commonly performed (e.g. in generic promotion and other types of public information campaigns) will be insufficient to achieve higher levels of compliance with fish consumption recommendations.
Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim
Full Text Available Background: Tooth avulsion is one of the commonest types of physical sport injury. Themanagement of these cases is critical in order to prevent complete loss of tooth and its subsequentconsequences. The prognosis of such avulsed tooth depends on prompt treatment. The emergencymanagement of such avulsed tooth is made by the sports teacher who is present at the sports ground. Thefirst–aid knowledge about tooth avulsion is must for the sports teacher. Aim: The objective of the presentstudy was to evaluate the knowledge about management of tooth avulsion among sports teachers inAhmednagar District. Methods: A sample of 60 sports teachers were interviewed from different schools.The data was collected using a self administered questionnaire containing seven items which wasdistributed among the sports teacher from different schools. Results: we found that 90% of the sportsteachers were not having the first-aid knowledge about the emergency management of avulsed tooth andthe benefit of timely care. This demands an effort to properly educate sports teachers about first-aidmanagement and consequently change their attitude towards dental trauma.
FAREEDI MUKRAM ALI; PRIYAYANKA BHUSHAN; MOHD INAYATULLAH KHAN; FARHEEN USTAD
Context: Because cervical cancer mortality in the United States is twice as high among black women as white women and higher in rural areas, providing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to rural black adolescents is a high priority. Purpose: To identify racial differences in knowledge and attitudes about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine…
Cates, Joan R.; Brewer, Noel T.; Fazekas, Karah I.; Mitchell, Cicely E.; Smith, Jennifer S.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary health care (PHC) clinicians have an important role to play in addressing lifestyle risk factors for chronic diseases. However they intervene only rarely, despite the opportunities that arise within their routine clinical practice. Beliefs and attitudes have been shown to be associated with risk factor management practices, but little is known about this for PHC clinicians working outside general practice. The aim of this study was to explore the beliefs and attitudes of PHC clinicians about incorporating lifestyle risk factor management into their routine care and to examine whether these varied according to their self reported level of risk factor management. Methods A cross sectional survey was undertaken with PHC clinicians (n = 59) in three community health teams. Clinicians' beliefs and attitudes were also explored through qualitative interviews with a purposeful sample of 22 clinicians from the teams. Mixed methods analysis was used to compare beliefs and attitudes for those with high and low levels of self reported risk factor management. Results Role congruence, perceived client acceptability, beliefs about capabilities, perceived effectiveness and clinicians' own lifestyle were key themes related to risk factor management practices. Those reporting high levels of risk factor screening and intervention had different beliefs and attitudes to those PHC clinicians who reported lower levels. Conclusion PHC clinicians' level of involvement in risk factor management reflects their beliefs and attitudes about it. This provides insights into ways of intervening to improve the integration of behavioural risk factor management into routine practice.
Laws Rachel A; Kirby Sue E; Davies Gawaine; Williams Anna M; Jayasinghe Upali W; Amoroso Cheryl L; Harris Mark F
BACKGROUND: Although recent advances in psychiatry have increased our understanding of psychiatric disorders,many people with chronic or severe psychiatric disorders may be unaware that effective treatment is available. It is possible that ignorance and stigma prevent such persons from seeking appropriate help, and that community attitudes and beliefs play a role in determining the help-seeking behaviour and successful treatment of the mentally ill. Nevertheless, there is little research on the attitudes of lay persons toward mental illness within the South African community. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of the general South African public toward mental illness, specifically regarding the causes of illness and treatment options. METHOD: The study design employed a questionnaire survey. Structured interviews (n = 667) were conducted with members of the general public. One of eight vignettes, portraying depression, schizophrenia, panic disorder or substance abuse, with subtle or obvious symptoms, was presented to each respondent. RESULTS: The main findings were that cases were most often conceptualised as stress-related or due to a lack of willpower rather than as medical disorders. Treatment advocated was more often to talk the problem over than to consult professional medical help. Psychotherapy was the preferred treatment option, particularly in vignettes where symptom presentation was subtle, and in cases of substance abuse. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that stigma and misinformation regarding mental illness exist, influencing preferred treatment modality and help-seeking behaviour. More work needs to be done to educate the public about the psychobiological underpinnings of psychiatric disorders and about the value of effective treatments. A better understanding of these disorders amongst the public would presumably lessen stigmatisation and encourage the use of currently available and effective interventions.
Hugo CJ; Boshoff DE; Traut A; Zungu-Dirwayi N; Stein DJ
The proper handling and disposal of biomedical waste (BMW) is very imperative. There is a defined set of rules for handling BMW worldwide. Unfortunately, laxity and lack of adequate training and awareness in the execution of these rules leads to staid health and environment apprehension. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of hospital staff to BMW management. The cross-sectional study was conducted on 261 healthcare workers from 9 hospitals, which were randomized from 32 hospitals. The most important finding was a significant (P BMW management. Twenty-nine (19.9%) members of government hospital staff and 37 (32.2%) members of staff from the private sector agreed that BMW management is not just the government's responsibility, but one that every member of personnel should share. This finding will help to address the issue more appropriately, and plan for better training programs and monitoring of BMW management systems in hospitals. PMID:23585502
Lakbala, Parvin; Lakbala, Mahboobeh
The research goal was to develop a battery of reliable and valid questions that measure the self-care knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of diabetic patients in content areas specified by experts as most important. Questionnaires were developed and admini...
K. H. Marquis J. E. Ware D. A. Relles
Full Text Available Pharmacovigilance can be helpful in protecting consumers from harmful effects of medicines. Healthcare professionals should consider Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) reporting as their professional obligation and should be aware of the existing pharmacovigilance mechanisms in their countries. In Nepal, pharmacovigilance activities were initiated in 2004. Objectives: The present study evaluated the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of the healthcare professionals towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance in Manipal Teaching Hospital (MTH), a tertiary care teaching hospital attached to the regional pharmacovigilance center in western Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2007 using a pretested (Cronbach alpha=0.72) questionnaire having 25 questions (15 questions on knowledge, 5 on attitude and 5 on practice). The correct/positive responses were given a score of ‘2’ and the wrong/negative responses ‘1’, maximum possible score of ‘50’. Results: A total of 131 responses were obtained among which 42 were incomplete and remaining 89 [females 49 (55.1%)] were analyzed. Of the 89 professionals, 29 (32.6%) were doctors, 46 (51.8) nurses and 14 (15.7%) pharmacists. The mean age was 28.32 (SD=8.46) years and the median (interquartile range) of duration of the service 14.5 (6-36) months. The total KAP scores was 40.06 (SD=3.51) for doctors, 38.92 (SD=4.83) for pharmacists, and 35.82 (SD=3.75) for nurses. Among the 89 professionals, 59 (62.3%) had not reported even a single ADR to the pharmacovigilance center. Conclusion: The healthcare professionals at the MTH had a poor KAP towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance and there is a need for educational and awareness intervention for these professionals.
Palaian S; Ibrahim MI; Mishra P
The study evaluates knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of mothers regarding the immunization of 841 infants who attended public kindergarten in Cassino and Crotone, Italy. Overall, 57.8% of mothers were aware about all four mandatory vaccinations for infants (poliomyelitis, tetanus, diphtheria, hepatitis B). The results of a multiple logistic regression analysis showed that this knowledge was significantly greater among mothers with a higher education level and among those who were older at the time of the child's birth. Respondents' attitudes towards the utility of vaccinations for preventing infectious diseases were very favourable. Almost all children (94.4%) were vaccinated with all three doses of diphtheria-tetanus (DT), oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), and hepatitis B. The proportion of children vaccinated who received all three doses of OPV, DT or diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), and hepatitis B vaccines within 1 month of becoming age-eligible ranged from 56.6% for the third dose of hepatitis B to 95.7% for the first dose of OPV. Results of the regression analysis performed on the responses of mothers who had adhered to the schedule for all mandatory vaccinations indicated that birth order significantly predicted vaccination nonadherence, since children who had at least one older sibling in the household were significantly less likely to be age-appropriately vaccinated. The coverage for the optional vaccines was only 22.5% and 31% for measles-mumps-rubella and for all three doses against pertussis, respectively. Education programmes promoting paediatric immunization, accessibility, and follow-up should be targeted to the entire population. PMID:10212512
Angelillo, I F; Ricciardi, G; Rossi, P; Pantisano, P; Langiano, E; Pavia, M
The study evaluates knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of mothers regarding the immunization of 841 infants who attended public kindergarten in Cassino and Crotone, Italy. Overall, 57.8% of mothers were aware about all four mandatory vaccinations for infants (poliomyelitis, tetanus, diphtheria, hepatitis B). The results of a multiple logistic regression analysis showed that this knowledge was significantly greater among mothers with a higher education level and among those who were older at the time of the child's birth. Respondents' attitudes towards the utility of vaccinations for preventing infectious diseases were very favourable. Almost all children (94.4%) were vaccinated with all three doses of diphtheria-tetanus (DT), oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), and hepatitis B. The proportion of children vaccinated who received all three doses of OPV, DT or diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), and hepatitis B vaccines within 1 month of becoming age-eligible ranged from 56.6% for the third dose of hepatitis B to 95.7% for the first dose of OPV. Results of the regression analysis performed on the responses of mothers who had adhered to the schedule for all mandatory vaccinations indicated that birth order significantly predicted vaccination nonadherence, since children who had at least one older sibling in the household were significantly less likely to be age-appropriately vaccinated. The coverage for the optional vaccines was only 22.5% and 31% for measles-mumps-rubella and for all three doses against pertussis, respectively. Education programmes promoting paediatric immunization, accessibility, and follow-up should be targeted to the entire population.
Angelillo IF; Ricciardi G; Rossi P; Pantisano P; Langiano E; Pavia M
Full Text Available Background: Unsafe abortion is a major Public health problem in developing countries, where women make several unsafe attempts at termination of the unintended pregnancy before turning to health services. Community health workers can act as a bridge between the community and their health facilities and can use Emergency Contraceptive Pills to significantly reduce the mortality and morbidity related to unsafe abortions. Aims: This study explores the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Lady Health Supervisor of the National Program for Family Planning, district Rawalpindi, regarding emergency contraception pills. Materials and Methods: The cross sectional survey was conducted during the monthly meeting of Lady Health Supervisors. Self administered, anonymous and voluntary questionnaire consisting of 17 items, regarding demographic profile, awareness, knowledge, attitudes and practices, was used. Results: Insufficient knowledge, high misinformation and strongly negative attitudes were revealed. More than half did not know that emergency contraceptive pills do not cause abortion. About four fifths believed that emergency contraceptive pills will lead to ‘evil’ practices in society. More than four fifths recognized that the clients of National Program for Family Planning need emergency contraceptive pills. The attitudes were significantly associated with knowledge (P=0.034, Fisher’s Exact Test). Conclusion: The awareness of emergency contraceptive pills is high. Serious gaps in knowledge have been identified. There is a clear recognition of the need of emergency contraceptive pills for the clients of National Program for Family Planning. However, any strategy to introduce emergency contraceptive pills must cater for the misplaced beliefs of the work force.
Azeem Sultan Mir; Raees Malik
Full Text Available An estimated 200,000 children born in Thailand each year are at risk of prenatal exposure to pesticides and associated neurodevelopmental outcomes because of their mothers’ agricultural occupations. Children born to non-agricultural workers may also be at risk of exposure from other pathways of maternal pesticide exposure, including exposure through home use, diet, and other environmental media. Pesticide exposure in Thailand has been linked to unsafe practices and beliefs about pesticides. However, limited information exists on pesticide knowledge, attitudes, and practices among pregnant women in Thailand or elsewhere. Obtaining this information is essential to understand the factors associated with prenatal pesticide exposure, identify populations potentially at risk, and ultimately protect pregnant women and their children. We administered surveys to 76 pregnant women in northern Thailand and used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate associations among pesticide-related knowledge, pregnancy trimester, and pesticide use behavior. In this pilot study, lower knowledge score and earliest trimester of pregnancy were marginally (p < 0.1) associated with unsafe practices in the home, but not at work. Women who worked in agriculture or applied pesticides before becoming pregnant, or who had a previous child were significantly (p < 0.05) more likely to engage in unsafe behaviors in the home during their current pregnancy. We preliminarily conclude that increasing pesticide-related knowledge among pregnant women may help promote safe practices and reduce prenatal exposure. Knowledge-based interventions may be most effective when implemented early in pregnancy and targeted to agricultural workers and other sub-populations at risk of pesticide exposure.
Alyson N. Lorenz; Tippawan Prapamontol; Warangkana Narksen; Niphan Srinual; Dana B. Barr; Anne M. Riederer
Full Text Available Currently, the syndromic management of HIV/AIDS is based on a biomedical model that focuses on the ABC (Abstain, Be faithful, Condomise) model. The ABC model overlooks the issue of indigenous cultural practices, sexual behaviours, knowledge and attitudes of the society. A grounded theory study was used for the research. The population for the research on which this article is reporting, was selected from the Vhavenda ethnic group using purposive sampling. In-depth interviews were held at the participants’ own homes. The outcome of the study on which this article is reporting, may assist in identifying indigenous health beliefs, attitudes and practices that will assist in curbing the spread of HIV/AIDS. The findings revealed that cultural practices, such as premarital counselling, polygamy and widow inheritance, are believed to be influential in making women more susceptible to sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. The practice of abstinence, as emphasised at initiation schools, should be incorporated into current policies and preventative practices. The findings further demonstrate that policy-makers who formulated the HIV/AIDS strategy have limited knowledge of the health beliefs, attitudes and practices of the people they serve. They thus find it difficult to draw up promotion and prevention strategies that meet the needs of the community. It is therefore imperative that our health-care training curriculum be reviewed to make provision for the incorporation of sound and effective indigenous practices to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS and to eliminate or refine practices that are harmful and detrimental to people’s health. The cultural practices that were proved reliable and effective will be recommended for integration into health education.
While arguing that many cognitive states do indeed have a characteristic phenomenology, I find reasons for exempting beliefs from the program of cognitive phenomenology. Examining the complex relationship between beliefs and various kinds of conscious experience shows that belief is a messy concept and that we ought to take a relaxed and pluralist view on the ontology of belief.
Klausen, SØren Harnow
Purpose: To study the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) towards computer vision syndrome prevalent in Indian ophthalmologists and to assess whether ?computer use by practitioners? had any bearing on the knowledge and practices in computer vision syndrome (CVS). Mater...
Bali Jatinder; Navin Neeraj; Thakur Bali
The topics and framing of news stories relevant to skin cancer prevention have shifted over time. This study examined agenda-setting effects of such news stories on public attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer. Content analysis data on 516 articles published in two major daily newspapers in Melbourne, Australia, from 1994 to 2007 were combined with circulation data to generate indices of potential news exposure. Associations between these indices and cross-sectional telephone survey data from the same period on 6,244 adults' tanning attitudes and perceived susceptibility to skin cancer were examined using logistic regression models, accounting for the temporal precedence of news content. Pro-sun protection stories on attitudes and behavior were associated with older adults not thinking a tan looks healthy. Pro-sun protection stories on solaria were associated with less preference for a deep tan among young adults who like to suntan. Stories on vitamin D that were unsupportive of or ambiguous about sun protection were associated with a number of pro-tan attitudes among younger adults. Results indicate news coverage during 1994-2007 served an important agenda-setting role in explaining the public's attitudes and beliefs about tanning and skin cancer. Vitamin D stories appeared most influential, particularly among young adults.
Dixon H; Warne C; Scully M; Dobbinson S; Wakefield M
Nurses have important roles in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treatment and educational programs. Chinese senior nursing students completed a survey on HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and practice intentions. A weak positive relationship between attitudes and practice intentions (r = .140, P = .036) was noted. No significant associations between knowledge levels, attitudes, and practice intentions were found. Although the majority exhibited adequate knowledge of basic HIV transmission mechanisms, many disconcerting misconceptions were evident. Although most were empathetic to people with HIV/AIDS, stigmatization of high-risk groups persisted. Improved patient care will require intensified educational efforts and more positive attitudes toward persons with HIV/AIDS.
Li Y; Scott CS; Li L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in biobanking for collection of specimens for non-communicable diseases research has grown in recent times. This paper explores the perspectives of Nigerians on donation of specimen for the biobanking research. Methods We conducted 16 Focus Group Discussions (FGD) with individuals from different ethnic, age and socio-economic groups in Kano (North), Enugu (Southeast), Oyo States (Southwest) and Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory (Central) of Nigeria. We used topic guides and prompt statements to explore the knowledge and understanding of interviewees to general issues about biobanking of biospecimens, their use and specifically about role of biobanking in non-communicable diseases research. Results A total of 123 individuals participated in 16 focus group discussions in 2011. Our participants had limited knowledge of the concept of biobanking but accepted it once they were educated about it and saw it as a worthwhile venture. Half of our study participants supported use of broad consent, a quarter supported restricted consent while the remaining quarter were in favour of tiered consent. Most discussants support shipment of their samples to other countries for further research, but they prefer those collaborations to be done only with competent, ethical researchers and they would like to receive feedback about such projects. The majority preferred health care as a benefit from participation, particularly for any unexpected condition that may be discovered during the course of the research instead of financial compensation. Participants emphasized the need to ensure that donated samples were not used for research that contradicts their religious beliefs. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that our participants accepted biobanking once they understand it but there were different attitudes to elements of biobanking such as type of consent. Our study highlights the need to carefully document population attitudes to elements of modern scientific research and the consenting process.
Igbe Michael A; Adebamowo Clement A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Biobanks have the potential to offer a venue for chronic disease biomarker discovery, which would allow for disease early detection and for identification of carriers of a certain predictor biomarker. To assess the general attitudes towards genetic research and participation in biobanks in the Long Island/Queens area of New York, and what factors would predict a positive view of such research, participants from the NSLIJ hospital system were surveyed. Methods Participants were recruited at six hospital centers in the NSLIJ system during the summers of 2009 and again in 2011 (n?=?1,041). Those who opted to participate were given a questionnaire containing 22 questions assessing demographics, lifestyle and attitudes towards genetic research. These questions addressed individual participant’s beliefs about the importance of genetic research, willingness to participate in genetic research themselves, and their views on informed consent issues. Results Respondents took a generally positive view of genetic research in general, as well as their own participation in such research. Those with reservations were most likely to cite concerns over the privacy of their medical and genetic information. Those who were married tended to view genetic research as important, while those in the younger age group viewed it as less important. Prior blood donation of respondents was found to be a predictor of their approval for genetic research. Demographic factors were not found to be predictive of personal willingness to participate in genetic research, or of approval for the opt-out approach to consent. Conclusions While respondents were generally inclined to approve of genetic research, and those who disapproved did not do so based on an underlying moral objection to such research, there is a disconnect between the belief in the importance of genetic research and the willingness of individuals to participate themselves. This indicates a continued concern for the ways in which genetic materials are safeguarded once they are collected. Also indicated was a general lack of understanding about the various consent processes that go along with genetic research, which should be addressed further to ensure the successful continuation of biobanks.
Kerath Samantha M; Klein Gila; Kern Marlena; Shapira Iuliana; Witthuhn Jennifer; Norohna Nicole; Kline Myriam; Baksh Farisha; Gregersen Peter; Taioli Emanuela
Objective: The purpose of this cross-sectional investigation was to examine (1) gender differences in osteoporosis-related knowledge and beliefs and (2) if these beliefs could predict vigorous physical activity behavior in university students. Participants: Male (n = 176) and female (n = 351) university students participated in the study. Methods:…
Gammage, Kimberley L.; Gasparotto, Jennifer; Mack, Diane E.; Klentrou, Panagiota
The concentrations of air pollutants in residences can be many times those in outside air, and many of these pollutants are known to have adverse health consequences. Despite this, there have been very few attempts to delineate knowledge of, and attitudes to, indoor air pollution. This study aimed to establish the knowledge of, and attitudes to,…
Al Khamees, Nedaa A.; Alamari, Hanaa
The current study surveys medical and doctoral psychology students (N = 100) from an urban northeastern university regarding knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality and aging using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale, and measures of interest in gerontology, academic/clinical exposure to aging and…
Snyder, Rachel J.; Zweig, Richard A.
Outdoor educational programmes are generally believed to be a suitable alternative to conventional biology settings that improve participants' environmental attitudes and knowledge. Here we examine whether outdoor educational programmes focused solely on practical work with plants influence participants' knowledge of and attitudes towards plants.…
Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol
Full Text Available Paper is a case study of console market, where the console makers are identified as group G which shares a distributed knowledge of current consumer expectations. According to the basic logic, it is reasonable to expect that if it is commonly known that a choice A is better than a choice B, any agent i will prefer the choice instead of the inferior one. In case some console makers chose a completely different outcome which is rather based on belief instead of common knowledge.
Reviews indicate that multiple predisposing factors such as knowledge, attitudes, and values significantly influence health-related practices and lifestyle. Some predispositions, such as basic knowledge about and attitudes toward cancer, are conducive to change through education. This study has investigated the effects of cancer education on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior scores of students concerning cancer prevention. A quasiexperimental design using pretests and posttests was the design of choice. The undergraduate students served as the experimental group and enrolled in an elective course entitled "The Nature of Cancer." Another group of students enrolled in the elective course "Sex Education" and served as a control group for one semester. A battery of instruments consisting of cancer prevention attitudes, knowledge, and behavior was used to measure the dependent variables. The findings, using a split-plot model for repeated measure data, revealed significant improvements in attitude, knowledge, and behavior scores for the experimental group over the control group.
Torabi MR; Seffrin JR
Full Text Available Thailand amended legislation to allow children with disabilities to attend regular public schools. However, a variety of cultural considerations influences teachers' responses to this legislation. This study uses descriptive-survey method to investigate Thai teachers’ knowledge and attitude towards inclusive education of children with learning disabilities (LD) in public primary schools in Nonthaburi Province, Thailand in the school year 2011-2012. Three hundred ten general education teachers completed a modified- translated-to- Thai-Language version of Opinions Relative to the Integration of Children with Disabilities (ORI) survey. Therespondents had partial knowledge on the provision of legislation and exhibited moderate knowledge on the symptoms of learning disabilities. The Thai public primary school teachers had a favorable attitude towards inclusion of LD children in regular classrooms in terms of their beliefs, feelings and actions. There is a need for Thailand to open up more training and qualification advancement programs to improve the knowledge and attitude of the Thai teachers. The officials of the Ministry of Education possibly will transition the previous education system toward a systemthat now integrates children with exceptionality, provides teachers with scientific research and model of change to help indicate the kind of educational change and/or program needed in order to work with students with disabilities and designs advocacy program to create less discriminating society. Finally, there is a need toinvestigate explicit details about teacher attitudes as they relate to inclusion, student’s learning, classroom management and the emerging factors related to perceptions of how inclusion will affect behavior and the school environment.
Richel C. Dapudong
Excessive sun exposure, mainly in childhood, represents one of the major skin cancer risk factors. Sun protection habits should start early in life to be effective. The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitude and sun protection behaviour in parents (P) and in their children (C). The educational intervention addressed the parents of 131 primary school pupils in Valencia, Spain, during the school year 2007-2008. A self-administered pre- and post-intervention questionnaire was handed in during school hours to be filled in by parents. Parents' compliance was very high (88 %). At baseline, regular high-sun-protective-factor (>15) sunscreen use was common (P, 64 %; C, 95 %); wearing clothing (T-shirt: P, 34 %, C, 62 %; hat: P, 29 %, C, 64 %) and sun avoidance at midday (P, 23 %; C, 29 %) were less frequent. Almost 70 % of parents reported difficulties, mainly due to the children's refusal. A high knowledge score (median, 6/7) and a medium/high attitude score (median, 24/30) in parents were observed; however, lifetime sunburn history was generally reported (P, 88 %; C, 24 %). Factors associated with parents' knowledge were a personal history of sunburns and regularly repeating sunscreen application to children (median score: 6 vs 5; p???0.01) Predictors of a more favourable attitude were female caretakers and having daughters (median score: 30 vs 25 and 25 vs 24, respectively; p???0.01). A trend towards limited post-intervention positive changes emerged; however, sun avoidance habit decreased (35 vs 20 %, p?=?0.01). Despite a high level of parents' knowledge, sun protection in children is not adequate, and sunburns are not uncommon. Unfavourable beliefs and attitudes need to be overcome and quality of messages improved to achieve sun-safe exposure in children.
Cercato MC; Nagore E; Ramazzotti V; Sperduti I; Guillén C
Nutritional supplement (NS) use is widespread in sport. This study applied an integrated social cognitive approach to examine doping attitudes, beliefs, and self-reported doping use behavior across NS users (n = 96) and nonusers (n = 116). Following ethical approval, 212 competitive athletes (age mean = 21.4, s = 4.5; 137 males) completed self-reported measures of doping-related social cognitions and behaviors, presented in an online format where completion implied consent. Significantly more NS users (22.9%) reported doping compared with nonusers (6.0%; U = 4628.0, P < 0.05). NS users presented significantly more positive attitudes toward doping (U = 3152.0, P < 0.05) and expressed a significantly greater belief that doping is effective (U = 3152.0, P < 0.05). When presented with the scenario that performance-enhancing substances are effective and increase the possibility of winning, NS users were significantly more in favor of competing in situations that allow doping (U = 3504.5, P < 0.05). In sum, doping use is three-and-a-half times more prevalent in NS users compared with nonusers. This finding is accompanied by significant differences in doping attitudes, norms, and beliefs. Thus, this article offers support for the gateway hypothesis; athletes who engage in legal performance enhancement practices appear to embody an "at-risk" group for transition toward doping. Education should be appropriately targeted.
Backhouse SH; Whitaker L; Petróczi A
Full Text Available Barbara P Yawn, Peter C WollanOlmsted Medical Center, Research Department, Rochester, MN, USAPurpose: COPD remains under-recognized and under-treated. Much of early COPD care is given by primary care physicians but only when COPD is recognized. This survey explores the attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge related to COPD recognition, diagnosis, and treatment from family physicians and nurse practitioners (NPs) and physician assistants (PAs) working in primary care.Methods: We completed a survey of family physicians, and NPs/PAs attending one of three CME programs on five common chronic conditions including COPD.Results: Return rate was 62% (n = 284) including 178 physicians and 100 NPs/PAs. Fewer than half of the respondents reported knowledge of or use of COPD guidelines. The barriers to recognition and diagnosis of COPD they reported included the multiple morbidities of most COPD patients, failure of patients to report COPD symptoms, as well as lack of knowledge and inadequate training in COPD diagnosis and management. Three quarters (74%) of respondents reported use of spirometry to diagnose COPD but only 32% said they included reversibility assessment. COPD was incorrectly assessed as a disease primarily of men (78% of respondents) that appeared after age 60 (61%). Few respondents reported that they believed COPD treatment was useful or very useful for improving symptoms (15%) or decreasing exacerbations (3%) or that pulmonary rehabilitation was helpful (3%), but 13% reported they thought COPD treatment could extend longevity.Conclusions: Primary care physicians and NPs/PAs working in primary care continue to report lack of awareness and use of COPD guidelines, as well as correct information related to COPD epidemiology or potential benefits of available treatments including pulmonary rehabilitation. It is unlikely that diagnosis and management of COPD will improve in primary care until these knowledge gaps and discrepancies with published efficacy of therapy issues are addressed.Keywords: COPD treatment, diagnosis, management, patients, family physicians
Barbara P Yawn; Peter C Wollan
Subjective reports and theories about memory may have an influence on other beliefs and behaviours. Patients with schizophrenia suffer a wide range of deficits affecting their awareness of daily life, including memory. With the Metamemory Inventory in Adulthood (MIA) we ascertained patients' memory knowledge and thoughts about their own cognitive capacities and about several aspects of cognitive functioning: personal capacities, knowledge of processes, use of strategies, perceived change with ageing, anxiety, motivation and mastery. The participants' ratings were correlated with their intellectual, cognitive and psychiatric data. Patients felt they had a lower capacity and marginally lower mastery over their memory than comparison subjects. They reported less recourse to strategies, and higher levels of memory-related anxiety. However, their knowledge of basic memory processes, motivation to succeed, and perception of ageing effects were similar. So patients with schizophrenia do not suffer a general and non specific impairment of their metacognitive knowledge.
Bacon E; Huet N; Danion JM
Subjective reports and theories about memory may have an influence on other beliefs and behaviours. Patients with schizophrenia suffer a wide range of deficits affecting their awareness of daily life, including memory. With the Metamemory Inventory in Adulthood (MIA) we ascertained patients' memory knowledge and thoughts about their own cognitive capacities and about several aspects of cognitive functioning: personal capacities, knowledge of processes, use of strategies, perceived change with ageing, anxiety, motivation and mastery. The participants' ratings were correlated with their intellectual, cognitive and psychiatric data. Patients felt they had a lower capacity and marginally lower mastery over their memory than comparison subjects. They reported less recourse to strategies, and higher levels of memory-related anxiety. However, their knowledge of basic memory processes, motivation to succeed, and perception of ageing effects were similar. So patients with schizophrenia do not suffer a general and non specific impairment of their metacognitive knowledge. PMID:21798766
Bacon, Elisabeth; Huet, Nathalie; Danion, Jean-Marie
CONCLUSION: Most women reported annual cervical cancer screening, and intended to resist longer screening intervals. Patients' lack of knowledge and unfavorable beliefs may serve as barriers to extending screening intervals.
Hawkins NA; Benard VB; Greek A; Roland KB; Manninen D; Saraiya M
Researchers report finding correlational data to identify a positive relationship between nuclear knowledge and positive attitudes toward the use of nuclear energy. This study investigated the relationship between nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitudes and to the understanding of Science-Technology-Society attitudes involving technological attitude objects. This quasi-experimental study tested the causal relationship between knowledge about nuclear power plants and attitudes toward their use in electrical generation. Subjects were presented with systematically designed communications developed to change either their knowledge about or attitude toward nuclear plants. The Standard Events of Instruction was the basis of the knowledge instruction, whereas the Learning Theory Approach and the Theory of Reasoned Action were the theoretical bases of the persuasive communication. The principal finding was that nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitude each can be changed independently of the other. Although knowledge and attitudes are correlationally linked, this study shows no evidence of a cause-effect relationship.Received: 4 May 1994; Revised: 14 July 1994;
Showers, Dennis E.; Shrigley, Robert L.
A questionnaire study was conducted among 245 dental students from Bhopal city, Central India, to determine their level of knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding infection control measures and if any correlation exists among the knowledge, attitudes, and practice scores. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three parts: knowledge, attitudes, and practice. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to compare mean of knowledge, attitudes, and practice scores and Kendall's test to compute the correlation between knowledge, attitudes, and practice scores. A p value of ?0.05 was considered significant for all statistical analyses. We found that 61.2 percent of the dental students had not been vaccinated with hepatitis B. Use of face mask, gloves, eyewear, and protective clothing as standard infection control measures was practiced only by two students. Mean knowledge, attitude, and practice scores were 3.75 (1.01), 3.40 (0.75), and 3.35 (1.04), respectively. Significant linear correlation was seen between attitude and practice scores (r=0.20, p?0.01). The level of knowledge and practice of infection control measures was poor among dental students. The attitude towards infection control measures was positive, but a greater compliance was needed. We recommend rigorous training on infection control measures prior to graduation and mandatory hepatitis B immunization of students before exposure to clinical practice.
Singh A; Purohit BM; Bhambal A; Saxena S; Singh A; Gupta A
AIM: To describe district nurses' self-reported clinical activities, beliefs about and attitudes towards obesity management; and to examine associations between the variables. BACKGROUND: Obesity is increasing worldwide and primary care could play a central role in the management. METHODS: Questionnaire data were collected from 247 nurses in 33 centres. RESULTS: The most common activities performed weekly were; advice about physical activity (40.1%) and general lifestyle advice (34.8%). However, nearly one third seldom/never performed these activities. Approximately half seldom/never performed BMI assessment and even fewer waist circumference (78.1%). Values for the factors Importance of obesity and Personal effectiveness were skewed towards a positive view and Negative view close to neutral. Multivariate analysis revealed that nurses with specialized tasks, longer working experience and higher perceived personal effectiveness performed more clinical activities. CONCLUSION: Managers need to make efforts to engage all personnel in obesity management; and strategies to increase self-efficacy are called for.
Engström M; Skytt B; Ernesäter A; Fläckman B; Mamhidir AG
Full Text Available Fever is extremely common in population. People have been shown to have unrealistic fears of the harmful effects of fever and they generally see it as the main component of an illness. The objective of this study was to survey people about their kowledge, attitude and beliefs concerning fever. The study was conducted in Kazim Karabekir a district area of Umraniye. The data were collected by focus group discussion in 6 goups and 40 people. An education was given to participants after discussion to teach the use of thermometer and patient care with high fever. Most of the participants feel the need for decreasing the temparature of people with high fever. They define the harms of high fever as febrile convulsion, stroke and menengitis. They dont know the range of normal body temparature. They generally don?t use termometers, measure the fever by touching with hand. Consequently, it has been observed that participants consider high fever is dangerous. However their applications related to high fever are insufficient. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(1.000): 69-76
Figen DEMIR; Sebahat Dilek TORUN; Enver CEBE; Yavuz AYDIN; Bora GUMUSLU
Full Text Available Fever is extremely common in population. People have been shown to have unrealistic fears of the harmful effects of fever and they generally see it as the main component of an illness. The objective of this study was to survey people about their kowledge, attitude and beliefs concerning fever. The study was conducted in Kazim Karabekir a district area of Umraniye. The data were collected by focus group discussion in 6 goups and 40 people. An education was given to participants after discussion to teach the use of thermometer and patient care with high fever. Most of the participants feel the need for decreasing the temparature of people with high fever. They define the harms of high fever as febrile convulsion, stroke and menengitis. They dont know the range of normal body temparature. They generally don?t use termometers, measure the fever by touching with hand. Consequently, it has been observed that participants consider high fever is dangerous. However their applications related to high fever are insufficient. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(1): 69-76
Figen DEMIR; Sebahat Dilek TORUN; Enver CEBE; Yavuz AYDIN; Bora GUMUSLU
INTRODUCTION: The high prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among cancer patients (40%-83%) receiving conventional treatment and the complex relationship between the psychosocial factors that may contribute to or result from CAM use requires further understanding. The authors conducted a descriptive mixed-methods pilot study to understand CAM practices, attitudes, and beliefs among cancer patients at the Loma Linda University Medical Center. METHODS: This was the qualitative phase of the study, and no hypotheses were set. A total of 23 face-to-face interviews were conducted, and thematic coding was used to analyze 22 interview transcriptions. There were 14 CAM users (64%) and 8 nonusers (36%). FINDINGS: The themes present among those who used CAM were the following: physicians viewed as one aspect of health care options, a holistic view on well-being, satisfaction with CAM use, and 3 key coping methods (confrontive, supportive, and optimistic) to confront cancer. Themes were not independent of each other. Two themes were present among nonusers; nonusers trusted their physician and were more likely to express evasive coping methods. DISCUSSION: Perceptions and behavioral patterns are complex predictors of CAM use. A better understanding of CAM, medical pluralism, and the perceptions of patients would help health care providers deliver a better quality of care. The promotion of integrative care may help health care providers better identify medical pluralism and would shift focus to patient-centered care.
Arthur K; Belliard JC; Hardin SB; Knecht K; Chen CS; Montgomery S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the leading female malignancy in Nigeria. Screening for early detection has led to reduction in mortality from the disease. It is known that attitudes of physicians and motivation by community nurses influence uptake of screening methods by women. This study aims to investigate knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, beliefs about treatment and practice of screening methods among a cohort of female healthcare professionals in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire to assess the knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, beliefs about treatment and practice of screening methods among 207 female doctors, nurses and other healthcare professionals working in a university teaching hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Stratified random sampling method was employed. Chi square test, analysis of variance and Mantel-Haenszel test were performed in data analysis using SPSS v10.0 and Epi Info version 6 statistical packages. Results Female doctors obtained a mean knowledge score of 74% and were the only professional group that had satisfactory knowledge of risk factors. Majority (86%) believed that early breast cancer is curable while half of participants believed that prayer can make breast cancer disappear from the affected breast. Eighty three percent practice breast self-examination (BSE) once a month and only 8% have ever had a mammogram. Age, knowledge of risk factors, profession and beliefs were not significantly associated with rate of BSE in this study. Conclusion Results from this study suggest the need for continuing medical education programmes aimed at improving knowledge of breast cancer among female healthcare providers other than doctors.
Ibrahim Nasiru A; Odusanya Olumuyiwa O
BACKGROUND: Research shows that there is a basic gap in the knowledge of nursing home staff about urinary incontinence and the previous societal belief that urinary incontinence is a normal part of aging. This study examines the knowledge of nursing home staff about the types and treatment of urinary incontinence as well as attitudes toward urinary incontinence. METHODS: A quasi-experimental, within-subject, longitudinal pretest/posttest design was used. Nursing home staff members received a 6-week educational intervention on the types and treatment of urinary incontinence and attitudes toward urinary incontinence. RESULTS: Changes in knowledge about the types of urinary incontinence showed statistical significance for stress (p < .001), functional (p < .003), and overflow (p < .00) urinary incontinence. Changes in attitudes toward urinary incontinence showed statistical significance (p < .000). Changes in staff knowledge of the assessment and treatment of urinary incontinence did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: This study showed that creative, evidence-based educational programming can improve staff knowledge about urinary incontinence and change staff attitudes toward urinary incontinence. Further research is needed on staff knowledge about the assessment and treatment of urinary incontinence. J Contin Educ Nurs 2013;44(X):xx-xx.
Mathis S; Ehlman K; Dugger BR; Harrawood A; Kraft CM
Considering the serious environmental threats facing Egypt, environmental education (EE) that provides the knowledge, skills, and motivation to take individual or collective action is needed to create a sustainable quality of life. This study was carried out aiming at measuring the level of environmental knowledge among preparatory school students in Alexandria, determining their attitudes towards some environmental concepts, and assessing the effect of EE on these knowledge and attitudes. The study sample was selected by stratified random method, and the assessment was conducted using a questionnaire. Results of the study revealed that 77% of the students had poor level of environmental knowledge and that 23% had fair level. In addition, 80% of the students were found to have negative attitude toward the environment and the remainder 20% were indifferent. Such knowledge and attitudes were positively correlated to their socio-economic levels. Following six EE sessions, an improvement in their knowledge and attitudes was observed where 69% of the students had a satisfactory level of knowledge and 88% had positive attitude toward the environment. Attitude was found to be positively correlated to their level of knowledge prior to and following the EE sessions. These results support the need for development and implementation of environmental education programs as part of the regular school curriculum.
Abd El-Salam MM; El-Naggar HM; Hussein RA
Considering the serious environmental threats facing Egypt, environmental education (EE) that provides the knowledge, skills, and motivation to take individual or collective action is needed to create a sustainable quality of life. This study was carried out aiming at measuring the level of environmental knowledge among preparatory school students in Alexandria, determining their attitudes towards some environmental concepts, and assessing the effect of EE on these knowledge and attitudes. The study sample was selected by stratified random method, and the assessment was conducted using a questionnaire. Results of the study revealed that 77% of the students had poor level of environmental knowledge and that 23% had fair level. In addition, 80% of the students were found to have negative attitude toward the environment and the remainder 20% were indifferent. Such knowledge and attitudes were positively correlated to their socio-economic levels. Following six EE sessions, an improvement in their knowledge and attitudes was observed where 69% of the students had a satisfactory level of knowledge and 88% had positive attitude toward the environment. Attitude was found to be positively correlated to their level of knowledge prior to and following the EE sessions. These results support the need for development and implementation of environmental education programs as part of the regular school curriculum. PMID:19889360
Abd El-Salam, Magda M; El-Naggar, Hesham M; Hussein, Rim A
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and beliefs related to sexuality of couples doing marriage preparation. Method: This study was carried out as a cross sectional descriptive study in the public health laboratory in Gaziantep between January 12 to August 18, 2011. The study sample consisted of 382 couples who agreed to participate in the study. A questionnaire form and Beliefs Related to Sexual Information Form (CIBIF) were used for data collection. Couples completed the forms as an individual in the separate locations. SPSS version 11.5 was used for statistical analyzes. Descriptive statistics and One-Way ANOVA test were used. Results: In the study, 56.8% of women and 57.1% men stated that they received information about sexuality and reproductive health, of those 80.6% of the women and 73.4% of men received the information from the mass media. When we examined the mean scores of CIBIF, women were found to have 18.01 ± 3.11 mean score while men had 22.59 ± 4.89 mean score (p <0.05). We found that met and decided to marry in agreement, who are under 20 years old, had a primary school degree had significantly higher scores on average from CIBIF compared to other groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion: This study draws attention to lack of knowledge about sexuality for couples who are in marriage preparation. Couples were found to have false beliefs about sexually transmitted infections, sexual health-related personal hygiene and sexuality to live. For these reasons, consulting services related to sexuality and reproductive health information for couples engaged in preparation for marriage in the family health centers by health care personel is thought to be effective way of preventing false information and beliefs about sexuality. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(3.000): 297-306
Sezer Kisa; Simge Zeyneloglu; Duygu Yilmaz; Esra Verim
This study aims to describe nurses' knowledge of and attitudes towards the management of fever in one children's hospital in Ireland. A descriptive, quantitative research design was employed. One hundred and nineteen nurses working in one children's hospital completed a self-report questionnaire. Nurses' mean knowledge score about the physiology of fever, fever management and antipyretics was 51 per cent (n = 119), which was lower than expected. Nurses had both appropriate and inappropriate attitudes towards fever and fever management. Inconsistent attitudes between nurses were identified. Nurses who participated in this study are not expert managers of fever. Their lack of knowledge and inconsistent attitudes are affecting the care of febrile children, and may be fuelling parents' fever phobia. Further education is required to improve nurses' knowledge of fever and fever management. Inappropriate attitudes need to be challenged and addressed in an effort to promote evidence-based care for febrile children.
This study aims to describe nurses' knowledge of and attitudes towards the management of fever in one children's hospital in Ireland. A descriptive, quantitative research design was employed. One hundred and nineteen nurses working in one children's hospital completed a self-report questionnaire. Nurses' mean knowledge score about the physiology of fever, fever management and antipyretics was 51 per cent (n = 119), which was lower than expected. Nurses had both appropriate and inappropriate attitudes towards fever and fever management. Inconsistent attitudes between nurses were identified. Nurses who participated in this study are not expert managers of fever. Their lack of knowledge and inconsistent attitudes are affecting the care of febrile children, and may be fuelling parents' fever phobia. Further education is required to improve nurses' knowledge of fever and fever management. Inappropriate attitudes need to be challenged and addressed in an effort to promote evidence-based care for febrile children. PMID:23455871
The aim of the present study was to obtain information about a group of young drug addicts' dental habits, knowledge, and attitudes. Semistructured interviews with open-ended questions based on well-defined hypotheses were obtained with 20 intravenous drug addicts attending a Danish addiction clinic. All the interviews were taped and typed out verbatim. The analysis of the interviews was primarily carried out qualitatively. Almost all the addicts had been enrolled in the Public Child Dental Care system and the majority vividly remembered this as an unpleasant experience. None of the addicts attended a dentist regularly after having finished school, when the drug abuse usually started. Only a need for acute relief could generally motivate the addicts to visit a dentist, and in the few instances they were questioned about any drug abuse or viral hepatitis infection they usually concealed this. They evidenced very limited knowledge concerning the causes and prevention of dental decay and periodontal disease, and the high prevalence of dental caries was often believed to be caused solely or partly by the ascorbic acid or citric acid that is mixed and injected together with the drugs. A distinct behaviour with a neglected oral hygiene and an excessive intake of candy, soft drinks, and other food with a high sugar content was common. The dietary habits were related to the injection of the drugs in a ritual manner. The drug addicts only realized how deplorable their dental health had become during periods of abstinence, and then they were often embarrassed or ashamed of their esthetic appearance, although this was not perceived to have a negative influence on attempts at resocialization.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
The aim of the present study was to obtain information about a group of young drug addicts' dental habits, knowledge, and attitudes. Semistructured interviews with open-ended questions based on well-defined hypotheses were obtained with 20 intravenous drug addicts attending a Danish addiction clinic. All the interviews were taped and typed out verbatim. The analysis of the interviews was primarily carried out qualitatively. Almost all the addicts had been enrolled in the Public Child Dental Care system and the majority vividly remembered this as an unpleasant experience. None of the addicts attended a dentist regularly after having finished school, when the drug abuse usually started. Only a need for acute relief could generally motivate the addicts to visit a dentist, and in the few instances they were questioned about any drug abuse or viral hepatitis infection they usually concealed this. They evidenced very limited knowledge concerning the causes and prevention of dental decay and periodontal disease, and the high prevalence of dental caries was often believed to be caused solely or partly by the ascorbic acid or citric acid that is mixed and injected together with the drugs. A distinct behaviour with a neglected oral hygiene and an excessive intake of candy, soft drinks, and other food with a high sugar content was common. The dietary habits were related to the injection of the drugs in a ritual manner. The drug addicts only realized how deplorable their dental health had become during periods of abstinence, and then they were often embarrassed or ashamed of their esthetic appearance, although this was not perceived to have a negative influence on attempts at resocialization.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3992214
CONTEXT: Most existing research on the experiences of donor families has been focused on organ donation, with few studies pertaining specifically to the experiences of tissue donor families. Further investigation into tissue donation in Australia is needed in order to improve the process, support, and potential rate of tissue donation consent. OBJECTIVE: To assess the experiences of families of recent tissue donors, to compare changes in the tissue donation process with previously published research, and to identify areas for improvement. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey by postal questionnaire. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Families who consented to tissue donation through DonateLife Western Australia (the coordinating organization for deceased organ and tissue donation in Western Australia) between 2004 and 2009 were invited to participate. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Donor families' experience, knowledge, and attitudes toward tissue donation and their satisfaction with the approach and quality/effectiveness of support services provided to donor families. RESULTS: One hundred one (39%) of the 256 questionnaires were completed. Most respondents were satisfied with how they were approached, whether by phone or in person. Most participants who received ongoing support after donation (91%) found it beneficial. Nearly half (46%) of respondents supported the use of tissue for research; however, only 28% could recall the topic being discussed at the time of donation. Only 40% of respondents knew of the differences between organ and tissue donation before the donation process. Overall, respondents rated the experience of donating tissue as positive.
Luo J; Rothnie A; Sanderson E; Smith M; Cowie A; Musiello T
AIM: To determine the knowledge, attitude and behaviour of parents and previously circumcised early adolescent boys about circumcision. METHODS: Half of the boys attending the sixth class of the primary school in our city centre and their parents were included in this cross-sectional, descriptive study. Questionnaires were prepared by the authors, which include 38 questions for parents and 25 questions for boys. RESULTS: Sixty-six per cent of the students were circumcised at the age of 7 years and above, 26% between three and 6 years and 8% below 3 years of age. Forty-two per cent of boys were circumcised by a traditional circumciser and 64% were circumcised at home. Main reasons of circumcision for parents were religious purposes (79%) and health issues (51%). When the boys were asked about their thoughts during circumcision, they mostly stated that 'it was necessary to become a man' (58%) and 'it would hurt much' (50%). Thirty-eight per cent of boys were frightened during circumcision and 46% were worried. Boys circumcised in the 7 years and above age group were most content about their age of circumcision. CONCLUSIONS: We consider that it is reasonable to wait up to an age at which the child could understand and participate in the decision of the concept and timing of circumcision.
Corduk N; Unlu G; Sarioglu-Buke A; Buber A; Savran B; Zencir M
Context-Most existing research on the experiences of donor families has been focused on organ donation, with few studies pertaining specifically to the experiences of tissue donor families. Further investigation into tissue donation in Australia is needed in order to improve the process, support, and potential rate of tissue donation consent.Objective-To assess the experiences of families of recent tissue donors, to compare changes in the tissue donation process with previously published research, and to identify areas for improvement.Design-Cross-sectional survey by postal questionnaire.Setting and Participants-Families who consented to tissue donation through DonateLife Western Australia (the coordinating organization for deceased organ and tissue donation in Western Australia) between 2004 and 2009 were invited to participate.Main Outcome Measures-Donor families' experience, knowledge, and attitudes toward tissue donation and their satisfaction with the approach and quality/effectiveness of support services provided to donor families.Results-One hundred one (39%) of the 256 questionnaires were completed. Most respondents were satisfied with how they were approached, whether by phone or in person. Most participants who received ongoing support after donation (91%) found it beneficial. Nearly half (46%) of respondents supported the use of tissue for research; however, only 28% could recall the topic being discussed at the time of donation. Only 40% of respondents knew of the differences between organ and tissue donation before the donation process. Overall, respondents rated the experience of donating tissue as positive. PMID:23996947
Luo, Jingjing; Rothnie, Alison; Sanderson, Elaine; Smith, Melissa; Cowie, Anne; Musiello, Toni
Full Text Available "nBackground: The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge and attitude of pregnant women in Qazvin Province, central Iran, Relating to oral Hygiene."nMethods: The study group comprised of 760 pregnant women living in Qazvin, center of Iran in 2004. The questions were formulated to evaluate information without the need for dental examination. The age groups between 17-41 years old were randomly selected and a question was given to woman in three family planning center. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS."nResults: 94.4% responded the questionnaire and participated in statistical procedure. 73.1% of the patients used to brush their teeth at least twice a day and also 70.3% used to brush their teeth after meal."nConclusion: Health authorities should strengthen the implementation of community- based oral disease prevention and health promotion programmes. More importance must be given to oral health care center in family planning centers.
J Hamissi; P Bakianian Vaziri; A Davalloo
OBJECTIVES: Vaccine acceptability among Quebec midwives is not well documented. The purpose of this study was to examine midwives' knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to immunization in Quebec. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 participants (17 midwives and 8 midwifery students). The mean duration of the interviews was 1 hour. The interviews were conducted in 2010 and were audiotaped, transcribed and submitted to content analysis using NVivo 8 software. RESULTS: In addition to the laws regulating midwifery practice in Quebec, the findings suggest that most midwifery interventions are based on midwifery philosophy. Informed choice is one of the key principles of this philosophy. In order to help women make an informed decision about vaccination, midwives seek to outline the pros and cons of vaccination using government documentation, as well as other sources such as books on naturopathy. Most of the participating midwives recognized that vaccination has advantages, including disease prevention and free vaccines. Various arguments against vaccination were also identified. Most of these were related to the vaccination schedule and to combined vaccines. Some of the participants noted that it was difficult to find unbiased information about vaccination. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the key role of midwifery philosophy in midwifery practice. Most decisions (such as vaccination) are made on the basis of the principle of informed choice. Most of the participants noted that they lacked information on vaccination.
Dubé E; Vivion M; Valderrama A; Sauvageau C
Full Text Available Context and Objective: Hamstring strain is a common injury in football and it causes a significant amount of time lost from competition and training. Since poor flexibility is thought to predispose to muscle strain, stretching is routinely recommended during warm-up routines by coaches to prevent injuries. However, available evidence suggests that pre-exercise stretching (PES), especially static stretching, has no benefit on injury rates and may even reduce performance in explosive type activities. We designed this study to assess the attitudes, beliefs and practices of football coaches regarding stretching in the prevention of hamstring strains. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Mauritius Football Association (MFA). Participants: 26 football coaches registered with the MFA. Intervention: Questionnaires were distributed to football coaches of the MFA via sports officers. Questionnaires were then collected two weeks after distribution. Main Outcome Measures: Attitudes, beliefs and practices of football coaches regarding stretching in the prevention of ham-string strains. Results: MFA coaches held generally positive attitudes and beliefs towards stretching. 88% of coaches felt that PES is beneficial and 93% believed that PES prevents hamstring strains. The majority of coaches recommended stretching after warming up (81%) and after the training session (93%). 76% of coaches also advised stretching outside the training sessions. 96% of coaches used static stretching to stretch the hamstrings. The hamstrings were stretched on average for 4 times at each training session and the mean duration of a static stretch was 12 seconds. Conclusions: Nearly all coaches believed that PES prevents hamstring strains although evidence is limited. Some of the coaches’ beliefs and practices were not in line with current recommendations. Coaches reported that their stretching practices would be most likely influenced by scientific research. Thus there is an urgent need to devise awareness and training programmes in this area.
Kelly Chan; Fawzi M. Mahomoodally; Rajiv Veeren
This cross-sectional study explored whether there are age-specific differences in breast cancer-related knowledge, beliefs, and screening behaviors among low-income, elderly black women. Data were collected at senior citizen facilities from 214 black women aged 65 and older. Differences in knowledge, beliefs, and screening practices across three age groups were assessed by chi-square tests. Logistic regression modeling was used to determine the effect of these factors on compliance with American Cancer Society (ACS) screening guidelines. Age was inversely associated with knowledge and screening practices. The youngest group (65-74) was about twice as likely as the oldest group (85 and over) to correctly recognize breast cancer risk factors. About 50% of the oldest women compared to about 20% of the youngest women believed their risk for breast cancer was nil. The oldest group was also least likely to have had a mammogram or clinical breast examination within the past year, as recommended by the ACS. Our results suggest that educating elderly women, especially those 85 and over, about breast cancer and screening may lead to higher compliance with ACS recommendations.
Jones AR; Thompson CJ; Oster RA; Samadi A; Davis MK; Mayberry RM; Caplan LS
This article consists of a KAP (Knowledge, Attitude and Practice) survey to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice of phototherapy among nursing professionals from two teaching hospitals at the city of Recife, Brazil, through semi-structured questionnaire applied to 111 professionals. It was used the T Student test to compare means of correct answers. Thus, there were higher means for practice, followed by those related to attitude and a lower percentage of correct answers for knowledge. When comparing the means between knowledge and practice the differences were statistically significant for all variables (p<0.05). The results of the study highlight the need to implement activities that will allow a balance among knowledge, attitude and practice of nursing professionals about phototherapy.
Machado SP; Samico IC; Braga TD
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Self-medication is the selection and use of medicines by individuals to treat selfrecognised illnesses or symptoms and an important initial response to illnesses if successfully used. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of self medication among Medical Sciences Faculty students of Jimma University.METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in Medical sciences Faculty students in 2009.The faculty and the three schools were selected by lottery method .Then, within the faculty respective number of students for each School was determined by proportion from the total sample size. Data was collected randomly from each School using self administered questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0RESULTS: From a total of 403 (100%) participants,95 (45.89%) students practiced self medication in the past two months for commonly perceived illnesses such as headache 35 (36.85%), abdominal pain 29 (30.55%) and cough 33 (23.16%) using mainly analgesics 40(49.38%) and antibiotics 29 (35.80%) mostly from drug retail outlets 88(92.63). Fifty seven (60.00%) respondents can recall the dose, frequency and duration of the medicine while 38 (40%) did not know. Sixty five (68.42%) students agreed to practice self medication irrespective of the seriousness of illnesses.CONCLUSION: Self mediation was widely practiced for minor symptoms with both OTC and prescription only drugs. Most of respondents use self medication irrespective of the seriousness of the illnesses. Lack of proper information and the ease of access from drug outlets were the most important problems.
Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo et al.
Full Text Available AZIZI, M.; RAHMANI-NIA, F.; MALAEE, M.; MALAEE, M.; KHOSRAVI, N. A study of Nutritional knowledge and attitudes of elite College Athletes in Iran. Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity, v. 4, n. 2, p. 105-112, 2010. This study designed for understanding the nutrition knowledge and attitude of elite college athletes in Iran. A researcher-built questionnaire which was developed to measure subject’s nutrition knowledge and attitude,distributed to 297 female (age 21.8 ±1.8 years) and 298 males (age 22.8 ± 1.9 years) randomly. The questionnaire contained 15 nutrition knowledge questions and 15 nutrition attitude questions. The collected data was analyzed by t-test, one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient (p<0.05). The mean nutrition knowledge and attitude score for male and females was 52.36±6.2; 50.61±5 and 54.3±6.3; 52.03±5.8 respectively. Nutrition knowledge and attitude score in P.E. females was significantly higher than other major (p<0.05), while the difference between P.E. males and other major was not significant. There was a significant positive correlation between nutrition knowledge and attitude among males (r= 0.424, p ? 0.01) and female (r= 0.422, p ? 0.01) elite athletes. Based on the result of our study the knowledge of Iranian college athletes is moderate, and these suggest that nutrition knowledge and attitudes of Iranian college athletes need to improve.
Mohammad Azizi; Farhad Rahmani-Nia; Maryam Malaee; Mina Malaee; Narges Khosravi
This present research reveals how beer advertising affects adolescents' knowledge of beer brands, drinking attitudes, and drinking behaviors. In addition to traditional psychological approaches for measuring media effects on alcohol-related behaviors and attitudes, market research advertising tracking methods were included to permit a clearer and…
Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.; Bloomgren, Barry W., Jr.; Atti, Jule A.; Norman, Jessica A.
The relationship of knowledge, attitudes, and prevalence of steroid use among college athletes and nonathletes was investigated. Results indicated that the more individuals knew about steroids, the more favorable was their attitude toward use. Powerlifters and bodybuilders were found most likely to use steroids. (JD)
Chng, Chwee Lye; Moore, Alan