The Health Belief Model was utilized to examine the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of individuals regarding regular jogging. Results suggest that behavior of sedentary individuals may be changed by using strategies which address perceived obstacles to jogging. (Author/DF)
Slenker, Suzanne E.; And Others
Background and Design: This study evaluates the patients’ knowledge, opinions and attitudes about psoriasis.Materials and Methods: A total of 111 patients over the age of 18, clinically and histopathologically diagnosed with chronic plaque-type psoriasis were included in the study. Patients who have psychiatric illness and inadequate intelligence were excluded. A questionnaire including items on knowledge, opinions and attitudes on psoriasis were filled out by the patients and the results w...
Asl? Küçükünal; ?lknur K?vanç Altunay; Ezgi Akta?; Gül?en Tükenmez Demirci
This cross-sectional study among 1597 tertiary level students, 757 (48%) males and 832 (52%) females (9 respondents no mention of gender), from 12 institutions, across Papua New Guinea, examined their level of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about HIV/AIDS. The study revealed that the majority of the students have a very good knowledge of HIV/AIDS; in general students have a considerate and compassionate attitude towards those infected with HIV/AIDS; and the students have positive and health...
Rose Begani; Bob Tombe; Tuka Andew; Orathinkal Jose; Alphonse Begani; Keri Totona
The purpose of this study was to investigate school psychologists' attitudes toward lesbians and gay males. Aspects of school psychologists' knowledge, beliefs, current practices, and levels of preparedness related to issues of sexual orientation were also explored. A sample of 288 school psychologists (215 females and 73 males, mean age = 44…
Savage, Todd A.; Prout, H. Thompson; Chard, Kathleen M.
This article reports on an exploratory study of English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and professional knowledge about teaching EFL (TEFL) in a preschool setting in China. The investigation is structured on a two-dimensional grid based on Calderhead's (1996) categorisation of teachers' attitudes and beliefs and…
Full Text Available This cross-sectional study among 1597 tertiary level students, 757 (48% males and 832 (52% females (9 respondents no mention of gender, from 12 institutions, across Papua New Guinea, examined their level of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about HIV/AIDS. The study revealed that the majority of the students have a very good knowledge of HIV/AIDS; in general students have a considerate and compassionate attitude towards those infected with HIV/AIDS; and the students have positive and healthy attitudes and beliefs regarding HIV/AIDS. Among the demographic variables of gender, province and the institution of their study a significant difference showed in their levels of knowledge and also a statistically significant association was found between beliefs and knowledge. Interestingly, about 58% of the students think that HIV/AIDS is a punishment from God. Almost half (46.5% of the respondents think that learning about sex and the use of condoms could also encourage young people to engage in more frequent sex. Although, in general the students have a very good knowledge, they indicate the need for more sex education and awareness pro-grams about HIV/AIDS that could be given in high schools.
Full Text Available This paper reports data from a survey conducted with 260 Bahamian adolescents assessing their knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about AIDS. The results revealed that these adolescents have a high level of knowledge about AIDS. In fact, these adolescents are as knowledgeable about AIDS as adolescents in their normed group, which consisted of low-income African American adolescents. Further, neither males nor females differed in their perceptions about their risk for getting AIDS and in their perceptions about the effectiveness of condoms in preventing the spread of AIDS. Implications for the development of AIDS prevention programmes for Bahamian adolescents are discussed.
Blood donation and transfusion are remarkably safe medical procedures. However, attitudes, beliefs and level of knowledge associated with blood donation and transfusion may affect such procedures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the attitude, belief and knowledge about blood donation and transfusion in Saudi Population. The present study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University Hospitals, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A well structured Arabic questionnaire was used to asses the attitude, belief and knowledge regarding blood donation and transfusion. The sample consisted of 335 male (55%) and 274 female (45%); the majority of the sample (65.84%) were non-donors. These non-donors (78.98%) were between the ages of 15-30 years. The 88.5% of the people who participated in the study believed that blood donation was not harmful, 20% of them stated that they would refuse blood transfusion even if they were in need because of the risk of acquiring infectious disease. 84.5% preferred direct donation, (49%) of the sample stated that they would accept blood donation only from relatives, 55.1% believed that blood transfusion was safe. However, 11.6% claimed to have acquired infectious disease after blood transfusion, 58% female in addition to 11.34% male preferred to receive blood from female donor and 69.5% did not know if the blood banks were in need of blood or not and 17.4% believed that all surgical procedures require eved that all surgical procedures require blood transfusion. Different fears, mistrust in hospital and lack of information may serve as an important issue to be addressed when developing donors recruitment programs or campaigns to clear misconceptions about blood donation. In addition, public should know that numerous screening measures are implemented to ensure that blood donation is safe for the donor and that transfusion of the donated blood is safe for the recipient. (author)
Full Text Available This article explores the perceptions and attitudes of community health workers (CHWs about hypertension. The level of knowledge of hypertension, as well as their personal attitude towards this is crucial in the style and quality of their interventions. CHWs, whose role in health promotion is being increasingly recognised, can help contain or reduce the prevalence of hypertension by influencing the community to adopt healthy lifestyles. Forty-three CHWs employed by Zanempilo in two study areas, Sites B and C in Khayelitsha in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, were included in the study. Firstly, focus group discussions were conducted with 17 purposively selected CHWs to explore attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of hypertension. Secondly, interviews were conducted to assess their basic knowledge about causes, prevention and control of hypertension. The focus group discussions revealed that CHWs were uncertain about the causes of hypertension. They also found it difficult to grasp the fact that people without risk factors, such as overweight or a family history of hypertension, could be hypertensive. Many CHWs believe in traditional medicines and home-brewed beer as the best treatment for hypertension. They believe that people who take medical treatment become sicker and that their health deteriorates rapidly. Risk factors of hypertension mentioned during the structured interviews include inheritance, lack of physical activity, consuming lots of salty and fatty food. Conclusions drawn from the findings of the CHWs’ responses highlighted their insufficient knowledge about hypertension as a chronic disease of lifestyle. Meanwhile they are expected to play a role in stimulating community residents’ interest in the broad principle of preventive health maintenance and follow-up. Data obtained from this research can be used for the planning of health-promotion programmes. These should include preventing hypertension and improving primary management of individual sufferers. Because of their working relations and close link with CHWs, community nurses in primary health-care facilities need to recognise these beliefs and attitudes since these may differ from their own.
In line with the "warming trend" (Sinatra, 2005), this study examined the influence of emotions during controversial conceptual change. Issues in science may trigger highly emotional responses (e.g., evolutionary theory). However, it is unclear whether these emotions facilitate or inhibit change. I investigated the nature of emotions engendered when learning about a controversial science topic, Pluto's reclassification, including the valence (positive/negative) and activation (activating/deactivating) of emotions (Pekrun et al., 2002). I also investigated whether belief, attitude, and/or conceptual change could be facilitated through rereading a refutation text and/or rereading during small group discussions. Refutation texts directly state a common misconception, refute it, and provide the scientific explanation as a plausible alternative (Hynd, 2001). Participants were randomly assigned to a group (reread text; reread text plus small group discussions). Participants in both groups read the same refutational text regarding the recent change in the definition of planet and Pluto's reclassification. The findings show that students' experienced a range of emotions towards Pluto's reclassification. Students reported experiencing more negative than positive emotions. Both positive and negative emotions were shown to be predictive of student's attitudes and attitude change. Emotions were also predictive of students' knowledge of planets and conceptual change. This suggests that emotions may have promoted deep engagement and critical thinking. Negative emotions may also be linked with resistance to attitude and conceptual change. The refutation text was effective in promoting belief change, attitude change, and conceptual change across both conditions. Students in both conditions reported more constructivist nature of science beliefs after rereading the text. Students also reported a greater level of acceptance about Pluto's reclassification. Conceptual change was promoted through the text as students' initial misconceptions about why scientists rewrote the definition of planet. Students in the reread plus discussion group showed greater conceptual change regarding the reasons for rewriting the definition of planet than those in the reread group. This study supports the "warming trend" (Sinatra, 2005) in conceptual change research because it shows the interplay between emotions and the change process. The findings also suggest that belief, attitude, and conceptual change can be fostered through small group discussions.
Broughton, Suzanne H.
This study was conducted on prison inmates in Sindh to determine whether HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitudes and beliefs can predict their practices which risk HIV infection. A pre-designed questionnaire was administered in this cross-sectional study to collect the data on HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, practices and demographic variables in a systematic sample of 3,395 prison inmates during July 1994. The data on responses of inmates to HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs were analyzed and a clear interpretable factor structure emerged for each set of questions labeled as knowledge, attitude and beliefs. Similarly based on responses of inmates to practice questions, three factors emerged and were labeled as heterosexuality, homosexuality and drugs. The standardized factor scores of inmates for each of these six factors were computed and used in further analyses. Multiple linear regression analyses were carried out separately using heterosexuality, homosexuality and drugs factors score as dependent variables to identify if any of the independent variables (demographic variables, knowledge beliefs and attitude) predict these practice factors. The model for heterosexuality explained 23% of the variance and included HIV/AIDS related knowledge, beliefs, age, ethnicity and marital status and duration of imprisonment (F = 84.33, p homosexuality together explained 10% of the variance and included significant contribution by belief, martial status, ethnicity, education, age and duration of imprisonment (F = 24.76, p < 0.001; R2= 0.10). The model for drugs had significant contributions from HIV/AIDS related beliefs, marital status and ethnicity (F = 20.10, p < 0.001; R2= 0.03). Implications of prevention program based on these results are considered. PMID:11556589
Akhtar, S; Luby, S P; Rahbar, M H; Azam, I
387 mothers in Mehrauli block of Delhi were interviewed regarding their knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices regarding measles. 98.4% enumerated one or the other symptoms, fever being the commonest. 77.5% were aware of the infectious nature and 97% had favourable attitude regarding feeding the child during measles. The commonest foodstuff given was cowmilk and khichdi. 95.1% of the respondents intended to apply local herbs on eruptions. There was a variety of local medicines for home treatment and Laung, Tulsi leaves and Kishmish being the practice in descending order of preference. 98.4% respondents favoured giving special nutritional care during the attack of measles to their children. PMID:14768831
Aggarwal, Kamal; Kannan, A T; Chhabra, Pragti; Kumar, Parveen; Trikha, V K
This study was conducted to explore knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about cervical cancer, cervical cancer screening, human papillomavirus (HPV), and acceptance of the HPV vaccine. A purposive sample of 40 women was interviewed during August 2012. Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate differences among rural and urban women, and open-ended questions were coded independently by two individuals (Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.816). Among the 22 rural and 18 urban women, there was limited knowledge about cervical cancer, screening, HPV, and the HPV vaccine. Cervical cancer was described in language related to gender, science, severity, or associated with having children, a uterus, or menstruation. All rural and most urban participants were interested in the HPV vaccine for themselves and their daughters. Limited awareness and knowledge about cervical cancer and HPV was common among Guatemalan women, highlighting the need for additional information prior to developing cancer prevention educational materials and programs. PMID:24858872
Petrocy, Amy; Katz, Mira L
Doping in sport is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied mainly from a biomedical point of view, even though psychosocial approaches are also key factors in the fight against doping. This phenomenon has evolved greatly in recent years, and greater understanding of it is essential for developing efficient prevention programmes. In the psychosocial approach, attitudes are considered an index of doping behaviour, relating the use of banned substances to greater leniency towards doping. The aim of this review is to gather and critically analyse the most recent publications describing elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport, to better understand the foundations provided by the previous work, and to help develop practical strategies to efficiently combat doping. For this purpose, we performed a literature search using combinations of the terms "doping", "sport", "elite athletes", "attitudes", "beliefs", "knowledge", "drugs", and "performance-enhancing substances" (PES). A total of 33 studies were subjected to comprehensive assessment using articles published between 2000 and 2011. All of the reports focused on elite athletes and described their attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport. The initial reasons given for using banned substances included achievement of athletic success by improving performance, financial gain, improving recovery and prevention of nutritional deficiencies, as well as the idea that others use them, or the "false consensus effect". Although most athletes acknowledge that doping is cheating, unhealthy and risky because of sanctions, its effectiveness is also widely recognized. There is a general belief about the inefficacy of anti-doping programmes, and athletes criticise the way tests are carried out. Most athletes consider the severity of punishment is appropriate or not severe enough. There are some differences between sports, as team-based sports and sports requiring motor skills could be less influenced by doping practices than individual self-paced sports. However, anti-doping controls are less exhaustive in team sports. The use of banned substance also differs according to the demand of the specific sport. Coaches appear to be the main influence and source of information for athletes, whereas doctors and other specialists do not seem to act as principal advisors. Athletes are becoming increasingly familiar with anti-doping rules, but there is still a lack of knowledge that should be remedied using appropriate educational programmes. There is also a lack of information on dietary supplements and the side effects of PES. Therefore, information and prevention are necessary, and should cater to the athletes and associated stakeholders. This will allow us to establish and maintain correct attitudes towards doping. Psychosocial programmes must be carefully planned and developed, and should include middle- to long-term objectives (e.g. changing attitudes towards doping and the doping culture). Some institutions have developed or started prevention or educational programmes without the necessary resources, while the majority of the budget is spent on anti-doping testing. Controls are obviously needed, as well as more efficient educational strategies. Therefore, we encourage sporting institutions to invest in educational programmes aimed at discouraging the use of banned substances. Event organizers and sport federations should work together to adapt the rules of each competition to disincentivize dopers. Current research methods are weak, especially questionnaires. A combination of qualitative and quantitative measurements are recommended, using interviews, questionnaires and, ideally, biomedical tests. Studies should also examine possible geographical and cultural differences in attitudes towards doping. PMID:23532595
Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Zabala, Mikel
Maternal smoking is a key preventable cause of poor pregnancy outcomes, such as low birthweight. In many areas of the United States, including Eastern North Carolina, rates of prenatal smoking are high. Prenatal depressive symptoms are associated with maternal smoking, but there remains much to learn about this relationship, especially among Black women, who have double the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes of White women. In the study reported in this paper, we investigated the relationship between maternal prenatal depressive symptoms with smoking behaviors, beliefs and attitudes, environmental factors which promote smoking and nicotine addiction. Pregnant women were enrolled in the study at the first prenatal visit to the clinics of the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Family Medicine of the Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University. An interviewer administered a questionnaire to each woman about smoking, smoking-related attitudes, knowledge, beliefs and behaviors, nicotine addiction, and home environmental factors that encourage smoking. The CES-D was used to measure depressive symptoms. We used the cut-point score of 23 or greater to indicate elevated depressive symptoms, which is thought to represent major depressive disorder. The sample consisted of 810 Black women, of whom 18% were smokers. CES-D score was associated with nicotine addiction, not thinking of quitting smoking, and not expecting support from family and friends if they decided to quit. Prenatal depressive symptoms may be a barrier to smoking cessation. PMID:21607614
Orr, Suezanne Tangerose; Blazer, Dan G; Orr, Caroline A
A needs assessment of the knowledge, attitudes, practices, and beliefs about HIV/AIDS prevention was conducted among 100 Sudanese and Bantu Somali women immigrants aged 19 years and older, recruited through a community organization between April and July 2006. Information was collected by interview using interpreters to administer a 60-item test and a 116-item questionnaire that ha...
Lynette Smith; Shingairai Feresu
Full Text Available A needs assessment of the knowledge, attitudes, practices, and beliefs about HIV/AIDS prevention was conducted among 100 Sudanese and Bantu Somali women immigrants aged 19 years and older, recruited through a community organization between April and July 2006. Information was collected by interview using interpreters to administer a 60-item test and a 116-item questionnaire that had been translated into Nuer and Arabic. Women in this study had low levels of education, poor knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention and safer sex practices, and poor attitudes to HIV/AIDS. They believe that HIV/AIDS is a punishment from God, HIV-positive people should be separated from society, carrying a condom indicates having loose morals, women should not experience sexual pleasure, and men should decide when and how to have sexual intercourse. Education, gender, and cultural beliefs are critical in the spread of HIV. Efforts to educate immigrant and displaced populations, particularly women, are essential.
College women have the highest rates of sexual violence, sexually transmitted infections, and unintended pregnancy compared with women in all other age groups. Although much is known about sexual risk behaviors among college women, less is known about how women negotiate consent for contraceptive use during sexual encounters. Therefore, the purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore college women's knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about contraceptive and sexual consent during dating relationships. Twenty-six women participated in five focus groups on two college campuses in the northeastern United States. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. The three main categories that emerged from the analysis included the influence of alcohol on sexual behaviors, lack of negotiation for sexual consent and contraceptive use, and fear of pregnancy. The results of this study highlight the complex social interactions and norms that college women encounter when making decisions regarding sexual activity and contraceptive use. The results of this study can inform the role of college health providers and forensic nurses to promote sexual health and safety when they interact with college women. PMID:25411811
Fantasia, Heidi Collins; Sutherland, Melissa A; Fontenot, Holly; Ierardi, Janet A
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To examine smoking prevalence, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours/beliefs among Health Professional School students according to the Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS) approach. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Catania University Medical Schools. The GH [...] PSS questionnaires were self-administered. Logistic regression model was performed. The level of significance was p
Margherita, Ferrante; Rosella, Saulle; Caterina, Ledda; Roberto, Pappalardo; Roberto, Fallico; Giuseppe, La Torre; Maria, Fiore.
The study examines the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of Greek-Cypriot adolescents regarding sexuality, sexual and reproductive health ?n Cyprus and is based ?? the concepts of culture, gender and sexuality under the general scope of health promotion and health education. The study reviews international and local literature ?n the theory and practice of these ideas and their influence ?? health, focusing ?n sexuality. Since culture and society are thought to influence health and sexu...
Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an educational program based on Health Belief Model on knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) in patients with Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) referred to Razi Hospital in Iran. Mater...
Roya Sadeghi; Azar Tol; Masoud Baikpour; Azita Moradi; Mostafa Hossaini
This article explores the perceptions and attitudes of community health workers (CHWs) about hypertension. The level of knowledge of hypertension, as well as their personal attitude towards this is crucial in the style and quality of their interventions. CHWs, whose role in health promotion is being increasingly recognised, can help contain or reduce the prevalence of hypertension by influencing the community to adopt healthy lifestyles. Forty-three CHWs employed by Zanempilo in two study are...
Sengwana, M. J.; Puoane, T.
A Health Belief Model (HBM) based educational intervention intended to increase adolescents' fertility control through abstinence or effective contraceptive usage was implemented and evaluated by pre-intervention interviews with 203 adolescents and post-intervention interviews with 146 adolescents. Participants' sexuality-related knowledge and…
Eisen, Marvin; Zellman, Gail L.
Full Text Available This study examines demographic, cognitive and behavioral factors that predict pediatric dog-bite injury risk in rural China. A total of 1,537 children (grades 4–6 in rural regions of Anhui, Hebei and Zhejiang Provinces, China completed self-report questionnaires assessing beliefs about and behaviors with dogs. The results showed that almost 30% of children reported a history of dog bites. Children answered 56% of dog-safety knowledge items correctly. Regressions revealed both demographic and cognitive/behavioral factors predicted children’s risky interactions with dogs and dog-bite history. Boys behaved more riskily with dogs and were more frequently bitten. Older children reported greater risks with dogs and more bites. With demographics controlled, attitudes/beliefs of invulnerability, exposure frequency, and dog ownership predicted children’s self-reported risky practice with dogs. Attitudes/beliefs of invulnerability, dog exposure, and dog ownership predicted dog bites. In conclusion, both demographic and cognitive/behavioral factors influenced rural Chinese children’s dog-bite injury risk. Theory-based, empirically-supported intervention programs might reduce dog-bite injuries in rural China.
David C. Schwebel
This study examined pre-service mathematics teachers' knowledge of history of mathematics and their attitudes and beliefs towards using history of mathematics in mathematics education based on year level in teacher education program and gender. The sample included 1,593 freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior pre-service middle school (grades 4-8) mathematics teachers from nine universities in Turkey. Data were collected through Knowledge of History of Mathematics Test and Attitudes and Beliefs towards the Use of History of Mathematics in Mathematics Education Questionnaire. Results indicate that pre-service teachers have moderate knowledge of history of mathematics and positive attitudes and beliefs towards using history of mathematics. Their knowledge scores increase as the year level in teacher education program advanced. Males' knowledge scores are significantly higher than females' scores in the first 2 years. This situation reverses in the last 2 years, but it is not statistically significant. Pre-service teachers have more positive attitudes and availing beliefs towards using history of mathematics as they progress in their teacher education program. Females have greater attitudes and beliefs mean scores than males in each of the years. The results indicate that the teacher education program may have enhanced the pre-service teachers' knowledge of history of mathematics by related courses. However, the moderate knowledge scores indicate that there is a need for revision of these courses. The pre-service teachers' positive attitudes and beliefs towards using history of mathematics stress the importance of teacher education program in order to prepare them for implementing this alternative strategy in the future.
Alpaslan, Mustafa; I??ksal, Mine; Haser, Çi?dem
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge about epilepsy and the attitudes toward people with epilepsy (PWE) and their predictors among university students in Jordan. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed in three of the largest public universities in Jordan, and a total of 500 questionnaires were collected from each university. The number of students who reported that they had heard or read about epilepsy was 1165 (77.6%), and their data were analyzed. A significant proportion of students thought that epilepsy could be caused by the evil spirit (31.5%) and the evil eye (28.1%) or that it could be a punishment from God (25.9%). Epilepsy's most commonly reported treatment methods were the Holy Quran (71.4%), medications (71.3%), and herbs (29.3%). The most common negative attitudes toward PWE were that the students would refuse to marry someone with epilepsy (50.5%) and that children with epilepsy must join schools for persons with disabilities (44.4%). Male students, students of humanities, and students with a low socioeconomic status tended to have more negative attitudes toward PWE. In conclusion, many students have misconceptions about the causes, treatment, and nature of epilepsy, and students have moderate negative attitudes toward PWE. Universities should have health promotion programs to increase awareness of their students about major public health problems such as epilepsy. PMID:25461223
Hijazeen, Jameel Khaleel; Abu-Helalah, Munir Ahmad; Alshraideh, Hussam Ahmad; Alrawashdeh, Omar Salameh; Hawa, Fadi Nather; Dalbah, Tariq Asem; Abdallah, Fadi Walid
This study examines the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of Greek-Cypriot adolescents regarding sexuality, sexual and reproductive health in Cyprus. This is the first study in Cyprus that focuses on these issues. During the study, a survey was administered to a random sample of third grade students (N = 697, Mean age = 14 +/- 1 years, 48% males). Descriptive and comparative statistics were primarily used for the data analysis. The results indicated that young Greek-Cypriots have limited knowledge on sexual health issues and that there are gender differences regarding role expectations of sexuality. Thus, in the promotion of healthy sexuality and sexual behaviours among youth, practitioners should include gender and cultural perspectives. Qualitative research is needed to explore in depth how young Greek-Cypriots feel about sexuality and sexual and reproductive health. PMID:19066235
Kouta, Christiana; Tolma, Eleni L
Full Text Available The 513 undergraduate students (262 male and 251 female surveyed from five colleges of Delhi University were aware of AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency Syndrome. They knew from different sources that sexually promiscuous people, prostitutes, intravenous drug abusers, professional blood donors and recipients of HIV infected blood were at risk for AIDS. About half of the students (57.5% knew that AIDS was incurable and ultimately led to death. A majority of them (60-72%, also knew that AIDS could be prevented by using condoms during sexual intercourse, disposable needles during injection and avoiding sex with multiple partners. On the other hand their knowledge on non-sexual transmission was inadequate. Most of them (58% believed that one could get AIDS by airborne, oral and kinesthetic routes, some (41% felt that AIDS patients should not be allowed to mix in society, and 24% had an attitude of severing contact with their best friends or divorcing their spouses. The most impotent viewpoint was that 49% of them wrongly believed that AIDS could be prevented by vaccination. The need for more information on AIDS was felt by all of them.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents of children with food allergy, primary care physicians, and members of the general public play a critical role in the health and well-being of food-allergic children, though little is known about their knowledge and perceptions of food allergy. The purpose of this paper is to detail the development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among these three populations. Methods From 2006–2008, parents of food-allergic children, pediatricians, family physicians, and adult members of the general public were recruited to assist in survey development. Preliminary analysis included literature review, creation of initial content domains, expert panel review, and focus groups. Survey validation included creation of initial survey items, expert panel ratings, cognitive interviews, reliability testing, item reduction, and final validation. National administration of the surveys is ongoing. Results Nine experts were assembled to oversee survey development. Six focus groups were held: 2/survey population, 4–9 participants/group; transcripts were reviewed via constant comparative methods to identify emerging themes and inform item creation. At least 220 participants per population were recruited to assess the relevance, reliability, and utility of each survey item as follows: cognitive interviews, 10 participants; reliability testing ? 10; item reduction ? 50; and final validation, 150 respondents. Conclusion The Chicago Food Allergy Research surveys offer validated tools to assess food allergy knowledge and perceptions among three distinct populations: a 42 item parent tool, a 50 item physician tool, and a 35 item general public tool. No such tools were previously available.
Pongracic Jacqueline A
Full Text Available Problem statement: Agriculture sector in Malaysia has been intensified through the Eight and Ninth Malaysian Plan. In order to further develop this sector, contract farming activities such as leech rearing, worm rearing, herbs and mushroom have been introduced to the community. But do the communities especially the youth have a positive acceptance towards this activity? Approach: This was a quantitative study. The respondents were among two agriculture learning institutions in Malaysia. From a simple random sampling, a total of 194 respondents were selected. The data collection took two months to be completed. Results: From the multiple linear regression employed, it can be concluded that attitude, belief and knowledge are the significant contributor for acceptance towards contract farming. Conclusion/Recommendation: It is recommended that more studies can be conducted to inspect the complexities related with youths participation in contract farming and special attention should be highlighted to identify what universities can do in strategizing specific agricultural courses that would motivate youth to possess a better acceptance towards contract farming.
Human negativity toward arthropods has been well documented but the factors that contribute to this negativity have been elusive. This study explored knowledge of arthropod carnivory and herbivory as possible casual factors that contribute to the negative tendencies preservice elementary teachers have toward most arthropods. Specifically, this…
Wagler, Ron; Wagler, Amy
Full Text Available Objective: Based on the survey of the knowledge-attitude-belief and practice to tobacco control between Chinese and foreign medical students in Soochow University, the authors intended to explore the current situation, differences and influencing factors of Chinese and foreign medical students, in order to provide a reference for tobacco control policies and measures set by the Medical College of Soochow University. Methods: By stratified sampling, we selected 200 Chinese medical students and 200 foreign medical students of Medical College in different grades and different majors, and adopted anonymous questionnaires to investigate. Results: The smoking rates of Chinese and foreign male medical students were 7.4%, 15.5% respectively , while female medical students' smoking rates were 0.0, 8.1% respectively. Foreign medical students’ daily smoking was mostly 4~10, which was significantly greater than the Chinese medical students ?P<0.05?; besides, the identification degree to the responsibilities and duties for smoking control of the professional medical staff were both higher. The influence of the different smoking rates between Chinese and foreign medical students was mainly ethnic background, and the influences of the different smoking behavior mainly depended on their knowledge and attitude towards tobacco control. Conclusion: There is a need for schools to adopt health education measure to promote the school tobacco control based on the differences of the knowledge-attitude-belief and practice to tobacco control between Chinese and Foreign Medical students. Help medical students to translate knowledge of tobacco control they have already mastered into belief, and further affect their behavior.
This study examines demographic, cognitive and behavioral factors that predict pediatric dog-bite injury risk in rural China. A total of 1,537 children (grades 4–6) in rural regions of Anhui, Hebei and Zhejiang Provinces, China completed self-report questionnaires assessing beliefs about and behaviors with dogs. The results showed that almost 30% of children reported a history of dog bites. Children answered 56% of dog-safety knowledge items correctly. Regressions revealed both demographic ...
Schwebel, David C.; Shulan Pang; Guozhang Xu; Shaohua Li; Huiyun Xiang; Jiabin Shen
Rangelands can be managed to increase soil carbon and help mitigate emissions of carbon dioxide. This study assessed Utah rangeland owner's environmental values, beliefs about climate change, and awareness of and attitudes towards carbon sequestration, as well as their perceptions of potential policy strategies for promoting carbon sequestration on private rangelands. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews and a statewide survey of Utah rangeland owners, and were analyzed using descriptive and bivariate statistics. Over two-thirds of respondents reported some level of awareness of carbon sequestration and a generally positive attitude towards it, contrasting to their lack of interest in participating in a relevant program in the future. Having a positive attitude was statistically significantly associated with having more "biocentric" environmental values, believing the climate had been changing over the past 30 years, and having a stronger belief of human activities influencing the climate. Respondents valued the potential ecological benefits of carbon sequestration more than the potential financial or climate change benefits. Additionally, respondents indicated a preference for educational approaches over financial incentives. They also preferred to work with a private agricultural entity over a non-profit or government entity on improving land management practices to sequester carbon. These results suggest potential challenges for developing technically sound and socially acceptable policies and programs for promoting carbon sequestration on private rangelands. Potential strategies for overcoming these challenges include emphasizing the ecological benefits associated with sequestering carbon to appeal to landowners with ecologically oriented management objectives, enhancing the cooperation between private agricultural organizations and government agencies, and funneling resources for promoting carbon sequestration into existing land management and conservation programs that may produce carbon benefits. PMID:24468448
Cook, Seth L; Ma, Zhao
There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course chosen will be more favourable than if the alternative had been adopted.
Greenhalgh, Geoffrey [Down Park Place, Crawley Down (United Kingdom)
There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course chosen will be more favourable than if the alternative had been adopted
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Background: The main purpose of this study was to identify and describe knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards HIV infection and risky sexual behaviour in female medical freshmen in order to evaluate the possibility of female medical student-based peer education.
Methods: Researchers surveyed 560 freshmen: 280 medical students and 280 non medical students at two Italian Universities, collecting the data through anonymous, self administered questionnaires. Data were codified and statistical analysis was computed using Statistica and Openstat 4 software.
Results: Female medical freshmen showed higher levels of knowledge and risk perception about HIV infection, and higher levels of self-awareness in preventing infection when compared with non-medical freshmen. Moreover, medical student’s had a lower rate of sexual activity and a higher rate of condom usage.
Conclusions: Our data leads to the hypothesis that the involvement of female medical students in developing and providing safe sex education may be an important and effective way of better enhancing young people’s knowledge, attitude and behaviour towards the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.
Maria Anna Coniglio
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. La hipertensión arterial es uno de los grandes problemas de salud pública. Una de las principales razones del escaso avance en la efectividad de las intervenciones es la falta de conocimiento de los factores determinantes psicológicos y sociales, como son las creencias sobre la enferme [...] dad y su tratamiento. Objetivo. Valorar las actitudes del paciente respecto al tratamiento antihipertensivo y sus creencias. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal descriptivo en una muestra aleatoria de 202 pacientes adultos hipertensos adscritos a un centro privado de atención ambulatoria en Bogotá, Colombia. Se utilizó el test de Morisky-Green para valorar las actitudes del paciente respecto al tratamiento antihipertensivo y, la versión española del Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQGeneral), para valorar las creencias del paciente. Resultados. Alrededor del 48 % de los pacientes refiere olvidar en algún momento tomar el medicamento antihipertensivo. El 68 % considera que si los médicos tuvieran más tiempo para los pacientes, recetarían menos medicamentos. Alrededor del 40 % no sabe que órganos pueden lesionarse como consecuencia de la tensión arterial elevada. Conclusiones. El presente estudio coloca de manifiesto las necesidades de mejorar las estrategias de comunicación de los profesionales de salud, quienes pueden no estar valorando la importancia de desarrollar habilidades de comunicación para mantener una relación efectiva con sus pacientes. Abstract in english Introduction. Hypertension is an important public health problem in Colombia. One of the principal reasons for the poor effectiveness of interventions is the lack of knowledge and understanding of beliefs about this disease and its treatment. Objective. Profiles were determined for the atitudes, kno [...] wledge and beliefs of patients about antihypertensive drugs. Materials and methods. In a sample of 202 hypertensive patients from a private clinical center in Bogotá, Colombia, the beliefs, knowledge and attitudes about antihypertensive treatment was determined by the use of Morisky-Green test, and Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire. Results. Of these patients, 48% forgot to take the prescribed medication occasionally, 68% believed that if doctors had more time with patients, they will prescribe fewer medicines, and 40% did not know what physiological systems can be damaged by hypertension. Conclusion. This study reinforces the necessity of improving the communication strategies of health professionals in the support of a positive clinician-patient relationship.
Jefferson Antonio, Buendía.
Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Introdução: O aumento das IST's, da gravidez não planeada e de outros tantos riscos ligados à actividade sexual fazem com que os jovens sejam considerados um grupo de intervenção prioritário em termos de saúde sexual e reprodutiva. Para se promover atitudes e comportamentos sexuais saudáveis é essen [...] cial a concretização de uma educação sexual que tenha como objectivo desenvolver atitudes e competências nos jovens, permitindo que estes se sintam informados e seguros nas suas escolhas. Material e métodos: Este estudo (HBSC/OMS) avaliou o papel que 3331 adolescentes portugueses (1579 rapazes e 1752 raparigas), com uma média de idades de 15 anos, atribuem à educação sexual, os seus conhecimentos e atitudes face ao VIH/SIDA. Usou-se um questionário de auto-relato que foi aplicado às turmas em sala de aula. Resultados: Analisados os resultados do estudo, verificou-se que quer os factores de risco quer os de protecção em relação aos comportamentos sexuais de risco dos adolescentes são inúmeros. Conclusões: Sendo assim, é crucial que a educação sexual abranja intervenções do tipo preventivo de carácter universal, abrangendo toda a população escolar e respectivos contextos de vida: escola, família e grupo de pares, mas também intervenções mais específicas, em pequenos subgrupos identificados como prioritários. Abstract in english Introduction: Because the incidence of STI, unplanned pregnancy and several other sexual risk behaviours are increasing among youngsters, it is accepted that they are given high priority in intervention in what sexual and reproductive health is concerned. In order to promote healthy sexual attitudes [...] and behaviours, it is crucial to implement a program of sexual education that aims at developing attitudes and skills in young people, hence enabling them to make well-informed decisions and feel confident about the choices they make. Material and methods: This HBSC/WHO research evaluated the role of sexual education for Portuguese adolescents and their knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Structured self-reported questionnaires were responded within a classroom context by 3331 participants (1579 boys and 1752 girls), with an average age of 15 years. Results: The results show that there are inumerous risk and protection factors related to sex behavior. Conclusions: This suggests that sexual education should focus on preventive interventions, not only universal, including all teenagers and considering all the contexts in which they interact (the school professionals, family and peers), but also selective strategies delivered to targeted subgroups, once they are identified.
Lúcia, Ramiro; Marta, Reis; Margarida Gaspar de, Matos; José Alves, Diniz; Celeste, Simões.
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish FUNDAMENTO: Analizar los conocimientos de la población femenina de Mallorca sobre las causas del cáncer, las creencias sobre diagnóstico y tratamiento y su actitud ante la prevención. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo transversal en una muestra aleatoria de población (n=124) de mujeres entre 40 y 69 años [...] . El cuestionario recoge variables socio-demográficas, factores de riesgo, primeros síntomas, creencias sobre el diagnóstico y tratamiento y actitudes ante la prevención. RESULTADOS: El tabaco (92.7%; IC:88.1-97.3) y el alcohol (85.7%; IC:79.4-92.0) son las causas mejor identificadas. También la presencia de un bulto en un pecho (92.6%; IC:87.9-97.2) y los cambios en una mancha o verruga cutánea (89.7% ; IC:84.2-95.2%). Infravaloran el papel de la dieta (44.4%; IC:35.1-53.8) y sobrevaloran los agentes medioambientales. El conocimiento y la práctica de la autoexploración mamaria se asocian directamente con el nivel educativo (p Abstract in english BACKGROUND: To analyze the knowledge of the facts on the part of the female population of Mallorca with regard to the causes of cancer, the beliefs regarding diagnosis and treatment and their attitude toward prevention. METHODS: A descriptive cross-section study of a random population sample (n=124) [...] of women within the 40-69 age range. The questionnaire includes socio-demographic variables, risk factors, early warning symptoms and beliefs regarding diagnosis and treatment and attitudes toward prevention. RESULTS: Cigarette smoking (92.7%;CI:88.1-97.3) and drinking alcoholic (85.7%; CI:79.4-92.0) are the most well-identified causes. Also the presence of a lump in the breast (92.6%;CI:87.9-97.2) and changes in a mole or wart on the skin (89.7% ; CI:84.2-95.2%). The underestimate the role of the diet (44.4%; CI:35.1-53.8) and overestimate the environmental factors. The knowledge and use of self-examination procedures on the breast are associated directly with the degree of education (p
Elena, Cabeza; Gustavo, Catalán; Antoni, Avellà; Joan, Llobera; Onofre, Pons.
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish FUNDAMENTO: Analizar los conocimientos de la población femenina de Mallorca sobre las causas del cáncer, las creencias sobre diagnóstico y tratamiento y su actitud ante la prevención. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo transversal en una muestra aleatoria de población (n=124) de mujeres entre 40 y 69 años [...] . El cuestionario recoge variables socio-demográficas, factores de riesgo, primeros síntomas, creencias sobre el diagnóstico y tratamiento y actitudes ante la prevención. RESULTADOS: El tabaco (92.7%; IC:88.1-97.3) y el alcohol (85.7%; IC:79.4-92.0) son las causas mejor identificadas. También la presencia de un bulto en un pecho (92.6%; IC:87.9-97.2) y los cambios en una mancha o verruga cutánea (89.7% ; IC:84.2-95.2%). Infravaloran el papel de la dieta (44.4%; IC:35.1-53.8) y sobrevaloran los agentes medioambientales. El conocimiento y la práctica de la autoexploración mamaria se asocian directamente con el nivel educativo (p Abstract in english BACKGROUND: To analyze the knowledge of the facts on the part of the female population of Mallorca with regard to the causes of cancer, the beliefs regarding diagnosis and treatment and their attitude toward prevention. METHODS: A descriptive cross-section study of a random population sample (n=124) [...] of women within the 40-69 age range. The questionnaire includes socio-demographic variables, risk factors, early warning symptoms and beliefs regarding diagnosis and treatment and attitudes toward prevention. RESULTS: Cigarette smoking (92.7%;CI:88.1-97.3) and drinking alcoholic (85.7%; CI:79.4-92.0) are the most well-identified causes. Also the presence of a lump in the breast (92.6%;CI:87.9-97.2) and changes in a mole or wart on the skin (89.7% ; CI:84.2-95.2%). The underestimate the role of the diet (44.4%; CI:35.1-53.8) and overestimate the environmental factors. The knowledge and use of self-examination procedures on the breast are associated directly with the degree of education (p
Elena, Cabeza; Gustavo, Catalán; Antoni, Avellà; Joan, Llobera; Onofre, Pons.
Teaching evolution has been shown to be a challenge for faculty, in both K-12 and postsecondary education. Many of these challenges stem from perceived conflicts not only between religion and evolution, but also faculty beliefs about religion, it's compatibility with evolutionary theory, and it's proper role in classroom curriculum. Studies suggest that if educators engage with students' religious beliefs and identity, this may help students have positive attitudes towards evolution. The aim of this study was to reveal attitudes and beliefs professors have about addressing religion and providing religious scientist role models to students when teaching evolution. 15 semi-structured interviews of tenured biology professors were conducted at a large Midwestern universiy regarding their beliefs, experiences, and strategies teaching evolution and particularly, their willingness to address religion in a class section on evolution. Following a qualitative analysis of transcripts, professors did not agree on whether or not it is their job to help students accept evolution (although the majority said it is not), nor did they agree on a definition of "acceptance of evolution". Professors are willing to engage in students' religious beliefs, if this would help their students accept evolution. Finally, professors perceived many challenges to engaging students' religious beliefs in a science classroom such as the appropriateness of the material for a science class, large class sizes, and time constraints. Given the results of this study, the author concludes that instructors must come to a consensus about their goals as biology educators as well as what "acceptance of evolution" means, before they can realistically apply the engagement of student's religious beliefs and identity as an educational strategy.
Barnes, Maryann Elizabeth
Genetic susceptibility testing for common diseases is expanding, but little is known about race group differences in test perceptions. The purpose of this study was to examine differences between African Americans and Whites in knowledge, attitudes, and motivations regarding genetic susceptibility testing for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Before enrolling in an AD genetic testing research trial, 313 first-degree relatives of AD patients (20% African American; 71% female; mean age = 58 years) we...
Akinleye, Ibidapo; Roberts, J. Scott; Royal, Charmaine D. M.; Linnenbringer, Erin; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Fasaye, Grace-ann; Green, Robert C.
This study consists of the analysis on the relationship between the epistemological beliefs of secondary level students and their attitudes towards studying. The sampling of the study was formed by 440 students studying at Grade 10, 11 and 12 in secondary schools. The Epistemological Belief Questionnaire and the Attitudes towards Studying Scale,…
Onen, Aysem Seda
The beliefs and attitudes of teachers are an important element in the development of inclusive education and its associated practices. Teacher education is seen as crucial in helping to develop positive attitudes and beliefs that are thought to promote inclusion, although attempts to reform teacher education in order to address issues of inclusion…
Beacham, Nigel; Rouse, Martyn
The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between teachers' attitudes toward science, knowledge and beliefs about inquiry, and science classroom teaching practices. Specifically, the study addressed three questions: What are teachers' beliefs and knowledge about inquiry? What are teachers' teaching related classroom practices? Do…
Saad, Rayana; BouJaoude, Saouma
Abstract Background Generic substitution has been implemented in many countries, but knowledge about patients’ attitudes, beliefs and experiences is still sparse. Aim To assess associations between generic switching and patients’ attitudes, beliefs and experiences with previous generic switching. Design and setting A cross-sectional study comprising questionnaire responses from 2476 randomly selected patients aged 20 years or older and living in the Region of Southern Denmark, who had redeemed substitutable drugs. Methods The questionnaire included items on beliefs about medicine, views on generic medicine and confidence in the healthcare system. Only prescriptions issued by the general practitioners were included. For each patient we focused on one purchase of a generically substitutable drug (index drug). Patients were identified by means of a dispensing database. Results Earlier generic switches within the index ATC code were statistically significantly associated with experience of a generic switch (adjusted OR 5.93 95% CI 4.70; 7.49). Having had more than 5 earlier switches within other ATC codes and having negative views on generic medicines reduced the odds of experiencing a generic switch. No associations were found between generic substitution and gender, drug group, number of different drugs used by the patient, confidence in the health care system and beliefs about medicine in general. Conclusion Patients who had once experienced a generic switch were more likely to accept a future generic switch within the same ATC code. Negative views on generic medicines were negatively associated with switching, while beliefs about medicine and confidence in the healthcare system had no influence.
Østergaard Rathe, Jette; Larsen, Pia Veldt
Concern about physician impairment has resulted in increased efforts to educate physicians about its nature and scope. This study reports the results of a survey of how family physicians obtain information about impairment, which sources they value, and how exposure to impairment relates to their attitudes and beliefs. A significant association was found between involvement in group-oriented programs and recognition of risk factors unique to the profession. Important differences were found between physicians who acknowledged the role of personal vulnerability in impairment and those who attributed causality to external sources. Results also revealed that this sample of physicians was almost equally divided on whether impairment should be defined exclusively by professional conduct. PMID:1755352
Butler, D J; Wolkenstein, A S
There is increasing interest of the worldwide kidney community in home hemodialysis (HHD). This is due to emerging evidence of its superiority over conventional hemodialysis (HD), largely attributed to improved outcomes on intensive schedule HD, best deployed in patient's own homes. Despite published work in this area, universal uptake remains limited and reasons are poorly understood. All those who provide HD care were invited to participate in a survey on HHD, initiated to understand the beliefs, attitudes, and practice patterns of providers offering this therapy. The survey was developed and posted on the Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation-Educational (NDT-E) website. Two hundred and seventy-two responses were deemed suitable for complete analysis. It is apparent from the survey that there is great variability in the prevalence of HHD. Physicians have a great deal of interest in this modality, with majority viewing home as being the ideal location for the offer of intensive HD schedules (55%). A significant number (21%) feel intensive HD may be offered even outside the home setting. Those who offer this therapy do not see a financial disadvantage in it. Many units identify lack of appropriately trained personnel (35%) and funding for home adaptation (50.4%) as key barriers to widespread adoption of this therapy. Despite the interest and belief in this therapy among practitioners, HHD therapy is still not within reach of a majority of patients. Modifiable organizational, physician, and patient factors exist, which could potentially redefine the landscape of HHD provision. Well-designed systematic research of national and local barriers is needed to design interventions to help centers facilitate change. PMID:24814711
Jayanti, Anuradha; Morris, Julie; Stenvinkel, Peter; Mitra, Sandip
Although COPD is a debilitating pulmonary condition, many studies have shown awareness of the disease to be low. This article presents data on attitudes and beliefs about COPD in subjects with respiratory symptoms participating in the BREATHE study in the Middle East and North Africa region. This study was a large general population survey of COPD conducted in ten countries of the region (Algeria, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey and United Arab Emirates), together with Pakistan, using a standardised methodology. A total of 62,086 subjects were screened, of whom 2,187 fulfilled the "epidemiological" definition of COPD. A detailed questionnaire was administered to these subjects, which documented knowledge about the disease, attitudes to care, beliefs about COPD and satisfaction with treatment. 1,392 subjects were analysable. Overall, 58.6% of subjects claimed to be very well or adequately informed about their respiratory condition. Two-thirds of subjects reported receiving information about COPD from their physician and 10.6% from television; the internet was cited by 6% and other health professionals or patient associations by smoking was the cause of most cases of COPD in general, only 51% accepted that it was the cause of their own respiratory problems. Treatment satisfaction was relatively high, with 83.2% of respondents somewhat or very satisfied with their physician's management, in spite of the fact that only 47.5% considered that their physician's advice had helped them manage their respiratory symptoms a lot. In conclusion, awareness of COPD in the region is suboptimal and treatment expectations are undervalued. Better patient education and more effective patient-physician communication are clearly required. PMID:23290705
Sayiner, Abdullah; Alzaabi, Ashraf; Obeidat, Nathir M; Nejjari, Chakib; Beji, Majed; Uzaslan, Esra; Nafti, Salim; Khan, Javaid Ahmed; Tageldin, Mohamed Awad; Idrees, Majdy; Rashid, Nauman; El Hasnaoui, Abdelkader
Research has shown that negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men are common and widespread in Western societies. However, few studies have addressed attitudes toward transgender individuals. In addition, although research has shown that homophobic harassment and bullying is highly common among adolescents, little is known about adolescent's attitudes toward sexual minorities. This study aimed to fill these gaps in knowledge, by investigating adolescents' attitudes toward transgender individuals and possible attitudinal correlates of those attitudes. Participants (N?=?188; 62 males and 126 females) were recruited in high schools in Lisbon, Portugal. Age ranged from 15 to 19 years (M?=?17; SD = .96). Participants completed a questionnaire booklet measuring attitudes toward transgender individuals, lesbians, and gay men, and gender role beliefs. Results revealed that attitudes toward transgender individuals were significantly correlated with all attitude measures. Specifically, it was revealed that those participants who endorsed negative attitudes toward transgender individuals were also endorsing of negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men and tended to adhere to traditional gender roles. A significant gender effect was found with males being more negative toward sexual minorities than females, but these negative attitudes were more extreme toward gay men than toward lesbian women. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:23153027
Costa, Pedro Alexandre; Davies, Michelle
In contrast to other countries in Southeast Asia, the HIV/ AIDS epidemic is in the initial stages in Viet Nam, although the rates have increased notably since 1997. This study examined attitudes towards the use of an HIV vaccine (when one becomes available) as a means for preventing the disease. Since injecting drug users are the great majority of…
The 50-item Violence-Related Attitudes and Beliefs Scale (V-RABS) includes three subscales measuring possible causes of violent behavior (environmental influences, biological influences, and mental illness) and four subscales assessing possible controls of violent behavior (death penalty, punishment, prevention, and catharsis). Each subscale…
Brand, Pamela A.; Anastasio, Phyllis A.
Contextualizar os conhecimentos, atitudes e crenças face ao VIH/SIDA: um contributo para aperfeiçoar o caminho a percorrer / Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about HIV/AIDS: contributions for the understanding of the problem
Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Reconhecendo que a implementação de estratégias direccionadas para os mais jovens tem surgido como um vector fundamental à regressão da epidemia, o objectivo primordial deste estudo consistiu em avaliar os conhecimentos, as atitudes e as crenças face ao VIH/SIDA dos jovens do distrito de Vila Real, [...] que frequentavam os 10º, 11º e 12º anos de escolaridade e, deste modo, apresentar-se como uma contribuição para o aperfeiçoamento das intervenções preventivas. Para este propósito foi utilizada uma amostra estratificada por sexo e ano de escolaridade, constituída por 1.152 estudantes, dos quais 480 eram do sexo masculino e 672 do sexo feminino, sendo a média de idades de 16 anos. Para a recolha de dados, utilizou-se um inquérito estruturado com base nas recomendações do documento "Research Package on KABP-Knowleddge, Attitudes, Beliefs and Practices", composto por 60 perguntas agrupadas em oito blocos temáticos. Dos resultados obtidos, constatou-se que a maioria dos estudantes não referiu actividade sexual (67,7%). Dos que mencionaram já ter tido relações sexuais, 49,3%, eram do sexo masculino e 20,2% do sexo feminino. Quanto ao número de parceiros sexuais tidos durante a vida, predominou, para o sexo feminino, um parceiro sexual, enquanto para o sexo masculino mais de três parceiros sexuais. Apesar da maior parte dos estudantes ter utilizado preservativo durante as relações sexuais e ter referido conhecimentos sobre este método de prevenção, foi de sublinhar que alguns não referiram a sua utilização (14,5%). Uma apreciação global, quanto aos conhecimentos sobre VIH/SIDA, apontou para um bom nível de conhecimentos, merecendo alguma atenção as questões relativas à possibilidade de identificação dos indivíduos infectados através do seu aspecto físico e ao facto de as pessoas portadoras do vírus padecerem da doença, cuja percentagem de respostas incorrectas foi considerável. Os estudantes revelaram uma subvalorização do risco, com apenas 46,3% a admitir alguma possibilidade de contágio, sendo os estudantes do sexo masculino e os que tinham conhecimentos sobre SIDA a admitirem em média uma maior possibilidade de contágio. A maioria dos estudantes referiu uma percepção de ameaça grave para a saúde, reconheceu que não existe possibilidade de cura e que a maior parte das pessoas serão vítimas da doença. Como nota de síntese, queremos sublinhar o valor inegável da Promoção da Saúde em contexto escolar, como forma de assegurar o desenvolvimento saudável dos jovens, quando tem como pressupostos estruturantes o processo de capacitação do ser humano para agir e intervir no decurso da sua vida. Abstract in english Recognizing that the implementation of strategies guided for the more youth has been appearing as a fundamental vector to the regression of the epidemic, the primordial main of this study consisted of evaluating the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about HIV/AIDS, of the youth of the district of Vil [...] a Real, that attend the 10th, 11th and 12th grade, and this way, to present as a contribution for the improvement of the preventive interventions. For that purpose a sample was used stratified by sex and year of education, constituted by 1.152 students, of which 480 were male and 672 female, being the average of 16 year-old ages. For the collection of data an inquiry was used structured on the basis of the recommendations of the document "Research Package on KABP ?Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs and Practices", composed by 60 questions, grouped in eight thematic blocks. From the obtained results it was verified that most of the students didn’t refer sexual activity (67.7%). Of the students that mentioned to have already had sexual relationships, 49.3%, are male and 20.2% female. As for the number of sexual partners they had, for the feminine sex, a sexual partner prevailed, while for the masculine sex prevailed more than three sexual partners. In spite of most of the stu
Maria João, Monteiro; José, Vasconcelos-Raposo.
Full Text Available Purpose: For intervention to be effective, it is essential that the knowledge, beliefs and perception of a specific social group are taken into account. This is particularly true of leprosy where the problems of social stigma and ostracism are more prominent than the disease itself. There are many misconceptions about the cause, methods of transmission, and treatment. The main objectives of the study were to examine the socio-demographic profile of persons with leprosy and to explore their knowledge, beliefs and perception about the disease and its initial symptoms, within a specific socio-cultural milieu. Method: Semi-structured interviews were held with a persons with leprosy at various clinics and care-homes for affected persons in and around Chandigarh, India. Those who had completed their treatment and those who were still undergoing treatment were included in the study. Data collection was done through case studies and in-depth interviews. Results: The name of the disease varied across different geo-cultural zones. Many respondents who were afflicted with only red patches and had no ulcers, believed that they suffered from a skin disease which would turn into leprosy if proper medication was not received. The perception of 64.9 % of the respondents was that leprosy resulted from supernatural causes like God’s punishment, karma, and sin. Conclusion: There is a need to educate persons with leprosy and their families about the etiology of the disease.
We have begun a mixed methods study that uses longitudinal and interview data to inform our understanding of student's beliefs and attitudes about the role of science within our society and their understanding of the nature of science within the context of astronomy. We are also seeking the input of the broader Astro 101 teaching community about their own beliefs and attitudes about what is important for students to understand about science and its role in society. The results of this work will be used to inform the development of a multiple-choice pre-/post-assessment instrument designed to determine how different instructional environments change students' beliefs and attitudes as a result of an introductory astronomy course. We describe specific attitudinal categories that the survey questions are being designed to address. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program, and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Education and Public Outreach Program.
Cormier, Sebastien; Prather, E. E.; Brissenden, G.; Impey, C.; CATS
Teachers face a seemingly insurmountable task when asked to address the science of climate change with the general public. This topic is unique because of its complexity, political implications and urgency for action. Developing tools that teachers need to address the National Science Standards begin with comprehensive professional development. After one year's implementation of our program (after participation in UCAR's NASA-funded Research Experiences for Teachers Institute), we are beginning to see evidence that with intentional delivery and preparation of climate science curriculum it is possible to combine knowledge and beliefs in order to nurture a desire for action. Teachers need to acquire an appreciation and understanding for the level of connectedness between disciplines used to study climate and repeatedly present the scientific process as a way of gathering evidence to arrive at factual conclusions. This emphasis on scientific process is important in dealing with the difference between personal beliefs and knowledge. In students' everyday lives their beliefs often matter much more to them than scientific facts. Today's media frequently gives opinions as much clout as verifiable data. Therefore, science teachers need to become anthropologists in order to navigate between cultures, traditions, economic realities and foundational beliefs to effect a change in attitude. Climate change affects us all whether we like it or not, and the challenge is finding a personal connection for each student that supports their journey instead of polarizing each other into the "believers" and "non-believers". It is important to listen to those whose worldview is not best explained by science in order to address the problem with the least resistance. At the end of a program that implemented techniques described above the student's overwhelming response was not: "climate change is a hoax" but instead "ok, I get it, NOW WHAT?" This is the million-dollar question that we strive to be asked and struggle to answer. We can get the student's attention but keeping them active in the pursuit of change is our next hurdle. Initial results are available in the form of case studies including pre and post attitudes about this global issue.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the knowledge and beliefs about malaria transmission and practices for vector control in eight villages on the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted during May and June 1995 in Chiapas, Mexico. A questionnaire to investigate family structure, knowledge on malaria transmission, preventive measures and attitudes towards seeking treatment was applied to both family heads of a sample of households. Associations wer...
Rodríguez Américo David; Penilla Rosa Patricia; Henry-Rodríguez Mario; Hemingway Janet; Betanzos Angel Francisco; Hernández-Avila Juan Eugenio
Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…
Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.
Full Text Available Introduction Poor knowledge of and negative attitudes toward available screening tests may account in part for colorectal cancer screening rates being the lowest among 17 quality measures reported for the Department of Veterans Affairs health care system, the largest integrated health system in the United States. The purpose of this study was to develop a brief assessment tool to evaluate knowledge and attitudes among veterans toward colorectal cancer screening options. Methods A 44-item questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about colorectal cancer and screening and was then administered as part of an ongoing randomized controlled trial among 388 veterans receiving care in a general medicine clinic. Sixteen candidate items on colorectal cancer knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs were selected for further evaluation using principal components analysis. Two sets of items were then further analyzed. Results Because the Cronbach a for beliefs was low (a = 0.06, the beliefs subscale was deleted from further consideration. The final scale consisted of seven items: a four-item attitude subscale (a = 0.73 and a three-item knowledge subscale (a = 0.59. Twelve-month follow-up data were used to evaluate predictive validity; improved knowledge and attitudes were significantly associated with completion of flexible sigmoidoscopy (P = .004 and completion of either flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (P = .02. Conclusion The two-factor scale offers a parsimonious and reliable measure of colorectal cancer screening knowledge and attitudes among veterans. This colorectal Cancer Screening Survey (CSS may especially be useful as an evaluative tool in developing and testing of interventions designed to improve screening rates within this population.
Franklin Medio, PhD
Objective: This study examined bicycle helmet attitudes and practices of college undergraduates and developed the Bicycle Helmet Attitudes Scale, which was guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM; Rosenstock, 1974, in Becker MH, ed. "The Health Belief Model and Personal Health Behavior". Thorofare, NJ: Charles B. Slack; 1974:328-335) to predict…
Ross, Thomas P.; Ross, Lisa Thomson; Rahman, Annalise; Cataldo, Shayla
Prior empirical studies in the implementation of general information technologies (IT) have revealed that IT adoption and usage were determined by user beliefs and attitudes. However, little is known about how user beliefs and attitudes form and change over time. To address these issues, this paper reports a study of 481 inexperienced and 120…
Lau, Siong-Hoe; Woods, Peter C.
The goal of the current study was to develop and validate a self-report questionnaire of preschool teachers' attitudes and beliefs toward science. In preparation for the current study, the research team developed the Preschool Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs toward Science Questionnaire (P-TABS). The sample consists of 507 teachers: 98% female,…
Maier, Michelle F.; Greenfield, Daryl B.; Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca
While teacher's cognitive skills are described with epistemological beliefs, the attitudes towards their profession, teaching styles and disciplinary actions are mainly associated with their educational beliefs. This study aiming to determine the effect of relation between candidate teachers' educational and epistemological beliefs on their…
Onen, Aysem Seda
There remains a great need for organ donation. Each year thousands of individuals wait for organs to be donated for transplantation. In this study, the Organ Donation Attitude Survey (ODAS) was developed. One hundred ninety undergraduate students (114 women with a mean age of 20.0 and 76 men with a mean age of 20.5 years) enrolled in general education classes at a small midwestern university participated. The present study determined that ODAS is a reliable and valid instrument to assess attitudes regarding organ donation. The data were analyzed by stepwise regression to determine which variables were related to attitudes regarding organ donation. The results indicated the impact of four variables: education regarding organ donation, knowledge of someone who had donated an organ after death, awareness of anyone who received a donated organ, and religious beliefs. These significant variables in the regression analysis explained 24.95% of the ODAS total score variability. The most important results of the present study indicated that the ODAS was psychometrically valid and it could be used to evaluate attitudes regarding organ donation. PMID:14697918
Rumsey, S; Hurford, D P; Cole, A K
Patients with chronic low back pain (LBP) hold various knowledge, perceptions and beliefs about their pain which are based on prior learning and social conditions. Since LBP is a bio- psycho-social phenomenon and there are not any reports about awareness and attitude of Iranian patients’ views regarding it, this descriptive study was employed to earn this information P to apply its results in health education planning. For data gathering, deeply interviewing with 24 patients were performed....
Ss, Tavafian; Eftekhar, H.; Mohammad, K.; Ar, Jamshidi; Assasi, N.; Shojaeezadeh, D.; Ghofranipour, F.
Full Text Available Background: Epileptics are often socially discriminated due to the negative public attitudes, misconceptions and false beliefs. Thus, the main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy among Malaysian Chinese.Methods: A cross-sectional study by using a 23-item validated, self-administered questionnaire was carried out in urban areas, selected through stratified sampling. A Chinese population was randomly selected in the stratified areas of Penang, Ipoh, Klang valley, and Kuala Lumpur and was asked to complete the questionnaire.Results: Among 382 (74.6% respondents, 16.2% believed that epilepsy is a type of mental illness. Majority (90.8% accepted that epileptics can become useful members of the society however, only 16% agreed to marry them. About 57% of respondents recognised epilepsy as nervous system problem. Significant relationships between education level and statements such as, epileptics are as intelligent as everyone else (p=0.009, epilepsy can be successfully treated with drugs (p=0.037 and epileptics can be successful in their chosen career (p=0.009, were found.Conclusions: The general Chinese population in the selected areas of peninsular Malaysia had relatively good knowledge and positive attitudes toward certain aspects of epilepsy at the time of the investigation. However, minority of the study participants demonstrated prejudice and discriminatory behaviour towards people with epilepsy.
The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology and its various applications. In addition, whether students' knowledge and attitudes differed according to age and gender were also explored. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and the Biotechnology Attitude…
Ozel, Murat; Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol
Understanding the factors that influence health beliefs, attitudes, and service use among Haitians in the United States is increasingly important for this growing population. We undertook a qualitative analysis to explore the factors related to cancer screening and utilization of health services among Haitians in Boston. Key informant interviews (n=42) and nine focus groups (n=78) revealed that Haitians experience unique barriers to health services. These include language barriers, unfamiliarity with preventive care, confidentiality concerns, mistrust and stigma concerning Western medicine, and a preference for natural remedies. Results suggest that many Haitians could benefit from health system navigation assistance, and highlight the need for comprehensive, rather than disease-focused programs, to decrease stigma and increase programmatic reach. Faith-based organizations, social service agencies, and Haitian media were identified as promising channels for disseminating health information. Leveraging positive cultural traditions and existing communication networks could increase the impact of Haitian health initiatives. PMID:23377722
Allen, Jennifer D; Mars, Dana R; Tom, Laura; Apollon, Guy; Hilaire, Dany; Iralien, Gerald; Cloutier, Lindsay B; Sheets, Margaret M; Zamor, Riché
This descriptive study explored the influence of specific geriatric knowledge on second and third year nursing students in their provision of care to older adults. Nineteen student participants provided qualitative data on their values and beliefs about nursing older adults prior to their attendance at a 1-h session teaching about two assessment tools: SPICES (Sleep disorders, Problems with feeding, Incontinence, Confusion, Evidence of falls, Skin breakdown) and BPI-SF (Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form). Data were again collected following a 6-week practice experience in which the same students had the opportunity to implement the tools. Four emerging themes, beliefs, knowledge, attitudes, and application, suggested how the students' geriatric knowledge and attitudes evolved and took on personal meaning in their intermediate practice experiences. Their realization of the hegemony associated with devaluing of the care of older adults warrants further examination into how geriatric knowledge is conveyed and assimilated. PMID:23465846
Potter, Gail; Clarke, Tammie; Hackett, Susan; Little, Maureen
Community knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices are essential in any diarrhoea research. This cross-sectional study addresses these questions ill a semi-urban community in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The study included 344 subjects and 276 controls v/’ all age groups. Most people had reasonable knowledge of diarrhoea. Mothers o/’ children with diarrhoea continued to fired them during the attack. However, some community practices were found to be harmful. The majority of di...
Bella, Hassan; Ai-freihi, Hussein; El-mousan, Mohammed; Danso, Kingsley Twum; Sohaibani, Mohamed; Khazindar, Ms Samar
Full Text Available Background & Aim: Inter-partner relationships as part of a somatic-affective interaction have important role in supporting of familial relations. In this regard, knowledge of couples about their specific role against their spouses and the ways of having correct sexual relationship is essential. This correct knowledge might help spouses to understand their husband/wife and would promote family's cultural status and would be transmitted to next generations. This study carried out to determine the knowledge level and beliefs of couples attending marriage counseling centers toward correct sexual relationships. Methods & Materials: This is a cross-sectional study. A total of 300 individuals (150 couples, attending marriage counseling centers in the north and east of Tehran recruited for the study using random selection method. Data were collected using a questionnaire including knowledge and beliefs assessment questions. Results: Mean knowledge score for men and women were 12.3±2.5 and 10.1±1.8, respectively (P=0.23. Knowledge level of participants with higher education (P=0.00; and those aged 25-29 years (P=0.65 were higher than others. 11.3% of women and 13.1% of men did not have appropriate attitudes toward correct sexual relationships (P=0.35.Conclusion: Although knowledge level of respondents was just above the half of the complete score, the overall beliefs toward sexual relationships were positive.
Human organ transplantation is an important treatment for certain medical conditions, and for irreversible organ failure. There is a shortfall in the number of organs required for transplantation. The close and continuous proximity of nurses to potential donors and their families make them critical links in the organ donation process. Therefore, success in organ procurement may depend on nurses' awareness and integration of knowledge about donotransplantation (the process of organ/tissue donation and transplantation). Postal questionnaires were distributed throughout the United Kingdom (UK) to 2465 registered nurses, to assess their personal attitudes, knowledge and behaviour regarding cadaveric donotransplantation. One thousand, three hundred and thirty-three questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 54%. Overall, nurses held positive attitudes to donotransplantation, with 78% agreeing with organ donation and only 10% clearly being opposed. However, nurses were found to share ambivalent attitudes of altruism and fear which appear to surround decisions about donation. Factor analysis was used to further explore nurses' attitude structure. Six factors were confirmed providing a non-significant likelihood ratio fit (P = 0.468) and a well reproduced correlation matrix. The factors related to: (1) the value and contribution made by donotransplantation; (2) the unique idea of having another's tissue in one's own body; (3) the importance of organ donation; (4) the individual's moral, and nurses' professional rejection of the responsibility for organ/tissue donation; (5) the post-mortem mutilation of the body; and, (6) the potential distress donation may cause a bereaved family. Comparisons were made between certain of nurses' specialist groups and significant differences were found. Comparisons of factor scores between certain specialist groups or other strata were assessed by analysis of variance. Nurses working in renal units were significantly more in favour of donotransplantation than any other group of nurses. PMID:10641806
Sque, M; Payne, S; Vlachonikolis, I
How do teachers’ attitudes and beliefs impact how HIV/AIDS education is implemented in Kenyan schools for the deaf? How do these attitudes and beliefs reflect how teachers think about Deafness? While there is extensive literature exploring in-school HIV/AIDS-related education in East Africa, there are few studies focusing on segregated schools for the deaf. There are also few studies exploring how educators think about Deafness as culture in this region. Western Kenya offers a ...
Biggs, Nalini Asha; Mills, David
OBJECTIVES: To survey surgeons on their beliefs and attitudes towards the use of placebo in surgery. METHODS: British orthopedic shoulder surgeons, attending a national conference in the United Kingdom, were asked to complete a self-report online questionnaire about their beliefs and attitudes towards the use of placebo related to surgical intervention. The survey included questions about ethical issues, the mechanism of placebo effects, and any concerns regarding its use. RESULTS: 100 surgeo...
Wartolowska, K.; Beard, Dj; Carr, Aj
A survey of 190 Israeli nursing students found that just over half were opposed to legalization of physician-assisted dying. Exposure to theory about euthanasia or clinical oncology experience had a small effect on these attitudes. Religious beliefs and degree of religiosity were significant determinants of these attitudes. (Contains 23…
Margalith, Ilana; Musgrave, Catherine F.; Goldschmidt, Lydia
Introduction. Ability and readiness to talk with patients about sexual problems not only depend on education in sexual physiology and pathology, but also on the doctors’ beliefs and attitudes towards sexuality. Considering importance of these matters, the authors decided to collect and evaluate the data regarding attitudes and cognitive schemata of medical students. Aim. Analysis of selected convictions and attitudes towards sex life of IV-th grade students of medicine. Methods. There was s...
Mu?ldner-nieckowski, ?ukasz; Soban?ski, Jerzy A.; Klasa, Katarzyna; Dembin?ska, Edyta; Rutkowski, Krzysztof
Sixty-one noninstitutionalized and 61 institutionalized educable mentally retarded adolescents were psychometrically assessed on three measures: sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and self-concept. (Author)
Hall, Judy E.; Morris, Helen L.
This talk presents findings related to our ongoing work investigating students' knowledge and attitudes towards science and technology. We present an overview of research studies and findings including a comparison of the science literacy measures of University of Arizona students compared to national studies, conceptions related to astrology, views of radiation, and students' pseudoscience and religious beliefs. We discuss implications for instructors and researchers interested in improving students' science literacy scores and diagnosing alternative beliefs.
Impey, C.; Buxner, S.; Antonellis, J.; CATS
Background: Epilepsy, one of the most common serious chronic brain disorders, is poorly understood by the public and has been associated with numerous misconceptions and beliefs. This, coupled with its sometimes dramatic clinical manifestations, has often resulted in a strong social stigma.Objective: This study was conducted to find out knowledge, attitudes and practices toward epilepsy among preparatory school students in Mekelle, North Ethiopia.Methods: A semi-structured questionnaire used ...
Mulat Gedefa; Tesfaye Wolde; Gebremedhin Solomon
In this study, preservice teachers' demographic variables such as race, innercity program experiences, religious affiliation, and cross-cultural friendships are examined to see if they influence the preservice teachers' beliefs on issues of diversity. The data are from a Personal Beliefs About Diversity Scale and a Professional Beliefs About…
Dedeoglu, Hakan; Lamme, Linda L.
Theoretical treatments on the issue of conceptual change have paid little attention to the distinction between acquiring knowledge that conflicts with prior beliefs and revising prior beliefs in light of that new knowledge. Models of conceptual change that fail to make the knowledge-belief distinction can produce faulty predictions and interpretations, and prevent us from discovering the factors that independently impact knowledge acquisition and belief revision. Beliefs vary widely in whether they are based in coherence with known evidence and conceptual representations versus their promotion of affective values and goals. Study 1 provided empirical demonstrations of the prevalence of affect-based beliefs, the high degree of both between- and within-person variability in belief basis, and the validity of self-reports in assessing that variation. Study 2 supported present arguments about why the popular educational constructs of personal epistemology are not useful for understanding the evidence-affect basis of beliefs. This variability in belief basis represents variability in the coherence and specificity of the conceptual structure underlying different beliefs. Thus, the effects of prior beliefs on knowledge acquisition and subsequent belief revision may depend upon the underlying evidence-affect basis of prior beliefs. Study 1 provided data suggesting that belief revision is a separate process and not a mere by-product of acquiring belief-conflicting knowledge, and that revision is less likely when prior beliefs are initially held for affective reasons. Study 3 supported current predictions that comprehension of belief-conflicting and belief-consistent information is better when prior beliefs are evidence- rather than affect-based. In addition, the comprehension of belief-conflicting and belief-consistent information was equivalent. The widespread, but previously untested, assumption that prior beliefs impede the learning of belief-conflicting information may result from the failure to distinguish between revising prior beliefs and the comprehension anomalous information.
Griffin, Thomas D.
Background: Prostate cancer has been reported as the second leading cause of cancer death and the most common cancer diagnosed in men. Since Health Belief Model (HBM) has been intensively used for assessing health beliefs associated with cancer screening behaviors, we aimed to investigate the level of knowledge and health beliefs about prostate cancer screening among retired men.
Ghodsbin, Fariba; Zare, Maryam; Jahanbin, Iran; Ariafar, Ali; Keshavarzi, Sareh
Full Text Available Patients with chronic low back pain (LBP hold various knowledge, perceptions and beliefs about their pain which are based on prior learning and social conditions. Since LBP is a bio- psycho-social phenomenon and there are not any reports about awareness and attitude of Iranian patients’ views regarding it, this descriptive study was employed to earn this information P to apply its results in health education planning. For data gathering, deeply interviewing with 24 patients were performed. Volunteer patients were from Rheumatology Research Center of Tehran University of Medical Science from July 1st to Sep 1st 2003 who had inclusive criteria such as: 18 years old or more, suffering from LBP more than 90 d and not having experience of surgical operation in last two years. Interviews were individually held at rheumatic disease center which was convenient to the participants and were being continued to earn data saturation regarding patient’s knowledge, perception and belief about LBP. The findings showed that the most popular risky behavior for LBP was hard manual activities, also this study revealed that knowledge of the patients about LBP and its risk factors was little and LBP was not understood by the majority of patients (74%.Only a few people (11% believed risk factors and risky behaviors could deteriorate it. From this study it can be concluded that health educators should emphasize on perception and attitude of the patients regarding LBP for changing behavior and complying of recommended body mechanics.
The present study adds to the evolving literature on green consumer behavior by examining through statistically robust methods the effect and interrelationships of the key constructs of environmental concern, consumer environmental knowledge, beliefs about biofuels, and behavioral intention (i.e., willingness to use and pay) in the context of biofuels. Data were collected through a survey of 1695 respondents. Hypotheses are based on a literature review and a pilot study, and the conceptual structural model developed is tested through structural equation modeling. Results show that concern for the environment has a positive and direct impact on environmental knowledge, beliefs, and behavioral intention. Also, demographics determine levels of concern for the environment and environmental knowledge. All constructs associate positively with one another delineating that the interdependencies between them are important when accounting for environmental behavior. Future research should validate present results with the use of cross-cultural samples and investigate whether environmental concern increases due to social desirability response bias.
Pagiaslis, Anastasios; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios
We live in a time where there is an increasing emphasis on environmental attitudes and interest in the environment and organisms. Toads and other amphibians are animals which children consider to be some of the most disgusting animals. Before teachers can take measures to protect amphibians, they have to find out about the students' attitudes towards and knowledge of these animals. The purpose of our research was to find out how the attitudes towards toads and the knowledge of amphibians was...
Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these…
Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.
This study surveyed over 400 individuals attending jury duty regarding various perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs they had concerning psychopathic personality (psychopathy). The protocol included (a) prototype ratings of what participants considered to be core features, using the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP) prototype rating scale; (b) questions concerning knowledge and beliefs about psychopathy (e.g., prevalence in society); and (c) attitudinal scales concerning potential associated features (e.g., criminality, rehabilitation potential), etiological underpinnings, and moral judgments and legal sanctions. Consistent with results of earlier studies using expert raters, jury panel members rated most of the 33 individual CAPP items and all 6 CAPP scales as at least moderately prototypical, with Self and Dominance domains obtaining the highest mean ratings. Many participants also strongly endorsed symptoms of psychosis (e.g., delusions) as prototypical of psychopathy. Despite this, they viewed psychopaths as responsible for their own actions, as capable of determining right from wrong, and as generally not "insane." Our findings indicate that jury panel members view the prototypical psychopath as highly dominant, self-focused, and lacking in remorse and empathy and reinforce the need for expert witnesses to clearly differentiate between psychopathy and psychotic-spectrum disorders. PMID:24933174
Smith, Shannon Toney; Edens, John F; Clark, John; Rulseh, Allison
Using survey data from the 2008 election cycle, this article updates and extends analysis of public attitudes regarding various aspects of homosexuality. Continued expansion of public belief in a biological root to homosexuality is found, and variations in such opinions are explored. Public attitudes toward the emerging issue of gay adoption is also examined, finding both similarities with and important differences from attitudes toward same-sex civil unions, although both are profoundly influenced by underlying attitudes regarding the causes of homosexuality. PMID:24325311
Overby, L Marvin
We are creating a mixed-methods study to inform our understanding of students' beliefs and attitudes about the role of science within our society and their understanding of the nature of science within the context of astronomy. Additionally, we are seeking the input of the broader Astronomy 101 teaching community about their own beliefs and attitudes about what is important for students to understand about science and its role in society. The results of this work will be used to inform the development of a multiple-choice pre-/post-assessment instrument designed to determine how different instructional environments change students' beliefs and attitudes as a result of participating in an introductory astronomy course.
Mendelsohn, B.; Cormier, S.; Prather, E. E.; Brissenden, G.; Cats Collaboration
With a heightened focus on the concept of sustainability in the past few decades, government, business and individuals have become increasingly aware of the need to reduce our environmental footprint. Consequently there has been much research on consumer environmental behaviour, and the beliefs, norms and attitudes that influence this behaviour. In this article we develop a conceptual framework of consumer environmental behaviour and its antecedents, and test hypotheses within the framework by means of a survey of green consumers. The results show that general environmental beliefs do influence norms on environmental actions and prices, but only norms on price are correlated with environmental attitudes; both intrinsic and extrinsic environmental drivers together with social norms and community influence are associated with environmental attitudes, but cost barriers may have a negative influence. It was also found that there was a strong association between environmental attitudes and energy saving behaviours but the latter was not in any way influenced by government policies or subsidies. - Highlights: ? We model consumer environmental behaviour and its antecedents. ? Environmental beliefs influence environmental norms on actions and prices. ? Environmental price norms are correlated with environmental attitudes. ? Environmental drivers, social norms and community influence are associated with attitudes. ? Strong association found between environmental attifound between environmental attitudes and behaviour.
Limited data exist regarding community attitudes and knowledge about clinical depression in rural India. We administered 159 questionnaires and 7 focus groups to Gujarati villagers to explore knowledge and beliefs about clinical depression. Quantitative data were analyzed for frequencies, nonparametric correlations, and principal components, whereas qualitative data were coded for prominent themes. Two groups of subjects emerged from our analysis: one "medically oriented" group that viewed depression as a medical condition and expressed optimism regarding its prognosis and one "spiritually oriented" group that expressed pessimism. Correlations emerged between etiological belief, degree of optimism, and associated stigma. The subjects were pessimistic when they attributed depression to a traumatic event, punishment from God, or brain disease but optimistic when depression was attributed to socioeconomic circumstances. Overall, the subjects were knowledgeable and open-minded toward depression and demonstrated curiosity and willingness to learn more. This study will help to inform future clinical and educational outreach in rural Gujarat. PMID:25275344
Liu, Michelle C; Tirth, Seth; Appasani, Raghu; Shah, Sandip; Katz, Craig L
This small-scale exploratory study investigated a group of French university students' beliefs about the English language and English language learning, and the impact these beliefs had on the learners' L2 attitudes and motivation. The study employed a three-phased research paradigm. The first phase consisted of a mind-showering activity and group discussions, which aimed to elicit the initial information. The second phase comprised a questionnaire whose items were formulated by using the inf...
Background: Research has suggested that patients and treatment providers hold different beliefs and models of obesity. This could impact consistency and quality of interventions for weight management. This study investigated the attitudes and beliefs of health professionals, commercial weight management advisors (expert patients) and overweight and obese dieters, towards obesity. Methods: Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire from 287 health professionals, 85 expert pati...
Mcconnon, A.; Gribble, R.; Raats, Mm; Stubbs, J.; Shepherd, R.
This study investigated the relationship between students' beliefs about knowledge and learning, and operations they used to study a text. Specifically, it examined the relationships among students' beliefs about knowledge and learning, their selection of learning tactics, their metacognitive processes, and achievement. Moreover, this study assessed the hierarchical structure of beliefs by investigating students' beliefs about knowledge and learning and their effect on students' learning at t...
Climate literacy is evolving as a specific subset of science and environmental literacy. Through a longitudinal analysis of environmental autobiographies of an internationally and religiously diverse group of environmental sciences majors at a Historically Black College or University (HBCU) in the southern U.S., this presentation will explore: 1) sources and impact of religious beliefs on students' environmental worldview; 2) conflicts between religious, community and scientific values; and 3) navigating the tensions between trust in a religious deity as well as scientific methods and processes. Lester Milbrath states that "beliefs empower and deceive us." The media, as well as significant people and institutions, including religious institutions, socialize us and contribute to individual and societal worldviews. "We so thoroughly accept our culture's beliefs about how the world works that we hardly ever think about them even though they underlie everything we think and do." Beliefs, attitudes, and values comprise an important component of environmental literacy, a praxis-oriented concept from the field of environmental education, which is defined as: [T]he capacity to perceive and interpret the relative health of environmental systems and take appropriate action to maintain, restore, or improve the health of those systems . . . Environmental literacy should be defined in terms of observable behaviors. (Disinger and Roth 1992, 2). Environmental literacy draws upon six areas: environmental sensitivity; knowledge; skills; beliefs, attitudes and values; personal investment and responsibility; and active involvement. It involves particular ways of thinking, acting, and valuing (Roth 1992). Religious beliefs, or lack thereof, shape worldviews, thereby influencing individual and societal environmental and more specifically, climate literacy. For example, Western Christianity espouses a hierarchical anthropocentric worldview, putting God infinitely above human beings, and human beings above nature. The creation stories of Genesis have been used both implicitly and explicitly to justify domination and exploitation of the earth and its resources. Autobiographies may be used as a reflective pedagogical tool to help students to identify various components of their respective environmental worldviews that may influence their overall environmental and climate literacy. Narrative responses to guiding questions prompt students to reflect on beliefs, trust, and values. This research will inform the development of culturally relevant and scientifically sound approaches to climate change education.
Owens, M. A.
Full Text Available Consanguineous marriages are traditionally favoured in most of Asian and African countries especially in the Muslim countries. However, it is apparent that these kinds of marriage are a major factor of some genetic disorders inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Although there is a long history of consanguineous marriage in Iran, the information on its prevalence is too poor. The aim of this study was to define the frequency of consanguineous marriage in Mashhad City, Khorasan Province, Iran as well as its correlations to the youths’ attitude and their knowledge about the genetic consequences of inbreeding. The concerning information was obtained by administration of a direct questionnaire including 50 open and closed questions. The subjects were 500 young people (with a mean age of 21.4 yr who were selected during a quota sampling. The results of this study revealed that most of the youth did not have favorable information about the consequences of genetic disorders of inbreeding. There was a higher rate of consanguinity in the rural rather than the urban population. The traditional beliefs and the authority of the parents who had also experienced consanguineous marriage were other predominating factors of inbreeding.
Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of knowledge, sexual practices and attitude of medical students towards AIDS/ HIV. Objective: To assess the knowledge, sexual practices and attitudes of medical students in relation to HIV/AIDS. Study Design: Cross- sectional. Participants: 409 first year medical students. Study variables: Sex knowledge, sexual practices, Attitudes, Risk perception. Results: 92% of the students had heard about AIDS predominantly through mass media. Many students had misconception about transmission of HIV infection should not be allowed to work in the clinic or hospital. 36% of male and 9% of female students admitted indulging in safe sexual practices mostly with their friends.
Amalraj Edwin R
The purpose of this dissertation was to assess K-12 teachers' perceptions of knowledge, beliefs, and practices toward brain-based learning strategies, how their knowledge relates to their beliefs and practices, and how their beliefs relate to their classroom practices. This research also investigated relationships between teachers'…
Ridley, Janice Rebecca Becky
Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Abdullah A Alabdrabalnabi,2 Rehab B Albacker,3 Umar A Al-Jughaiman,4 Samar N Hassan5 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2University of Dammam, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Faisal University, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1 to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2 to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF clinic. Methods and materials: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ? 0.05. Results: A generally poor level of knowledge (59% and a neutral attitude (76% toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%, black magic (67.5%, intrauterine devices (71.3%, and contraceptive pills (42.9%. The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility treatment by 6.7% and 44.2% of IVF patients, respectively. Compared with fertile patients, IVF patients were significantly less likely to favor divorce (38.5% versus 57.6%; P = 0.001 or marriage to a second wife (62.5% versus 86.2%; P < 0.001, if the woman could not have a baby. The patients with infertility had more favorable attitudes toward fertility drugs (87.5% versus 68.4%; P = 0.003 and having a test tube baby (92.4% versus 70.3%; P < 0.001. Child adoption was accepted as an option for treatment by the majority of IVF patients (60.6% and fertile outpatients (71.5%. Alternative treatments previously practiced by the IVF patients to improve fertility include practicing Ruqia (61%, using alternative medicine (42%, engaging in physical exercise (39%, eating certain foods (22%, and quitting smoking (12%. Conclusion: These findings have implications for health care providers regarding the reluctance that couples experiencing fertility problems may have, at least initially, to accept some interventions required for the couple to conceive. Keywords: infertility, knowledge, attitude, practice, KAP, misconceptions
Beliefs and attitudes of teachers in Mumbai, India, towards children who stutter were investigated using questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Questionnaires were completed by 58 teachers, four of whom were subsequently interviewed. Results from the questionnaires showed that teachers believed that a child's environment influenced…
Pachigar, Vinati; Stansfield, Jois; Goldbart, Juliet
Since writing ability has been found to be a key indicator of school success and successful participation in the workplace, it is important for preservice teachers to receive effective preparation in the area of writing. Reflecting on personal writing experiences allows preservice teachers to examine their own attitudes and beliefs about writing…
Hall, Anna H.; Grisham-Brown, Jennifer
Uses Martin Fishbein's Theory of Reasoned Action to formulate a persuasive communication to influence unclassified U.S. college students to consider a career as a registered nurse. Finds the experimental group shows a significant positive change in beliefs, attitudes, and intentions, unlike the control group exposed to a neutral message only. (NL)
Strader, Marlene K.; Katz, Barry M.
Full Text Available Objective: The development of effective psychoeducational programs for the management of schizophrenia requires an understanding of attitudes towards and beliefs about the disorder in families of affected probands. In order to establish the need for adaptation of Western psychoeducational programs, these variables were investigated in Xhosa speaking families in South Africa. Design: Xhosa speaking family members of patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia were recruited on a voluntary basis, and interviewed with a structured belief and attitudes questionnaire adapted from previous studies in the West. Setting: The study population was drawn from both urban and rural Xhosa communities in South Africa. Subjects: 100 Xhosa speaking family members participated in the study. Results: Family members most often recommended treatment with psychotropic medications (88% and traditional healers (32%, and least often recommended psychotherapy (4% and meditation (1%. Of the respondents who recommended traditional healing methods, 92% also recommended simultaneous use of allopathic treatment. Conclusion: Attitudes towards and beliefs about schizophrenia in family members of patients with schizophrenia may differ substantially from those described in previous work in the West. An understanding of local attitudes and beliefs is crucial for the successful development of local psychoeducational programs.
The Theory of Planned Behavior was used as a framework for investigating recreationists' attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral control beliefs pertaining to behaviors that reduce the spread of invasive species. A series of focus groups comprised of gardeners, fishers, hunters, and boaters was convened in Oregon, USA. Findings indicate six…
Prinbeck, Gwenn; Lach, Denise; Chan, Samuel
Students from introductory speech classes at the University of Illinois and Parkland Community College were asked to list their attitudes about four groups: businessmen, farmers, politicians, and war protesters. The strengths of those beliefs were evaluated via seven internal semantic differential scales. The sum of the scales served as a first…
Epstein, Steven L.
Although the language teaching profession has long emphasized the use of the target language in the classroom, student teachers face various challenges in their efforts to conduct class in their target language. This case study focused on 10 student teachers with respect to (1) their initial attitudes and beliefs about using the target language,…
Bateman, Blair E.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of case-based learning instruction over traditionally designed chemistry instruction on eleventh grade students' epistemological beliefs and their attitudes toward chemistry as a school subject. The subjects of this study consisted of 63 eleventh grade students from two intact classes…
Cam, Aylin; Geban, Omer
This article presents exploratory research investigating the integration of music and a mathematics lesson as an intervention to promote preservice teachers' attitude and confidence and to extend their beliefs toward teaching mathematics integrated with music. Thirty students were randomly selected from 64 preservice teachers in a southern…
An, Song A.; Ma, Tingting; Capraro, Mary Margaret
Little is known about preschool teachers' attitudes and beliefs toward science teaching, in part, because the field lacks valid and reliable measures of these teacher-related factors. To address this need, the current study developed and validated a rating scale (P-TABS) using a statewide sample of Head Start teachers (N = 507). A series of…
Maier, Michelle F.; Greenfield, Daryl B.; Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.
Clinical members of AAMFT were solicited by means of a randomized multi-staged clustering technique to identify their attitudes and beliefs regarding psychotropic drugs. All participants were blind to the overall purpose of the study (n = 322) and were directed to read a clinical vignette and then identify what course of action they would take…
Springer, Paul R.; Harris, Steven M.
Reports a study designed to investigate the relationship between nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitudes and to the understanding of Science-Technology-Society attitudes involving technological attitude objects. Principal finding was that nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitude each can be changed independently of the other. Although knowledge and attitudes are correlationally linked, no evidence of a cause-effect relationship was found.
Showers, Dennis E.; Shrigley, Robert L.
The development and validation of an inventory of preventive cardiology at the University of Virginia is described. The inventory contains two instruments designed to measure medical students' preinstructional and postinstructional knowledge of and attitude toward preventive cardiology. (Author/MLW)
Allred, Charlene A.; And Others
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between osteoporosis knowledge, beliefs and calcium intake among college students. This study also examined perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers and self-efficacy related to osteoporosis prevention. Participants: Seven hundred and ninety two (n = 792 men and women ages 17 - 31 of all ethnicities at a mid-western regional university in the US participated in the study. Methods: The Osteoporosis Knowledge Test, Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale, and Osteoporosis Preventing Behaviors Survey were utilized. Each of these tools were previously validated and found reliable. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were completed. Results: Participants did not perceive themselves as susceptible to osteoporosis and perceived minimal barriers to calcium intake. Their knowledge was minimal concerning alternate sources of calcium. Conclusions: Prevention programs should aim to increase osteoporosis knowledge of risk factors and osteoprotective behaviors and to decrease high-risk behaviors during college years when behavior changes can have the strongest impact on bone health.
Stuart L. Usdan
Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism.Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%. The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9; (c nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27; and (d eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8. A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively.Results: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035. The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66, 24.12 (SD=2.99, and 0.66 (SD=1.15 respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005 and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (P<0.001.Conclusions: This knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP questionnaire was developed as a standard tool in order to assess perception of subjects toward plagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission.
Background: Millions of workers are occupationally exposed to dyes in the world, but little is known about their knowledge and attitudes toward the effects of dye on their health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the fabric dyers? and fabric printers? knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the health hazard of dyes. Materials and Methods: The present study was taken up in the Madurai district which is situated in the Southern Tamil Nadu, Ind...
Paramasivam Parimalam; Raghavan Premalatha; Srinivasan Padmini; Kumar Ganguli
This study focuses on developing a theoretical model with a practicaljustification within the field of electronic banking. We ground our discussion on the framework of consumer behavior and electronic banking by linking attitude research and electronic business research. Thus, the purpose of this dissertation is to determine those factors that influence the formation of consumer attitude toward electronic banking. Another important aspect of this study is to develop more insights into how att...
Background Depending on interest, knowledge, and skills, oncologists are adapting clinical behaviour to include integrative approaches, supporting patients to make informed complementary care decisions. The present study sought to improve the knowledge base in three ways: Test the acceptability of a self-reported online survey for oncologists.Provide preliminary data collection concerning knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and current referral practices among oncologists with respect to yoga in adult cancer.List the perceived benefits of and barriers to yoga intervention from a clinical perspective. Methods A 38-item self-report questionnaire was administered online to medical, radiation, and surgical oncologists in British Columbia. Results Some of the 29 oncologists who completed the survey (n = 10) reported having recommended yoga to patients to improve physical activity, fatigue, stress, insomnia, and muscle or joint stiffness. Other responding oncologists were hesitant or unlikely to suggest yoga for their patients because they had no knowledge of yoga as a therapy (n = 15) or believed that scientific evidence to support its use is lacking (n = 11). All 29 respondents would recommend that their patients participate in a clinical trial to test the efficacy of yoga. In qualitative findings, oncologists compared yoga with exercise and suggested that it might have similar psychological and physical health benefits that would improve patient capacity to endure treatment. Barriers to and limitations of yoga in adult cancer are also discussed. Conclusions An online self-report survey is feasible, but has response rate limitations. A small number of oncologists are currently recommending yoga to improve health-related outcomes in adult cancer. Respondents would support clinical yoga interventions to improve the evidence base in cancer patients, including men and women in all tumour groups.
McCall, M.C.; Ward, A.; Heneghan, C.
American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) suffer a disproportionate burden of diabetes and kidney failure. For those with chronic kidney disease, transplantation may be the most effective treatment option. However, low rates of organ donation and transplantation are reported for AI/ANs, who face significant barriers in accessing the transplant waiting list. They are also less likely than Whites to consent to become organ donors. We partnered with five tribal colleges and universities to conduct focus groups to assess knowledge, cultural beliefs, and behaviors related to organ donation and transplantation among AI/AN college students. Focus group data were used to develop a culturally targeted media campaign and outreach strategy aimed at increasing rates of consent to donate organs. Community knowledge typically drew from direct family experience with chronic illness. Study findings confirmed that attitudes about organ donation were influenced by cultural beliefs. Nevertheless, many participants supported organ donation even when it conflicted with cultural and spiritual beliefs about keeping the body intact for burial. Participants also expressed mistrust of the local health care system, suggesting that trust issues might interfere with health messaging on this topic. This is the first study to examine sociocultural beliefs about organ donation among AI/AN college students. Through focus group findings, study staff were better positioned to develop culturally relevant outreach materials. Rising rates of chronic illness among AI/ANs ensure that organ donation and transplantation will be a long-term feature of the health landscape in AI/AN communities. Targeted health messaging must be part of the strategy to reduce donor shortages. PMID:23504267
Jernigan, Meghan; Fahrenwald, Nancy; Harris, Raymond; Tsosie, Ursula; Baker, Lannesse Olivina; Buchwald, Dedra
This study was designed to evaluate the determinants of personal finance knowledge among college students and to test how this knowledge affects students' perceived self-efficacy beliefs in dealing with personal financial issues. In this study, a test of parental attitudes towards debt, students' income level, and dependency status related to…
Heckman, Stuart J.; Grable, John E.
This study uses multivariate statistical methods to explore the beliefs of upper Midwestern U.S. residents about global climate change, and possible consumer responses to determine their willingness to pay more for cellulosic ethanol from multiple feedstocks. A mail survey was sent to residents of Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin to determine baseline knowledge, attitudes and beliefs on several aspects of these issues, with a focus on the emerging market for cellulosic ethanol. First, survey responses were compiled and principal components analysis was used to reduce the dimensionality of the data. This resulted in seven factors and a theoretical framework to help understand consumers' beliefs about climate change and possible energy policy responses. Second, these results were combined with insights from previous studies that were used as input for further research hypotheses and multivariate analyses. The factor scores from principal components analysis along with the some of the key control variables (i.e., gender, income, and rural/urban) served as independent variables in three revised multiple regression models of consumer's willingness to pay (WTP) their fair share of any additional cost of cellulosic ethanol, as reported in an earlier study. Four explanatory variables were found to be significant determinants of WTP in every model: environment, energy consumption, and climate change; concerns about climate change impacts; inability to stop climate change; and gasoline prices and consumption. These results suggest strong public support and consumer WTP for cellulosic ethanol production in the region.
Although the effectiveness of corporal punishment (CP) has received little empirical support, public support for this disciplinary method continues despite calls for its abandonment by researchers. Even among educators, favorable attitudes toward the use of CP are prevalent. We measured education majors' beliefs about CP before and after they read…
Robinson, Daniel H.; Funk, Daniel C.; Beth, Alicia; Bush, Angela M.
Full Text Available In Thailand, chemical fertilisers provide nutrients that are essential for increasing agricultural productivity but they are expensive, often representing 25% of the crop production cost. Tailor-made fertiliser technology is a new fertiliser application technology that is being promoted to help farmers reduce fertiliser costs. This study aims to investigate and clarify sugarcane farmers’ knowledge and attitudes towards tailor-made-fertiliser. This study also attempts to provide a better understanding of the effect of farm size on farmers’ beliefs and attitudes towards tailor-made-fertiliser. Moreover, the findings suggest that further extension of tailor-made-fertiliser practices should include training services for smallholders to improve their knowledge of relevant practices.
Motor vehicle (MV) clerks are at the epicenter of organ donor registration. We show that MV clerks (n = 225) in two northeastern states have knowledge gaps and negative beliefs about organ donation. A majority believe it may be possible to buy organs on the black market (81%) and that recovery from brain death is possible (65%), whereas nearly half believe that doctors might not work as hard to save the life of a registered donor (46%). Organ procurement organizations should conduct formal educational programming with MV staff, considering their prominent role in the donor registration process. PMID:25222015
Rodrigue, James R; Fleishman, Aaron; Fitzpatrick, Sean; Boger, Matthew
Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death in US women, with Hispanic women at higher risk of mortality than non-Hispanic white women. While the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine represents substantial progress towards cervical cancer prevention, little is currently known about Hispanic student's beliefs regarding the HPV vaccine. To assess the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs of college students in the US-Mexico border region following the release of the HPV vaccine for both males and females. This survey was conducted using a convenience sample were participants were recruited from pre-nursing and nursing courses. The self-administered questionnaire ascertained HPV vaccination status, and knowledge and beliefs regarding the HPV vaccine. 202 male and female students responded. 28.9% of respondents reported having received the HPV vaccine. Of the non-vaccinated students under age 27, 27.3% Hispanic students reported an intention to receive the vaccine. Misinformation about HPV was common and was associated with intention to get vaccinated among non-Hispanic white students. We found a relatively small proportion of unvaccinated Hispanic and non-Hispanic nursing students intend to be vaccinated for HPV. Findings indicate an intervention to increase vaccination rates among college-aged students may not be as straightforward as increasing knowledge of HPV. Nurses are in a unique position to educate and recommend HPV to underserved patients. Thus, educating nursing students regarding HPV and the associated cancers is paramount if we are to encourage ethnic minorities to receive the HPV vaccine. PMID:23813323
Schmotzer, Geri L; Reding, Kerryn W
A survey of outreach related beliefs, attitudes, and activities of the Spanish professional astronomers is presented. More than one hundred scientists answered an ad-hoc drawn up questionnaire, whose results have been analysed statistically. This feedback form is an improved version of that used in a previous research carried out by the authors with a sample of members of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Díaz Vilela & Rodríguez Hidalgo 2005). Some of the studied items are the actual time and effort devoted to outreach by a researcher, the role of outreach within his work, the valuation of outreach activities in his curriculum, socially, or economically, the opinion about who should have the responsibility of organising and performing popularisation tasks, etc. Three kinds of studies have been performed: the descriptive one is based on the frequencies and means of variables; a Principal Component Analysis was applied to get a shorter number of belief-attitude dimensions; and an inferential one, derived from a Multiple Regression Analysis which provides a reliable description of the beliefs-attitudes scale grouping outreach related beliefs into 6 components, 3 of them more significant. A simple regression allows us to predict about a 50% of the variance of the outreach practices.
Rodríguez Hidalgo, I.; Díaz Vilela, L. F.
Objective: The bystander approach to rape prevention is gaining popularity on college campuses, although research is limited. This study explored bystander attitudes and their relationship with rape myths in a sample of college students. Participants: Surveys from 2,338 incoming undergraduate students at a large, northeastern university were…
This Project Demonstrating Excellence documents a study which was undertaken during 1998 on the impact of a summer Upward Bound Mathematics and Science (UBMS) program on students' attitudes toward science and students' beliefs in the nature of science. The students were 25 high school students enrolled in a UBMS program, Success in Understanding Math and Science (SUMS), at a college in the upper Midwestern United States. The research questions were: (1) What are the attitudes toward science and mathematics which students bring to the SUMS summer program? (2) What beliefs do these students bring about the nature and implications of science and technology? and (3) Do students' attitudes and/or beliefs change significantly during the six-week summer institute? Identical surveys were administered at the beginning and end of the summer institute. Each survey was composed of two parts, the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey/Science Student Form (CLES) and the Nature and Implications of Science/Technology Student Form (NIST). The results were analyzed using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. Students entered the six-week summer institute with attitudes toward science which were significantly higher than neutral on five of the six scales of the CLES and on the four scales of the NIST, showing positive attitudes and beliefs about science and their science learning environment. One scale on the CLES, the Shared Control scale, had lower than neutral scores in the pre-test. The scores on this scale rose significantly during the institute, but were still below the neutral score at the end. The scores on the other scales of the CLES and the NIST did not rise significantly. The students were a self-selected group who had chosen to enter the SUMS program, which may account for their high entering perceptions and the lack of significant positive gains.
Anway, Dorothy Wade
Despite many efforts, science is still a male-dominated field. Girls who do persist in science often express a desire to use their knowledge in socially relevant ways. The current study examined elementary school girls' beliefs about the work of scientists and how presenting information about a prosocial aspect of physics would influence their attitudes toward that information. Participants were asked an open-ended question to assess their knowledge of what scientists do and were presented with scenarios describing physicists in either a discovery context or as helping society. The results revealed that relatively few participants generated prosocial responses to the open-ended question, and the helping context story was rated as significantly more likable than the discovery context. Suggestions are given for educators to include prosocial aspects of science in their teaching.
Yanowitz, Karen L.
In this paper I reviewed and analyzed three important constructs--beliefs, knowledge, and practices in mathematics teacher education. I carried out a literature review of teacher beliefs and practice, and beliefs and change in mathematics education in to order draw some pedagogical and research implications. I was able to draw three themes from…
This study examined gender differences in college students' knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behaviors of 1,004 predominantly heterosexual students. Results indicated that students had limited knowledge about contraceptives and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Females had a more positive view about contraceptives and males had more…
Toews, Michelle L.; Yazedjian, Ani
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to examine the influence of receiving scientific information about hypnosis over Spanish psychologists’ beliefs and attitudes toward hypnosis. The Valencia Scale on Attitudes and Beliefs toward Hypnosis-Therapist (VSABH-T wasadministered to 2434 Spanish psychologists. A retest and a second retest were carried out, and between these testing administrations a monograph issue focused on hypnosis was published in a journal that all members of the Spanish Psychological Association received. Results indicated that psychologists who read this monograph, in general terms, changed their misconceptions about hypnosis for correct beliefs and their negative attitudes toward hypnosis for positive ones. Moreover, the VSABH-T was useful for detecting changes in psychologists’ beliefs and attitudes toward hypnosis.
M. Elena Mendoza
Aims: We estimated the number of users of tobacco, particularly narghile (water pipe) among a sample of women working at a higher education institute in Jordan. We also investigated the attitudes of narghile smokers to their habit, together with their willingness to stop NS; and finally their awareness to oral health and their perceptions about the harmful effects of NS. Study Design: The study was a cross-sectional survey whereby the sample was conveniently selected from all the faculties...
Dar-odeh, N. S.; Abu-hammad, O. A.; Al-abdalla, M.; Shakhatreh, F. M.; Al-abedalla, K. B.; Khdairi, N. O.; Prime, S. S.
Educating health professionals implies the challenge of creating and developing an inquiring mind, ready to be in a state of permanent questioning. For this purpose, it is fundamental to generate a positive attitude toward the generation of knowledge and science. Objective: to determine the attitude toward science and the scientific method in undergraduate students of health sciences. Materials and methods: a cross-sectional study was made by applying a self-administered survey, excluding tho...
Plazas Vargas, Merideidy; Go?mez Sua?rez, Marcela; Castro Moreno, Carlos Alberto
Much is known about childbirth fear in Sweden including its relationship to caesarean birth. Less is understood about this in Australia. Sweden has half the rate of caesarean birth compared to Australia. Little has been reported about women’s beliefs and attitudes to birth in either country. The contribution of psychosocial factors such as fear, attitudes and beliefs about childbirth to the global escalation of caesarean birth in high-income countries is an important topic of debate. The ov...
The goal of this study was to examine the influence of receiving scientific information about hypnosis over Spanish psychologists’ beliefs and attitudes toward hypnosis. The Valencia Scale on Attitudes and Beliefs toward Hypnosis-Therapist (VSABH-T) wasadministered to 2434 Spanish psychologists. A retest and a second retest were carried out, and between these testing administrations a monograph issue focused on hypnosis was published in a journal that all members of the Spanish Psychologica...
Elena Mendoza, M.; Antonio Capafons; Begoña Espejo
The ability to locate, share, and use knowledge is vital for effective functioning of organizations. However, such knowledge processing can be complicated by increasing cultural diversity. Recent studies have suggested that a group’s diversity attitudes may increase group outcomes. In this study, based on a sample consisting of 489 members of multicultural academic departments, we set out to investigate the relationship between openness to diversity (linguistic, social category, value, and informational) and group knowledge processing (knowledge location, knowledge needed, bring knowledge to bear, and personal knowledge). We found openness to linguistic and informational diversity to have positive associations with all group knowledge processing variables. Openness to value diversity was positively associated with most group knowledge processing variables, while openness to social category diversity only had a positive effect on personal knowledge.
Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan
Human trafficking is believed to oppress millions of people worldwide. Despite increased media attention and public awareness campaigns in recent years, no empirical research has examined public attitudes about human trafficking. The present study examined gender, sexual trauma history, and attitudes about human trafficking as they related to belief of a sex-trafficking scenario and willingness to blame the victim for the situation. Undergraduate students (N = 409) at a large private university in the Northeastern United States completed measures in which they responded to a vignette portraying sex trafficking in the United States. Participants also reported their personal trauma history and completed a Human Trafficking Myths Scale. Results indicated that gender and human trafficking myth acceptance, but not sexual trauma history, were significantly related to participants' belief of the sex-trafficking scenario and their perception of the victim's responsibility. Potential implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25389189
Cunningham, Katherine C; Cromer, Lisa DeMarni
Athlete support personnel (ASP) failing to meet responsibilities under the World Anti-Doping Code risk sanction. It is unclear whether the poor knowledge of responsibilities seen in sports physicians and coaches applies to other ASP (e.g., administrators, chiropractors, family, nutritionists, physiotherapists, psychologists, and trainers). A purposive sample of Australian ASP (n?=?292) responded to a survey on knowledge of anti-doping rules (35 true/false questions), ethical beliefs and practice, and attitudes toward performance enhancement. Some ASP declined to participate, claiming doping was irrelevant to their practice. Physicians were most knowledgeable (30.8/35), with family and trainers the least (26.0/35). ASP reported that improvements were needed to support anti-doping education (e.g., basis for anti-doping) and practice (e.g., rules). ASP also had a slightly negative attitude toward performance enhancement. Linear regression showed that being a sports physician, providing support at the elite level, and 15 years of experience influenced knowledge. The results confirm gaps in knowledge, suggesting that stronger engagement with ASP anti-doping education and practice is needed. Applying the principles of andragogy could help foster active engagement through emphasis on active inquiry, rather than passive reception of content. Future work on the context within which ASP experience anti-doping is needed, exploring acquisition and translation of knowledge into practice. PMID:23692367
Mazanov, J; Backhouse, S; Connor, J; Hemphill, D; Quirk, F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Joint pain, specifically chronic knee pain (CKP, is a frequent cause of chronic pain and limitation of function and mobility among older adults. Multiple evidence-based guidelines recommend exercise as a first-line treatment for all patients with CKP or knee osteoarthritis (KOA, yet healthcare practitioners' attitudes and beliefs may limit their implementation. This systematic review aims to identify the attitudes, beliefs and behaviours of General Practitioners (GPs regarding the use of exercise for CKP/KOA. Methods We searched four electronic databases between inception and January 2008, using subject headings to identify studies examining the attitudes, beliefs or behaviours of GPs regarding the use of exercise for the treatment of CKP/KOA in adults aged over 45 years in primary care. Studies referring to patellofemoral pain syndrome or CKP secondary to other causes or that occurring in a prosthetic joint were excluded. Once inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, study data were extracted and summarised. Study quality was independently reviewed using two assessment tools. Results From 2135 potentially relevant articles, 20 were suitable for inclusion. A variety of study methodologies and approaches to measuring attitudes beliefs and behaviours were used among the studies. Quality assessment revealed good reporting of study objective, type, outcome factors and, generally, the sampling frame. However, criticisms included use of small sample sizes, low response rates and under-reporting of non-responder factors. Although 99% of GPs agreed that exercise should be used for CKP/KOA and reported ever providing advice or referring to a physiotherapist, up to 29% believed that rest was the optimum management approach. The frequency of actual provision of exercise advice or physiotherapy referral was lower. Estimates of provision of exercise advice and physiotherapy referral were generally higher for vignette-based studies (exercise advice 9%-89%; physiotherapy referral 44%-77% than reviews of actual practice (exercise advice 5%-52%; physiotherapy referral 13-63%. Advice to exercise and exercise prescription were not clearly differentiated. Conclusions Attitudes and beliefs of GPs towards exercise for CKP/KOA vary widely and exercise appears to be underused in the management of CKP/KOA. Limitations of the evidence base include the paucity of studies directly examining attitudes of GPs, poor methodological quality, limited generalisability of results and ambiguity concerning GPs' expected roles. Further investigation is required of the roles of GPs in using exercise as first-line management of CKP/KOA.
Foster Nadine E
In an effort to improve intervention strategies, community knowledge, attitudes, and practices on schistosomiasis were evaluated using focus group discussions involving 237 participants, in eight Schistosoma mansoni high prevalence districts in rural Nyanza Province, Kenya. The majority of participants reported having heard about schistosomiasis through schools, posters, radio announcements, and community gatherings. Participants had a variety of beliefs about contracting schistosomiasis, including associating it with dirty drinking water and uncooked or contaminated food. Avenues for seeking treatment included health centers, spiritual intervention, herbal treatments, and medicine shops, with health centers receiving the most mention. Barriers to schistosomiasis control included attitudes of community members toward the infection, especially misconceptions that lead to stigma and the perception that diagnosis and treatment are expensive. Schools were the most common avenue for receiving information, suggesting that the existing education infrastructure can be used for health education and improved sensitization about schistosomiasis control programs. PMID:24534810
Musuva, Rosemary M; Awiti, Alphonce; Omedo, Martin; Ogutu, Michael; Secor, W Evan; Montgomery, Susan P; Alaii, Jane; Mwinzi, Pauline N M
Citizen science projects offer opportunities for non-scientists to take part in scientific research. While their contribution to scientific data collection has been well documented, there is limited research on changes that may occur to their volunteer participants. In this study, we investigated (1) how volunteers’ attitudes towards science and beliefs in the nature of science changed over six months of participation in an astronomy-themed citizen science project and (2) how the level of project participation accounted for these changes. To measure attitudes towards science and beliefs about the nature of science, identical pre- and post-tests were used. We used pre-test data from 1,375 participants and post-test data collected from 175 participants. Responses were analyzed using the Rasch Rating Scale Model. The pre-test sample was used to create the Rasch scales for the two scientific literacy measures. For the pre/post-test comparisons, data from those who completed both tests were used. Fourteen participants who took the pre/post-tests were interviewed. Results show that overall scientific attitudes did not change, p = .812. However, we did find significant changes related towards two scientific attitude items about science in the news (positive change; p < .001, p < .05) and one related to scientific self-efficacy (negative change, p < .05). These changes were related to the participants’ social activity in the project. Beliefs in the nature of science significantly increased between the pre- and post-tests, p = .014. Relative positioning of individual items on the belief scale did not change much and this change was not related to any of our recorded project activity variables. The interviews suggest that the social aspect of the project is important to participants and the change in self-efficacy is not due to a lowering of esteem but rather a greater appreciation for what they have yet to learn.
Please read the abstract in the dissertation. Copyright © 1999, University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria Please cite as follows: Cameron-Ellis, JA 1999, Church and homosexuality : the relationship between individual religious beliefs, attitudes ...
Cameron-ellis, Jean A.
Background: Studying nursing students' opinions could be a useful guide for the formation of their professionalrole as well as their education and training.Aim: The present study's aim is to examine nurse students' opinion, beliefs and attitude regarding the conceptsof health, health care, health education, health ethics, illness, safety in health care and quality in health care, inan educational environment which promotes cooperative activities in class.Metho...
Vassiliki Ioannidi; Petros Kolovos; Sofia Vasileiadou; Maria Malliarou; Antonios Travlos; Sofia Zyga
Female athletes often engage in harmful dietary and weight control practices that can impair bone health and hinder performance. To promote related positive health behavior practices, nutrition educators may be more effective if they understand the osteoporosis knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among female athletes. A questionnaire including items related to osteoporosis and dietary calcium knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral practices was administered to 114 female collegiate athletes (19.6+/-1.4 years). Self-reported intakes of dairy product consumption were also obtained; subjects were asked how many times per week they drank milk and ate cheese, yogurt, and ice cream. The mean score for osteoporosis knowledge was 7.1+/-1.9 (out of 10 items). The mean score for favorable responses to attitude items was 2.1+/-0.8 (out of 3 items). Correct responses to dietary calcium knowledge items were 2.2+/-0.7 (out of 3 items). On average, subjects consumed 2.4+/-1.6 servings of dairy products per day; 31% of subjects consumed the recommended 3 or more servings per day. Osteoporosis knowledge, osteoporosis attitudes, and dietary calcium knowledge were not correlated (p > .05) with dairy product intake. Because of the importance of achieving a high peak bone mass to prevent osteoporosis, our data suggest that further research is needed regarding other factors that might influence dairy product intake among female athletes. PMID:11915782
Turner, L W; Bass, M A
Full Text Available Background: Obsessive patients are distressed by intrusivethoughts, which are related to unreal threats. These patientsfeel that they are responsible for harming themselves and others.While controlling worry and meta-cognitive beliefs, thepresent study aimed at comparing the responsibility attitudesin obsessive compulsive patients with those in normal subjectsto determine whether the difference in responsibility attitudesbetween two groups was significant.Methods: A group of 15 patients were compared with normalsubjects (n=15 who matched the patient group in terms ofgender, age and education. All subjects filled the ResponsibilityAttitude Scale, the Penn, State Worry Questionnaire andthe Meta-cognition Questionnaire -30. The findings were analyzedusing descriptive statistics as well as student t and ANCOVAtests.Results: Responsibility attitudes in obsessive patients weresignificantly higher than those in normal subjects (P<0.001,when patient worries and meta-cognitive beliefs were notcontrolled. However, after controlling patient's worry andmeta-cognitive beliefs there was no significant differencebetween responsibility attitudes in normal and obsessive–compulsive group.Conclusion: The findings might suggest that responsibilityattitude is not strongly related to obsessive-compulsive symptoms.It seems that it is a characteristic caused by basic metacognitivebeliefs, because the relationship between the responsibilityand the symptoms was dependent on meta-cognition.Therefore, in studying the etiology and treatment of obsessivecompulsive disorders focus on the responsibility attitudesalone cannot be very helpful.
The authors describe the development and administration of a substance use attitudes questionnaire to social work students and clinicians, physician assistant students and practitioners, and medical interns. The general purpose for the Attitudes Survey was to collect baseline data regarding past training, current attitudes, beliefs, practices, and…
Alexander, Dale; Waters, Vicki; McQueen, Katie; Basinger, Scott
The present study aims to analyze attitudes and beliefs of the French-speaking general Swiss population (n = 2500; female n = 1280; mean age = 43 years) as regards gambling, which are to date almost exclusively studied in the North American and Australian contexts. Beliefs related to gambling include the perception of the effectiveness of preventive measures toward gambling, the comparative risk assessment of different addictive behaviors, the perceived risks of different types of gambling and attitudes are related to the gambler's personality. The general population perceived gambling rather negatively and was conscious of the potential risks of gambling; indeed, 59.0% of the sample identified gambling as an addictive practice. Slot machines were estimated to bear the highest risk. Compared with women and older people, men and young people indicated more positive beliefs about gambling; they perceived gambling as less addictive, supported structural preventive measures less often, and perceived gambling as a less serious problem for society. Gamblers were more likely to put their practices into perspective, perceiving gambling more positively than non-gamblers. General population surveys on such beliefs can deliver insights into preventive actions that should be targeted to young men who showed more favorable views of gambling, which have been shown to be associated with increased risk for problematic gambling. PMID:20700757
Inglin, Sophie; Gmel, Gerhard
Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Según la posición contextualista puede ocurrir que con las mismas evidencias y el mismo grado de convicción, un sujeto sepa que P en un contexto y no en otro. Mediante la distinción entre aceptación y creencia, se combate tal posición en favor de una concepció invariantista del conocimiento. “Saber” [...] no varía de significado con los contextos, aunque -reconozco- no es correcto auto atribuirse conocimiento cuando no se acepta que P. Abstract in english According to Contextualism about knowledge, it is possible that a subject, with the same amount of evidence and the same degree of conviction, knows that P in a context and not in another. In this paper, I favor the invarationist conception of knowledge by drawing a distinction between belief and ac [...] ceptance. “Know”, I defend, does not change in meaning across contexts, although -I acknowledge- it is not correct to self ascribe knowledge when one does not accept that P.
Objective: The objective of the present study was to describe stroke-related knowledge (risk factors, warning signs and emergency response), lifestyle behaviours and health beliefs among Singaporean Chinese, and to identify any factors associated with such knowledge, behaviours and beliefs. Design: This was a cross-sectional study design employing…
Wong, Wai Pong; Yeung, Meredith; Loh, Susan; Lee, Mina; Ghazali, F.; Chan, C. J.; Feng, S.; Liew, Y. V.; Seah, P. F.; Wee, J.; Wang, J.; Huang, X.; Dean, Elizabeth
This study represents a continuation of research efforts to further refine the Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom Control (ABCC) Inventory. The purposes of this study were to investigate the: (1) impact of classroom management training on classroom management style; (2) differences in attitudes toward classroom management between novice and…
Martin, Nancy K.; Yin, Zenong; Mayall, Hayley
The impact of electronic health records on healthcare professional's beliefs and attitudes toward face to face communication during patient and provider interactions was examined. Quantitative survey research assessed user attitudes towards an electronic health record system and revealed that healthcare professionals from a wide range of…
Nickles, Kenneth Patrick
Full Text Available Objective:This is a qualitative research that aims to explore the mothers’ knowledge and practices regarding infant nutrition and breastfeeding. Forty mothers with infants aged 9-15 months- and with varing different backgrounds in education, social and economic structure, formed the study groups.Method:The data was collected by means of depth interviews useing of a semi-structured questionnaire.Results:After the analysis the mothers’ words during the interviews were classified under these main themes: 1-Procedures affecting mothers’ breastfeeding decision 2-Knowledge and beliefs regarding breast-milk, 3-Breastfeeding practices, 4-Factors influencing the decisions of feeding with non-breast milk products 5-Mothers’ knowledge and attitudes to complementary nutritients/foods. Breastfeeding is a common habit in Turkey. In our study all of the infants were breastfed. But the mother’sanxiety about the sufficiency of breast-milk and social pressure leads to starting with complementary nutritients/foods early. Education must emphasize exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months and following the weight gain of the infant as the major indicator for assessment of its sufficiency. Although the economic level of the family affects the selection of the complementary foods, supervision is necessary for mothers who do not know enough about the quality of the foods and time of addition to the diet. i Mothers prefer one to one interviews with health professionals and using printed materials about infant nutrition.Conclusion:Before preparing community-based programs to improve infant nutrition, the mothers’ opinions, beliefs and needs, should be taken into account.
In this study, the relationships between student beliefs about the nature of science, student attitudes, and conceptual change about the nature of forces were investigated within a traditional and within a constructivistic high school physics classroom. Students in both classrooms were honors students taking a first year high school physics course and were primarily white and middle to upper SES. Students in the traditional classroom were all high ability juniors, and physics instruction was integrated with pre-calculus. Students in the constructivistic classroom were a mixture of juniors and seniors. Due to the interrelated nature of these factors and the complexity of their interactions, a naturalistic inquiry design was chosen. The data sources included videotape of 7-9 weeks of instruction; analysis of the videotapes using the Secondary Teacher Analysis Matrix (Gallagher & Parker, 1995); field notes; pretest/posttest assessment with the Force Concept Inventory (Hestenes, Wells, & Swackhammer, 1992); student responses from the Views on Science-Technology-Society questionnaire (Aikenhead & Ryan, 1992), the Questionnaire for the Assessment of a Science Course (Chiappetta, 1995), and the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (Taylor, Fraser, & White, 1994); student interviews; and teacher interviews. In the traditional classroom, (a) students did not think that physics was relevant to everyday experiences; (b) high conceptual change students were more likely to have an angular world view (Cobern, 1993) and have views more similar to the teacher's about the nature of science; and (c) high conceptual change students were able to develop an internally consistent understanding of the content; however, that content appeared to be isolated knowledge in some students. In the constructivistic classroom, (a) students saw physics as relevant and useful; (b) there was no difference in world view or agreement with the teacher's views on the nature of science between high and low conceptual change students; (c) students appreciated the importance of empirical evidence; and (d) low conceptual change students had low classroom engagement. Mean gains in conceptual change were larger for the traditional classroom.
Adams, April Dean
In almost every country, the organ supply for transplantation does not match the increasing demand; health professionals may play an important role in eliminating barriers and increasing organ donation. Therefore, assessing medical students’ knowledge and attitudes regarding organ donation is important for the future organ supply. Some 409 of 508 first- and second-year medical students answered an anonymous, multiple-choice questionnaire about demographic variables, knowledge about transpla...
Bilgel, N.; Sadikoglu, G.; Bilgel, H.
Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…
James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen
The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…
Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara
Background: Skin cancer rates are rising and could be reduced with better sun protection behaviors. Adolescent exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging because it can lead to skin cancer. This descriptive study extends understanding of adolescent sun exposure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. Methods: A sample of 423 beachgoing…
Merten, Julie Williams; Higgins, Sue; Rowan, Alan; Pragle, Aimee
Pharmacovigilance can be helpful in protecting consumers from harmful effects of medicines. Healthcare professionals should consider Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) reporting as their professional obligation and should be aware of the existing pharmacovigilance mechanisms in their countries. In Nepal, pharmacovigilance activities were initiated in 2004. Objectives: The present study evaluated the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of the healthcare professionals towards ADRs and pharmacovigi...
Palaian S; Mi, Ibrahim; Mishra P.
This article explores the impact of practitioners' attitudes and knowledge of sexual health on clinical behaviors. Sexual health topics are often areas of concern for clients of any age in counseling. Thus, counselors must be trained and equipped to address sexual health across the life span. This study explored whether child and adolescent…
Russell, Elizabeth B.
Objective: Hookah smoking is a popular form of tobacco use on university campuses. This study documented use, attitudes, and knowledge of hookah smoking among college students. Participants: The sample included 943 university students recruited between February 2009 and January 2010. Respondents ("M" age = 20.02) included 376 males, 533…
Holtzman, Adam L.; Babinski, Dara; Merlo, Lisa J.
The purpose of this study was to explore agricultural science teachers' knowledge levels and attitudes toward biotechnology topics. The average agricultural science teacher in this study was a 37-year-old male who had taught for 12 years. He had a bachelor's degree and had lived or worked on a farm or ranch. He had not attended…
Mowen, Diana L.; Roberts, T. Grady; Wingenbach, Gary J.; Harlin, Julie F.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare patterns of use, beliefs, and attitudes related to waterpipe smoking between university students (beginning smokers and café customers (established smokers in Aleppo Syria, in order to explore the evolution of this smoking method. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among representative samples of university students (total 587, 48.4% men, mean age 22 years, and waterpipe users among cafe' customers (total 268, 60% men, mean age 30 years in Aleppo, Syria. We used interviewer-administered questionnaire inquiring about pattern of waterpipe smoking (initiation, frequency, situational characteristics of use (partner, place, sharing, beliefs related to waterpipe smoking (harmful/addictive properties of waterpipe, attitudes related to waterpipe smoking (confidence in quitting, will to quit, motivation for quitting, past year quit attempt, and cigarette smoking. Results Daily and regular patterns of smoking become more prevalent with increased duration of smoking, but intermittent smoking remains the predominant pattern of waterpipe use. Women seem to be drawn later to the habit, which seem to escape the usual taboo against women's cigarette smoking. Patterns and context of waterpipe use tend to change with progress of the practice affecting frequency, setting, and sharing of waterpipe. Unlike beginners, established waterpipe smokers seem more smoking-method oriented, more hooked on the habit, less willing to quit, and less likely to foresee challenges to quitting. Conclusion Use patterns and attitudes related to waterpipe smoking evolve to accommodate the change in dependence and life circumstances of the smoker. Most of use features, beliefs, attitudes, as well as time-course seem unique to this smoking method requiring novel approach to intervention.
Ward Kenneth D
How do epistemological attitudes and beliefs influence learning from text? We conceptualize epistemological attitudes and beliefs as components of metacognitive knowledge. As such, they serve an important function in regulating the use of epistemic strategies such as knowledge-based validation of information and checking arguments for internal…
Richter, Tobias; Schmid, Sebastian
Educational efforts targeting parents of preadolescents may help them make informed decisions about having their children vaccinated against the human papillomavirus (HPV). We conducted a pilot study examining knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of community-based health educators and counselors who routinely disseminate sexual health and prevention information through counseling and supporting these parents. We evaluated the impact of a single, brief workshop by administering questionnaires before and after the session. The workshop consisted of an educational intervention that was presented orally by an expert in gynecological oncology and was followed by an open discussion period. Following the information and discussion session, improvements were seen in knowledge accuracy, confidence in being able to discuss HPV vaccine issues with parents, greater willingness to recommend the vaccine, and a better understanding of potential barriers to vaccine uptake. These results suggest that health educators and counselors may be better prepared to encourage their clients to make well-informed decisions regarding HPV vaccination. PMID:24146258
Rosberger, Z; Krawczyk, A; Stephenson, E; Lau, S
Full Text Available Background: Despite advances in medical science and modern technology, epilepsy remains as a stigmatized condition and negative public attitude toward epilepsy is a common phenomenon especially in developing countries such as Iran. It is the major factor causing serious social discrimination against people with epilepsy which in turn may be more devastating than the disorder itself. Thorough understanding of the knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy is essential to modify these negative attitudes. Methods: We conducted a face-to-face questionnaire interview survey in crowd locations of Tehran in August, 2004-April 2005. A total of 1079 persons all more than 15 years old were asked to fill the questionnaire. Results: Eighty eight percent of respondents had heard about epilepsy before, 42.2% of them knew one person with epilepsy. However, out of responses about the causes of epilepsy, 52/4% said it was caused by brain damage, 26.4% said it was an inherited disease,, 14.3% said it was due to fever, 34.8% believed stress as the cause of it and1.1% said evil spirits was the cause. 56.9% considered pregnancy to be appropriate for epileptics. 94% believed children with epilepsy could go to school and have normal education. Conclusion: According to this survey, public knowledge and attitudes about epilepsy in study population is not satisfactory. It is suggested that additional efforts must be made to increase the knowledge of the general population through education programs especially among school children.
This study was an investigation of female adolescents' perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs towards science and reading science-related texts. Three surveys were used to collect data from 253 middle school students in Grade 7 and Grade 8 and six interviews were conducted with students. The interviews allowed a deeper analysis of the value students placed on science and on reading science-related texts. The quantitative data were collected through the following surveys: Test of Science Related Attitudes, Motivation for Reading Informational Books in School adapted, and Metacognitive Awareness Reading Strategies Inventory adapted. The purpose of the surveys was to provide a comprehensive picture of students' self-reported perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs towards science and the motivation to engage. Literacy processes and practices make engagement and learning in science possible; however, intrinsic motivation and cognitive strategies are critical influential components that educators cannot overlook. The female adolescents in this study expressed greater competence when involved in learning science through inquiry experimentation integrated with literacy presented in different formats.
Full Text Available Background: Epilepsy, one of the most common serious chronic brain disorders, is poorly understood by the public and has been associated with numerous misconceptions and beliefs. This, coupled with its sometimes dramatic clinical manifestations, has often resulted in a strong social stigma.Objective: This study was conducted to find out knowledge, attitudes and practices toward epilepsy among preparatory school students in Mekelle, North Ethiopia.Methods: A semi-structured questionnaire used previously by various authors was self-administered to 391 students studying in four preparatory schools in Mekelle, North Ethiopia.Results: About 85.7% had heard about epilepsy, 19.23% had read on the subject, 67.03% had known someone with epilepsy and 57.14% had witnessed a seizure. Those who would offer equal employment opportunities to people with epilepsy (PWE, refuse to associate with, or refuse to marry PWE represented 64%, 16.8%, and 44.8%, respectively. Negative attitudes seemed to be reinforced by beliefs that epilepsy is evil spirit (33.24%, contagious (28.6% or a kind of insanity (51.6%. Majority of respondents (70.33% opted for Holy water, followed by physicians (64.01%, traditional healer (44.78% and prayers (32.14%.Conclusions: The study revealed practices and knowledge toward epilepsy were limited, especially with respect to epilepsy’s cause, manifestation, and management. Moreover, there were statistically significant differences between respondents attitude with respect to epilepsy based on age, gender, level of education, religion and school category.
Full Text Available Knowledge and attitude are important factors for successful breastfeeding practice. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of knowledge and attitude on breastfeeding among Indonesian mothers who joined mother support group (MSG program. This was a community based cross-sectional study. There were 221 mothers participated on this study. Multiple regression was used to asses the influence of knowledge and attitude on breastfeeding. Result of the study showed that knowledge and attitude influence breastfeeding practice.
Full Text Available Knowledge and attitude are important factors for successful breastfeeding practice. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of knowledge and attitude on breastfeeding among Indonesian mothers who joined mother support group (MSG program. This was a community based cross-sectional study. There were 221 mothers participated on this study. Multiple regression was used to asses the influence of knowledge and attitude on breastfeeding. Result of the study showed that knowledge and attitude influence breastfeeding practice.
Full Text Available One of the applications applied most nowadays is web based instruction (WBI. Although there are many studies on WBI, no study which researched the relations between beliefs for WBI, WBI tools acceptance levels and web pedagogical content knowledge (WPCK of science and technology pre-service teachers was found among these studies. The aim of this study is to examine this relation. In accordance with this aim, the study group of the study consisted of 363 pre-service teachers. The data collected from pre-service teachers under the research were collected with scales of belief, tools acceptance and WPCK towards WBI. 3 scales were used for the data collection in the research. The data were analyzed with structural equation modeling in the research. As a result of the research, behavioral and contextual beliefs in WBI beliefs were medium level. Perceived usefulness, ease of use, perceived attitude and intention positively affect WBI tools acceptance levels of pre-service teachers. When the relation between beliefs, tools acceptance levels and web pedagogical content knowledge of science and technology education pre-service teachers towards WBI is analyzed, it is seen that beliefs towards WBI affect acceptance levels of WBI tools and WBI tools acceptance levels affect web pedagogical content knowledge.
Mehmet Bar?s HORZUM
The purpose of this study was to use a validated instrument to determine the attitudes and knowledge of high school teachers regarding food irradiation, and to determine the correlations among their knowledge and attitudes and certain demographic variables. Knowledge and attitudes about food irradiation were measured in selected high school family…
Thompson, B. M.; Ribera, K. P.; Wingenbach, G. J.; Vestal, T. A.
A survey of the knowledge and attitudes of 485 California home economists toward the use of irradiation to preserve food revealed that they lacked the knowledge although they had a positive attitude toward it. An interactive teleconference on irradiation increased positive attitudes and improved knowledge. (JOW)
Johnson, Faye C. Stucy
This study investigated certified rehabilitation counselors' (CRCs) attitudes, knowledge, and comfort in addressing disability and sexuality issues. One hundred ninety-nine CRCs completed a modified version of the "Knowledge, Comfort, Approach and Attitudes toward Sexuality Scale" to determine the effect of knowledge and attitudes on level of…
Kazukauskas, Kelly A.; Lam, Chow S.
In this study the environmental attitudes, knowledge, and alternative conceptions of 281 primary school children from 5th and 6th grade, ages 10-12 years were explored. Low knowledge scores, indicate a substantial lack of knowledge on basic environmental issues, while attitude scores were relatively high. Children's environmental attitudes…
Malandrakis, Georgios; Chatzakis, Stergios
Abstract Sensitizing late adolescents and young adults about sleep hygiene knowledge and helpful beliefs and attitudes about sleep may have the potential to instill long lasting healthy sleep practices. Towards these ends, an evaluation of a brief, psychoeducational program "Sleep 101" tailored to college students was conducted. Following two weeks of sleep log recordings, participants were randomly assigned to a Sleep 101 (experimental) condition or a sleep monitoring (control) condition. The Sleep 101 condition was comprised of two, 90 minute workshops aimed at both teaching cognitive strategies to dismiss sleep myths and correct distortions and educating students about healthy sleep practices and ways to improve sleep quality and quantity. The monitoring condition received a handout with good sleep hygiene practices and completed only sleep logs for the duration of the study. Participants in the Sleep 101 condition endorsed fewer maladaptive beliefs and attitudes about sleep, increased sleep hygiene knowledge, and reduced sleep onset latency compared to those in the monitoring group. Brief psychoeducational courses may be cost-effective and serve to alleviate current, and/or prevent future, sleep problems. PMID:25268924
Kloss, Jacqueline D; Nash, Christina O; Walsh, Colleen M; Culnan, Elizabeth; Horsey, Sarah; Sexton-Radek, Kathy
Full Text Available Abstract Background Young people are of particular importance in state policies against Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS. We intended to assess the knowledge and attitude of high school students regarding AIDS in Iran. Methods Through a cluster-sampling, 4641 students from 52 high schools in Tehran were assessed by anonymous questionnaires in February 2002. Results The students identified television as their most important source of information about AIDS. Only a few students answered all the knowledge questions correctly, and there were many misconceptions about the routes of transmission. Mosquito bites (33%, public swimming pools (21%, and public toilets (20% were incorrectly identified as routes of transmission. 46% believed that Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive (HIV positive students should not attend ordinary schools. Most of the students wanted to know more about AIDS. In this study knowledge level was associated with students' attitudes and discipline (p Conclusion Although the knowledge level seems to be moderately high, misconceptions about the routes of transmission were common. There was a substantial intolerant attitude towards AIDS and HIV positive patients. We recommend that strategies for AIDS risk reduction in adolescents be developed in Iranian high schools.
As teachers are one of the more important agents for disseminating information, a study was done to gauge the knowledge and attitude concerning Renewable Energy (RE) and Energy Efficiency (EE) amongst teachers in Malaysia. Results from the study have shown that teachers do not have adequate knowledge on the concept of RE. They also viewed education as the best strategy in ensuring the success of RE practices. Although there is an interest to know more about RE, the teachers felt that they were inadequately trained to teach this subject in schools, that there are not enough teachers to teach the subject in the schools and that this topic should be integrated as part of co-curricular activities. CETREE, as a centre for education and training in Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency has already started a curriculum to train teachers on the awareness of Renewable Energy (RE) and Energy Efficiency (EE). Result of this study indicates that more training and campaigns need to be implemented at school levels to promote the awareness on RE and EE. This paper will also discuss knowledge and attitude as important factors to consider in creating awareness on RE for the next generation. Teachers need to acquire the knowledge and positive attitude toward these concepts to become successful change agents. Media preference amongst teachers concerning ways to educate the public on RE will also be highlighted
Full Text Available Organ transplantation is the most preferred treatment modality for patients with end-stage organ disease. There is an inadequate supply of cadaver organs commensurate with need. Health-care professionals are the critical link in augmenting public awareness about organ donation. Their attitudes and beliefs can influence the public opinion. This study aims at understanding the awareness, attitudes, and beliefs among the medical postgraduate students. A total of 123 post-graduates of a medical college hospital in South India participated in the study. A specially de-signed questionnaire was used in assessment. Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS Windows version 10.0. The mean age of the postgraduate students was 28.32 ± 3.5 years, 54% were males, 62% belonged to Christian religion, 69% were single, 77% were from nuclear families, 87% had urban background, and 54% were from upper socio-economic strata. About 97% said they were aware of organ donation through media, 23 unders-tood the concept of "cadaver" as "brain-death" and 93% were able to distinguish between brain-death and persistent vegetative state. Eighty-nine percent wished to donate their organs, 77% did not believe in body disfigurement and 87% did not believe in rebirth without the donated organs, if they pledged their organs. Sixty-nine percent were willing to donate the organs of their family members. Eighty percent were willing to receive organs from family and cadaver, 40% were willing to donate a child?s organs, 95% did not believe that organ donation is against their religion, 87% disagreed with the notion that doctors would not impart adequate care if they were pledged organ donors and 79% agreed that doctors would not declare death prematurely, if they had pledged their organs during life. There was a statis-tically significant correlation between attitudes, beliefs and demographics. In conclusion, the concept of brain-death was clearly understood by only a small number of medical postgraduate students. They how-ever, had positive attitudes and beliefs towards organ donation.
In this investigation, we assessed 443 teachers' beliefs with the "Teaching Ability Belief Scale" (TABS) and the "Importance of Teaching Knowledge Scale" (ITKS). Using cluster analysis, we identified four groups of teachers based on their responses to the TABS reflecting "Innate," "Learned,"…
Fives, Helenrose; Buehl, Michelle M.
Full Text Available We present results of a pseudolongitudinal study of attitudes and beliefs about physics from different cohort groups ranging from final-year high school students in the UK to physics faculty (N=637, using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS instrument. In terms of overall degree of expertlike thinking, we find little change in cohorts at different stages of their undergraduate degrees, with a flat profile of expertlike thinking across the years of an undergraduate degree. Significant differences in overall CLASS scores occur for cohorts across entry and exit points of the undergraduate program. At the entry boundary, our data for high school students provides strong evidence of a selection effect, with students who intend to major in physics at university displaying more expertlike views than those students who are merely studying the subject to final year in high school. A similar effect is suggested at the exit boundary but is not definitive.
Simon P. Bates*
We present results of a pseudolongitudinal study of attitudes and beliefs about physics from different cohort groups ranging from final-year high school students in the UK to physics faculty (N=637), using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) instrument. In terms of overall degree of expertlike thinking, we find little change in cohorts at different stages of their undergraduate degrees, with a flat profile of expertlike thinking across the years of an undergraduate degree. Significant differences in overall CLASS scores occur for cohorts across entry and exit points of the undergraduate program. At the entry boundary, our data for high school students provides strong evidence of a selection effect, with students who intend to major in physics at university displaying more expertlike views than those students who are merely studying the subject to final year in high school. A similar effect is suggested at the exit boundary but is not definitive.
Bates, Simon P.; Galloway, Ross K.; Loptson, Claire; Slaughter, Katherine A.
Although "evidence" is often used as an important argument in persuasive health campaigns, it remains unclear what type of evidence has the strongest impact on particular outcome variables. We conducted a meta-analysis in which the effects of statistical and narrative evidence on beliefs, attitude, and intention were separately compared. Statistical evidence was found to have a stronger influence than narrative evidence on beliefs and attitude, whereas narrative evidence had a stronger influence on intention. We explain these findings in terms of the match between the specific characteristics of the two types of evidence and those of the outcome variables. Statistical evidence, beliefs, and attitude all relate primarily to cognitive responses, whereas both narrative evidence and intention relate more specifically to affective responses. We conclude that communication professionals developing health campaigns should match the type of evidence to the main communication objectives. PMID:24836931
Zebregs, Simon; van den Putte, Bas; Neijens, Peter; de Graaf, Anneke
Introduction: cervical cancer (CC) is the second most frequent cancer in women in theworld, South America and Colombia. It represents the fourth cause of death by cancerin the world, the third cause in South America and the first cause in Colombia. The interesanprincipalrisk factor is the persistent infection with the Human Papillomavirus (HPV). TheCC can be prevented and the patient can be treated if it is detected early.Objective: to establish the knowledge, attitudes and practices about Hu...
Castro Reyes Elkin Mauricio; Miranda Machado Pablo Andrés; Borre Arrieta Orlando
The present study aimed to assess knowledge and attitudes of the pharmacists on dispensing drugs to pregnant women. Methods: Cross-sectional study in 150 community pharmacies randomly selected in Curitiba (Brazil). A closed end questionnaire with 25 questions were used, including dispensing scenarios containing risk types A, B, D or X and questions on pharmacist interaction with pregnant women, physicians, and information sources availability. Results: Pharmacists performed appropriately in...
Jp, Baldon; Cj, Correr; Ac, Melchior; Rossignoli P; Fernandez-Llimos F; Pontarolo R
Introduction: Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with ?high morbidity and mortality among patients. The data from NHMS III has reported that the ?present prevalence of DM in Malaysia has exceeded the projected prevalence for the year 2025 as ?estimated by the International Diabetes Federation.1 Assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and ?practices (KAP) is a crucial element of DM control.2 However, very few studies have focused on ?this area and t...
Shu Hui Ng, ?.; Kheng Hooi Chan; Zi Yang Lian; Yee Hooi Chuah; Aishath Noora ?Waseem; Amudha Kadirvelu
Purpose: Nutrition is an important component of any physical fitness program.The main dietary goal for active individuals is to obtain adequate nutrition to optimize health fitness and to increase sports performance. The present study aims to assess the nutrition knowledge, attitude and practice among the selected athletes. Methods: Athletes from five different private colleges situated in Salem District, Tamilnadu, India were selected. A total number of 102 athletes, 32 sportsmen belong to V...
Peerkhan Nazni; Srinivasan Vimala
The purpose of this study was to determine gifted students’ knowledge of and attitudes towards biotechnology. A total of 62 gifted primary school students who were taught in science and art centers in Denizli and Kahramanmara? in 2010-2011 academic year participated in the study. The results indicated that most of the students (87%) had an awareness regarding genetically modified (GM) products. The results also revealed that students think that GM products have risks. Overall, the students...
Kadir Bilen; Murat Özel
Background: Despite the growing awareness on pain management, mild and severe pain is still common among hospitalized patients. Inadequate treatment has been mostly linked to health care workers' failure to assess patients’ pain and to intervene appropriately.Objective: To determine the pain management knowledge and attitudes of the nurses working in training and research hospital in Turkey and their relationship to demographic and educational factors. Methods: Descriptive and cross-section...
Ayla Yava; Hatice Çicek; Nuran Tosun; Celale Özcan; Dilek Yildiz; Berna Dizer
Adolescents with asthma, their peers, and their teachers were studied in order to establish the level of knowledge concerning asthma and its management, their attitudes towards asthma, and the degree quality of life impairment due to asthma. A community survey was conducted among year 8 high school students (n = 4161) and their teachers (n = 1104). There was a good response rate to the questionnaires from students (93%) and teachers (61%). Twenty three per cent of students had asthma and this...
Gibson, P. G.; Henry, R. L.; Vimpani, G. V.; Halliday, J.
Full Text Available Suzanne McCarthy School of Pharmacy, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Abstract: Adherence to medication can be problematic for patients, especially so for patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Effective medications are available for the treatment of ADHD; however, nonadherence rates for ADHD medication range from 13.2%–64%. The reasons for nonadherence can be complex. This review aims to look at how the beliefs and attitudes of adolescents and adults impact ADHD treatment adherence. Keywords: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, medication, stimulant, attitude, belief, adherence
Using cluster-analysis in a sample of 65 Norwegian 10th graders, we identified subgroups characterized by relatively high levels of knowledge combined with relatively low beliefs in personal justification of knowledge claims, as well as subgroups characterized by the opposite pattern of knowledge and personal justification. Moreover, the high…
Ferguson, Leila E.; Braten, Ivar
The paper presented by the author at the first IAEA Knowledge Management Conference (2004, Saclay, France) was dedicated to the main achievements of the Soviet Union and Russia in generation and systematization of nuclear knowledge and in providing human resources for their application. Nevertheless, some well-known nuclear professionals consider the breach of the normal knowledge transfer process, which occurred when nuclear power plants have been transferred from the half-military nuclear complex with its high level of discipline to the civil 'boiler power industry' (quite unprepared for that), as one of the relevant causes of the Chernobyl accident. The crises of 1980-90ies (Chernobyl accident, changed political system, collapse of the USSR) have stopped the development of nuclear power industry and gave a severe blow to the nuclear knowledge management system. In present conditions, which can be surely described in the terms of 'nuclear renaissance', it seems important to trace, how the preserved and developing knowledge management system is influenced by the attitude towards nuclear energy in the country and in its 'components' (governmental authorities, energy community, public), as well as to follow up the role of nuclear professionals in forming the above attitude
Dentists are usually the first group who can examine patients for oral cancer and the early diagnosis highly depends on their knowledge. In this study, we aim to survey the Iranian dentists' knowledge, attitude, and behaviors regarding oral cancer. A valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire was designed and sent to 150 dentists. Responses to the questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Just one fifth of the dentists reported to perform oral cancer examination for all of their patients in age of 40 and above and about 34 % of them were knowledgeable. They mostly claimed that the lack of knowledge is the main barriers to the provision of routine oral cancer examinations. The opinion of dentists about the effectiveness of continuing education courses supports the development of these courses on oral cancer. Besides, more emphasis should be placed on oral cancer prevention in dental schools. PMID:23508899
Razavi, Sayed Mohammad; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Foroohandeh, Mehrdad; Doost, Mostafa Emami; Tahani, Bahareh
Full Text Available Introduction. In a time that economic classification of nations is largely dependant on their scientific output, our country "Iran" in comparison to it"s facilities, has fewer scienilfic producilon than accepted. For programming to increase quantity and quality of research, at first, should carefully recognise the present condition. This study was done to survay attitiude, knowledge and practice of students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services (IUMSHS about research. Methods. Questionnaires were distribiuted among interns (n=234 who their names and sites had extracted. Students enterance year to university was between 1992 to 1994. So, they were at the end of their staying in university. Results. Average grade of knowledge was 2.92±2 (from whole grade= 10. This grade did not depend on stage of preparing thesis. The most true answer was in writing of purpose and the least was in sampling, medline and role of variables in study. Attitude in 78.2 percent, indicate agreement with necessity of learning research concept. 54.2 percent agree with necessity of participailon in at least one research project in educational period in university, but 41.8 percent believe that research activity in present condition is wasting the time. The answerers who at least had parilcipated in one research project were 11.9 percent and the highest knowledg"s grade was in these students. Discussion. Despite the positive attitude of interns to learn the research concept, their knowledge level in comparison with other Iranian univercities and other univercities" students in the world, was very low. Although more than half of them have positive attitude to participation in research project, their practice was insignificant. Radical changes in education system and management seems to be necessary.
Full Text Available Objectives: This study was conducted to find out knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of epilepsy among 12 th -class students in Uttarakhand state. Secondly data of Uttarakhand was compared with KAP study from other parts of the country. Materials and Methods: All 12 th - class students studying in six schools of randomly selected 36 villages in Chakrata block of Dehradun district of Uttarakhand state were provided a printed questionnaire having answer as "yes or no". This questionnaire used was used previously by various authors and validated for KAP analysis. These filled questionnaires were collected by village health workers and medical officer. Results: This study conducted on 219, 12 th -class students revealed that epilepsy was heard by 98%, 74.9% thought epilepsy a mental disease and 4.8% believed that it is contagious. Negative attitude showed as nearly 2/3 rd students stated that epilepsy is hindrance in marriage and occupation. Nearly 41% would use onion or shoe for terminating seizure attack. Ayurvedic treatment was preferred over allopathic drugs. Conclusions: Study on 12 th -class students of Uttarakhand revealed poor knowledge, attitude and practice for epilepsy and needs special education program to dispel these misconceptions.
The aim of this quantitative study was to investigate elementary principals' beliefs about reformed science teaching and learning, science subject matter knowledge, and how these factors relate to fourth grade students' superior science outcomes. Online survey methodology was used for data collection and included a demographic questionnaire and two survey instruments: the K-4 Physical Science Misconceptions Oriented Science Assessment Resources for Teachers (MOSART) and the Beliefs About Reformed Science Teaching and Learning (BARSTL). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to assess the separate and collective contributions of background variables such as principals' personal and school characteristics, principals' science teaching and learning beliefs, and principals' science knowledge on students' superior science outcomes. Mediation analysis was also used to explore whether principals' science knowledge mediated the relationship between their beliefs about science teaching and learning and students' science outcomes. Findings indicated that principals' science beliefs and knowledge do not contribute to predicting students' superior science scores. Fifty-two percent of the variance in percentage of students with superior science scores was explained by school characteristics with free or reduced price lunch and school type as the only significant individual predictors. Furthermore, principals' science knowledge did not mediate the relationship between their science beliefs and students' science outcomes. There was no statistically significant variation among the variables. The data failed to support the proposed mediation model of the study. Implications for future research are discussed.
Khan, Uzma Zafar
At the University of Helsinki, pain-related topics are taught throughout medical studies but without a formal pain curriculum. The purpose of this study was to assess medical students' attitudes towards pain. A questionnaire using a 6-point Likert scale was constructed to measure pain-related attitudes and beliefs described in previous studies. After a pilot study, the questionnaire was developed to assess attitudes towards elderly patients' pain, prescription of opioids, assessment of pain and anxiety concerning chronic pain and its treatment. An electronic questionnaire with seven demographic and 28 pain-related items was sent via e-mail to 680 medical students at the University of Helsinki, Finland. Three reminders were sent with a new letter of encouragement. The students had 3 weeks to answer the questionnaire. The questionnaire was returned by 63.4% of the students (N=430). There were statistically significant differences between the students in different study years showing increasing empathy towards elderly patients' pain (ppositive. Attention should be paid to helping students to cope with their emotions and to reducing their anxiety about meeting patients with chronic pain. PMID:17258482
Niemi-Murola, Leila; Nieminen, Juha T; Kalso, Eija; Pöyhiä, Reino
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the computer attitudes and computer self-efficacy beliefs of students in the sample of PISA 2009 Turkey. It is examined whether computer self-efficacy beliefs and computer attitudes of students show variation by the variables of gender, type of school and region or not in the study. Moreover, the relation between computer self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes of students was analyzed. Since the study is a study aiming to examine computer self-efficacy beliefs and computer attitudes of students participating in PISA 2009 from Turkey in terms of various variables, it is a descriptive study. Computer self-efficacy belief scale and computer attitude scale were used as the tool of data collection in the research. In data analysis, construction validity of computer self-efficacy and computer attitude scales was examined by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, Cronbach alpha coefficient was calculated based on internal consistency and the differences between the groups were tested by the t test and analysis of variance (ANOVA. While computer self-efficacy beliefs of students do not differ by gender, computer attitudes are significantly different by gender and this difference has no practical significance. Computer self-efficacy beliefs and computer attitudes of students differ by type of school and region of school.
Cem Oktay GÜZELLER
Misconception and stigma towards epilepsy have a profound impact on this disease in Africa. An unselected sample of Zambian people was interviewed to investigate their knowledge and attitudes towards epilepsy. Proper/improper answers were scored, and a composite score was developed with negative values for unsatisfactory awareness and high stigma levels. The sample comprised 231 people residing in urban (107) or in rural (124) areas. The median and interquartile range of scores for epilepsy awareness and stigma were, respectively, -1 (-3; +1) and +1 (-1; +6). Poor education was the only significant predictor of unsatisfactory awareness (p=0.0131), while education and residency were significantly associated with stigma (pMisconception and negative attitudes towards epilepsy among Zambian people reflect poor education and rural residency. PMID:24681384
Pupillo, Elisabetta; Vitelli, Eugenio; Messina, Paolo; Beghi, Ettore
This study examines the relationship between a person's knowledge that a current ego-involving behavior may include health risks and the undertaking of a subsequent behavior change to reduce this risk. Specifically, 396 licensed anglers were surveyed concerning their beliefs about the health risks of consuming sport-caught fish, their knowledge of the risk information contained in the Michigan Fish Consumption Advisory, and their personal fish consumption behavior. Sixty-five percent of the anglers surveyed reported reading part or all of the Michigan Fish Consumption Advisory; however, as a group, they perceived the risks from eating sport-caught fish as small. PMID:10662060
Levine, K J; Miller, V D; Kamrin, M A; Dearing, J W
Evidence suggests that nurses can struggle to care for patients with sexually transmitted infections in a non-judgemental way. It is unknown how targeted education can influence the knowledge and attitudes of student nurses towards caring for patients with sexually transmitted infections. This study aimed to investigate how a change in curriculum influenced the reported sexual health knowledge and attitudes of pre-registration adult student nurses in a University in the UK. A two phase mixed methods study, using a sequential explanatory strategy, collected quantitative questionnaire data (n = 117) followed by qualitative group data (n = 12). Data were collected from one cohort of students before a curriculum change and then from a subsequent cohort of students. Those students who had increased educational input in relation to sexual health reported higher degrees of knowledge and demonstrated a more positive attitude towards patients with a sexually transmitted infection. Both cohorts of students identified that education in this subject area was essential to challenge negative attitudes and positively influence patient care. Active learning approaches in the curriculum such as small group debates and service user involvement have the ability to allow students to express and challenge their beliefs in a safe and supportive environment. PMID:24875840
Bell, Amelia; Bray, Lucy
The aim of research is to investigate the relationship between attitudes of prospective physical education teacher towards education technologies and their computer self-efficacy beliefs. Relational research method has been used in the study. Study group consists of 337 prospective physical education teachers ("M"[subscript age] = 21.57…
Kalemoglu Varol, Yaprak
Background: The purpose of this study was: (1) to evaluate the beliefs, attitudes and behaviours associated with nutrition and physical activity of parents with adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID); (2) to determine if these variables related to the body mass index (BMI) of the adolescents and the parents' BMI; and (3) to investigate if…
George, V. A.; Shacter, S. D.; Johnson, P. M.
This study investigated beliefs about HIV/AIDS to find out whether this variable could constitute an obstacle to change in attitudes to sex among undergraduate youths in South West Nigeria. A descriptive research design was adopted. A total of 1,420 undergraduate students in four different universities from four states were sampled. A…
Odu, Bimbola Kemi; Akanle, Florence Foluso
The aim of current study was to examine predictor and explanatory relationships between fifth graders' self-regulated learning strategies, motivational beliefs, attitudes towards mathematics, and academic achievement. The study was conducted on a sample of 204 students studying in the primary schools of Afyonkarahisar province. Motivated…
Ocak, Gurbuz; Yamac, Ahmet
Incoming first-year college students (N = 4,292) were surveyed regarding attitudes and beliefs about leadership. Students' opinions about their leadership ability were high and were related to having an outgoing personality, as well as the number of high school activities in which they had been involved. In addition, students' understanding of…
Wielkiewicz, Richard M.; Fischer, Donald V.; Stelzner, Stephen P.; Overland, Maribeth; Sinner, Alyssa M.
Background: Community Psychiatry involves support and treatment of people with mental disorder in a domiciliary setting instead of mental hospital. The attitude of the public towards mental illness and mentally ill person is generally negative. Knowledge and attitude of nurses towards this topic is important because they deal directly patients, families and the community as negative attitude will hinder quality service. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitud...
Amiegheme F.E; Adeyemo F.O
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Clustered within the nomenclature of Asian American are numerous subgroups, each with their own ethnic heritage, cultural, and linguistic characteristics. An understanding of the prevailing health knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors of these subgroups is essential for creating population-specific health promotion programs. Methods Korean American women (123 completed baseline surveys of breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors as part of an Asian grocery store-based breast cancer education program evaluation. Follow-up telephone surveys, initiated two weeks later, were completed by 93 women. Results Low adherence to the American Cancer Society's breast cancer screening guidelines and insufficient breast cancer knowledge were reported. Participants' receptiveness to the grocery store-based breast cancer education program underscores the importance of finding ways to reach Korean women with breast cancer early detection information and repeated cues for screening. The data also suggest that the Asian grocery store-based cancer education program being tested may have been effective in motivating a proportion of the women to schedule a breast cancer screening between the baseline and follow-up surveys. Conclusion The program offers a viable strategy to reach Korean women that addresses the language, cultural, transportation, and time barriers they face in accessing breast cancer early detection information.
Ryujin Lisa T
A study of 4,976 high-school students in Israel, representative of this age group for the entire country except for 13 percent who attend religious schools, revealed that about one-third of the boys aged 14-15 and almost one-half of those in the 16-17 age category have had sexual intercourse. The respective figures for girls are 6 percent and 16 percent. Age at onset of sexual activity was found to be higher and the level of knowledge about the same as in reports from the Western world. Students of Oriental origin, as well as those considering themselves religious or traditional tended to be less active sexually, more conservative in their attitudes, and less knowledgeable. In contrast, students of both sexes residing in kibbutzim were found to be more active sexually and more knowledgeable. A double standard for girls was accepted, especially among the female respondents, except in the kibbutzim. A subgroup of girls highly sexually active, in contrast to their own attitudes, has been identified, and possible reasons for this discordance discussed. As sexual activity among teenagers is becoming more prevalent, comprehensive and early sex education school programs should be encouraged. PMID:717616
Lancet, M; Modan, B; Kavenaki, S; Antonovski, H; Shoham, I
The nutritional care of patients is one of the primary responsibilities of all registered nurses (Persenius et al, 2008). A poor nutritional status can lead to malnutrition, which can have serious consequences for an individual\\'s quality of life (Field and Smith, 2008). This paper commences with an introduction to the concept of nutrition, provides an overview of nutritional guidelines and nutritional screening tools which identify those at risk of malnutrition. It reviews the literature on nurses\\' knowledge, attitudes and practices in the provision of nutritional care and debates challenges and opportunities encountered to help nurses ensure adequate patient nutrition.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine gifted students’ knowledge of and attitudes towards biotechnology. A total of 62 gifted primary school students who were taught in science and art centers in Denizli and Kahramanmara? in 2010-2011 academic year participated in the study. The results indicated that most of the students (87% had an awareness regarding genetically modified (GM products. The results also revealed that students think that GM products have risks. Overall, the students thought that GM products should be used for the benefit of technology and people. Based on the findings from this study, some implications for biotechnology education are made.
The Hungarian Youth for Nuclear (FINE) was established in 1999 as the Hungarian branch of the Young Generation Network. Our purpose is to remove the misconceptions and fears that have arisen around the nuclear techniques, mainly nuclear energetics, and to reply to the questions brought up by the Hungarian youth on this topic. This year, our main activity was to take part in the Student Island with a Nuclear-tent. In this paper we delineate our experience that we have gained with the help of our programmes about the attitude and knowledge of the Hungarian youth. (authors)
The Young People for the Nuclear Energetics (FINE) was established in 1999 as the Hungarian branch of the Young Generation Network. Our purpose is to remove the misbelieves and fears arisen around the nuclear techniques and mainly the nuclear energetics and to reply the questions brought up by the Hungarian youth in this topic. In this year our main activity was to take part in the Student Island festival with a Nuclear-tent. In this paper our experience is delineated what we drawn with the help of our programmes about the attitude and the knowledge of the youth. (authors)
Full Text Available This study was performed to determine the health beliefs about protection from colorectal cancer and reveal the knowledge levels regarding CRC screening tests in individuals above 50 years of age. The population of our descriptive study consisted of individuals above 50 years of age, total of 136 individuals were included who were registered at the Filiz Dolunay Family Health Center in Erzurum District Center. A structured questionnaire including demographic characteristics and Champion’s Health Belief Model Scale was applied to determine health beliefs. Statistical analysis was performed on computer by using t-test. The data were expressed by mean and percentage values. In conclusion, in the present study, the Turkish population exhibited low levels of knowledge and inadequate participation for CRC screening, while requiring an improvement with regard to common health beliefs.
Hasret Yalç?nöz Baysal
We conducted a mail survey of practicing pediatricians in Georgia to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding recording patients' environmental histories. Of 477 eligible pediatricians, 266 (55.8%) responded. Fewer than one in five reported having received training in environmental history-taking. Pediatricians reported that they strongly believe in the importance of environmental exposures in children's health, and 53.5% of respondents reported experience with a patient who...
Kilpatrick, Nikki; Frumkin, Howard; Trowbridge, Jane; Escoffery, Cam; Geller, Robert; Rubin, Leslie; Teague, Gerald; Nodvin, Janice
There are few studies that have assessed factors influencing infection control practices among health care workers (HCW) in nursing homes. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of HCWs (N = 392) in 4 nursing homes to assess whether knowledge, beliefs, and perceptions influence reported hand hygiene habits. Positive perceptions and beliefs regarding effectiveness of infection control in nursing homes were associated with reported appropriate glove use and fingernail characteristics, respective...
Aiello, Allison E.; Malinis, Maricar; Knapp, Jennifer K.; Mody, Lona
Investigating the impact of "off-line" cognitive structures on the broad range of antisocial behaviors shown by young people has been hampered by the absence of psychometrically robust measures of antisocial cognitions. This study evaluates the psychometric properties of the Antisocial Beliefs and Attitudes Scale (ABAS), a developmentally sensitive measure of young people's beliefs and attitudes toward social standards of acceptable behavior at home and at school. The reliability and validity of the ABAS was assessed in a sample of British school children (N = 486) aged 9-16 years (M = 12.79, SD = 1.90) and male young offenders (N = 84) aged 13-17 years (M = 15.15, SD = 0.27). Participants completed the ABAS, together with a self-report measure of antisocial behavior; maternal reports of antisocial activity were also collected in the offending sample. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the 2-factor structure of Rule Noncompliance and Peer Conflict previously derived from a sample of Canadian school children, and these factors showed good test-retest reliability. Rule Noncompliance predicted self-reported antisocial behavior for ages 11-16 years, while Peer Conflict predicted antisocial behavior for ages 9-16 years. Comparisons between young offenders and an age-matched subsample of males from the school group showed significant differences. In young offenders, Rule Noncompliance and Peer Conflict were significantly predictive of self-reported antisocial behavior, while Rule Noncompliance independently predicted mothers' ratings of their sons' antisocial behavior. These findings provide support for the ABAS as a psychometrically sound measure of antisocial thinking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25383585
Butler, Stephen M; Parry, Rachael; Fearon, R M Pasco
Surveyed entering optometry students (n=404) and again during their fourth year (n=314) for knowledge about and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS. Analysis indicated significant improvement from pre- to post-test for general HIV/AIDS knowledge and optometric-specific HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes. For universal precautions implementation, no change in…
Rosengren, Kenneth J.; Zoltoski, Rebecca K.
Full Text Available In almost every country, the organ supply for transplantation does not match the increasing demand; health professionals may play an important role in eliminating barriers and increasing organ donation. Therefore, assessing medical students’ knowledge and attitudes regarding organ donation is important for the future organ supply. Some 409 of 508 first- and second-year medical students answered an anonymous, multiple-choice questionnaire about demographic variables, knowledge about transplant issues, and willingness to donate organs. The mean age was 20.3±1.8 years (range: 17 to 29 years; 50.1% were male, 49.9% were female. Some 44.8% of the total respondents reported that they had sufficient knowledge about organ donation, and 40.1% reported knowledge about organ transplantation. The primary source of their knowledge was reported as the media (72.1%. Willingness to donate their own organs was 58.4% and willingness as to their relatives’ organs was 39.9%. The acceptance of live organ donation was higher (74.6% than cadaver donation. Only 1.2% had a organ donation card. Female students were more willing to donate their own and their relatives’ organs. Since medical students are prospective leaders of promoting organ donation action, these issues should be taught within the context of social medicine lessons, and desirable behavioral changes should be implemented.
The Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program is an ongoing project that is designed to strengthen geoscience education in South Texas public schools. It began in June 2003 and is funded by the National Science Foundation. This outreach program involves collaboration between Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi and four independent school districts in South Texas with support from the South Texas Rural Systemic Initiative, another NSF-funded project. Additional curriculum support has been provided by various local and state organizations. Across Texas, fifth grade students are demonstrating a weakness in geoscience concepts as evidenced by their scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills. As a result, fifth and sixth grade public school students from low-income school districts were selected to participate in this program. At this age students are already making decisions that will affect their high school and college years. The main purpose of this project is to encourage these students, many of whom are Hispanic, to become geoscientists. This purpose is accomplished by enhancing their geoscience knowledge, nurturing their interest in geoscience and showing them what careers are available in the geosciences. Educators and scientists collaborate to engage students in scientific discovery through hands-on laboratory exercises and exposure to state-of-the-art technology (laptop computers, weather stations, telescopes, etc.). Students' family members become involved in the geoscience learning process as they participate in Family Science Night activities. Family Science Nights constitute an effective venue to reach the public. During the course of the Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program, investigators have measured success in two ways: improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience concepts and change in students' attitudes towards geoscience. Findings include significant improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience. Students also report more positive attitudes toward geoscience after having participated in laboratory activities and Family Science Nights. Preliminary findings on the extent to which geoscience and geoscience careers become part of families' purviews, discourses and planning through involvement in Family Science Nights will be presented. Implications related to the success of this program, as indicated by measurement of students' knowledge and attitudes of geoscience as well as engagement of this program by families, will be discussed.
Silliman, J. E.; Hansen, A.; McDonald, J.; Martinez, M.
Pesticides, despite their known toxicity, are widely used in developing countries. Evaluating the pattern of their use would be interesting to assess the appropriateness of adequate intervention. Using a standardized questionnaire, a knowledge, attitude, and practice study was performed in two Lebanese regions, in which a group of agricultural workers was compared to workers of the general population and a third group of pesticide distributors. Agricultural workers were exposed to pesticides during cropping, mixing, loading, and application (100%). They had low pesticide knowledge scales compared to pesticide distributors and to the general population workers (PPesticide safety education is necessary in order to induce protective behavior among agricultural workers. The general population may also benefit from increasing their awareness regarding pesticides. PMID:14643280
Salameh, Pascale R; Baldi, Isabelle; Brochard, Patrick; Abi Saleh, Bernadette
Purpose: Stereotypes toward stuttering and people who stutter (PWS) are widespread in the general public irrespective of age, level of education, culture, geographic location and profession. Negative attitudes held by persons of authority like teachers can lead to social, economic and educational obstacles in the lives of PWS. Method: The current…
Abdalla, Fauzia A.; St. Louis, Kenneth O.
The aim of the study: is to analyze the relation between the knowledge and attitude to nutrition of Lithuanian teenagers and their eating habits. The objectives of the study: to analyze the dietary habits of adolescents. To examine the knowledge and attitude of adolescents to diet. To evaluate the link between the eating habits of teenagers and their knowledge and attitude to nutrition. Research methods: total of 3465 students surveyed. The study included 1802 (52%) girls and 1663 (48...
Background Migrant populations are at high risk of Human Immuno Deficiency Virus infection (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Studies of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and practices among fishermen in developing countries have shown gaps in knowledge and fear of contagion with ambivalent attitudes towards HIV/AIDS and inconsistent universal precautions adherence. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS a...
Zafar, Mubashir; Nisar, Nighat; Kadir, Masood; Fatmi, Zafar; Ahmed, Zeeshan; Shafique, Kashif
The attitudes toward people with epilepsy are influenced by the degree of knowledge of the condition. Teachers usually do not receive any formal instruction on epilepsy during their training. This study was done to access three hundred teachers' knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy by answering a questionnaire in order to quantify their knowledge, attitude and practice toward epilepsy. Almost all the teachers had heard about epilepsy yet could not demonstrate discrimination among the stude...
Dantas Fábio Galvão; Cariri Gibran Agra; Cariri Gustavo Agra; Ribeiro Filho Antônio Roberto Vaz
The current study was aimed to assess Saudi school students' knowledge, attitude and practice about medicines. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used anonymously among 15-20 year-old adolescents attending tertiary schools in Taif City, KSA. A total of 1022 students completed the questionnaires. Only 15.4% of the respondents knew the medicines' uses. Most of the students 79.6% affirmed that they used to take medicines after consulting physicians, and 45.1% of the students thought that tablet size affects the medicine's efficacy. More than half of the students knew that high temperatures affect the efficacy of medicines, there was a significant difference between rural and urban areas (P = 0.005). Physicians (50.6%) and community pharmacists (15.7%), were the main students' reliable sources of information about medicines. The majority of the students 70.5% were interested in learning more about medicines. The younger students ?18 years wish to learn more than the older ones (P attitudes about medicines. Low level of knowledge may expose adolescents to health-related problems. Educational efforts are important to improve students' practice toward medicines. PMID:25061406
Eldalo, Ahmed S; Yousif, Mirghani A; Abdallah, Mustafa Awad
The aim of this study is to determine the computer attitudes and computer self-efficacy beliefs of students in the sample of PISA 2009 Turkey. It is examined whether computer self-efficacy beliefs and computer attitudes of students show variation by the variables of gender, type of school and region or not in the study. Moreover, the relation between computer self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes of students was analyzed. Since the study is a study aiming to examine computer self-efficacy belie...
Gu?zeller, Cem Oktay
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze smoking related beliefs, attitudes and knowledge on anti-smoking legislation among some cafe workers, business owners and customers about smoking ban in their worklaces in province of Trabzon. Agreed to participate in the study to 87 business owner, 140 office employees and 465 customers in total, including 692 people face to face with the survey technique was applied. The 75.3% of those who participated in the study of law is thought necessary. The number of those who believe in the necessity of law is increasing with education level (p<0.0005. Smoking ban was found more necessary by non-smokers than who current smokers and have quit smoking (p<0.0005. There is a no difference between the man and woman about the necessity of law (p=0.403. The 35.6 % of business owners , 53.5 % of customers, 41.4 % of the office staff is considering the law be applied (p=0.021. The 33.9% of current smokers, 62% non-smoking, 54.3% of those who have quit smoking is considering that ban can be applied. There was statistically significant difference among groups(p<0.0005. The number of those who believe in belief that the ban can be applied is increasing with education level (p=0.015. There is a no difference between the man and woman on belief about the ban can be applied (p=0.339. The adoption of the law in our country in terms of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and social measures have been taken an important step in the way of implementation. The our research that was made immediately preceding the entering into application of the law, was very positive support on law compliance. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 275-280
Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to investigate the knowledge and attitudes among pharmacists in Oman towards the specific use and knowledge of herbal drugs. Methods: The study was conducted on 100 pharmacists employed in Oman. The data was collected using two self- administered questionnaire containing 7 and 11 closed ended questions in each, respectively. Results: The mean age of pharmacists was 32.6 (SD=5.6 years. The majority of pharmacists were interested in herbal information and their herbal information mainly comes from their previous classes during college. Most of them have belief on the effectiveness of herbal products. Pharmacists were more knowledgeable on specific therapeutic indications of herbal products rather than on other areas such as drug- herb interaction or side effects. Conclusion: In summary, Pharmacists need to be informed on the therapeutic indications, drug interactions, dose, active constituent and precautions of herbal products. Concerned bodies must also provide them with regular continuing education programs apart from putting their effects to incorporate relevant topics in herbal medicine in pharmacy curriculum.
Shah Alam Khan
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although dietary supplements (DS are widely sold in pharmacies, the legal, ethical, and practice responsibilities of pharmacists with respect to these products have not been well defined. This systematic review of pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviours toward DS is intended to inform pharmacy regulators' and educators' decision making around this topic. Methods Eligible studies were identified through a systematic database search for all available years through to March 2006. Articles were analyzed for this review if they included survey data on U.S. or Canadian pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, or professional practice behaviors toward DS published in 1990 or later. Results Due to the heterogeneity of the data, it was not possible to draw a conclusion with respect to pharmacists' general attitudes toward DS. Approximately equal numbers of pharmacists report positive as well as negative attitudes about the safety and efficacy of DS. There is strong agreement among pharmacists for the need to have additional training on DS, increased regulation of DS, and quality information on DS. In addition, survey data indicate that pharmacists do not perceive their knowledge of DS to be adequate and that pharmacists do not routinely document, monitor, or inquire about patients' use of DS. Despite this, a large proportion of pharmacists reported receiving questions about DS from patients and other health care practitioners. Conclusion Further research is needed to explore the factors that influence pharmacists' beliefs and attitudes about DS, to accurately evaluate pharmacists' knowledge of DS, and to uncover the reasons why pharmacists do not routinely document, monitor, or inquire about patients' use of DS.
There are limited data on the impact of incorporating genetic counseling and testing into the newborn hearing screening process. We report on results from a prospective, longitudinal study to determine the impact of genetic counseling and GJB2/GJB6 genetic testing on parental knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about genetic testing. One hundred thirty culturally hearing parents of 93 deaf or hard-of-hearing children ages 0 – 3 years primarily identified through newborn hearing screening rece...
Palmer, Christina G. S.; Martinez, Ariadna; Fox, Michelle; Zhou, Jin; Shapiro, Nina; Sininger, Yvonne; Grody, Wayne W.; Schimmenti, Lisa A.
Abstract Background Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) are common in children. The cause of URTIs is usually viral, but parents' attitudes often contribute to inappropriate prescription of antibiotics, promoting antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study was to document and analyse parental beliefs on antibiotic use for children with URTIs in Greece, a country with high levels of antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance. Methods A knowledge-attit...
Theodoridou Maria N; Goutziana Georgia P; Theodoridou Kalliopi M; Papaevangelou Vassiliki; Spyridis ?ikos; Panagakou Sotiria G; Syrogiannopoulos George A; Hadjichristodoulou Christos S
Background To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding organ donation in a selected adult population in Pakistan. Methods Convenience sampling was used to generate a sample of 440; 408 interviews were successfully completed and used for analysis. Data collection was carried out via a face to face interview based on a pre-tested questionnaire in selected public areas of Karachi, Pakistan. Data was analyzed using SPSS v.15 and associations were tested using the Pearson's Chi square test. Multiple logistic regression was used to find independent predictors of knowledge status and motivation of organ donation. Results Knowledge about organ donation was significantly associated with education (p = 0.000) and socioeconomic status (p = 0.038). 70/198 (35.3%) people expressed a high motivation to donate. Allowance of organ donation in religion was significantly associated with the motivation to donate (p = 0.000). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher level of education and higher socioeconomic status were significant (p < 0.05) independent predictors of knowledge status of organ donation. For motivation, multiple logistic regression revealed that higher socioeconomic status, adequate knowledge score and belief that organ donation is allowed in religion were significant (p < 0.05) independent predictors. Television emerged as the major source of information. Only 3.5% had themselves donated an organ; with only one person being an actual kidney donor. Conclusion Better knowledge may ultimately translate into the act of donation. Effective measures should be taken to educate people with relevant information with the involvement of media, doctors and religious scholars. PMID:19534793
Saleem, Taimur; Ishaque, Sidra; Habib, Nida; Hussain, Syedda Saadia; Jawed, Areeba; Khan, Aamir Ali; Ahmad, Muhammad Imran; Iftikhar, Mian Omer; Mughal, Hamza Pervez; Jehan, Imtiaz
Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotic overuse and misuse for upper respiratory tract infections in children is widespread and fuelled by public attitudes and expectations. This study assessed knowledge, beliefs, and practices regarding antibiotic use for these paediatric infections among children's caregivers' in Trinidad and Tobago in the English speaking Caribbean. Methods In a cross-sectional observational study, by random survey children's adult caregivers gave a telephone interview from November 1998 to January 1999. On a pilot-tested evaluation instrument, respondents provided information about their knowledge and beliefs of antibiotics, and their use of these agents to treat recent episodes ( Results Of the 417 caregivers, 70% were female and between 18–40 years, 77% were educated to high school and beyond and 43% lived in urban areas. Two hundred and forty nine (60% respondents scored high (? 12 on antibiotic knowledge and 149 (34% had used antibiotics in the preceding year. More caregivers with a high knowledge score had private health insurance (33%, (p Conclusions In Trinidad and Tobago, caregivers scoring low on antibiotic knowledge have erroneous beliefs and use antibiotics inappropriately. Children in their care receive antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections without visiting a health clinic or a physician. Educational interventions in the community on the consequences of inappropriate antibiotic use in children are recommended. Our findings emphasise the need to address information, training, legislation and education at all levels of the drug delivery system towards discouraging self-medication with antibiotics in children.
Knowledge and beliefs about malaria transmission and practices for vector control in Southern Mexico Conocimientos y creencias acerca del paludismo y prácticas para el control de vectores en el sur de México
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the knowledge and beliefs about malaria transmission and practices for vector control in eight villages on the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted during May and June 1995 in Chiapas, Mexico. A questionnaire to investigate family structure, knowledge on malaria transmission, preventive measures and attitudes towards seeking treatment was applied to both family heads of a sample of households. Associations wer...
Américo David Rodríguez; Rosa Patricia Penilla; Mario Henry-Rodríguez; Janet Hemingway; Angel Francisco Betanzos; Juan Eugenio Hernández-Avila
In the United Kingdom, people from the Indian subcontinent have a higher incidence of kidney failure, are less likely to receive a kidney transplant, and have a higher mortality rate from renal disease. In addition, Asians are reluctant donors; white people make up 95% of the donor pool. We developed a questionnaire to determine the knowledge and attitudes toward organ donation in the Asian communities. The setting was a public forum; the aims were (1) to study the attitudes of Asians toward organ donation, (2) to validate our questionnaire, and (3) to initiate a campaign of increasing awareness of organ donation and transplantation in the Asian community in the greater Glasgow area. Our survey suggested that Asians have an awareness of organ donation and transplantation, and they would donate an organ to a family member; however, they did not carry a donor card. Respondents unanimously agreed that lobbying by religious leaders was the best means to promote awareness. PMID:14765722
Jindal, Rahul M; Joseph, John T; Baines, Lyndsay S
Full Text Available Introduction: cervical cancer (CC is the second most frequent cancer in women in theworld, South America and Colombia. It represents the fourth cause of death by cancerin the world, the third cause in South America and the first cause in Colombia. The interesanprincipalrisk factor is the persistent infection with the Human Papillomavirus (HPV. TheCC can be prevented and the patient can be treated if it is detected early.Objective: to establish the knowledge, attitudes and practices about HumanPapillomavirus (HPV in adolescent students of secondary.Methods: an analytical, observational and cross sectional study was performed withthe application of a survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP, to studentsof secondary of two schools of the city of Cartagena, Colombia, between July andDecember of 2011.Results: 10.8% of the polled adolescents replied that they knew the condilomatosis,infectious disease of sexual transmission caused by HPV and 20,1% have knowledgeabout the connection between cervical cancer and HPV infection.Conclusion: there is low knowledge about HPV infection and its association with CC,just like good attitudes with respect to the use of prevention methods of HPV infectionand early detection methods of CC and inadequate practices, mainly in the vaccinationprogramming against HPV. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2012;3(2:275-281RESUMEN:frecuente en mujeres en el mundo, América Latina y Colombia. Representa la cuartacausa de muerte por cáncer en el mundo, la tercera en America del Sur y la primera enColombia. El factor de riesgo principal es la infección persistente con el Virus del PapilomaHumano (VPH. El CACU puede prevenirse y curarse si se detecta tempranamente.Objetivo: establecer conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas acerca del VPH enadolescentes estudiantes de secundaria.Metodología: estudio observacional analítico de corte transversal realizado con laaplicación de una encuesta de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (CAP, a estudiantesde secundaria de dos colegios de la ciudad de Cartagena, Colombia, en el periodocomprendido entre julio y diciembre de 2011.Resultados: el 10.8% de las adolescentes encuestadas respondió que conocía lacondilomatosis, enfermedad infecciosa de transmisión sexual causada por el VPH y el20,1% tiene conocimiento de la relación del cáncer de cuello uterino con la infecciónpor VPH.Conclusiones: se observa bajo conocimiento acerca de la infección por VPH y suasociación con el CACU, buenas actitudes con respecto a la utilización de métodosde prevención de la infección por VPH y de métodos de detección precoz de CACU yprácticas deficientes, principalmente en la cobertura de vacunación contra el VPH. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2012;3(2:275-281
Castro Reyes Elkin Mauricio
Full Text Available Background: Unsafe abortion is a major Public health problem in developing countries, where women make several unsafe attempts at termination of the unintended pregnancy before turning to health services. Community health workers can act as a bridge between the community and their health facilities and can use Emergency Contraceptive Pills to significantly reduce the mortality and morbidity related to unsafe abortions. Aims: This study explores the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Lady Health Supervisor of the National Program for Family Planning, district Rawalpindi, regarding emergency contraception pills. Materials and Methods: The cross sectional survey was conducted during the monthly meeting of Lady Health Supervisors. Self administered, anonymous and voluntary questionnaire consisting of 17 items, regarding demographic profile, awareness, knowledge, attitudes and practices, was used. Results: Insufficient knowledge, high misinformation and strongly negative attitudes were revealed. More than half did not know that emergency contraceptive pills do not cause abortion. About four fifths believed that emergency contraceptive pills will lead to ‘evil’ practices in society. More than four fifths recognized that the clients of National Program for Family Planning need emergency contraceptive pills. The attitudes were significantly associated with knowledge (P=0.034, Fisher’s Exact Test. Conclusion: The awareness of emergency contraceptive pills is high. Serious gaps in knowledge have been identified. There is a clear recognition of the need of emergency contraceptive pills for the clients of National Program for Family Planning. However, any strategy to introduce emergency contraceptive pills must cater for the misplaced beliefs of the work force.
Azeem Sultan Mir
Full Text Available Currently, the syndromic management of HIV/AIDS is based on a biomedical model that focuses on the ABC (Abstain, Be faithful, Condomise model. The ABC model overlooks the issue of indigenous cultural practices, sexual behaviours, knowledge and attitudes of the society. A grounded theory study was used for the research. The population for the research on which this article is reporting, was selected from the Vhavenda ethnic group using purposive sampling. In-depth interviews were held at the participants’ own homes. The outcome of the study on which this article is reporting, may assist in identifying indigenous health beliefs, attitudes and practices that will assist in curbing the spread of HIV/AIDS. The findings revealed that cultural practices, such as premarital counselling, polygamy and widow inheritance, are believed to be influential in making women more susceptible to sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. The practice of abstinence, as emphasised at initiation schools, should be incorporated into current policies and preventative practices. The findings further demonstrate that policy-makers who formulated the HIV/AIDS strategy have limited knowledge of the health beliefs, attitudes and practices of the people they serve. They thus find it difficult to draw up promotion and prevention strategies that meet the needs of the community. It is therefore imperative that our health-care training curriculum be reviewed to make provision for the incorporation of sound and effective indigenous practices to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS and to eliminate or refine practices that are harmful and detrimental to people’s health. The cultural practices that were proved reliable and effective will be recommended for integration into health education.
Full Text Available Background: Tooth avulsion is one of the commonest types of physical sport injury. Themanagement of these cases is critical in order to prevent complete loss of tooth and its subsequentconsequences. The prognosis of such avulsed tooth depends on prompt treatment. The emergencymanagement of such avulsed tooth is made by the sports teacher who is present at the sports ground. Thefirst–aid knowledge about tooth avulsion is must for the sports teacher. Aim: The objective of the presentstudy was to evaluate the knowledge about management of tooth avulsion among sports teachers inAhmednagar District. Methods: A sample of 60 sports teachers were interviewed from different schools.The data was collected using a self administered questionnaire containing seven items which wasdistributed among the sports teacher from different schools. Results: we found that 90% of the sportsteachers were not having the first-aid knowledge about the emergency management of avulsed tooth andthe benefit of timely care. This demands an effort to properly educate sports teachers about first-aidmanagement and consequently change their attitude towards dental trauma.
A survey of over 11 000 undergraduate students' knowledge and attitudes related to science and technology over a 22-year period included statements that probed faith-based beliefs and various aspects of pseudoscience belief and superstition. The results reveal that nonscientific ways of thinking are resistant to formal instruction, changing…
Impey, Chris; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie
Introduction: Emergency contraceptives are accessible and acceptable methods for most women, which their proper use could prevent about three quarters of unwanted pregnancies. In this study, we aimed to determine the providers’ knowledge, attitudes and their relation with the pills and condoms users’ knowledge of and attitudes towards emergency contraception at public health centers/posts in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, subjects were 140 health p...
Mohammad-alizadeh-charandabi, Sakineh; Farshbaf-khalili, Azizeh; Moeinpoor, Roya
A cross-sectional prospective study was performed to assess knowledge and attitude toward breastfeeding among mothers in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia and its influence on their breastfeeding practices. Two hundred thirteen women who had delivered healthy babies at term were enrolled. A structured questionnaire containing demographic data and the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Score were used, followed by a telephone interview after 8 weeks to determine the feeding outcome. Women of Malay ethnicity with higher education level who had received breastfeeding counseling had a significantly more favorable attitude toward breastfeeding. Ethnicity was found to be a significant determinant in the success of breastfeeding, whereas returning to work was a major reason for discontinuing breastfeeding. In ensuring a successful breastfeeding practice, apart from knowledge and attitude, issues surrounding culture and traditions as well as improving deliverance of readily available support should be addressed. PMID:24893127
Ishak, Shareena; Adzan, Nur Azeanny M; Quan, Lee K; Shafie, M Hasli; Rani, Nor Azila; Ramli, Kazzoma G
Full Text Available An estimated 200,000 children born in Thailand each year are at risk of prenatal exposure to pesticides and associated neurodevelopmental outcomes because of their mothers’ agricultural occupations. Children born to non-agricultural workers may also be at risk of exposure from other pathways of maternal pesticide exposure, including exposure through home use, diet, and other environmental media. Pesticide exposure in Thailand has been linked to unsafe practices and beliefs about pesticides. However, limited information exists on pesticide knowledge, attitudes, and practices among pregnant women in Thailand or elsewhere. Obtaining this information is essential to understand the factors associated with prenatal pesticide exposure, identify populations potentially at risk, and ultimately protect pregnant women and their children. We administered surveys to 76 pregnant women in northern Thailand and used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate associations among pesticide-related knowledge, pregnancy trimester, and pesticide use behavior. In this pilot study, lower knowledge score and earliest trimester of pregnancy were marginally (p < 0.1 associated with unsafe practices in the home, but not at work. Women who worked in agriculture or applied pesticides before becoming pregnant, or who had a previous child were significantly (p < 0.05 more likely to engage in unsafe behaviors in the home during their current pregnancy. We preliminarily conclude that increasing pesticide-related knowledge among pregnant women may help promote safe practices and reduce prenatal exposure. Knowledge-based interventions may be most effective when implemented early in pregnancy and targeted to agricultural workers and other sub-populations at risk of pesticide exposure.
Anne M. Riederer
Full Text Available Pharmacovigilance can be helpful in protecting consumers from harmful effects of medicines. Healthcare professionals should consider Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR reporting as their professional obligation and should be aware of the existing pharmacovigilance mechanisms in their countries. In Nepal, pharmacovigilance activities were initiated in 2004. Objectives: The present study evaluated the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of the healthcare professionals towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance in Manipal Teaching Hospital (MTH, a tertiary care teaching hospital attached to the regional pharmacovigilance center in western Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2007 using a pretested (Cronbach alpha=0.72 questionnaire having 25 questions (15 questions on knowledge, 5 on attitude and 5 on practice. The correct/positive responses were given a score of ‘2’ and the wrong/negative responses ‘1’, maximum possible score of ‘50’. Results: A total of 131 responses were obtained among which 42 were incomplete and remaining 89 [females 49 (55.1%] were analyzed. Of the 89 professionals, 29 (32.6% were doctors, 46 (51.8 nurses and 14 (15.7% pharmacists. The mean age was 28.32 (SD=8.46 years and the median (interquartile range of duration of the service 14.5 (6-36 months. The total KAP scores was 40.06 (SD=3.51 for doctors, 38.92 (SD=4.83 for pharmacists, and 35.82 (SD=3.75 for nurses. Among the 89 professionals, 59 (62.3% had not reported even a single ADR to the pharmacovigilance center. Conclusion: The healthcare professionals at the MTH had a poor KAP towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance and there is a need for educational and awareness intervention for these professionals.
Individuals’ attitudes and beliefs toward behaviors are key indicators of behavioral performance. The purpose of this study was to elucidate attitudes and beliefs about depression, HIV/AIDS and HIV risk-related sexual behaviors among clinically depressed African American adolescent females and to develop an understanding of their context for HIV risk. For this descriptive qualitative inquiry, semi-structured interviews and surveys were employed (N = 24). The narratives reveal that behaviora...
Brawner, Bridgette M.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in biobanking for collection of specimens for non-communicable diseases research has grown in recent times. This paper explores the perspectives of Nigerians on donation of specimen for the biobanking research. Methods We conducted 16 Focus Group Discussions (FGD with individuals from different ethnic, age and socio-economic groups in Kano (North, Enugu (Southeast, Oyo States (Southwest and Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory (Central of Nigeria. We used topic guides and prompt statements to explore the knowledge and understanding of interviewees to general issues about biobanking of biospecimens, their use and specifically about role of biobanking in non-communicable diseases research. Results A total of 123 individuals participated in 16 focus group discussions in 2011. Our participants had limited knowledge of the concept of biobanking but accepted it once they were educated about it and saw it as a worthwhile venture. Half of our study participants supported use of broad consent, a quarter supported restricted consent while the remaining quarter were in favour of tiered consent. Most discussants support shipment of their samples to other countries for further research, but they prefer those collaborations to be done only with competent, ethical researchers and they would like to receive feedback about such projects. The majority preferred health care as a benefit from participation, particularly for any unexpected condition that may be discovered during the course of the research instead of financial compensation. Participants emphasized the need to ensure that donated samples were not used for research that contradicts their religious beliefs. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that our participants accepted biobanking once they understand it but there were different attitudes to elements of biobanking such as type of consent. Our study highlights the need to carefully document population attitudes to elements of modern scientific research and the consenting process.
Igbe Michael A
This paper discusses the sensitivity of instruments used to measure knowledge and attitudes toward older people. Existing standardized measurement instruments are reviewed, including a detailed examination of Palmore's Facts on Ageing Quiz (FAQ). A recent study conducted by the research team into the knowledge and attitudes of support workers (n =…
Cowan, David T.; Fitzpatrick, Joanne M.; Roberts, Julia D.; While, Alison E.
Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitudes, sources of HIV information and behaviours related to HIV, and to explore the difference in the HIV knowledge and attitudes between genders and school years among college students in China. Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional. Setting: 475 college students from two universities in China. Method: Data…
Tung, Wei-Chen; Hu, Jie; Efird, Jimmy Thomas; Yu, Liping; Su, Wei
Nigerian secondary students were surveyed regarding selected environmental issues to determine prevailing knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Students performed very poorly in the knowledge component of the questionnaire and demonstrated negative attitudes towards issues. Students also indicated practices that were harmful to a healthy…
Mansaray, A.; Ajiboye, J. O.
This paper presents the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale (ASKAS), an instrument designed to assess the particular aspects of sexual knowledge and attitudes as they relate to the aged. Development of ASKAS items from a survey of existant physiological research on sexuality in older adults and a review of social-psychological writing on…
White, Charles B.
High school students in Taiwan with disabilities (N=1204) were compared with nonhandicapped adolescents (N=754) on their sexual knowledge, attitudes, and experiences. Although the nonhandicapped students were most knowledgeable and demonstrated the most positive attitudes toward sexuality, the hearing-impaired group were the most sexually…
Outdoor educational programmes are generally believed to be a suitable alternative to conventional biology settings that improve participants' environmental attitudes and knowledge. Here we examine whether outdoor educational programmes focused solely on practical work with plants influence participants' knowledge of and attitudes towards plants.…
Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol
To assess their knowledge, use, and attitudes regarding peer-to-peer (P2P) applications, this study surveyed academic librarians (n = 162) via a mail-in survey. Correlations between the sample characteristics (age, gender, year of MLS, type of library job) and P2P knowledge, use, and attitudes were also explored. Overall, academic librarians…
This study examined preschool teachers' beliefs, knowledge, and practices related to classroom management. The rationale for researching this topic is based on the role of teachers in the special education referral process, the poor success rate for inclusion for children with disabilities who demonstrate problematic classroom behaviors, and…
Drang, Debra Michal
Australian policy initiatives and state curriculum reform efforts affirm a commitment to address student disengagement through the development of inclusive school environments, curriculum, and pedagogy. This paper, drawing on critical social theory, describes three Australian projects that support the cultivation of teachers' beliefs, knowledge…
Carrington, Suzanne; Deppeler, Joanne; Moss, Julianne
This study examined HIV/AIDS knowledge and beliefs in Haitian adolescents in an HIV epicenter, Miami-Dade Florida. This study examined survey data from 300 Haitian adolescents, aged 13 through 18, from both low- and middle-income neighborhoods. A sub-sample of 80 adolescents was selected for in-depth interviews and continuous observations with…
Marcelin, Louis Herns; McCoy, H. Virginia; DiClemente, Ralph J.
Using a sample of 282 Norwegian upper secondary students, we examined whether two dimensions of topic-specific epistemic beliefs, concerning the certainty of knowledge and the justification for knowing, predicted students' understanding of seven texts representing partly conflicting views on climate change. Text comprehension was measured at three…
Stromso, Helge Ivar; Braten, Ivar
This study surveyed 82 preservice elementary teachers using items from an instrument designed to predict student achievement based on a teacher's mathematics knowledge for teaching (MKT) in numbers and operations concepts. Additional mathematics beliefs items asked participants to rate their level of agreement with math myths and math anxiety…
Genetic counseling is part of the social response to the science of genetics. It is intended to help twenty-first-century societies manage the consequences of our ability to observe and intervene in our genetic makeup. This article explores the views, knowledge, and beliefs of some Deaf and hard of hearing people about genetics and genetic…
Middleton, Anna; Emery, Steven D.; Turner, Graham H.
The authors analyse epistemological beliefs and their relationship to the knowledge developed by students engaged in a reorganized programme of training for secondary school teachers in Quebec. They examine two contexts for initial training: the training in their discipline that university students follow, and the practical training students…
Therriault, Geneviève; Harvey, Léon
The purpose of this mixed research study was to investigate early assessment and identification for dyslexia in kindergarten through second grade, and to examine whether teachers' knowledge and beliefs lead to the practice of retaining students in grade rather than recommending formal dyslexia assessment. This study investigated both…
Foreman-Sinclair, Kimberly Ann
Suzanne McCarthy School of Pharmacy, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Abstract: Adherence to medication can be problematic for patients, especially so for patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Effective medications are available for the treatment of ADHD; however, nonadherence rates for ADHD medication range from 13.2%–64%. The reasons for nonadherence can be complex. This review aims to look at how the beliefs and attitudes of adolescents and adults imp...
This qualitative case study aimed to focus on the experiences and subsequent science and science teaching beliefs, attitudes, and self-efficacy of an elementary pre-service teacher, Heather, with extremely positive attitude and high self-efficacy. For this particular population of pre-service teachers, possessing a high science teaching self-efficacy alone is not sufficient to assume reform-based beliefs and teaching practices. This study was unique in that it concurrently explored the relati...
This paper proposes machine learning techniques to discover knowledge in a dataset in the form of if-then rules for the purpose of formulating queries for validation of a Bayesian belief network model of the same data. Although do-main expertise is often available, the query formulation task is tedious and laborious, and hence automation of query formulation is desirable. In an effort to automate the query formulation process, a machine learning algorithm is lev-eraged to discover knowledge i...
Michael Riesen; Gursel Serpen
Approximately 21,000 osteopathic medical students were enrolled in the USA in 2012-2013. These future physicians are being educated with an emphasis on a holistic or patient-centered approach, with a focus on preventive care. Considering the importance of preventive care and early diagnosis in the outcomes of oral malignancies, our goal in this study was to assess the knowledge, behavior, and attitude of osteopathic medical students in relation to oral cancer. To this end, 204 second-year (Y2) and 194 fourth-year (Y4) medical students were invited to participate in an electronic survey. Forty-one Y2 and 44 Y4 students agreed to participate (20 and 22 % response rate, respectively). The results showed that most Y2 and Y4 students were knowledgeable in certain areas (demographic features, important risk factors, and histologic feature), but deficient in others (clinical presentation, association of human papillomavirus (HPV) with oropharyngeal cancers, and screening recommendations). Head, neck, and oral examination habits were reported as being performed occasionally. Overall, students reported feeling uninformed about oral cancer and showed an interest in receiving further education on the subject. Our findings confirm that an overall improvement in oral cancer education in the medical curriculum is needed. Interprofessional collaboration between dental and medical schools may prove to be a valid approach to achieve this goal, which may possibly lead to increased detection of early oral cancerous lesions and, ultimately, improved mortality rates. PMID:24882439
McCready, Zachary R; Kanjirath, Preetha; Jham, Bruno C
Clozapine is, in most countries, underutilized and the initiation of clozapine is often delayed. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reasons for the delay and the underutilization of clozapine. One hundred psychiatrists were interviewed by phone. The interview was a structured interview with questions regarding attitude to, knowledge of and experiences with clozapine. Forty-eight (48%) psychiatrists had treatment responsibility of fewer than five patients treated with clozapine and 31 of the interviewed psychiatrists (31%) had started clozapine within the last 3 months. Seven psychiatrists (7%) had never prescribed clozapine despite the fact that they had been working more than five years in general psychiatry. Sixty-four psychiatrists (64%) would rather combine two antipsychotics than use clozapine. Sixty-six psychiatrists (66%) believed that patients treated with clozapine were less satisfied with their treatment when compared with those treated with other atypical antipsychotics. Many psychiatrists are reluctant to use clozapine and this might be due to less experience and knowledge of clozapine. A reason for the low awareness of clozapine's properties might be that clozapine is now a generic drug, and therefore, the marketing and education in using the drug is sparse.
Nielsen, Jimmi; Dahm, M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Filipino Americans are the fastest growing Asian minority group in the United States. There is limited knowledge about their breast cancer knowledge, screening practices and attitudes. Methods As part of the evaluation of the Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program, 248 Filipino American women completed baseline and follow-up surveys, while an additional 58 took part in focus groups. Results Compliance with annual clinical breast exam guidelines among women 40 to 49 years old was 43%, and annual mammography use among women 50 and over was 56%. The Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program and complementary focus group study identified multiple barriers that hindered women from attending education programs, with time as the most frequently reported barrier. Conclusion The Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program was reported to be a culturally acceptable and effective way of disseminating breast cancer information and one that addressed the women's most frequently reported barrier, lack of time.
The growing need for transplantable organs continues to outpace supply. This discrepancy is most pronounced in minority populations. Hispanic Americans, however, are significantly less likely to donate their organs for reasons that remain poorly understood. We sought to identify factors that influence Hispanic American high school students' intent to donate organs. A prospective observational study was conducted in five Los Angeles high schools within four separate zip codes known for a high percentage of Hispanic Americans. High school students, ages 15 to 20 years, were surveyed to assess demographic factors, cultural factors, awareness and knowledge, perception, and belief regarding organ donation and the intent to donate. A total of 5444 surveys were collected over a 4-month period. After logistic regression analysis, independent risk factors for predicting the intent to donate were: family support, 11th and 12th grade high school students, being female, religion, and the belief that Hispanics are more likely to need an organ transplant. This study represents the largest study to date examining factors associated with the intent to donate in Hispanic American high school students. To address the organ shortage crisis in Hispanic Americans, these risk factors should be considered using specific, effective educational programs. PMID:22369823
Berry, Cherisse; Salim, Ali; Ley, Eric J; Schulman, Danielle; Anderson, Jacqui; Navarro, Sonia; Zheng, Ling; Chan, Linda S
Problem gambling has been identified as a public health concern in Australia, and a considerable proportion of regular gamblers may be at risk of developing gambling related problems. Attentional bias to salient cues has been observed in substance addictions, and to some extent, in problem gamblers. This bias appears to be indicative of an increase in sensitisation to salient cues as a result of continued reforcement of a related behaviour. To test for an attentional bias to gambling-related stimuli in non-problem gamblers, the relationships between gambling frequency, gambling attitudes and beliefs (GABS-23), and attentional bias were investigated. Participants (N = 38) viewed simultaneous pairs of gambling-related and neutral images and performed a dot probe task, during which their eye-movements were recorded. This enabled both direct and indirect measures of attentional bias to be obtained. Gambling frequency and GABS-23 scores predicted both direct and indirect measures of a bias in the maintenance of attention to gambling cues. No bias in attentional engagement was found. These results suggest that regular gamblers who have not yet developed any related problems show signs of sensitisation to gambling cues and may be at risk of progressing further towards problem gambling. PMID:24871298
Grant, Leigh D; Bowling, Alison C
In the United Kingdom over 90% of women do not breastfeed for as long as they would like, despite widespread knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding. Negative attitudes and low levels of knowledge in staff supporting breastfeeding may be a contributing factor. This paper reports on the breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes in two key workforce groups; student midwives (n = 19) and Breastfeeding Network peer supporters (n = 36) and compares them with breastfeeding women (n = 23). All three groups had high knowledge and attitude scores, but peer supporters had significantly higher levels than student midwives or breastfeeding women. Student midwives' knowledge of breastfeeding was higher than breastfeeding women's but they had similar breastfeeding attitude scores. The higher knowledge and attitude scores in peer supporters may be attributed to the effectiveness of their training, which includes challenging their existing breastfeeding attitudes and debriefing their personal breastfeeding experience. It is suggested that midwives' breastfeeding attitudes are affected by their community culture and their personal experience of breastfeeding. It is proposed that midwifery training should continue to embrace a biopsychosocial model, including training to improve breastfeeding attitudes, particularly for professionals from areas where breastfeeding is not the cultural norm, or who have had negative personal breastfeeding experiences. PMID:24594280
Darwent, Kirsty L; Kempenaar, Larissa E
OBJECTIVES: To describe oral health behaviour, illness behaviour, oral health knowledge and attitudes among 35-44 and 65-74-year-old Chinese; to analyse the oral health behaviour profile of the two age groups in relation to province and urbanisation, and to assess the relative effect of socio-behavioural risk factors on dental caries experience. METHODS: A total number of 4,398 35-44-year-olds and 4,399 65-74-year-olds were selected by multistage stratified cluster random sampling which involved 11 provinces in China. Data were collected by self-administered structured questionnaires and clinical examinations (WHO criteria). RESULTS: 32% of the 35-44-year-olds and 23% of the 65-74-year-olds brushed at least twice a day but only 5% used fluoridated toothpaste; 30% and 17% respectively performed 'Love-Teeth-Day' recommended methods of tooth brushing. A dental visit within the previous 12 months was reported by 25% of all participants and 6% had a dental check-up during the past two years. Nearly 15% of the subjects would visit a dentist if they experienced bleeding from gums; about 60% of the subjects paid no attention to signs of caries if there was no pain. Two thirds of the urban residents and one fifth of the rural participants had economic support for their dental treatment from a third party, either totally or partially. Significant variations in oral health practices were found according to urbanisation and province. At age 35-44 years 43% of participants had daily consumption of sweets against 28% at age 65-74 years. Dental caries experience was affected by urbanisation, gender, frequency, time spent on and method of tooth brushing. Knowledge of causes and prevention of dental diseases was low with somewhat negative attitudes to prevention observed. CONCLUSION: Systematic community-based oral health promotion should be strengthened and preventive-oriented oral health care systems are needed, including promotion of further self-care practices and the use of fluoridated toothpaste.
Zhu, Ling; Petersen, Poul Erik
Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among the college students.Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in the Government College, Gangtok, Sikkim, during the month of April 2009 to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among 156 students enrolled in the first year bachelor course. Descriptive statistics was used for data analysis.Results: 98% (153/156) of the students had knowledge about family planning and ...
Prachi Renjhen; Ashwini Kumar; Sanjay Pattanshetty; Afrin Sagir; Charmaine Minoli Samarasinghe
Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been realized as a primary cause of death in women for almost a century. However, the relationship between women’s knowledge, their wish and action on practicing heart healthy lifestyle is still vague. Aim and Objectives: This research aimed to determine the association between knowledge and attitude, knowledge and practice and attitude and practice on cardiovascular disease among women in Kelantan. Methods/ Study Design: A cross sectional stud...
Ranimah Yahya; Rosediani Muhamad; Harmy Mohamed Yusoff
This literature review reports on the assumed relations between primary school teachers' knowledge of technology and pupils' attitude towards technology. In order to find relevant aspects of technology-specific teacher knowledge, scientific literature in the field of primary technology education was searched. It is found that teacher nowledge is essential for stimulating a positive attitude towards technology in pupils. Particularly, teachers' enhanced Pedagogical Content Knowledge is found ...
Rohaan, Ej; Taconis, R.; Jochems, Wmg
The purpose of this paper is to describe the knowledge of and attitudes toward computers of graduate nursing students before and after an elective course “Computers in Nursing”. At the beginning of the course students completed a questionnaire which included questions about computer access and use, knowledge of computer terminology and computer use, and attitudes toward computers. Prior to the course students had widely varying self-rated knowledge of computer terminology scores. Self-rat...
Merrow, Sherry Lynne
Full Text Available In 1998 the World Health Organization declared childhood obesity as a “global epidemic.” It has also been observed that the health problems of adult obesity can be prevented, if obesity is controlled in childhood. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge and attitude regarding prevention of obesity and Correlate the knowledge and attitude regarding prevention of obesity among adolescents in a selected pre-university college. A pre-experimental one group pre-test post-test design was adopted. Convenience sampling technique used for selecting the adolescents. A structured knowledge questionnaire on prevention of obesity and a five-point Likert scale to assess the attitude regarding prevention of obesity were developed as the tools for data collection. The data obtained were analyzed based on the objectives and hypotheses, using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result showed that the mean post-test knowledge and attitude score of adolescents on prevention of obesity was higher than the mean pretest knowledge and attitude score. There was no correlation between knowledge and the attitude. The present study concludes that the teaching programme improved the knowledge and attitude of adolescents regarding prevention of obesity.
Prashanth K and Umarani J
Manuscript considers results of a research study that assesses American Indian university students' factual knowledge, understanding, and perceptions of susceptibility to HIV/AIDS, and relationships between their attitudes and decisions to engage in HIV-risk behaviors. Participants responded to a 57-item scaled survey and several demographic…
Sileo, Nancy M.; Sileo, Thomas W.
Context: Because cervical cancer mortality in the United States is twice as high among black women as white women and higher in rural areas, providing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to rural black adolescents is a high priority. Purpose: To identify racial differences in knowledge and attitudes about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine…
Cates, Joan R.; Brewer, Noel T.; Fazekas, Karah I.; Mitchell, Cicely E.; Smith, Jennifer S.
The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly expanding technology, genetic engineering, to food production. The results indicated significant difference in understanding of concepts related with genetically engineered food stuffs between teachers and students. The most common ideas about genetically modified food were that cross bred plants and genetically modified plants are not same, GM organisms are produced by inserting a foreign gene into a plant or animal and are high yielding. More teachers thought that genetically engineered food stuffs were unsafe for the environment. Both teachers and students showed number of misconceptions, for example, the pesticidal proteins produced by GM organisms have indirect effects through bioaccumulation, induces production of allergic proteins, genetic engineering is production of new genes, GM plants are leaky sieves and that transgenes are more likely to introgress into wild species than mutated species. In general, more students saw benefits while teachers were cautious about the advantages of genetically engineered food stuffs.
Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara
Energy use per square foot from science research labs is disproportionately higher than that of other rooms in buildings on campuses across the nation. This is partly due to labs’ use of energy intensive equipment. However, laboratory management and personnel behavior may be significant contributing factors to energy consumption. Despite an apparent increasing need for energy conservation in science labs, a systematic investigation of avenues promoting energy conservation behavior in such labs appears absent in scholarly literature. This paper reports the findings of a recent study into the energy conservation knowledge, attitude and behavior of principle investigators, laboratory managers, and student lab workers at a tier 1 research university. The study investigates potential barriers as well as promising avenues to reducing energy consumption in science laboratories. The findings revealed: (1) an apparent lack of information about options for energy conservation in science labs, (2) existing operational barriers, (3) economic issues as barriers/motivators of energy conservation and (4) a widespread notion that cutting edge science may be compromised by energy conservation initiatives. - Highlights: ? Effective energy conservation and efficiency depend on social systems and human behaviors. ? Science laboratories use more energy per square foot than any other academic and research spaces. ? Time, money, quality control, and convenience overshadow personnel convenience overshadow personnel’s desire to save energy. ? Ignorance of conservation practices is a barrier to energy conservation in labs.
Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess knowledge and attitudes of the pharmacists on dispensing drugs to pregnant women. Methods: Cross-sectional study in 150 community pharmacies randomly selected in Curitiba (Brazil. A closed end questionnaire with 25 questions were used, including dispensing scenarios containing risk types A, B, D or X and questions on pharmacist interaction with pregnant women, physicians, and information sources availability. Results: Pharmacists performed appropriately in 53% of the encounters. Lower success were associated to prednison and captopril (24.8% in both, end cases producing more doubts were captopril (31.7% and simvastatin (30.7%. Most of the pharmacists state have advised drugs to pregnant women or contact to the physician to discuss about a prescription related with this issue. A Majority (64.4% did not feel able to understand FDA risk classification and did not have trustable information sources in pharmacy. Conclusions: Pharmacists dispensing drugs in Curitiba are not able to interpret information on the use of drugs in pregnant women, and they don have reliable information sources on the use of dugs in pregnancy. However, they advice and counsel drugs to pregnant women and discuss with physicians therapeutic strategies.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to establish the knowledge and attitude of family physcians offering primary health care, towards adult vaccination and their own vaccination coverage. Methods: This descriptive study was performed in May 2009 in Kayseri, Turkey. 282 family physician accepted to fill a questionnaire about adult vaccination. Results: Most of the family physcians (83.0% thought adult vaccination as a modality of protection and 66.7% wanted a vaccination scheme just like the one in childhood. Their own vaccination rate for Hepatitis B was 67.0% and 58.5% for influenza at any time. Only half of the physcians were vaccinated within the season for influenza. Only 9.2% of the doctors have stated that they ask questions to their patients about their vaccination status. When physcians were questioned about the vaccines they advise to their patients aged 65 and more; 70.6% stated influenza and 39.7% stated pneumococcus. Conclusion: In spite of being in the risk group, family physicians have low vaccination coverage rates. Suggestion of the necessary vaccines to the risk groups or to their patients at risk is low as well.
Background: Despite scientific evidence on the positive effects of seafood consumption on human health, the consumption of fish remains below the recommended intake levels for the majority of Europeans. The present study aimed to explore cultural differences in potential determinants of fish consumption: consumers' knowledge and health-related beliefs, as well as the relationship between those variables, socio-demographics and fish consumption frequency, using data from five European countries. Methods: A cross-sectional consumer survey was carried out in 2004 with representative household samples from Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Spain. The sample consisted of 4786 respondents, aged 18-84 years, who were responsible for food purchasing and cooking in the household. Results: European consumers had a very strong belief that eating fish is healthy. Consumers' belief that eating fish is healthy, their interest in healthy eating and objective fish-related nutrition knowledge, positively, but only weakly, influenced fish consumption frequency. Subjective knowledge was found to be a stronger predictor of fish consumption than the previously noted factors. Age and education contributed, both directly and indirectly through knowledge, to explain fish consumption behaviour. However, the path coefficients in the estimated model were relatively low, which indicates that fish consumption frequency was also determined by factors other than health-related beliefs and consumers' knowledge. Conclusions: The findings of the present study suggest that communication should focus on health-related benefits other than fish consumption alone. Communicating that eating fish is healthy and stressing the health benefits of fish alone, as is still commonly performed (e.g. in generic promotion and other types of public information campaigns) will be insufficient to achieve higher levels of compliance with fish consumption recommendations.
Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim
In France, most teachers still receive scant training in how to support plurilingual children in their learning of and through the language of instruction. In the absence of relevant, in-depth knowledge about language, we believe that many teachers are practising language policies based on beliefs rooted in ideologies unsupported by research…
Young, Andrea S.
Objective: The purpose of this cross-sectional investigation was to examine (1) gender differences in osteoporosis-related knowledge and beliefs and (2) if these beliefs could predict vigorous physical activity behavior in university students. Participants: Male (n = 176) and female (n = 351) university students participated in the study. Methods:…
Gammage, Kimberley L.; Gasparotto, Jennifer; Mack, Diane E.; Klentrou, Panagiota
The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to examine the sexual behavior of emerging adult women in relation to their sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and perceptions of their parents' sexual attitudes; and second, to discuss the implications of this research in working with young adult women. Three hundred and sixty-four college-age women…
Byno, Lucy H.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Mullis, Ann K.
Abstract Background For patients to effectively manage gout, they need to be aware of the impact of diet, alcohol use, and medications on their condition. We sought to examine patients’ knowledge and beliefs concerning gout and its treatment in order to identify barriers to optimal patient self-management. Methods We identified patients (?18 years of age) cared for in the setting of a multispecialty group practice with documentation of at least one health ca...
Harrold Leslie R; Mazor Kathleen M; Peterson Daniel; Naz Nausheen; Firneno Cassandra; Yood Robert A
Gholamreza Sharifirad; Mohammadhassan Entezari; Aziz Kamran; Leila Azadbakht
Despite continued critique of the idea of clear boundaries between scientific and lay knowledge, the 'deficit-model' of public understanding of ecological issues still seems prevalent in discourses of biodiversity management. Prominent invasion biologists, for example, still argue that citizens need to be educated so that they accept scientists' views on the management of non-native invasive species. We conducted a questionnaire-based survey with members of the public and professionals in invasive species management (n?=?732) in Canada and the UK to investigate commonalities and differences in their perceptions of species and, more importantly, how these perceptions were connected to attitudes towards species management. Both native and non-native mammal and tree species were included. Professionals tended to have more extreme views than the public, especially in relation to nativeness and abundance of a species. In both groups, species that were perceived to be more abundant, non-native, unattractive or harmful to nature and the economy were more likely to be regarded as in need of management. While perceptions of species and attitudes towards management thus often differed between public and professionals, these perceptions were linked to attitudes in very similar ways across the two groups. This suggests that ways of reasoning about invasive species employed by professionals and the public might be more compatible with each other than commonly thought. We recommend that managers and local people engage in open discussion about each other's beliefs and attitudes prior to an invasive species control programme. This could ultimately reduce conflict over invasive species control. PMID:25170957
Fischer, Anke; Selge, Sebastian; van der Wal, René; Larson, Brendon M H
The teacher is the most important school-based factor in student learning. Thus, in order to improve student learning, we must examine how teachers learn to teach. My overarching research agenda centers upon K-16 science teacher learning and development. Within this agenda, I conduct studies focused on two strands of research: 1) How teachers learn to teach science using constructivist and inquiry-oriented teaching strategies; and 2) How teachers learn to teach biological evolution. This dissertation merges the two strands together, and consists of four related manuscripts that address how beginning biology teachers learn to teach natural selection using constructivist and inquiry-oriented teaching strategies. In the first manuscript, I reviewed the evolution education literature focused on K-12 teachers’ knowledge, beliefs, and practice for teaching evolution. Based upon findings across the studies, I articulated five goals for preparing teachers to teach evolution. The second and third manuscripts are longitudinal empirical studies focused on three beginning biology teachers learning to teach natural selection using the 5E instructional model and interactive classroom simulations. The fourth manuscript is a practitioner article that explains how to teach natural selection simulations using a constructivist, analogy-based teaching strategy. Findings that cut across the four manuscripts are organized into the following themes: (A) The participants developed some common types of knowledge for teaching natural selection, yet also developed in unique ways. All participants developed knowledge of the horizontal curriculum. Yet, participants also developed different types of knowledge. For example, participants who had taken an evolution course developed more integrated pedagogical content knowledge for teaching the core concepts of natural selection. The participant who integrated discipline-level knowledge for teaching science through inquiry with topic-level knowledge for teaching natural selection had taken an undergraduate evolution course and possessed a student-centered orientation, demonstrating the importance of both subject matter preparation and orientations for teaching science in reform-based ways. Differences I observed among the participants highlight the need for more in-depth case studies in addition to large-scale studies to understand beginning science teacher development. (B) Beliefs about science teaching and learning shaped the participants’ knowledge and practice for teaching natural selection. Participants who possessed student-centered science teaching orientations developed more integrated pedagogical content knowledge for teaching natural selection. However, one participant with a student-centered orientation possessed beliefs in which it was the students’ role to discover natural selection with little intervention from the teacher. This finding supports the need to help teachers develop constructivist orientations to facilitate students’ conceptual understandings of science in addition to engaging in inquiry processes. (C) Learning to teach evolution requires a complex amalgam of knowledge, beliefs, and practice. The literature highlights the types of knowledge and beliefs that teachers must develop to be willing to teach evolution, including content knowledge, understandings of the nature of science, and knowledge of teaching controversial topics. In addition, teachers need to develop pedagogical content knowledge for teaching evolution in ways that support students’ conceptual understanding of evolution. Based upon my review of the literature, secondary science majors should be required to take a course designed for teaching evolution, with the following goals: 1) Develop content knowledge of evolution; 2) Accept evolution as scientifically valid; 3) Develop understandings of the nature of science related to evolution; 4) Develop strategies for handling the public controversy; and 5) Develop pedagogical content knowledge for teaching evolution. This collection of work has implications f
Sickel, Aaron J.
Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis threatens the aged population especially the menopausal women and can lead to life long disability and death. Appropriate knowledge and behavior have an important role in prevention of osteoporosis. In this study the knowledge, attitude and behavior of women regarding osteoporosis is assessed and compared in different age groups.Methods: This cross sectional study includes 390 women in reproductive, premenopausal and menopausal age groups who had come to Shariati hospital clinics and each had answered the designed questionnaire. The questionnaires were scored and analyzed. Women's knowledge, attitude and behavior were assessed and compared by X2 test in the three age groups and P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: 15-30% of women didn't know what osteoporosis is and in 380 of them attitude or behavior was not good. Education had a significant effect on knowledge of women in reproductive and premenopausal ages (P=0.002, 0.04 respectively, but had no effect on their attitude or behavior. Age had a significant effect on knowledge and attitude (P=0.001 but had no effect on behavior. Age had significant effect on the knowledge that exercise can prevent osteoporosis (P=0.014 but not on attitude or behavior. Age had no effect on knowledge, attitude or behavior of daily calcium intake to prevent osteoporosis. (P=0.123, 0.12, 0.153 respectively 93% to 95% of women thought the risks of osteoporosis are less than cardiovascular disease or breast cancer.Conclusions: 15-30% of women didn't know what osteoporosis is. The total knowledge about osteoporosis was low. Although 22-75% of women younger than 54 years old had knowledge about the predisposing factors but their attitude or behavior was not good.
Kaghaz kanani R.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the leading female malignancy in Nigeria. Screening for early detection has led to reduction in mortality from the disease. It is known that attitudes of physicians and motivation by community nurses influence uptake of screening methods by women. This study aims to investigate knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, beliefs about treatment and practice of screening methods among a cohort of female healthcare professionals in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire to assess the knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, beliefs about treatment and practice of screening methods among 207 female doctors, nurses and other healthcare professionals working in a university teaching hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Stratified random sampling method was employed. Chi square test, analysis of variance and Mantel-Haenszel test were performed in data analysis using SPSS v10.0 and Epi Info version 6 statistical packages. Results Female doctors obtained a mean knowledge score of 74% and were the only professional group that had satisfactory knowledge of risk factors. Majority (86% believed that early breast cancer is curable while half of participants believed that prayer can make breast cancer disappear from the affected breast. Eighty three percent practice breast self-examination (BSE once a month and only 8% have ever had a mammogram. Age, knowledge of risk factors, profession and beliefs were not significantly associated with rate of BSE in this study. Conclusion Results from this study suggest the need for continuing medical education programmes aimed at improving knowledge of breast cancer among female healthcare providers other than doctors.
Odusanya Olumuyiwa O
The aim of the study was to examine the effectiveness of a pain management program (PMP) in enhancing the knowledge and attitudes of health care workers in pain management. Many nursing home residents suffer from pain, and treatment of pain is often inadequate. Failure of health care workers to assess pain and their insufficient knowledge of pain management are barriers to adequate treatment. It was a quasiexperimental pretest and posttest study. Four nursing homes were approached, and 88 staff joined the 8-week PMP. Demographics and the knowledge and attitudes regarding pain were collected with the use of the Nurse's Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain-Chinese version (NKASRP-C) before and after the PMP. A deficit in knowledge and attitudes related to pain management was prominent before the PMP, and there was a significant increase in pain knowledge and attitudes from 7.9 ± SD 3.52 to 19.2 ± SD4.4 (p < .05) after the 8-week PMP. A PMP can improve the knowledge and attitudes of nursing staff and enable them to provide adequate and appropriate care to older persons in pain. PMPs for nurses and all health care professionals are important in enhancing care for older adults and to inform policy on the provision of pain management. PMID:24602419
Tse, Mimi Mun Yee; Ho, Suki S K
The Web-based technology is a potential tool for supported collaborative learning that may enrich learning performance, such as individual knowledge construction or group knowledge sharing. Thus, understanding Web-based collaborative learning for knowledge management is a critical issue. The present study is to investigate learners' attitudes…
Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Chen, Gwo-Dong; Huang, Hsiu-Mei
Some studies of sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behavior involve college students who volunteered to participate in the research. The present study assesses the impact of volunteer bias when considering random samples of an entire student body. (Author)
Bauman, Karl E.
Full Text Available Paper is a case study of console market, where the console makers are identified as group G which shares a distributed knowledge of current consumer expectations. According to the basic logic, it is reasonable to expect that if it is commonly known that a choice A is better than a choice B, any agent i will prefer the choice instead of the inferior one. In case some console makers chose a completely different outcome which is rather based on belief instead of common knowledge.
The aim of this study was to examine epilepsy sufferers' attitudes to and knowledge of their condition, the effect of epilepsy on their lives and their views on the management they had received, and to compare knowledge and attitudes with those of a control group of non-sufferers. A questionnaire was completed by 29 patients with epilepsy and 32 control group subjects from two general practices. It was found that people with epilepsy knew little more than those without epilepsy regarding the ...
Dawkins, J. L.; Crawford, P. M.; Stammers, T. G.
"nBackground and Aims: Fissure sealant therapy is a national program in elementary schools in Iran. Therefore, evaluation of the parents' knowledge and attitude is necessary to improve the program."nMaterials and Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive-analytic study, Iranian students were chosen in a randomized cluster manner. The questionnaires were filled-out by students' parents to evaluate their general information, knowledge, and attitude. Moreover, students...
Golestan B.; Amir Soltani M; Jafari A; Bahrami N
OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in the AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of first year university undergraduates in 1989 and 1994. DESIGN: Comparisons were made between cross-sectional surveys, conducted in 1989 and 1994, of first year undergraduates at three Melbourne universities. RESULTS: The 1994 cohort reported more positive attitudes toward, and better knowledge of, safe sex practices and less discrimination against perceived risk groups than did the 1989 cohort; howeve...
Rosenthal, D. A.; Smith, A. M.; Reichler, H.; Moore, S.
Background: Spontaneous reporting is an important tool in pharmacovigilance. However, its success depends on cooperative and motivated prescribers. In order to improve the reporting rate, it is essential to improve the Knowledge, Attitude and the Practices (KAP) of the healthcare professionals with regards to the ADR reporting and the pharmacovigilance. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of pharmacovigilance among private prescribers of R...
Karelia, Bharti N.; Piparava, Kiran G.
A benchmark study was carried out on the knowledge surrounding, attitudes toward, and use of institutional repositories at Mozambican Universities, especially with regard to their medical faculties. This benchmark study was part of a two-step research set-up which examined: The level of knowledge, the attitudes and practices (KAP) of university library users in Mozambique; Factors or interventions that could have an effect on the KAP of library users in the near future; How the spread of info...
Dam, H.; Madzija, T.; Martinho, A.; Waete, R.
Objectives: To determine the knowledge, attitude and adherence to cold chain guideline among general practitioners.Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among general practitioners in Kelantan using questionnaire, refrigerator inspection form and minimax thermometer. The validated questionnaire consists of 10 items on knowledge and 11 items on attitude with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.68-0.72. Descriptive analysis was done using SPSS 12.0.Results: There were 89 general practitioners invol...
Azira, B.; Mn, Norhayati; Norwati, D.
Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection and causes 529.000 cases of cervical cancer every year. Nowadays, there are vaccines available to prevent infection. Knowledge of HPV influence the attitude towards the vaccine and is therefore a factor of accepting the vaccine. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the knowledge of HPV and attitudes towards HPV-vaccine among Thai female university students. Method: Descriptive and cross-sectional...
Stridh, Sandra; Hammar, Solvind
Background: Good knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of HIV prevention are essential in order not to acquire HIV infection and to prevent the disease from spreading. A proper and well functioning prevention of HIV requires clear and relevant information and instructions from health care givers. Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning HIV prevention among Burmese migrant workers in Thailand and compare these between genders. Meth...
This study has developed three Logistic Regression Models to determine and analyze the factors that could affect knowledge, attitude and behavior of the urban poor concerning solid waste management. To pursue the objective, the study has collected primary data from the level of living conditions of the poor residing in the squatters and low-cost flats of Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia. The empirical results of the study are exciting as they provide evidence to the effect that knowledge, attitude...
Wahid Murad, M. D.; Chamhuri Siwar
Background. Several studies have shown that Alaska Native people have higher smoking prevalence than non-Natives. However, no population-based studies have explored whether smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours also differ among Alaska Native people and non-Natives. Objective. We compared current smoking prevalence and smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of Alaska Native adults living in the state of Alaska with non-Natives. Methods. We used Alaska Behavioral Ri...
Kristen Rohde; Myde Boles; Bushore, Chris J.; Pizacani, Barbara A.; Maher, Julie E.; Erin Peterson
This report describes the development and measurement characteristics of a new measure of smoking knowledge, attitudes, and practices (S-KAP) among treatment providers. Data are based on survey responses from 336 paid staff working in one of three drug abuse treatment or HIV care settings. Exploratory factor analysis, used to examine the factor structure, pointed towards five underlying factors: a single “knowledge” factor, three “attitude” factors (‘treatment barriers,’ ‘counse...
Delucchi, Kevin L.; Tajima, Barbara; Guydish, Joseph
Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing recognition that mathematics anxiety plays an important role in students’ learning of mathematics and thus, mathematics anxiety has gained heightened awareness by mathematics educators as an important factor in the teaching of mathematics (Bursal & Paznokas, 2006; Thomas & Higbee, 1999; McLeod, 1988; Singh, Granville, & Dika, 2002; Sloan, Daane, & Geisen, 2002; Vinson, 2001; Zettle & Raines, 2000. Math anxiety defined by Richardson & Suinn (1972 as a “feelings of tension and anxiety that interfere with the manipulation of numbers and the solving of mathematical problems in a wide variety of ordinary life and academic situations”. Research demonstrated that the physiological, cognitive, and behavioral consequences of math anxiety may impair life functioning. For example, students who have math anxiety exhibit physiological reactivity to numeric stimuli and have faulty beliefs and negative attitudes regarding their problem solving abilities. These students also may avoid environment and careers that require utilization of math skills, and will sacrifice accuracy for speed when performing numeric tasks (Ashcraft & Kirk, 2001. Purpose and significanceThe purpose of this research is to examine whether there is a significant difference between the attitudes, anxieties, and self-efficacy beliefs towards mathematics lessons high school students’ in terms of gender, types of school and students’ grades. It is very important to reveal relationships between attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs to develop high school students’ positive attitudes towards mathematics lessons.MethodsIn this study, descriptive research method was conducted. A total of 418 students, from three different school types participated in the study. The schools are Anatolian High School, Vocational High School and Public High School. Three scales were implemented on students to reveal relationships between students’ attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs. The results obtained from scales were analyzed with SPSS 13.0.ResultsIt was observed in the findings of study that there are no statistically significant differences between students’ gender and scores of attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs. But there are statistically significant differences between students’ types of school and students’ grades and scores of attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs.Discussion and ConclusionsStudents’ achievements in mathematics lessons are directly related to students’ self-efficacy beliefs, attitudes towards mathematics lessons and anxieties towards mathematics lessons. Students’ mathematics achievements will increase because of students’ high self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes towards mathematics lessons. In this study, there are no statistically significant differences between students’ gender and scores of attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs. But there are statistically significant differences between students’ types of school and students’ grades and scores of attitudes towards mathematics lessons, anxieties towards mathematics lessons and self-efficacy beliefs. While students’ who attended from successful schools- self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes towards mathematics lessons are high, their anxiety levels towards mathematics lessons are low. Besides, it was observed, when students’ grades increase, their self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes towards mathematics lessons get higher and their anxiety levels towards mathematics lessons get lower.
N. ?zzet Kurbano?lu
Full Text Available This qualitative case study aimed to focus on the experiences and subsequent science and science teaching beliefs, attitudes, and self-efficacy of an elementary pre-service teacher, Heather, with extremely positive attitude and high self-efficacy. For this particular population of pre-service teachers, possessing a high science teaching self-efficacy alone is not sufficient to assume reform-based beliefs and teaching practices. This study was unique in that it concurrently explored the relationship between attitude, beliefs, and self-efficacy before and after the course. Initially, Heatherâ€™s attitude and self-efficacy with respect to science and science teaching were closely interrelated and a product of her own intrinsic interest in science and her unique K-12 experiences. Her beliefs appeared to have been shaped by both her actual science experiences and what she had witnessed in the classrooms. Heatherâ€™s course experiences shaped her post beliefs about science and science teaching, which consequently altered her attitude and confidence.
A survey of the science knowledge and attitudes toward science of nearly 10000 undergraduates at a large public university over a 20-year period included several questions addressing student beliefs in astrology and other forms of pseudoscience. The results from our data reveal that a large majority of students (78%) considered astrology "very" or…
Sugarman, Hannah; Impey, Chris; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie
Full Text Available Background: The principles of pharmaceutical care are embedded in the concept of Good Pharmacy Practice (GPP. GPP is poorly applied in community pharmacies not only in Asian countries, but even in United States and Europe. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of the community pharmacists in Iran, regarding GPP. Methods: A total of 794 pharmacists were evaluated with a reliable and validated KAP (Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice questionnaire regarding GPP in September 2008. Results: The most important finding in the present study was the pharmacists’ low knowledge (Mean= 13.42 and practice (Mean= 29.85 level about GPP, while their attitude towards this subject was at a high level (Mean= 74.83. Increase in their knowledge of good pharmacy practice aligned with an increase in their attitudes towards this issue. Also increase in our pharmacists’ knowledge and attitude aligned with an increase in quality of their practice. Conclusion: The current practice of Iranian community pharmacists needs further improvement. National pharmaceutical organizations should organize educational programs for the community pharmacists to equip them for their main role in community practice: promoting rational drug use. Keywords: Pharmacy, Knowledge, Attitude
Mohammad Reza Javadi
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health research training is an important part of medical education. This study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge and attitudes regarding health research in a group of Pakistani medical students at Aga Khan University, Karachi. Methods It was a cross-sectional pilot study conducted among a group of Pakistani medical students. Through stratified random sampling, a pre-tested, structured and validated questionnaire was administered to 220 medical students. Knowledge and attitudes were recorded on a scale (graduated in percentages. Results Mean scores of students were 49.0% on knowledge scale and 53.7% on attitude scale. Both knowledge and attitudes improved significantly with increasing years of study in medical college [Regression coefficient 4.10 (p-value; 0.019 and 6.67 (p-value; Conclusion Medical students demonstrate moderate level of knowledge and attitude towards health research. Intensive training in this regard is associated with significant improvement in knowledge and attitudes of students towards health research.
Little is known about younger adults' attitudes towards age-related sexual changes and behaviors. Research using the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale (ASKAS) (White, 1982) has been effective in determining knowledge and attitudes among the staff of long-term care facilities, nurses, undergraduate nursing students, health care…
Ewen, Heidi H.; Brown, Pamela S.
This report describes the results of a set of five surveys designed to assess the perceived risks of nuclear waste management policy in Colorado and New Mexico. Within these states, mail surveys of randomly selected samples were taken of members of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, members of the Sierra Club, members of business associations, and state legislators. In addition, a telephone sample of randomly selected households was conducted in Colorado and New Mexico. Using these data, the perceptions of the risk of nuclear waste management -- from production of nuclear energy through permanent storage of nuclear wastes -- are compared for each of the five samples. The degree of trust in, and the perceived political influence of, the more prominent policy actors are assessed. Certain cognitive attributes, including degree of subjective certainty regarding beliefs about risks of nuclear wastes, and likelihood of altering perceived risks when confronted with new information, are compared across samples. In addition, the sample scores from rudimentary knowledge tests about the characteristics of radiation are compared. The relationships among the knowledge scores, cognitive attributes and risk perceptions are evaluated. Perceptions of the balance of media coverage are measured, as are the possible direct and indirect roles of media exposure in risk perception. Aggregate models, testing an array of hypotheses about the bases of nuclear waste risk pes about the bases of nuclear waste risk perceptions, are conducted. These tests indicate that risk perceptions are related to a complex set of factors, and that these factors may differ significantly across the different sub-populations. Finally, the relationships between risk perception and political participation -- including registering to vote, political party affiliation, and level of political activism -- are analyzed. 5 figs., 33 tabs
Full Text Available Great efforts have been made to enhance breast-feeding among mothers of infants, yet there is a continued decline in breast-feeding behavior. The Theory of Planned Behavior emphasizes that human behavior is governed by personal attitudes, social pressures and a sense of control. A study was set up to assess the influence of maternal beliefs, attitude, intention and perceived behavior control on breast-feeding behavior of mothers aged between 18-40 years of infants (1 year old in western Kenya based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. A total sample of 230 breast-feeding mothers attending post natal clinics were randomly selected and were the respondents who provided information on the selected variables of the study. Cronbach’s alpha was used to assess reliability and exploratory factor analysis used to assess validity. Skewness and kurtosis were used to assess for the normality of the obtained data. Structural equation modeling (AMOS version 7 was used to determine the predictive power of maternal attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control on breast-feeding behavior. Maternal attitude (? = 0.38, p<0.01, perceived behavioral control (? = 0.35, p<0.01 and subjective norm (? = 0.25, p<0.001 predicted the mother’s intention to breast-feed. Intention (? = 0.95, p<0.001 was a strong predictor of breast-feeding behavior.
Mary Khakoni Walingo
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to compare the primary teachers and pre-service primary teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes toward teaching profession in Turkey. Descriptive method was used in the study and the study was carried out on 180 first grade and 107 fourth grade primary pre-service teachers at the Faculty of Education in Rize University and 131 primary teachers working in the primary schools located in Çayeli (Rize district. The Attitude Scale towards Teaching Profession (Özgür, 1994 and the Turkish form of the Ohio State Teacher Efficacy Scale (Balo?lu and Karada?, 2008 were used as data gathering instrument in the study. The study results revealed that the first grade primary pre-service teachers’ scores on the attitudes towards teaching professions were statistically higher than the scores of the fourth grade primary pre-service teachers and of the primary teachers. However, the study results indicated that the teaching self-efficacy scores of the first grade pre-service teachers were statistically lower than the teaching self-efficacy scores of the fourth grade pre-service teachers and primary teachers. On the other hand, the study results showed that females’ attitudes towards teaching profession were higher than the attitudes of their male counterparts whereas self-efficacy scores did not differentiate due to the gender of the primary pre-service teachers and primary teachers. Moreover, the study results indicated that there were not any significant correlation between the self-efficacy and attitudes scores of the pre-service teachers and primary teachers.
Full Text Available This paper proposes machine learning techniques to discover knowledge in a dataset in the form of if-then rules for the purpose of formulating queries for validation of a Bayesian belief network model of the same data. Although do-main expertise is often available, the query formulation task is tedious and laborious, and hence automation of query formulation is desirable. In an effort to automate the query formulation process, a machine learning algorithm is lev-eraged to discover knowledge in the form of if-then rules in the data from which the Bayesian belief network model under validation was also induced. The set of if-then rules are processed and filtered through domain expertise to identify a subset that consists of “interesting” and “significant” rules. The subset of interesting and significant rules is formulated into corresponding queries to be posed, for validation purposes, to the Bayesian belief network induced from the same dataset. The promise of the proposed methodology was assessed through an empirical study performed on a real-life dataset, the National Crime Victimization Survey, which has over 250 attributes and well over 200,000 data points. The study demonstrated that the proposed approach is feasible and provides automation, in part, of the query formulation process for validation of a complex probabilistic model, which culminates in substantial savings for the need for human expert involvement and investment.
The purpose of this qualitative multi-case study was to explore changes in prospective teachers' beliefs, attitudes, and self-efficacy with regard to science and science teaching as a result of enrolling in an elementary science methods course and examine factors that may be responsible for instigating changes. Potential differences in the extent or types of changes experienced by students who began the course with different self-efficacy beliefs and attitude and interrelationships between the three variables were also explored. Two quantitative instruments were administered to identify two students with initial negative, neutral, and positive attitudes and self efficacy beliefs for a total of six cases. Within case analysis included a descriptive case study of each participant detailing their background experiences and initial and post attitudes, self efficacy, and beliefs about science and science teaching. All qualitative data, including pre and post interviews, student artifacts, and observation data were simultaneously analyzed using the constant comparative model for each individual in order to generate thick and rich descriptions of each case. A cross case analysis between different cases was performed to determine commonalities and differences among cases. The results of this study indicated that a science methods course employing effective teaching strategies can be influential in improving pre-service teachers' attitude and self-efficacy and help better align their beliefs with recommendations of major national science education reforms. The various influential factors instrumental in producing major changes in their attitude, self-efficacy beliefs, and views included class activities, readings, videos, weekly reflections, mini and full unit development, and collaborative work with their peers. They credited these factors with allowing them to (1) view science and science teaching in a different light, (2) find science interesting and fun to learn and teach, and (3) gain confidence in their abilities to teach science in their future classrooms.
Full Text Available Stigma in mental health is studied in a sample of 152 subjects of Almería city population with the aim of designing specific anti-stigma campaigns. For this, Stigma is operatized in three constructs: Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour, using MAKS, CAMI and RIBS scales for these. Results show that the younger group, under thirty-five years old are less knowledgeable about mental health related to stigma, showing a significant difference (p< .05. Moreover, we found significant differences in gender regarding the intention of stigmatizing behaviour (p=.049 as well as attitudes (p= .006 where men have more stigmatizing behaviour and attitudes than women. These results together with those that show a significant correlation between knowledge and behaviour, as well as between attitudes and behaviour will be used as a guide to design interventions aimed to reduce stigma in mental health.
Ana María Moreno Herrero
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Assessment of intentional abortion and women's knowledge about its causes and complications is an important priority for women's health, but because of the sensitivity, the investigations in this topic are rare. This study was performed for the first time in order to determine women's knowledge and attitude toward intentional abortion.Methods: Women referring to pre-marriage counseling centers in Mashhad, Iran, were selected with easy sampling method and accessed with knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Data were analyzed by Q-Square, T-Test and Pearson correlation. Results: Of 480 participants, 71% (CI95%=66.8-75.0 had opposed attitudes about the intentional abortion and 26.5% (CI95%=22.6-30.5 had appropriate knowledge. Between lower age and lower education, lack of interest to contraceptive use with low women's knowledge-attitude scores, there was a significant relationship (p<0.05. Conclusion: Most of the participants opposed attitudes to intentional abortion, but more than 70% of them had low knowledge about this topic. Inappropriate knowledge about causes and its adverse consequences, especially the beginning of marital life can lead to unwanted pregnancy, intentional and unsafe abortion that need attention.
Full Text Available Objectives: The study investigates the dietary intakes of Omani preschoolers and associations with both socio-demographic characteristics and the mother’s nutritional knowledge and attitudes.Methods: A sample of 154 parents of preschoolers completed a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics, a food-frequency questionnaire to assess children’s food intake, nutritional knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating.Results: The results showed a lower dietary adequacy of children’s food intake in mothers with low educational levels, high-ranked occupation, and lower levels of both nutritional knowledge and food related health attitudes. The highest food intake and healthy eating attitude scores were found in children of mothers with high education level and mother without a job. The association of the dietary adequacy with socio-demographic background can help the Omani healthcare decision makers to develop better-tailored nutrition interventions which are more suitable for the Omani community.Conclusion: The results from this study of mothers’ nutritional knowledge and attitudes support the inclusion of knowledge and attitudes in dietary interventions.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of health education on the knowledge and attitude regarding family planning and contraception’s method among the women who obligatory attended the Premarital Counseling Center in Yasouj city, Iran. An experimental study was carried out and a total of 200 women were selected for the study using convenience sampling method among women who attended in the health centre in order to utilize the necessary premarital actions. Respondents were divided by two experimental and control groups randomly. A pre-evaluation was done on the knowledge and attitude on family planning using a structured questionnaire. After which, the health education for experimental group was done within four educational sessions during 4 consecutive weeks and control group underwent traditional education method. Post evaluation was utilized for any changes regarding their knowledge and attitude among the respondents immediately after the intervention. Independent and paired t-test was used to evaluate the mean knowledge and attitude scores differences among both groups. Results showed that there was a significant improvement in respondents’ knowledge and attitude after educational program in experimental group (p<0.001, while no significant difference was observed in knowledge and attitude of control group. The finding also indicated that age was significantly associated with the level of respondents’ knowledge. These results deal the effectiveness of the educational method. In conclusion, the educational method is effective in increasing the knowledge and improving the attitude of women regarding family planning in Yasouj compared to current used educational method. Future educational programs need to incorporate the features that have been associated with successful interventions in the past, as well as including their own evaluation procedures.
The aim of this study is to evaluate biology teachers' attitudes and belief levels on classroom control in terms of teachers' sense of efficacy. The screening model was used in the study. The study group was comprised of 135 biology teachers. In this study, Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES) and The Attitudes and Beliefs on…
The report presents the first attempt of the IMA-AKN Sinha Institute of continuing medical and health education and research to study the knowledge, attitude and practice of doctors regarding torture. Although, majority of the doctors in India are aware of various national and international human rights institutions, but they seem not to be aware of the human rights of the detainees. It is interesting to note that the doctors are aware of the long term physical and psychological effects of torture and also agreed that physical examination is not sufficient to detect torture sequelae. A large number of doctors have seen cases of torture, and were willing to treat them and felt reasonably competent. A significant number of doctors justified use of coercive technique and manhandling in dealing with detainees by law enforcement agencies. A small number of doctors expressed their unwillingness to get involved in the treatment of the victims of torture due to medicolegal consequence. The dissemination of information on human rights and medical ethics and incorporating them into the medical curriculum at undergraduate and postgraduate training was emphasised by majority of the respondents. Almost unanimous view was expressed by respondents on the importance of the role of medical ethics and the profession's responsibility to its members. An important finding of the study is the need for IMA to help establishing counselling and rehabilitation centres for treatment of torture victims and educate its members. A large number of doctors mentioned the need of initiating community action in case of rape, child abuse, dowry victims and sexual harassment. Further, a majority of respondents expressed the view that the medical association should take the responsibilities of protecting the doctors who fearlessly testify cases of torture besides disciplining doctors who facilitate torture. Respondents felt that the reasons for doctors' participation in torture need further study. It is encouraging that most of the responding physicians are willing to take up training and become counsellor for victims of torture to be able to provide treatment, counselling and rehabilitation. PMID:11002645
Sobti, J C; Chapparawal, B C; Holst, E
recent increase in the amount of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) entering the western Lake Erie basin is likely due to increased spring storm events in combination with issues related to fertilizer application and timing. These factors in combination with warmer lake temperatures have amplified the spread of toxic algal blooms. We assessed the attitudes of farmers in northwest Ohio toward taking at least one additional action to reduce nutrient loss on their farm. Specifically, we (1) identified to what extent farm and farmer characteristics (e.g., age, gross farm sales) as well as risk-based beliefs (e.g., efficacy, risk perception) influenced attitudes, and (2) assessed how these characteristics and beliefs differ in their predictive ability based on unobservable latent classes of farmers. Risk perception, or a belief that negative impacts to profit and water quality from nutrient loss were likely, was the most consistent predictor of farmer attitudes. Response efficacy, or a belief that taking action on one's farm made a difference, was found to significantly influence attitudes, although this belief was particularly salient for the minority class of farmers who were older and more motivated by profit. Communication efforts should focus on the negative impacts of nutrient loss to both the farm (i.e., profit) and the natural environment (i.e., water quality) to raise individual perceived risk among the majority, while the minority need higher perceived efficacy or more specific information about the economic effectiveness of particular recommended practices.
Wilson, Robyn S.; Howard, Gregory; Burnett, Elizabeth A.
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and beliefs related to sexuality of couples doing marriage preparation. Method: This study was carried out as a cross sectional descriptive study in the public health laboratory in Gaziantep between January 12 to August 18, 2011. The study sample consisted of 382 couples who agreed to participate in the study. A questionnaire form and Beliefs Related to Sexual Information Form (CIBIF were used for data collection. Couples completed the forms as an individual in the separate locations. SPSS version 11.5 was used for statistical analyzes. Descriptive statistics and One-Way ANOVA test were used. Results: In the study, 56.8% of women and 57.1% men stated that they received information about sexuality and reproductive health, of those 80.6% of the women and 73.4% of men received the information from the mass media. When we examined the mean scores of CIBIF, women were found to have 18.01 ± 3.11 mean score while men had 22.59 ± 4.89 mean score (p <0.05. We found that met and decided to marry in agreement, who are under 20 years old, had a primary school degree had significantly higher scores on average from CIBIF compared to other groups (p < 0.05. Conclusion: This study draws attention to lack of knowledge about sexuality for couples who are in marriage preparation. Couples were found to have false beliefs about sexually transmitted infections, sexual health-related personal hygiene and sexuality to live. For these reasons, consulting services related to sexuality and reproductive health information for couples engaged in preparation for marriage in the family health centers by health care personel is thought to be effective way of preventing false information and beliefs about sexuality. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(3.000: 297-306
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the association between smoke-free regulations in public places and secondhand smoke exposure and related beliefs, awareness, attitudes, and behavior among urban residents in China. Methods: We selected one city (Hangzhou as the intervention city and another (Jiaxing as the comparison. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection, and implemented at two time points across a 20-month interval. Both unadjusted and adjusted logistic methods were considered in analyses. Multiple regression procedures were performed in examining variation between final and baseline measures. Results: Smoke-free regulations in the intervention city were associated with a significant decline in personal secondhand smoke exposure in government buildings, buses or taxis, and restaurants, but there was no change in such exposure in healthcare facilities and schools. In terms of personal smoking beliefs, awareness, attitudes, and practices, the only significant change was in giving quitting advice to proximal family members. Conclusions: There was a statistically significant association between implementation of smoke-free regulations in a city and inhibition of secondhand tobacco smoking exposure in public places. However, any such impact was limited. Effective tobacco control in China will require a combination of strong public health education and enforcement of regulations.
It has been estimated that Canadians waste $27 billion of food annually, and that half of that waste occurs at the household level (Gooch et al., 2010). There are social, environmental, and economic implications for this scale of food waste, and source separation of organic waste is an increasingly common municipal intervention. There is relatively little research that assesses the dynamics of household food waste (particularly in Canada). The purpose of this study is to combine observations of organic, recyclable, and garbage waste production rates to survey results of food waste-related beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours at the household level in the mid-sized municipality of Guelph, Ontario. Waste weights and surveys were obtained from 68 households in the summer of 2013. The results of this study indicate multiple relationships between food waste production and household shopping practices, food preparation behaviours, household waste management practices, and food-related attitudes, beliefs, and lifestyles. Notably, we observed that food awareness, waste awareness, family lifestyles, and convenience lifestyles were related to food waste production. We conclude that it is important to understand the diversity of factors that can influence food wasting behaviours at the household level in order to design waste management systems and policies to reduce food waste. PMID:25445261
Parizeau, Kate; von Massow, Mike; Martin, Ralph
Students in an undergraduate psychology and law course and an introductory psychology course completed a variety of measures, at both the beginning and end of the semester, to assess their knowledge of and attitudes toward psycholegal topics. The psychology and law course improved students' knowledge of psychological topics concerning the legal…
Laub, Cindy E.; Maeder, Evelyn M.; Bornstein, Brian H.
Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the level of knowledge about and attitude toward and sources of information about epilepsy.Methods: Seventy individuals with epilepsy (IWE and 56 control participants (CPs received Epilepsy Knowledge Scale, Epilepsy Attitude Scale and information forms which required answers to related open-ended questions.Results: There was a significant difference between the initial and current amount of epilepsy knowledge of the IWE. The IWE evaluate their epilepsy knowledge as adequate more than CPs, however as general, both groups stated inadequate epilepsy knowledge. Also, the IWE had more knowledge about epilepsy, but there was no difference in the attitudes toward epilepsy between IWE and CPs. The most frequently reported source of information by IWE was “doctors and other health staff”, and “family and acquaintances” by CPs.Conclusion: The level of knowledge about epilepsy was increasing with the passage of time among the IWE. As the most cited source of information, health staff have an important role in providing information to IWE. The study also indicates the need of national campaigns in order to increase the knowledge of epilepsy and create more favorable attitudes toward epilepsy.
Biotechnology has a considerable importance in Turkish biology curriculum. This study was designed to explore or indicate Turkish high school and university students' knowledge and attitudes toward biotechnology. A total number of 352 high school and 276 university students were invited to the study. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ)…
Usak, Muhammet; Erdogan, Mehmet; Prokop, Pavol; Ozel, Murat
We investigated knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of prescribers concerning piperacillin-tazobactam use at 4 Emory University-affiliated hospitals. Discussions during focus groups indicated that the participants' perceived knowledge of clinical criteria for appropriate piperacillin-tazobactam use was inadequate. Retrospective review of medical records identified inappropriate practices. These findings have influenced ongoing interventions aimed at optimizing piperacillin-tazobactam use. PMID:17080393
Antoine, Theresa L; Curtis, Amy B; Blumberg, Henry M; Desilva, Kathryn; Fransua, Mesfin; Gould, Carolyn V; King, Mark; Kraman, Alice A; Pack, Jan; Ribner, Bruce; Seybold, Ulrich; Steinberg, James P; Wells, Jane B; Sinkowitz-Cochran, Ronda L; Cardo, Denise; Jernigan, John A; Gaynes, Robert P
General practitioners (GPs) could have an important role in early diagnosis of autism. There have been no studies evaluating the knowledge of GPs regarding autism in Pakistan. We aimed to fill that gap by assessing knowledge and attitude of GPs in Karachi regarding autism. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 348 GPs; only 148 (44.6%) had…
Rahbar, Mohammad Hossein; Ibrahim, Khalid; Assassi, Parisa
A study compared the knowledge, confidence, and attitudes regarding medical ethics of 55 house officers and 57 full-time faculty members of the Georgetown University (District of Columbia) Department of Medicine. Results indicated low knowledge levels in both groups, higher faculty confidence, and somewhat more faculty sentiment for mandatory…
Sulmasy, Daniel P.; And Others
Objective: To assess students' human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants/ Methods: Students (N = 1,282) at a large, public university in the Northeast United States completed a questionnaire during February 2008 assessing HPV knowledge, prevalence, transmission, cervical cancer risk and stigma; sexual behavior,…
Sandfort, Jessica R.; Pleasant, Andrew
Background: Various explanations of sexual offending in men with intellectual disability (ID) have stressed sexual deviance and a lack of developmental socio-sexual knowledge. Method: Using the normative dataset of people with ID from the development of the "Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Assessment Tool--Revised" (SSKAAT-R: Griffiths &…
Lunsky, Yona; Frijters, Jan; Griffiths, Dorothy M.; Watson, Shelley L.; Williston, Stephanie
Although there are numerous ways to obtain accurate information about sexuality, research suggests that many American adults do not have accurate sexuality and sexual health knowledge. This research investigated selected sexual knowledge and attitudes of adults in Indiana. A representative sample of men (n = 158) and women (n = 340) aged 18 to 89…
Clark, Christina A.; Baldwin, Kathleen L.; Tanner, Amanda E.
Increasing life expectancies and more years spent living with chronic illnesses mean that increasing numbers of older adults will require nursing care. However, most nurses prefer not to work with older adults, and many nursing students have limited knowledge and negative attitudes towards aging and older adults. This study examined the knowledge…
Flood, Meredith Troutman; Clark, Robert B.
Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to investigate the influence of knowledge of osteoporosis, attitudes regarding osteoporosis, and knowledge of dietary calcium on dairy product intake in both male and female college-age students. Participants: The authors conducted this cross-sectional study on 911 men and women enrolled in 2…
Ford, M. Allison; Bass, Martha A.; Keathley, Roseanne
Full Text Available Objective: To measure the levels of nurse’s knowledge and attitude after the conduct of education session regarding chemotherapy administration and management. Methodology: This research study was conducted at two oncology units of tertiary Hospital Rawalpindi. A prepost test intervention study design was used on 35 nurses by using Verity’s tools. Results: The mean scores of knowledge were calculated by Cochran’s Q test showed that knowledge scores have significantly increased with ‘educational training’ (p value < 0.001. The difference in the attitude of the nurses was not found to be statistically significant in repeated measure of ANOVA. Conclusion: The results show that knowledge is the weakest component and attitude is strongest component of oncology nurses ‘competencies in chemotherapy administration.
Tazeen Saeed Ali
This study investigated parents' attitudes, knowledge and behaviours relating to safe child occupant travel following new Australian legislation regarding child restraint system (CRS) and motor vehicle restraint use for children aged 7 years and under. A questionnaire exploring attitudes, knowledge and behaviours regarding general road safety, as well as safe child occupant travel, was completed by 272 participants with at least one child aged between 3 and 10 years residing in the Australian state of Victoria. Responses to the questionnaire revealed that participants' attitudes, knowledge and behaviours towards road safety in general were fairly positive, with most participants reporting that they restrict their alcohol consumption or do not drink at all while driving (87%), drive at or below the speed limit (85%) and 'always' wear their seatbelts (98%). However, more than half of the participants reported engaging in distracting behaviours 'sometimes' or 'often' (54%) and a small proportion of participants indicated that they 'sometimes' engaged in aggressive driving (14%). Regarding their attitudes, knowledge and behaviours relating to safe child occupant travel, most participants reported that they 'always' restrain their children (99%). However, there was a surprisingly high proportion of participants who did not know the appropriate age thresholds' to transition their child from a booster seat to an adult seatbelt (53%) or the age for which it is appropriate for their child to sit in the front passenger seat of the vehicle (20%). Logistic regression analyses revealed that parents' knowledge regarding safe child occupant travel was significantly related to their attitudes, knowledge and behaviours towards road safety in general, such as drinking habits while driving and CRS safety knowledge. Based on the findings of this study, a number of recommendations are made for strategies to enhance parents' attitudes, knowledge and behaviours relating to safe child occupant travel, as well as for future research. PMID:23182779
Koppel, Sjaan; Muir, Carlyn; Budd, Laurie; Devlin, Anna; Oxley, Jennie; Charlton, Judith L; Newstead, Stuart
The study reports on an investigation of the impact of a Science-Technology-Society (STS) approach in promoting more positive student attitudes toward science that are recommended by current reform documents. A total of 609 students from grades six through nine were selected for a survey of attitudes in two class sections assigned as either…
Akcay, Hakan; Yager, Robert E.; Iskander, Srini M.; Turgut, Halil
Full Text Available The study reports on an investigation of the impact of a Science-Technology-Society (STS approach in promoting more positive student attitudes toward science that are recommended by current reform documents. A total of 609 students from grades six through nine were selected for a survey of attitudes in two class sections assigned as either experimental (STS oriented class or control group (textbook oriented class. The results indicate that students in classes taught with an STS approach develop more positive attitudes toward science when compared to students in classes taught with a textbook-oriented approach. The STS approach to science teaching works equally well for male and female students regarding student attitudes toward science. Significant differences were not found between male and female students in terms of improving positive attitudes concerning science study.
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess students' knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV and AIDS. A questionnaire was administered to a cross section of 259 Chinese undergraduates. Respondents were asked to provide information about knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Study results indicated that the majority of undergraduates had a moderate level of HIV and AIDS knowledge, acceptance and attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS. Boys had more acceptance and positive attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS than girls. Students majoring in medicine performed better (more knowledgeable and accepting than non-medical students. Differences between students with various monthly expenditures were found-- 6.2% of students had 3-5 sexual partners which has rarely been found in Chinese students; most students did not know HIV VCT centers and most students did not show their confidence for controlling of HIV and AIDS in China. In conclusion, studentsÃ¢Â€Â™ knowledge about HIV/AIDS was uneven. A peer educational program to talk about self esteem, healthy sexual attitudes, being human-accepting and loving should be developed in the near future.
Full Text Available Introduction: The importance of the periodontal health maintenance and promotion in diabetes mellitus has been supported. Evidence showed that many patients are unaware about effects of diabetes mellitus on oral health. The aim of this study is to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and practice of diabetic patients concerning the risk of periodontal disease and prevention. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 156 diabetic patients referring to Yazd Diabetic Research Center were recruited by random selection. Patients completed questionnaires, which included 29 questions about their knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health in diabetes mellitus. The data was scored and analyzed. Result: The results showed knowledge (58.64 and attitude (46.86 scores of diabetic patients were moderate, while their practice (24.3 score were poor. There is statistical significant relation between mean scores of knowledge, attitude and practice of patients with their educational level and age. Conclusion: This study showed knowledge, attitude and practice level of diabetic patients were insufficient on oral health care.
Fazele Atarbashi Moghadam
This study investigated how attitudes and intentions about learning mathematics might be related to subsequent mathematics learning and achievement using the Ajzen and Fishbein theory of reasoned action. The sample consisted of 142 boys and girls between 12 and 14 years old in a large inner city comprehensive school who were assessed in a follow-up design over a nine-month period. Beliefs about the outcomes of learning, attitudes to learning, perceptions of significant others' prescriptions about learning, intentions to engage in learning behaviours, self and teacher reported learning behaviour and mathematics achievement were assessed at both stages. Regression analysis suggested that while the expectancy-value components of attitude did relate to learning behaviour intentions, perceived prescriptions did not relate to intentions. There was a weak relationship between the two measures of learning behaviour, but with neither measure did intention independently predict future behaviour once prior behaviour was taken into account. The best predictor of subsequent mathematics achievement was prior achievement, though teacher-reported learning behaviour did have an independent relationship with subsequent achievement. The findings are discussed in terms of the assessment of learning behaviours, the relevance of the behaviour intention construct for repeated multiple behaviours and future work on how affective variables might be related to cognitive achievements. PMID:2597627
Norwich, B; Jaeger, M
Background: HIV/AIDS had profoundly affected every aspect of the health sector. Most importantly doctor’s attitude of avoiding treatment of HIV patients is mainly due to their apprehensions caused by their lack of understanding of the disease and its modes of transmission. Aims and objective: To investigate a group of dental students’ knowledge about HIV infection, attitudes towards treating HIV/AIDS patients and behaviour practices. Materials and methods: stu...
Venu Shan; Shethwala, Nimisha D.; Bala, D. V.
The purpose of this study was to discuss the food sanitation knowledge, attitude, and behavior for the employees of university restaurants, and furthermore, to explain the interrelations of these various were occurring at school. A questionnaire survey procedure was used. Each two constructs of food sanitation attitude and behavior were analyzed by factor analysis. Data was analyzed by description, Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression analysis. The correctness rate toward the whole...
OBJECTIVE: To identify the computer knowledge, skills and attitudes of first-year family medicine residents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of family medicine residents during the academic year 1993-94; sampling began in July 1993 and ended in October 1993. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: All 727 first-year family medicine residents, of whom 433 (60%) responded. OUTCOME MEASURES: Previous computer experience or training, current use, barriers to use, and comfort with and attitudes regarding co...
Rowe, B. H.; Ryan, D. T.; Therrien, S.; Mulloy, J. V.
Both humans and artificial systems frequently use trial and error methods to problem solving. In order to be effective, this type of strategy implies having high quality control knowledge to guide the quest for the optimal solution. Unfortunately, this control knowledge is rarely perfect. Moreover, in artificial systems-as in humans-self-evaluation of one's own knowledge is often difficult. Yet, this self-evaluation can be very useful to manage knowledge and to determine when to revise it. The objective of our work is to propose an automated approach to evaluate the quality of control knowledge in artificial systems based on a specific trial and error strategy, namely the informed tree search strategy. Our revision approach consists in analysing the system's execution logs, and in using the belief theory to evaluate the global quality of the knowledge. We present a real-world industrial application in the form of an experiment using this approach in the domain of cartographic generalisation. Thus far, the res...
Taillandier, Patrick; Drogoul, Alexis
Addressing the factors that discourage high school girls from pursuing careers in science, this intervention targeted young women from rural Appalachia, urging them to pursue scientific careers in drug and alcohol research. This three-year program, for 49 young women entering ninth grade in 12 southeastern Kentucky counties, included a summer camp, Saturday Academies (educational seminars held in their communities), and mentoring by university faculty and community leaders. As hypothesized, findings from analyses of baseline and postsummer session data show a reduction in participants' anxiety regarding science. Participants' scientific knowledge also increased. In turn, their science knowledge scores correlated with their third summer posttest confidence in their ability to learn science and motivation for science as well as the belief that teachers can help. The success of such a program demonstrates that the gender gap in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics can be ameliorated. Participants' first steps toward successful scientific careers included improving their attitudes toward science as well as increasing their knowledge.
Schumacher, Mitzi M.; Johnson, Michelle Natasya; Floyd, Sondra R.; Reid, Caroline E.; Noland, Melody Powers; Leukefeld, Carl G.
The success of tacit knowledge management lies in firms’ capabilities to attract and retain employees possessing unique knowledge. The purpose of the paper is to investigate students’ attitudes towards career in tourism in the context of tacit knowledge management. The study was conducted on the group of 345 undergraduates and graduates enrolled in tourism and hospitality studies in Poznan. Research revealed that majority of students plan short-term career in tourism, which entails tacit ...
Bednarska, Marlena A.; Olszewski, Marcin
Lack of societal acceptance of energy (transition) technologies is often attributed to a lack of knowledge among the public. The underlying assumption is that more knowledge improves attitudes about a technology. This assumption will be tested in this paper by examining the influence of the scores on a CCS Knowledge Test on attitudes towards CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Furthermore the paper will examine the influence of perceptions of CCS (ideas that cannot be deemed 'true' or 'false') on attitude towards CCS and will analyse how knowledge and perceptions jointly influence attitude as well as in interaction. Implications of the results for communication about CCS are discussed.
Brunsting, S.; De Best-Waldhober, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Terwel, B.W. [Leiden University, Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, Leiden (Netherlands)
A pre-post test, two-group study was conducted to examine the effects of a culturally competent targeted intervention titled GO EARLY Save Your Life on the breast cancer and early screening-related knowledge and beliefs and mammography use among 180 Korean American (KA) women aged 40 years or older who had not had mammograms within the past 12 months. The intervention group received an interactive education session focused on breast cancer, early screening guidelines, and beliefs (breast canc...
Kim, Jin Hee; Menon, Usha; Wang, Edward; Szalacha, Laura
Full Text Available Background /Objective: Sixty percent of all smokers in the United States (U.S. try smoking cigarettes before they are 18 years old. Family and peer behavior (subjective norm, and attitude may influence young people to initiate smoking. The aims of this study were to 1 determine if attitude, subjective norm, and knowledge could predict smoking behaviors; 2 identify reasons for smoking; 3 determine if there were differences in attitudes toward smoking between smokers and non-smokers; and 4 determine smokers’ intent to quit. Methods: The population of interest included individuals age 30 or younger. The instrument, in the form of an online Tobacco Survey, was distributed via email, Facebook®, and other social media. The survey was created on Survey Monkey.com®. Data were collected for nine months and analyzed using SPSS® version 17 for Windows®. Results: Cronbach’s alpha for the primary factors were high to adequate, attitude a = .89, knowledge a = .71, and subjective norm a = .67. Results suggested subjective norm and attitude may predict smoking but knowledge was not a predictor. Over 70% of the smokers tried their first cigarette before the age of 18 years. Most reported reasons for smoking were alcohol consumption, smoking with friends in social settings, stress relief, and relaxation. Seventy-five percent of the smokers agreed that smoking was addictive and knowledge was high regarding the hazards of smoking. Less than 50% of the smokers planned to quit within the next year. Conclusions: Tobacco use among adolescents and young adults may be directly influenced by overall attitude and peer and family smoking behaviors. Knowledge of the hazards of smoking does not appear to influence smoking behaviors; therefore it is recommended health care providers, and others in a position to influence young people, focus on changing attitudes about smoking.
Barbara J. Ganley
Children are at a higher risk for foodborne illness. The objective of this study was to explore food safety knowledge, beliefs and practices among Hispanic families with young children (?10 years of age) living within a Midwestern state. A convergent mixed methods design collected qualitative and quantitative data in parallel. Food safety knowledge surveys were administered (n?=?90) prior to exploration of beliefs and practices among six focus groups (n?=?52) conducted by bilingual interpreters in community sites in five cities/towns. Descriptive statistics determined knowledge scores and thematic coding unveiled beliefs and practices. Data sets were merged to assess concordance. Participants were female (96%), 35.7 (±7.6) years of age, from Mexico (69%), with the majority having a low education level. Food safety knowledge was low (56%?±?11). Focus group themes were: Ethnic dishes popular, Relating food to illness, Fresh food in home country, Food safety practices, and Face to face learning. Mixed method analysis revealed high self confidence in preparing food safely with low safe food handling knowledge and the presence of some cultural beliefs. On-site Spanish classes and materials were preferred venues for food safety education. Bilingual food safety messaging targeting common ethnic foods and cultural beliefs and practices is indicated to lower the risk of foodborne illness in Hispanic families with young children. PMID:25178898
Stenger, Kristen M; Ritter-Gooder, Paula K; Perry, Christina; Albrecht, Julie A
The purpose of this study is to find out whether university students' attitudes towards physics lesson, their self-efficacy beliefs and burnout levels predict their academic success in physics lessons. The research group consists of 641 university students of which 307 are girls (47.1%) and 334 boys (52.9%). The research data were collected…
Objective: This comparative study evaluated the readability and test-retest reliability of a questionnaire designed to assess the attitudes, beliefs behaviours and sources of information about HIV/AIDS among young adults recruited from universities in the United States of America (USA), Turkey and South Africa. Design/Setting: The instrument was…
Balogun, Joseph; Abiona, Titilayo; Lukobo-Durrell, Mainza; Adefuye, Adedeji; Amosun, Seyi; Frantz, Jose; Yakut, Yavuz
Nursing students (n=27) were exposed to persuasive messages about AIDS, risk, and nurses' roles over 4 months. Compared with 47 controls, pre/posttest data confirmed that the messages changed beliefs and attitudes about caring for people with AIDS. (SK)
Valois, Pierre; Turgeon, Helene; Godin, Gaston; Blondeau, Danielle; Cote, Francoise
Research historically has demonstrated that a generational disconnect between the popular cultures from which students and teachers define normative behavior can impact classroom management and student learning. The purpose of this study was to examine attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of high school faculty toward the hip-hop culture and its…
Rowland, Ronald K.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Studies on physicians and other health care professionals indicate that attitudes towards and beliefs in their work with patients, can affect the quality of health care, and patients' behaviour and compliance, thus an instrument is needed to survey pharmacists as healthcare providers. The aim of this study was to describe the development and psychometric validation of a survey instrument to assess attitudes and beliefs of pharmacists toward their work with patients (Pharmacists' Attitudes and Beliefs Scale, PABS. The aim of this research was to determine the reliability, validity and factor structure of a newly constructed instrument - PABS. Methods. The statements from the cognitive, affective, and behavioral areas were identified by literature review and selected to cover the behavior of pharmacists in providing pharmaceutical care at community settings. The initial 5- point Likert type scale of 30 items was constructed and after initial validation its revised form developed. The reliability, construct validity and factor structure of the scale were established. Results. The reliability of the scale was determined by the method of internal consistency, on a convenient sample of 123 community pharmacists. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.67. Factor analysis of principal components was performed and 7 factors with latent roots greater than 1 were extracted, explaining 64.92% of total variance, a single 30.84%, 8.20%, 6.55%, 5.63%, 5.01%, 4.68% and 4.01%. Based on the results of factor analysis in the development of the scale, some items in the scale were excluded (totally 7, so that the revised form of the PABS contained a total of 23 items. Conclusion. The initial PABS scale did not meet theoretical statistical criteria for reliability (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was < 0.7, but the findings indicated its potentially acceptable construct validity. The results support its use as a research tool to assess the behavior of pharmacists in daily practice, and provide its use as an indicator of quality in delivering pharmaceutical care. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41004
The purpose of this research study was to determine the effectiveness of a long-term professional development program on self-efficacy beliefs, science attitudes, skills, and knowledge of elementary teachers. The target school was located in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Major elements of the study included the use of thematic science strands, use of the 5E constructivist-oriented instructional model, a focus on the interdisciplinary nature of the science process skills, and guided, inquiry-based learning experiences. These elements mirror the principles identified as being essential components of effective professional development for mathematics, and science education (Fullan, 1985; Sparks & Loucks-Horsley, 1990; Loucks-Horsley, 1997). The research team was actively involved with the participants for a total of 30 days at their school over the 24 months of the study. During each training, the research team modeled the 5E constructivist-oriented instructional strategy, and the interdisciplinary nature of the science process skills, set up a wide variety of activity centers, and provided the teachers with opportunities to improve their attitudes, skills, and knowledge of the science content, and teaching strategies. The 15 participants completed pre-, post-, and post-post-Leadership Team Surreys. Quantitative data analyses of gain scores measuring level of confidence to teach Marine and Earth Science, content knowledge, and teaching strategies were significant, p .05. Qualitative analysis of reflective journal comments, classroom observations, and the participants understanding, and use of science process skills across the curriculum supported the quantitative data results. The data demonstrate significant improvement in the self-efficacy beliefs, attitudes, skills, and knowledge toward teaching science of the Pre-Kindergarten--2nd -grade teachers who participated in this long-term professional development study.
Tinnin, Richard Kinna
Despite the proven efficiency of medication for mental illness, research indicates low patient adherence to medication. Nonetheless, only few studies have directly examined the relationship between nurse beliefs and knowledge, and their use of strategies to improve patient adherence to psychiatric medication. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify nurses' views, beliefs about, and knowledge of psychiatric medication affect their inclination to implement various strategies to improve patient adherence. One hundred nurses working at an Israeli psychiatric hospital participated in the study. Self-completed questionnaires were distributed. The research findings showed that nurses' levels of knowledge of psychiatric medication were moderate, but their beliefs of taking psychiatric medication were positive. The findings also showed that the higher the nurses' age and seniority, as well as their positive beliefs about taking medication, the higher their probability of implementing strategies to improve patient adherence to medication. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between positive beliefs about the nursing staff on taking medication and the staff's utilization of strategies to improve patient adherence to medication. The current study shows that nurses' traits and beliefs affect their use of strategies promoting mental health patient adherence to medication and the enhancement of these strategies. PMID:24548725
Drori, Tal; Guetta, Hava; Ben Natan, Merav; Polakevich, Yaakov
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was designed to assess the knowledge and attitude of male students of Kerman primaryschools about 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash solution that students used it once a week.METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 502 boys, eight to nine year-old and students of Kerman primaryschools were selected for the study. The data related to their knowledge and attitude about the sodium fluoridemouthwash were collected by questionnaire.RESULTS: The boy students’ knowledge about the sodium fluoride mouthwash solution was good but their attitude wasnegative.CONCLUSIONS: The oral health education program concerning the optimal use of the fluoride mouthwash in dentalcaries prevention is highly recommended. It is suggested that its taste is improved
Hamid Reza Poureslami DDS, MSc
Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing an evidence-based method of improving knowledge and attitudes concerning depression has been identified as a priority in Chinese medical education. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a self-directed learning strategy as a part of student-centred education improved knowledge of and attitudes towards depression among Chinese medical students. Methods A controlled trial in which 205 medical students were allocated to one of two groups: didactic teaching (DT group or a combined didactic teaching and self-directed learning (DT/SDL group. The DT/SDL group continued having a series of learning activities after both groups had a lecture on depression together. Student's knowledge and attitudes were assessed immediately after the activities, one month and six months later. Results The intervention (DT/SDL group showed substantially greater improvements in recognition of depression as a major health issue and identifying helpful treatments than the DT group. Only the DT/SDL group demonstrated any improvement in attitudes. This improvement was sustained over six months. Conclusions Self-directed learning is an effective education strategy in improving medical students' knowledge of and attitudes towards depression.
Davenport Tracey A
The objective of this cross-sectional comparative study was to find the effects of environment and education on knowledge and attitude of nursing students towards leprosy. Data were collected, using a pretested questionnaire, from the first year and third year students of a School of Nursing attached to a leprosy specialty hospital and also from a comparable School of Nursing attached to a general hospital. The results showed that trainees acquired more knowledge on leprosy during training in both schools of nursing. However, those trained in leprosy hospital environment had higher knowledge and attitude scores than those trained in general hospital environment. The attitude of the trainees attached to leprosy hospital was favourable even before they had formal training in leprosy. Those trained in the general hospital showed more favourable attitude after training compared to before training. School of Nursing attached to leprosy hospital provided an atmosphere conducive to learning and understanding more about leprosy. The trainees retained what was learnt because of regular association with patients affected by leprosy. For employment in hospital or community based services or research related to leprosy, nurses trained in a leprosy hospital would have added value of knowledge and attitude. PMID:21638982
Rajkumar, E; Julious, S; Salome, A; Jennifer, G; John, A S; Kannan, L; Richard, J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health research training is an essential component of medical education and a vital exercise to help develop physician research skills. This study was carried out to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices towards research amongst a group of Post Graduate Medical Trainees (PGMTs' at Aga Khan University (AKU, Pakistan. Methods A cross sectional health research survey was carried out on all PGMTs' at AKU Pakistan. AKU is a tertiary care health facility which offers residency in 28 specialties and fellowship in 16 programs. Knowledge, attitudes and practices related to health research were assessed using a pretested, structured and validated questionnaire. Health research related practices of the residents were examined using questions graded on Likert scale. Results Mean percentage score ± SD on the knowledge scale was 36.9% ± 20.2 and 47.19% ± 25.18 on the attitude scale. Of 104(55.6% who had previously participated in research 28(26.9% had been involved in basic science research only, 62(59.6% in clinical research and 14(13.5% had participated in both clinical and basic science research projects. 88(47.1% planned to pursue a future research career. Those who planned to pursue a future research career had more positive health research attitudes p Conclusion PGMTs' demonstrate inadequate knowledge, while they have moderate attitudes towards health research. Residency training and research facilities at the institution need to undergo major transformation in order to encourage meaningful research by resident trainees.
Studied effectiveness of a sexual and health issues newsletter written by teenagers in changing readers' knowledge and attitudes about sexual activity, condom use, and drug use. Found that newsletter reading produced more positive attitudes toward postponing sexual involvement, more negative attitudes toward using drugs, and particularly affected…
Sanderson, Catherine A.
In this article, we report data from an online questionnaire study with 587 respondents, representative for the adult U.S. population in terms of age, gender, and level of education. The aim of this study was to assess how interest in science and knowledge as well as beliefs about science are associated with risk and benefit perceptions of nanotechnology. The findings suggest that the U.S. public is still rather unfamiliar with nanotechnology. Those who have some knowledge mainly have gotten it from TV and the Internet. The content of current media reports is perceived as fairly positive. Knowledge of scientific methods is unrelated to benefit and risk perceptions, at least when other predictors are controlled. In contrast, positive beliefs about science (e.g., its impact on economy or health) and more sophisticated epistemological beliefs about the nature of scientific knowledge are moderately linked to more positive perceptions of nanotechnology. The only exception is the perception of scientific uncertainty: This is associated with less positive evaluations. Finally, higher engagement with science is associated with higher risk perceptions. These findings show that laypersons who are engaged with science and who are aware of the inherent uncertainty of scientific evidence might perceive nanotechnology in a somewhat more differentiated way, contrary to how it is portrayed in the media today.
Full Text Available "nBackground: Studies show that about 90% of accidents occur because of unsafe behavior and human errors. Even if workers do not have the right knowledge, attitude and behavior toward safety measures in a safe workplace, all efforts for an accident-free workplace will be in vain. This study aims to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and behavior of workers toward occupational health and safety."nMethods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on workers in Mahshahr Razy Petrochemical Complexm Ahwaz, Iran. A sample size of 210 was randomly selected. Data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. Questionnaire's validity was gained by content-validity and its reliability was validated by Kronbach's alpha. Data was analyzed using SPSS 13."nResults: Mean age of workers was 31.1 years. The mean of their knowledge, attitude and behavior was reported 26.02, 153.18 and 36, respectively. 52.9% of workers had low, 36.7% moderate and 10.5% high level of knowledge. In addition, 75.7% of the subjects had a positive attitude towards occupational health and safety; 30% of workers had low safety behavior and 70% had safe behavior. The mean of knowledge grade shows a significant relationship with education level. A same relationship was reported for the mean of attitudes and behavior with age."nConclusion: Managers should design and implement educational interventions to promote knowledge, attitude and safe behaviors of workers.
H Sanaei Nasab
Although several studies have been conducted to assess dentists' knowledge of and attitudes towards human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), few have targeted dental assistants. The main aims of this study were to assess the knowledge of and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS among dental assistants in Kuwait and to compare the knowledge and attitudes of dental assistants at Kuwait University Dental Center (KUDC) with those of dental assistants in Ministry of Health (MoH) hospitals. The secondary objective was to determine if any intervention was needed to provide more information to dental assistants on HIV/AIDS. A cross-sectional study was conducted by distributing questionnaires. The study sample included 85 dental assistants from each of KUDC and the MoH. The questionnaire included questions to assess the assistants' knowledge and attitude towards HIV/AIDS. Statistical data analysis was conducted using SPSS 20.0. Qualitative data were analysed using the Pearson chi-square text for any association or the Z-test for proportion to test the significance of differences. A total of 167 questionnaires were completed, returned and analysed. KUDC dental assistants were found to have significantly more knowledge about HIV/AIDS than their MoH counterparts, whereas the assistants at the MoH clinics displayed a more positive attitude towards patients with HIV/AIDS (P < 0.05). Although dental assistants at KUDC were more knowledgeable than those at the MoH clinics, there are still some misconceptions that need to be addressed, in addition to the negative attitudes displayed by some of the respondents. It would therefore be beneficial to increase awareness about HIV/AIDS patients through lectures, seminars and workshops targeting dental assistants. PMID:25345503
AlMuzaini, Anwar A A Y; Yahya, Asmaa S Y S; Ellepola, Arjuna N B; Sharma, Prem N
The study reports on an investigation of the impact of a Science-Technology-Society (STS) approach in promoting more positive student attitudes toward science that are recommended by current reform documents. A total of 609 students from grades six through nine were selected for a survey of attitudes in two class sections assigned as either experimental (STS oriented class) or control group (textbook oriented class). The results indicate that students in classes taught with an STS approach de...
Akcay, Hakan; Yager, Robert E.; Iskander, Srini M.; Turgut, Halil
Full Text Available The objectives of this study of pregnant women with asthma are 1 to describe their knowledge and attitudes of asthma in pregnancy and their self-efficacy in carrying out their self-management plan during pregnancy, 2 to determine if their knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy changed as their pregnancy progressed, and 3 to ascertain the relationship between knowledge, attitudes, and self-esteem and age, education, trimester of pregnancy, weeks of pregnancy, the number of times pregnant and live births. Sixty-eight pregnant women who had an asthma diagnosis were given knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy questionnaires initially during the point of first contact (first or second trimester (Time I and subsequently during the latter part of their pregnancy (third trimester (Time II. A demographic data form was also administered at Times I and II. Data were collected in an urban academic medical clinic and analyzed using SPSS 17. Data analysis utilized frequencies, paired samples t tests, and linear regression. There were no significant differences between Time I and Time II in attitudes and self-efficacy. Significant differences were limited to the knowledge questionnaire (t = 4.370, p = 0.05. There was a significant relationship between education and knowledge. Pregnant women with asthma had gaps in their knowledge of asthma in pregnancy, although their knowledge increased as their pregnancy progressed from Time I to Time II. Also, the more education the women had, the better they understood asthma. Education for pregnant women with asthma is tailored to their needs and modified as necessary. Nurses are prepared to address this challenge.
Nancy J. MacMullen
There is a need for qualitative research into teachers' self-efficacy beliefs so that the relationship between these beliefs and other cognitions possessed by teachers, including their practical knowledge, can be better understood by teacher educators. Teachers' self-efficacy beliefs may need supporting if they seem too low or…
Sexual violence is a significant problem on many college campuses. Bystander education programs have been found to train individuals to act to prevent sexual and partner violence and improve the responses of peers to survivors. Limited evidence suggests that gender differences exist between males and females regarding both attitudes toward, and use of, bystander behavior, with females reporting more supportive attitudes and greater use of bystander behavior. The purpose of this study is to compare male and female college students on attitudes toward date rape, bystander efficacy, intention to act as a bystander, and actual use of bystander behaviors. A secondary aim explored gender differences in theoretically driven bystander behaviors and barriers to acting as a bystander. A convenience sample of 157 full-time undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed survey measures of attitudes related to sexual and partner violence and willingness to help. Analysis of variance and chi-square were used to compare gender differences in scores. Significant gender differences were found for date rape attitudes, efficacy, and intention to act as a positive bystander. Men reported more rape-supportive attitudes and greater intention to act as a bystander than women, whereas women reported greater levels of bystander efficacy than men. The findings can be used in tailoring gender-specific components of bystander education programs for sexual assault prevention and intervention. PMID:24762431
Amar, Angela F; Sutherland, Melissa; Laughon, Kathryn
Full Text Available This quasi-experimental intervention was conducted with 10- to 14-year-old students enrolled in public schools in Teresina, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of a nutritional education program on the students’ knowledge, behaviour and attitudes towards nutrition. The dietary attitudes were evaluated in terms of food tastes/preferences and food behaviours. The participants in the study included 126 students from four schools. Differences between before and after the intervention were found regarding knowledge about the “food pyramid”, “healthy eating” and “nutrients” (p
Marize Melo dos Santos
Full Text Available Background: Acquired immunodeficiency may impose considerableconsequences on patients’ family behaviors towardthem. The objective of the present study was to investigatewhether a counseling program at Behavioral Counseling Centerin the city of Shiraz, Iran could change the attitude, knowledgeand behavior of patients' family members.Methods: 125 HIV/AIDS patients’ family members were interviewed,using a valid and reliable questionnaire before andafter performing counseling sessions at Behavioral CounselingCenter. The findings were analyzed using nonparametric tests.Results: The age of the participants was 40±13 years. Sixty fivepercent were female, 63% married and 79% educated. Forty fourpercent of participants had spousal relationships with their patients.Their knowledge about the main routes of HIV transmissionwere 9.76 ± 2.59 and10.64±0.88 before and after counseling,respectively (P=0.028. Supportive behaviors of families towardtheir patients reached to 79% after counseling compared with 44% before that (P=0.004. Belief to isolate the patients and thepractice of this approach at home dropped from 71% to 15% andfrom 29% to 7% after counseling, respectively (P0.05.Conclusion: Ongoing counseling for HIV/AIDS patients’ familiesat Behavioral Counseling Center of Shiraz did advance theirknowledge about AIDS and improved their attitude and behaviortoward their patients However, the counseling program didnot show remarkable success in some aspects such as the removalof fear about HIV spread in the family or the change ofthe patients’ wives attitude to have protected sex with their HIVinfected husbands.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(4: 287-292.
Full Text Available Building on previous research on antecedents of entrepreneurial intentions, various measures were tested across different ethnic groups in South Africa. Factorial homogeneity is an important attribute for any scale intended for use in multicultural research, and since tests of equivalency are not routinely applied, this article hypothesised measurement invariance across ethnic groups. Theoretical discussions on Hofstede’s (2001 value survey module (VSM 94, attitudes towards and beliefs about entrepreneurial intentions, general self-efficacy (GSE, and entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE preceded the use of statistical analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis based on 210 respondents indicated that equivalence for the underlying factors across the different ethnic groups could not be established, and that the three groups demonstrated different underlying structures. In conclusion, stereotypic declarations of an integrated South African culture were not supported by this research in terms of entrepreneurial intentions and their antecedents.
Jurie J. Van Vuuren
Full Text Available Background: India estimates third highest number of HIV infections in the world, with about 2.4 million people currently living with HIV/AIDS. Adequately trained and sensitized healthcare professionals can play a vital role in combating this epidemic. Limited studies have explored knowledge and attitudes of medical students relating to HIV/AIDS, particularly in the eastern part of India. Methods: The present cross sectional study explored knowledge and attitudes of first year MBBS, BDS & BPT students of Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS, Bhubaneswar, Odisha on HIV/AIDS using a self-administered questionnaire. Data thus collected were analyzedand relevant statistics were calculated. Knowledge and attitude scores were determined and analysis of variance (ANOVA test was used to examine the equality between the groups. Results: All students scored low on the overall knowledge scale (<10/15. Specifically, knowledgewas low on modes of transmission and treatment. Attitudinal scores in the areas of precautions and need for training on HIV was low for all the three streams.The willingness to treat HIV/AIDS patient was found to be high amongst study participants. Conclusion: There is a need and scope to provide correct and detailed information on HIV/AIDS for new entrants in medical and allied health sciences to help them acquire adequate knowledge and develop appropriate attitudes towards HIV/AIDS.
Abhimanyu Singh Chauhan
Full Text Available In this study, knowledge, attitude and practice about mercury hygiene of dentist who have private offices in Isfahan were evaluated. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2001-2002. One hundred and sixteen of dentists were selected by random sampling. Data were collected using a standard questionnaire. T-student test, Chi-square test, Fisher"s exact test and Spearman correlation test have been used to analyse data. It was shown that dentists knowledge about mercury hygiene was not acceptable. However the mean of their attitude score was more than scale mean and most of them had a positive attitude toward improvement of mercury hygiene in their offices. According to the results, dent ist"s practice, in this regard proved weak. There was no significant correlation between knowledge and practice and between attitude and practice (P > 0.05. In order to improve dentists" knowledge, training them is supposed. Because of no significant correlation between their knowledge and practice, surveillance seems necessary.
Full Text Available Abstract Background For patients to effectively manage gout, they need to be aware of the impact of diet, alcohol use, and medications on their condition. We sought to examine patients’ knowledge and beliefs concerning gout and its treatment in order to identify barriers to optimal patient self-management. Methods We identified patients (?18 years of age cared for in the setting of a multispecialty group practice with documentation of at least one health care encounter associated with a gout diagnosis during the period 2008–2009 (n?=?1346. Patients were sent a questionnaire assessing knowledge with regard to gout, beliefs about prescription medications used to treat gout, and trust in the physician. Administrative electronic health records were used to identify prescription drug use and health care utilization. Results Two hundred and forty patients returned surveys out of the 500 contacted for participation. Most were male (80%, white (94%, and aged 65 and older (66%. Only 14 (6% patients were treated by a rheumatologist. Only a minority of patients were aware of common foods known to trigger gout (e.g., seafood [23%], beef [22%], pork [7%], and beer [43%]. Of those receiving a urate-lowering medication, only 12% were aware of the short-term risks of worsening gout with initiation. These deficits were more common in those with active as compared to inactive gout. Conclusion Knowledge deficits about dietary triggers and chronic medications were common, but worse in those with active gout. More attention is needed on patient education on gout and self-management training.
Harrold Leslie R
Full Text Available Cancer appears to pose a major threat to the health of the Sudanese population. It is the third leading cause of death in the Sudan after malaria and pneumonia, accounting for 5% of all deaths. In 2005, approximately 22,000 people in the Sudan died from cancer and 17,000 of these people were less than 70 years old. This study was designed to: 1 assess nutrition knowledge and selected dietary beliefs related to cancer in Sudanese residing in Khartoum; 2 identify perceived barriers to the adoption of eating behaviors consistent with those recommended for cancer prevention; and 3 describe the food preferences and dietary practices in Sudanese residing in Khartoum. An interviewer-administered questionnaire elicited demographic information, cancer-related food and nutrition knowledge, food preferences, selected dietary beliefs, barriers to healthy eating and food practices from 182 participants between the ages of 18 and 35 years. More than 50% of females and males correctly identified the food lowest in fiber from a given list. Respondents were knowledgeable about the fat content of their traditional foods, but unaware of the different types of fat. Only 8.8% of the respondents thought that consumption of fruits and vegetables reduced cancer risk. Resondents perceived nutritionists as the most reliable source of information about nutrition and cancer, and the media as the best source of information on nutrition and healthy cooking. “Samin”, feta cheese, a variety of stews, “Zalabia”, lean meat, brown bread, sesame oil, dried okra, fried fish, and chicken were described as preferred food items by respondents. Daily salt/ sodium intake was described by 44% and 39% of the male and female respondents, respectively, as “high” (>2400 mg/day. The findings of this study have clear implications for aggressive nutrition education intervention programs with emphasis on the traditional foods of the Sudan.
Objective: To investigate factors influencing young people's motivation to reduce their leisure noise exposure, and protect their hearing health. Design: Questionnaires were conducted online to investigate young people's hearing health attitudes and behaviour. Items were developed using an integrated health promotion approach. The stage of change model was used to group participants in relation to their engagement with noise reduction behaviour. The health belief model was used to compare each group's perceptions of susceptibility and severity of hearing loss, as well as the benefits and barriers to noise reduction. Study sample: Results are presented for 1196 young Australians aged between 18 and 35 years. Results: Participants' engagement with noise reduction behaviour was used to assign them to stage of change groupings: Maintenance (11%), Action (28%), Contemplation (14%), or Pre-contemplation (43%). Each group's responses to health belief model items highlighted key differences across the different stages of engagement. Conclusions: Future hearing health promotion may benefit from tailoring intervention activities to best suit the stage of change of individuals. Different information may be useful at each stage to best support and motivate young people to look after their hearing health. PMID:25491255
Gilliver, Megan; Beach, Elizabeth Francis; Williams, Warwick
Full Text Available Objective: Despite the proved effectiveness of Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT in the treatment of many psychiatric emergencies and disorders, there are many misconceptions and groundless negative attitudes about its prescription and utilization by many health professionals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an educational experience including a two hours lecture on ECT and viewing a video of the ECT procedure on nursing students’ knowledge of and attitudes towards ECT. Methodology: A quasi experimental research design was used to conduct the current study. A 28 – items (two constructs measuring students’ attitudes and knowledge self administered questionnaire was administered before and after exposure to the two – hour lecture and a movie representing the ECT procedure to a non probability convenience sample of ninety seven female nursing students. Informed written consent was obtained from all students who agreed to participate in the study. Results: Paired sample T. test showed significant differences in students’ scores before and after their educational experience in the psychiatric/mental health nursing course as following: attitude scores (t = 20.507, P t = 20.697, p t = 23.849, p Conclusion: Positive educational experiences would increase the knowledge of ECT, which might in turn contribute to more favorable attitudes towards ECT. Proper educational materials and mass media programs aiming to increase students and practitioners’ awareness about ECT are recommended.
This descriptive study investigated the nutrition-related knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) in India. Data relating to nutritional KAP and sociodemographic profile were gathered from a sample of 400 PLHIV from New Delhi, India, using preset multiple-choice questionnaire. The knowledge on HIV/AIDS was low; nutritional knowledge was moderate as 80% of respondents could answer 4 out of 7 questions correctly. The attitude toward disease and food was positive but the application of nutritional knowledge was lacking as indicated by the moderate practice score of 8.1 +/- 2.3 out of a total score of 15. There were no significant differences in scores between genders. The PLHIV had knowledge about importance of nutrition during infection, had positive attitude toward the disease and the importance of nutrition during the course of the disease but translation of this knowledge into practice was low. Thus, there is a need for continuous interventions primarily aiming at behaviour change to convert knowledge into healthy dietary practices. PMID:23930337
Anand, Deepika; Puri, Seema
Objective: To determine the knowledge and practice of the breast cancer in medical community. The study was carried out in the Department of Oncology, Service Hospital, Lahore and completed in one month. Subjects and Methods: About 200 female doctors and nurses of the Hospital were involved. Each subject was asked to fill up a pro forma designed to assess knowledge, risk factors and preventive practices of the breast cancer. Using non-probability convenience sampling technique, breast self-examination (BSE) and mammography was performed as screening of breast cancer. Results: A majority had good knowledge of the risk factors and screening method for the early detection of breast cancer. Majority had the consensus on the benefit of mammography. Conclusions: The study shows that although medical professionals had fairly good knowledge about screening methods and risk factors of breast cancer. Their preventive practices were scanty in high risk population and, therefore, physicians and nurses need proper training. (author)
Full Text Available A cross-sectional study regarding knowledge, attitude & practices of family planning was conducted in an immunization center of Indore district. All the females coming to immunization center for vaccinating their infants were interviewed using a pretested, semi structured Performa during a fixed study period. The performa included details like socio demographic features, questions related to knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP regarding contraceptive use. Results showed poor contraceptive knowledge amongst females. 18% KAP Gap was found in total subjects. Maximum KAP Gap was found in the 19-21year age group. The KAP Gap was not significantly more in Muslim women as compare to Hindu women. The KAP Gap was more in Housewives than other occupations. Knowledge of various family planning methods should be provided to all the females coming to health center.
Priyanka Mahawar, Shweta Anand, Deepa Raghunath, Sanjay Dixit
This study investigated the association among select socio-cultural variables and sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with a diverse population of metropolitan New York community college students. The Sexual Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior Test survey instrument was administered to 338 students between the ages of 17 and 26 in their…
Knowledge of animals may influence children's beliefs and behaviour toward them, thus building positive attitudes toward animals is one of main goals of environmental education programmes. Although keeping animals contributes to the increase of children's positive attitudes toward wild animals, pet owners show similar negative attitudes toward…
Prokop, Pavol; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale
Full Text Available Introduction: Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants. Antenatal counseling is very useful for ensuring breastfeeding in postnatal period Objectives: Assessment of antenatal services with respect to information about benefits of breastfeeding practices and Assessment of knowledge about benefits of breastfeeding amongst the beneficiaries of the hospitals under study. Methodology: Antenatal mothers attending the OPD were interviewed about their knowledge regarding breastfeeding practices and about the hospital services for imparting this knowledge or information. Results: Out of total 200 antenatal beneficiaries 81.5%were having knowledge about benefits of exclusive breast feeding 37 (18.5% answered donâ€™t know (p value >0.05 not significant statistically. Out of total 200 antenatal beneficiaries 61 (30.5% were informed about exclusive breast feeding and 139(69.5% were not informed, (p value <0.05 significant statistically. Conclusion: Majority of ANC women attending the OPD were not aware about Exclusive Breast Feeding (EBF, however they were having good knowledge about the benefits of breast feeding. The major source of information being doctors rather than paramedical staff, calls for more attention and training of nurses and other supporting hospital staff regarding Baby Friendly Hospital.
Nigam Richa, Sinha Umesh
It is estimated that Haiti has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in the Western Hemisphere. There are currently no sustainable and affordable cervical cancer screening programs in Haiti. The current status of screening services and knowledge of health care professionals was assessed through a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey on cervical cancer screening and prevention. It was distributed to Project Medishare for Haiti health care workers (n = 27) in the Central Plateau. The m...
Leilah Zahedi; Emma Sizemore; Stuart Malcolm; Emily Grossniklaus; Oguchi Nwosu
Detection of probable harmful consequences arised from the usage of pharmaceutical products requires decisive, continuous and close monitoring by medical staff whom should have knowledge of adverse drug reactions and they should also have to report any suspected instances, when any kind of adverse drug reactions have been observed. This study has been carried out on the knowledge, attitude and practice of nurses towards pharmacovigilance in the Taleqani medical, teaching and treatment center ...
Hajebi, Giti; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza; Salamzadeh, Jamshid; Zian, Aed
Inadequate public knowledge about preventive oral health care may lead to increased burden of oral disease. This study aimed to assess level of knowledge of, attitudes toward and behavior of adults residing in Mashhad, Iran regarding preventive oral health care. A total of 946 adult subjects were selected by stratified-cluster random sampling approach. Data were collected via a telephone interview. The interview employed a structured questionnaire about sociodemo...
Taraneh Movahhed; Hadi Ghasemi; Behjatalmolook Ajami; Mohammad Taghi Shakeri; Mahboobe Dehghani
BACKGROUND: To determine The Medical Technology Vocational Training School (MTVTS) students? the knowledge about the effects of GMO on human health and environment and to evaluate their attitude and behavior has been aimed. METHODS: All of the second class students of the year 2006-2007 of MTVTS were included (N=161) in the study, response rate was 92%. The survey questionare included questions on knowledge, the risk perception and attitute about GMOs. The legal framework in Turkey about...
Safak Taner Gursoy; Isil Ergin; Zeliha Asli Ocek; Meltem Ciceklioglu
To inform future health promotion programmes, we studied the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of the Northern Ireland population to sun care. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was applied to one adult per household from a random sample of 1242 addresses. Lower levels of knowledge were found among respondents who were male, aged under 25 years or over 65 years, in a manual occupation or living in the west where health promotion activity on this topic was less active than in the east....
Owen, T.; Fitzpatrick, D.; Dolan, O.; Gavin, A.
The task of genetic counselling of people at risk for Huntington's disease might be facilitated by increased knowledge of relevant population characteristics. The aim of the present study was to clarify select socioeconomic characteristics, knowledge concerning the disease, and attitudes towards predictive tests of people at 50% risk of inheriting Huntington's disease in the state of Victoria. A random sample of subjects was drawn from the Huntington's disease register and 50 questionnaires w...
Teltscher, B.; Polgar, S.
Full Text Available Seventy to ninety percent of HIV-infected individuals have oral lesions that affect their quality-of-life. Caregivers play an important role in complementing the healthcare team. It is essential that the caregivers have optimal knowledge, beliefs and practices toward the management of care regarding oral-lesions in HIV-infected patients in caregiving institutions in Johannesburg, South Africa. To measure the knowledge, beliefs and practices relating to oral lesions in HIV infection amongst caregivers in caregiving institutions in Johannesburg. This cross-sectional pilot study conducted during 2005 and 2006 involved caregivers in palliative care institutions in Region 8, Johannesburg Metropolitan area (n= 52. Using a questionnaire, information obtained included demographics, knowledge, beliefs and practices with regard to oral care for HIV-positive patients. Principal component analysis was used to extract questionnaire items of the knowledge domain. The knowledge domain displayed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach ?-score of > 0.91. Of the caregivers, 65.4%had received training in oral care. Compared to caregivers not trained in oral care (NTOC, those caregivers trained in oral care (TOC were more likely to be older (31 yrs vs. 44 yrs; p = 0.001, female (72%vs. 94%; p = 0.03 and were less likely to be employed on a full-time basis (94%vs. 68%; p = 0.03. Compared with NTOCs, TOCs had more knowledge regarding HIV-specific lesions and ‘routine’ oral-care for the patients (p < 0.005. Similarly, TOCcaregivers had more positive beliefs about oral care for those living with HIV (p < 0.05. Offering training in oral healthcare to caregivers improves their knowledge of oral lesions and their beliefs about oral care.
Background: School personnel are important for communicating with parents about school vaccination programs and recognizing influenza outbreaks. This study examined knowledge, attitudes, and practices of school personnel regarding seasonal and 2009 H1N1 influenza, vaccinations, and school outbreak investigations. Methods: Data were analyzed from…
Ha, Chrysanthy; Rios, Lenoa M.; Pannaraj, Pia S.
Conclusions: The reasons for self-medication were similar among medical and non-medical students, but positive attitude and knowledge toward self-medication was more among the medical students. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(6.000: 988-994
The current study explores the effectiveness of involving students in environmental science projects for their environmental knowledge and attitudes towards science. The study design is a quasi-experimental pre-post control group design. The sample was 62 11th-grade female students studying at a public school in Oman. The sample was divided into…
Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Aamri, Shamsa S.
The terms of agreement of the Rural Water-Borne Disease Control Project called for a knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) study relating to water and sanitation in rural Swaziland. The purpose of the study was to provide: (1) baseline data for the design of a national health education strategy aimed at reducing the incidence of water-borne…
Green, Edward C.
Investigates the effect of anabolic steroid education on preadolescents' knowledge of and attitudes toward anabolic steroids with 35 male athletes. Information on psychological and physiological aspects of anabolic steroid use, weight training techniques, nutrition, social decision making, and self-esteem training were provided. Participants…
Trenhaile, Jay; Choi, Hee-Sook; Proctor, Theron B.; Work, Patricia
A study of 54 first-year Marshall University (West Virginia) medical students found that a preventive cardiology curriculum improved both knowledge of and attitudes about preventive cardiology in general and on all 4 subscales (epidemiological evidence, risk factor characteristics, pathophysiology, primary interventions). (Author/MSE)
Veitia, Marie C.; And Others
This article reports on a mixed-methods study of Chinese university students' knowledge of and attitudes toward plagiarism in English academic writing. A sample of 270 undergraduates from two Chinese universities rated three short English passages under different conditions, provided open-ended responses to justify their ratings, and completed a…
Hu, Guangwei; Lei, Jun
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate whether paediatricians have appropriate knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours regarding vaccinations for infants in Italy. Methods A random sample of 500 paediatricians received a self-administered anonymous questionnaire covering demographic and professional characteristics; knowledge about the mandatory, recommended, and not indicated vaccinations for infants; attitudes about vaccinations for infants; behaviour regarding current administration or willingness to administer mandatory or recommended vaccinations for infants and immunization education programs of the parents. Results Only 42.3% paediatricians knew all recommended vaccinations for infants and this knowledge was significantly higher in females, in those who worked a higher number of hours for week, and in those who use guidelines for immunization practice. Only 10.3% had a very favourable attitude towards the utility of the recommended vaccinations for infants and this was significantly higher in those who administered recommended vaccinations for infants. A large proportion (82.7% of paediatricians routinely informed the parents about the recommended vaccinations for infants and this appropriate behaviour was significantly higher among younger, in those with a higher number of years in practice, and in those who administered the recommended vaccinations for infants. Conclusion Training and educational interventions are needed in order to improve knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours regarding vaccinations for infants among paediatricians.
In this study we investigated Alberta high school counsellors' knowledge about homosexuality and their attitudes toward gay males. Three questionnaires were mailed to 648 high school counselling centres; 223 individuals returned the completed questionnaires. Most counsellors attained low scores in measured homo-negativity and high scores regarding…
Alderson, Kevin G.; Orzeck, Tricia L.; McEwen, Scott C.
The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of mandatory child abuse training on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes toward abused children and abusive parents among a sample of police recruits. An experimental pretest-posttest design was used in which 81 participants were randomly assigned to experimental conditions and 101 to…
Patterson, George T.
This study assessed how knowledge of soy protein and its relationship to heart disease influences the attitudes and practices of college students. Results showed that family members, schools, and newspapers were the primary sources of students' nutritional information. One fourth of the participating students answered at least four nutrition…
Herring, Theresa A.; Bakhiet, Raga M.
A study of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) among rural migrants was conducted in Shanghai, China. An anonymous questionnaire was administered face-to-face. Among 2,690 participants, 78% reported having had lifetime sexual intercourse with 41.3% of singles reporting sexual intercourse, 9.2%…
He, Na; Zhang, Jinling; Yao, Jinjian; Tian, Xiuhong; Zhao, Genming; Jiang, Qingwu; Detels, Roger
An intervention study was set up through the School Civic Clubs to improve Botswana children's environmental knowledge, attitudes and practices. The underlying assumption in using this informal approach was based on the premise that the school time table is already overcrowded and that the infusion approach currently adopted in the country has not…
Ajiboye, Josiah O.; Silo, Nthalivi
A key organizational barrier related to the implementation of open innovation strategies refers to the unwillingness of employees to undertake extra-organizational knowledge transactions. Negative attitudes against the utilization of external knowledge (i.e. the Not-invented-here (NIH) syndrome), as well as against the external commercialization of knowledge assets, for example, via licensing (i.e. the Not-sold-here (NSH) syndrome), may create resistance to these activities and, consequently, a misalignment between the intentions of top management and the attitudes of involved employees (Katz and Allen, 1982; Lichtenthaler et al., 2010). In this paper, we examine the extent to which these attitudes impact the actual adoption of both the inbound and the outbound approaches to open innovation. We posit that these attitudes have a negative influence, since they create unfavourable perceptions of the value of outside competencies and know-how, supporting only internal development and application of ideas and technologies. We test two hypotheses concerning the consequences of the NIH- and NSH-syndromes with cross-sectional survey data from 355 Danish firms. The population consists of firms in the manufacturing industries (NACE codes 10-37) with 5-499 employees. Our findings help explain the extent to which companies are able to benefit from inflows and outflows of knowledge.
Burcharth, Ana Luiza Lara de Araújo; SØndergaard, Helle Alsted
We found lack of knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS transmission and means for prevention in addition to unfavorable attitudes towards HIV/AIDS individuals. We recommend an evaluation of HIV/AIDS information in the curricula of health institutes and health colleges in addition to conduction of a nationwide health education campaign on HIV/AIDS.
Yagob Y. Al-Mazrou
The purposes of this study were to develop instruments that assess public knowledge of nanotechnology (PKNT), public attitudes toward nanotechnology (PANT) and conduct a pilot study for exploring the relationship between PKNT and PANT. The PKNT test was composed of six scales involving major nanotechnology concepts, including size and scale,…
Lin, Shu-Fen; Lin, Huann-shyang; Wu, Yi-ying
Many assessment studies are devoted to discovering whether student knowledge increases after successful completion of a specific course; fewer studies attempt to examine whether students undergo a change in their values and attitudes as a result of that coursework. Given the continuing emphasis on assessment and the fulfillment of core curriculum…
Martin, Pamela; Tankersley, Holley; Ye, Min
The topic of sexuality and romantic relationships of people with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities was examined. We developed a questionnaire to investigate the 76 respondents' sexual knowledge, attitudes, experience, and needs. During the interviews, observational data were gathered to check the validity of the instrument. Results show…
Siebelink, Eline M.; de Jong, Menno D. T.; Taal, Erik; Roelvink, Leo
This study examined the effect of rehabilitation counseling students' age, sex, disability status, geographic location, marital status, religion, sexual orientation, and level of sexuality training on knowledge, comfort, approach, and attitudes toward the sexuality of people with disabilities. Participants were 312 rehabilitation counseling…
Pebdani, Roxanna N.
This study evaluated knowledge and attitudes of undergraduates regarding nutrition and health of the aged and students' intentions of pursuing career involvement with older adults. The participants evaluated were undergraduates from three mid-western universities (n=1,755). The majority of those surveyed were uninformed and unlikely to pursue…
Heuberger, Roschelle A.; Stanczak, Melanie
To adopt an evidence-based approach to education there is a need for research-based evidence to support its effectiveness. This study investigated the impact of evidence-based education on the knowledge and attitude of nursing students. In this quasi-experimental study, all nursing students (n = 41) studying the courses of musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal systems were chosen and assigned randomly to intervention and control groups. The groups were taught through an evidence-based or traditional approach. Students' knowledge and attitude were then evaluated. Data were gathered by three knowledge and two attitude questionnaires with multiple choice and Likert scales and then analyzed. It was shown that there was a significant difference between the average scores for attitude of the groups, but there was no statistically significant difference between the average scores of knowledge. The results suggest the evidence-based approach might be used as a complementary approach to nursing education. It was not only as effective as the usual method but also led to the acquisition of particular skills by students. The results can be used to formulate programs to design and implement evidence-based nursing education. PMID:21595816
Jalali-Nia, Seyedeh Fatemeh; Salsali, Mahvash; Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Ebadi, Abbas
Environmental problems in China are intensifying and it is vital to evaluate the environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of the generation poised to inherit their management. This study examines a survey of environmental awareness among Chinese students (aged between 16 and 20 years). Considering the contrasting levels of regional…
He, Xueqin; Hong, Ting; Liu, Lan; Tiefenbacher, John
This exploratory study measured the sexuality education and HIV knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors of young adults (n = 410), ages 18-21, who recently graduated from public high schools in a midwestern state. Based on the participants' responses to specific questions, students were placed into one of three groups: students who received no…
Kniss, Darrel Dean; Akagi, Cynthia G.
Objective: To research the correlation between physical and sexual abuse by family members and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy and behavior among urban and rural adolescents in Zambia. Sample: The sample comprises 3,360 adolescents, aged 10-19, from urban and rural Zambia; 2,160 of them attended school, while 1,200 of them did…
Slonim-Nevo, Vered; Mukuka, Lawrence
Dental students should have knowledge of geriatric dental care and positive attitudes toward elderly patients. This study assessed senior dental students' knowledge of geriatric dental care and their attitude towards elderly patients. A descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on volunteer senior students in all dental schools (n = 512) in the Islamic Republic of Iran. The completed questionnaires (n = 464) were analysed. The mean scores of respondents' knowledge and attitudes were 12.7 (SD 2.9) and 48 (SD 6.1) respectively. Female and male students' knowledge did not differ significantly but their attitudes score was different. The majority of dental students had low to moderate levels of knowledge of geriatric dental care and attitudes toward elderly people; therefore, an intervention programme is indicated. We conducted the study to use the findings to incorporate geriatric dental care programmes into dental school curricula in the Islamic Republic of Iran. PMID:24995742
Hatami, B; Ahmady, A Ebn; Khoshnevisan, M H; Lando, H A
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude, practice and preferences on contraceptive methods among the female population, to determine the association between knowledge and attitude on contraceptive methods with the variables.Materials and methods: A Descriptive survey of 136 females between 18- 45 year of age were done using a structured knowledge questionnaire, structured attitude scale and opinionnaire on practice and preference during the month of January 2012 to February 2012 at Moodu Alevoor village, Udupi district, Karnataka. Simple random sampling was used to select the village and purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample.Results: It was shown that 48.5% were of 26-35 years of age, 92% were Hindus, 45.6% had higher secondary education, 41.2% were house wives, 55.9% had family monthly income below 5000 rupees, 49.3% were from nuclear family, 64% were married between 19-25 years, 43.3% had 2-3 years of married life and 52.2% had one pregnancy. Majority (55.9% had one living child and 98.5% got information through health personnel. Majority (67.60% had moderate knowledge on contraceptive methods and 17.60% had high knowledge. Majority (87.50% had favourable attitude and 12.50% had unfavourable attitude towards contraceptive methods. From the group of studied women 38.23% did not use any contraceptive methods, 19.85% used OCPs and minimum 1.47% used injection as contraceptive method. In this study 37.5% preferred OCPs as Rank 1, male condom (22.1% as Rank 2 and injection (16.3% as Rank 3. There was association between knowledge with educational status(c2 = 47.14, p=0.001, occupation (c2 =15.81, p=0.044, family monthly income (c2 =6.473, p=0.039 and duration of marriage (c2=6.721, p=0.035. There was no association between attitude and the studied variables.Conclusion: The study showed that majority of the females had moderate knowledge and favourable attitude
Sonam Zangmu Sherpa
The purpose of this study was to explore high school band students' perspectives of instrumental music practice from within the attribution theory paradigm and to attempt to elucidate the secondary student's attitudes toward practice. High school band students from three Midwestern school districts (N = 218) completed a survey that was used to…
Schatt, Matthew D.
This paper describes the results of a mixed model research that, as the first of its kind, aimed to determine the nature of, and underlying factors influencing, Croatian elementary pupils' attitudes towards confessional Catholic religious education (RE). Analyses of the questionnaire responses of the eighth-grade pupils from the stratified…
Jokic, Boris; Hargreaves, Linda
Full Text Available The attitudes toward people with epilepsy are influenced by the degree of knowledge of the condition. Teachers usually do not receive any formal instruction on epilepsy during their training. This study was done to access three hundred teachers' knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy by answering a questionnaire in order to quantify their knowledge, attitude and practice toward epilepsy. Almost all the teachers had heard about epilepsy yet could not demonstrate discrimination among the students. Some teachers still thought that epilepsy was contagious. A few others either objected to having epileptic children in their classes or did not think that an epileptic child could achieve higher studies. The knowledge about the clinical characteristics and initial procedures to attend a person during a seizure was unsatisfactory. We conclude that schools should offer some kind of knowledge or assistance in health services and physicians must ensure that these teachers have sufficient knowledge of epilepsy. Also general public education campaigns should be encouraged in this field.
Dantas Fábio Galvão
Full Text Available
Full Text Available Inadequate public knowledge about preventive oral health care may lead to increased burden of oral disease. This study aimed to assess level of knowledge of, attitudes toward and behavior of adults residing in Mashhad, Iran regarding preventive oral health care. A total of 946 adult subjects were selected by stratified-cluster random sampling approach. Data were collected via a telephone interview. The interview employed a structured questionnaire about sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practice toward preventive oral health care. Also a question was considered about the respondent’s resource for oral health prevention information. Mean score of knowledge was 0.54±0.56 (full score: 3. Higher scores were significantly more prevalent in women, younger’s, people with more income and higher level of education. Mean attitude score was 1.6±0.7 (full score: 3. only 17.6% of the respondents showed positive attitude. It showed significant correlation with level of education and monthly income. Mean of behavior score was 4.5±2.07 (full score: 8. Dental flossing was more reported in more educated (OR = 2.27 and non smoker people (OR = 1.85. Dental visit was more prevalent in more educated ones (OR = 1.34. The most important source of information was semiprofessional source (mass media and health care center staff. As conclusion knowledge of Mashhad’s people about preventive oral health care was low. Their mean attitude shifted to negative score and the average of behavior was moderate. This study certainly serves local health policy making. Reinforcing collaboration between dentist and semiprofessional sources could be suggested.
Knowledge of science and the scientific method are important in learning about and using evidence-based medicine in practice. Courses in research methodology have been introduced for both medical students and practicing doctors. In Pokhara, the basic science subjects are taught in an integrated manner during the first four semesters of the undergraduate medical course. Studies on students' attitudes towards and knowledge of science are lacking in medical colleges in Nepal. Hence the study was carried out to obtain information on students' attitude towards and knowledge of science and scientific methodology among preclinical medical students and note the association, if any, of students' attitudes and their demographic characteristics. The study was carried out in March 2005 among the students of the first four semesters at the Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal using a questionnaire developed by Hren and coworkers. Two hundred and twenty students (overall response rate 73.3%) successfully completed the questionnaire. Seventy-five respondents were Nepalese, 115 were Indians, 27 were Sri Lankans and 3 belonged to other nationalities. The X +/- SD total attitude score was 147.4 +/- 10.8 (neutral score 135). The X +/- SD scores on the subscales, value of science to humanity, value of scientific methodology and value of science to medicine were 51.3 +/- 5.4, 39.6 +/- 3.7 and 58.5 +/- 5.9 (neutral scores were 36, 51 and 48 respectively). The knowledge score measured using a set of 8 multiple choice questions was 3.3 +/- 1.4. The attitude scores were lower and the knowledge score was comparable to that reported previously in a study in Croatia but higher than that reported from Southeast Europe. PMID:18041371
Shankar, P Ravi; Dubey, Arun K; Upadhyay, Dinesh K; Subish, P; Mishra, Pranaya
Undertreatment of postoperative pain can aggravate patient outcomes and is associated with attending nurses' knowledge deficits or negative attitudes toward pain. The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge and attitudes toward postoperative pain of surgical department nurses and to identify predictors of their knowledge and attitudes. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional survey that took place in the departments of general surgery, orthopedics, neurosurgery, ear-nose-throat surgery, and obstetrics/gynecology at five Greek hospitals. Participants were a convenience sample of registered and assistant nurses. Nurses were asked to complete a three-section questionnaire, which included demographics, a Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (KASRP) tool modified for postoperative pain, and seven questions capturing personal characteristics, working conditions, and feelings about work. One hundred eighty-two questionnaires were completed. Average scores were 45.35% for modified KASRP tool; 28.57% for pain assessment; 55.44% for general pain management; and 47.13% for use of analgesics. Four of the five most commonly missed items referred to use of analgesics. More previous personal experience of postoperative pain (p = .002) and being a registered nurse (p = .015) predicted higher modified KASRP tool score. Participation in continuing education programs and department of employment were also associated with differences in the modified tool score. The knowledge deficits and negative attitudes of the nurses toward postoperative pain highlight the role of pregraduate and continuing education, appropriately specialized for each surgical department, in the development of empathy toward patients in pain and of clinical competency regarding pain assessment and administration of analgesics. PMID:24981120
Kiekkas, Panagiotis; Gardeli, Panagiota; Bakalis, Nick; Stefanopoulos, Nikolaos; Adamopoulou, Katerina; Avdulla, Christos; Tzourala, Georgia; Konstantinou, Evangelos
What is the distribution of attitudes towards the large-scale application of coal and uranium. How can these attitudes be explained from belief systems. What are the perceived probabilities of a number of consequences from these energy sources. What are the consequences of these attitudes for behaviour and behavioural intentions. What normative influences play a role. These questions are addressed on the basis of a national survey held in the Netherlands. Attention is also paid to other aspects of people's evaluations of these energy technologies, e.g. information level, imaginability of accidents, anxiety and involvement with the problems perceived. The study has been designed following an extended and adapted version of the attitude-behaviour model of Fishbein and Ajzen (1975). (author)
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the level of knowledge and attitudes of the high school students for HIV / AIDS and also to evaluate the sources from which the information has been received. Material and Methods: 74 male and 39 female high school students (n:113 have participated in the study. The survey questionnaire was developed by the researchers and implemented by UNICEF and it contained 22 questions assessing knowledge and attitudes. Survey interviewing method was applied to students. Results: The average rate of correct answers to questions about the knowledge, in male and female st