Full Text Available The aim of this study was to propose and validate “a great variety of animals may be released” and “attitudes toward animal releasing”. To achieve this goal, the self-developed Likert-typed questionnaire and demographic data were adapted. The demographic data collected from both stages were analyzed. Only the beliefs, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of the participants from the first stage were examined. Regression and path analysis were done for the data from both stages. The questionnaire research was divided into two stages. At the first stage, the questionnaire was answered by people from schools or private businesses in the northern, middle, and southern parts of Taiwan. A total of 1225 valid questionnaires were collected, among which only 9.3% of the participants were found to have ever joined animal releasing activities. At the second stage, the participants were chosen from the religious groups in northern Taiwan that offered animal releasing activities. A total of 151 valid questionnaires were collected. By the regression analysis of demographic data and beliefs of animal releasing, the result shows that “the experience of participating in religious ceremony to be one of the groups” is the strongest predictor; the “participants gender” and “their mother’s religions” influence knowledge of animal releasing most. The beliefs of animal releasing can account for much of attitudes than knowledge variables can do. “Beliefs of animal releasing” is more important than “significant others’ support” and “significant others’ support” is more important than “knowledge of animal releasing.” The main findings of the correlation among beliefs, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of animal releasing include the following: 1 through attitude, beliefs mediate behaviors; 2 through attitude, knowledge mediate behaviors; 3 knowledge influences behaviors directly; 4 attitude influences behaviors directly.
Jeaw-Mei Chen; Mei-Long Lin; Mein-Woei Suen
The aim of this study was to propose and validate “a great variety of animals may be released” and “attitudes toward animal releasing”. To achieve this goal, the self-developed Likert-typed questionnaire and demographic data were adapted. The demographic data collected from both stages were analyzed. Only the beliefs, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of the participants from the first stage were examined. Regression and path analysis were done for the data from both stages. The que...
Abdel Shaheed, Christina; Maher, Christopher G; Mak, Wendy; Williams, Kylie A; McLachlan, Andrew J
Background Practitioner beliefs and attitudes towards low back pain (LBP) influence treatment decisions. Little is known about pharmacists' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards LBP. Objectives To investigate the effect of educational interventions on pharmacists' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards LBP. Setting Sydney Metropolitan Area. Methods Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs was measured using the "Pharmacists' Back Beliefs Questionnaire", with items from two previously reported questionnaires on back beliefs. Responses from pharmacists attending a 2-h educational workshop on LBP (n = 204) and pharmacists recruiting participants for a LBP clinical trial (n = 66) were compared to responses from a control group of pharmacists (n = 65) to allow an evaluation of the two interventions. Responses from workshop participants were also evaluated before and after the session. Participants indicated their agreement with statements about LBP on a 5-point Likert scale. Preferred responses were based on guidelines for the evidence-based management of LBP. The primary analysis evaluated total score on the nine-inevitability items of the Back Beliefs Questionnaire ("inevitability score"). Main outcome measure Inevitability score. Results There was no significant difference in inevitability score between LBP clinical trial pharmacists and the control group [mean difference (MD) 0.47 (95 % CI -1.35 to 2.29; p = 0.61)]. The educational workshop led to a significant and favourable change in inevitability score (MD 7.23 p < 0.001) and notable changes in responses to misconceptions regarding bed rest and the need for imaging (p < 0.001) among participating pharmacists. Conclusions Pharmacists attending the educational workshop provided the most compelling evidence that education specifically aimed at delivering evidence-based information can be successful in changing practitioner knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards LBP. PMID:25851502
van der Linden, Wietse; Bakx, Anouke; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe; van den Bergh, Linda
This study reports on the development of second-year student teachers' knowledge of research, and the changes in their beliefs and attitude regarding research during an introductory course at an institute for primary teacher education. Questionnaires and concept maps were administered before and after the course. The results showed that…
Bannink, Femke; Stroeken, Koenraad; Idro, Richard; van Hove, Geert
This article describes the findings of a qualitative study on knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and practices towards children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus in four regions of Uganda. Focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews were held with parents of children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus, policy-makers, and service…
Eckhardt, Cara L; Lutz, Tam; Karanja, Njeri; Jobe, Jared B; Maupomé, Gerardo; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl
The promotion of healthy infant feeding is increasingly recognized as an important obesity-prevention strategy. This is relevant for American Indian populations that exhibit high levels of obesity and low compliance with infant feeding guidelines. The literature examining the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs surrounding infant feeding within the American Indian population is sparse and focuses primarily on breastfeeding, with limited information on the introduction of solid foods and related practices that can be important in an obesity-prevention context. This research presents descriptive findings from a baseline knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs questionnaire on infant feeding and related behaviors administered to mothers (n=438) from five Northwest American Indian tribes that participated in the Prevention of Toddler Overweight and Teeth Health Study (PTOTS). Enrollment occurred during pregnancy or up to 6 months postpartum. The knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs questionnaire focused on themes of breastfeeding/formula feeding and introducing solid foods, with supplemental questions on physical activity. Knowledge questions were multiple choice or true/false. Attitudes and beliefs were assessed on Likert scales. Descriptive statistics included frequencies and percents and means and standard deviations. Most women knew basic breastfeeding recommendations and facts, but fewer recognized the broader health benefits of breastfeeding (eg, reducing diabetes risk) or knew when to introduce solid foods. Women believed breastfeeding to be healthy and perceived their social networks to agree. Attitudes and beliefs about formula feeding and social support were more ambivalent. This work suggests opportunities to increase the perceived value of breastfeeding to include broader health benefits, increase knowledge about solid foods, and strengthen social support. PMID:24951434
Rodgers, Rachel Florence; Paxton, Susan J; McLean, Siân A; Massey, Robin; Mond, Jonathan M; Hay, Phillipa J; Rodgers, Bryan
Widely held stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs toward bulimic eating disorders may lead to self-blame and reduced treatment seeking. Knowledge and familiarity with mental disorders may help decrease associated stigma. However, these relationships are not well understood in bulimia nervosa (BN). A community sample of 1828 adults aged 18 to 70 years completed a survey assessing stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs toward BN, knowledge and familiarity with the disorder, as well as levels of eating disorder symptoms. Knowledge of BN was negatively associated with three dimensions of stigmatization, personal responsibility (? = -0.28), unreliability (? = -0.19), and advantages of BN (? = -0.23). Familiarity revealed no association with stigmatization. Both men and women with high levels of eating disorder symptoms perceived BN as less serious than the participants with low levels of symptoms. Increasing community knowledge about bulimia may help mitigate stigmatization and perceived barriers to treatment. PMID:25751709
Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Diana Isabel; Ramírez, Lorena; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Domínguez-Sánchez, María Andrea; Durán-Palomino, Diana; Girabent-Farrés, Montserrat; Flórez-López, María Eugenia; Bagur-Calafat, M Caridad
Objective: The main purpose of this study was to describe a group of Colombian physical therapists' beliefs and attitudes towards Evidence-Based Practice (EBP), their education, knowledge and skills for implementing EBP, the use of relevant literature in clinical practice, access to and availability of scientific information and perceived barriers to including EBP in practice. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study which involved 1,064 Colombian physical therapists. The study used a 50-item screening questionnaire EBP developed to estimate attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and skills regarding. This instrument has been adapted and was validated previously in Colombia by Flórez-López et al. Results: The population mostly consisted of young females (77.2%) aged 22 to 29 years old (79.4%). Most respondents had an undergraduate degree (87.7%). The physical therapists stated that they had positive attitudes and beliefs regarding EBP, most of them answering that they agreed or strongly agreed that EBP is necessary (71.6%), the relevant literature is useful for practice (61.3%), EBP improves the quality of patient care (64.1%) and evidence helps in decision-making (44.5%). Forty-one percent of the respondents indicated that a lack of research skills was the most important barrier to the use of evidence in practice. Conclusion: The physical therapists reported that they had a positive attitude to EBP and were interested in learning about or improving the skills necessary to adopt EBP in their clinical practice.
Sudhanshu Sharma; Manju Sharma
This study was conducted to determine the knowledge, attitude and beliefs about safe motherhood practices amongst pregnant women residing in the urban slum of the city of Jaipur, India.The study recruited 100 pregnant women from one of the urban slums of a selected district. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered on the selected sample. Overall, the results show low levels of awareness among rural pregnant women. Two major axes of investigation were used - age and education. In both inst...
Barnathan Julia A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted between January and July of 2006 in the Chicago area with parents of children with food allergy (3 groups, physicians (3 groups, and the general public (2 groups. A constant comparative method was used to identify the emerging themes which were then grouped into key domains of food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Results Parents of children with food allergy had solid fundamental knowledge but had concerns about primary care physicians' knowledge of food allergy, diagnostic approaches, and treatment practices. The considerable impact of children's food allergies on familial quality of life was articulated. Physicians had good basic knowledge of food allergy but differed in their approach to diagnosis and advice about starting solids and breastfeeding. The general public had wide variation in knowledge about food allergy with many misconceptions of key concepts related to prevalence, definition, and triggers of food allergy. Conclusion Appreciable food allergy knowledge gaps exist, especially among physicians and the general public. The quality of life for children with food allergy and their families is significantly affected.
Full Text Available The social work profession has been undergoing a period of change and has been encouraged to prove the effectiveness of clinical interventions by scientific evidence. This study was therefore designed to describe the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of a sample of Romanian social work professionals to evidence-based practice (EBP. 62 social workers were required to complete a 37-item closed ended questionnaire, which collected information on demographic data, practice settings, knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding EBP. Respondents agreed that the use of EBP was necessary and that the quality of patient care was better when evidence was used, with the younger physiotherapists at the fore front. About 50% of the respondents had access to online information; the majority of these respondents only had time to access the internet more at home rather than at work place. The primary barrier to implementing EBP was insufficient time. The respondents had a positive attitude towards EBP and were interested in improving the skills necessary to implement EBP. There was a need to increase the use of EBP in clinical practice and decision making among social workers. The respondents who were recently licensed and those with post-graduate education expressed more positive attitudes toward EBP than those who were not. Results also point out the issue of appreciative inquiry (AI as a key-component in successful implementation of EBP in social work clinical settings.
Smith-simone, Stephanie; Maziak, Wasim; Ward, Kenneth D.; Eissenberg, Thomas
Despite evidence of increasing waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence among U.S. young adults, little is known about the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and smoking patterns of waterpipe users in this population. To address this lack of knowledge, two convenience samples of U.S. waterpipe users were surveyed—one from a Richmond, Virginia, waterpipe café (n=101), the other from an Internet forum called HookahForum.com (n=100). Sixty percent reported first-time waterpipe use at or before age 18...
Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Zabala, Mikel
The aim of this study was to understand the attitudes, beliefs and knowledge among technical staff members of Spanish football teams regarding doping. The sample was drawn from 88 football teams that ranged from elite to under-18 categories. The 237 stakeholders (34.45 ± 8.59 years) were categorised as follows: coaches (COA) (n = 101), physical trainers (PT) (n = 68) and rest of technical staff (RTS) (n = 68). The descriptive exploratory design used an instrument that combined a validated questionnaire (Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale; PEAS) with specific, qualitative open-ended questions. The overall mean score from the PEAS (range, 17-102, with higher scores representing more permissive attitudes towards doping) was 31.64 ± 10.77; for COA, 31.91 ± 11.42; for PT, 31.28 ± 9.44; and for RTS, 31.58 ± 11.18. Regarding participants' knowledge and beliefs, most respondents (57.6%) did not know the meaning of WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency); 84.9% did not know the prohibited list; and 39.2% had used/recommended supplements. In addition, 87.2% recognised "differential treatment of doping among sports," with cycling considered most affected (62.6%) and team sports least (27.2%, with football at 15%). The dangerous lack of knowledge highlights the necessity for anti-doping education and prevention programs for all football stakeholders, not just athletes. PMID:25574905
K, Nolte; B J M, Steyn; P E, Krüger; L, Fletcher.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of talented young athletes residing in Gauteng regarding prohibited performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) and anti-doping rules and regulations METHODS: This was a survey study using a quantitative research approach. South African TuksSport a [...] cademy athletes at the High Performance Centre, University of Pretoria, and competitive high-school athletes at four private high schools in Gauteng completed the survey. A self-determined, structured questionnaire was used to establish the attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of the athletes RESULTS: A total of 346 (208 males, 138 females) athletes, mean (standard deviation) age 16.9 (1.4) years participated in the survey. According to this survey, 3.9% of the athletes in this survey admitted to using a prohibited PED and more than 14.0% of the athletes said they would consider using a prohibited PED if they knew they would not get caught. Ambition (46.0%) and emotional pressure (22.5%) were the primary reasons why the athletes would consider using prohibited PEDs. Even though coaches appeared to be one of the main sources of information (on PEDs and anti-doping rules), only 42.1% of the athletes felt that they were well informed CONCLUSION: Controlling doping by means of testing is important. However, it may be necessary to put more emphasis on changing attitudes towards doping and implementing additional educational programmes
Blood donation and transfusion are remarkably safe medical procedures. However, attitudes, beliefs and level of knowledge associated with blood donation and transfusion may affect such procedures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the attitude, belief and knowledge about blood donation and transfusion in Saudi Population. The present study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University Hospitals, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A well structured Arabic questionnaire was used to asses the attitude, belief and knowledge regarding blood donation and transfusion. The sample consisted of 335 male (55%) and 274 female (45%); the majority of the sample (65.84%) were non-donors. These non-donors (78.98%) were between the ages of 15-30 years. The 88.5% of the people who participated in the study believed that blood donation was not harmful, 20% of them stated that they would refuse blood transfusion even if they were in need because of the risk of acquiring infectious disease. 84.5% preferred direct donation, (49%) of the sample stated that they would accept blood donation only from relatives, 55.1% believed that blood transfusion was safe. However, 11.6% claimed to have acquired infectious disease after blood transfusion, 58% female in addition to 11.34% male preferred to receive blood from female donor and 69.5% did not know if the blood banks were in need of blood or not and 17.4% believed that all surgical procedures require eved that all surgical procedures require blood transfusion. Different fears, mistrust in hospital and lack of information may serve as an important issue to be addressed when developing donors recruitment programs or campaigns to clear misconceptions about blood donation. In addition, public should know that numerous screening measures are implemented to ensure that blood donation is safe for the donor and that transfusion of the donated blood is safe for the recipient. (author)
Lin Jin-Mann S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a debilitating illness with particular difficulties for healthcare providers because there are no diagnostic signs or laboratory tests and because management aims to merely improve symptoms. Further complicating management, healthcare providers' awareness concerning CFS has not been rigorously assessed. The present study aimed to ascertain United States (U.S. healthcare providers' awareness of CFS and to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs (KAB related to diagnosis and management of the illness. This information forms the foundation for developing CFS educational strategies. Methods We combined convenience and probability samples to measure CFS KAB among healthcare providers. In the convenience sample, 1,255 healthcare providers (81% response rate from 13 professional conferences completed a 12-item form. Descriptive statistics were reported for 9 KAB item responses and chi-square tests were performed for examining their association with giving a diagnosis of CFS. We used principal component analysis to construct multidimensional subscales and perform a general linear model to examine factors associated with subscales. The probability sample involved data on 15 CFS-specific questions from 2006 and 2007 DocStyles web-based panel surveys collected from 2,750 physicians (average response rate 55%. We calculated descriptive and chi-square statistics. The significance was set at two-tailed with the alpha level of 0.05. Results Healthcare providers in both samples were aware of CFS and exhibited a high level of knowledge. Overall, 96% of respondents in the DocStyles (probability sample had heard about CFS. Healthcare providers in the conference (convenience sample demonstrated good KAB scores; physicians' scores were highest on KAB scales and lowest in perception. Nurses' scores were lowest in knowledge. More than 40% of physicians reported ever giving a CFS diagnosis and in the DocStyles (probability sample more than 80% of physicians correctly identified CFS symptoms. Physicians reported professional journals, the Internet, and continuing education programs as the top 3 sources from which they obtain CFS information. Conclusions Findings from these combined samples fill a gap in the evidence-base of U.S. healthcare providers' and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs concerning CFS. Importantly, respondents in both samples expressed similar knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and perceptions. Awareness was high and negative attitudes were low. The primary areas for future education should address diagnosis and management of CFS and should be delivered through those venues providers indicated they primarily use. Data from this study provide a benchmark for evaluation the success of these future efforts.
Lam, Shui-fong; Law, Yin-kum
We have investigated how open attitudes, attribution beliefs, pedagogical knowledge, and pedagogical content knowledge were related to teaching performance among teacher interns. The participants were 72 teacher interns in Hong Kong, where large-scale education reform has been launched since 2000. Multiple methods (self-report, academic grades,…
Morente-Sánchez, Jaime; Zabala, Mikel
Doping in sport is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied mainly from a biomedical point of view, even though psychosocial approaches are also key factors in the fight against doping. This phenomenon has evolved greatly in recent years, and greater understanding of it is essential for developing efficient prevention programmes. In the psychosocial approach, attitudes are considered an index of doping behaviour, relating the use of banned substances to greater leniency towards doping. The aim of this review is to gather and critically analyse the most recent publications describing elite athletes' attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport, to better understand the foundations provided by the previous work, and to help develop practical strategies to efficiently combat doping. For this purpose, we performed a literature search using combinations of the terms "doping", "sport", "elite athletes", "attitudes", "beliefs", "knowledge", "drugs", and "performance-enhancing substances" (PES). A total of 33 studies were subjected to comprehensive assessment using articles published between 2000 and 2011. All of the reports focused on elite athletes and described their attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of doping in sport. The initial reasons given for using banned substances included achievement of athletic success by improving performance, financial gain, improving recovery and prevention of nutritional deficiencies, as well as the idea that others use them, or the "false consensus effect". Although most athletes acknowledge that doping is cheating, unhealthy and risky because of sanctions, its effectiveness is also widely recognized. There is a general belief about the inefficacy of anti-doping programmes, and athletes criticise the way tests are carried out. Most athletes consider the severity of punishment is appropriate or not severe enough. There are some differences between sports, as team-based sports and sports requiring motor skills could be less influenced by doping practices than individual self-paced sports. However, anti-doping controls are less exhaustive in team sports. The use of banned substance also differs according to the demand of the specific sport. Coaches appear to be the main influence and source of information for athletes, whereas doctors and other specialists do not seem to act as principal advisors. Athletes are becoming increasingly familiar with anti-doping rules, but there is still a lack of knowledge that should be remedied using appropriate educational programmes. There is also a lack of information on dietary supplements and the side effects of PES. Therefore, information and prevention are necessary, and should cater to the athletes and associated stakeholders. This will allow us to establish and maintain correct attitudes towards doping. Psychosocial programmes must be carefully planned and developed, and should include middle- to long-term objectives (e.g. changing attitudes towards doping and the doping culture). Some institutions have developed or started prevention or educational programmes without the necessary resources, while the majority of the budget is spent on anti-doping testing. Controls are obviously needed, as well as more efficient educational strategies. Therefore, we encourage sporting institutions to invest in educational programmes aimed at discouraging the use of banned substances. Event organizers and sport federations should work together to adapt the rules of each competition to disincentivize dopers. Current research methods are weak, especially questionnaires. A combination of qualitative and quantitative measurements are recommended, using interviews, questionnaires and, ideally, biomedical tests. Studies should also examine possible geographical and cultural differences in attitudes towards doping. PMID:23532595
Al-Serouri, A W; Takioldin, M; Oshish, H; Aldobaibi, A; Abdelmajed, A
Although HIV prevalence is low in the Republic of Yemen, existing conditions could lead to the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS. Interviewers helped 1033 residents aged 14-49 years from randomly chosen households to complete a survey of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about HIV/AIDS. General awareness was good, although there were many misconceptions about transmission modes, stigmas and discrimination against HIV positive persons. Knowledge was significantly determined by schooling, residence and sex. Although they recognized the global threat of AIDS, participants underestimated its threat to the Republic of Yemen. Television was the commonest source of information. Fostering public awareness is recommended to facilitate the development of intervention programmes, fight stigmas and ensure delivery of care to those affected. PMID:15568447
Margherita, Ferrante; Rosella, Saulle; Caterina, Ledda; Roberto, Pappalardo; Roberto, Fallico; Giuseppe, La Torre; Maria, Fiore.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine smoking prevalence, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours/beliefs among Health Professional School students according to the Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS) approach. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Catania University Medical Schools. The GH [...] PSS questionnaires were self-administered. Logistic regression model was performed. The level of significance was p
Rim, Sun Hee; Zittleman, Linda; Westfall, John M.; Overholser, Linda; Froshaug, Desiree; Coughlin, Steven S.
Purpose: This study reports the baseline knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and personal practices of health care professionals regarding colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in the High Plains Research Network (HPRN) of rural Colorado prior to a community-based educational intervention. It also examines the association between health care staff members'…
Rahman, M; Shimu, T A; Fukui, T; Shimbo, T; Yamamoto, W
A study of the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices (KABP) relating to HIV/AIDS was conducted among people from Bangladesh seeking work overseas (N = 300), during February, 1997 and March, 1997. Only 26% of the respondents knew of AIDS and out of 13 basic facts concerning HIV/AIDS the mean score of the sample was 1.63 correct responses. Most of those who knew of HIV had some false beliefs about the mode of HIV transmission, for example, believing that HIV could be contracted by touching an AIDS patient, or sharing bathing facilities or eating utensils. Sex with brothel-based commercial sex workers (100%), sharing contaminated needles (93.6%) and blood transfusion from infected individuals (93.6%) were seen as the main route of HIV transmission. Printed media (69%) was the main source of AIDS information. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that having a non-agricultural occupation (P habit of reading newspapers (P < 0.05), using condoms (P < 0.04), having heard about condoms (P < 0.003), having seen condoms (P < 0.005) and knowing where to buy condoms (P < 0.0005) were significantly associated with AIDS awareness. There is insufficient AIDS awareness among overseas job seekers which calls for public initiatives to provide AIDS information to them before they leave Bangladesh to work abroad. PMID:10823746
Olaiya, M A; Alakija, W; Ajala, A; Olatunji, R O
Summary. interviewed with questionnaires on their knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and motivations about blood donations. It was found that a large number of them (92.9%) donated because of the benefits they will obtain from the hospital. Such benefits include antenatal registration (67.1%) and saving the lives of relations (25.8%). Even though many of the donors are educated (98.9%), majority of whom have university degrees (36.1%) and have heard about blood donation before, 52.4% of them believe they can contact human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and/or hepatitis infection from blood donation. A good number (47.0%) are afraid of what they regard as side effects, such as weight loss (23.8%), sexual failure (5.9%), high blood pressure (5.2%), sudden death (3.3%), and convulsion (1.47%). About 41.0% prefers certificates as an incentive for donation, whereas 13.6% prefers money; less than 3% will like their names announced or published on the media and 2.58% will donate for nothing. It is recommended that an intensive blood donation campaign should be maintained. This will allow people to be well informed, turning the positive attitude of saving life through blood donation to a regular practice. PMID:15043588
Levis, Denise M; Harris, Shelly; Whitehead, Nedra; Moultrie, Rebecca; Duwe, Kara; Rasmussen, Sonja A
Women who are or may become pregnant need up-to-date information about Down syndrome (DS). Asking women about their knowledge, opinions, resources, and information needs on the topic of DS is an important precursor to develop effective strategies for education. We conducted 24 focus groups (N = 111) in two US cities with women who were recently pregnant (who had a child ? 3 years old without DS) and women who planned to have a child in the next year. Groups were further segmented by age and race-ethnicity. Questions explored women's knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about DS; resources used to obtain information about health and DS; and information needs on the topic of DS. All participants reported having some knowledge of DS: facial features, chromosomal condition, and maternal age as a risk factor. Many participants had misconceptions, including the life expectancy for persons with DS, other maternal and paternal risk factors, and the idea that having a child with DS would disrupt their lives. Participants requested stories to help illustrate what life is like for families with DS. Many Hispanic and African American participants said they only saw or knew of Caucasian persons with DS and requested culturally diverse educational materials about DS. Participants said they would seek information on DS from the Internet and from their health care providers. Results suggest that women need tailored materials that contain clinical information about DS as well as information about living with a child with DS. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:22544646
The purposes of this descriptive study were to (1) describe nutrition knowledge, attitudes, beliefs (KAB), and self-efficacy among low-income African American and Hispanic women; (2) identify the associations these variables have on diet quality and weight status; (3) identify barriers to healthy eating. Data from three separate studies were combined and analyzed. The total sample included African Americans (N = 92) and Hispanics (N = 272). Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were used to identify associations between KAB and body mass index (BMI) and diet quality. The majority of African Americans had good knowledge in nutrition while Hispanics had fair knowledge. Attitudes toward eating a healthy diet were significantly associated with high fiber intake among African Americans and low fat consumption among Hispanics. A computed KAB score showed no significant relation to individuals' weight status or diet quality. However, attitudes and beliefs about healthy foods strongly correlated with participants' weight or diet consumption among Hispanics. The most common barrier to consuming a healthy diet reported by both groups was the cost of healthy foods. It is therefore recommended to address these variables when addressing obesity and poor dietary intake among low-income minority groups. PMID:23819044
Full Text Available Background: Australia has a growing number of Asian Indian immigrants. Unfortunately, this population has an increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD. Dietary adherence is an important strategy in reducing risk for CHD. This study aimed to gain greater understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs relating to food practices in Asian Indian Australians. Methods: Two focus groups with six participants in each were recruited using a convenience sampling technique. Verbatim transcriptions were made and thematic content analysis undertaken. Results: Four main themes that emerged from the data included: migration as a pervasive factor for diet and health; importance of food in maintaining the social fabric; knowledge and understanding of health and diet; and elements of effective interventions. Discussion: Diet is a complex constructed factor in how people express themselves individually, in families and communities. There are many interconnected factors influencing diet choice that goes beyond culture and religion to include migration and acculturation. Conclusions: Food and associated behaviors are an important aspect of the social fabric. Entrenched and inherent knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and traditions frame individuals’ point of reference around food and recommendations for an optimal diet.
Lin Jin-Mann S; Fridinger Frederick; Brimmer Dana J; Reeves William C
Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating illness with particular difficulties for healthcare providers because there are no diagnostic signs or laboratory tests and because management aims to merely improve symptoms. Further complicating management, healthcare providers' awareness concerning CFS has not been rigorously assessed. The present study aimed to ascertain United States (U.S.) healthcare providers' awareness of CFS and to assess their knowledge, attitudes,...
Alpaslan, Mustafa; I??ksal, Mine; Haser, Çi?dem
This study examined pre-service mathematics teachers' knowledge of history of mathematics and their attitudes and beliefs towards using history of mathematics in mathematics education based on year level in teacher education program and gender. The sample included 1,593 freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior pre-service middle school (grades 4-8) mathematics teachers from nine universities in Turkey. Data were collected through Knowledge of History of Mathematics Test and Attitudes and Beliefs towards the Use of History of Mathematics in Mathematics Education Questionnaire. Results indicate that pre-service teachers have moderate knowledge of history of mathematics and positive attitudes and beliefs towards using history of mathematics. Their knowledge scores increase as the year level in teacher education program advanced. Males' knowledge scores are significantly higher than females' scores in the first 2 years. This situation reverses in the last 2 years, but it is not statistically significant. Pre-service teachers have more positive attitudes and availing beliefs towards using history of mathematics as they progress in their teacher education program. Females have greater attitudes and beliefs mean scores than males in each of the years. The results indicate that the teacher education program may have enhanced the pre-service teachers' knowledge of history of mathematics by related courses. However, the moderate knowledge scores indicate that there is a need for revision of these courses. The pre-service teachers' positive attitudes and beliefs towards using history of mathematics stress the importance of teacher education program in order to prepare them for implementing this alternative strategy in the future.
Hijazeen, Jameel Khaleel; Abu-Helalah, Munir Ahmad; Alshraideh, Hussam Ahmad; Alrawashdeh, Omar Salameh; Hawa, Fadi Nather; Dalbah, Tariq Asem; Abdallah, Fadi Walid
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge about epilepsy and the attitudes toward people with epilepsy (PWE) and their predictors among university students in Jordan. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed in three of the largest public universities in Jordan, and a total of 500 questionnaires were collected from each university. The number of students who reported that they had heard or read about epilepsy was 1165 (77.6%), and their data were analyzed. A significant proportion of students thought that epilepsy could be caused by the evil spirit (31.5%) and the evil eye (28.1%) or that it could be a punishment from God (25.9%). Epilepsy's most commonly reported treatment methods were the Holy Quran (71.4%), medications (71.3%), and herbs (29.3%). The most common negative attitudes toward PWE were that the students would refuse to marry someone with epilepsy (50.5%) and that children with epilepsy must join schools for persons with disabilities (44.4%). Male students, students of humanities, and students with a low socioeconomic status tended to have more negative attitudes toward PWE. In conclusion, many students have misconceptions about the causes, treatment, and nature of epilepsy, and students have moderate negative attitudes toward PWE. Universities should have health promotion programs to increase awareness of their students about major public health problems such as epilepsy. PMID:25461223
Alpaslan, Mustafa; Isiksal, Mine; Haser, Çigdem
This study examined pre-service mathematics teachers' knowledge of history of mathematics and their attitudes and beliefs towards using history of mathematics in mathematics education based on year level in teacher education program and gender. The sample included 1,593 freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior pre-service middle school (grades…
Full Text Available The 513 undergraduate students (262 male and 251 female surveyed from five colleges of Delhi University were aware of AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency Syndrome. They knew from different sources that sexually promiscuous people, prostitutes, intravenous drug abusers, professional blood donors and recipients of HIV infected blood were at risk for AIDS. About half of the students (57.5% knew that AIDS was incurable and ultimately led to death. A majority of them (60-72%, also knew that AIDS could be prevented by using condoms during sexual intercourse, disposable needles during injection and avoiding sex with multiple partners. On the other hand their knowledge on non-sexual transmission was inadequate. Most of them (58% believed that one could get AIDS by airborne, oral and kinesthetic routes, some (41% felt that AIDS patients should not be allowed to mix in society, and 24% had an attitude of severing contact with their best friends or divorcing their spouses. The most impotent viewpoint was that 49% of them wrongly believed that AIDS could be prevented by vaccination. The need for more information on AIDS was felt by all of them.
Pongracic Jacqueline A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents of children with food allergy, primary care physicians, and members of the general public play a critical role in the health and well-being of food-allergic children, though little is known about their knowledge and perceptions of food allergy. The purpose of this paper is to detail the development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among these three populations. Methods From 2006–2008, parents of food-allergic children, pediatricians, family physicians, and adult members of the general public were recruited to assist in survey development. Preliminary analysis included literature review, creation of initial content domains, expert panel review, and focus groups. Survey validation included creation of initial survey items, expert panel ratings, cognitive interviews, reliability testing, item reduction, and final validation. National administration of the surveys is ongoing. Results Nine experts were assembled to oversee survey development. Six focus groups were held: 2/survey population, 4–9 participants/group; transcripts were reviewed via constant comparative methods to identify emerging themes and inform item creation. At least 220 participants per population were recruited to assess the relevance, reliability, and utility of each survey item as follows: cognitive interviews, 10 participants; reliability testing ? 10; item reduction ? 50; and final validation, 150 respondents. Conclusion The Chicago Food Allergy Research surveys offer validated tools to assess food allergy knowledge and perceptions among three distinct populations: a 42 item parent tool, a 50 item physician tool, and a 35 item general public tool. No such tools were previously available.
Full Text Available Problem statement: Agriculture sector in Malaysia has been intensified through the Eight and Ninth Malaysian Plan. In order to further develop this sector, contract farming activities such as leech rearing, worm rearing, herbs and mushroom have been introduced to the community. But do the communities especially the youth have a positive acceptance towards this activity? Approach: This was a quantitative study. The respondents were among two agriculture learning institutions in Malaysia. From a simple random sampling, a total of 194 respondents were selected. The data collection took two months to be completed. Results: From the multiple linear regression employed, it can be concluded that attitude, belief and knowledge are the significant contributor for acceptance towards contract farming. Conclusion/Recommendation: It is recommended that more studies can be conducted to inspect the complexities related with youths participation in contract farming and special attention should be highlighted to identify what universities can do in strategizing specific agricultural courses that would motivate youth to possess a better acceptance towards contract farming.
Full Text Available Objective: Based on the survey of the knowledge-attitude-belief and practice to tobacco control between Chinese and foreign medical students in Soochow University, the authors intended to explore the current situation, differences and influencing factors of Chinese and foreign medical students, in order to provide a reference for tobacco control policies and measures set by the Medical College of Soochow University. Methods: By stratified sampling, we selected 200 Chinese medical students and 200 foreign medical students of Medical College in different grades and different majors, and adopted anonymous questionnaires to investigate. Results: The smoking rates of Chinese and foreign male medical students were 7.4%, 15.5% respectively , while female medical students' smoking rates were 0.0, 8.1% respectively. Foreign medical students’ daily smoking was mostly 4~10, which was significantly greater than the Chinese medical students ?P<0.05?; besides, the identification degree to the responsibilities and duties for smoking control of the professional medical staff were both higher. The influence of the different smoking rates between Chinese and foreign medical students was mainly ethnic background, and the influences of the different smoking behavior mainly depended on their knowledge and attitude towards tobacco control. Conclusion: There is a need for schools to adopt health education measure to promote the school tobacco control based on the differences of the knowledge-attitude-belief and practice to tobacco control between Chinese and Foreign Medical students. Help medical students to translate knowledge of tobacco control they have already mastered into belief, and further affect their behavior.
Olatokun, Wole M.; Elueze, Isioma N.
Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers’ attitudes to knowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated the relationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers’, and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) in the knowledge sharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers wa...
Moyer Cheryl A; Aborigo Raymond; Logonia Gideon; Affah Gideon; Rominski Sarah; Adongo Philip B; Williams John; Hodgson Abraham; Engmann Cyril
Abstract Background Knowledge, attitudes and practices of community members and healthcare providers in rural northern Ghana regarding clean delivery are not well understood. This study explores hand washing/use of gloves during delivery, delivering on a clean surface, sterile cord cutting, appropriate cord tying, proper cord care following delivery, and infant bathing and cleanliness. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using NVi...
Greenhalgh, Geoffrey [Down Park Place, Crawley Down (United Kingdom)
There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course chosen will be more favourable than if the alternative had been adopted.
There is now unmistakable evidence of a widening split within the Western industrial nations arising from conflicting views of society; for and against change. The argument is over the benefits of 'progress' and growth. On one side are those who seek more jobs, more production and consumption, higher standards of living, an ever-increasing GNP with an increasing globalisation of production and welcome the advances of science and technology confident that any temporary problems that arise can be solved by further technological development - possible energy shortages as a growing population increases energy usage can be met by nuclear power development; food shortages by the increased yields of GM crops. In opposition are those who put the quality of life before GNP, advocate a more frugal life-style, reducing needs and energy consumption, and, pointing to the harm caused by increasing pollution, press for cleaner air and water standards. They seek to reduce the pressure of an ever-increasing population and above all to preserve the natural environment. This view is associated with a growing uncertainty as the established order is challenged with the rise in status of 'alternative' science and medicine. This paper argues that these conflicting views reflect instinctive attitudes. These in turn draw support from beliefs selected from those which uncertainty offers. Where there is scope for argument over the truth or validity of a 'fact', the choice of which of the disputed views to believe will be determined by a value judgement. This applies to all controversial social and political issues. Nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are but two particular examples in the technological field; joining the EMU is a current political controversy where value judgements based on attitudes determine beliefs. When, or if, a controversy is finally resolved the judgement arrived at will be justified by the belief that the consequences of the course chosen will be more favourable than if the alternative had been adopted
Maria Anna Coniglio
Full Text Available
Background: The main purpose of this study was to identify and describe knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards HIV infection and risky sexual behaviour in female medical freshmen in order to evaluate the possibility of female medical student-based peer education.
Methods: Researchers surveyed 560 freshmen: 280 medical students and 280 non medical students at two Italian Universities, collecting the data through anonymous, self administered questionnaires. Data were codified and statistical analysis was computed using Statistica and Openstat 4 software.
Results: Female medical freshmen showed higher levels of knowledge and risk perception about HIV infection, and higher levels of self-awareness in preventing infection when compared with non-medical freshmen. Moreover, medical student’s had a lower rate of sexual activity and a higher rate of condom usage.
Conclusions: Our data leads to the hypothesis that the involvement of female medical students in developing and providing safe sex education may be an important and effective way of better enhancing young people’s knowledge, attitude and behaviour towards the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.
Georgios Fessakis; Tsampika Karakiza
Pedagogical beliefs and attitudes significantly determine the professional skills and practice of teachers. Many professional development programs for teachers aim to the elaboration of the pedagogical knowledge in order to improve teaching quality. This paper presents the study of pedagogical beliefs of computer science teachers in Greece. The research data reveal that computer science teachers usually hold mixed traditional and constructivist theories which are generally irrelevant to eithe...
Jefferson Antonio, Buendía.
Full Text Available Introducción. La hipertensión arterial es uno de los grandes problemas de salud pública. Una de las principales razones del escaso avance en la efectividad de las intervenciones es la falta de conocimiento de los factores determinantes psicológicos y sociales, como son las creencias sobre la enferme [...] dad y su tratamiento. Objetivo. Valorar las actitudes del paciente respecto al tratamiento antihipertensivo y sus creencias. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal descriptivo en una muestra aleatoria de 202 pacientes adultos hipertensos adscritos a un centro privado de atención ambulatoria en Bogotá, Colombia. Se utilizó el test de Morisky-Green para valorar las actitudes del paciente respecto al tratamiento antihipertensivo y, la versión española del Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQGeneral), para valorar las creencias del paciente. Resultados. Alrededor del 48 % de los pacientes refiere olvidar en algún momento tomar el medicamento antihipertensivo. El 68 % considera que si los médicos tuvieran más tiempo para los pacientes, recetarían menos medicamentos. Alrededor del 40 % no sabe que órganos pueden lesionarse como consecuencia de la tensión arterial elevada. Conclusiones. El presente estudio coloca de manifiesto las necesidades de mejorar las estrategias de comunicación de los profesionales de salud, quienes pueden no estar valorando la importancia de desarrollar habilidades de comunicación para mantener una relación efectiva con sus pacientes. Abstract in english Introduction. Hypertension is an important public health problem in Colombia. One of the principal reasons for the poor effectiveness of interventions is the lack of knowledge and understanding of beliefs about this disease and its treatment. Objective. Profiles were determined for the atitudes, kno [...] wledge and beliefs of patients about antihypertensive drugs. Materials and methods. In a sample of 202 hypertensive patients from a private clinical center in Bogotá, Colombia, the beliefs, knowledge and attitudes about antihypertensive treatment was determined by the use of Morisky-Green test, and Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire. Results. Of these patients, 48% forgot to take the prescribed medication occasionally, 68% believed that if doctors had more time with patients, they will prescribe fewer medicines, and 40% did not know what physiological systems can be damaged by hypertension. Conclusion. This study reinforces the necessity of improving the communication strategies of health professionals in the support of a positive clinician-patient relationship.
Lúcia, Ramiro; Marta, Reis; Margarida Gaspar de, Matos; José Alves, Diniz; Celeste, Simões.
Full Text Available Introdução: O aumento das IST's, da gravidez não planeada e de outros tantos riscos ligados à actividade sexual fazem com que os jovens sejam considerados um grupo de intervenção prioritário em termos de saúde sexual e reprodutiva. Para se promover atitudes e comportamentos sexuais saudáveis é essen [...] cial a concretização de uma educação sexual que tenha como objectivo desenvolver atitudes e competências nos jovens, permitindo que estes se sintam informados e seguros nas suas escolhas. Material e métodos: Este estudo (HBSC/OMS) avaliou o papel que 3331 adolescentes portugueses (1579 rapazes e 1752 raparigas), com uma média de idades de 15 anos, atribuem à educação sexual, os seus conhecimentos e atitudes face ao VIH/SIDA. Usou-se um questionário de auto-relato que foi aplicado às turmas em sala de aula. Resultados: Analisados os resultados do estudo, verificou-se que quer os factores de risco quer os de protecção em relação aos comportamentos sexuais de risco dos adolescentes são inúmeros. Conclusões: Sendo assim, é crucial que a educação sexual abranja intervenções do tipo preventivo de carácter universal, abrangendo toda a população escolar e respectivos contextos de vida: escola, família e grupo de pares, mas também intervenções mais específicas, em pequenos subgrupos identificados como prioritários. Abstract in english Introduction: Because the incidence of STI, unplanned pregnancy and several other sexual risk behaviours are increasing among youngsters, it is accepted that they are given high priority in intervention in what sexual and reproductive health is concerned. In order to promote healthy sexual attitudes [...] and behaviours, it is crucial to implement a program of sexual education that aims at developing attitudes and skills in young people, hence enabling them to make well-informed decisions and feel confident about the choices they make. Material and methods: This HBSC/WHO research evaluated the role of sexual education for Portuguese adolescents and their knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Structured self-reported questionnaires were responded within a classroom context by 3331 participants (1579 boys and 1752 girls), with an average age of 15 years. Results: The results show that there are inumerous risk and protection factors related to sex behavior. Conclusions: This suggests that sexual education should focus on preventive interventions, not only universal, including all teenagers and considering all the contexts in which they interact (the school professionals, family and peers), but also selective strategies delivered to targeted subgroups, once they are identified.
Moyer Cheryl A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge, attitudes and practices of community members and healthcare providers in rural northern Ghana regarding clean delivery are not well understood. This study explores hand washing/use of gloves during delivery, delivering on a clean surface, sterile cord cutting, appropriate cord tying, proper cord care following delivery, and infant bathing and cleanliness. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using NVivo 9.0. Results 253 respondents participated, including women with newborn infants, grandmothers, household and compound heads, community leaders, traditional birth attendants, and formally trained health care providers. There is widespread understanding of the need for clean delivery to reduce the risk of infection to both mothers and their babies during and shortly after delivery. Despite this understanding, the use of gloves during delivery and hand washing during and after delivery were mentioned infrequently. The need for a clean delivery surface was raised repeatedly, including explicit discussion of avoiding delivering in the dirt. Many activities to do with cord care involved non-sterile materials and practices: 1 Cord cutting was done with a variety of tools, and the most commonly used were razor blades or scissors; 2 Cord tying utilized a variety of materials, including string, rope, thread, twigs, and clamps; and 3 Cord care often involved applying traditional salves to the cord - including shea butter, ground shea nuts, local herbs, local oil, or “red earth sand.” Keeping babies and their surroundings clean was mentioned repeatedly as an important way to keep babies from falling ill. Conclusions This study suggests a widespread understanding in rural northern Ghana of the need for clean delivery. Nonetheless, many recommended clean delivery practices are ignored. Overarching themes emerging from this study included the increasing use of facility-based delivery, the disconnect between healthcare providers and the community, and the critical role grandmothers play in ensuring clean delivery practices. Future interventions to address clean delivery and prevention of neonatal infections include educating healthcare providers about harmful traditional practices so they are specifically addressed, strengthening facilities, and incorporating influential community members such as grandmothers to ensure success.
Barnes, Maryann Elizabeth
Teaching evolution has been shown to be a challenge for faculty, in both K-12 and postsecondary education. Many of these challenges stem from perceived conflicts not only between religion and evolution, but also faculty beliefs about religion, it's compatibility with evolutionary theory, and it's proper role in classroom curriculum. Studies suggest that if educators engage with students' religious beliefs and identity, this may help students have positive attitudes towards evolution. The aim of this study was to reveal attitudes and beliefs professors have about addressing religion and providing religious scientist role models to students when teaching evolution. 15 semi-structured interviews of tenured biology professors were conducted at a large Midwestern universiy regarding their beliefs, experiences, and strategies teaching evolution and particularly, their willingness to address religion in a class section on evolution. Following a qualitative analysis of transcripts, professors did not agree on whether or not it is their job to help students accept evolution (although the majority said it is not), nor did they agree on a definition of "acceptance of evolution". Professors are willing to engage in students' religious beliefs, if this would help their students accept evolution. Finally, professors perceived many challenges to engaging students' religious beliefs in a science classroom such as the appropriateness of the material for a science class, large class sizes, and time constraints. Given the results of this study, the author concludes that instructors must come to a consensus about their goals as biology educators as well as what "acceptance of evolution" means, before they can realistically apply the engagement of student's religious beliefs and identity as an educational strategy.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that attitudes and beliefs are important in predicting adherence in depressive and bipolar disorders. However, such attitudes and beliefs on mood stabilizers have not been analysed by socio-demographic and clinical variables. Methods The Mood Stabilizer Compliance Questionnaire (MSQC was mailed to a large population of patients with depressive or bipolar disorder representative of patients treated at their first contacts to hospital settings in Denmark. Results Of the 1005 recipients, 49.9 % responded to the letter and among these 256 indicated that they previously had been or currently were in treatment with a mood stabilizer. A large proportion of the patients (40 to 80 % had non-correct views on the effect of mood stabilizers. Older patients consistently had a more negative view on the doctor-patient relationship, more non-correct views on the effect of mood stabilizers and a more negative view on mood stabilizers. There was no difference in the attitudes and beliefs according to the type of disorder (depressive or bipolar, the number of psychiatric hospitalisations or according to the type of the current doctor (general practitioner, private psychiatrist, community psychiatry doctor, hospital doctor, other doctor. Conclusion There is a need of improving knowledge and attitudes toward diagnosis and treatment especially among elder patients as this may add to improve the prognosis of depressive and bipolar disorders.
Fulmer, Gavin W.
Attitudes toward science are an important aspect of students' persistence in school science and interest in pursuing future science careers, but students' attitudes typically decline over the course of formal schooling. This study examines relationships of students' attitudes toward science with their perceptions of science as inclusive or non-religious, and their epistemological beliefs about epistemic authority and certainty. Data were collected using an online survey system among undergraduates at a large, public US university (n = 582). Data were prepared using a Rasch rating scale model and then analyzed using multiple-regression analysis. Gender and number of science and mathematics courses were included as control variables, followed by perceptions of science, then epistemological beliefs. Findings show that respondents have more positive attitudes when they perceive science to be inclusive of women and minorities, and when they perceive science to be incompatible with religion. Respondents also have more positive attitudes toward science when they believe scientific knowledge is uncertain, and when they believe knowledge derives from authority. Interpretations of these findings and implications for future research are discussed.
Beacham, Nigel; Rouse, Martyn
The beliefs and attitudes of teachers are an important element in the development of inclusive education and its associated practices. Teacher education is seen as crucial in helping to develop positive attitudes and beliefs that are thought to promote inclusion, although attempts to reform teacher education in order to address issues of inclusion…
Østergaard Rathe, Jette; Larsen, Pia Veldt
Abstract Background Generic substitution has been implemented in many countries, but knowledge about patients’ attitudes, beliefs and experiences is still sparse. Aim To assess associations between generic switching and patients’ attitudes, beliefs and experiences with previous generic switching. Design and setting A cross-sectional study comprising questionnaire responses from 2476 randomly selected patients aged 20 years or older and living in the Region of Southern Denmark, who had redeemed substitutable drugs. Methods The questionnaire included items on beliefs about medicine, views on generic medicine and confidence in the healthcare system. Only prescriptions issued by the general practitioners were included. For each patient we focused on one purchase of a generically substitutable drug (index drug). Patients were identified by means of a dispensing database. Results Earlier generic switches within the index ATC code were statistically significantly associated with experience of a generic switch (adjusted OR 5.93 95% CI 4.70; 7.49). Having had more than 5 earlier switches within other ATC codes and having negative views on generic medicines reduced the odds of experiencing a generic switch. No associations were found between generic substitution and gender, drug group, number of different drugs used by the patient, confidence in the health care system and beliefs about medicine in general. Conclusion Patients who had once experienced a generic switch were more likely to accept a future generic switch within the same ATC code. Negative views on generic medicines were negatively associated with switching, while beliefs about medicine and confidence in the healthcare system had no influence.
Le Gall, Armelle; Mullet, Etienne; Rivière Shafighi, Sheila
Age effects on sexual attitudes were examined using the Hendrick and Hendrick (1987a) Sexual Attitude Scale. The study was cross-sectional, including people from various age groups, from young adults to older adults. The religious beliefs variable, which covaries substantially both with age and sexual attitudes, was controlled. Three main questions guided the study: (a) Is the four-factor structure (Permissiveness, Instrumentality, Communion, and Sexual Practices) previously identified in a sample of young students able to accurately account for data gathered over a full range of adult ages, (b) are older adults much less permissive and less instrumentalist than young people, and (c) to what extent are believers less permissive and instrumentalist than young people when age is taken into account? Factor analyses showed that at least five correlated factors were needed to account for the data; the fourth factor, Sexual Practices, divided itself into two distinct factors: Pleasure and Responsibility. Older adults and believers were shown to be less permissive than young people and nonbelievers, and this result held regardless of the participants educational level. As regards to instrumentality, however, the pattern of differences was extremely complex. PMID:12476268
Jayanti, Anuradha; Morris, Julie; Stenvinkel, Peter; Mitra, Sandip
There is increasing interest of the worldwide kidney community in home hemodialysis (HHD). This is due to emerging evidence of its superiority over conventional hemodialysis (HD), largely attributed to improved outcomes on intensive schedule HD, best deployed in patient's own homes. Despite published work in this area, universal uptake remains limited and reasons are poorly understood. All those who provide HD care were invited to participate in a survey on HHD, initiated to understand the beliefs, attitudes, and practice patterns of providers offering this therapy. The survey was developed and posted on the Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation-Educational (NDT-E) website. Two hundred and seventy-two responses were deemed suitable for complete analysis. It is apparent from the survey that there is great variability in the prevalence of HHD. Physicians have a great deal of interest in this modality, with majority viewing home as being the ideal location for the offer of intensive HD schedules (55%). A significant number (21%) feel intensive HD may be offered even outside the home setting. Those who offer this therapy do not see a financial disadvantage in it. Many units identify lack of appropriately trained personnel (35%) and funding for home adaptation (50.4%) as key barriers to widespread adoption of this therapy. Despite the interest and belief in this therapy among practitioners, HHD therapy is still not within reach of a majority of patients. Modifiable organizational, physician, and patient factors exist, which could potentially redefine the landscape of HHD provision. Well-designed systematic research of national and local barriers is needed to design interventions to help centers facilitate change. PMID:24814711
This article describes and evaluates the Gender Attitude and Belief Inventory (GABI), a teaching tool designed to aid students in (a) realizing how sociological theory links to their personal beliefs and (b) exploring any combination of 11 frequently used theoretical perspectives on gender, including both conservative theories (physiological,…
A qualitative analysis of South African women's knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about HPV and cervical cancer prevention, vaccine awareness and acceptance, and maternal-child communication about sexual health.
Francis, Shelley A; Battle-Fisher, Michele; Liverpool, Joan; Hipple, Lauren; Mosavel, Maghboehba; Soogun, Soji; Mofammere, Nokuthula
In South Africa, cervical cancer is the second leading cause of death among women. Black South Africa women are disproportionately affected by cervical cancer and have one of the highest mortality rates from this disease. Although the body of literature that examines HPV and cervical cancer prevention is growing in the developing world; there is still a need for a better understanding of women's knowledge and beliefs around HPV and cervical cancer prevention. Therefore, this formative study sought to examine women's attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer, HPV vaccine acceptance, maternal-child communication about sexuality, and healthcare decision-making and gender roles within an urban community in South Africa. Women ages 18-44 were recruited from an antenatal clinic in a Black township outside of Johannesburg during the fall of 2008. Twenty-four women participated in three focus groups. Findings indicated that the women talked to their children about a variety of sexual health issues; had limited knowledge about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine. Women were interested in learning more about the vaccine although they had reservations about the long-term affect; they reinforced that grandmothers played a key role in a mother's decisions' about her child's health, and supported the idea that government should provide the HPV vaccine as part of the country's immunization program. Our findings indicate the need to develop primary prevention strategies and materials that will provide women with basic cervical cancer prevention messages, including information about HPV, cervical cancer, the HPV vaccine, screening, and how to talk to their children about these topics. Prevention strategies should also consider the cultural context and the role that grandmothers play in the family unit. PMID:21855591
Full Text Available Abstract Background Religion shapes everyday beliefs and activities, but few studies have examined its associations with attitudes about HIV. This exploratory study in Tanzania probed associations between religious beliefs and HIV stigma, disclosure, and attitudes toward antiretroviral (ARV treatment. Methods A self-administered survey was distributed to a convenience sample of parishioners (n = 438 attending Catholic, Lutheran, and Pentecostal churches in both urban and rural areas. The survey included questions about religious beliefs, opinions about HIV, and knowledge and attitudes about ARVs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess how religion was associated with perceptions about HIV, HIV treatment, and people living with HIV/AIDS. Results Results indicate that shame-related HIV stigma is strongly associated with religious beliefs such as the belief that HIV is a punishment from God (p Conclusion The decision to start ARVs hinged primarily on education-level and knowledge about ARVs rather than on religious factors. Research results highlight the influence of religious beliefs on HIV-related stigma and willingness to disclose, and should help to inform HIV-education outreach for religious groups.
Dawood, Omar Thanoon; Mohamed Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham; Abdullah, Anna Christina
Minor illnesses in children are often cured at home with over the counter medicines. Even though there is a wide use of medicines among children, they rarely receive medical advice about their medications from doctors or pharmacists. The aim of this study is to evaluate children's beliefs about medicines as well as to explain what children know about medicines. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect data from four primary schools in Penang Island, Malaysia. The target population of this research was schoolchildren of 11 and 12 years old regardless of their gender and social status. A self-administration questionnaire was used to obtain the data from schoolchildren and their parents. After including all schoolchildren in grades five and six, the total sample size was 1000 children in addition to 1000 parents. This study found that most children have inadequate knowledge and false beliefs about the efficacy of medicines. Children's beliefs about the efficacy of medicines were affected by their age group, gender and race (p education level and parents' occupation influenced children's beliefs about medicines (p education should be implemented to get more knowledgeable users of medicines in future. However, the role of health-care professional should be increased in terms of medicine education. PMID:23975718
In contrast to other countries in Southeast Asia, the HIV/ AIDS epidemic is in the initial stages in Viet Nam, although the rates have increased notably since 1997. This study examined attitudes towards the use of an HIV vaccine (when one becomes available) as a means for preventing the disease. Since injecting drug users are the great majority of…
Peris, Tara S.; Benazon, Nili; Langley, Audra; Roblek, Tami; Piacentini, John
This paper documents preliminary examination of the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Parental Attitudes and Behaviors Scale (PABS), an OCD-specific measure of parental attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral strategies related to childhood OCD. Employing a sample of 123 youth (mean age = 11.7; 59% male, 79% Caucasian) diagnosed with…
In the field of teacher knowledge, "beliefs" is a large term narrowly constructed. The beliefs theorized, researched, and discussed are beliefs about technique, methodology, curriculum, classroom management, professional development, and similarly. Spiritual and religious beliefs are for the most part omitted. This study argues that they should be…
Nidhi Jaswal; Bg, Banerjee; Sinha, Anil K.; Sukhbir Singh
Purpose: For intervention to be effective, it is essential that the knowledge, beliefs and perception of a specific social group are taken into account. This is particularly true of leprosy where the problems of social stigma and ostracism are more prominent than the disease itself. There are many misconceptions about the cause, methods of transmission, and treatment. The main objectives of the study were to examine the socio-demographic profile of persons with leprosy and to explore their k...
Yousuf, J.; Ayalew, M.; Seid, F.
This article discusses a study on availability and accessibility of services focusing on culture, attitudes, beliefs and practices that influence use of maternal health services. The objective of the study was to explore factors contributing to the low use of maternal health services among the Afar of Ethiopia.
Zapata, Mara; Gallard, Alejandro J.
Beliefs and attitudes resulting from the unique life experiences of teachers frame interactions with learners promoting gender equity or inequity and the reproduction of social views about knowledge and power as related to gender. This study examines the enactment of a female science teacher's pedagogy (Laura), seeking to understand the implications of her beliefs and attitudes, as framed by her interpretations and daily manifestations, as she interacts with students. Distinct influences inform the conceptual framework of this study: (a) the social organization of society at large, governed by understood and unspoken patriarchy, present both academically and socially; (b) the devaluing of women as "knowers" of scientific knowledge as defined by a western and male view of science; (c) the marginalization or "feminization" of education and pedagogical knowledge. The findings reflect tensions between attitudes and beliefs and actual teacher practice suggesting the need for awareness within existing or new teachers about their positions as social agents and the sociological implications related to issues of gender within which we live and work, inclusive of science teaching and learning.
Data from ethnically diverse north-western Thailand with recent migrants from Myanmar (Burma) and China allow testing of hypotheses concerning between- and within-community differences in predominantly Yunnanese Chinese, Hmong and Lahu ethnic minority villages versus ethnic majority Thai villages. Topics include knowledge of HIV transmission, prevention and treatment, avoidance of people infected with HIV and constraints to use of health services. Respondents include women with one or more ch...
Autism is a life-long invisible impairment with an unknown etiology. Current literature shows an increase in the diagnosis of autism worldwide. This qualitative study explores the attitudes and beliefs which surround childhood autism in Ghana. In-depth interviews were conducted with four (4) parents whose children have autism and three (3) key informants; a Religious Leader, a Health Worker and an Administrator of a Special school in Accra, Ghana. A semi-structured interview guide was used fo...
Owens, JA; Jones, C.; Nash, R.
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To examine sleep health knowledge and beliefs and their relationship to sleep practices in a community sample of caregivers of young children. METHODS: A convenience sample of caregivers visiting a museum on one of 2 consecutive weekend days completed a brief parent-report survey on child sleep habits and parental basic sleep knowledge and beliefs and attitudes regarding sleep as a health behavior. RESULTS: Of the 253 analyzable surveys (response rate 80%; mean age of index ...
Full Text Available Purpose: For intervention to be effective, it is essential that the knowledge, beliefs and perception of a specific social group are taken into account. This is particularly true of leprosy where the problems of social stigma and ostracism are more prominent than the disease itself. There are many misconceptions about the cause, methods of transmission, and treatment. The main objectives of the study were to examine the socio-demographic profile of persons with leprosy and to explore their knowledge, beliefs and perception about the disease and its initial symptoms, within a specific socio-cultural milieu. Method: Semi-structured interviews were held with a persons with leprosy at various clinics and care-homes for affected persons in and around Chandigarh, India. Those who had completed their treatment and those who were still undergoing treatment were included in the study. Data collection was done through case studies and in-depth interviews. Results: The name of the disease varied across different geo-cultural zones. Many respondents who were afflicted with only red patches and had no ulcers, believed that they suffered from a skin disease which would turn into leprosy if proper medication was not received. The perception of 64.9 % of the respondents was that leprosy resulted from supernatural causes like God’s punishment, karma, and sin. Conclusion: There is a need to educate persons with leprosy and their families about the etiology of the disease.
Contextualizar os conhecimentos, atitudes e crenças face ao VIH/SIDA: um contributo para aperfeiçoar o caminho a percorrer / Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about HIV/AIDS: contributions for the understanding of the problem
Maria João, Monteiro; José, Vasconcelos-Raposo.
Full Text Available Reconhecendo que a implementação de estratégias direccionadas para os mais jovens tem surgido como um vector fundamental à regressão da epidemia, o objectivo primordial deste estudo consistiu em avaliar os conhecimentos, as atitudes e as crenças face ao VIH/SIDA dos jovens do distrito de Vila Real, [...] que frequentavam os 10º, 11º e 12º anos de escolaridade e, deste modo, apresentar-se como uma contribuição para o aperfeiçoamento das intervenções preventivas. Para este propósito foi utilizada uma amostra estratificada por sexo e ano de escolaridade, constituída por 1.152 estudantes, dos quais 480 eram do sexo masculino e 672 do sexo feminino, sendo a média de idades de 16 anos. Para a recolha de dados, utilizou-se um inquérito estruturado com base nas recomendações do documento "Research Package on KABP-Knowleddge, Attitudes, Beliefs and Practices", composto por 60 perguntas agrupadas em oito blocos temáticos. Dos resultados obtidos, constatou-se que a maioria dos estudantes não referiu actividade sexual (67,7%). Dos que mencionaram já ter tido relações sexuais, 49,3%, eram do sexo masculino e 20,2% do sexo feminino. Quanto ao número de parceiros sexuais tidos durante a vida, predominou, para o sexo feminino, um parceiro sexual, enquanto para o sexo masculino mais de três parceiros sexuais. Apesar da maior parte dos estudantes ter utilizado preservativo durante as relações sexuais e ter referido conhecimentos sobre este método de prevenção, foi de sublinhar que alguns não referiram a sua utilização (14,5%). Uma apreciação global, quanto aos conhecimentos sobre VIH/SIDA, apontou para um bom nível de conhecimentos, merecendo alguma atenção as questões relativas à possibilidade de identificação dos indivíduos infectados através do seu aspecto físico e ao facto de as pessoas portadoras do vírus padecerem da doença, cuja percentagem de respostas incorrectas foi considerável. Os estudantes revelaram uma subvalorização do risco, com apenas 46,3% a admitir alguma possibilidade de contágio, sendo os estudantes do sexo masculino e os que tinham conhecimentos sobre SIDA a admitirem em média uma maior possibilidade de contágio. A maioria dos estudantes referiu uma percepção de ameaça grave para a saúde, reconheceu que não existe possibilidade de cura e que a maior parte das pessoas serão vítimas da doença. Como nota de síntese, queremos sublinhar o valor inegável da Promoção da Saúde em contexto escolar, como forma de assegurar o desenvolvimento saudável dos jovens, quando tem como pressupostos estruturantes o processo de capacitação do ser humano para agir e intervir no decurso da sua vida. Abstract in english Recognizing that the implementation of strategies guided for the more youth has been appearing as a fundamental vector to the regression of the epidemic, the primordial main of this study consisted of evaluating the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about HIV/AIDS, of the youth of the district of Vil [...] a Real, that attend the 10th, 11th and 12th grade, and this way, to present as a contribution for the improvement of the preventive interventions. For that purpose a sample was used stratified by sex and year of education, constituted by 1.152 students, of which 480 were male and 672 female, being the average of 16 year-old ages. For the collection of data an inquiry was used structured on the basis of the recommendations of the document "Research Package on KABP ?Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs and Practices", composed by 60 questions, grouped in eight thematic blocks. From the obtained results it was verified that most of the students didn’t refer sexual activity (67.7%). Of the students that mentioned to have already had sexual relationships, 49.3%, are male and 20.2% female. As for the number of sexual partners they had, for the feminine sex, a sexual partner prevailed, while for the masculine sex prevailed more than three sexual partners. In spite of most of the students have declared to have used condom during the sexual rela
Full Text Available This Australian study seeks to better understand the disparity between the positive attitudes towards Socially Responsible Investing (SRI and the level of investment in SRI (Saulwick &Associates 2001; Watmore & Bradley 2001; Williams 2007; Arjalies 2010, by examining both the attitudes to SRI and the investment choices that are made. It is hypothesised that those who are more committed to religious belief principles are more likely to invest in SRI.To test this 322 people from two large Queensland organisations were surveyed in relation to their investment attitudes and preferences. Results show that those who are more religious are no more likely to invest in SRI, and that the level of importance placed on SRI and financial criteria are similar in most instances for the more and less religious. In addition, women who are religious place more importance on conservative general investment criteria than less ornon-religious women.
Kaki, Abdullah M.
OBJECTIVES To assess the final year medical students' knowledge, beliefs, and attitude toward cancer pain, and the need for a formal pain curriculum in medical schools. METHODS An epidemiological study was conducted from May 2008 to October 2009 at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess the students' knowledge and attitude toward cancer pain management. A survey in the form of self-conducted questionnaire was distributed among them. ...
Background. Blood donation is remarkably safe medical procedure. However, attitudes, beliefs, and level of knowledge may affect it. Objectives. To measure the level of knowledge regarding blood donation, find out positive and negative attitudes, identify the obstacles, and suggest some motivational factors. Methodology. A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC). Participants were selected by convenient nonrandom sampling technique. A self-created questionnair...
Cercato, M C; Ramazzotti, V; Sperduti, I; Asensio-Pascual, A; Ribes, I; Guillén, C; Nagore, E
This study aims to investigate the level of awareness on the risks related to sun exposure, attitude towards sun protection and sun protection behaviour in Spanish beachgoers. During the summer of 2009, trained assistants conducted a structured interview with 630 sunbathers at the beaches of Valencia, Spain, via administrating a questionnaire including the following: (a) general data (age, gender, education, profession), (b) "knowledge" and "attitude" items and (c) self-assessed sun sensitivity, sun exposure and sun protection characteristics. The health belief model was used to evaluate factors that may influence on engaging healthy behaviour. The median age was 30 (2-82) years; the M/F ratio was 0.60. Despite the widespread regular ("often" or "always", 80%) use of high (>15) sun-protective factor sunscreens, current recommendations on sun protection were not regularly followed, and a history of sunburns is very common (70%). At multivariate analysis, female gender, age, fair hair, freckles, all-day use of sunscreens and wearing sunglasses were independent factors associated with having sunburn history. A high knowledge and a fairly good attitude emerged (median scores, 6/7 and 22/30, respectively). Age class (p?=?0.032), educational level (p?attitude were educational level (p?attitude. Physical and motivational barriers are common (80%). The findings by highlighting constitutional and psychosocial factors involved in unhealthy behaviour provide useful information to promote sun-safe interventions in this population. PMID:24890922
Snethen, Julia A; Treisman, Ruth A; Buseh, Aaron G; Kelber, Sheryl T
Millions of American children enjoy good health due to public health interventions addressing childhood-related diseases; however, such gains are being compromised due to the increasing proportion of overweight or obese children. Nurses are positioned to play a pivotal role in addressing the overweight and obesity epidemic among children. This cross-sectional study examined the attitudes and beliefs of undergraduate prenursing students and students in the clinical nursing major about children who are overweight or obese. A secondary aim was to examine whether there are differences or similarities in attitudes and beliefs about children who are overweight or obese between prenursing students and students in the clinical nursing major. Findings indicated that undergraduate prenursing students and students in the clinical nursing major have negative perceptions of overweight children. However, negative perspectives varied between the prenursing and clinical nursing major students on overweight children in relation to perceptions of causative factors for children being overweight and their subsequent quality of life. PMID:25102129
Gery Markova, Foard Jones
Full Text Available Using the theoretical framework of the Theory of Reasoned Action , we examine benefits satisfactionas an attitude formed by the beliefs about benefits (i.e., benefits knowledge and the perceived value ofthese benefits (i.e., fit of benefits to individual needs. We use questionnaires to gather data from arandom sample of 591 employees in a large county agency in the South-eastern United States. The datasupport that knowledge of benefits is associated with enhanced benefits satisfaction and mediates theeffect of explanations about benefits on satisfaction. The results provide strong evidence that benefitsperceived to suit employee needs generate highest benefits satisfaction. Employees satisfied with theirbenefits are less likely to consider leaving the organization. The tested model is a starting point for futurestudies to apply the extended Theory of Reasoned Action  and incorporate perceived behaviouralcontrol and subjective norms (i.e., co-workers’ attitudes in forming benefits satisfaction. Understandingemployees’ affective and cognitive reactions to compensation, including benefits, can render betterpractices. Companies should use information campaigns to improve employee beliefs about benefits.Better attentiveness to individual needs and preferences can maximize the utility of a benefits plan andimprove its acceptance. We replicate and extend past research in a parsimonious model of benefitssatisfaction with a random sample of public sector employees.
Nelson, Sarah W.; Guerra, Patricia L.
Purpose: This qualitative study reports on beliefs practicing educators hold about diverse students and families. Specifically, this study examined educator beliefs related to culturally, linguistically, and economically diverse students and families along with participants' knowledge of culture and its application in practice. Research…
Full Text Available I shall examine Quine’s conception of logic, of propositional attitudes, and of the unity of knowledge in order to show that there are some tensions in Quine’s system. I first propose a conception of the use or application of logic, stating that logic strictly speaking applies to intentional phenomena or to things that presuppose the existence of intentional phenomena. Then, I consider briefly Quine’s philosophy of logic and discuss some issues. In Quine’s philosophy, logic stays at the very center of the web of our beliefs; it is central in science and ordinary knowledge as well. Then I examine Quine’s tendency to “quine” the mental, given his own maxim of minimum mutilation. Finally, I consider Quine’s thesis of the unity of knowledge, the thesis that there is continuity from ordinary to scientific knowledge. If I am right about the use of logic and the presence of the propositional attitude idiom in ordinary knowledge and social sciences and humanities, I think there is a problem of consistency in Quine’s system, and that Quine himself pointed to a part of the solution.
In this thesis nutrition attitudes, beliefs, and fat intake in three generations of women are described. The aim of the study was twofold: the development of methods, and to study family resemblance in food habits. Based on literature study and qualitative pilot studies a questionnaire on beliefs and attitudes towards the consumption of 20 foods was developed for which Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action was used as a framework. In addition, an attitude scale was developed towards ...
Chuthamas Chittithaworn; Md Aminul Islam; Orachot Thooksoon
The aim of this study is to examine the relationships Belief Dimensions and attitude of viewers towards TVadvertising. Earlier research was mainly explored in the west with some finding were positive and some beingnegative on certain aspects of viewers perception. Whilst this study is exploratory in nature in understanding therelationship between Belief Dimensions and attitude of viewers towards TV advertising. Generally the Thai TVviewers tend to have a more negative attitude towards TV adve...
Ockene, J. K.; Chiriboga, D. E.; Zevallos, J. C.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of, attitudes towards, and knowledge about cigarette smoking in Ecuador in 1991. DESIGN: Survey using in-person interviews; stratified and multiple regression analyses. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: Eight hundred people (> or = 18 years old) representative of the adult populations in the cities of Quito and Guayaquil, Ecuador. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Smoking prevalence, daily cigarette consumption, reasons for smoking, desire to quit smoking, knowledge about...
Full Text Available Background: Epileptics are often socially discriminated due to the negative public attitudes, misconceptions and false beliefs. Thus, the main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy among Malaysian Chinese.Methods: A cross-sectional study by using a 23-item validated, self-administered questionnaire was carried out in urban areas, selected through stratified sampling. A Chinese population was randomly selected in the stratified areas of Penang, Ipoh, Klang valley, and Kuala Lumpur and was asked to complete the questionnaire.Results: Among 382 (74.6% respondents, 16.2% believed that epilepsy is a type of mental illness. Majority (90.8% accepted that epileptics can become useful members of the society however, only 16% agreed to marry them. About 57% of respondents recognised epilepsy as nervous system problem. Significant relationships between education level and statements such as, epileptics are as intelligent as everyone else (p=0.009, epilepsy can be successfully treated with drugs (p=0.037 and epileptics can be successful in their chosen career (p=0.009, were found.Conclusions: The general Chinese population in the selected areas of peninsular Malaysia had relatively good knowledge and positive attitudes toward certain aspects of epilepsy at the time of the investigation. However, minority of the study participants demonstrated prejudice and discriminatory behaviour towards people with epilepsy.
Since the introduction of the Basic Safety Standards recommendations, the scope of the radiation protection was broadening. On behalf of the incorporation of radiation protection of the patient in medical exposures, the different groups of professionals involved: physicians, medical physicists, radiation protection officers, regulators, etc., have to work together. The objective of radiation protection, that is, to reduces doses from practices, to prevent potential exposures, to detect its occurrence as well as to evaluate and spread such abnormal situations, will be obtained only if it were possible to joint two basic conditions: knowledge and attitude. It should be well known the differences between the backgrounds needed to be for example, a medical physicist or an R.P.O., However, their attitude to solve an eventual problem involving radiation protection should be the same; as well as the behavior of the specialized physician and regulators, in order to add towards common goals. In this work, we show as an example the curricula contents about radiation protection of the cancer of medical physics in the Universidad Nacional de San Martin (UNSAM), and the corresponding module on medical exposures from the Post-Graduate course on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, held since the 80s in Buenos Aires by the National Commission of Atomic Energy, ARN, IAEA, and the Universidad de Buenos Aires. On the other hand, we describe different attitudes which leads or could different attitudes which leads or could start major radiological accidents, regardless the level of knowledge in radiation protection. We conclude that the larger numbers of accidents are due to problems in the attitude than in the level of knowledge of the person involved. Consequently; we suggest emphasizing the discussion on how to generate positive attitudes in every professional involucrated, independently of its cognitive profile or level. (Author) 2 refs
Ozel, Murat; Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol
The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology and its various applications. In addition, whether students' knowledge and attitudes differed according to age and gender were also explored. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and the Biotechnology Attitude…
Full Text Available Background & Aim: Inter-partner relationships as part of a somatic-affective interaction have important role in supporting of familial relations. In this regard, knowledge of couples about their specific role against their spouses and the ways of having correct sexual relationship is essential. This correct knowledge might help spouses to understand their husband/wife and would promote family's cultural status and would be transmitted to next generations. This study carried out to determine the knowledge level and beliefs of couples attending marriage counseling centers toward correct sexual relationships. Methods & Materials: This is a cross-sectional study. A total of 300 individuals (150 couples, attending marriage counseling centers in the north and east of Tehran recruited for the study using random selection method. Data were collected using a questionnaire including knowledge and beliefs assessment questions. Results: Mean knowledge score for men and women were 12.3±2.5 and 10.1±1.8, respectively (P=0.23. Knowledge level of participants with higher education (P=0.00; and those aged 25-29 years (P=0.65 were higher than others. 11.3% of women and 13.1% of men did not have appropriate attitudes toward correct sexual relationships (P=0.35.Conclusion: Although knowledge level of respondents was just above the half of the complete score, the overall beliefs toward sexual relationships were positive.
Slaughter, K. A.; Bates, S. P.; Galloway, R. K.
Student success in a physics degree has been shown to depend on more than just performance in course assessment: important additional factors include student attitudes and beliefs about their subject. We have used an instrument (CLASS) that measures how student epistemologies evolve over the course of their undergraduate degree. Our previous work has sampled a cross-section of students at all levels across the physics undergraduate programme at Edinburgh in a single academic year, and found that student attitudes and beliefs remain essentially static. Here, we present fully longitudinal data collected over the past three years, where we track the evolution of the attitudes and beliefs of one group of students. We find broadly similar results: attitudes and beliefs remain surprisingly consistent over time. This suggests that a 'cross-sectional' or 'pseudo-longitudinal' study (collecting snapshot data in one year) is a valid methodology, rather than necessarily having to wait several years to accumulate truly longitudinal data.
Wartolowska, K; Beard, DJ; Carr, AJ
OBJECTIVES: To survey surgeons on their beliefs and attitudes towards the use of placebo in surgery. METHODS: British orthopedic shoulder surgeons, attending a national conference in the United Kingdom, were asked to complete a self-report online questionnaire about their beliefs and attitudes towards the use of placebo related to surgical intervention. The survey included questions about ethical issues, the mechanism of placebo effects, and any concerns regarding its use. RESULTS: 100 surgeo...
Ostermann Jan; Watt Melissa; John Muze; Yamanaka Yvonne; Zou James; Thielman Nathan
Abstract Background Religion shapes everyday beliefs and activities, but few studies have examined its associations with attitudes about HIV. This exploratory study in Tanzania probed associations between religious beliefs and HIV stigma, disclosure, and attitudes toward antiretroviral (ARV) treatment. Methods A self-administered survey was distributed to a convenience sample of parishioners (n = 438) attending Catholic, Lutheran, and Pentecostal churches in both urban and rural areas. The su...
Siegfried K. Berninghaus; Haller, Sven; Krüger, Tyll; Neumann, Thomas; Schosser, Stephan
For our experiment on corruption, we designed a coordination game to model the influence of risk attitudes, beliefs, and information on behavioral choices and determined the equilibria. We observed that the participants' risk attitudes failed to explain their choices between corrupt and non-corrupt behavior. Instead, beliefs appeared to be a better predictor of whether or not they would opt for the corrupt alternative. Furthermore, varying the quantity of information available to players (mod...
Siegfried K. Berninghaus; Haller, Sven; Krüger, Tyll; Neumann, Thomas; Schosser, Stephan; Vogt, Bodo
For our experiment on corruption we designed a coordination game to model the influence of risk attitudes, beliefs, and information on behavioral choices and determined the equilibria. We observed that the participants' risk attitudes failed to explain their choices between corrupt and non-corrupt behavior. Instead, beliefs appeared to be a better predictor of whether or not they would opt for the corrupt alternative. Furthermore, varying the quantity of information available to players (mode...
Perikkou, Anastasia; Kokkinou, Eleni; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Yannakoulia, Mary
Teachers' attitudes about school food environments and their readiness to implement school-based nutrition programs were investigated. A total of 1,436 primary-school teachers filled out a questionnaire on their demographic and professional characteristics and their attitudes, beliefs, and barriers for implementing health educational programs. The…
Margalith, Ilana; Musgrave, Catherine F.; Goldschmidt, Lydia
A survey of 190 Israeli nursing students found that just over half were opposed to legalization of physician-assisted dying. Exposure to theory about euthanasia or clinical oncology experience had a small effect on these attitudes. Religious beliefs and degree of religiosity were significant determinants of these attitudes. (Contains 23…
To avoid further loss of biodiversity we should radicly change our antropocentric attitude toward environment. The best way to do this is to instill positive attitudes toward nature to children in school. One of the factors that influences attitude toward nature/organisms is knowledge. The main aim of this study is to find out, whether there are differences in knowledge about, and attitudes toward the “unpopular” mosquito and “popular” butterfly among elementary school students. We focused on...
Kapucu, Serkan; Bahçivan, Eralp
Background: There are some theoretical evidences that explain the relationships between core beliefs (i.e., epistemological beliefs) and peripheral beliefs (self-efficacy in learning) in the literature. The close relationships of such type of beliefs with attitudes are also discussed by some researchers. Constructing a model that investigates…
Villar, Maria Elena; Concha, Maritza; Zamith, Rodrigo
Health disparities among Latinos have been associated with acculturation, but there is a lack of consensus about how acculturation variables translate into health beliefs that can be used to target attitude and behavior change interventions. Transcripts from three qualitative studies including 64 Latino immigrant adults were analyzed through inductive reasoning to assess relationships between more or less acculturated attitudes, and demographic variables. In the three topic areas of gender roles, sex education, and seeking professional help, attitudes ranged from conservative (less acculturated) to liberal (more acculturated), but did not seem associated with age, education or years in the United States. When dealing with specific health topics, it is not possible to infer specific attitudes, strength of attitudes or level of acculturation of intervention recipients. To develop sound, culturally competent interventions, it is necessary to assess the targets' beliefs and attitudes and tailor messages in specific contexts. PMID:22350810
Mandates for renewable energy lead to siting disputes, because meeting the mandates requires the development of renewable energy production facilities. Proposals for one common form of renewable energy, commercial wind farms, are frequently met with forceful local opposition. Dissatisfied with simplistic explanations for this opposition (i.e., NIMBY), social scientists have urged a more nuanced understanding of public attitudes towards wind energy and other renewables. Based on a survey of residents of coastal Michigan, this article explores the role of general values and beliefs in shaping attitudes towards the potential development of commercial wind energy projects in or near respondents’ communities. Structural equation modeling reveals that support of commercial wind energy depends largely on a belief that wind farms will provide economic benefits to the community. Underlying values have substantial and important indirect effects on beliefs regarding the likely economic outcomes of wind farm development. Altruistic values buoy wind energy attitudes, while values of traditionalism diminish wind energy support. The pivotal role of values in attitudes towards renewables lends support for more participatory development processes. - Highlights: ? Predictors of attitudes towards commercial wind energy development are examined. ? Support is influenced by beliefs in community economic benefit. ? Underlying values have substantial and important indirect effects on beliefs. ? Altruistic values buoy attitudes towards wind energy. ? Values associated with traditionalism diminish wind energy support
Al-Hoqail, Ibrahim A.
OBJECTIVES This study was carried out to assess the knowledge, concepts and perceptions of the youth towards Acne. METHODS This cross-sectional study included 700 students of both genders from all geographic areas in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the year 2001. They were asked to complete a self administered questionnaire that contained several items measuring different areas in there beliefs, knowledge and perceptions about acne. Acne and non-acne sufferers were included. R...
Amalraj Edwin R; Chandrasekaran Nirmala; Solomon Sunithi; Sumbandam Raja P
Research Question: What is the level of knowledge, sexual practices and attitude of medical students towards AIDS/ HIV. Objective: To assess the knowledge, sexual practices and attitudes of medical students in relation to HIV/AIDS. Study Design: Cross- sectional. Participants: 409 first year medical students. Study variables: Sex knowledge, sexual practices, Attitudes, Risk perception. Results: 92% of the students had heard about AIDS predominantly through mass media. Many students had...
Yawn, Barbara P.; Wollan, Peter C.
Barbara P Yawn, Peter C WollanOlmsted Medical Center, Research Department, Rochester, MN, USAPurpose: COPD remains under-recognized and under-treated. Much of early COPD care is given by primary care physicians but only when COPD is recognized. This survey explores the attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge related to COPD recognition, diagnosis, and treatment from family physicians and nurse practitioners (NPs) and physician assistants (PAs) working in primary care.Methods: We completed a survey ...
Pagiaslis, Anastasios; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios
The present study adds to the evolving literature on green consumer behavior by examining through statistically robust methods the effect and interrelationships of the key constructs of environmental concern, consumer environmental knowledge, beliefs about biofuels, and behavioral intention (i.e., willingness to use and pay) in the context of biofuels. Data were collected through a survey of 1695 respondents. Hypotheses are based on a literature review and a pilot study, and the conceptual structural model developed is tested through structural equation modeling. Results show that concern for the environment has a positive and direct impact on environmental knowledge, beliefs, and behavioral intention. Also, demographics determine levels of concern for the environment and environmental knowledge. All constructs associate positively with one another delineating that the interdependencies between them are important when accounting for environmental behavior. Future research should validate present results with the use of cross-cultural samples and investigate whether environmental concern increases due to social desirability response bias.
Overby, L Marvin
Using survey data from the 2008 election cycle, this article updates and extends analysis of public attitudes regarding various aspects of homosexuality. Continued expansion of public belief in a biological root to homosexuality is found, and variations in such opinions are explored. Public attitudes toward the emerging issue of gay adoption is also examined, finding both similarities with and important differences from attitudes toward same-sex civil unions, although both are profoundly influenced by underlying attitudes regarding the causes of homosexuality. PMID:24325311
Tannous, Adel G.; Khateeb, Jamal M.; Khamra, Hatem A.; Hadidi, Muna S.; Natour, Mayada M.
This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian school counselors toward diabetes mellitus. A sample of 295 counselors completed a questionnaire consisting of two parts concerning knowledge and attitudes. The face validity of the questionnaire was assessed using an informed panel of judges, and its reliability was established…
Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.
Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these…
With a heightened focus on the concept of sustainability in the past few decades, government, business and individuals have become increasingly aware of the need to reduce our environmental footprint. Consequently there has been much research on consumer environmental behaviour, and the beliefs, norms and attitudes that influence this behaviour. In this article we develop a conceptual framework of consumer environmental behaviour and its antecedents, and test hypotheses within the framework by means of a survey of green consumers. The results show that general environmental beliefs do influence norms on environmental actions and prices, but only norms on price are correlated with environmental attitudes; both intrinsic and extrinsic environmental drivers together with social norms and community influence are associated with environmental attitudes, but cost barriers may have a negative influence. It was also found that there was a strong association between environmental attitudes and energy saving behaviours but the latter was not in any way influenced by government policies or subsidies. - Highlights: ? We model consumer environmental behaviour and its antecedents. ? Environmental beliefs influence environmental norms on actions and prices. ? Environmental price norms are correlated with environmental attitudes. ? Environmental drivers, social norms and community influence are associated with attitudes. ? Strong association found between environmental attifound between environmental attitudes and behaviour.
Full Text Available Sabrina Anne Jacob,1 Ab Fatah Ab Rahman,2 Mohamed Azmi Ahmad Hassali3 1School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Sunway, 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Gong Badak Campus, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA, Kuala Terengganu, 3School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Science Malaysia, Minden, Malaysia Background: Many patients have erroneous views with regard to depression and its management, and it was noted that these attitudes and beliefs significantly affected their adherence rates.Objectives: The primary aim of this study was to determine the attitudes and beliefs of patients with depression toward depression and antidepressants. A secondary aim was to assess the influence of ethnicity on patients’ attitudes and beliefs.Patients and methods: The study involved patients with chronic depression being followed up at an outpatient clinic at a government-run hospital in Malaysia. Patients’ attitudes and beliefs were assessed using the Antidepressant Compliance Questionnaire.Results: A total of 104 patients of Malay, Chinese, and Indian ethnic groups met the selection criteria. Chinese patients had significantly negative attitudes and beliefs toward depression and antidepressants compared to Malays and Indians (b=-8.96, t103=-3.22; P<0.05. Component analysis revealed that 59% of patients believed that antidepressants can cause a person to have less control over their thoughts and feelings, while 67% believed that antidepressants could alter one’s personality; 60% believed it was okay to take fewer tablets on days when they felt better, while 66% believed that antidepressants helped solve their emotional problems and helped them worry less.Conclusion: Patients had an overall positive view as to the benefits of antidepressants, but the majority had incorrect views as to the acceptable dosing of antidepressants and had concerns about the safety of the medication. Assessing patients’ attitudes and beliefs, as well as the impact of their respective cultures, can be used in tailoring psychoeducation sessions accordingly. Keywords: Chinese, Malaysia, ethnicity, culture
Mcconnon, A.; Gribble, R.; Raats, Mm; Stubbs, J.; Shepherd, R.
Background: Research has suggested that patients and treatment providers hold different beliefs and models of obesity. This could impact consistency and quality of interventions for weight management. This study investigated the attitudes and beliefs of health professionals, commercial weight management advisors (expert patients) and overweight and obese dieters, towards obesity. Methods: Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire from 287 health professionals, 85 expert pati...
Nicholas J. Reo
Resource managers are increasingly engaging with tribes and first nations and looking for methods to incorporate their perspectives, priorities and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) into public land and resource management. Many initiatives that engage tribes and their TEK holders only seek tribal input, such as biological data, that is most easily integrated into existing management structures. Increasing attention on tribal belief systems would provide a more holistic understanding tha...
Bener, Abdulbari; Al-Khal, Abdullatif
The objective of the study was to explore the knowledge, attitude and practice of the population of Qatar towards severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The study took the form of a cross-sectional community-based survey in Doha International Airport and primary health care centres situated in urban and semi-urban areas of Qatar. The survey was conducted among travellers arriving at Doha International Airport and community residents visiting health centres from April to September 2003. A total of 1,800 subjects were approached for the study of which 1,386 (77.0%) responded to the questionnaire. The study showed that although 79.4% of the total subjects claimed to know about SARS, only 8.0% had accurate knowledge about all of the symptoms of SARS. The respondents' satisfaction with the preventive measures taken by the health authorities was only 66.6%. Overall, 73.0% of the total subjects knew that SARS was highly infectious; 69.9% knew that it could spread through close contact; 67.4% were aware that high fever was the early symptom; and 60.8% thought SARS could be cured. Half of the subjects said they had gained most of their knowledge on SARS through television and radio programmes (52.2%). Three-fifths (60.1%) were afraid to travel for fear of being affected by SARS. The level of awareness of SARS among Qataris was poor (31.7%) compared to that among non-Qataris (68.3%). The level of knowledge about SARS was better among educated subjects. The survey found a high level of stress and fear among the respondents. Health authorities should be on the alert and re-examine their capacity to manage an outbreak like SARS in the event that such a mishap should recur in the future. PMID:15301314
This paper discusses student attitudes and beliefs on using the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) in an advanced placement (AP) chemistry classroom. During the 2007 school year, the SWH was used in a class of 24 AP chemistry students. Using a Likert-type survey, student attitudes and beliefs on the process were determined. Methods for the study are…
Owens, M. A.
Climate literacy is evolving as a specific subset of science and environmental literacy. Through a longitudinal analysis of environmental autobiographies of an internationally and religiously diverse group of environmental sciences majors at a Historically Black College or University (HBCU) in the southern U.S., this presentation will explore: 1) sources and impact of religious beliefs on students' environmental worldview; 2) conflicts between religious, community and scientific values; and 3) navigating the tensions between trust in a religious deity as well as scientific methods and processes. Lester Milbrath states that "beliefs empower and deceive us." The media, as well as significant people and institutions, including religious institutions, socialize us and contribute to individual and societal worldviews. "We so thoroughly accept our culture's beliefs about how the world works that we hardly ever think about them even though they underlie everything we think and do." Beliefs, attitudes, and values comprise an important component of environmental literacy, a praxis-oriented concept from the field of environmental education, which is defined as: [T]he capacity to perceive and interpret the relative health of environmental systems and take appropriate action to maintain, restore, or improve the health of those systems . . . Environmental literacy should be defined in terms of observable behaviors. (Disinger and Roth 1992, 2). Environmental literacy draws upon six areas: environmental sensitivity; knowledge; skills; beliefs, attitudes and values; personal investment and responsibility; and active involvement. It involves particular ways of thinking, acting, and valuing (Roth 1992). Religious beliefs, or lack thereof, shape worldviews, thereby influencing individual and societal environmental and more specifically, climate literacy. For example, Western Christianity espouses a hierarchical anthropocentric worldview, putting God infinitely above human beings, and human beings above nature. The creation stories of Genesis have been used both implicitly and explicitly to justify domination and exploitation of the earth and its resources. Autobiographies may be used as a reflective pedagogical tool to help students to identify various components of their respective environmental worldviews that may influence their overall environmental and climate literacy. Narrative responses to guiding questions prompt students to reflect on beliefs, trust, and values. This research will inform the development of culturally relevant and scientifically sound approaches to climate change education.
Norton, Joanna; Pommié, Christelle; Cogneau, Joël; Haddad, Mark; Ritchie, Karen; Mann, Anthony
OBJECTIVE: To study, in a sample of French Family Practitioners (FPs), beliefs and attitudes toward depression and how they vary according to training received in mental health. METHODS: The Depression Attitude Questionnaire (DAQ) was completed by 468 FPs from all regions of France, recruited by pharmaceutical company representatives to attend focus groups on the management of depression in general practice. RESULTS: A three-factor model was derived from the DAQ, accounting for 37.7% of the t...
This article documents the beliefs and attitudes of Chinese college English teachers towards classroom code-switching. The findings suggest that teachers’ code-switching is commonplace in class, although most of them still hold negative attitude toward it. Besides, students’ ability is regarded as the most significant factor affecting teachers’ code-switching, and the first language (L1) is mainly used to teach grammar and abstract words. The conclusion is that, in Chinese E...
Kramer, Simon; Sack, Joshua
We propose parametric constructive Kripke-semantics for multi-agent KD45-belief and S5-knowledge in terms of elementary set-theoretic constructions of two basic functional building blocks, namely bias (or viewpoint) and visibility, functioning also as the parameters of the doxastic and epistemic accessibility relation. The doxastic accessibility relates two possible worlds whenever the application of the composition of bias with visibility to the first world is equal to the ...
Teferi, Jalle; Shewangizaw, Zewdu
Religious and sociocultural beliefs influence the nature of treatment and care received by people with epilepsy. Many communities in Africa and other developing nations believe that epilepsy results from evil spirits, and thus, treatment should be through the use of herbaceous plants from traditional doctors and religious leadership. Community-based cross-sectional study designs were used to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice related to epilepsy and its associated factors by using a pretested, semi-structured questionnaire among 660 respondents living in Sululta Woreda, Oromia, Ethiopia. According to the results of this study, 59.8% of the respondents possessed knowledge about epilepsy, 35.6% had a favorable attitude, and 33.5% of them adopted safe practices related to epilepsy. The following factors had significant association to knowledge, attitude, and practice related to epilepsy: being rural dwellers, living alone, those with more years of formal education, heard information about epilepsy, distance of health facility from the community, had witnessed an epileptic seizure, age range from 46 years to 55 years, had heard about epilepsy, prior knowledge of epilepsy, occupational history of being self-employed or a laborer, history of epilepsy, and history of epilepsy in family member. The findings indicated that the Sululta community is familiar with epilepsy, has an unfavorable attitude toward epilepsy, and unsafe practices related to epilepsy, but has a relatively promising knowledge of epilepsy. PMID:26056455
Teferi, Jalle; Shewangizaw, Zewdu
Religious and sociocultural beliefs influence the nature of treatment and care received by people with epilepsy. Many communities in Africa and other developing nations believe that epilepsy results from evil spirits, and thus, treatment should be through the use of herbaceous plants from traditional doctors and religious leadership. Community-based cross-sectional study designs were used to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice related to epilepsy and its associated factors by using a pretested, semi-structured questionnaire among 660 respondents living in Sululta Woreda, Oromia, Ethiopia. According to the results of this study, 59.8% of the respondents possessed knowledge about epilepsy, 35.6% had a favorable attitude, and 33.5% of them adopted safe practices related to epilepsy. The following factors had significant association to knowledge, attitude, and practice related to epilepsy: being rural dwellers, living alone, those with more years of formal education, heard information about epilepsy, distance of health facility from the community, had witnessed an epileptic seizure, age range from 46 years to 55 years, had heard about epilepsy, prior knowledge of epilepsy, occupational history of being self-employed or a laborer, history of epilepsy, and history of epilepsy in family member. The findings indicated that the Sululta community is familiar with epilepsy, has an unfavorable attitude toward epilepsy, and unsafe practices related to epilepsy, but has a relatively promising knowledge of epilepsy. PMID:26056455
Worden, Alissa Pollitz; Carlson, Bonnie E.
This report presents findings from a public opinion survey designed to measure beliefs about the causes of domestic violence (DV) based on telephone interviews with 1,200 residents across six New York State communities. Findings reveal substantial diversity and complexity among beliefs and interesting similarities and differences across open- and…
Full Text Available Consanguineous marriages are traditionally favoured in most of Asian and African countries especially in the Muslim countries. However, it is apparent that these kinds of marriage are a major factor of some genetic disorders inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Although there is a long history of consanguineous marriage in Iran, the information on its prevalence is too poor. The aim of this study was to define the frequency of consanguineous marriage in Mashhad City, Khorasan Province, Iran as well as its correlations to the youths’ attitude and their knowledge about the genetic consequences of inbreeding. The concerning information was obtained by administration of a direct questionnaire including 50 open and closed questions. The subjects were 500 young people (with a mean age of 21.4 yr who were selected during a quota sampling. The results of this study revealed that most of the youth did not have favorable information about the consequences of genetic disorders of inbreeding. There was a higher rate of consanguinity in the rural rather than the urban population. The traditional beliefs and the authority of the parents who had also experienced consanguineous marriage were other predominating factors of inbreeding.
The general public's responses to people with intellectual disabilities influence the likely success or failure of policies aimed at increasing their social inclusion. The present paper provides a review of general population based research into awareness, attitudes and beliefs regarding intellectual disability published in English between 1990…
Martin, Nancy K.; Yin, Zenong; Mayall, Hayley
The purpose of this study was to report the psychometric properties of the revised Attitudes and Beliefs of Classroom Control Inventory (ABCC-R). Data were collected from 489 participants via the ABCC-R, Teacher Efficacy Scale, Problems in School Questionnaire, and a demographic questionnaire. Results were in keeping with the construct. The…
Prinbeck, Gwenn; Lach, Denise; Chan, Samuel
The Theory of Planned Behavior was used as a framework for investigating recreationists' attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral control beliefs pertaining to behaviors that reduce the spread of invasive species. A series of focus groups comprised of gardeners, fishers, hunters, and boaters was convened in Oregon, USA. Findings indicate six…
Amalraj Edwin R
Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of knowledge, sexual practices and attitude of medical students towards AIDS/ HIV. Objective: To assess the knowledge, sexual practices and attitudes of medical students in relation to HIV/AIDS. Study Design: Cross- sectional. Participants: 409 first year medical students. Study variables: Sex knowledge, sexual practices, Attitudes, Risk perception. Results: 92% of the students had heard about AIDS predominantly through mass media. Many students had misconception about transmission of HIV infection should not be allowed to work in the clinic or hospital. 36% of male and 9% of female students admitted indulging in safe sexual practices mostly with their friends.
Hooman Sadri Ardakani
Full Text Available Objective: High prevalence of tobacco consumption in childbearing ages is an important topic of consideration as its ill effects have influences on fertility. Worldwide studies have shown that general knowledge on fertility issues is low. Aim of the current study was to assess tobacco harm knowledge and attitude in infertile couples referring to the Avicenna center."nMaterials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. All Avicenna fertility clinics' new patients with infertility complain between November of 2007 and February 2008 was included. Information was collected trough standard knowledge and attitude questionnaire. "nResults: Among 684 individuals (342 couples, the mean score of knowledge and attitude was 0.49±0.79 (from a total of 4, 19.1±2.70 (from a total of 24. The mean knowledge score among women and men was 0.44±0.73, 0.54±0.84, respectively. The mean of attitude score in women and men was 19.35±2.55, 18.85±2.82, respectively. Significant correlation between age, gender, education and tobacco experience with knowledge was not found. Yet, attitude was significantly more appropriate in women, the educated and inexperienced tobacco usage (P=0.001, P=0.001, P=0.03, respectively."nConclusion: In the population studied, attitude was appropriate but level of knowledge was low and this suggests more steps should be taken to improve the knowledge.
Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Abdullah A Alabdrabalnabi,2 Rehab B Albacker,3 Umar A Al-Jughaiman,4 Samar N Hassan5 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2University of Dammam, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Faisal University, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1 to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2 to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF clinic. Methods and materials: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ? 0.05. Results: A generally poor level of knowledge (59% and a neutral attitude (76% toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%, black magic (67.5%, intrauterine devices (71.3%, and contraceptive pills (42.9%. The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility treatment by 6.7% and 44.2% of IVF patients, respectively. Compared with fertile patients, IVF patients were significantly less likely to favor divorce (38.5% versus 57.6%; P = 0.001 or marriage to a second wife (62.5% versus 86.2%; P < 0.001, if the woman could not have a baby. The patients with infertility had more favorable attitudes toward fertility drugs (87.5% versus 68.4%; P = 0.003 and having a test tube baby (92.4% versus 70.3%; P < 0.001. Child adoption was accepted as an option for treatment by the majority of IVF patients (60.6% and fertile outpatients (71.5%. Alternative treatments previously practiced by the IVF patients to improve fertility include practicing Ruqia (61%, using alternative medicine (42%, engaging in physical exercise (39%, eating certain foods (22%, and quitting smoking (12%. Conclusion: These findings have implications for health care providers regarding the reluctance that couples experiencing fertility problems may have, at least initially, to accept some interventions required for the couple to conceive. Keywords: infertility, knowledge, attitude, practice, KAP, misconceptions
This paper concerns formal theories for reasoning about the knowledge and belief of agents. It has seemed attractive to researchers in artificial intelligence to formalise these propositional attitudes as predicates of first-order predicate logic. This allows the agents to express stronger introspective beliefs and engage in stronger meta-reasoning than in the classical modal operator approach. Results by Montague  and Thomason  show, however, that the predicate approach is prone to inconsistency. More recent results by des Rivieres & Levesque  and Morreau & Kraus  show that we can keep the predicate approach if we make suitable restrictions to our set of epistemic axioms. Their results are proved by careful translations from corresponding modal formalisms. In the present paper we show that their results fit nicely into the framework of logic programming semantics, in that we show their results to be corollaries of well-known results in this field. This does not only allow us to demonstrate a close connection between consistency problems in the syntactic treatment of propositional attitudes and problems in semantics for logic programs, but it also allows us to strengthen the results of Rivieres and Levesque  and Morreau and Kraus .
This study focuses on developing a theoretical model with a practicaljustification within the field of electronic banking. We ground our discussion on the framework of consumer behavior and electronic banking by linking attitude research and electronic business research. Thus, the purpose of this dissertation is to determine those factors that influence the formation of consumer attitude toward electronic banking. Another important aspect of this study is to develop more insights into how att...
Jernigan, Meghan; Fahrenwald, Nancy; Harris, Raymond; Tsosie, Ursula; Baker, Lannesse Olivina; Buchwald, Dedra
Background American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) suffer a disproportionate burden of diabetes and kidney failure. For those with chronic kidney disease, transplantation may be the most effective treatment option. However, low rates of organ donation and transplantation are reported for AI/ANs, who face significant barriers in accessing the transplant waiting list. They are also less likely than Whites to consent to become organ donors. Methods We partnered with five tribal colleges and universities to conduct focus groups to assess knowledge, cultural beliefs, and behaviors related to organ donation and transplantation among AI/AN college students. Focus group data were used to develop a culturally targeted media campaign and outreach strategy aimed at increasing rates of consent to donate organs. Results Community knowledge typically drew from direct family experience with chronic illness. Study findings confirmed that attitudes about organ donation were influenced by cultural beliefs. Nevertheless, many participants supported organ donation even when it conflicted with cultural and spiritual beliefs about keeping the body intact for burial. Participants also expressed mistrust of the local health care system, suggesting that trust issues might interfere with health messaging on this topic. Conclusion This is the first study to examine sociocultural beliefs about organ donation among AI/AN college students. Through focus group findings, study staff were better positioned to develop culturally relevant outreach materials. Rising rates of chronic illness among AI/ANs ensure that organ donation and transplantation will be a long-term feature of the health landscape in AI/AN communities. Targeted health messaging must be part of the strategy to reduce donor shortages. PMID:23504267
This study uses multivariate statistical methods to explore the beliefs of upper Midwestern U.S. residents about global climate change, and possible consumer responses to determine their willingness to pay more for cellulosic ethanol from multiple feedstocks. A mail survey was sent to residents of Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin to determine baseline knowledge, attitudes and beliefs on several aspects of these issues, with a focus on the emerging market for cellulosic ethanol. First, survey responses were compiled and principal components analysis was used to reduce the dimensionality of the data. This resulted in seven factors and a theoretical framework to help understand consumers' beliefs about climate change and possible energy policy responses. Second, these results were combined with insights from previous studies that were used as input for further research hypotheses and multivariate analyses. The factor scores from principal components analysis along with the some of the key control variables (i.e., gender, income, and rural/urban) served as independent variables in three revised multiple regression models of consumer's willingness to pay (WTP) their fair share of any additional cost of cellulosic ethanol, as reported in an earlier study. Four explanatory variables were found to be significant determinants of WTP in every model: environment, energy consumption, and climate change; concerns about climate change impacts; inability to stop climate change; and gasoline prices and consumption. These results suggest strong public support and consumer WTP for cellulosic ethanol production in the region.
Kuruvilla, P. K.; John, Jacob K.
58 subjects doing their compulsory rotating internship were evaluated on their knowledge and attitude to psychiatric illness using a multiple choice questionnaire, case history vignettes and an open ended attitude questionnaire. All of them had had a series of lectures and 4 weeks clinical posting 3 years prior to evaluation and weekly ethics for 3 months in the year before.
Monk, Abraham; Kaye, Lenard W.
Studied the perceptions, expectations, and attitudes toward aging among students of religion and their graduate counterparts by means of structured interviews. Results revealed students had more positive attitudes toward young than old people, relatively low gerontological knowledge, and negative biases toward the aged. (RC)
Robinson, Daniel H.; Funk, Daniel C.; Beth, Alicia; Bush, Angela M.
Although the effectiveness of corporal punishment (CP) has received little empirical support, public support for this disciplinary method continues despite calls for its abandonment by researchers. Even among educators, favorable attitudes toward the use of CP are prevalent. We measured education majors' beliefs about CP before and after they read…
Rodrigue, James R; Fleishman, Aaron; Fitzpatrick, Sean; Boger, Matthew
Motor vehicle (MV) clerks are at the epicenter of organ donor registration. We show that MV clerks (n = 225) in two northeastern states have knowledge gaps and negative beliefs about organ donation. A majority believe it may be possible to buy organs on the black market (81%) and that recovery from brain death is possible (65%), whereas nearly half believe that doctors might not work as hard to save the life of a registered donor (46%). Organ procurement organizations should conduct formal educational programming with MV staff, considering their prominent role in the donor registration process. PMID:25222015
Davis, Elizabeth A.
Responses to a written beliefs test for 178 eighth grade students and interviews with a subset of the students are analysed to investigate students' beliefs about the tentativeness of scientific knowledge and about the autonomy and strategies appropriate for science learning. These three dimensions of beliefs are salient because they align with the image of science teaching promoted by current reform movements. Analyses focus on change in beliefs and relationships among dimensions of beliefs and between those beliefs and students' understandings of science concepts. Results show that students' beliefs do not change much during the one-semester course. Students who view scientific knowledge as tentative also try to understand science. Autonomous students do not hold the most productive learning strategies, though students with low autonomy develop significantly less coherent understandings of science concepts. Instructional implications focus on potential roles of teachers and technology in promoting productive beliefs about scientific knowledge and science learning. Implications for individualized instruction follow classroom-level implications.
Heckman, Stuart J.; Grable, John E.
This study was designed to evaluate the determinants of personal finance knowledge among college students and to test how this knowledge affects students' perceived self-efficacy beliefs in dealing with personal financial issues. In this study, a test of parental attitudes towards debt, students' income level, and dependency status related to…
Allum, Nick; Sturgis, Patrick; Tabourazi, Dimitra; Brunton-smith, Ian
Abstract The correlation between knowledge and attitudes has been the source of controversy in research on the public understanding of science (PUS). Although many studies, both quantitative and qualitative, have examined this issue, the results are at best diverse and at worst contradictory. In this paper, we review the evidence on the relationship between public attitudes and public knowledge about science across 40 countries using a meta-analytic approach. We fit multilevel mode...
Paramasivam Parimalam; Raghavan Premalatha; Srinivasan Padmini; Kumar Ganguli
Background: Millions of workers are occupationally exposed to dyes in the world, but little is known about their knowledge and attitudes toward the effects of dye on their health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the fabric dyers? and fabric printers? knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the health hazard of dyes. Materials and Methods: The present study was taken up in the Madurai district which is situated in the Southern Tamil Nadu, India. One hundred and f...
Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism.Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%. The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9; (c nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27; and (d eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8. A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively.Results: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035. The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66, 24.12 (SD=2.99, and 0.66 (SD=1.15 respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005 and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (P<0.001.Conclusions: This knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP questionnaire was developed as a standard tool in order to assess perception of subjects toward plagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the relationships Belief Dimensions and attitude of viewers towards TVadvertising. Earlier research was mainly explored in the west with some finding were positive and some beingnegative on certain aspects of viewers perception. Whilst this study is exploratory in nature in understanding therelationship between Belief Dimensions and attitude of viewers towards TV advertising. Generally the Thai TVviewers tend to have a more negative attitude towards TV advertising. Three Belief dimension were found to besignificant towards TV advertising and theses are informational benefits, negative contents and offensive. Threewere not significant and these are availability, advertising format and non-informative. The result shows anumber of implications for the management of business organization in particular the advertising agencies. Theyneed to address the issue of peoples’ perception being negative towards TV adverting; secondly combine thedemographic characteristics and belief dimensions to maximize advertising’s reach and effectiveness. Byunderstanding the viewer profile advertising agencies may be able to do a better media planning and focus oncreativity and presentation.
Jamshidi M. Mahin
Full Text Available Problem statement: As number of Persons Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWAs increases, caring for them is a new rising problem. The World Health Organization encourages caring these people at home. Patients themselves also prefer to stay at home than staying in hospital. Adequate knowledge and positive attitude are important factors in providing better care for a patient. Approach: This study was conducted to assess level of knowledge and describe attitudes existing between family members of PLWAs. A cross-sectional study was conducted on PLWAs to assess the basic level of knowledge and attitude regarding AIDS. One hundred family members of PLWAs were selected using simple random sampling. A three-part questionnaire was delivered to measure HIV/AIDS-related attitude and knowledge. Results: Mean score of participants were 10.69±2.05 of a maximum of 14 points in knowledge. Knowledge on some aspect of the disease was quite high in the study group; Mean score was 25.42±6.05 from a maximum of 40 points in attitude. Female gender, higher income and education level were associated with a greater level of knowledge. Parents in comparison with other relatives and persons older than 60 usually had lower level of knowledge. Patients with higher income or education level also had more positive attitude toward patient. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggest that the family members of patients living with AIDS have a satisfactory level of essential knowledge on HIV/AIDS. Most of them have good attitudes toward person with HIV/AIDS. However, there are some misconceptions about the routes of transmission that can be problems on the way of providing homebased care.
Hwang, Yoon-Suk; Evans, David
General education teachers in the Republic of Korea were investigated regarding their participation in programs to include students with disabilities in general education settings. Previous studies have shown that even general education teachers with positive attitudes towards inclusion are reluctant in practice to have students with disabilities…
Objective: The bystander approach to rape prevention is gaining popularity on college campuses, although research is limited. This study explored bystander attitudes and their relationship with rape myths in a sample of college students. Participants: Surveys from 2,338 incoming undergraduate students at a large, northeastern university were…
Cullen, Theresa A.; Greene, Barbara A.
The Theory of Planned Behavior was used as a framework, along with Self-Determination Theory, to examine preservice teachers' motivation to include technology in their future teaching. We modified instruments to measure theoretical constructs to be applied to plans for the use of technology. Measured were: perceived behavioral control, attitudes…
Ruiz Rodri?guez, Jose?; Fuste? Escolano, Adela
The factor structure of a back translated Spanish version (Lega, Caballo and Ellis, 2002) of the Attitudes and Beliefs Inventory (ABI) (Burgess, 1990) is analyzed in a sample of 250 university students. The Spanish version of the ABI is a 48-items self-report inventory using a 5-point Likert scale that assesses rational and irrational attitudes and beliefs. 24-items cover two dimensions of irrationality: a) areas of content (3 subscales), and b) styles of thinking (4 subscales). An Expl...
Hélia Maria da Silva, Dias; Maria Margarida Santana Fialho, Sim-Sim.
Full Text Available Resumo Objetivo: Descrever o processo de validação para a língua portuguesa do Sexuality Attitudes and Beliefs Survey (SABS) e suas respectivas propriedades psicométricas. Métodos: Estudo metodológico e quantitativo. Participaram 49 estudantes de enfermagem. Após o desenvolvimento da tradução do SAB [...] S, atendendo à equivalência semântica, idiomática e conceitual do conteúdo dos seus itens, procedeu-se à determinação das qualidades psicométricas. Resultados: Ao nível da confiabilidade, obteve-se um alfa de Cronbach para a versão final de 11 itens de 0,72, que, no teste-reteste, foi de 0,80. Foi comprovada a validade discriminante. Conclusão: A versão portuguesa do SABS é válida e fiável para utilização em estudos de investigação, quer ao nível da formação quer da prática clínica. Abstract in english Abstract Objective: To describe the validation process of the Sexuality Attitudes and Beliefs Survey (SABS) for the Portuguese language and its respective psychometric properties. Methods: A methodological and quantitative study with the participation of 49 nursing students. After the translation of [...] the SABS, ensuring the semantic, idiomatic and conceptual equivalence of the content of items, its psychometric qualities were determined. Results: In terms of reliability, the Cronbach's alpha for the final version of 11 items was 0.72, which was 0.80 in the test-retest. The discriminant validity was proven. Conclusion: The Portuguese version of the SABS is valid and reliable for use in investigation studies, both in terms of training as in clinical practice.
Foster Nadine E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Joint pain, specifically chronic knee pain (CKP, is a frequent cause of chronic pain and limitation of function and mobility among older adults. Multiple evidence-based guidelines recommend exercise as a first-line treatment for all patients with CKP or knee osteoarthritis (KOA, yet healthcare practitioners' attitudes and beliefs may limit their implementation. This systematic review aims to identify the attitudes, beliefs and behaviours of General Practitioners (GPs regarding the use of exercise for CKP/KOA. Methods We searched four electronic databases between inception and January 2008, using subject headings to identify studies examining the attitudes, beliefs or behaviours of GPs regarding the use of exercise for the treatment of CKP/KOA in adults aged over 45 years in primary care. Studies referring to patellofemoral pain syndrome or CKP secondary to other causes or that occurring in a prosthetic joint were excluded. Once inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, study data were extracted and summarised. Study quality was independently reviewed using two assessment tools. Results From 2135 potentially relevant articles, 20 were suitable for inclusion. A variety of study methodologies and approaches to measuring attitudes beliefs and behaviours were used among the studies. Quality assessment revealed good reporting of study objective, type, outcome factors and, generally, the sampling frame. However, criticisms included use of small sample sizes, low response rates and under-reporting of non-responder factors. Although 99% of GPs agreed that exercise should be used for CKP/KOA and reported ever providing advice or referring to a physiotherapist, up to 29% believed that rest was the optimum management approach. The frequency of actual provision of exercise advice or physiotherapy referral was lower. Estimates of provision of exercise advice and physiotherapy referral were generally higher for vignette-based studies (exercise advice 9%-89%; physiotherapy referral 44%-77% than reviews of actual practice (exercise advice 5%-52%; physiotherapy referral 13-63%. Advice to exercise and exercise prescription were not clearly differentiated. Conclusions Attitudes and beliefs of GPs towards exercise for CKP/KOA vary widely and exercise appears to be underused in the management of CKP/KOA. Limitations of the evidence base include the paucity of studies directly examining attitudes of GPs, poor methodological quality, limited generalisability of results and ambiguity concerning GPs' expected roles. Further investigation is required of the roles of GPs in using exercise as first-line management of CKP/KOA.
Adherence to medication can be problematic for patients, especially so for patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Effective medications are available for the treatment of ADHD; however, nonadherence rates for ADHD medication range from 13.2%–64%. The reasons for nonadherence can be complex. This review aims to look at how the beliefs and attitudes of adolescents and adults impact ADHD treatment adherence.
Ward Kenneth D; Asfar Taghrid; Eissenberg Thomas; Maziak Wasim
Abstract Background To compare patterns of use, beliefs, and attitudes related to waterpipe smoking between university students (beginning smokers) and café customers (established smokers) in Aleppo Syria, in order to explore the evolution of this smoking method. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among representative samples of university students (total 587, 48.4% men, mean age 22 years), and waterpipe users among cafe' customers (total 268, 60% men, mean age 30 years) in A...
Day, Hannah R.; El-setouhy, Maged; El-Shinawi, Mohamed; Assem, Amr; Ismail, Mona; Salem, Marwa; Gordon S. Smith; Hirshon, Jon Mark
The objective of this study was to qualitatively evaluate young Egyptians’ perceptions, attitudes, knowledge and behaviour towards injuries before implementation of an extensive questionnaire about injuries among Egyptian youth. In 2008, five focus groups of three to nine participants each were conducted in Cairo, Egypt in Arabic to evaluate young Egyptians’ attitudes towards injuries, injury prevention, and their understanding of ‘accidents’ and fatalism. Participants were 14–26 ye...
Wong, Wai Pong; Yeung, Meredith; Loh, Susan; Lee, Mina; Ghazali, F.; Chan, C. J.; Feng, S.; Liew, Y. V.; Seah, P. F.; Wee, J.; Wang, J.; Huang, X.; Dean, Elizabeth
Objective: The objective of the present study was to describe stroke-related knowledge (risk factors, warning signs and emergency response), lifestyle behaviours and health beliefs among Singaporean Chinese, and to identify any factors associated with such knowledge, behaviours and beliefs. Design: This was a cross-sectional study design employing…
Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan
The ability to locate, share, and use knowledge is vital for effective functioning of organizations. However, such knowledge processing can be complicated by increasing cultural diversity. Recent studies have suggested that a group’s diversity attitudes may increase group outcomes. In this study, based on a sample consisting of 489 members of multicultural academic departments, we set out to investigate the relationship between openness to diversity (linguistic, social category, value, and informational) and group knowledge processing (knowledge location, knowledge needed, bring knowledge to bear, and personal knowledge). We found openness to linguistic and informational diversity to have positive associations with all group knowledge processing variables. Openness to value diversity was positively associated with most group knowledge processing variables, while openness to social category diversity only had a positive effect on personal knowledge.
Martin, Nancy K.; Yin, Zenong; Mayall, Hayley
This study represents a continuation of research efforts to further refine the Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom Control (ABCC) Inventory. The purposes of this study were to investigate the: (1) impact of classroom management training on classroom management style; (2) differences in attitudes toward classroom management between novice and…
Nickles, Kenneth Patrick
The impact of electronic health records on healthcare professional's beliefs and attitudes toward face to face communication during patient and provider interactions was examined. Quantitative survey research assessed user attitudes towards an electronic health record system and revealed that healthcare professionals from a wide range of…
Merideidy Plazas Vargas
Full Text Available Educating health professionals implies the challenge of creating and developing an inquiring mind, ready to be in a state of permanent questioning. For this purpose, it is fundamental to generate a positive attitude toward the generation of knowledge and science. Objective: to determine the attitude toward science and the scientific method in undergraduate students of health sciences. Materials and methods: a cross-sectional study was made by applying a self-administered survey, excluding those who were transferred from other universities and repeated. The attitude toward science and the scientific method were valued using the scale validated and published by Hren, which contains three domains: value of scientific knowledge, value of scientific methodology, and value of science for health professions. Results: 362 students were included, 86,6% of them graded the attitude toward scientific knowledge above 135 points, neutral scale value. Similar scores were registered in the domains value of scientific knowlede for the human dimension of the students and value of science for health professions. 91,4% of the students graded the value of scientific methodology below 48 points. Conclusions: the favorable attitude of the students can be explained by the contact that they have with the scientific method since the beginning of their studies and its concordance with the evolution of science. The domain value of scientific methodology obtained the lowest grade on the part of the students, which could be related to the lack of knowledge about scientific methodology.
The World Health Organization and the International Association for Study of Pain cite the significance of pediatric pain as a significant global health issue. Developing countries may have increased needs compared with developed countries because of limited resources and lack of training. In Mongolia a paucity of data exist regarding nursing knowledge of pediatric pain management. The purpose of this project was to assess the current knowledge of pediatric pain and to assess the effectiveness of educational intervention on improving knowledge and attitudes of pediatric nurses working at a major children's hospital in Mongolia. Knowledge and attitudes of Mongolian nurses were evaluated before and after a 2-hour educational intervention. The translated Modified Mongolian Pediatric Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain-Shriner's Revision survey was used as a pre- and postintervention assessment instrument with local nurses at a pediatric hospital in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. One hundred sixty-seven nurses attended the conference, with 155 nurses completing the pre- and postsurveys. The mean score on the presurvey was 12.7 out of 35 (26.4% correct), whereas the mean score on the postsurvey score was 16.7 out of 35 (47.8% correct). A paired t test showed a significant statistical difference between scores (p < .0001). Pediatric nurses in Mongolia demonstrate insufficient knowledge of pediatric pain management. The educational intervention was effective in improving pediatric pain knowledge and attitudes in Mongolian nurses. It is recommended to establish similar educational endeavors with nurses around the world to improve pain knowledge and attitudes. PMID:25439122
Background. Blood donation is remarkably safe medical procedure. However, attitudes, beliefs, and level of knowledge may affect it. Objectives. To measure the level of knowledge regarding blood donation, find out positive and negative attitudes, identify the obstacles, and suggest some motivational factors. Methodology. A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC). Participants were selected by convenient nonrandom sampling technique. A self-created questionnaire was used for data collection. Results. The study included 349 individuals. About 45.8% of the participants claimed that they have a history of blood donation. Reported causes for not donating blood were blood donation not crossing their mind (52.4%), no time for donation (45%), and difficulty in accessing blood donation center (41.3%). Reported motivating factors for donating blood were one day off (81.4%), mobile blood donation caravans in public areas (79.1%), token gifts (31.5%), and finally paying money (18.9%). Conclusion. People in the age group 31-50 years, males, higher education and military were more likely to donate blood as well as People who showed higher knowledge level and positive attitude towards blood donation. More educational programs to increase the awareness in specific targeted populations and also to focus on some motivational factors are recommended. PMID:25431668
S. A. Francis
Full Text Available This pilot study examined Somali women's perception of health/access to care, examined their knowledge and attitudes about cancer prevention, and discussed strategies to improve service provision and education. Using a multidisciplinary approach, twelve face-to-face interviews were conducted with Somali women ages 18 and older, residing in a mid-western city. Open coding was used to categorize and reflect the interview statements and to identify reoccurring themes. Somali women are concerned about a variety of health issues and cited the role of culture and religion in developing prevention strategies. Participants emphasized the use of religious leaders, health care advocates, oral traditions, and translators in providing culturally appropriate health care services. Religion and culture play a prominent role in the Somali community and impact beliefs about health and wellness. Health practitioners need to work closely with individuals and community leaders to tailor services that are culturally appropriate and accessible.
Bouju, Gaëlle; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Boutin, Claude; Gorwood, Philip; Le Bourvellec, Jean-Damien; Feuillet, Fanny; Venisse, Jean-Luc; Grall-Bronnec, Marie
The Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey (GABS) is a questionnaire which explores gambling-related dysfunctional beliefs in an unidimensional way. The present research aims to investigate the dimensionality of the scale. 343 undergraduate student gamblers and 75 pathological gamblers seeking treatment completed the GABS and the south oaks gambling screen. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the original one-factor structure of the GABS did not fit the data effectively. We then proposed a shorter version of the GABS (GABS-23) with a new five-factor structure, which fitted with the data more efficiently. The comparisons between students (problem vs. non-problem gamblers) and pathological gamblers seeking treatment indicated that the GABS-23 can discriminate between problem and non-problem gamblers as efficiently as the original GABS. To ensure the validity and the stability of the new structure of the GABS-23, analyses were replicated in an independent sample that consisted of 628 gamblers (256 non problem gamblers, 169 problem gamblers who are not treatment-seeking and 203 problem gamblers seeking treatment). Analyses showed satisfactory results, and the multidimensional structure of the GABS-23 was then confirmed. The GABS-23 seems to be a valid and useful assessment tool for screening gambling-related beliefs, emotions and attitudes among problem and non-problem gamblers. Moreover, it presents the advantage of being shorter than the original GABS, and of screening irrational beliefs and attitudes about gambling in a multidimensional way. The five-factor model of the GABS-23 is discussed based on the theory of locus of control. PMID:23334576
Ward Kenneth D
Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare patterns of use, beliefs, and attitudes related to waterpipe smoking between university students (beginning smokers and café customers (established smokers in Aleppo Syria, in order to explore the evolution of this smoking method. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among representative samples of university students (total 587, 48.4% men, mean age 22 years, and waterpipe users among cafe' customers (total 268, 60% men, mean age 30 years in Aleppo, Syria. We used interviewer-administered questionnaire inquiring about pattern of waterpipe smoking (initiation, frequency, situational characteristics of use (partner, place, sharing, beliefs related to waterpipe smoking (harmful/addictive properties of waterpipe, attitudes related to waterpipe smoking (confidence in quitting, will to quit, motivation for quitting, past year quit attempt, and cigarette smoking. Results Daily and regular patterns of smoking become more prevalent with increased duration of smoking, but intermittent smoking remains the predominant pattern of waterpipe use. Women seem to be drawn later to the habit, which seem to escape the usual taboo against women's cigarette smoking. Patterns and context of waterpipe use tend to change with progress of the practice affecting frequency, setting, and sharing of waterpipe. Unlike beginners, established waterpipe smokers seem more smoking-method oriented, more hooked on the habit, less willing to quit, and less likely to foresee challenges to quitting. Conclusion Use patterns and attitudes related to waterpipe smoking evolve to accommodate the change in dependence and life circumstances of the smoker. Most of use features, beliefs, attitudes, as well as time-course seem unique to this smoking method requiring novel approach to intervention.
Hashimoto-Martell, Erin A.; McNeill, Katherine L.; Hoffman, Emily M.
This study explores the impact of an urban ecology program on participating middle school students' understanding of science and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors. We gathered pre and post survey data from four classes and found significant gains in scientific knowledge, but no significant changes in student beliefs regarding the…
Kiragu, Reginah; Neupane, Jharna Elizabeth; Kandel, Sudha
The purpose of this study was to investigate types of primigravidas´ knowledge regarding exclusive breastfeeding; to explore their attitudes towards and identify the possible challenges they experienced during exclusive breastfeeding period. The goal of the study was to provide knowledge for nurses and professional teams to comprehend the reasons behind early cessation of exclusive breastfeeding by new mothers, hence revising a new most competent course to boost exclusivity of breastfeeding ...
Rahma Al Kindi; Salha Al Rujaibi; Maya Al Kendi
Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and attitude of Sultan Qaboos University students towards premarital screening program.Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted at the students’ clinic from January to April 2011. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 590 unmarried Omani students of both genders. The questionnaire consisted of 3 main parts; the first part was based on socio-demographic data, the second part dealt with the students’ knowledge a...
Mirfakhraei, M; Z Cheraghi; A Doosti Irani; P Cheraghi; Poorolajal, J
Background: This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism.Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine quest...
Weinberg, Frankie J.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a knowledge-sharing model that explains individual members' motivation to share knowledge (knowledge donation and knowledge collection). Design/methodology/approach: The model is based on social-constructivist theories of epistemological beliefs, learning and distributed cognition, and is organized…
Lumsden, Barry; Reid, Sandra
Discusses a survey of 149 students at 14 colleges about their knowledge, use of, and attitudes about illegal psychoactive drugs. Finds that low percentages of students use drugs, but with 5.5 million students attending community colleges, even small percentages of users translate into large numbers, with attendant implications for student success…
Dissen, Anthony R.; Policastro, Peggy; Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol
Purpose: Little is known about interrelationships among nutrition knowledge, attitude, dietary intake, and body satisfaction, which are important variables that play a role in nutrition education interventions. This paper aims to focus on these interrelationships. Design/methodology/approach: Students (n = 279; 20.12 plus or minus 1.75SD years)…
Perry, David K.
Finds that a sample of adults in Tuscaloosa County, Alabama, found that consumption of news about five countries generally leads to greater knowledge and more favorable attitudes toward those countries. Suggests that the mass media may have an important role in reducing ethnocentrism. (MG)
Liarakou, Georgia; Gavrilakis, Costas; Flouri, Eleni
Investigating knowledge, perceptions as well as attitudes of the public that concern various aspects of environmental issues is of high importance for Environmental Education. An integrated understanding of these parameters can properly support the planning of Environmental Education curriculum and relevant educational materials. In this survey we…
Lin, Wei; Yang, Hsiao-Chi; Hang, Chi-Ming; Pan, Wen-Harn
The purpose of this study is to understand nutrition knowledge, attitude, and behavior in Taiwanese elementary school children, and the relationship of these various components. The results indicated that children's knowledge was fair in nutrition basics, but poor in 'the physiological function of nutrients', 'relationships between diet/nutrients and disease', and 'the daily serving requirement for different food groups'. Children in general valued the importance of nutrition, but they did not concern the health benefit of foods in food selections. Their dietary quality was not satisfactory, and the diet of most children did not meet the recommended serving requirements for milk, vegetable, fruit, and cereals and grains groups. Positive relationships were found among nutrition knowledge, attitude, caring- about-nutrition behavior and dietary quality score. The restraint or disinhibited eating behavior of 4th to 6th graders was not serious, but a large number of children already performed some self-controlling practices to avoid obesity, but not frequently. One fourth of the students skipped meals, especially breakfast, and one quarter of 4th to 6th graders prepared their own breakfast; which may have some impact on children's diet quality. A gap was found between nutrition knowledge, attitude and eating behavior, especially vegetable and fruit consumption, indicating that the attitude toward eating for health was not strong in this age group. Future nutrition education for school children should not only include food serving requirements of food groups, but also apply appropriate theories to improve the motivation for healthy eating. PMID:17723993
Mowen, Diana L.; Roberts, T. Grady; Wingenbach, Gary J.; Harlin, Julie F.
The purpose of this study was to explore agricultural science teachers' knowledge levels and attitudes toward biotechnology topics. The average agricultural science teacher in this study was a 37-year-old male who had taught for 12 years. He had a bachelor's degree and had lived or worked on a farm or ranch. He had not attended…
This study was an investigation of female adolescents' perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs towards science and reading science-related texts. Three surveys were used to collect data from 253 middle school students in Grade 7 and Grade 8 and six interviews were conducted with students. The interviews allowed a deeper analysis of the value students placed on science and on reading science-related texts. The quantitative data were collected through the following surveys: Test of Science Related Attitudes, Motivation for Reading Informational Books in School adapted, and Metacognitive Awareness Reading Strategies Inventory adapted. The purpose of the surveys was to provide a comprehensive picture of students' self-reported perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs towards science and the motivation to engage. Literacy processes and practices make engagement and learning in science possible; however, intrinsic motivation and cognitive strategies are critical influential components that educators cannot overlook. The female adolescents in this study expressed greater competence when involved in learning science through inquiry experimentation integrated with literacy presented in different formats.
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Sobnach, Sanju; Borkum, Megan; Millar, Alastair J W; Hoffman, Ross; Muller, Elmi; McCurdie, Fiona; Kahn, Delawir
The aim of this study was to assess and analyse the attitudes and beliefs of medical students regarding organ donation, procurement, and transplantation. Medical students at the University of Cape Town were prospectively surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. There were 346 study participants; the mean age was 21 (range 18-33) yr, 38% were male and 62% was female. Only 8% of respondents were registered donors; clinical and white students constituted the majority of this group. Of the 315 "non-donors," the main reason for not donating was "I have not really thought about organ donation" (59%). Most students (91%) would accept an artificial organ; and 87% and 52% of students would accept human and animal organs respectively. Muslim students (11%, preligion and belief systems impact on willingness to receive organs. PMID:21457343
Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed at determining the knowledge attitude and nutritional practice of female middle school students in district 4 of Isfahan. Methods: This deh1ive study was performed on 120 female students. The data were collected through a three-part self-reported questionnaire (Demographic factors knowledge BASNEF Model. To investigate the nutritional performance the participants were interviewed to recall their previous 24-hour nutrition for three days. Results: The results indicated that 37.5% of students had poor nutritional knowledge and 90% of the students had a poor nutritional practice. The results of the BASNEF part indicated that mean of belief and evaluation of behavioral outcomes was 74.6 attitude toward the behavior was 64.64 normative belief was 72.8 subjective norms was 58.9 enabling factors was 54.2 and behavioral intention was 68.9. Conclusion: A low percentage of students had good nutritional practices and in majority of cases their nutritional practice does not accord with their nutritional knowledge and attitude. These results indicate the necessity of nutritional intervention in female students.
Marticorena, Drew C. W.; Ruiz, April M.; Mukerji, Cora; Goddu, Anna; Santos, Laurie R.
The capacity to reason about the false beliefs of others is classically considered the benchmark for a fully fledged understanding of the mental lives of others. Although much is known about the developmental origins of our understanding of others' beliefs, we still know much less about the evolutionary origins of this capacity. Here, we examine…
Lawson, Anton E.; Worsnop, William A.
Students in three sections of a high school biology course were taught a unit on evolution and natural selection. Prior to instruction, students were pretested to determine their (a) reflective reasoning skill, (b) strength of religious commitment, (c) prior declarative knowledge of evolution and natural selection, and (d) beliefs in evolution or special creation and related religiously oriented beliefs. Following instruction the measures of declarative knowledge and beliefs were readministered. The study was designed to test (a) the hypothesis that the acquisition of domain-specific concepts and the modification of nonscientific beliefs largely depends upon reflective reasoning skill, not prior declarative knowledge; and (b) the hypothesis that strength of religious commitment and a belief in special creation hinder the acquisition of scientific beliefs. Although instruction produced no overall shift toward a belief in evolution, as predicted, reflective reasoning skill was significantly related to initial scientific beliefs, and reflective reasoning skill, but not prior declarative knowledge, was significantly related to gains in declarative knowledge. Reflective reasoning skill, however, was not significantly related to changes in beliefs. Also as predicted, strength of religious commitment was negatively correlated with initial belief in evolution and with a change in belief toward evolution. Interrelationships among the study's major variables, as well as educational implications, are discussed.
Full Text Available Background: Epilepsy, one of the most common serious chronic brain disorders, is poorly understood by the public and has been associated with numerous misconceptions and beliefs. This, coupled with its sometimes dramatic clinical manifestations, has often resulted in a strong social stigma.Objective: This study was conducted to find out knowledge, attitudes and practices toward epilepsy among preparatory school students in Mekelle, North Ethiopia.Methods: A semi-structured questionnaire used previously by various authors was self-administered to 391 students studying in four preparatory schools in Mekelle, North Ethiopia.Results: About 85.7% had heard about epilepsy, 19.23% had read on the subject, 67.03% had known someone with epilepsy and 57.14% had witnessed a seizure. Those who would offer equal employment opportunities to people with epilepsy (PWE, refuse to associate with, or refuse to marry PWE represented 64%, 16.8%, and 44.8%, respectively. Negative attitudes seemed to be reinforced by beliefs that epilepsy is evil spirit (33.24%, contagious (28.6% or a kind of insanity (51.6%. Majority of respondents (70.33% opted for Holy water, followed by physicians (64.01%, traditional healer (44.78% and prayers (32.14%.Conclusions: The study revealed practices and knowledge toward epilepsy were limited, especially with respect to epilepsy’s cause, manifestation, and management. Moreover, there were statistically significant differences between respondents attitude with respect to epilepsy based on age, gender, level of education, religion and school category.
Braathen, Stine Hellum
Albinism is an inherited, genetic condition. People with albinism exhibit little or no pigment in eyes, skin or hair, and often have problems with vision and sensitive skin. Albinism in Malawi is a qualitative project that has set out to examine attitudes and beliefs related to people living with albinism in Malawi. The aim has been to assess what implications albinism has on the lives of those born with it, and for their closest network of family and friends. Individual, in-depth inter...
Full Text Available Background: Despite advances in medical science and modern technology, epilepsy remains as a stigmatized condition and negative public attitude toward epilepsy is a common phenomenon especially in developing countries such as Iran. It is the major factor causing serious social discrimination against people with epilepsy which in turn may be more devastating than the disorder itself. Thorough understanding of the knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy is essential to modify these negative attitudes. Methods: We conducted a face-to-face questionnaire interview survey in crowd locations of Tehran in August, 2004-April 2005. A total of 1079 persons all more than 15 years old were asked to fill the questionnaire. Results: Eighty eight percent of respondents had heard about epilepsy before, 42.2% of them knew one person with epilepsy. However, out of responses about the causes of epilepsy, 52/4% said it was caused by brain damage, 26.4% said it was an inherited disease,, 14.3% said it was due to fever, 34.8% believed stress as the cause of it and1.1% said evil spirits was the cause. 56.9% considered pregnancy to be appropriate for epileptics. 94% believed children with epilepsy could go to school and have normal education. Conclusion: According to this survey, public knowledge and attitudes about epilepsy in study population is not satisfactory. It is suggested that additional efforts must be made to increase the knowledge of the general population through education programs especially among school children.
To assess the knowledge, attitude regarding family planning and the practice of contraceptives among rural women. One-hundred women between the ages 15-45, living with their husbands and coming from rural area (villages) were interviewed. Women who were pregnant, had a child younger than 2 years, or had any medical disorder were excluded. Their knowledge, attitude and practice on contraceptives were evaluated with the help of a predesigned questionnaire. The other variables used were the age of women, parity and educational status. Descriptive analysis was conducted to obtain percentages. Out of 100 interviewed women with mean age of 29.7 years, 81(81%) had some knowledge about family planning methods. The media provided information of contraceptives in 52 out of 81 (64%) women. Regarding the usage of contraceptive methods, only 53 (53%) of the respondents were using some sort of contraception. Barrier method (condoms) was in practice by 18 (33.9%) and 12 (22.6%) of women had already undergone tubal ligation. The women using injectables and intrauterine contraceptive devices were 10 (18.8%) and 7 (13.2%) respectively. Six were using oral contraceptive pills (11.3%). Positive attitude towards contraception was shown by 76 (76%) of them, while 41(41%) stated their husbands positive attitude towards contraception. In the present study, there was a low contraceptive use among women of rural origin despite good knowledge. Motivation of couples through media and health persn of couples through media and health personnel can help to achieve positive attitude of husbands for effective use of contraceptives. (author)
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Information is the first step in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevention. Ignorance about the disease and how the virus is transmitted can generate fear and prejudice towards those who are infected. AIM: To assess the awareness, attitudes, and beliefs of the general public toward HIV/AIDS in Hyderabad, the capital city of Andhra Pradesh. SETTING AND DESIGN: A cross-sectional study conducted for a period of 2 months in 2004 on 800 individuals living in Hyderabad. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey was conducted with a questionnaire titled ?General Population Behavioral Surveillance Survey.? The survey used a 5-part, 65-item questionnaire eliciting information about the knowledge of HIV (10 items, modes of transmission (20 items, ways of prevention (10 items, society?s attitude toward HIV (15 items, and finally evaluation of Government?s measures (10 items. RESULTS: Approximately 80.63% (645/800 of the study population were sketchily aware of HIV/AIDS, but had incorrect perceptions about the mode of transmission or prevention. Despite the vigorous outreach programmes, which the government and other organizations had carried out in the city, many people had several misconceptions about HIV or about people living with HIV/AIDS. CONCLUSION: As it was observed that awareness was more among the literates, the Government and Health educators should provide tailor-made education programmes for those at the lower education levels.
Malandrakis, Georgios; Chatzakis, Stergios
In this study the environmental attitudes, knowledge, and alternative conceptions of 281 primary school children from 5th and 6th grade, ages 10-12 years were explored. Low knowledge scores, indicate a substantial lack of knowledge on basic environmental issues, while attitude scores were relatively high. Children's environmental attitudes…
Abstract Background Psychological factors are important in influencing breastfeeding practices. This retrospective study explored knowledge and attitudes related to breastfeeding of Chinese mothers living in Ireland. Methods A cross-sectional self-administrated survey written in Chinese was distributed to a convenience sample of 322 immigrant Chinese mothers mainly via Chinese supermarkets and Chinese language schools in Dublin, with the involvement of the snowball method to increase sample size. Maternal breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes were described, their associations with socio-demographic variables were explored by Chi-square analysis, and their independent associations with breastfeeding behaviours were estimated by binary logistic regression analyses. Results In spite of considerable awareness of the advantages of breastfeeding (mean score = 4.03 ± 0.73), some misconceptions (e.g. \\'mother should stop breastfeeding if she catches a cold\\') and negative attitudes (e.g. breastfeeding inconvenient, embarrassing, and adverse to mothers\\' figure) existed, especially among the less educated mothers. Cultural beliefs concerning the traditional Chinese postpartum diet were prevalent, particularly among those who had lived in Ireland for a shorter duration (P = 0.004). Psychological parameters had strong independent associations with breastfeeding practices in this study. Those who had lower awareness score (OR = 2.98, 95% CI: 1.87-4.73), more misconceptions and negative attitudes (P < 0.05), and weaker cultural beliefs (P < 0.05) were less likely to breastfeed. Conclusions Findings highlight a need to focus resources and education on correcting the misconceptions identified and reversing the negative attitudes towards breastfeeding among Chinese mothers in Ireland, in particular those with primary\\/secondary level of education. Mothers\\' cultural beliefs should also be acknowledged and understood by healthcare providers.
Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik
Background: Providing women with information enabling an informed consent to prenatal examinations has been widely recommended. Objective: The primary purpose of this review is to summarise current knowledge of the pregnant woman's expectations and attitudes concerning prenatal examinations, as well as the knowledge possessed by pregnant women undergoing prenatal examinations. Second, we explore their reasons for accepting or declining available screening tests. Results: More than 90 %of the pregnant women expressed a positive attitude toward screening preocedures in pregnancy. Most often (70-96%), the pregnant women were found knowledgeable about the procedural and preactical aspects, but were more seldom (31-81%) able to correctly identify the purpose of tracing fetal malformations. Some 29-65 % were not familiar with the existence of a false negative result, and 30-43 % were found unaware of the possibility of a false negative result. The risk of miscarriage in relation to amniocentesis (AC) is unknown to 11-53%. Uptake rates are associated with attitudes towards prenatal examinations, but not knowledge of the test offered. A total of 88 % concidered their health care provider an important source of information, and 57 % stated that this information has influenced their decision. Conclusions: Pregnant women favor prenatal examinations, but the choice of participation does not seem to be based on insight to enable full informed consent. Health care providers are perceived as an essential source of information.
Ravi Katti Venkappa
Full Text Available Many hospitalizations in India are due to Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR and resulting in morbidity and mortality in majority cases in addition to the huge economic burden. A survey was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and behavior of community pharmacists towards ADR related aspects. One hundred and twenty eight pharmacists from various Community pharmacies in two Districts of South India were consented in this survey. A questionnaire was prepared to investigate the knowledge, attitude and behavior of pharmacists regarding ADR reporting and distributed to the identified pharmacies. The data was collected and analyzed by ANOVA and t- test. Out of 342 community pharmacies approached, 128 (37.4% community pharmacists consented to be part of the survey and the questionnaire given was filled and returned by them. Out of these respondents, only 39 (30.5% pharmacists had knowledge about ADR, 15 (11.7% and 14 (10.9% were aware of National Pharmacovigilance Program (NPP and regional reporting centers respectively. Only 54 (43% agreed that ADR reporting is a professional obligation of pharmacist and none of the respondents reported ADRs. The main reason for not reporting any ADR was ‘they did not know how to report’ and ‘did not feel its beneficial’. This survey revealed that the community pharmacists were having least scores towards knowledge, attitude and behavior on ADRs in Indian Scenario.
As teachers are one of the more important agents for disseminating information, a study was done to gauge the knowledge and attitude concerning Renewable Energy (RE) and Energy Efficiency (EE) amongst teachers in Malaysia. Results from the study have shown that teachers do not have adequate knowledge on the concept of RE. They also viewed education as the best strategy in ensuring the success of RE practices. Although there is an interest to know more about RE, the teachers felt that they were inadequately trained to teach this subject in schools, that there are not enough teachers to teach the subject in the schools and that this topic should be integrated as part of co-curricular activities. CETREE, as a centre for education and training in Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency has already started a curriculum to train teachers on the awareness of Renewable Energy (RE) and Energy Efficiency (EE). Result of this study indicates that more training and campaigns need to be implemented at school levels to promote the awareness on RE and EE. This paper will also discuss knowledge and attitude as important factors to consider in creating awareness on RE for the next generation. Teachers need to acquire the knowledge and positive attitude toward these concepts to become successful change agents. Media preference amongst teachers concerning ways to educate the public on RE will also be highlighted
Full Text Available Background: To determine the knowledge, attitude and preventive practice of women above 45 years old. Methods: A total of 770 households in Kerman (southern Iran were selected for inclusion in the study using cluster sam¬pling from April through August 2005. The interview schedule consisted of 4 parts including questions about knowledge, atti¬tude and practice (KAP and also demographic questions. The average score for KAP was 9.3 out of 21, 2.6 out of 5 and 1.5 out of 6, respectively. Results: Adequate osteoprotective exercise and sufficient calcium intake were found in 3.8% and 5.5% of subjects, respec¬tively. A significant relationship between the score of preventive practice and all the following parameters was found: level of education, hearing about osteoporosis, knowledge score, perceived barrier to preventive actions and perceived serious¬ness of osteoporosis. Conclusion: Considering the Iranian women’s inaccurate or insufficient knowledge and their negative attitude to the preven¬tive actions and their weak practice in case of prevention, it is the responsibility of health policymakers and medi¬cal associations to plan for osteoporosis education and prevention initiatives.
Jimmy Jose; Beena Jimmy; Al Gahliya Mohammed Saif AlSabahi; Ghalya Abdullah Al Sabei
Objective: This study was aimed to assess public knowledge, belief and behavior towards antibiotics use in a general population in the Sultanate of Oman.Methods: A 12-item self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 850 prospective participants by researchers using quota sampling in two governorates of Oman. The data obtained were evaluated to assess the responses to individual questions related to knowledge, belief and behavior of antibiotic use. Median score of the respondents was co...
Full Text Available Suzanne McCarthy School of Pharmacy, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Abstract: Adherence to medication can be problematic for patients, especially so for patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Effective medications are available for the treatment of ADHD; however, nonadherence rates for ADHD medication range from 13.2%–64%. The reasons for nonadherence can be complex. This review aims to look at how the beliefs and attitudes of adolescents and adults impact ADHD treatment adherence. Keywords: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, medication, stimulant, attitude, belief, adherence
?1Shu Hui Ng; Kheng Hooi Chan; Zi Yang Lian; Yee Hooi Chuah; Aishath Noora ?Waseem; Amudha Kadirvelu
Introduction: Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with ?high morbidity and mortality among patients. The data from NHMS III has reported that the ?present prevalence of DM in Malaysia has exceeded the projected prevalence for the year 2025 as ?estimated by the International Diabetes Federation.1 Assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and ?practices (KAP) is a crucial element of DM control.2 However, very few studies have focused on ?this area and t...
Sushma Sriram; Priyanka Soni; Rashmi Thanvi; Nisha Prajapati; Mehariya, K. M.
Background: Present study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers towards infant feeding practices. Materials and methods: The mothers of infants, coming to a tertiary care centre, Ahmedabad, on outpatient basis were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire. Total 150 mothers were interviewed. Results: Out of the total, 18% mothers were illiterate.58.67% mothers have been counselled by doctor about feeding. Regarding breast feeding, 96% knew about exclus...
Gibson, P. G.; Henry, R. L.; Vimpani, G. V.; Halliday, J.
Adolescents with asthma, their peers, and their teachers were studied in order to establish the level of knowledge concerning asthma and its management, their attitudes towards asthma, and the degree quality of life impairment due to asthma. A community survey was conducted among year 8 high school students (n = 4161) and their teachers (n = 1104). There was a good response rate to the questionnaires from students (93%) and teachers (61%). Twenty three per cent of students had asthma and this...
Gibson, P G; Henry, R L; Vimpani, G V; Halliday, J.
Adolescents with asthma, their peers, and their teachers were studied in order to establish the level of knowledge concerning asthma and its management, their attitudes towards asthma, and the degree quality of life impairment due to asthma. A community survey was conducted among year 8 high school students (n = 4161) and their teachers (n = 1104). There was a good response rate to the questionnaires from students (93%) and teachers (61%). Twenty three per cent of students had asthma and this...
Zeynep Baykan; Melis Naçar; Serap Bor Özdemir; Serpil Poyrazo?lu; Fevziye Çetinkaya
Objective: The aim of this study was to establish the knowledge and attitude of family physcians offering primary health care, towards adult vaccination and their own vaccination coverage. Methods: This descriptive study was performed in May 2009 in Kayseri, Turkey. 282 family physician accepted to fill a questionnaire about adult vaccination. Results: Most of the family physcians (83.0%) thought adult vaccination as a modality of protection and 66.7% wanted a vaccination scheme just like the...
Ahmed S. Eldalo; Yousif, Mirghani A.; Abdallah, Mustafa Awad
The current study was aimed to assess Saudi school students’ knowledge, attitude and practice about medicines. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used anonymously among 15–20 year-old adolescents attending tertiary schools in Taif City, KSA. A total of 1022 students completed the questionnaires. Only 15.4% of the respondents knew the medicines’ uses. Most of the students 79.6% affirmed that they used to take medicines after consulting physicians, and 45.1% of the students ...
Ayla Yava; Hatice Çicek; Nuran Tosun; Celale Özcan; Dilek Yildiz; Berna Dizer
Background: Despite the growing awareness on pain management, mild and severe pain is still common among hospitalized patients. Inadequate treatment has been mostly linked to health care workers' failure to assess patients’ pain and to intervene appropriately.Objective: To determine the pain management knowledge and attitudes of the nurses working in training and research hospital in Turkey and their relationship to demographic and educational factors. Methods: Descriptive and cross-section...
Full Text Available Background: Despite the growing awareness on pain management, mild and severe pain is still common among hospitalized patients. Inadequate treatment has been mostly linked to health care workers' failure to assess patients’ pain and to intervene appropriately.Objective: To determine the pain management knowledge and attitudes of the nurses working in training and research hospital in Turkey and their relationship to demographic and educational factors. Methods: Descriptive and cross-sectional study design was used. The Nurses’ Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (NKASRP was used to determine the pain-related knowledge and attitude of the nurses. Results: A total of 246 nurses were included in the study. The percentage working at a surgical unit was 48.8% and 77.2% were staff nurses. Only 11.8% had taken a pain management course and 31.7% had read a book or journal on pain. The rate of correct responses to the NKASRP scale was 39.65% while the mean number of correct answers to all questions was 15.86±7.33 with a range of 0 to 37. A statistically significant difference was found regarding education level, working unit, whether a pain management course had been taken, whether a book or journal on pain had been read, and the evaluation of the nurse's efficacy regarding pain (p<0.05. Conclusion: We found that the nurses did not have adequate knowledge and the positive attitude for pain management although it is a very important part of patient care. We suggest that results be taken into account when the content of graduate and postgraduate training programs is determined and guidelines are prepared.
Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik
Background:Prenatal screening has become an ever increasing part of antenatal care in the western part of the world. Providing women with information enabling an informed consent to prenatal examinations has been widely recommended, with women accepting or declining the screening tests offered in full understanding of pros and contra.Objective and hypothesis:To summarize current knowledge of women's expectations and attitudes concerning prenatal examinations as well as the amount of knowledge possessed by pregnant women undergoing prenatal examinations. Reasons for accepting or declining a screening test offered, as well as the influence of information in the decision-making process is also explored. Methods:The review is based on systematic search strategy in the electronic databases Medline and Science Citation. Additional studies were identified through reference lists of individual papers obtained. Results:Women in general express a positive attitude towards screening procedures in pregnancy. Women are found most knowledgeable about procedural and practical aspects but are not always aware of the purposes or any limitations of the tests offered. Understanding and interpretation of risk estimates is low and possible consequences if the test reveals a problem is seldom considered beforehand. A woman's attitude to prenatal examinations is found decisive for up-take of prenatal tests, with no association between a woman's attitude towards prenatal examinations and her knowledge of those tests. Most women consider their doctor an important source of information, and state that information has influenced their decision. Conclusions: Pregnant women favor prenatal examinations, but participation does not seem to be based on an informed consent.
Westhuizen, Carol N.
This study gauges the impact of the incorporation of a college into a university on the attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of staff members who were not appointed in posts at the receiving institution. It is an account of the anger, fear and bias college lecturers experienced during the process of incorporation. Former college staff acted as both interviewers and interviewees in this innovative research design. The question asked during the free attitude interviews was: `How did the incorpora...
Mary Khakoni Walingo; Lucy Amanya Mutuli
Great efforts have been made to enhance breast-feeding among mothers of infants, yet there is a continued decline in breast-feeding behavior. The Theory of Planned Behavior emphasizes that human behavior is governed by personal attitudes, social pressures and a sense of control. A study was set up to assess the influence of maternal beliefs, attitude, intention and perceived behavior control on breast-feeding behavior of mothers aged between 18-40 years of ...
Gyeong Mi Lee
Full Text Available PurposeThis study was conducted to identify relationships among knowledge and attitudes of unmarried mothers toward emergency contraceptive pills.MethodsData were collected through structured questionnaires from 135 unmarried mothers enrolled in 7 single mothers' facilities nationwide. Data were analyzed using the SPSS/WIN 17.0 program for descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Scheffe-test, and Pearson correlation coefficients.ResultsFor knowledge about emergency contraceptive pills, there were significant differences among who live with her before pregnancy, experience of past pregnancies, state of present pregnancy and preparation in using contraceptives. For attitude toward emergency contraceptive pills, there were significant differences according to age, education level and religion. There were significant positive relationships between knowledge and attitudes toward emergency contraceptive pills.ConclusionThe results of this study suggest that unmarried women should be better informed about emergency contraceptive pills, and reassured about their safety. Efforts are needed to disseminate up-to-date information to experts in sex education including nurses.
Full Text Available This study aimed to explore Iranian primary school students’ attitudes and knowledge about HIV/AIDS. The knowledge and attitudes of 597 primary school students from all areas of Ahwaz were assessed by anonymous questionnaires in November 2007. None of the students answered all the knowledge questions correctly, and results indicated that there were many misconceptions about the routes of transmission. Sneezing and coughing, contaminated food, water or hands were incorrectly identified as routes of transmission. The knowledge increased with age (P<0.001. The sources of pupils’ information primarily included: Television (66.8%, family members (20.2%, friends (10.6% and school teachers (2.4%. Also some pupils believed that there was some treatment (38.3% or an effective vaccine (63.4% for HIV/AIDS. The result of this study revealed that most primary school students in Ahvaz had a lack of proper knowledge about HIV/AIDS. There is a need to promote an AIDS education in Ahvaz and also all Iranian schools, to improve socio-cultural factors in next years.
The paper presented by the author at the first IAEA Knowledge Management Conference (2004, Saclay, France) was dedicated to the main achievements of the Soviet Union and Russia in generation and systematization of nuclear knowledge and in providing human resources for their application. Nevertheless, some well-known nuclear professionals consider the breach of the normal knowledge transfer process, which occurred when nuclear power plants have been transferred from the half-military nuclear complex with its high level of discipline to the civil 'boiler power industry' (quite unprepared for that), as one of the relevant causes of the Chernobyl accident. The crises of 1980-90ies (Chernobyl accident, changed political system, collapse of the USSR) have stopped the development of nuclear power industry and gave a severe blow to the nuclear knowledge management system. In present conditions, which can be surely described in the terms of 'nuclear renaissance', it seems important to trace, how the preserved and developing knowledge management system is influenced by the attitude towards nuclear energy in the country and in its 'components' (governmental authorities, energy community, public), as well as to follow up the role of nuclear professionals in forming the above attitude
Kalemoglu Varol, Yaprak
The aim of research is to investigate the relationship between attitudes of prospective physical education teacher towards education technologies and their computer self-efficacy beliefs. Relational research method has been used in the study. Study group consists of 337 prospective physical education teachers ("M"[subscript age] = 21.57…
Odu, Bimbola Kemi; Akanle, Florence Foluso
This study investigated beliefs about HIV/AIDS to find out whether this variable could constitute an obstacle to change in attitudes to sex among undergraduate youths in South West Nigeria. A descriptive research design was adopted. A total of 1,420 undergraduate students in four different universities from four states were sampled. A…
Wielkiewicz, Richard M.; Fischer, Donald V.; Stelzner, Stephen P.; Overland, Maribeth; Sinner, Alyssa M.
Incoming first-year college students (N = 4,292) were surveyed regarding attitudes and beliefs about leadership. Students' opinions about their leadership ability were high and were related to having an outgoing personality, as well as the number of high school activities in which they had been involved. In addition, students' understanding of…
Current kindergarten parents' attitudes toward and beliefs about children's art education in majority cities and counties of Taiwan were investigated. A review of the literature was conducted to identify several possible influences on parents' interpretation/ assessment of children's art education. Then, the researcher developed and distributed a…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer for both sexes in developed countries. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices regarding CRC of adults in Italy. Methods A random sample of 1165 adults received a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics; knowledge regarding definition, risk factors, and screening; attitudes regarding perceived risk of contracting CRC and utility of screening tests; health-related behaviors and health care use; source of information. Results Only 18.5% knew the two main modifiable risk factors (low physical activity, high caloric intake from fat and this knowledge was significantly associated with higher educational level, performing physical activity, modification of dietary habits and physical activity for fear of contracting CRC, and lower risk perception of contracting CRC. Half of respondents identified fecal occult blood testing (FOBT as main test for CRC prevention and were more knowledgeable those unmarried, more educated, who knew the main risk factors of CRC, and have received advice by physician of performing FOBT. Personal opinion that screening is useful for CRC prevention was high with a mean score of 8.3 and it was predicted by respondents' lower education, beliefs that CRC can be prevented, higher personal perceived risk of contracting CRC, and information received by physician about CRC. An appropriate behavior of performing FOBT if eligible or not performing if not eligible was significantly higher in female, younger, more educated, in those who have been recommended by physician for undergo or not undergo FOBT, and who have not personal history of precancerous lesions and familial history of precancerous lesions or CRC. Conclusion Linkages between health care and educational systems are needed to improve the levels of knowledge and to raise CRC screening adherence.
Cady, Jo Ann; Rearden, Kristin
This study examines the beliefs of K-8 preservice teachers during a content methods course. The goals of this course included exposing the preservice teachers to student-centered instructional methods for math and science and encouraging the development of lessons that would integrate mathematics and science. Prior research suggested that one must…
Lina Handayani; Azlina Mohd Kosnin; Yeo Kee Jiar
Knowledge and attitude are important factors for successful breastfeeding practice. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of knowledge and attitude on breastfeeding among Indonesian mothers who joined mother support group (MSG) program. This was a community based cross-sectional study. There were 221 mothers participated on this study. Multiple regression was used to asses the influence of knowledge and attitude on breastfeeding. Result of the study showed that knowledge an...
The study summarizes information obtained from interviews conducted by telephone from ORC's WATS facility in Princeton, New Jersey. The information on the extent on which American consumers are conserving energy and their awareness of the attitudes towards conserving energy in their daily lives will aid the FEA to help plan and evaluate its energy conservation policies and programs. Survey questions dealt with subjects in 7 chapters: Private Individual's Willingness to Make Energy-Saving Efforts and their Perception of the Likelihood of Others Doing the Same; Public Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Relating to Natural Gas Issues; Driving and Energy Conservation; Energy Saving Behavior Around the Home; Parents' Perceptions of their Children's Sources of Energy Information and Energy-Related Activities; Understanding of the Energy Situation and Evaluations of Alternative Actions. (MCW)
The purpose of the paper is to discuss the recent data analysis of a mail-in survey which investigated the attitudes of people having some knowledge of the nuclear industry. The survey contained 74 items which solicited 4 major types of information. Thirty-seven items investigated respondents' perception of risk concerning spent fuel transportation, 12 examined respondents' confidence in certain governing agencies' abilities of managing the safe transportation of spent fuel, 19 examined respondents' attitudes toward certain special precautionary actions for spent fuel transport, and 6 requested demographic data. The 637 people who responded to the survey were divided into 5 mutually exclusive groups for analysis. These included: safety professionals, government employees, employees of the nuclear industry, employees of environmental organizations, and Native Americans. The safety, government, and Native American groups were divided into subgroups for further analysis. Overall and group responses concerned with special precautionary actions for the transportation of spent fuel were examined. Native American, safety, and government subgroup responses to items which examined respondents' perceived risks, confidence in certain governing agencies, and attitudes concerning special precautionary actions for the transportation of spent fuel were also investigated. Additionally, risk perceptions of spent fuel transport was compared between people residing no more than 5 miles ween people residing no more than 5 miles from an interstate highway to those living no less than 16 miles from an interstate highway. The results of the analysis are divided into 4 sections: A. Sample Identification; B. Overall and Group Attitudes to Certain Special Precautionary Actions For Transporting Spent Fuel; C. Subgroup Attitudes toward the Transportation of Spent Fuel; D. Risk Perceptions of People Living No More than 5 Miles vs. People Living No Less than 16 Miles from and Interstate Highway. Generally conclusions are also provided
Full Text Available Introduction. Nurses represent an important link in mediating between the potential donors and their relatives’ consent to organ and tissue transplantation. The message of the Health Department to potential donors about the importance of organ donation was supported by the Serbian Orthodox Church, the army and other institutions through media campaigns. Nurses could contribute to this action by their personal example. Objective. The aim of this study was identification and bivariate analysis of nurse attitude about organ donation, their knowledge about the importance of transplantation as treatment methods, as well as the connection between work experience and education level with the formation of attitudes and new skills. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 291 nurses from the Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, filled in the questionnaire on the effect of correlation between the length of the service and level of education on knowledge and attitudes toward organ transplantation and organ donation. Results. Out of 291 respondents, 67.4% have completed the nursing school and 32.6% have higher education. The majority (63.9% of respondents knew that the EEG was the most valid method for determining brain death. The question regarding the possibility of buying organs was answered correctly by 68.7% of respondents. A large majority (91% would accept organ transplant, if needed, but only 32.0% would be organ donors, and only 0.3% owned a donor card. In contrast, one third of nurses were already blood donors. Conclusion. In case of necessary transplantation, nurses would accept someone else’s organ, though they do not possess donor cards, but just few would donate their organs. It is possible that prejudice arises from ignorance and distrust in the health policy of the Republic of Serbia. However, besides negative attitude, nurses have expressed interest in learning and professional development in the area of transplantation.
Kilpatrick, Nikki; Frumkin, Howard; Trowbridge, Jane; Escoffery, Cam; Geller, Robert; Rubin, Leslie; Teague, Gerald; Nodvin, Janice
We conducted a mail survey of practicing pediatricians in Georgia to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding recording patients' environmental histories. Of 477 eligible pediatricians, 266 (55.8%) responded. Fewer than one in five reported having received training in environmental history-taking. Pediatricians reported that they strongly believe in the importance of environmental exposures in children's health, and 53.5% of respondents reported experience with a patient who...
Michael G. Prucha
Full Text Available Tobacco use is increasing globally, particularly in low and middle-income countries like the Dominican Republic (DR where data have been lacking. Health care worker (HCW interventions improve quit rates; asking patients about tobacco use at each visit is an evidence-based first step. This study provides the first quantitative examination of knowledge, attitudes and practices of DR HCWs regarding tobacco use. All HCWs (N = 153 in 7 economically disadvantaged DR communities were targeted with anonymous surveys. Approximately 70% (N = 107 completed the primary outcome item, asking about tobacco use at each encounter. Despite >85% strongly agreeing that they should ask about tobacco use at each encounter, only 48.6% reported doing so. While most (94.39% strongly agreed that smoking is harmful, knowledge of specific health consequences varied from 98.13% for lung cancer to 41.12% for otitis media. Few received training in tobacco intervention (38.32%. Exploratory analyses revealed that always asking even if patients are healthy, strongly agreeing that tobacco causes cardiac disease, and always advising smoke-free homes were associated with always asking. Overall, results demonstrate a disconnect between HCW belief and practice. Though most agreed that always asking about tobacco was important, fewer than half did so. Gaps in HCW knowledge and practices suggest a need for education and policy/infrastructure support. To our knowledge, this is the first reported survey of DR HCWs regarding tobacco, and provides a foundation for future tobacco control in the DR.
Prucha, Michael G.; Fisher, Susan G.; McIntosh, Scott; Grable, John C.; Holderness, Heather; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Quiñones de Monegro, Zahíra; Sánchez, José Javier; Bautista, Arisleyda; Díaz, Sergio; Ossip, Deborah J.
Tobacco use is increasing globally, particularly in low and middle-income countries like the Dominican Republic (DR) where data have been lacking. Health care worker (HCW) interventions improve quit rates; asking patients about tobacco use at each visit is an evidence-based first step. This study provides the first quantitative examination of knowledge, attitudes and practices of DR HCWs regarding tobacco use. All HCWs (N = 153) in 7 economically disadvantaged DR communities were targeted with anonymous surveys. Approximately 70% (N = 107) completed the primary outcome item, asking about tobacco use at each encounter. Despite >85% strongly agreeing that they should ask about tobacco use at each encounter, only 48.6% reported doing so. While most (94.39%) strongly agreed that smoking is harmful, knowledge of specific health consequences varied from 98.13% for lung cancer to 41.12% for otitis media. Few received training in tobacco intervention (38.32%). Exploratory analyses revealed that always asking even if patients are healthy, strongly agreeing that tobacco causes cardiac disease, and always advising smoke-free homes were associated with always asking. Overall, results demonstrate a disconnect between HCW belief and practice. Though most agreed that always asking about tobacco was important, fewer than half did so. Gaps in HCW knowledge and practices suggest a need for education and policy/infrastructure support. To our knowledge, this is the first reported survey of DR HCWs regarding tobacco, and provides a foundation for future tobacco control in the DR. PMID:25872018
Prucha, Michael G; Fisher, Susan G; McIntosh, Scott; Grable, John C; Holderness, Heather; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; de Monegro, Zahíra Quiñones; Sánchez, José Javier; Bautista, Arisleyda; Díaz, Sergio; Ossip, Deborah J
Tobacco use is increasing globally, particularly in low and middle-income countries like the Dominican Republic (DR) where data have been lacking. Health care worker (HCW) interventions improve quit rates; asking patients about tobacco use at each visit is an evidence-based first step. This study provides the first quantitative examination of knowledge, attitudes and practices of DR HCWs regarding tobacco use. All HCWs (N = 153) in 7 economically disadvantaged DR communities were targeted with anonymous surveys. Approximately 70% (N = 107) completed the primary outcome item, asking about tobacco use at each encounter. Despite >85% strongly agreeing that they should ask about tobacco use at each encounter, only 48.6% reported doing so. While most (94.39%) strongly agreed that smoking is harmful, knowledge of specific health consequences varied from 98.13% for lung cancer to 41.12% for otitis media. Few received training in tobacco intervention (38.32%). Exploratory analyses revealed that always asking even if patients are healthy, strongly agreeing that tobacco causes cardiac disease, and always advising smoke-free homes were associated with always asking. Overall, results demonstrate a disconnect between HCW belief and practice. Though most agreed that always asking about tobacco was important, fewer than half did so. Gaps in HCW knowledge and practices suggest a need for education and policy/infrastructure support. To our knowledge, this is the first reported survey of DR HCWs regarding tobacco, and provides a foundation for future tobacco control in the DR. PMID:25872018
Butler, Stephen M; Parry, Rachael; Fearon, R M Pasco
Investigating the impact of "off-line" cognitive structures on the broad range of antisocial behaviors shown by young people has been hampered by the absence of psychometrically robust measures of antisocial cognitions. This study evaluates the psychometric properties of the Antisocial Beliefs and Attitudes Scale (ABAS), a developmentally sensitive measure of young people's beliefs and attitudes toward social standards of acceptable behavior at home and at school. The reliability and validity of the ABAS was assessed in a sample of British school children (N = 486) aged 9-16 years (M = 12.79, SD = 1.90) and male young offenders (N = 84) aged 13-17 years (M = 15.15, SD = 0.27). Participants completed the ABAS, together with a self-report measure of antisocial behavior; maternal reports of antisocial activity were also collected in the offending sample. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the 2-factor structure of Rule Noncompliance and Peer Conflict previously derived from a sample of Canadian school children, and these factors showed good test-retest reliability. Rule Noncompliance predicted self-reported antisocial behavior for ages 11-16 years, while Peer Conflict predicted antisocial behavior for ages 9-16 years. Comparisons between young offenders and an age-matched subsample of males from the school group showed significant differences. In young offenders, Rule Noncompliance and Peer Conflict were significantly predictive of self-reported antisocial behavior, while Rule Noncompliance independently predicted mothers' ratings of their sons' antisocial behavior. These findings provide support for the ABAS as a psychometrically sound measure of antisocial thinking. PMID:25383585
Full Text Available Background: Present study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers towards infant feeding practices. Materials and methods: The mothers of infants, coming to a tertiary care centre, Ahmedabad, on outpatient basis were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire. Total 150 mothers were interviewed. Results: Out of the total, 18% mothers were illiterate.58.67% mothers have been counselled by doctor about feeding. Regarding breast feeding, 96% knew about exclusive breast feeding up to 6months. 90.67% think that colostrum is good for baby.34.67% mothers have given pre-lacteal feeds, tea and jaggery was most common.84.67% mothers knew that they should take extra food during lactation. Father (36% most commonly help in feeding while 31.33% don?t get any domestic help.78.67% women consult doctor for feeding problems. Most common reason of stopping breast feeding was inadequate milk secretion(54.67%.18% think that feeding should be stopped during illness. 75.33% women were completely satisfied with their feeding practices. Conclusion-Mothers had good knowledge about infant feeding practices. Inspite of good knowledge there are lacunae in the practices of mothers due to social and economic reasons. Level of education has positive impact on infant feeding practices. Counselling by doctors had a better impact on the attitude and practices of mothers. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(2.000: 147-150
Full Text Available Background: Millions of workers are occupationally exposed to dyes in the world, but little is known about their knowledge and attitudes toward the effects of dye on their health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the fabric dyers? and fabric printers? knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the health hazard of dyes. Materials and Methods: The present study was taken up in the Madurai district which is situated in the Southern Tamil Nadu, India. One hundred and forty-two workers employed in small-scale dyeing and printing units participated in a face-to-face confidential interview . Results: The mean age of fabric dyers and fabric printers was 42 years (?10.7. When enquired about whether dyes affect body organ(s, all the workers agreed that dye(s will affect skin, but they were not aware that dyes could affect other parts of the body. All the workers believed that safe methods of handling of dyes and disposal of contaminated packaging used for dyes need to be considered. It was found that 34% of the workers were using personal protective equipment (PPE such as rubber hand gloves during work. Conclusion: The workers had knowledge regarding the occupational hazards, and their attitudinal approach toward the betterment of the work environment is positive.
Yates, Gregory C. R.; Chandler, Margaret
Is belief in the paranormal alive and well within preservice teachers? In this survey 232 undergraduates (including 202 preservice primary teachers) were asked to react to a series of eight statements reflecting paranormal New Age beliefs rated earlier by a faculty panel as “totally unbelievable.” Overall, the students' modal response was expressed as “no particular opinion,” although for five of the eight items the modal respónse was “slightly believable.” It was found that only four students within the sample consistently rejected all eight statements. The frequency of ‘believers’ outnumbered the ‘skeptics’ in relation to three items (beliefs in UFOs, psychic seances, and Nostradamus). New Age factor scores were not significantly related to undergraduate faculty or year level, to holding anti-scientific beliefs or to a measure of TV-viewing, and did not correlate significantly with the personality scale Need for Cognition. Females evidenced higher New Age scores than males, but attitudes to science were unrelated to gender.
Rahma Al Kindi
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and attitude of Sultan Qaboos University students towards premarital screening program.Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted at the students’ clinic from January to April 2011. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 590 unmarried Omani students of both genders. The questionnaire consisted of 3 main parts; the first part was based on socio-demographic data, the second part dealt with the students’ knowledge about the premarital screening program while the third part explored their attitudes towards the screening program.Results: Most of the participants (n=469; 79% were aware about the availability of premarital screening program in Oman. The main sources of information were: school/college (n=212; 36%, media (n=209; 35%, family and friends (n=197; 33%, and/or health services (n=181, 31%. The vast majority of the participants (n=540; 92% thought it is important to carry out premarital screening and agreed to do it. Around half of the participants (n=313; 53% favored having premarital screening as an obligatory procedure before marriage and about one third (n=212; 36% favored making laws and regulation to prevent marriage in case of positive results.Conclusion: Even though the majority of the participants thought it is important to carry out premarital screening; only half favored making it obligatory before marriage and one third favored making laws and regulations to prevent marriage in case of positive results. This reflects the importance of health education as a keystone in improving knowledge and attitude towards premarital screening program.
The nutritional care of patients is one of the primary responsibilities of all registered nurses (Persenius et al, 2008). A poor nutritional status can lead to malnutrition, which can have serious consequences for an individual\\'s quality of life (Field and Smith, 2008). This paper commences with an introduction to the concept of nutrition, provides an overview of nutritional guidelines and nutritional screening tools which identify those at risk of malnutrition. It reviews the literature on nurses\\' knowledge, attitudes and practices in the provision of nutritional care and debates challenges and opportunities encountered to help nurses ensure adequate patient nutrition.
The Young People for the Nuclear Energetics (FINE) was established in 1999 as the Hungarian branch of the Young Generation Network. Our purpose is to remove the misbelieves and fears arisen around the nuclear techniques and mainly the nuclear energetics and to reply the questions brought up by the Hungarian youth in this topic. In this year our main activity was to take part in the Student Island festival with a Nuclear-tent. In this paper our experience is delineated what we drawn with the help of our programmes about the attitude and the knowledge of the youth. (authors)
Ferdinand S. Piñgul
Full Text Available This study examines the impact of Project Citizen Philippines, an extra-classroom civic education program, on its 3rd and 4th year high school participants’ civic attitude and efficacy beliefs. Three hundred forty three participants and 107 non-participants from various public high schools in the Philippines’ National Capital Region were compared on their scores on relevant scales, using the Mann-Whitney U test. Qualitative data was also gathered and analyzed using randomly selected student reflection papers. Findings indicate that project participants scored higher in the efficacy and attitude measures used than non-participants. Passages from the reflection papers lend support to these findings. The results are discussed in relation to other findings in the literature, and in light of the country’s current and planned school-based civic education programs. An implication of the study is the need to promote extra-classroom activities to supplement curriculum-based civic education efforts and to reach as wide a student population as possible, and to systematically evaluate and document such efforts towards providing data in furthering civic education in the Philippines.
Full Text Available Background: Studying nursing students' opinions could be a useful guide for the formation of their professionalrole as well as their education and training.Aim: The present study's aim is to examine nurse students' opinion, beliefs and attitude regarding the conceptsof health, health care, health education, health ethics, illness, safety in health care and quality in health care, inan educational environment which promotes cooperative activities in class.Methodology: Seventy four nurse students of the University of Peloponnese participated in the present studyduring the winter semester of 2008-2009. They were asked to describe shortly the meaning of the study concepts,writing down their opinion on a questionnaire that included six questions. Their answers were evaluated usingthe method of content analysis and sorted to exhaustive and mutually exclusive categories.Results: Nursing Students were asked to describe the meaning of the concept of health, health care, healtheducation, health ethics, illness, safety in health care and quality in health care. The result of the students'opinion reveals the way they conceive their professional role, their education and their attitude in real workingconditions and, therefore, the quality of the services they provide and how well prepared they are to demand andto put in a claim for the quality in health care.Conclusions: Further empirical research could aim to replicate or contradict these findings, using a larger sampleand recruiting more university departments.
Full Text Available Objective: This study was aimed to assess public knowledge, belief and behavior towards antibiotics use in a general population in the Sultanate of Oman.Methods: A 12-item self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 850 prospective participants by researchers using quota sampling in two governorates of Oman. The data obtained were evaluated to assess the responses to individual questions related to knowledge, belief and behavior of antibiotic use. Median score of the respondents was correlated with participant demographics and status on use of antibiotics.Results: A total of 718 completed questionnaires were obtained giving a response rate of 85%. The median total score of the participants was 16 (Interquartile range: 6 out of a possible maximum score of 24. A moderate knowledge and behavior score was observed, while the belief score of the participants was low. A significant difference was observed in the median total score based on age group, educational qualification and employment status.Conclusion: Antibiotics are frequently used by the public. An inappropriate belief on antibiotic related aspects was observed and inappropriate behavior was noticed, which are reflections of insufficient knowledge and wrong beliefs. Interventions must be put in place to educate the public on appropriate antibiotic use.
Alp, Elvan; Ertepinar, Hamide; Tekkaya, Ceren; Yilmaz, Ayhan
The aim of this study was three-fold: (1) to determine 6th, 8th and 10th grade students' environmental knowledge and attitudes in Turkey; (2) to investigate the effect of the grade level and gender on students' environmental knowledge and attitudes; (3) to explore how environmentally responsible behaviour is related to environmental knowledge,…
Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study is to explore tobacco control-related education of health profession students and demonstrate variations according to course of study. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey of 154 of third year nursing, pharmacy, medical and dental students in a tertiary institution in Lagos, Nigeria. The validated Global Health Professional Students survey questionnaire was used to collect data on recall of tobacco-related training, attitudes to tobacco control and beliefs about the role of health professionals in tobacco control. This was voluntary and anonymous. Descriptive and univariate analysis were conducted. Results: Only 11.8(n=18 of all respondents recalled being trained on all possible items of formal tobacco-related training. Pharmacy students had significantly low levels of training recall (?[sup]2[/sup][sub](3[/sub]=9.88; p=0.02. Nursing students were reported to have the most positive attitudes to tobacco control with the highest mean score of 4.27 (95= 3.88-4.66. However, there was no significant difference in attitudes to tobacco control. Compared to other students, Nursing students were significantly less likely to believe that as health professionals they had a role in tobacco-control (?[sup]2[/sup][sub](3[/sub] = 8.06; p=0.045. Conclusions: Many respondents believed they have a role in providing cessation interventions and that specific training should be part of the education they receive. However, fewer respondents report receiving such training. The education and training of these samples of health profession students needs to place more emphasis on their role in tobacco control if they are to effectively function as health promoting health professionals in preventing tobacco-related diseases.
Full Text Available In almost every country, the organ supply for transplantation does not match the increasing demand; health professionals may play an important role in eliminating barriers and increasing organ donation. Therefore, assessing medical students’ knowledge and attitudes regarding organ donation is important for the future organ supply. Some 409 of 508 first- and second-year medical students answered an anonymous, multiple-choice questionnaire about demographic variables, knowledge about transplant issues, and willingness to donate organs. The mean age was 20.3±1.8 years (range: 17 to 29 years; 50.1% were male, 49.9% were female. Some 44.8% of the total respondents reported that they had sufficient knowledge about organ donation, and 40.1% reported knowledge about organ transplantation. The primary source of their knowledge was reported as the media (72.1%. Willingness to donate their own organs was 58.4% and willingness as to their relatives’ organs was 39.9%. The acceptance of live organ donation was higher (74.6% than cadaver donation. Only 1.2% had a organ donation card. Female students were more willing to donate their own and their relatives’ organs. Since medical students are prospective leaders of promoting organ donation action, these issues should be taught within the context of social medicine lessons, and desirable behavioral changes should be implemented.
Sonam Zangmu Sherpa; Melita Sheilini; Asha Nayak
Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude, practice and preferences on contraceptive methods among the female population, to determine the association between knowledge and attitude on contraceptive methods with the variables.Materials and methods: A Descriptive survey of 136 females between 18- 45 year of age were done using a structured knowledge questionnaire, structured attitude scale and opinionnaire on practice and preference during the month of January 2012 to February 2012 at Mood...
Hillman, J L; Stricker, G
A critical review of the literature regarding individuals' knowledge and their attitudes toward elderly sexuality is presented. A generally positive relationship was discovered between various age cohorts' depth of knowledge and their permissiveness of attitudes. However, some health care providers demonstrated a negative relationship between their knowledge and attitudes. In future studies, the use of a moderator methodology, rather than seeking a uniform relationship, appears essential in order to understand discrepant findings. PMID:8005500
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze smoking related beliefs, attitudes and knowledge on anti-smoking legislation among some cafe workers, business owners and customers about smoking ban in their worklaces in province of Trabzon. Agreed to participate in the study to 87 business owner, 140 office employees and 465 customers in total, including 692 people face to face with the survey technique was applied. The 75.3% of those who participated in the study of law is thought necessary. The number of those who believe in the necessity of law is increasing with education level (p<0.0005. Smoking ban was found more necessary by non-smokers than who current smokers and have quit smoking (p<0.0005. There is a no difference between the man and woman about the necessity of law (p=0.403. The 35.6 % of business owners , 53.5 % of customers, 41.4 % of the office staff is considering the law be applied (p=0.021. The 33.9% of current smokers, 62% non-smoking, 54.3% of those who have quit smoking is considering that ban can be applied. There was statistically significant difference among groups(p<0.0005. The number of those who believe in belief that the ban can be applied is increasing with education level (p=0.015. There is a no difference between the man and woman on belief about the ban can be applied (p=0.339. The adoption of the law in our country in terms of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and social measures have been taken an important step in the way of implementation. The our research that was made immediately preceding the entering into application of the law, was very positive support on law compliance. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 275-280
Full Text Available Introduction: Intensive care unit ICU syndrome is a disorder, in which patients in an ICU or a similar setting experience anxiety, hallucination and become paranoid, severely disoriented in time and place, very agitated, or even violent, etc. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of nurses with regards to prevention of ICU syndrome (Delirium. Methods: Subjects of this research were 56 nurses with including criteria of registration in nursing, university degree and at least one month experience of working in open heart surgery ICUs. The data was gathered from 3 clusters in university hospitals equipped with open heart surgery ICUs in Tehran. All subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire. Moreover all subjects were observed in all shifts. During observation, two researchers observed each subject simultaneously to achieve higher accuracy of observations. Descriptive and analytic statistics were applied to analysis the data. Results: The finding of the study showed that more than 53% of the subjects had passed a continuing education course, but less than 46% of them never passed a training course on ICU. According to this research, subjects, work experience in ICUs had significant relation on their knowledge with regard to prevention of ICU psychosis. However, it has not significant relation to their attitude and skill. Conclusion: According to the results of the study, subjects have little chance to be familiar with the concepts and elements of ICU syndrome in their university program. The finding also indicated that many subjects in this study were not familiar with the important concepts such as sleep deprivation, sensory overload and sensory deprivation, etc. Ongoing progression in high-tech ICUs brings about continuing nursing education programs for all nurses. The results also showed that stress factor in ICU, such as high mortality, isolation, high workload etc. Gradually influences nurses,attitude in ICU. So, it is strongly recommended to consider rotation of nurses in order not to impose high stress to ICU nurses.
Shah Alam Khan
Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to investigate the knowledge and attitudes among pharmacists in Oman towards the specific use and knowledge of herbal drugs. Methods: The study was conducted on 100 pharmacists employed in Oman. The data was collected using two self- administered questionnaire containing 7 and 11 closed ended questions in each, respectively. Results: The mean age of pharmacists was 32.6 (SD=5.6 years. The majority of pharmacists were interested in herbal information and their herbal information mainly comes from their previous classes during college. Most of them have belief on the effectiveness of herbal products. Pharmacists were more knowledgeable on specific therapeutic indications of herbal products rather than on other areas such as drug- herb interaction or side effects. Conclusion: In summary, Pharmacists need to be informed on the therapeutic indications, drug interactions, dose, active constituent and precautions of herbal products. Concerned bodies must also provide them with regular continuing education programs apart from putting their effects to incorporate relevant topics in herbal medicine in pharmacy curriculum.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although dietary supplements (DS are widely sold in pharmacies, the legal, ethical, and practice responsibilities of pharmacists with respect to these products have not been well defined. This systematic review of pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviours toward DS is intended to inform pharmacy regulators' and educators' decision making around this topic. Methods Eligible studies were identified through a systematic database search for all available years through to March 2006. Articles were analyzed for this review if they included survey data on U.S. or Canadian pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, or professional practice behaviors toward DS published in 1990 or later. Results Due to the heterogeneity of the data, it was not possible to draw a conclusion with respect to pharmacists' general attitudes toward DS. Approximately equal numbers of pharmacists report positive as well as negative attitudes about the safety and efficacy of DS. There is strong agreement among pharmacists for the need to have additional training on DS, increased regulation of DS, and quality information on DS. In addition, survey data indicate that pharmacists do not perceive their knowledge of DS to be adequate and that pharmacists do not routinely document, monitor, or inquire about patients' use of DS. Despite this, a large proportion of pharmacists reported receiving questions about DS from patients and other health care practitioners. Conclusion Further research is needed to explore the factors that influence pharmacists' beliefs and attitudes about DS, to accurately evaluate pharmacists' knowledge of DS, and to uncover the reasons why pharmacists do not routinely document, monitor, or inquire about patients' use of DS.
Full Text Available Currently, the syndromic management of HIV/AIDS is based on a biomedical model that focuses on the ABC (Abstain, Be faithful, Condomise model. The ABC model overlooks the issue of indigenous cultural practices, sexual behaviours, knowledge and attitudes of the society. A grounded theory study was used for the research. The population for the research on which this article is reporting, was selected from the Vhavenda ethnic group using purposive sampling. In-depth interviews were held at the participants’ own homes. The outcome of the study on which this article is reporting, may assist in identifying indigenous health beliefs, attitudes and practices that will assist in curbing the spread of HIV/AIDS. The findings revealed that cultural practices, such as premarital counselling, polygamy and widow inheritance, are believed to be influential in making women more susceptible to sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. The practice of abstinence, as emphasised at initiation schools, should be incorporated into current policies and preventative practices. The findings further demonstrate that policy-makers who formulated the HIV/AIDS strategy have limited knowledge of the health beliefs, attitudes and practices of the people they serve. They thus find it difficult to draw up promotion and prevention strategies that meet the needs of the community. It is therefore imperative that our health-care training curriculum be reviewed to make provision for the incorporation of sound and effective indigenous practices to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS and to eliminate or refine practices that are harmful and detrimental to people’s health. The cultural practices that were proved reliable and effective will be recommended for integration into health education.
Full Text Available Organic farming is gaining popularity all over the world as it can diversify agricultural production system toward attaining improved productivity, farm income as well as food safety. The rise of organic farming was driven partly by consumers' concern with food quality and safety, as well as the protection of the environment. Organic Farming produces safe and nutritious food as it helps prevent soil pollution by stopping risky chemical reactions in the soil and avoiding produce contamination, as well as soil erosion, by wind and rain. One of the important parties that can enable the country to produce more organic products through organic farming is the growers or farmers. The final decision of farmers to use a new practice like organic farming system is usually the result of their knowledge of the practices as well as their perception. Therefore, the main purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate the knowledge, perception or attitude, and practices of vegetable growers towards organic farming. A survey method through face-to-face interview by using structured questionnaire was used to collect data from a total of 31 vegetable growers in Kundasang, Sabah which was selected by using simple random sampling method. The findings of the study show that the knowledge of the respondents on organic farming especially pertaining to the use of chemical insecticides, herbicides and fertilizers is still need to be improved, their attitude is also still negative, and they are still dependent on conventional practices (i.e. chemical especially to control pests and diseases.
...Request; Survey of Public Perceptions and Attitudes About Hawaiian Monk Seals AGENCY: National...better understanding of public knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors regarding...of commercial water sports tours, and hotel managers operating in areas of high...
Klausen, SØren Harnow
While arguing that many cognitive states do indeed have a characteristic phenomenology, I find reasons for exempting beliefs from the program of cognitive phenomenology. Examining the complex relationship between beliefs and various kinds of conscious experience shows that belief is a messy concept and that we ought to take a relaxed and pluralist view on the ontology of belief.
Yatan Pal Singh Balhara; Tarun Yadav
Help seeking pathway of individuals suffering from mental disorders is affected by their beliefs and attitudes towards various sociocultural and environmental factors relevant to these disorders. The current study aimed at exploration of correlation between attitudes and beliefs of patients seeking help from psychiatry out-patient department and their care givers for role of magico-religious and supernatural influences in mental disorders. The study was carried out at the out-patient psychiat...
Morrison, Kelly; Banas, John; Burke, Michael
This research examines the salient attitudes and beliefs that college students hold about cigarette smoking. An exploratory survey was employed that contained a combination of semantic differential items and open-ended questions. The data indicated that smoking status (i.e., whether a student is a nonsmoker, smoker, or ex-smoker) was related to attitudes about the attractiveness, riskiness, and intelligence of cigarette smoking. Additionally, salient beliefs about smoking include that nonsmokers report never smoking due to health reasons, smokers and ex-smokers both report peer pressure as the primary reason for starting to smoke, and the main reason smokers continue to smoke is because they are addicted. The best thing reported about smoking was that it relieves stress, and the worst thing reported about smoking was the smell. Several suggestions are made for future interventions targeted toward college students. PMID:15255159
Foreman-Sinclair, Kimberly Ann
The purpose of this mixed research study was to investigate early assessment and identification for dyslexia in kindergarten through second grade, and to examine whether teachers' knowledge and beliefs lead to the practice of retaining students in grade rather than recommending formal dyslexia assessment. This study investigated both…
Löfström, Erika; Pursiainen, Tuomas
This study focuses on mathematics student teachers' epistemological beliefs in mathematics and education. The study aimed at gaining insight into the challenges that students experience in the consolidation of knowledge in the two disciplines. The case study with three mathematics pre-service teachers utilised mathematical and pedagogical…
Kerath Samantha M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Biobanks have the potential to offer a venue for chronic disease biomarker discovery, which would allow for disease early detection and for identification of carriers of a certain predictor biomarker. To assess the general attitudes towards genetic research and participation in biobanks in the Long Island/Queens area of New York, and what factors would predict a positive view of such research, participants from the NSLIJ hospital system were surveyed. Methods Participants were recruited at six hospital centers in the NSLIJ system during the summers of 2009 and again in 2011 (n?=?1,041. Those who opted to participate were given a questionnaire containing 22 questions assessing demographics, lifestyle and attitudes towards genetic research. These questions addressed individual participant’s beliefs about the importance of genetic research, willingness to participate in genetic research themselves, and their views on informed consent issues. Results Respondents took a generally positive view of genetic research in general, as well as their own participation in such research. Those with reservations were most likely to cite concerns over the privacy of their medical and genetic information. Those who were married tended to view genetic research as important, while those in the younger age group viewed it as less important. Prior blood donation of respondents was found to be a predictor of their approval for genetic research. Demographic factors were not found to be predictive of personal willingness to participate in genetic research, or of approval for the opt-out approach to consent. Conclusions While respondents were generally inclined to approve of genetic research, and those who disapproved did not do so based on an underlying moral objection to such research, there is a disconnect between the belief in the importance of genetic research and the willingness of individuals to participate themselves. This indicates a continued concern for the ways in which genetic materials are safeguarded once they are collected. Also indicated was a general lack of understanding about the various consent processes that go along with genetic research, which should be addressed further to ensure the successful continuation of biobanks.
Young, I; Hendrick, S; Parker, S; Raji?, A; McClure, J T; Sanchez, J; McEwen, S A
The Canadian dairy industry has recently begun implementing an on-farm food-safety (OFFS) program called Canadian Quality Milk (CQM). For CQM to be effective, producers should be familiar with food-safety hazards in their industry and have an adequate understanding of on-farm good production practices that are necessary to ensure safe food. To assess their knowledge and attitudes towards food safety, a postal questionnaire was administered to all (n=10,474) Canadian dairy producers enrolled in dairy herd-improvement organizations in 2008. The response rate was 20.9% (2185/10,474). Most producers (88.7%) reported that they or their families consume unpasteurized milk from their bulk milk tanks and 36.3% indicated that consumers should be able to purchase unpasteurized milk in Canada. Producers who reported completion of a dairy-health management course (OR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.60, 0.92) and participation in CQM (OR=0.79, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.97) were less likely to support the availability of unpasteurized milk for consumers, while organic producers (OR=2.10, 95% CI: 1.27, 3.47), younger producers (aged practice. Two-thirds of producers (66.7%) were concerned that antimicrobial resistance (AMR) might preclude successful treatment of sick cattle. Producers who completed a dairy-health management course (OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.69), organic producers (OR=2.00, 95% CI: 1.09, 3.69) and producers from Quebec compared to each other province were more likely to indicate concern about AMR. Most producers reported that Salmonella (74.2%) and Escherichia coli (73.0%) could be transmitted through contaminated beef or milk to humans, while most were not sure or did not think that Brucella (70.3%) and Cryptosporidium (88.5%) could be transmitted via these routes. Most producers did not perceive that any type of farm visitor has a high risk of introducing infectious agents into their herds. Producers rated veterinarians as very knowledgeable about OFFS (90.9% answered 4 or 5 on a five-point scale) and a favoured (73.1%) source of information about food safety. In contrast, only 13.2% and 30.2% of producers, respectively, indicated that consumers and government personnel are knowledgeable about OFFS. Targeted continuing education for dairy producers in Canada should address the major gaps in knowledge and attitudes towards food safety identified in this study, and veterinarians should be included as key knowledge-transfer informants. PMID:19962773
Suzanne McCarthy School of Pharmacy, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Abstract: Adherence to medication can be problematic for patients, especially so for patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Effective medications are available for the treatment of ADHD; however, nonadherence rates for ADHD medication range from 13.2%–64%. The reasons for nonadherence can be complex. This review aims to look at how the beliefs and attitudes of adolescents and adults imp...
Espie, Ca; Inglis, Sj; Harvey, L.; Tessier, S.
OBJECTIVE: Mental overactivity has been widely implicated in the development and maintenance of insomnia, making the accurate and valid measurement of cognitive variables of some importance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of two existing attributional scales. METHODS: Data are presented from 178 clinic attending insomniacs who completed the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep Scale (DBAS) and the Sleep Disturbance Questionnaire (SDQ). Stan...
Parra Barbosa, Jose? Francisco
Based on the idea that the beliefs, values and political attitudes of the subjects explain the political processes taking place in the core of modern society, the main aim of this paper is to discuss a conceptual and methodological framework which makes it possible to determine the political culture of the transnational immigration residing in Spain. Taking into account that political cultures can be dramatically modified by the transnational migratory experience, we try to find the best way ...
Koh Kwee Choy; Teh Jae Rene; Saad Ahmed Khan
We describe the findings from a survey assessing the beliefs regarding testing, confidentiality, disclosure, and environment of care and attitudes towards care of people with HIV/AIDS (PLHWA), in 1020, 4th and 5th year medical students, from public and private medical universities in Malaysia. A self-administered validated questionnaire based on the UNAIDS Model Questionnaire with a 5-point Likert scale (5, strongly disagree; 4, disagree; 3, neutral; 2, agree; 1, strongly agree) was used as a...
LAIRD, ROBERT D.; Pettit, Gregory S.; DODGE, KENNETH A.; Bates, John E.
A longitudinal prospective design was used to examine antisocial behavior, two aspects of the parent–child relationship, inept parenting, and adolescents’ beliefs in the appropriateness of monitoring as predictors of parents’ monitoring and change in monitoring during the high school years. 426 adolescents provided reports of their parents’ monitoring knowledge during four yearly assessments beginning the summer before entering grade 9. Greater concurrent levels of monitoring knowledg...
Zoppi, Franco; Castelli, Donatella; Simon, Taylor
The BELIEF Project is a Coordination Action funded by the European Commission in the context of the FP6 and FP7 Programmes. It aims to create a platform where e-Infrastructures providers and users can collaborate and exchange knowledge, ensuring that e-Infrastructures are developed and effectively used worldwide, filling the gap separating the e-Infrastructures providers from the users, and thus contribute to the emergence of a competitive knowledge-based economy. To create this synergy among...
Full Text Available Background: Tooth avulsion is one of the commonest types of physical sport injury. Themanagement of these cases is critical in order to prevent complete loss of tooth and its subsequentconsequences. The prognosis of such avulsed tooth depends on prompt treatment. The emergencymanagement of such avulsed tooth is made by the sports teacher who is present at the sports ground. Thefirst–aid knowledge about tooth avulsion is must for the sports teacher. Aim: The objective of the presentstudy was to evaluate the knowledge about management of tooth avulsion among sports teachers inAhmednagar District. Methods: A sample of 60 sports teachers were interviewed from different schools.The data was collected using a self administered questionnaire containing seven items which wasdistributed among the sports teacher from different schools. Results: we found that 90% of the sportsteachers were not having the first-aid knowledge about the emergency management of avulsed tooth andthe benefit of timely care. This demands an effort to properly educate sports teachers about first-aidmanagement and consequently change their attitude towards dental trauma.
Naing, Cho M; Hakim, Mohd; Yee, Daniel Ang Tze; Mun, Koo Ray; Yung, Tan Chang; Jian, Kong Keat; Kuan, Sara Siew Suet
This study aimed to assess knowledge of and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS among a community in a semi-urban setting in Malaysia, to determine factors affecting perceptions toward people living with HIV in the community, and to provide baseline information for planning preventive measures against HIV/AIDS. This cross-sectional study was conducted in August 2009. Two hundred sixty-two household members were interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire. Most respondents (232; 88.5%) had heard of HIV/AIDS. Only a few respondents (6; 2.6%) could correctly answer all the questionnaire items. Misconceptions about disease transmission were seen among surveyed participants, such as the belief HIV/AIDS can be contracted from saliva (104; 44.8%), mosquito bites (95; 40.9%) or casual touch (86; 37.1%). A multivariate linear regression model showed better perceptions towards people living with HIV depend on an improved knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission. Current data emphasize the need to scale up HIV/AIDS education incorporating the mode of disease transmission. PMID:21073071
Igbe Michael A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in biobanking for collection of specimens for non-communicable diseases research has grown in recent times. This paper explores the perspectives of Nigerians on donation of specimen for the biobanking research. Methods We conducted 16 Focus Group Discussions (FGD with individuals from different ethnic, age and socio-economic groups in Kano (North, Enugu (Southeast, Oyo States (Southwest and Abuja, the Federal Capital Territory (Central of Nigeria. We used topic guides and prompt statements to explore the knowledge and understanding of interviewees to general issues about biobanking of biospecimens, their use and specifically about role of biobanking in non-communicable diseases research. Results A total of 123 individuals participated in 16 focus group discussions in 2011. Our participants had limited knowledge of the concept of biobanking but accepted it once they were educated about it and saw it as a worthwhile venture. Half of our study participants supported use of broad consent, a quarter supported restricted consent while the remaining quarter were in favour of tiered consent. Most discussants support shipment of their samples to other countries for further research, but they prefer those collaborations to be done only with competent, ethical researchers and they would like to receive feedback about such projects. The majority preferred health care as a benefit from participation, particularly for any unexpected condition that may be discovered during the course of the research instead of financial compensation. Participants emphasized the need to ensure that donated samples were not used for research that contradicts their religious beliefs. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that our participants accepted biobanking once they understand it but there were different attitudes to elements of biobanking such as type of consent. Our study highlights the need to carefully document population attitudes to elements of modern scientific research and the consenting process.
Full Text Available Pharmacovigilance can be helpful in protecting consumers from harmful effects of medicines. Healthcare professionals should consider Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR reporting as their professional obligation and should be aware of the existing pharmacovigilance mechanisms in their countries. In Nepal, pharmacovigilance activities were initiated in 2004. Objectives: The present study evaluated the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of the healthcare professionals towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance in Manipal Teaching Hospital (MTH, a tertiary care teaching hospital attached to the regional pharmacovigilance center in western Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2007 using a pretested (Cronbach alpha=0.72 questionnaire having 25 questions (15 questions on knowledge, 5 on attitude and 5 on practice. The correct/positive responses were given a score of ‘2’ and the wrong/negative responses ‘1’, maximum possible score of ‘50’. Results: A total of 131 responses were obtained among which 42 were incomplete and remaining 89 [females 49 (55.1%] were analyzed. Of the 89 professionals, 29 (32.6% were doctors, 46 (51.8 nurses and 14 (15.7% pharmacists. The mean age was 28.32 (SD=8.46 years and the median (interquartile range of duration of the service 14.5 (6-36 months. The total KAP scores was 40.06 (SD=3.51 for doctors, 38.92 (SD=4.83 for pharmacists, and 35.82 (SD=3.75 for nurses. Among the 89 professionals, 59 (62.3% had not reported even a single ADR to the pharmacovigilance center. Conclusion: The healthcare professionals at the MTH had a poor KAP towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance and there is a need for educational and awareness intervention for these professionals.
Saunders, KE; Hawton, K.; Fortune, S; Farrell, S.
Background: The attitudes held by clinical staff towards people who harm themselves, together with their knowledge about self-harm, are likely to influence their clinical practice and hence the experiences and outcomes of patients. Our aim was to systematically review the nature of staff attitudes towards people who engage in self-harm, including the factors that influence them, and the impact of training on attitudes, knowledge and behaviour of staff. Methods and findings: A comprehensive se...
Al-Omari, Hasan; Al-Motlaq, Mohammad A.; Al-Modallal, Hanan
International studies have revealed variable levels of knowledge and attitudes among teachers regarding attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study investigated Jordanian teachers' ADHD knowledge and their attitudes towards children with this condition. A standardised self-report questionnaire was completed by a convenience sample…
Pe'er, Sara; Goldman, Daphne; Yavetz, Bela
The authors report the environmental attitudes and knowledge of 765 1st-year students in 3 teacher-training colleges in Israel and examine the relationship between these variables and background factors and their relationship to environmental behavior. Although the students' environmental knowledge was limited, their overall attitudes toward the…
Tung, Wei-Chen; Hu, Jie; Efird, Jimmy Thomas; Yu, Liping; Su, Wei
Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitudes, sources of HIV information and behaviours related to HIV, and to explore the difference in the HIV knowledge and attitudes between genders and school years among college students in China. Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional. Setting: 475 college students from two universities in China. Method: Data…
To assess their knowledge, use, and attitudes regarding peer-to-peer (P2P) applications, this study surveyed academic librarians (n = 162) via a mail-in survey. Correlations between the sample characteristics (age, gender, year of MLS, type of library job) and P2P knowledge, use, and attitudes were also explored. Overall, academic librarians…
Marinelli Paolo; Di Giuseppe Gabriella; Anastasi Daniela; Angelillo Italo F.
Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate whether paediatricians have appropriate knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours regarding vaccinations for infants in Italy. Methods A random sample of 500 paediatricians received a self-administered anonymous questionnaire covering demographic and professional characteristics; knowledge about the mandatory, recommended, and not indicated vaccinations for infants; attitudes about vaccinations for infants; behaviour regarding curren...
Michalos, Alex C.; Creech, Heather; Swayze, Natalie; Kahlke, P. Maurine; Buckler, Carolee; Rempel, Karen
In this paper we present standardized measures of tenth grade students' knowledge, attitudes and behaviours concerning sustainable development as those concepts are understood in the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and we test the hypothesis that knowledge and favourable attitudes toward SD lead to favourable…
Hughes, Chanita; Gomez-Caminero, Andres; Benkendorf, Judith; Kerner, Jon; Isaacs, Claudine; Barter, James; Lerman, Caryn
Knowledge about the inheritance of breast cancer and attitudes about genetic testing for breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility in women at increased risk were studied in Caucasian and African-American women (N=407). Participants had at least one first-degree relative with cancer. Differences in knowledge and attitudes toward risk may be attributed…
Sebahat Dilek TORUN
Full Text Available Fever is extremely common in population. People have been shown to have unrealistic fears of the harmful effects of fever and they generally see it as the main component of an illness. The objective of this study was to survey people about their kowledge, attitude and beliefs concerning fever. The study was conducted in Kazim Karabekir a district area of Umraniye. The data were collected by focus group discussion in 6 goups and 40 people. An education was given to participants after discussion to teach the use of thermometer and patient care with high fever. Most of the participants feel the need for decreasing the temparature of people with high fever. They define the harms of high fever as febrile convulsion, stroke and menengitis. They dont know the range of normal body temparature. They generally don?t use termometers, measure the fever by touching with hand. Consequently, it has been observed that participants consider high fever is dangerous. However their applications related to high fever are insufficient. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(1: 69-76
Grant, Leigh D; Bowling, Alison C
Problem gambling has been identified as a public health concern in Australia, and a considerable proportion of regular gamblers may be at risk of developing gambling related problems. Attentional bias to salient cues has been observed in substance addictions, and to some extent, in problem gamblers. This bias appears to be indicative of an increase in sensitisation to salient cues as a result of continued reforcement of a related behaviour. To test for an attentional bias to gambling-related stimuli in non-problem gamblers, the relationships between gambling frequency, gambling attitudes and beliefs (GABS-23), and attentional bias were investigated. Participants (N = 38) viewed simultaneous pairs of gambling-related and neutral images and performed a dot probe task, during which their eye-movements were recorded. This enabled both direct and indirect measures of attentional bias to be obtained. Gambling frequency and GABS-23 scores predicted both direct and indirect measures of a bias in the maintenance of attention to gambling cues. No bias in attentional engagement was found. These results suggest that regular gamblers who have not yet developed any related problems show signs of sensitisation to gambling cues and may be at risk of progressing further towards problem gambling. PMID:24871298
Lim, K H; Sumarni, M G; Amal, N M; Hanjeet, K; Wan Rozita, W M; Norhamimah, A
This study aims to determine the level of knowledge and to understand their attitude towards smoking and secondly to determine how sociodemographic background, smoking status and knowledge on the health risks of smoking contribute toward the development of such attitude. A total of 10,545 respondents age 18 years and above across Malaysia were interviewed. Results indicated that level of knowledge and attitude varied by gender, education level, smoking status, age, ethnicity and smoker category. Smokers' low education, poor knowledge on the dangers of smoking and being males had more positive or greater impact on their attitudes towards smoking. Formulation and implementation of a holistic programme aimed at increasing knowledge and attitude change that accounts for sociodemographic background of the population is recommended in order to bring down smoking rates and thus reduce smoking related health problems in this country. PMID:19696733
Showers, Dennis E.; Shrigley, Robert L.
Researchers report finding correlational data to identify a positive relationship between nuclear knowledge and positive attitudes toward the use of nuclear energy. This study investigated the relationship between nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitudes and to the understanding of Science-Technology-Society attitudes involving technological attitude objects. This quasi-experimental study tested the causal relationship between knowledge about nuclear power plants and attitudes toward their use in electrical generation. Subjects were presented with systematically designed communications developed to change either their knowledge about or attitude toward nuclear plants. The Standard Events of Instruction was the basis of the knowledge instruction, whereas the Learning Theory Approach and the Theory of Reasoned Action were the theoretical bases of the persuasive communication. The principal finding was that nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitude each can be changed independently of the other. Although knowledge and attitudes are correlationally linked, this study shows no evidence of a cause-effect relationship.Received: 4 May 1994; Revised: 14 July 1994;
Hill, Dana; Holmes, Talmage
Lyme disease (LD), a vector-borne disease, causes illness for many individuals in the United States. All of the conditions for the promulgation of LD are present in one Southern state in the United States; yet this state reports lower numbers of LD than adjacent states. The purpose of this study was to determine associations between this Southern state's primary care providers' knowledge and attitudes regarding the diagnosis and reporting of LD. A quantitative, cross-sectional study was conducted via a mailed questionnaire by the Arkansas Department of Health to 2,693 primary care providers. Respondents were 660 primary care providers from all regions of this state. Secondary data were analyzed using descriptive, Chi square, and logistic regression techniques. Analysis results included the following: a correct response rate of 59.1 % for symptom recognition, of 46.2 % for knowledge of recommended testing processes, and of 78.9 % for knowing LD is a reportable disease. These results compared to the expected norm were significant in every area with p values of .000. Specialty, region, and years of practice were found to be confounding influences in a number of assessment areas. PMID:25187225
Nielsen, Jimmi; Dahm, M
Clozapine is, in most countries, underutilized and the initiation of clozapine is often delayed. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reasons for the delay and the underutilization of clozapine. One hundred psychiatrists were interviewed by phone. The interview was a structured interview with questions regarding attitude to, knowledge of and experiences with clozapine. Forty-eight (48%) psychiatrists had treatment responsibility of fewer than five patients treated with clozapine and 31 of the interviewed psychiatrists (31%) had started clozapine within the last 3 months. Seven psychiatrists (7%) had never prescribed clozapine despite the fact that they had been working more than five years in general psychiatry. Sixty-four psychiatrists (64%) would rather combine two antipsychotics than use clozapine. Sixty-six psychiatrists (66%) believed that patients treated with clozapine were less satisfied with their treatment when compared with those treated with other atypical antipsychotics. Many psychiatrists are reluctant to use clozapine and this might be due to less experience and knowledge of clozapine. A reason for the low awareness of clozapine's properties might be that clozapine is now a generic drug, and therefore, the marketing and education in using the drug is sparse.
McCready, Zachary R; Kanjirath, Preetha; Jham, Bruno C
Approximately 21,000 osteopathic medical students were enrolled in the USA in 2012-2013. These future physicians are being educated with an emphasis on a holistic or patient-centered approach, with a focus on preventive care. Considering the importance of preventive care and early diagnosis in the outcomes of oral malignancies, our goal in this study was to assess the knowledge, behavior, and attitude of osteopathic medical students in relation to oral cancer. To this end, 204 second-year (Y2) and 194 fourth-year (Y4) medical students were invited to participate in an electronic survey. Forty-one Y2 and 44 Y4 students agreed to participate (20 and 22 % response rate, respectively). The results showed that most Y2 and Y4 students were knowledgeable in certain areas (demographic features, important risk factors, and histologic feature), but deficient in others (clinical presentation, association of human papillomavirus (HPV) with oropharyngeal cancers, and screening recommendations). Head, neck, and oral examination habits were reported as being performed occasionally. Overall, students reported feeling uninformed about oral cancer and showed an interest in receiving further education on the subject. Our findings confirm that an overall improvement in oral cancer education in the medical curriculum is needed. Interprofessional collaboration between dental and medical schools may prove to be a valid approach to achieve this goal, which may possibly lead to increased detection of early oral cancerous lesions and, ultimately, improved mortality rates. PMID:24882439
Objective: To determine the knowledge and attitude towards menopause among postmenopausal women seeking gynecological treatment. Results: The mean age of respondents was 54.4 years. Fifty-two (74.3%) women knew about menopause, 39 (55.7%) were aware of symptomatology while only 7(10%) knew sequelae of menopause. Fifty-three (75.5%) women were satisfied with cessation of menstruation and only 17 (24.3%) desired to continue menstruation. Twenty-four (34.3%) respondents were unhappy with their menopausal status. Thirty-two (45.7%) women were content with their present sexual relations, 18 (25.7%) were dissatisfied and 20 (28.6%) had no sexual activity. Fifty-two (74.3%) women felt a need for health education on menopause in educational institutions. Thirty-three (47.1%) considered treatment of menopause necessary. Four (5.7%) were aware of any treatment of menopause and 55 (78.6%) desired to learn more about menopause. Conclusion: Women have different views about menopause, few see it as a medical condition requiring treatment, whereas majority consider it is a natural transition. There was breath of knowledge regarding significance of menopause. (author)
Overview: A primary caregivers’ knowledge about child health can have a significant impact on her practices, which in turn can affect child growth and development. The main objective of the study was to explore the level of caregiver’s knowledge and beliefs about the treatment of diarrhoea and child nutrition and to find out whether caregivers’ socio-economic status influences their knowledge and beliefs. Methods: In this study, the data used were from the Savelugu- Nanton Hous...
Full Text Available Context and Objective: Hamstring strain is a common injury in football and it causes a significant amount of time lost from competition and training. Since poor flexibility is thought to predispose to muscle strain, stretching is routinely recommended during warm-up routines by coaches to prevent injuries. However, available evidence suggests that pre-exercise stretching (PES, especially static stretching, has no benefit on injury rates and may even reduce performance in explosive type activities. We designed this study to assess the attitudes, beliefs and practices of football coaches regarding stretching in the prevention of hamstring strains. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Mauritius Football Association (MFA. Participants: 26 football coaches registered with the MFA. Intervention: Questionnaires were distributed to football coaches of the MFA via sports officers. Questionnaires were then collected two weeks after distribution. Main Outcome Measures: Attitudes, beliefs and practices of football coaches regarding stretching in the prevention of ham-string strains. Results: MFA coaches held generally positive attitudes and beliefs towards stretching. 88% of coaches felt that PES is beneficial and 93% believed that PES prevents hamstring strains. The majority of coaches recommended stretching after warming up (81% and after the training session (93%. 76% of coaches also advised stretching outside the training sessions. 96% of coaches used static stretching to stretch the hamstrings. The hamstrings were stretched on average for 4 times at each training session and the mean duration of a static stretch was 12 seconds. Conclusions: Nearly all coaches believed that PES prevents hamstring strains although evidence is limited. Some of the coaches’ beliefs and practices were not in line with current recommendations. Coaches reported that their stretching practices would be most likely influenced by scientific research. Thus there is an urgent need to devise awareness and training programmes in this area.
The aim of this study was to determine the salient beliefs of pre-service primary school teachers (PPSTs) about why they like or dislike physics and to explore whether these beliefs predict their teaching beliefs about physics. A total of 267 PPSTs (Male = 137, Female = 130) participated in the study. Qualitative data analyses were used and the…
Full Text Available Background & Aim: Knowledge of nursing is necessary for caring people suffering from pain. Regarding pain management and nursing role in order to put into practice exact pain management and availing comfort, possessing knowledge and positive attitude toward nursing care in this population have an important role. Methods & Materials: This descriptive (cross- sectional study determines cancer nurses knowledge and attitudes regarding pain management in hospitalized patients in related wards in Tehran University of medical sciences. Total of 113 nurses (from 132 questionnaires were sent, 113 of them were completed who work in cancer wards in Tehran University of medical science hospitals were selected by convenience sampling (accidental sampling. For data gathering, questionnaires were used. Statistical analysis was performed using ?2 test, t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient. To compare results and for describing the results, descriptive analysis were used. Results: Results indicates that knowledge and attitude of samples is in a high school (level of knowledge 76% and level of attitude 86.6%. The correlation between knowledge and attitudes is (R=0.350, (p=0.000 that means there is a direct relation between nurses knowledge and attitudes and by increasing one of them? the other will increase. Conclusion: Some of features like level of education, taking part in continuing education, working in chemotherapy and radiotherapy ward, operating room and facing to cancer patients, influence on nurses knowledge and attitudes.
Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim
Background: Despite scientific evidence on the positive effects of seafood consumption on human health, the consumption of fish remains below the recommended intake levels for the majority of Europeans. The present study aimed to explore cultural differences in potential determinants of fish consumption: consumers' knowledge and health-related beliefs, as well as the relationship between those variables, socio-demographics and fish consumption frequency, using data from five European countries. Methods: A cross-sectional consumer survey was carried out in 2004 with representative household samples from Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Spain. The sample consisted of 4786 respondents, aged 18-84 years, who were responsible for food purchasing and cooking in the household. Results: European consumers had a very strong belief that eating fish is healthy. Consumers' belief that eating fish is healthy, their interest in healthy eating and objective fish-related nutrition knowledge, positively, but only weakly, influenced fish consumption frequency. Subjective knowledge was found to be a stronger predictor of fish consumption than the previously noted factors. Age and education contributed, both directly and indirectly through knowledge, to explain fish consumption behaviour. However, the path coefficients in the estimated model were relatively low, which indicates that fish consumption frequency was also determined by factors other than health-related beliefs and consumers' knowledge. Conclusions: The findings of the present study suggest that communication should focus on health-related benefits other than fish consumption alone. Communicating that eating fish is healthy and stressing the health benefits of fish alone, as is still commonly performed (e.g. in generic promotion and other types of public information campaigns) will be insufficient to achieve higher levels of compliance with fish consumption recommendations.
Jose, Jimmy; Jimmy, Beena; Al-Mamari, Moza N. S.; Al-Hadrami, Thuraiya S. N.; Al-Zadjali, Halima M.
Objectives: This study aimed to assess the knowledge, beliefs and behaviours of an Omani population with regards to the adverse effects of medicines. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted between February and June 2012. A 17-item questionnaire was designed to assess three aspects: knowledge, beliefs and behaviours related to medicine safety. A total of 740 questionnaires were distributed in three representative governorates of Oman. Median total scores for the three sections were estimated. Associations with participants’ demographic variables and medication histories were also assessed. Results: A total of 618 participants completed the survey (response rate: 83.5%). Many participants (46.4%) believed that side-effects occurred only with high doses of medication and over 30% believed that they did not occur at all with traditional and over-the-counter medicines. The median total score was 19 (interquartile range: 6) out of a maximum of 30. Inadequate knowledge, incorrect beliefs and good behaviours were observed among the participants. There was a significant association between certain demographic parameters (age, educational qualification, history of chronic use of medicines and employment status) and median total scores. Participants reported obtaining additional information on medication safety from various sources, with doctors as the most widely used source. Conclusion: Inadequate knowledge and incorrect beliefs among this Omani population indicate a need for interventions to improve public knowledge and address misconceptions regarding medication safety. These interventions could be initiated on both an individual and public scale, with patient interactions by healthcare professionals and mass education activities targeting the larger population. PMID:26052459
Cates, Joan R.; Brewer, Noel T.; Fazekas, Karah I.; Mitchell, Cicely E.; Smith, Jennifer S.
Context: Because cervical cancer mortality in the United States is twice as high among black women as white women and higher in rural areas, providing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to rural black adolescents is a high priority. Purpose: To identify racial differences in knowledge and attitudes about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine…
Sileo, Nancy M.; Sileo, Thomas W.
Manuscript considers results of a research study that assesses American Indian university students' factual knowledge, understanding, and perceptions of susceptibility to HIV/AIDS, and relationships between their attitudes and decisions to engage in HIV-risk behaviors. Participants responded to a 57-item scaled survey and several demographic…
Hamid Reza Poureslami DDS, MSc; Lila Shafie DDS, MSc; Elham Farrokh Gisoure DDS, MSc; Lida Pishbin DDS, MSc
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to assess the knowledge and attitude of male students of Kerman primaryschools about 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash solution that students used it once a week.METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 502 boys, eight to nine year-old and students of Kerman primaryschools were selected for the study. The data related to their knowledge and attitude about the sodium fluoridemouthwash were collected by questionnaire.RESULTS: The boy students’ knowledg...
Merrow, Sherry Lynne
The purpose of this paper is to describe the knowledge of and attitudes toward computers of graduate nursing students before and after an elective course “Computers in Nursing”. At the beginning of the course students completed a questionnaire which included questions about computer access and use, knowledge of computer terminology and computer use, and attitudes toward computers. Prior to the course students had widely varying self-rated knowledge of computer terminology scores. Self-rated k...
Ranimah Yahya; Rosediani Muhamad; Harmy Mohamed Yusoff
Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been realized as a primary cause of death in women for almost a century. However, the relationship between women’s knowledge, their wish and action on practicing heart healthy lifestyle is still vague. Aim and Objectives: This research aimed to determine the association between knowledge and attitude, knowledge and practice and attitude and practice on cardiovascular disease among women in Kelantan. Methods/ Study Design: A cross sectional stud...
Abdullah T. Eissa
Background: Health sciences students are expected to have appropriate knowledge and attitudes toward medication use. However, literary evidence of such expertise among health sciences students of King Saud University is unknown. This study was completed to assess the knowledge about medicines and behavior of health science students towards safe use of medications. It also aims to assess the health knowledge, attitude and practices of the students. Methods: This cross-sectional study used a...
Prachi Renjhen; Ashwini Kumar; Sanjay Pattanshetty; Afrin Sagir; Charmaine Minoli Samarasinghe
Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among the college students.Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in the Government College, Gangtok, Sikkim, during the month of April 2009 to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among 156 students enrolled in the first year bachelor course. Descriptive statistics was used for data analysis.Results: 98% (153/156) of the students had knowledge about family planning and ...
Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, J.; Impey, C.; CATS
Data from a twenty-year investigation into the science literacy of undergraduates (see Impey et al., this meeting) was used to explore responses to questions, derived from policy driven projects (e.g. NSF Science Indicators). Responses from almost 10,000 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory astronomy courses from 1989 to 2009 have been analyzed based on students’ responses to forced-choice and open-ended science literacy questions as well as Likert scale belief questions about science and technology. Science literacy questions were scored based on work by Miller (1998, 2004). In addition, we developed an extensive emergent coding scheme for the four open-ended science questions. Unique results as well as trends in the student data based on subgroups of codes are presented. Responses to belief questions were categorized, using theoretically derived categories, remodeled and confirmed through factor analysis, into five main categories; belief in life on other planets, faith-based beliefs, belief in unscientific phenomena, general attitude toward science and technology, and ethical considerations. Analysis revealed that demographic information explained less than 10% of the overall variance in students’ forced-answer scientific literacy scores. We present how students’ beliefs in these categories relate to their scientific literacy scores. You can help! Stop by our poster and fill out a new survey that will give us important parallel information to help us continue to analyze our valuable data set. We acknowledge the NSF for funding under Award No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.
Zhu, Ling; Petersen, Poul Erik
OBJECTIVES: To describe oral health behaviour, illness behaviour, oral health knowledge and attitudes among 35-44 and 65-74-year-old Chinese; to analyse the oral health behaviour profile of the two age groups in relation to province and urbanisation, and to assess the relative effect of socio-behavioural risk factors on dental caries experience. METHODS: A total number of 4,398 35-44-year-olds and 4,399 65-74-year-olds were selected by multistage stratified cluster random sampling which involved 11 provinces in China. Data were collected by self-administered structured questionnaires and clinical examinations (WHO criteria). RESULTS: 32% of the 35-44-year-olds and 23% of the 65-74-year-olds brushed at least twice a day but only 5% used fluoridated toothpaste; 30% and 17% respectively performed 'Love-Teeth-Day' recommended methods of tooth brushing. A dental visit within the previous 12 months was reported by 25% of all participants and 6% had a dental check-up during the past two years. Nearly 15% of the subjects would visit a dentist if they experienced bleeding from gums; about 60% of the subjects paid no attention to signs of caries if there was no pain. Two thirds of the urban residents and one fifth of the rural participants had economic support for their dental treatment from a third party, either totally or partially. Significant variations in oral health practices were found according to urbanisation and province. At age 35-44 years 43% of participants had daily consumption of sweets against 28% at age 65-74 years. Dental caries experience was affected by urbanisation, gender, frequency, time spent on and method of tooth brushing. Knowledge of causes and prevention of dental diseases was low with somewhat negative attitudes to prevention observed. CONCLUSION: Systematic community-based oral health promotion should be strengthened and preventive-oriented oral health care systems are needed, including promotion of further self-care practices and the use of fluoridated toothpaste.
Prashanth K and Umarani J
Full Text Available In 1998 the World Health Organization declared childhood obesity as a “global epidemic.” It has also been observed that the health problems of adult obesity can be prevented, if obesity is controlled in childhood. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge and attitude regarding prevention of obesity and Correlate the knowledge and attitude regarding prevention of obesity among adolescents in a selected pre-university college. A pre-experimental one group pre-test post-test design was adopted. Convenience sampling technique used for selecting the adolescents. A structured knowledge questionnaire on prevention of obesity and a five-point Likert scale to assess the attitude regarding prevention of obesity were developed as the tools for data collection. The data obtained were analyzed based on the objectives and hypotheses, using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result showed that the mean post-test knowledge and attitude score of adolescents on prevention of obesity was higher than the mean pretest knowledge and attitude score. There was no correlation between knowledge and the attitude. The present study concludes that the teaching programme improved the knowledge and attitude of adolescents regarding prevention of obesity.
Gammage, Kimberley L.; Gasparotto, Jennifer; Mack, Diane E.; Klentrou, Panagiota
Objective: The purpose of this cross-sectional investigation was to examine (1) gender differences in osteoporosis-related knowledge and beliefs and (2) if these beliefs could predict vigorous physical activity behavior in university students. Participants: Male (n = 176) and female (n = 351) university students participated in the study. Methods:…
Roberts, Rebecca M.; Albert, Alison P.; Johnson, Darcia D.; Hicks, Lauri A.
Appropriate selection of antibiotic drugs is critical to optimize treatment of infections and limit the spread of antibiotic resistance. To better inform public health efforts to improve prescribing of antibiotic drugs, we conducted in-depth interviews with 36 primary care providers in the United States (physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants) to explore knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported practices regarding antibiotic drug resistance and antibiotic drug selection for common infections. Participants were generally familiar with guideline recommendations for antibiotic drug selection for common infections, but did not always comply with them. Reasons for nonadherence included the belief that nonrecommended agents are more likely to cure an infection, concern for patient or parent satisfaction, and fear of infectious complications. Providers inconsistently defined broad- and narrow-spectrum antibiotic agents. There was widespread concern for antibiotic resistance; however, it was not commonly considered when selecting therapy. Strategies to encourage use of first-line agents are needed in addition to limiting unnecessary prescribing of antibiotic drugs. PMID:25418868
Magdy A. Darwish; Ahmed A. Al-Rubaya
Objective. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge, beliefs, and psychosocial effect of acne vulgaris among acne patients attending referral dermatology clinic in Al-Khobar city. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted on all Saudi acne patients (males and females) attending referral dermatology clinic in Al-Khobar Governmental Hospital. The data were collected by using a structured self-administered questionnaire. Results. Like other studies conducted before, we ...
Wong Daniel FK
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate in members of the Chinese community in Melbourne the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA training on knowledge about mental disorders and on attitudes to people with mental illness. The hypotheses were that at the end of the training participants would have increased knowledge of mental disorders and related treatments, and decreased negative attitudes towards people with mental disorders. Methods Respondents were 108 participants of three MHFA training workshops for the Chinese community in Melbourne conducted by a qualified MHFA trainer. Participants completed the research questionnaire prior to the commencement of the training (pre-test and at its completion (post-test. The questionnaires assessed participants' ability to recognize a mental disorder (depression and schizophrenia described in the vignettes, knowledge about the professional help and treatment, and negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Results Between pre- and post-test there was significant improvement in the recognition of mental disorders, beliefs about treatment became more concordant with health professionals, and negative attitudes reduced. Conclusion The MHFA training course for general members of the Chinese community in Melbourne produced significant positive change in the level of mental health literacy and reductions in stigmatizing attitudes. The evidence from this study, together with the accumulated evidence of the benefits of MHFA training in the general Australian community, suggests that this approach should be scaled up to a level where it can have an impact on the whole of the Chinese community in Australia.
Energy use per square foot from science research labs is disproportionately higher than that of other rooms in buildings on campuses across the nation. This is partly due to labs’ use of energy intensive equipment. However, laboratory management and personnel behavior may be significant contributing factors to energy consumption. Despite an apparent increasing need for energy conservation in science labs, a systematic investigation of avenues promoting energy conservation behavior in such labs appears absent in scholarly literature. This paper reports the findings of a recent study into the energy conservation knowledge, attitude and behavior of principle investigators, laboratory managers, and student lab workers at a tier 1 research university. The study investigates potential barriers as well as promising avenues to reducing energy consumption in science laboratories. The findings revealed: (1) an apparent lack of information about options for energy conservation in science labs, (2) existing operational barriers, (3) economic issues as barriers/motivators of energy conservation and (4) a widespread notion that cutting edge science may be compromised by energy conservation initiatives. - Highlights: ? Effective energy conservation and efficiency depend on social systems and human behaviors. ? Science laboratories use more energy per square foot than any other academic and research spaces. ? Time, money, quality control, and convenience overshadow personnel convenience overshadow personnel’s desire to save energy. ? Ignorance of conservation practices is a barrier to energy conservation in labs.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to establish the knowledge and attitude of family physcians offering primary health care, towards adult vaccination and their own vaccination coverage. Methods: This descriptive study was performed in May 2009 in Kayseri, Turkey. 282 family physician accepted to fill a questionnaire about adult vaccination. Results: Most of the family physcians (83.0% thought adult vaccination as a modality of protection and 66.7% wanted a vaccination scheme just like the one in childhood. Their own vaccination rate for Hepatitis B was 67.0% and 58.5% for influenza at any time. Only half of the physcians were vaccinated within the season for influenza. Only 9.2% of the doctors have stated that they ask questions to their patients about their vaccination status. When physcians were questioned about the vaccines they advise to their patients aged 65 and more; 70.6% stated influenza and 39.7% stated pneumococcus. Conclusion: In spite of being in the risk group, family physicians have low vaccination coverage rates. Suggestion of the necessary vaccines to the risk groups or to their patients at risk is low as well.
Changes in pharmacology teaching are being driven by various pressures. These originate: from changes in the discipline itself; from government; from professional bodies; from students; from changes in teaching styles and opportunities; from academic staff; from ethical/animal rights considerations; from employers and from higher education institutions. These changes will require an alteration in the knowledge, skills and attitudes of academic pharmacologists as much as they will require changes in the way teaching is delivered and learning is facilitated. Pharmacology courses will be provided in a changed environment and must prepare students to work in a changed discipline as well as being appropriate for students who will take employment in non-pharmacology areas. Change is likely to centre around the curriculum, problem based learning, simulated practicals, peer assessment, use of the internet, information technology and interactive computer based learning, virtual learning environments and integrated medical courses. The most effective strategy to achieve the necessary changes is likely to involve collaboration between pharmacology teachers on a global scale and a general consciousness among current academic pharmacologists that we need to ensure tomorrow's academics are well prepared for the changed environment in which they will have to work. PMID:14569160
Ali Akbar ASADI-POOYA
Full Text Available ObjectiveThis study investigates the awareness and perception on “epilepsy” amongst biology teachers in Fars province, Iran.Materials & MethodsA sample of high school biology teachers in Fars province, Iran, filled out an investigator designed questionnaire including questions about their knowledge and attitude concerning “epilepsy”. There were 17 questions in the questionnaire. Nine questions addressed the knowledge and the rest were about attitude and perception.ResultsForty two teachers completed the questionnaires. More than two-thirds of the participants had a fairly desirable awareness about the definition; whereas, only approximately 40% knew something about the etiology and treatment of epilepsy. More than two-thirds of the participants had a positive attitude towards epilepsy; however, misconceptions and negative attitudes were observed.ConclusionEducational programs for biology teachers and also other teachers are necessary to improve their knowledge, attitude and perception about epilepsy.
Marcelin, Louis Herns; Mccoy, H. Virginia; Diclemente, Ralph J.
This study examined HIV/AIDS knowledge and beliefs in Haitian adolescents in an HIV epicenter, Miami-Dade Florida. This study examined survey data from 300 Haitian adolescents, aged 13 through 18, from both low-and middle-income neighborhoods. A sub-sample of 80 adolescents was selected for in-depth interviews and continuous observations with their families and networks of friends, which added rich descriptions to the quantitative data. Overall knowledge about HIV/AIDS was high with the major...
Duhamel, Fabie; Dupuis, France; Turcotte, Annie; Martinez, Anne-Marie; Goudreau, Johanne
To promote the integration of Family Systems Nursing (FSN) in clinical practice, we need to better understand how nurses overcome the challenges of FSN knowledge utilization. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted with 32 practicing female nurses from hospital and community settings who had received FSN intervention training and skill development based on the Illness Beliefs Model and the Calgary Family Assessment and Intervention Models. The participants were interviewed about how they utilized FSN knowledge in their nursing practice. From the data analysis, a FSN Knowledge Utilization Model emerged that involves three major components: (a) nurses' beliefs in FSN and in their FSN skills, (b) nurses' knowledge utilization strategies to address the challenges of FSN practice, and (c) FSN positive outcomes. The FSN Knowledge Utilization Model describes a circular, incremental, and iterative process used by nurses to integrate FSN in daily nursing practice. Findings point to a need for re-evaluation of educational and management strategies in clinical settings for advancing the practice of FSN. PMID:25838467
Carter, B. Elijah; Infanti, Lynn M.; Wiles, Jason R.
Students who enter college with a solid grounding in, and positive attitudes toward, evolutionary science are better prepared for and achieve at higher levels in university-level biology courses. We found highly significant, positive relationships between student knowledge of evolution and attitudes toward evolution, as well as between…
Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.; Bloomgren, Barry W., Jr.; Atti, Jule A.; Norman, Jessica A.
This present research reveals how beer advertising affects adolescents' knowledge of beer brands, drinking attitudes, and drinking behaviors. In addition to traditional psychological approaches for measuring media effects on alcohol-related behaviors and attitudes, market research advertising tracking methods were included to permit a clearer and…
Kaghaz kanani R.
Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis threatens the aged population especially the menopausal women and can lead to life long disability and death. Appropriate knowledge and behavior have an important role in prevention of osteoporosis. In this study the knowledge, attitude and behavior of women regarding osteoporosis is assessed and compared in different age groups.Methods: This cross sectional study includes 390 women in reproductive, premenopausal and menopausal age groups who had come to Shariati hospital clinics and each had answered the designed questionnaire. The questionnaires were scored and analyzed. Women's knowledge, attitude and behavior were assessed and compared by X2 test in the three age groups and P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: 15-30% of women didn't know what osteoporosis is and in 380 of them attitude or behavior was not good. Education had a significant effect on knowledge of women in reproductive and premenopausal ages (P=0.002, 0.04 respectively, but had no effect on their attitude or behavior. Age had a significant effect on knowledge and attitude (P=0.001 but had no effect on behavior. Age had significant effect on the knowledge that exercise can prevent osteoporosis (P=0.014 but not on attitude or behavior. Age had no effect on knowledge, attitude or behavior of daily calcium intake to prevent osteoporosis. (P=0.123, 0.12, 0.153 respectively 93% to 95% of women thought the risks of osteoporosis are less than cardiovascular disease or breast cancer.Conclusions: 15-30% of women didn't know what osteoporosis is. The total knowledge about osteoporosis was low. Although 22-75% of women younger than 54 years old had knowledge about the predisposing factors but their attitude or behavior was not good.
Full Text Available This qualitative case study aimed to focus on the experiences and subsequent science and science teaching beliefs, attitudes, and self-efficacy of an elementary pre-service teacher, Heather, with extremely positive attitude and high self-efficacy. For this particular population of pre-service teachers, possessing a high science teaching self-efficacy alone is not sufficient to assume reform-based beliefs and teaching practices. This study was unique in that it concurrently explored the relationship between attitude, beliefs, and self-efficacy before and after the course. Initially, Heather? ?!"s attitude and self-efficacy with respect to science and science teaching were closely interrelated and a product of her own intrinsic interest in science and her unique K-12 experiences. Her beliefs appeared to have been shaped by both her actual science experiences and what she had witnessed in the classrooms. Heatherâ€™s course experiences shaped her post beliefs about science and science teaching, which consequently altered her attitude and confidence.
Tse, Mimi Mun Yee; Ho, Suki S K
The aim of the study was to examine the effectiveness of a pain management program (PMP) in enhancing the knowledge and attitudes of health care workers in pain management. Many nursing home residents suffer from pain, and treatment of pain is often inadequate. Failure of health care workers to assess pain and their insufficient knowledge of pain management are barriers to adequate treatment. It was a quasiexperimental pretest and posttest study. Four nursing homes were approached, and 88 staff joined the 8-week PMP. Demographics and the knowledge and attitudes regarding pain were collected with the use of the Nurse's Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain-Chinese version (NKASRP-C) before and after the PMP. A deficit in knowledge and attitudes related to pain management was prominent before the PMP, and there was a significant increase in pain knowledge and attitudes from 7.9 ± SD 3.52 to 19.2 ± SD4.4 (p < .05) after the 8-week PMP. A PMP can improve the knowledge and attitudes of nursing staff and enable them to provide adequate and appropriate care to older persons in pain. PMPs for nurses and all health care professionals are important in enhancing care for older adults and to inform policy on the provision of pain management. PMID:24602419
Monk, Abraham; Kaye, Lenard W.
Attitudes toward aging among 142 full-time students and 216 graduates at three urban campuses of a religious college were assessed. Respondent subgroups included rabbis, educators, cantors, and communal service workers. Social attitudes were measured by the Aging Semantic Differential (Rosencranz and McNevin, 1969). Respondents rated 32 dimensions…
Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is one of the prevalent and mortal cancers. The aim of the study is to assess knowledge, atti tude and practice of women toward this cancer and Pap smear. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study among 402 women through a questionnaire with 5 socio-demographi c parameters and 14 questions about knowledge, attitude and practice. We ai med to know how knowledge, attitude and practice are affected by socio-demographic stat us and how practice is affected by knowledge and attitude. Results: The mean score was 4.09. Knowledge and age did not correlate directly. Old aged women had the best knowledg e. As the number of children rose, knowledge deteriorated, vi ce versa about the age of marriage and education. The clerks were better than housewives and businesswomen. Just 3.5% did not consider the regular Pap as necessary (with the lower educational level. Almost 99% intended to get more information. The minority (28.1% had the incorrect attitude toward the curability of the c ancer. Most of the women referred to do Pap due to health center personnel’s advice. About 80% had undesired practice. Discussion: The educated ones had more approp riate and optimistic incorrect attitude compared to the uneducated ones . As more years pass from the age of marriage, practice gets worse. All the newly married women had the desired practice, correct attitude and intended to get more inform ation. All the women who knew it unnecessary had undesired practice . Women with the desired practice had 9% more correct attitude and 9% more optimistic incorre ct attitude compared to the undesirably practicing ones. Totally, prac tice is not much influenced by attitude.
This report describes the results of a set of five surveys designed to assess the perceived risks of nuclear waste management policy in Colorado and New Mexico. Within these states, mail surveys of randomly selected samples were taken of members of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, members of the Sierra Club, members of business associations, and state legislators. In addition, a telephone sample of randomly selected households was conducted in Colorado and New Mexico. Using these data, the perceptions of the risk of nuclear waste management -- from production of nuclear energy through permanent storage of nuclear wastes -- are compared for each of the five samples. The degree of trust in, and the perceived political influence of, the more prominent policy actors are assessed. Certain cognitive attributes, including degree of subjective certainty regarding beliefs about risks of nuclear wastes, and likelihood of altering perceived risks when confronted with new information, are compared across samples. In addition, the sample scores from rudimentary knowledge tests about the characteristics of radiation are compared. The relationships among the knowledge scores, cognitive attributes and risk perceptions are evaluated. Perceptions of the balance of media coverage are measured, as are the possible direct and indirect roles of media exposure in risk perception. Aggregate models, testing an array of hypotheses about the bases of nuclear waste risk pes about the bases of nuclear waste risk perceptions, are conducted. These tests indicate that risk perceptions are related to a complex set of factors, and that these factors may differ significantly across the different sub-populations. Finally, the relationships between risk perception and political participation -- including registering to vote, political party affiliation, and level of political activism -- are analyzed. 5 figs., 33 tabs
This article describes a survey conducted among medical practitioners in India. The study's objective was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of whole body donation among medical professionals in India. Outcomes and results are discussed.
Full Text Available This paper proposes machine learning techniques to discover knowledge in a dataset in the form of if-then rules for the purpose of formulating queries for validation of a Bayesian belief network model of the same data. Although do-main expertise is often available, the query formulation task is tedious and laborious, and hence automation of query formulation is desirable. In an effort to automate the query formulation process, a machine learning algorithm is lev-eraged to discover knowledge in the form of if-then rules in the data from which the Bayesian belief network model under validation was also induced. The set of if-then rules are processed and filtered through domain expertise to identify a subset that consists of “interesting” and “significant” rules. The subset of interesting and significant rules is formulated into corresponding queries to be posed, for validation purposes, to the Bayesian belief network induced from the same dataset. The promise of the proposed methodology was assessed through an empirical study performed on a real-life dataset, the National Crime Victimization Survey, which has over 250 attributes and well over 200,000 data points. The study demonstrated that the proposed approach is feasible and provides automation, in part, of the query formulation process for validation of a complex probabilistic model, which culminates in substantial savings for the need for human expert involvement and investment.
Ladan Kashani; Elmira Hassanzadeh; Arefeh Mirzabeighi; Shahin Akhondzadeh
The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice of herbal remedies (HRs) in infertile patients. This was a cross sectional study in a referral infertility care center. Three hundred and six outpatients, both women and men, presenting for the first time with complaint of infertility at Arash hospital, were recruited. Verbal consent for participation was received. A self administered questionnaire was used. Main outcome measure was knowledge, attitude and practice of pati...
Darryn Knobel; Job Wasonga; Gamaliel Omondi; Eric Ogola; Peter Omemo
We sought to determine the knowledge and attitude of public health workers (PHWs) with respect to emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases and the practice of one health approach in the surveillance of zoonoses in the community. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 randomly selected districts of Nyanza province, Kenya. One hundred and ten randomly-selected PHWs were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Data were collected on their knowledge, attitudes and practices about common...
Marinelli Paolo; Di Giuseppe Gabriella; Abbate Rossella; Sessa Alessandra; Angelillo Italo F.
Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer for both sexes in developed countries. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices regarding CRC of adults in Italy. Methods A random sample of 1165 adults received a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics; knowledge regarding definition, risk factors, and screening; attitudes regarding perceived risk of contracting CRC and utility of screening test...
Gülden Uzer Ekin
Objective: To evaluate the level of knowledge and attitudes of the high school students for HIV / AIDS and also to evaluate the sources from which the information has been received. Material and Methods: 74 male and 39 female high school students (n:113) have participated in the study. The survey questionnaire was developed by the researchers and implemented by UNICEF and it contained 22 questions assessing knowledge and attitudes. Survey interviewing method was applied to students. ...
Tang Jie; Gao Xiaohui; Yu Yizhen; Ahmed Niman; Zhu Huiping; Wang Jiaji; Du Yukai
Abstract Background In recent years, many studies have focused on adolescent's sex-related issues in China. However, there have been few studies of unmarried migrant females' sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, which is important for sexual health education and promotion. Methods A sample of 5156 unmarried migrant female workers was selected from three manufacturing factories, two located in Shenzhen and one in Guangzhou, China. Demographic data, sexual knowledge, attitudes and behavio...
Objective: Objective of the present study is to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practice of universal work precautions amongst medical laboratory technicians in private hospitals. Methodology: Cross-sectional study of health care workers was conducted using a pretested self-administered questionnaire, which enquired about knowledge, attitude and practices of universal work precautions. The hepatitis B vaccination statuses were also asked. Results: 200 questionnaires were administered t...
Marinelli Alessandra; Ga, Nobile Carmelo; Di Giuseppe Gabriella; Angelillo Italo F
Abstract Background Pediatricians are in an ideal position to advise families about the prevention and management of oral diseases in children. The objective of the study was to determine knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding the prevention of oral diseases among pediatricians in Italy. Methods A systematic random sample of 1000 pediatricians received a questionnaire on socio-demographic and practice characteristics; knowledge on risk factors; attitude and practices towards the prevent...
Siliquini, Roberta; Gualano, Maria Rosaria
Healthcare professionals play a key role in tobacco use prevention because they are considered as model by patients. This multicenter study was aimed to evaluate smoking prevalence, knowledge and attitudes towards tobacco among Italian hospital professionals.A cross-sectional study was carried out using a questionnaire administered to healthcare professionals in seven Italian hospitals, to investigate personal and occupational data, knowledge, attitudes, job setting, clinical activities, smok...
Gonçalves, DC; Guedes, J.; Fonseca, AM; Pinto, FC; Martín, I.; Byrne, GJ; Pachana, NA
Background: The underlying goals of the present study were (i) to assess knowledge of and attitudes towards aging in a sample of Portuguese undergraduate students undertaking various degrees in health and welfare subjects, and (ii) to analyze the extent to which knowledge, attitudes and other factors were associated with interest in working with older adults. Methods: The study was cross-sectional in design. The sample comprised 460 Portuguese undergraduate students enrolled in...
Prashanth K and Umarani J
In 1998 the World Health Organization declared childhood obesity as a “global epidemic.” It has also been observed that the health problems of adult obesity can be prevented, if obesity is controlled in childhood. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge and attitude regarding prevention of obesity and Correlate the knowledge and attitude regarding prevention of obesity among adolescents in a selected pre-university college. A pre-experimen...
Davenport Tracey A; Luscombe Georgina M; Glozier Nick; Rong Ye; Huang Yueqin; Hickie Ian B
Abstract Background Establishing an evidence-based method of improving knowledge and attitudes concerning depression has been identified as a priority in Chinese medical education. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a self-directed learning strategy as a part of student-centred education improved knowledge of and attitudes towards depression among Chinese medical students. Methods A controlled trial in which 205 medical students were allocated to one of two groups: didactic te...
Merrow, Sherry Lynne
The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess nurse educators' and nursing service personnels' knowledge of and attitudes toward computer applicability to nursing practice in order to facilitate planning future education in the area of computer-based nursing practice. The data yielded no significant differences between nurse educators' and nursing service personnels' knowledge of and attitudes toward computer use in nursing practice. There were, however, significant differences in knowl...
Albano Luciana; Di Giuseppe Gabriella; Sessa Alessandra; Angelillo Italo F
Abstract Background This study assessed the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding disinfection procedures among nurses in Italian hospitals. Methods A face-to-face interview gathered the following information: demographic and practice characteristics; knowledge about the healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and the disinfection practices; attitudes towards the utility of guidelines/protocols and perception of the risks of acquiring/transmitting HAIs; compliance with antisep...
Molina, Jason O.
The study determined the relationships between food safety knowledge and practices of hospital food handlers in Davao City and also between their attitudes and practices regarding food safety. Questionnaire patterned after the Key Food Safety Guidelines of Pacific Northwest Publications was administered to 51 food handlers to generate the data. It was found that hospital food handlers in Davao City are highly knowledgeable and have favorable attitudes in food safety. The extent of food sa...
Quesnel, Martine; King, Judy; Guilcher, Sara; Evans, Cathy
Purpose: To describe Canadian Master of Physical Therapy (MPT) students' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding peer mentorship. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional survey study was conducted. An online questionnaire was sent to 945 MPT students via e-mail, using a modified Dillman approach. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics to describe the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Canadian MPT students. Results: A total of 260 MPT students (27.5%) responded to the quest...
Kristen Rohde; Myde Boles; Bushore, Chris J.; Pizacani, Barbara A.; Maher, Julie E.; Erin Peterson
Background. Several studies have shown that Alaska Native people have higher smoking prevalence than non-Natives. However, no population-based studies have explored whether smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours also differ among Alaska Native people and non-Natives. Objective. We compared current smoking prevalence and smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of Alaska Native adults living in the state of Alaska with non-Natives. Methods. We used Alaska Behavioral Ri...
DELUCCHI, KEVIN L.; Tajima, Barbara; Guydish, Joseph
This report describes the development and measurement characteristics of a new measure of smoking knowledge, attitudes, and practices (S-KAP) among treatment providers. Data are based on survey responses from 336 paid staff working in one of three drug abuse treatment or HIV care settings. Exploratory factor analysis, used to examine the factor structure, pointed towards five underlying factors: a single “knowledge” factor, three “attitude” factors (‘treatment barriers,’ ‘counse...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health research training is an important part of medical education. This study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge and attitudes regarding health research in a group of Pakistani medical students at Aga Khan University, Karachi. Methods It was a cross-sectional pilot study conducted among a group of Pakistani medical students. Through stratified random sampling, a pre-tested, structured and validated questionnaire was administered to 220 medical students. Knowledge and attitudes were recorded on a scale (graduated in percentages. Results Mean scores of students were 49.0% on knowledge scale and 53.7% on attitude scale. Both knowledge and attitudes improved significantly with increasing years of study in medical college [Regression coefficient 4.10 (p-value; 0.019 and 6.67 (p-value; Conclusion Medical students demonstrate moderate level of knowledge and attitude towards health research. Intensive training in this regard is associated with significant improvement in knowledge and attitudes of students towards health research.
Wilson, Robyn S.; Howard, Gregory; Burnett, Elizabeth A.
A recent increase in the amount of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) entering the western Lake Erie basin is likely due to increased spring storm events in combination with issues related to fertilizer application and timing. These factors in combination with warmer lake temperatures have amplified the spread of toxic algal blooms. We assessed the attitudes of farmers in northwest Ohio toward taking at least one additional action to reduce nutrient loss on their farm. Specifically, we (1) identified to what extent farm and farmer characteristics (e.g., age, gross farm sales) as well as risk-based beliefs (e.g., efficacy, risk perception) influenced attitudes, and (2) assessed how these characteristics and beliefs differ in their predictive ability based on unobservable latent classes of farmers. Risk perception, or a belief that negative impacts to profit and water quality from nutrient loss were likely, was the most consistent predictor of farmer attitudes. Response efficacy, or a belief that taking action on one's farm made a difference, was found to significantly influence attitudes, although this belief was particularly salient for the minority class of farmers who were older and more motivated by profit. Communication efforts should focus on the negative impacts of nutrient loss to both the farm (i.e., profit) and the natural environment (i.e., water quality) to raise individual perceived risk among the majority, while the minority need higher perceived efficacy or more specific information about the economic effectiveness of particular recommended practices.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to discuss the food sanitation knowledge, attitude, and behavior for the employees of university restaurants, and furthermore, to explain the interrelations of these various were occurring at school. A questionnaire survey procedure was used. Each two constructs of food sanitation attitude and behavior were analyzed by factor analysis. Data was analyzed by description, Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression analysis. The correctness rate toward the whole sanitation knowledge of trials was 70%. The overall attitude toward food sanitation was prone to positive and the attitude of employee self-responsibility was superior to the attitude of food sanitation practice. The sanitary guiding behavior was better than the sanitary habit behavior; and there was a significant relationship indicated through Pearson correlation analysis among three various. The sanitation knowledge and sanitation attitude showed a 42.6% predictive power to behavior, the attitude was mediated between knowledge and behavior. The university restaurant employees shared a more pessimistic view toward the benefits of training and the institutions could establish a committee for monitoring food nutrition and sanitation. It provides valuable information for development employees training while seeking to raise school restaurant food safety levels.
Bou Khalil, Rami
The aim of this review is to evaluate the current status concerning attitudes, beliefs and/or practices of patients, family members, health professionals and/or caregivers regarding truth disclosure about a cancer diagnosis in the Greater Middle East countries. A search was done via MedLine for all publications related to this review objective. 55 publications were included emanating from Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Palestine Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, and United Arab Emirates. In the Greater Middle East region, a diagnosis of cancer is still mixed with social stigma and misperceptions related to incurability. Physicians conserve a truth disclosure policy in which from one side they respect some of the historical and cultural misperceptions about cancer and accordingly, tell the truth about cancer to one of the family members and from another side acknowledge the patients' right to know the truth and tend to disclose it for him(or her) when possible. Family members and caregivers' attitudes, perceptions and beliefs about telling the truth to the patient seem to be in favor of concealment. Discrepant results concerning physicians' and patients' evaluation of the quality of truth disclosure exist in the literature. Education programs in breaking bad news are lacking in many countries. Finally, the most important and common problem affecting truth disclosure to a patient suffering from cancer is the lack of codes and legislations concerning the patients' rights in an informed consent. Studies, legislations and training programs are needed in this domain in Middle Eastern societies. PMID:23171758
The research undertook an analysis of the effectiveness of police driver training in the development of appropriate driver attitudes and skills in terms of the objectives of the training. The research focused upon the Standard/Response course of the Essex Police. Trainees attitudes and skill, levels were measured at the beginning and after each phase of training. An assessment of the stability and longevity of attitudes and skill levels was made 3-10 months after the training. ...
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Assessment of intentional abortion and women's knowledge about its causes and complications is an important priority for women's health, but because of the sensitivity, the investigations in this topic are rare. This study was performed for the first time in order to determine women's knowledge and attitude toward intentional abortion.Methods: Women referring to pre-marriage counseling centers in Mashhad, Iran, were selected with easy sampling method and accessed with knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Data were analyzed by Q-Square, T-Test and Pearson correlation. Results: Of 480 participants, 71% (CI95%=66.8-75.0 had opposed attitudes about the intentional abortion and 26.5% (CI95%=22.6-30.5 had appropriate knowledge. Between lower age and lower education, lack of interest to contraceptive use with low women's knowledge-attitude scores, there was a significant relationship (p<0.05. Conclusion: Most of the participants opposed attitudes to intentional abortion, but more than 70% of them had low knowledge about this topic. Inappropriate knowledge about causes and its adverse consequences, especially the beginning of marital life can lead to unwanted pregnancy, intentional and unsafe abortion that need attention.
Ana María Moreno Herrero
Full Text Available Stigma in mental health is studied in a sample of 152 subjects of Almería city population with the aim of designing specific anti-stigma campaigns. For this, Stigma is operatized in three constructs: Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour, using MAKS, CAMI and RIBS scales for these. Results show that the younger group, under thirty-five years old are less knowledgeable about mental health related to stigma, showing a significant difference (p< .05. Moreover, we found significant differences in gender regarding the intention of stigmatizing behaviour (p=.049 as well as attitudes (p= .006 where men have more stigmatizing behaviour and attitudes than women. These results together with those that show a significant correlation between knowledge and behaviour, as well as between attitudes and behaviour will be used as a guide to design interventions aimed to reduce stigma in mental health.
Full Text Available Objectives: The study investigates the dietary intakes of Omani preschoolers and associations with both socio-demographic characteristics and the mother’s nutritional knowledge and attitudes.Methods: A sample of 154 parents of preschoolers completed a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics, a food-frequency questionnaire to assess children’s food intake, nutritional knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating.Results: The results showed a lower dietary adequacy of children’s food intake in mothers with low educational levels, high-ranked occupation, and lower levels of both nutritional knowledge and food related health attitudes. The highest food intake and healthy eating attitude scores were found in children of mothers with high education level and mother without a job. The association of the dietary adequacy with socio-demographic background can help the Omani healthcare decision makers to develop better-tailored nutrition interventions which are more suitable for the Omani community.Conclusion: The results from this study of mothers’ nutritional knowledge and attitudes support the inclusion of knowledge and attitudes in dietary interventions.
Full Text Available The study reports on an investigation of the impact of a Science-Technology-Society (STS approach in promoting more positive student attitudes toward science that are recommended by current reform documents. A total of 609 students from grades six through nine were selected for a survey of attitudes in two class sections assigned as either experimental (STS oriented class or control group (textbook oriented class. The results indicate that students in classes taught with an STS approach develop more positive attitudes toward science when compared to students in classes taught with a textbook-oriented approach. The STS approach to science teaching works equally well for male and female students regarding student attitudes toward science. Significant differences were not found between male and female students in terms of improving positive attitudes concerning science study.
Ernesto, Smyth; Francisco, Caamaño; Paula, Fernández-Riveiro.
Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the association between knowledge, attitudes and practice of oral health in 12-year-old schoolchildren, and to analyse the findings in terms of the conventional KAP health-education model and of the critical approach. Study design: This study has [...] a cross sectional design. The study participants were 1105 randomly selected 12-year-old children resident in the region of Galicia in Spain. For data collection, five teams of one dentist and one assistant were formed. The dentist carried out the physical examination and the assistant helped the subjects to answer the questionnaire. Knowledge, attitudes and practice were assessed, as well as oral health indicators. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify variables affecting practice (as measured by extent of plaque). Results: The results of this study show how that there is an important association between oral health knowledge, attitudes, and practice in 12-year-old schoolchildren in this region. However, the results also show that attitude is not totally explained by knowledge, so that attitude cannot be understood simply as an intermediate variable in a knowledge® practice causal chain. Specifically, the results indicate that sociocultural environment modifies the association knowledge, attitudes and practice. Conclusions: Within oral health education it is clearly important to increase public knowledge of the risk factors for dental disease. However, the efficacy of such education will be limited if health programs do not directly impinge on attitudes, and take into account factors related to the environment, education, social status and economic level of the targeted population.
Takeda, Sayaka; Akamatsu, Rie; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Marui, Eiji
Objective: To identify whether university students who have both food-safety knowledge and beliefs perform risk-reduction behaviors. Design: Cross-sectional research using a questionnaire that included food-safety knowledge, perceptions, risk-reduction behavior, stages for the selection of safer food based on the Transtheoretical Model, and…
Ford, M. Allison; Bass, Martha A.; Keathley, Roseanne
Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to investigate the influence of knowledge of osteoporosis, attitudes regarding osteoporosis, and knowledge of dietary calcium on dairy product intake in both male and female college-age students. Participants: The authors conducted this cross-sectional study on 911 men and women enrolled in 2…
Sulmasy, Daniel P.; And Others
A study compared the knowledge, confidence, and attitudes regarding medical ethics of 55 house officers and 57 full-time faculty members of the Georgetown University (District of Columbia) Department of Medicine. Results indicated low knowledge levels in both groups, higher faculty confidence, and somewhat more faculty sentiment for mandatory…
Al-Madani, Khawla M.; Landman, Jacqueline; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.
The objective of this study was to evaluate nutrition knowledge, attitudes and practices in Bahrain. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 1998. Highly statistically significant differences (p less than 0.0001) were observed between practitioners and students in relation to knowledge concerning recommended daily allowance. The results…
Flood, Meredith Troutman; Clark, Robert B.
Increasing life expectancies and more years spent living with chronic illnesses mean that increasing numbers of older adults will require nursing care. However, most nurses prefer not to work with older adults, and many nursing students have limited knowledge and negative attitudes towards aging and older adults. This study examined the knowledge…
Stein, Susan E.; Dirks, Brian P.; Quinlan, Jennifer J.
The authors determined the food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of undergraduates (n = 1122) on an urban college campus using a previously piloted survey tool. Data obtained found that while students reported high levels of confidence in their ability to engage in safe food handling practices, their knowledge and self-reported behaviors…
Sandfort, Jessica R.; Pleasant, Andrew
Objective: To assess students' human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants/ Methods: Students (N = 1,282) at a large, public university in the Northeast United States completed a questionnaire during February 2008 assessing HPV knowledge, prevalence, transmission, cervical cancer risk and stigma; sexual behavior,…
Usak, Muhammet; Erdogan, Mehmet; Prokop, Pavol; Ozel, Murat
Biotechnology has a considerable importance in Turkish biology curriculum. This study was designed to explore or indicate Turkish high school and university students' knowledge and attitudes toward biotechnology. A total number of 352 high school and 276 university students were invited to the study. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ)…
Laub, Cindy E.; Maeder, Evelyn M.; Bornstein, Brian H.
Students in an undergraduate psychology and law course and an introductory psychology course completed a variety of measures, at both the beginning and end of the semester, to assess their knowledge of and attitudes toward psycholegal topics. The psychology and law course improved students' knowledge of psychological topics concerning the legal…
Allan, Linda J.; Johnson, James
Knowledge, anxiety, and attitudes about the elderly were assessed in 113 university students using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Anxiety about Aging Scale, and the Fraboni Scale on Ageism. No significant differences in knowledge or anxiety based on age or gender were found in the sample. Female participants in the sample were found to be…
Stenger, Kristen M; Ritter-Gooder, Paula K; Perry, Christina; Albrecht, Julie A
Children are at a higher risk for foodborne illness. The objective of this study was to explore food safety knowledge, beliefs and practices among Hispanic families with young children (?10 years of age) living within a Midwestern state. A convergent mixed methods design collected qualitative and quantitative data in parallel. Food safety knowledge surveys were administered (n?=?90) prior to exploration of beliefs and practices among six focus groups (n?=?52) conducted by bilingual interpreters in community sites in five cities/towns. Descriptive statistics determined knowledge scores and thematic coding unveiled beliefs and practices. Data sets were merged to assess concordance. Participants were female (96%), 35.7 (±7.6) years of age, from Mexico (69%), with the majority having a low education level. Food safety knowledge was low (56%?±?11). Focus group themes were: Ethnic dishes popular, Relating food to illness, Fresh food in home country, Food safety practices, and Face to face learning. Mixed method analysis revealed high self confidence in preparing food safely with low safe food handling knowledge and the presence of some cultural beliefs. On-site Spanish classes and materials were preferred venues for food safety education. Bilingual food safety messaging targeting common ethnic foods and cultural beliefs and practices is indicated to lower the risk of foodborne illness in Hispanic families with young children. PMID:25178898
Feinberg, Gary; Khosla, Dinesh
The goals of this study of the relationship between judges and elderly offenders were: (1) to describe beliefs and attitudes held by judges about the elderly and elderly delinquents, (2) to catalogue sanctions judges use and recommend as ideal for elderly shoplifters and other elderly misdemeanants, and (3) to poll judges about their willingness…
Balogun, Joseph; Abiona, Titilayo; Lukobo-Durrell, Mainza; Adefuye, Adedeji; Amosun, Seyi; Frantz, Jose; Yakut, Yavuz
Objective: This comparative study evaluated the readability and test-retest reliability of a questionnaire designed to assess the attitudes, beliefs behaviours and sources of information about HIV/AIDS among young adults recruited from universities in the United States of America (USA), Turkey and South Africa. Design/Setting: The instrument was…
In this article, we report data from an online questionnaire study with 587 respondents, representative for the adult U.S. population in terms of age, gender, and level of education. The aim of this study was to assess how interest in science and knowledge as well as beliefs about science are associated with risk and benefit perceptions of nanotechnology. The findings suggest that the U.S. public is still rather unfamiliar with nanotechnology. Those who have some knowledge mainly have gotten it from TV and the Internet. The content of current media reports is perceived as fairly positive. Knowledge of scientific methods is unrelated to benefit and risk perceptions, at least when other predictors are controlled. In contrast, positive beliefs about science (e.g., its impact on economy or health) and more sophisticated epistemological beliefs about the nature of scientific knowledge are moderately linked to more positive perceptions of nanotechnology. The only exception is the perception of scientific uncertainty: This is associated with less positive evaluations. Finally, higher engagement with science is associated with higher risk perceptions. These findings show that laypersons who are engaged with science and who are aware of the inherent uncertainty of scientific evidence might perceive nanotechnology in a somewhat more differentiated way, contrary to how it is portrayed in the media today.
Yusoff, Hafzan; Daud, Wan Nudri Wan; Ahmad, Zulkifli
A higher occurrence of iron deficiency anemia is present in rural Malaysia than urban Malaysia due to a lower socio-economic status of rural residents. This study was conducted in Tanah Merah, a rural district of Kelantan, Malaysia. Our objective was to investigate the impact of nutrition education alone, daily iron, folate and vitamin C supplementation or both on knowledge, attitudes and hemoglobin status of adolescent students. Two hundred eighty fourth year secondary students were each assigned by school to 1 of 4 different treatment groups. Each intervention was carried out for 3 months followed by 3 months without treatment. A validated self-reported knowledge and attitude questionnaire was administered; hemoglobin levels were measured before and after intervention. At baseline, no significant difference in hemoglobin was noted among the 4 groups (p = 0.06). The changes in hemoglobin levels at 3 months were 11, 4.6, 3.9 and -3.7% for the supplementation, nutrition education, combination and control groups, respectively. The changes at 6 months were 1.0, 6.8, 3.7 and -14.8%, respectively. Significant improvements in knowledge and attitude were evidenced in both the nutritional education and combination groups. The supplementation and control groups had no improvement in knowledge or attitudes. This study suggests nutritional education increases knowledge, attitudes and hemoglobin levels among Malaysian secondary school adolescents. PMID:23082570
Rashidbeygi, Milad; Sayehmiri, Kourosh
Background Evidence based medicine (EBM) is very important in the process of decision making, diagnosis and treatment of patients. For years, medical schools have developed instructions for EBM to determine the attitude and knowledge of physicians towards EBM and their related educational needs. Materials and Methods This study was a questionnaire study among physicians. One hundred twenty physicians were selected using stratified random sampling in Ilam. A main outcome measure was attitudes and knowledge of physicians toward EBM, ability to access and interpret evidence, and best method of moving from opinion based to EBM. Results Of the 120 questionnaires we have sent, 94 (78.3%) were answered. 56.6% were using the internet to answer their patients questions and 23.8% used the internet to obtain clinical evidence. Mean and standard deviation (SD) of knowledge and attitude scores were 24% ± 23% and 72% ± 10%, respectively. Pearson correlation shows a significant relation between knowledge of physicians and years of graduation (r = -0.37, P = 0.00). There was a significant difference between mean of knowledge score of general practitioners, specialist and subspecialist (P = 0.026). Conclusions Knowledge and attitude of young physicians were more based on EBM compare to old physicians. A significant difference in knowledge mean score of physician shows that the EBM is still new in Iran, the future physician’s critical need to learn EBM and necessity of entering EMB at all medical levels. PMID:24616789
Brasaite, Indre; Kaunonen, Marja; Suominen, Tarja
The purpose of this literature review was to determine the extent of existing knowledge about healthcare professionals' knowledge, attitudes and skills related to patient safety. A systematic review was performed using two electronic databases: MEDLINE (Ovid) and CINAHL (EBSCO) for the period 2000-2012. The inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed articles or empirical studies, published in English. The focus groups of the study were physicians, head nurses, nurses and nurse assistants. Altogether, 18 studies met the criteria and were included. Inductive content analysis was carried out to analyse and categorise the data. The investigated themes regarding healthcare professionals' knowledge of patient safety were their existing knowledge level, knowledge deficits and knowledge improvement. Results considered the target groups' overall attitudes to patient safety, attitudes to event reporting and safety attitude improvement. The investigations into healthcare professionals' skills included mathematical skills and those related to achieving patient safety. From this review, it is concluded that further research should be conducted into the investigation of healthcare professionals' knowledge and skills in patient safety. PMID:24708205
Avasthi, Ajit K.; Varma, Vijoy K.; Nehra, Ritu; Das, Karobi
A self-administered questionnaire (SKAQ) in simple Hindi was constructed and standardized for assessing the knowledge and attitude of a north Indian population towards sex. SKAQ is a 55- item questionnaire split into two parts: a 35-item knowledge-part with dichotomous choice of responses and a 20-item attitude-part scorable on 3-point Likert scale. Higher scores indicated a better knowledge and a liberal attitude. Its test-retest reliability was established and discriminant validity demonstr...
Latha, S.; Prabhakar Reddy, E.; Srikumar, R.; Chidambaram, R.; Vijayakumar, R.; Kowsalya, V.; Gayathri Fathima, I.; Kishor Kumar, C.
Knowledge, attitude and practice studies have been used to understand the various factors that influence blood donation which is the basis for donor mobilization and retention strategies. Role of youngsters in voluntary blood donation is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. The present study was aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice regarding voluntary blood donation among the health care students. A validated and pre-tested questionnaire on knowledge, attitude an...
There is a need for qualitative research into teachers' self-efficacy beliefs so that the relationship between these beliefs and other cognitions possessed by teachers, including their practical knowledge, can be better understood by teacher educators. Teachers' self-efficacy beliefs may need supporting if they seem too low or…
Unmanaged pain is a prevalent problem faced by many cancer patients. One part of this problem centers on a lack of emphasis on pain management in the undergraduate nursing curriculum. This study examined the knowledge and attitudes of 41 undergraduate nursing students regarding pain management. Students voluntarily completed a demographic data form, the Nurses’ Attitude Survey, and the Pain Management Principles Assessment Tool. A mean score of 19.4 out of a possible 31 was achieved on the ...
Ku Yanchiou; Ma Michia; Lin Yenchin; Chao Jiankang; Tsai Chinghong; Shi Mingder
Abstract Background Military conscripts may experience a change in their attitude towards sex at times when sexual urges are at their peak during their physical growth. This study examines the experience, understanding, knowledge and attitudes regarding sexual activity of the military conscripts. Methods Data was obtained from a cross-sectional survey of 1127 young adult military conscripts, and were evaluated in Southern Taiwan from January to July 2009, their demographic data, sexual knowle...
The purpose of this study was to discuss the food sanitation knowledge, attitude, and behavior for the employees of university restaurants, and furthermore, to explain the interrelations of these various were occurring at school. A questionnaire survey procedure was used. Each two constructs of food sanitation attitude and behavior were analyzed by factor analysis. Data was analyzed by description, Pearson’s correlation and multiple regression analysis. The correctness rate toward the whole...
Marize Melo dos Santos; Adriana de Azevedo Paiva; José Ivo dos Santos Pedrosa; Rosângela Lopes Viana
This quasi-experimental intervention was conducted with 10- to 14-year-old students enrolled in public schools in Teresina, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of a nutritional education program on the students’ knowledge, behaviour and attitudes towards nutrition. The dietary attitudes were evaluated in terms of food tastes/preferences and food behaviours. The participants in the study included 126 students from four schools. Differences between before and after the intervention were found reg...
Emir Yüzbasioglu; Duygu Saraç; Sevgi Canbaz; Sinasi Sarac?, Y.; Seda Cengiz
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of Turkish dentists in Samsun City regarding cross-infection control. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire was designed to obtain information about procedures used for the prevention of cross-infection in dental practices and determine the attitudes and perceptions of respondent dental practitioners to their procedures. The study population included all dentists in the city of Samsun, Turkey, in ...
Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin; Yeung, Stephen Pui-ming
This paper examines the knowledge and understanding of Hong Kong secondary school students about the composition of unpolluted and polluted air, and the nature and effects of air pollutants. A number of misconceptions are highlighted, including the common belief amongst younger students that oxygen was more common in unpolluted air than nitrogen.…
Harwood, Michelle D.; O’Brien, Kelly A.; Carter, Carolyn G.; Eyberg, Sheila M.
Objective?This study examined maternal attitudes and practices that may prevent preschoolers from receiving needed mental health services.?Methods?Mothers of 110 children ages 3–6 completed a survey of maternal attitudes and practices and the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI).?Results?Mothers wanted pediatrician assistance with child behavior concerns. Mothers of children with elevated ECBI scores reported most often discussing disruptive behaviors with their pediatrician, an...
Vecchione, Melissa; Feldman, Charles; Wunderlich, Shahla
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between consumer knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards foods containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the prevalence of GMO labelling in northern New Jersey supermarkets. This cross-sectional study surveyed 331 adults, New Jersey supermarket customers (mean age 26 years old, 79.8% women). The results show a strong, positive correlation between consumer attitudes towards foods not containing GMOs and purchasing behaviour (Pearson's r?=?0.701, p?behaviour (Pearson's r?=?0.593, p?attitudes (Pearson's r?=?0.413, p?0.001). GMO labelling would assist consumers in making informed purchase decisions. PMID:25519248
Amar, Angela F; Sutherland, Melissa; Laughon, Kathryn
Sexual violence is a significant problem on many college campuses. Bystander education programs have been found to train individuals to act to prevent sexual and partner violence and improve the responses of peers to survivors. Limited evidence suggests that gender differences exist between males and females regarding both attitudes toward, and use of, bystander behavior, with females reporting more supportive attitudes and greater use of bystander behavior. The purpose of this study is to compare male and female college students on attitudes toward date rape, bystander efficacy, intention to act as a bystander, and actual use of bystander behaviors. A secondary aim explored gender differences in theoretically driven bystander behaviors and barriers to acting as a bystander. A convenience sample of 157 full-time undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed survey measures of attitudes related to sexual and partner violence and willingness to help. Analysis of variance and chi-square were used to compare gender differences in scores. Significant gender differences were found for date rape attitudes, efficacy, and intention to act as a positive bystander. Men reported more rape-supportive attitudes and greater intention to act as a bystander than women, whereas women reported greater levels of bystander efficacy than men. The findings can be used in tailoring gender-specific components of bystander education programs for sexual assault prevention and intervention. PMID:24762431
Bednarska, Marlena A.; Olszewski, Marcin
The success of tacit knowledge management lies in firms’ capabilities to attract and retain employees possessing unique knowledge. The purpose of the paper is to investigate students’ attitudes towards career in tourism in the context of tacit knowledge management. The study was conducted on the group of 345 undergraduates and graduates enrolled in tourism and hospitality studies in Poznan. Research revealed that majority of students plan short-term career in tourism, which entails tacit ...
Mahendra Adhi Nugroho
Knowledge sharing is one of sub issues in knowledge management. This research aims to investigate the relationship among informal knowledge sharing, attitude to avoid sharing risk and Trust. The data collected from 439 respondents. Statistical power analysis was run to reject type 1 and type 2 statistical errors and to get practical significations on hypotheses test results. Instrument validity of this research tested using discriminant validity and convergent validity. Instrument of this res...
Brunsting, S.; De Best-Waldhober, M. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Terwel, B.W. [Leiden University, Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, Leiden (Netherlands)
Lack of societal acceptance of energy (transition) technologies is often attributed to a lack of knowledge among the public. The underlying assumption is that more knowledge improves attitudes about a technology. This assumption will be tested in this paper by examining the influence of the scores on a CCS Knowledge Test on attitudes towards CO2 capture and storage (CCS). Furthermore the paper will examine the influence of perceptions of CCS (ideas that cannot be deemed 'true' or 'false') on attitude towards CCS and will analyse how knowledge and perceptions jointly influence attitude as well as in interaction. Implications of the results for communication about CCS are discussed.
Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to generate discussion and communication among a group of general dentists in Tehran on their viewpoints regarding denture adhesives. Have they accepted denture adhesive as a material to enhance denture retention, stability and function? Materials and Methods: In the summer of 2007, a questionnaire was mailed to 300 general dentists who were assigned with a random systematic sampling method from general dentists in Tehran. The questions were arranged in two parts of evaluating knowledge and attitude. In evaluation of knowledge, dentists were classified into groups of good, moderate, weak and lack of knowledge. In evaluation of attitude, dentists were classified into positive, moderate and negative groups. (Evaluating attitude was carried out in good and moderate groups of knowledge. Results: The study showed that 14%, 32% and 37% of the general dentists had respectively good, moderate and weak knowledge toward denture adhesive while 16.3% had no knowledge about this material. In evaluation of attitude through dentists with positive and moderate knowledge toward denture adhesive, 9.3%, 71.3% and 19.4% had respectively positive, moderate and negative attitude toward denture adhesive. The ?2 test showed a significant statistical relation between situation of knowledge and experiences of dentists. Discussion: This study demonstrated that the rate of knowledge of these 300 general dentists in Tehran towards denture adhesives has not been in a good situation. It is believed that denture adhesive be able to enhance the fitness of a denture and provide psychological relief to the patient. Dentists agreed that education, not only for practitioners but also for patients, would raise the advantageous features and reduce the misuse of denture adhesive. Education of the topic "Denture adhesive" should be more concerned in dental universities.
Ahlm Clas; Hurtig Anna-Karin; Kk, Nkulu Faustine; Krantz Ingela
Abstract Background Migrants from countries with a high-burden of tuberculosis (TB) are at a particular risk of contracting and developing the disease. In Sweden, new immigrants are routinely offered screening for the disease, yet very little is known about their beliefs about the disease which may affect healthcare-seeking behaviours. In this study we assessed recent immigrant students' knowledge of, and attitudes towards TB, and their relationship with the screening process. Methods Data we...
Kabeta, Tadele; Deresa, Benti; Tigre, Worku; Ward, Michael P.; Mor, Siobhan M.
Background Rabies is an important but preventable cause of death in Ethiopia. We assessed the knowledge, attitudes and practices of animal bite victims attending an anti-rabies health center in Jimma Town, Ethiopia. Methodology/Principal Findings Between July 2012 and March 2013 a cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to 384 bite victims or their guardians in the case of minors (aged <15 years). Factors associated with knowledge, attitudes and practices were evaluated using generalized linear models. Almost all participants (99%) were aware that rabies was transmitted by the bite or lick of a rabid dog, however only 20.1% identified “germs” as the cause of disease. A majority of participants stated rabies could be prevented by avoiding dog bites (64.6%) and confining dogs (53.9%); fewer (41.7%) recognized vaccination of dogs/cats as an important preventive strategy. Regarding attitudes, most (91.1%) agreed that medical evaluation should be sought as soon as possible. However, most (75.0%) also believed that traditional healers could cure rabies. Rural residence (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.1, p = 0.015) and Protestant religion (OR = 2.4, p = 0.041) were independently associated with this belief. Among 186 participants who owned dogs, only 9 (4.8%) had ever vaccinated their dog and more than 90% of respondents indicated that their dog was free-roaming or cohabitated with the family. Only 7.0% of participants applied correct first aid following exposure, and the majority (47.7%) reported that the animal was killed by the community following the incident. Female sex and Muslim religion were independently associated with higher and lower practices scores, respectively, due largely to differences in animal management practices following the incident. Conclusions/Significance Although respondents demonstrated reasonably sound knowledge of rabies and its transmission, attitudes and practices were inconsistent with rabies prevention. Culturally- and gender-sensitive activities that promote proper first aid and healthcare seeking behavior as well as appropriate animal management, particularly in rural areas, are needed to prevent deaths associated with rabies in this setting. PMID:26114573
Hobbs, Patricia Ann
The purpose of this study is to investigate how teachers perceive their cultural competence. The overarching research questions are "How do teachers perceive their cultural competence and how does their cultural competency impact their professional work?" Individuals' beliefs have a powerful impact on practice. The aim of this study is to…
Ozay Kose, Esra
Evolution has not being well addressed in schools partly because it is a controversial topic in religious views. In the present study, it is explored to what extent Turkish secondary school biology teachers and students accommodate the theory of biological evolution with their religious beliefs. Two-hundred fifty secondary school students and…
This study explores the extent to which an activity used in an elementary science methods course affected the preservice teachers’ content knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy. The participants were 172 students enrolled in five sections of elementary science methods. Students participated in a 9-week investigation on life cycles using mealworms ( Tenebrio obscurus). Multiple data sources indicate that most of the students had limited prior content knowledge about mealworms, expressed neutral attitudes toward mealworms upon first exposure to them, and were uncomfortable with the idea of having to teach with and about them. At the end of 9 weeks, content knowledge on mealworms had greatly improved. The preservice teachers’ attitudes about mealworms and their self-efficacy about using mealworms with children had also improved.
Hamid Reza Poureslami DDS, MSc
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was designed to assess the knowledge and attitude of male students of Kerman primaryschools about 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash solution that students used it once a week.METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 502 boys, eight to nine year-old and students of Kerman primaryschools were selected for the study. The data related to their knowledge and attitude about the sodium fluoridemouthwash were collected by questionnaire.RESULTS: The boy students’ knowledge about the sodium fluoride mouthwash solution was good but their attitude wasnegative.CONCLUSIONS: The oral health education program concerning the optimal use of the fluoride mouthwash in dentalcaries prevention is highly recommended. It is suggested that its taste is improved
Full Text Available The study was set to determine whether knowledge and attitudes toward organ dona-tion differ according to geographical location. Self-administered questionnaires were employed to collect data such as demographic characteristics, basic knowledge, attitudes and source of information about organ donation from subjects in rural and urban areas. The questionnaires were distributed randomly to 1,000 individuals in both areas during 2008. The data were analyzed in a descriptive fashion. Despite similarities in knowledge and attitudes of respondents in both areas, rural res-pondents were less likely to have information about organ donation, to report willingness to donate organs, and to have knowledge about "brain death" or the "organ donation card" than their counter-parts in urban areas. The study identified that the principle respondents? source of information about organ donation was the television. More than 90% of respondents in rural and urban areas reported that the contribution of health care providers in providing them with knowledge about organ dona-tion and transplantation was "none" or "little". Respondents identified several reasons, which may influence their decisions to donate organs. In conclusion, the deficit in knowledge and attitudes of rural respondents about organ donation may be justified by the lack of information about this signi-ficant issue. Accordingly, health facilities, local mass media and educational institutions should provide intensive educational programs to encourage the public donate organs.
Harrold Leslie R
Full Text Available Abstract Background For patients to effectively manage gout, they need to be aware of the impact of diet, alcohol use, and medications on their condition. We sought to examine patients’ knowledge and beliefs concerning gout and its treatment in order to identify barriers to optimal patient self-management. Methods We identified patients (?18 years of age cared for in the setting of a multispecialty group practice with documentation of at least one health care encounter associated with a gout diagnosis during the period 2008–2009 (n?=?1346. Patients were sent a questionnaire assessing knowledge with regard to gout, beliefs about prescription medications used to treat gout, and trust in the physician. Administrative electronic health records were used to identify prescription drug use and health care utilization. Results Two hundred and forty patients returned surveys out of the 500 contacted for participation. Most were male (80%, white (94%, and aged 65 and older (66%. Only 14 (6% patients were treated by a rheumatologist. Only a minority of patients were aware of common foods known to trigger gout (e.g., seafood [23%], beef [22%], pork [7%], and beer [43%]. Of those receiving a urate-lowering medication, only 12% were aware of the short-term risks of worsening gout with initiation. These deficits were more common in those with active as compared to inactive gout. Conclusion Knowledge deficits about dietary triggers and chronic medications were common, but worse in those with active gout. More attention is needed on patient education on gout and self-management training.
Abdullah T. Eissa
Full Text Available Background: Health sciences students are expected to have appropriate knowledge and attitudes toward medication use. However, literary evidence of such expertise among health sciences students of King Saud University is unknown. This study was completed to assess the knowledge about medicines and behavior of health science students towards safe use of medications. It also aims to assess the health knowledge, attitude and practices of the students. Methods: This cross-sectional study used a questionnaire consisting of 24 questions. This was administered by the researcher between October and December 2009 in the colleges of medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, applied medical science and nursing of the King Saud University. The survey consisted of three parts: Ten questions assessed the students’ knowledge on drug safety (Part 1. Four questions assessed student attitude toward medication consultations by the pharmacist (Part 2 and ten questions involved medication use practices and consultation with pharmacists (Part 3. A stratified sampling method was used to select participants. Results: Pharmacy students had better medication knowledge compared to other health sciences students especially regarding antihypertensive drugs, antibiotics, paracetamol and antacids (p<0.05. Pharmacy students showed a positive attitude regarding the trustworthiness of a pharmacist to give a consultation. Nearly all other health science students showed a negative attitude about dispensing and consultation concerning nutritional supplements by a pharmacist. All health sciences students had a similar perception toward medication use and practice. Conclusion Pharmacy students had better knowledge about medication practice compared to other health sciences students. All other health sciences students lacked the appropriate attitude and practice related to the safe use of medications.
Nancy J. MacMullen
Full Text Available The objectives of this study of pregnant women with asthma are 1 to describe their knowledge and attitudes of asthma in pregnancy and their self-efficacy in carrying out their self-management plan during pregnancy, 2 to determine if their knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy changed as their pregnancy progressed, and 3 to ascertain the relationship between knowledge, attitudes, and self-esteem and age, education, trimester of pregnancy, weeks of pregnancy, the number of times pregnant and live births. Sixty-eight pregnant women who had an asthma diagnosis were given knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy questionnaires initially during the point of first contact (first or second trimester (Time I and subsequently during the latter part of their pregnancy (third trimester (Time II. A demographic data form was also administered at Times I and II. Data were collected in an urban academic medical clinic and analyzed using SPSS 17. Data analysis utilized frequencies, paired samples t tests, and linear regression. There were no significant differences between Time I and Time II in attitudes and self-efficacy. Significant differences were limited to the knowledge questionnaire (t = 4.370, p = 0.05. There was a significant relationship between education and knowledge. Pregnant women with asthma had gaps in their knowledge of asthma in pregnancy, although their knowledge increased as their pregnancy progressed from Time I to Time II. Also, the more education the women had, the better they understood asthma. Education for pregnant women with asthma is tailored to their needs and modified as necessary. Nurses are prepared to address this challenge.
Gass, J P
Three hundred and forty-five questionnaires containing the knowledge and attitude scale for ECT devised by Janicak et al. (1985) were distributed to mental health nurses working in Wales, the data were collected from the 167 returned. Limitations in the reliability of the instrument with respect to the degree of internal consistency were found, this suggested that the knowledge statements used were inconsistent in providing a reliable measure of respondents knowledge of ECT. Findings suggested that a higher level of knowledge appeared to be associated with the length of experience of the nurse and their area of clinical practice. In addition, there were substantial variations in actual knowledge, particularly with regard to cognitive side-effects with ECT. Attitudes to ECT in this study were significantly related to the place in which the nurse was practising and the degree of contact the nurse had with patients receiving the treatment. Greater knowledge scores were obtained by those nurses who indicated a more positive response towards ECT. The conclusions suggest that knowledge of ECT required improvement in many cases, and this has implications for nurse education. A relationship between knowledge and attitudes appears to exist in this study, however, such a relationship would need to be tested further in future research. PMID:9515612
Robinson, Karen M; Kiesler, Kay F; Looney, Stephen W
This pilot study explored the effect that respite care training had on volunteers' knowledge about Alzheimer's disease (AD), their attitudes toward the cognitively impaired, and their self-esteem. Volunteer respite providers (n = 52) were recruited and participated in four different day (seven-hour) respite care training programs. The sample was predominantly female (85 percent) and white (90 percent). Knowledge about AD increased significantly after respite training (p < .001), and attitudes toward someone who wanders were also significantly improved (p = .026). Overall, the findings support the immediate effectiveness of the respite training program. PMID:14682087
Marize Melo dos Santos
Full Text Available This quasi-experimental intervention was conducted with 10- to 14-year-old students enrolled in public schools in Teresina, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of a nutritional education program on the students’ knowledge, behaviour and attitudes towards nutrition. The dietary attitudes were evaluated in terms of food tastes/preferences and food behaviours. The participants in the study included 126 students from four schools. Differences between before and after the intervention were found regarding knowledge about the “food pyramid”, “healthy eating” and “nutrients” (p
Full Text Available Background: Acquired immunodeficiency may impose considerableconsequences on patients’ family behaviors towardthem. The objective of the present study was to investigatewhether a counseling program at Behavioral Counseling Centerin the city of Shiraz, Iran could change the attitude, knowledgeand behavior of patients' family members.Methods: 125 HIV/AIDS patients’ family members were interviewed,using a valid and reliable questionnaire before andafter performing counseling sessions at Behavioral CounselingCenter. The findings were analyzed using nonparametric tests.Results: The age of the participants was 40±13 years. Sixty fivepercent were female, 63% married and 79% educated. Forty fourpercent of participants had spousal relationships with their patients.Their knowledge about the main routes of HIV transmissionwere 9.76 ± 2.59 and10.64±0.88 before and after counseling,respectively (P=0.028. Supportive behaviors of families towardtheir patients reached to 79% after counseling compared with 44% before that (P=0.004. Belief to isolate the patients and thepractice of this approach at home dropped from 71% to 15% andfrom 29% to 7% after counseling, respectively (P0.05.Conclusion: Ongoing counseling for HIV/AIDS patients’ familiesat Behavioral Counseling Center of Shiraz did advance theirknowledge about AIDS and improved their attitude and behaviortoward their patients However, the counseling program didnot show remarkable success in some aspects such as the removalof fear about HIV spread in the family or the change ofthe patients’ wives attitude to have protected sex with their HIVinfected husbands.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(4: 287-292.
Background Internet surveys that draw from traditionally generated samples provide the unique conditions to engage adolescents in exploration of sensitive health topics. Methods We examined awareness of unwanted pregnancy, abortion behaviour, methods, and attitudes toward specific legal indications for abortion via a school-based internet survey among 378 adolescents aged 12–21 years in three Rio de Janeiro public schools. Results Forty-five percent knew peers who had undergone an abortion. Most students (66.0%) did not disclose abortion method knowledge. However, girls (aOR 4.2, 95% CI 2.4-7.2), those who had experienced their sexual debut (aOR1.76, 95% CI 1.1-3.0), and those attending a prestigious magnet school (aOR 2.7 95% CI 1.4-6.3) were more likely to report methods. Most abortion methods (79.3%) reported were ineffective, obsolete, and/or unsafe. Herbs (e.g. marijuana tea), over-the-counter medications, surgical procedures, foreign objects and blunt trauma were reported. Most techniques (85.2%) were perceived to be dangerous, including methods recommended by the World Health Organization. A majority (61.4%) supported Brazil’s existing law permitting abortion in the case of rape. There was no association between gender, age, sexual debut, parental education or socioeconomic status and attitudes toward legal abortion. However, students at the magnet school supported twice as many legal indications (2.7, SE.27) suggesting a likely role of peers and/or educators in shaping abortion views. Conclusions Abortion knowledge and attitudes are not driven simply by age, religion or class, but rather a complex interplay that includes both social spaces and gender. Prevention of abortion morbidity and mortality among adolescents requires comprehensive sexuality and reproductive health education that includes factual distinctions between safe and unsafe abortion methods. PMID:24521075
Abhimanyu Singh Chauhan
Full Text Available Background: India estimates third highest number of HIV infections in the world, with about 2.4 million people currently living with HIV/AIDS. Adequately trained and sensitized healthcare professionals can play a vital role in combating this epidemic. Limited studies have explored knowledge and attitudes of medical students relating to HIV/AIDS, particularly in the eastern part of India. Methods: The present cross sectional study explored knowledge and attitudes of first year MBBS, BDS & BPT students of Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS, Bhubaneswar, Odisha on HIV/AIDS using a self-administered questionnaire. Data thus collected were analyzedand relevant statistics were calculated. Knowledge and attitude scores were determined and analysis of variance (ANOVA test was used to examine the equality between the groups. Results: All students scored low on the overall knowledge scale (<10/15. Specifically, knowledgewas low on modes of transmission and treatment. Attitudinal scores in the areas of precautions and need for training on HIV was low for all the three streams.The willingness to treat HIV/AIDS patient was found to be high amongst study participants. Conclusion: There is a need and scope to provide correct and detailed information on HIV/AIDS for new entrants in medical and allied health sciences to help them acquire adequate knowledge and develop appropriate attitudes towards HIV/AIDS.
Full Text Available Introduction:One of the types of drug abuse is the use of euphoriantssuch asamphetamines and amphetamine compounds. As the use of these compounds is on the increase, this study was an attempt to determine the level of knowledge (Audio and Visual and attitude of students of Elmi-Karbordhigher education center at Tehran Jahad-e-Daneshgahiabout Ecstasy.Material and Methods:In this cross-sectional study, 247 students were randomly selected. Data were collected through a questionnaire containing 30 questions and analyzed by Chi-square test. The significance level was considered to be less than 0.05.Results:The results showed that the majority of students (85.6% had little visual knowledge. Audio knowledge among the students was 88.5% and their attitude about ecstasy was73.7% percent. There was no relationship between the students' visual and aural knowledge about the use of ecstasy with parents' present status, parents' education, family size and birth rank, but there was a significant relationship between audio knowledge and marital status and belief status (P < 0.05.Conclusion:According to the results of this study, the youth, especially young students, are vulnerable to the use of these pills. So, training programs are required for the young people to prevent the use of these pills.
Adesegun Ola Fatusi
Full Text Available AIM: This study was aimed at determining the knowledge of and attitude towards ARV therapy among People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA in Ife-Ijesa zone of Osun State, south west Nigeria. METHOD: One hundred and twenty subjects who received ARV drugs at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife (OAUTHC and Living Hope Care, Ilesa (LIHOC were recruited and studied. Relevant data were collected using an interviewer-administered, semi-structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions (FGD were also held among the subjects to further elicit qualitative information on the knowledge and attitude towards ARV. RESULTS: The age of respondents ranged from 21 to 65 years with a mean age of 40.2±10.3 years. Majority (70.8% were aged 15 to 44 years, with a female preponderance (male to female ratio of 1:1.9. Respondents had been on ARV drugs for a period ranging between 3 and 60 months. A majority (80.8% of the PLWHA had good knowledge of ARV drugs while a sizeable proportion (77% of them demonstrated a positive attitude towards it. Majority of FGD participants reported missing doses of ARV due to forgetfulness, hiding the drugs because of stigma and lack of funds. Marital status, level of education, religious affiliation and regular attendance at support group meeting were significantly associated with good knowledge of and positive attitude towards ARV while duration of commencement of ARV was only significantly associated with positive attitude towards ARV. CONCLUSION: PLWHA in Ife-Ijesa zone of Osun State demonstrated good knowledge of ARV therapy and also displayed a positive attitude towards it. There is a need to reinforce these factors, so that it can translate to good ARV adherence. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(3.000: 201-208
Jones, Abbey M.; Omer, Saad B.; Bednarczyk, Robert A.; Halsey, Neal A.; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Salmon, Daniel A.
In recent years, use of the Internet to obtain vaccine information has increased. Historical data are necessary to evaluate current vaccine information seeking trends in context. Between 2002 and 2003, surveys were mailed to 1,630 parents of fully vaccinated children and 815 parents of children with at least one vaccine exemption; 56.1% responded. Respondents were asked about their vaccine information sources, perceptions of these sources accuracy, and their beliefs about vaccination. Parents...
Johnson, R. M.; Runyan, C. W.; Coyne-Beasley, T; Lewis, M.A.; Bowling, J. M.
Although safe firearm storage is a promising injury prevention strategy, many parents do not keep their firearms unloaded and locked up. Using the theory of planned behavior as a guiding conceptual framework, this study examines factors associated with safe storage among married women with children and who have firearms in their homes. Data come from a national telephone survey (n?=?185). We examined beliefs about defensive firearm use, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and firea...
Zhou, Juyan Julia; Patel, Sameer J.; Jia, Haomiao; Weisenberg, Scott A.; Furuya, E. Yoko; Kubin, Christine J.; Alba, Luis; Rhee, Kyu; Saiman, Lisa
Objective To assess how healthcare professionals caring for patients in intensive care units (ICUs) understand and use antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) for multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB). Design A knowledge, attitude and practice survey assessed ICU clinicians knowledge of antimicrobial resistance, confidence interpreting susceptibility testing, and beliefs regarding the impact of susceptibility testing on patient outcomes. Setting 16 ICUs affiliated with New York-Presbyterian Hospital. Participants Attending physicians and subspecialty residents with primary clinical responsibilities in adult or pediatric ICUs and infectious diseases (ID) subspecialists and clinical pharmacists. Methods Participants completed an anonymous electronic survey. Responses included 4-level Likert scales dichotomized for analysis. Multivariate analyses were performed using Generalized Estimating Equations logistic regression to account for correlation of respondents from the same ICU. Results The response rate was 51% (178/349 eligible participants) of whom 120 (67%) were ICU physicians. Those caring for adult patients were more knowledgeable about antimicrobial activity and more familiar with MDR-GNB infections. Only 33% and 12% of ICU physicians were familiar with standardized and specialized AST methods, respectively, but >95% believed AST improved patient outcomes. When adjusted for demographic and healthcare provider characteristics, those familiar with treatment of MDR-GNB bloodstream infections, those aware of resistance mechanisms, and those aware of AST methods were more confident they could interpret AST and/or request additional in vitro testing. Conclusions Our study uncovered knowledge gaps and educational needs that could serve as the foundation for future interventions. Familiarity with MDR-GNB increased overall knowledge and familiarity with AST increased confidence interpreting these results. PMID:23388362
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a recognized occupational risk for health care workers (HCWs). This study aimed to assess the knowledge and beliefs of HCWs regarding HBV transmission and needle stick injuries (NSIs). A cross-sectional questionnaire based KAP study was conducted at Civil Hospital, Karachi, during the period of January to September 2006. HCWs were inquired about possible modes of HBV transmission and association with NSIs. Data were entered using EpiInfo 6.04d software. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 12.5 software. A total of 343 HCWs participated, and those answered at least 5 correct modes of HBV transmission were considered knowledgeable. Knowledgeable group was more likely to report NSIs (p < 0.006), more vaccinated (p < 0.001) and were also more likely to attend awareness session (p < 0.009). Overall knowledge were inadequate and behaviour and attitude towards clinical practices were found compromised. To reduce the occupational risk, effort should be focused to establish effective infection control program and training of staff. (author)
Sloat, Lisa M; Frierson, Richard L
We begin with a brief overview of the Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity (NGRI) and Guilty but Mentally Ill (GBMI) verdicts in the United States and then report on a study of qualified jurors (n=96) in which we examined jurors' understanding and attitudes about mental illness verdicts and the disposition of mentally ill defendants. Results indicate that although the jury pool was highly educated, only 4.2 percent of jurors could correctly identify both the definitions and dispositions of defendants found NGRI and GBMI. Jurors with lower educational levels were less likely to identify the dispositional outcome of a GBMI verdict (p<.05). Eighty-four percent of respondents believed that juries should be informed of dispositional outcome before deciding a verdict. Also, 68.4 percent of jurors erroneously believed that a defendant found GBMI could not receive the death penalty. Among jurors who correctly identified the definition of GBMI, those with lower educational levels were more punitive in their attitudes toward disposition of the GBMI defendants, believing they should eventually be sent to prison (p<.05). PMID:15985664
Jokic, Boris; Hargreaves, Linda
This paper describes the results of a mixed model research that, as the first of its kind, aimed to determine the nature of, and underlying factors influencing, Croatian elementary pupils' attitudes towards confessional Catholic religious education (RE). Analyses of the questionnaire responses of the eighth-grade pupils from the stratified…
Full Text Available Objective: Despite the proved effectiveness of Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT in the treatment of many psychiatric emergencies and disorders, there are many misconceptions and groundless negative attitudes about its prescription and utilization by many health professionals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an educational experience including a two hours lecture on ECT and viewing a video of the ECT procedure on nursing students’ knowledge of and attitudes towards ECT. Methodology: A quasi experimental research design was used to conduct the current study. A 28 – items (two constructs measuring students’ attitudes and knowledge self administered questionnaire was administered before and after exposure to the two – hour lecture and a movie representing the ECT procedure to a non probability convenience sample of ninety seven female nursing students. Informed written consent was obtained from all students who agreed to participate in the study. Results: Paired sample T. test showed significant differences in students’ scores before and after their educational experience in the psychiatric/mental health nursing course as following: attitude scores (t = 20.507, P t = 20.697, p t = 23.849, p Conclusion: Positive educational experiences would increase the knowledge of ECT, which might in turn contribute to more favorable attitudes towards ECT. Proper educational materials and mass media programs aiming to increase students and practitioners’ awareness about ECT are recommended.
Dworkin, Mark S.; Peterson, Caryn E.; Gao, Weihua; Mayor, Angel; Hunter, Robert; Negron, Edna; Fleury, Alison; Besch, C. Lynn
Persons living with AIDS are highly vulnerable to foodborne enteric infections including recurrent Salmonella septicemia and toxoplasmosis of the brain with the potential for substantial morbidity and mortality. Patients with immunologic AIDS in Chicago, New Orleans, and Bayamon were interviewed to determine gaps in food safety knowledge and prevalence of related behaviors in order to create targeted educational material for this population. A food safety score was calculated based on responses to 40 knowledge, belief, and behavior questions. Among 268 AIDS patients interviewed, the overall food safety score was 63% (range 28% to 93%). Many patients believed it was okay to eat higher risk food (38% for eating eggs served loose or runny, 27% for eating store-bought hot dogs without heating them first), 40% did not know that eating unpasteurized cheese may get germs inside their body that could cause hospitalization and possibly death, and 40% would not throw away salad that had been splashed with a few drops of raw chicken juice. These data demonstrate substantial knowledge gaps and behavioral risk related to acquisition of foodborne disease among AIDS patients. Healthcare providers should incorporate education regarding foodborne disease risk into routine outpatient discussion of improving and maintaining their health. PMID:25061438
Gupta, Pooja; Anvikar, Anupkumar R; Valecha, Neena; Gupta, Yogendra K
Objective. With large scale rollout of artemisinin based therapy in the National Malaria Control Programme of India, a risk management plan is needed. This depends on adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting by the healthcare professionals (HCPs). For the programme to be successful, an understanding of the mindset of HCPs is critical. Hence, the present study was designed to assess and compare the ADR reporting beliefs of HCPs involved in the National Malaria Control Programme of India. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst the HCPs who manage malaria up to the district level in India. A 5-point Likert scale-based questionnaire was developed as a study tool. Results. A total of 154 HCPs participated in the study (age: 42.4 ± 10.1 years with 33.8% being females). About 61% felt that only medically qualified HCPs are responsible for ADR reporting. Likeliness to report in future was mentioned by 45% HCPs. The knowledge score was relatively lower for life science graduates (P = 0.09). Knowledge correlated positively with attitude (r (2) = 0.114; P < 0.0001). Conclusion. Based on the caveats identified, a specific and targeted in-service education with hands-on training on ADR monitoring and reporting needs to be designed to boost real time pharmacovigilance in India. PMID:25302133
Prokop, Pavol; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale
Knowledge of animals may influence children's beliefs and behaviour toward them, thus building positive attitudes toward animals is one of main goals of environmental education programmes. Although keeping animals contributes to the increase of children's positive attitudes toward wild animals, pet owners show similar negative attitudes toward…
Larsen, John J.; Juhasz, Anne McCreary
Investigated the relationship between the combined effect of knowledge of child development and level of social-emotional maturity, and the extent to which this relationship affects adolescent attitudes toward parenting. Negative attitudes toward parenting were associated with lack of knowledge of child development and low levels of…
Kasper, Mark J.; Garber, Michele; Walsdorf, Kristie
Background: About 40% of White American women over age 50 experience osteoporosis-related fracture of the hip, spine, or wrist during their lives. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the level of osteoporosis knowledge and beliefs among young women. Methods: University women (n=302) completed a self-administered osteoporosis risk…
Franco, Gina M.; Muis, Krista R.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Ranellucci, John; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Wang, Xihui
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of epistemic beliefs and knowledge representations in cognitive and metacognitive processing when learning about physics concepts through text. Specifically, we manipulated the representation of physics concepts in texts about Newtonian mechanics and explored how these texts interacted with…
Nichols, Joe D.; White, Janet J.; Price, Margret
This study was designed to examine the epistemological beliefs about the nature of knowledge, views of intelligence and motivational perceptions. Two samples were drawn from two large urban high schools in the Southwest portion of the United States with large Hispanic/Latino student populations while a third was drawn from a majority Anglo student…
Veiga, Luisa; Teixeira, Filomena; Martins, Isabel; Melico-Silvestre, Antonio
Sex education in Portugal has become a right and an obligation starting in the first years of school. However, despite being required by legislation, this is not easy to achieve, partly because of weaknesses in the training of teachers, which need to be identified. In this study, data were collected about the knowledge, behaviours and beliefs of…
What is the distribution of attitudes towards the large-scale application of coal and uranium. How can these attitudes be explained from belief systems. What are the perceived probabilities of a number of consequences from these energy sources. What are the consequences of these attitudes for behaviour and behavioural intentions. What normative influences play a role. These questions are addressed on the basis of a national survey held in the Netherlands. Attention is also paid to other aspects of people's evaluations of these energy technologies, e.g. information level, imaginability of accidents, anxiety and involvement with the problems perceived. The study has been designed following an extended and adapted version of the attitude-behaviour model of Fishbein and Ajzen (1975). (author)
Kheir N; Gad HY; Abu-Yousef SE
Nadir Kheir, Hoda Y Gad, Safae E Abu-Yousef College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Al Tarfa, Doha, Qatar Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitude of pharmacists in Qatar towards natural health products (NHPs). Methods: The quantitative component of this study consisted of an anonymous, online, self-administered questionnaire to assess knowledge about NHPs among pharmacists in Qatar. Descriptive statistics and inferential analysis were conducted using Statistical Package of Social Scienc...
Shah Alam Khan; Anas Younis Duraz
Objective: This study aims to investigate the knowledge and attitudes among pharmacists in Oman towards the specific use and knowledge of herbal drugs. Methods: The study was conducted on 100 pharmacists employed in Oman. The data was collected using two self- administered questionnaire containing 7 and 11 closed ended questions in each, respectively. Results: The mean age of pharmacists was 32.6 (SD=5.6) years. The majority of pharmacists were interested in herbal information and their her...
Hassed, C.; Antoniades, J.; Km, Jones; Rajaratnam, S.; Kiropolous, L.; Naughton, M.; Piterman, L.
Background: Sleep disorders represent an under-recognised public health problem and are reported to be underdiagnosed in general practices.Aims: To examine general practitioners’ (GPs) attitude, knowledge and practice behaviour and identify barriers to detection,diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders encountered in the Australian primary care setting.Method: Using mixed methods, quantitative data from the Dartmouth Sleep Knowledge Questionnaire (DSKQ) were analysedusing MS Excel 2007. Q...
Al-Mazrou, Yagob Y.; Mohammad S. Abouzeid; Al-Jeffri, Mohammad H
OBJECTIVES To assess the impact of health education on the knowledge and attitudes of paramedical students in Saudi Arabia toward HIV/AIDS. METHODS We carried out an interventional study on a sample selected from students of health institutes and health colleges in Saudi Arabia during the calendar year 2002-2003. RESULTS The intervention shows a positive effect on students' knowledge regarding means of transmission of HIV and means of protection from HIV/AIDS. Furthermore,...
Stephens, Lindsey L.; Bachhuber, Marcus A; Seloilwe, Esther; Gungqisa, Nontombi; Mmelesi, Mpho; Bussmann, Hermann; Marlink, Richard G; Wester, C. William
Students at the University of Botswana, an at-risk group, have previously been shown to have high levels of risky sexual behavior despite widespread knowledge that these behaviors might lead to HIV-1 infection. As there have recently been considerable efforts focused on HIV-1 prevention in Botswana through nationwide media education campaigns and the opening of voluntary counselling and testing centers, re-evaluation of HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices among students is needed....
Shrestha Mohan; Chidi Buddhi Bal
Background: Tobacco is a major public health threat the world has ever faced. It is a risk factor for six of the eight leading causes of death in the world. Without the effective implementation of tobacco regulation policy, the risk itself cannot be minimized. The aim of this study is to provide the adolescents knowledge of the health effects of active and passive smoking, and knowledge and attitudes towards tobacco control measures. Materials and Methods: A descriptive type of study was cond...
Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of the smoking habit among Mexican physicians as well as some of their attitudes and information on specific issues concerning smoking. Material and methods. In 1993, a survey was carried out among 3 568 physicians of the three major official health care institutions in Mexico City. A questionnaire designed for The Mexican National Survey of Addictions (ENA 1993 was used. Prevalence of cigarette smoking, age of onset, number of cigarettes per day; also information and attitudes concerning smoking were assessed. Results. The mean age was 37, 66% were males. Of the 3,488 (98% surveyed, 26.9% were smokers (62% daily, 20.6% were ex-smokers and 52.5% non-smokers. There were differences related to age and sex (p< 0.05. Of daily smokers, 36% smoked between 1 and 5 cigarettes. There was a significant trend among ex-smokers that linked the time they had ceased smoking with the fear to start smoking again. Physicians were well informed of the relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. Over 80% considered tobacco an addictive drug but only 65% were in favor of banning smoking from their workplaces and over 10% were not aware that it is forbidden to smoke inside health care facilities. Conclusions. These results differ from other studies that find the prevalence of smoking among physicians lower than in the general population. Our study revealed a greater prevalence of the smoking habit among female physicians and the number of cigarettes smoked per day was greater than in the general population regardless of sex.
How can you improve and focus on the knowledge produced through a design project by design students? The range of skills and competencies in design education is not limited to the ability to handle different types of projects themes. In an overall perspective a master education at a university is also about acquiring skills and competencies in adapting, producing and reflecting on knowledge in a design process. Using learning theory in a number of cases this paper will unfold the principles, structure and tools used in the process reporting to describe the inherent reflections in the design process can emphasize the knowledge production aspects of the process. By making the reflections and evaluation more explicit and accessible this provide a platform for the student to relate to the type of knowledge produced by various activities and methods making theory of science very tangible and inherent in the process. It also allows for an examination that revolves around how the design solution came to be, rather than focusing on the solution itself and thus placing the design student’s awareness on knowledge production as a central and embedded part and of the education.
Naquin, Millie; Cole, Diane; Bowers, Ashley; Walkwitz, Ed
The purpose of this study was to investigate environmental health knowledge, attitudes and practices of children enrolled in grades four through eight at a university laboratory school in southeast Louisiana, U.S.A. Quantitative and qualitative questions were completed through an online survey. The children's written responses to the survey…
Werner, S.; Stawski, M.; Polakiewicz, Y.; Levav, I.
Background: Psychiatrists are responsible for providing proper care for people with intellectual disability who have psychiatric disorders. This study examined psychiatrists' perceptions of their own training, knowledge and therapeutic skills, as well as their attitudes towards this population. Methods: Questionnaires were distributed to 679…
M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.
Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…
This study was designed to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of a cohort of Iranian community pharmacists about the pharmaceutical care indexes and drug therapy in female epileptic patients. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran (2011) and one hundred and twenty two community pharmacists were randomly selected using clustering method for sampling. A self-administered questionnaire which was originally made by a clinical pharmacy focus group was used. This questionnaire had 10 true/false questions for knowledge assessing (Spearman-Brown coefficient, 0.65) and 19 attitude statements (with Likert scale) about the intention of pharmacists for providing pharmaceutical care for epileptic females (Croanbach's alpha, 0.802). Face and content validity for both parts of the questionnaire were performed before the study. Results: There was a significant inverse relationship between pharmacists' knowledge on pharmaceutical care for epileptic females and the time elapsed from their graduation date. Considering the minimum passing score of 5, 85% of pharmacists did not have enough knowledge. The range of pharmacists' attitude scores was 35 to 64 and its mean was 46.09. Regarding the minimum passing score of 45, 63.3% of pharmacists had positive attitude to AEDs in epileptic females. Conclusion: It seems that the pharmaceutical care for epileptic females is a missing part of Pharmacy education. It is highly recommended to pay special attention to this topicded to pay special attention to this topic in continuing education programs for Iranian pharmacists. (author)
Preservation of food with ionizing radiation treatment offers many benefits to consumers. Among other factors, the lack of certainty of the acceptance of this process by the public has slowed its commercial use in the U.S. Since home economists deal with food-related issues, it is likely that they will be asked questions by the public about this process. This project was designed to obtain information using a survey method about the knowledge and attitudes of selected California home economists toward the use of irradiation to preserve food. The information was used to determine whether a need existed to provide education about the irradiation process to these professionals. The survey revealed that these home economists lacked knowledge about the irradiation process, although they had a positive attitude toward it and desired to learn more about it. Based on these findings, a 90-minute statewide teleconference was conducted and viewed by more than 300 home economists and other interested professionals. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to analyze the data. Results revealed that (a) knowledge of and a positive attitude toward food irradiation increased as a result of participation in the teleconference, (b) the information provided was helpful, and (c) the objectives of the teleconference were met. This project should be replicated using a nationwide sample of home economists to obtain information about the knowledge and attitudes of a wide range of home economists about food irradiation and, if a need is demonstrated, a nationwide teleconference should be conducted
Boubonari, Theodora; Markos, Angelos; Kevrekidis, Theodoros
A structured questionnaire was administered to assess Greek pre-service primary teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported behavior toward marine pollution issues. Exploratory factor analysis revealed several factors, all demonstrating adequate internal consistency, and showed that pre-service teachers demonstrated a moderate level of…
Macaulay, Araxi P.; Griffin, Kenneth W.; Gronewold, Elizabeth; Williams, Christopher; Botvin, Gilbert J.
The current study explored the relationships between parenting practices and adolescent drug use. Suburban middle school students (N = 2129) completed surveys that included measures of perceived parental monitoring, discipline and setting an anti-drug message as well as measures of drug-related knowledge, attitudes and peer norms. Results…
Mifsud, Mark C.
Not much is known about the environmental knowledge, attitudes and actions of young people in the Maltese islands. The main actors that are responsible for the acquisition and development of environmental perspectives of young people in Malta are also not well known. There is as yet, little understanding of the extent to which these actors are…
Mifsud, Mark C.
There is a considerable body of literature on research on environmental knowledge, attitude and action. A lot of research has occurred on the primary and secondary school populations and the general population. However, much less emphasis has been placed on studies that concern post-compulsory education students in the range from 16 to 18 years…
He, Xueqin; Hong, Ting; Liu, Lan; Tiefenbacher, John
Environmental problems in China are intensifying and it is vital to evaluate the environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of the generation poised to inherit their management. This study examines a survey of environmental awareness among Chinese students (aged between 16 and 20 years). Considering the contrasting levels of regional…
Spellman, Claire; Craike, Melinda; Livingston, Patricia M.
Objectives: This study examined the knowledge, attitudes and practices of clinicians in promoting physical activity to prostate cancer survivors. Design: A purposeful sample was used and cross-sectional data were collected using an anonymous, self-reported online questionnaire or an identical paper-based questionnaire. Settings: Health services…
Conclusions: The reasons for self-medication were similar among medical and non-medical students, but positive attitude and knowledge toward self-medication was more among the medical students. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(6.000: 988-994
Warnell, Ronald L.; Duk, Anthony D.; Christison, George W.; Haviland, Mark G.
Objective: To compare the effects of learning about electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) via live observation to learning via an instructional videotape. Method: During their psychiatry clerkship, 122 medical students were randomized using these two educational methods, and their ECT knowledge and attitudes were assessed during the first and last weeks…
Pebdani, Roxanna N.
This study examined the effect of rehabilitation counseling students' age, sex, disability status, geographic location, marital status, religion, sexual orientation, and level of sexuality training on knowledge, comfort, approach, and attitudes toward the sexuality of people with disabilities. Participants were 312 rehabilitation counseling…
Ajiboye, Josiah O.; Silo, Nthalivi
An intervention study was set up through the School Civic Clubs to improve Botswana children's environmental knowledge, attitudes and practices. The underlying assumption in using this informal approach was based on the premise that the school time table is already overcrowded and that the infusion approach currently adopted in the country has not…
Metzger, Mitchell M
Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants' attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings. PMID:25651094
Manspeaker, Sarah A.; Van Lunen, Bonnie L.; Turocy, Paula S.; Pribesh, Shana; Hankemeier, Dorice
Context: While evidence-based practice (EBP) concepts are being taught in health profession education programs, models of instruction and effectiveness of these models are not evident in athletic training. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Evidence-Based Teaching Model (EBTM) in increasing student knowledge, attitudes, and use of…
Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Aamri, Shamsa S.
The current study explores the effectiveness of involving students in environmental science projects for their environmental knowledge and attitudes towards science. The study design is a quasi-experimental pre-post control group design. The sample was 62 11th-grade female students studying at a public school in Oman. The sample was divided into…
van der Linden, Wietse; Bakx, Anouke; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe; Vermeulen, Marc
The aim of this study is to investigate the experiences of student teachers participating in an introductory course, designed to stimulate the development of a positive attitude towards research and to stimulate the development of research knowledge and skills by second-year student teachers of an institute of primary teacher education. A…
Alderson, Kevin G.; Orzeck, Tricia L.; McEwen, Scott C.
In this study we investigated Alberta high school counsellors' knowledge about homosexuality and their attitudes toward gay males. Three questionnaires were mailed to 648 high school counselling centres; 223 individuals returned the completed questionnaires. Most counsellors attained low scores in measured homo-negativity and high scores regarding…
Hu, Guangwei; Lei, Jun
This article reports on a mixed-methods study of Chinese university students' knowledge of and attitudes toward plagiarism in English academic writing. A sample of 270 undergraduates from two Chinese universities rated three short English passages under different conditions, provided open-ended responses to justify their ratings, and completed a…
Tolhurst, Denise; Debus, Raymond L.
Describes a study of Australian secondary school students that identified the conditions and individual characteristics that would best support learners' acceptance of control within hypermedia, based on evidence from the learner control literature. Investigated effects of prior domain knowledge, learning activity structure, ability, and attitudes…
Saleh, Mahasin F.; Anngela-Cole, Linda; Boateng, Alice
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of diversity infusion modules provided to university students in a predominantly white homogeneous community. A mixed-method approach using a pre-post retrospective design was used to measure attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge about diversity issues, and included a comparison group…
Wu, Li-Wei; Lin, Lan-Ping; Chen, Si-Fan; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Loh, Ching-Hui; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding
The study aims to explore knowledge and attitudeSs regarding cervical cancer screening and to examine its determinants based on the perspectives of Taiwanese women with physical disabilities living in the community. A cross-sectional survey was employed in the study, and we recruited 498 women aged more than 15 years who were officially registered…
Burcharth, Ana Luiza Lara de Araújo; SØndergaard, Helle Alsted
A key organizational barrier related to the implementation of open innovation strategies refers to the unwillingness of employees to undertake extra-organizational knowledge transactions. Negative attitudes against the utilization of external knowledge (i.e. the Not-invented-here (NIH) syndrome), as well as against the external commercialization of knowledge assets, for example, via licensing (i.e. the Not-sold-here (NSH) syndrome), may create resistance to these activities and, consequently, a misalignment between the intentions of top management and the attitudes of involved employees (Katz and Allen, 1982; Lichtenthaler et al., 2010). In this paper, we examine the extent to which these attitudes impact the actual adoption of both the inbound and the outbound approaches to open innovation. We posit that these attitudes have a negative influence, since they create unfavourable perceptions of the value of outside competencies and know-how, supporting only internal development and application of ideas and technologies. We test two hypotheses concerning the consequences of the NIH- and NSH-syndromes with cross-sectional survey data from 355 Danish firms. The population consists of firms in the manufacturing industries (NACE codes 10-37) with 5-499 employees. Our findings help explain the extent to which companies are able to benefit from inflows and outflows of knowledge.
Full Text Available Introduction: Nutritional concepts learned by young girls as would-be mothers will play an important part in children’s and family's health. This study aimed at evaluating nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice of female junior high school students in two regions of Iran. Methods: In this descriptive study, 587 female students within the age range of 11 to 16 years old were selected through random sampling in cities of Malayer and Shahrood in 2009. To evaluate the nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP, questionnaires containing items on demographic, KAP and food behaviors were used. Based on the yielded results analyzed by SPSS software Pack, those who scored 75%, within the range of 75%- 50% and lower than 50% of the highest score were considered as desirable, moderate and low, respectively. Results: On the Whole, the majority of subjects in the two cities, had moderate knowledge (59.5%, had good attitude (55.2% and had moderate practice (55.53%. Conclusions: The results showed that the subjects had moderate knowledge and practice, but since nutritional practice does not accord with their attitude, constant nutritional intervention seems necessary.
Full Text Available The aim of this descriptive study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of the first and fourth-year students (n=190 of Inonu University Health High School concerning HIV/AIDS. The questionnaire that developed by investigators was applied to students under observation. The main source of information was the lectures on the school. Mean scores on the knowledge of the fourth-year students were significantly higher than the first-year students. General knowledge scores of health official students were higher than midwifery and nursing students. The fourth-year students were highly knowledgeable about the transmission routes and precaution than first-year students. More than half of the students declared that they would not avoid from a person with HIV/AIDS, they would not fear to touch with a person with the disease and they would worry about getting AIDS. Nearly half of the students would not live together in the same home with a person with HIV/AIDS. Mean scores of the knowledge and the number of correct answers on main questions are definitely higher for the students. However, their some knowledge and attitudes to patients with AIDS were contradictory. This results suggest a need for effective strategies and education programmes for prevention and therapy of HIV/AIDS and developing positive attitudes to people with AIDS. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 175-180
Full Text Available The aim of this descriptive study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of the first and fourth-year students (n=190 of Inonu University Health High School concerning HIV/AIDS. The questionnaire that developed by investigators was applied to students under observation. The main source of information was the lectures on the school. Mean scores on the knowledge of the fourth-year students were significantly higher than the first-year students. General knowledge scores of health official students were higher than midwifery and nursing students. The fourth-year students were highly knowledgeable about the transmission routes and precaution than first-year students. More than half of the students declared that they would not avoid from a person with HIV/AIDS, they would not fear to touch with a person with the disease and they would worry about getting AIDS. Nearly half of the students would not live together in the same home with a person with HIV/AIDS. Mean scores of the knowledge and the number of correct answers on main questions are definitely higher for the students. However, their some knowledge and attitudes to patients with AIDS were contradictory. This results suggest a need for effective strategies and education programmes for prevention and therapy of HIV/AIDS and developing positive attitudes to people with AIDS. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(3: 175-180
Abdi, Ibrahim Ali; Ereg, Deria; Ali, Mahdi; Rahlenbeck, Sibylle I
This study aimed to evaluate the level of knowledge concerning HIV transmission and the attitudes towards AIDS among a rural semi-nomadic community in Somaliland. Cross-sectional survey. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted via a household survey in Sharmake, a village in the Hargeisa district, Somaliland. 141 adults living within 7 km of the village center were asked to complete the survey. Questions about HIV transmission as well as attitudes towards those afflicted were included. The majority of respondents (91 %) had heard of AIDS. Most respondents demonstrated a low to moderate understanding of HIV transmission. Less than half of the respondents (n = 61; 43.6 %) were able to identify 4 means of transmission correctly out of 6 possibilities. Degree of knowledge was unrelated to age or gender. There was a significant positive correlation between an accepting attitude of HIV and knowledge concerning HIV transmission. Stigma against HIV was found among the participants. More than half (58 %) of respondents expressed a desire to be tested, most of whom were deemed to have a high level of knowledge. Knowledge is a significant factor in the prevention of HIV infection. Therefore, information about AIDS and its prevention needs to be disseminated among the rural population immediately. Radio campaigns should focus on increasing public knowledge concerning HIV transmission and reducing stigma against HIV. It is also vital that HIV tests be made available to the remote population. PMID:23014800
Full Text Available Abstract Background Military conscripts may experience a change in their attitude towards sex at times when sexual urges are at their peak during their physical growth. This study examines the experience, understanding, knowledge and attitudes regarding sexual activity of the military conscripts. Methods Data was obtained from a cross-sectional survey of 1127 young adult military conscripts, and were evaluated in Southern Taiwan from January to July 2009, their demographic data, sexual knowledge, attitudes and activities were assessed. Results Nearly 43% of the participants had performed penetrative vaginal intercourse at least once; 34% of the participants performed heterosexual oral sex at least once; almost 7% of participants had had homosexual intercourse, and 7.5% of participants had experienced homosexual oral sex in the past year. The mean sexual knowledge score based on 30 questions was 23.2 ± 4.0. The higher the educational level of the participants, the greater sexual knowledge they had obtained. Conclusion This study found that 43% of unmarried young recruits had experienced premarital sexual activity. However, their sexual knowledge was insufficient and should be strengthened by sex education from an earlier age. College aged and adult learners also have sex education needs, especially with regard to integrating sexuality and life, being able to relate responsibly as sexual beings to others, the use of contraception, and about sexually transmitted disease. Keywords Young recruits, Sexual behavior, Sexual knowledge, Sex education
Mahendra Adhi Nugroho
Full Text Available Knowledge sharing is one of sub issues in knowledge management. This research aims to investigate the relationship among informal knowledge sharing, attitude to avoid sharing risk and Trust. The data collected from 439 respondents. Statistical power analysis was run to reject type 1 and type 2 statistical errors and to get practical significations on hypotheses test results. Instrument validity of this research tested using discriminant validity and convergent validity. Instrument of this research has good reliability score. This research use first order Partial Least Square (PLS technique to test research model. Attitude to Avoid Sharing Risk have negative correlation with Informal Knowledge Sharing. Attitude to Avoid Sharing Risk have negative correlation with Trust. Trust has a positive correlation with Informal Knowledge Sharing. This research does discussion using descriptive data and individual character of respondents. This research use extraversion and openness to experiences, two of basic individual characters, to explain unsupported hypotheses. Two interesting findings are identified first respondent concern on sharing risk is one of key factors in informal knowledge sharing behaviors. Second, individual characteristics will influence overall sharing behavior.
Jalil Kuhpayeh Zadeh
Full Text Available Background and aim: Osteoporosis, a multifactor disease characterized by reduction of bone mass. It is a major cause of fractures especially femoral fractures leading to morbidity, mortality and decreased quality of life. Although there is no known cure, osteoporosis and related fractures are largely preventable. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP are the important components of any effective preventive program.The purpose of this investigation was to determine the level of KAP of osteoporosis among a group of Iranian adolescent females. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted to determine the KAP level of osteoporosis on 626 randomly selected school girls aged 10-19 (13.9±1.4 years coming from rural and urban regions of Tehran and other provinces to students' camp in north of Tehran. A designed questionnaire with four parts containing questions regarding demographic information, knowledge, attitude and practice was used in this study. Questions were made based on YES/NO and Don't Know in knowledge and attitude (this third option allowed the respondent a choice without guessing and just Yes /No related to the practice. Students were asked to read the guidelines and then to complete the questionnaire when they were in the camp. We descript +2 for correct responses, 0 for incorrect responses and +1 for don't know answers. The ethical committee of the Iran University of Medical Sciences & Health services approved the study. The SPSS version 11.5 statistical software was used for analysis. ANOVA, Pearson and student t-test were performed to compare mean values and significant P- value was considered at P<0.05. Results: The total score of KAP was 2-65(43.3±13.8 .In details a range between 14-30(23±2.9, 10-22(19.2±2.4 and 2-18(10.1±2.8 were seen in knowledge, attitude and practice respectively. There was a direct correlation between total score of KAP and parents' education. Students& Knowledge and attitude, and also attitude and practice had a positive correlation. There were no relationship between parents occupation, family number and total score of KAP. Conclusion: Iranian adolescent females would have relevant knowledge about osteoporosis but attitude and practice of them were less than knowledge. We recommend to perform further training programs to increase practice of Iranian young women about osteoporosis.
Sonam Zangmu Sherpa
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude, practice and preferences on contraceptive methods among the female population, to determine the association between knowledge and attitude on contraceptive methods with the variables.Materials and methods: A Descriptive survey of 136 females between 18- 45 year of age were done using a structured knowledge questionnaire, structured attitude scale and opinionnaire on practice and preference during the month of January 2012 to February 2012 at Moodu Alevoor village, Udupi district, Karnataka. Simple random sampling was used to select the village and purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample.Results: It was shown that 48.5% were of 26-35 years of age, 92% were Hindus, 45.6% had higher secondary education, 41.2% were house wives, 55.9% had family monthly income below 5000 rupees, 49.3% were from nuclear family, 64% were married between 19-25 years, 43.3% had 2-3 years of married life and 52.2% had one pregnancy. Majority (55.9% had one living child and 98.5% got information through health personnel. Majority (67.60% had moderate knowledge on contraceptive methods and 17.60% had high knowledge. Majority (87.50% had favourable attitude and 12.50% had unfavourable attitude towards contraceptive methods. From the group of studied women 38.23% did not use any contraceptive methods, 19.85% used OCPs and minimum 1.47% used injection as contraceptive method. In this study 37.5% preferred OCPs as Rank 1, male condom (22.1% as Rank 2 and injection (16.3% as Rank 3. There was association between knowledge with educational status(c2 = 47.14, p=0.001, occupation (c2 =15.81, p=0.044, family monthly income (c2 =6.473, p=0.039 and duration of marriage (c2=6.721, p=0.035. There was no association between attitude and the studied variables.Conclusion: The study showed that majority of the females had moderate knowledge and favourable attitude
The public opinion in the Netherlands about nuclear energy has been rather stable during recent years. Since the Chernobyl accident roughly 60% of the Dutch population is opposed to extension of the use of nuclear energy. Nuclear experts play an important role in the formation of public opinion about nuclear energy. In this paper the social and cultural background of 87 Dutch nuclear energy experts is analyzed with respect to religious belief, age, life style, membership of a political party, birth order and career pattern. 2 figs., 2 tabs., 16 refs
Churchill, R.; Allen, J.; Denman, S; D. Williams; Fielding, K.; von Fragstein, M
BACKGROUND: Teenagers are believed to have health concerns that are not adequately addressed in primary care because of perceived barriers that inhibit them from consulting a general practitioner (GP). We report the results of a study examining links between potential attitudinal barriers and actual help-seeking behaviour. AIM: To determine whether the attitudes of teenagers towards general practice are associated with differences in consultation patterns. METHOD: Results of a postal question...
Oluwatunmise Awojobi; Ray Croucher
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to explore tobacco control-related education of health profession students and demonstrate variations according to course of study. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey of 154 of third year nursing, pharmacy, medical and dental students in a tertiary institution in Lagos, Nigeria. The validated Global Health Professional Students survey questionnaire was used to collect data on recall of tobacco-related training, attitudes to tobacco control and ...
Yolanda, Kolisa; Olalekan, Ayo-Yusuf.
Full Text Available Seventy to ninety percent of HIV-infected individuals have oral lesions that affect their quality-of-life. Caregivers play an important role in complementing the healthcare team. It is essential that the caregivers have optimal knowledge, beliefs and practices toward the management of care regarding [...] oral-lesions in HIV-infected patients in caregiving institutions in Johannesburg, South Africa. To measure the knowledge, beliefs and practices relating to oral lesions in HIV infection amongst caregivers in caregiving institutions in Johannesburg. This cross-sectional pilot study conducted during 2005 and 2006 involved caregivers in palliative care institutions in Region 8, Johannesburg Metropolitan area (n = 52). Using a questionnaire, information obtained included demographics, knowledge, beliefs and practices with regard to oral care for HIV-positive patients. Principal component analysis was used to extract questionnaire items of the knowledge domain. The knowledge domain displayed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach ?-score of > 0.91). Of the caregivers, 65.4% had received training in oral care. Compared to caregivers not trained in oral care (NTOC), those caregivers trained in oral care (TOC) were more likely to be older (31 yrs vs. 44 yrs; p = 0.001), female (72% vs. 94%; p = 0.03) and were less likely to be employed on a full-time basis (94% vs. 68%; p = 0.03). Compared with NTOCs, TOCs had more knowledge regarding HIV-specific lesions and 'routine' oral-care for the patients (p
Full Text Available Introduction: These days family planning is considered a fundamental principle in human life. This study aimed to investigate family planning service providers knowledge about and attitude toward pregnancy prevention methods in shahrood in 2008. Methods: This research was a cross-sectional and applied one. In this study a questionnaire including 8 general items and 52 specialized ones was administered to service providers. The studied population (162 people were all service providers working in health houses and urban and rural health centers in shahrood. The correlation between variables was calculated through Pearson correlation coefficient and the means of groups were compared through analysis of variance (ANOVA. The results have been show in the form of tables and diagrams. Results: 152 people the majority of whom (73.7% were women participated in the study. 74.3% of participants had high school diploma and below degrees. 7.9 % had associative and 2.6% had BS degrees in family health. 15.1% had BS degrees in midwifery. The Knowledge mean score was 17.9±2.7 out of 25 which indicates average knowledge of service providers. The attitude mean score was 71±10.3 out of 108 that indicates the positive attitude of family planning service providers. The results showed a significant relationship between knowledge and sex job level of education unit of service providing work experience and type of prevention used by the service providers (P=0.001. However there was no significant relationship between attitude and sex service unit and work experience. Conclusion: Noting the average knowledge and the positive attitudes of the family planning service providers and noting the unreliable prevention methods about one-third of them use providing all ranks of service providers with educational classes about family planning seems to be a considerable help for planning and promotion of mothers health plans.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa. The sample included 70 female sex workers from the Tzaneen and Phalaborwa area in the Limpopo Province. A modified form of snowball sampling known as “targeted” sampling was used for identifying female sex workers. Results showed an inadequate knowledge of HIV prevention methods and some incorrect beliefs about AIDS transmission. Most sex workers reported condom use with their last sex client, inconsistent condom use with paying partners, and had poor condom use with regular partners. One third were drinking alcohol daily, one quarter had had voluntary HIV tests, and three quarters had been exposed to HIV interventions. Findings are discussed and implications for HIV interventions outlined.
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to obtain a description of teachers' and students' beliefs about classroom misbehaviour and evaluate to what extent these beliefs guide their decisions and judgements. 1.389 students (13 to 16 years old and 170 teachers of ESO (Compulsory Secondary Education from northeast Spain have been evaluated by means of a questionnaire designed for this purpose. Results show that behaviour considered socially undesirable is valued as more deserving of penalty than misbehaviour with a less negative social evaluation, even though having a great impact on teaching and learning activities. The students' responses also showed that almost half of them do not recognise classroom-discipline actions carried out by teachers when those actions do not match their expectations. El objetivo de este trabajo es obtener una descripción de las percepciones de los profesores y estudiantes acerca del comportamiento disruptivo y evaluar como estas creencias guían sus decisiones y juicios. 1.389 estudiantes (entre 13 y 16 años y 170 profesores de ESO (Educación Secundaria Obligatoria del nordeste de España fueron evaluados con un cuestionario creado para este propósito. Los resultados muestran que el comportamiento considerado socialmente indeseable es evaluado como más susceptible de ser castigado que comportamientos considerados como no antisociales, aunque tengan un gran impacto en las actividades de enseñanza aprendizaje.
Sasser, Selena Kay
This study examined the effects of differing amounts of structure within the problem based learning instructional model on elementary preservice teachers' science teaching efficacy beliefs, including personal science teaching efficacy and science teaching outcome expectancy, and content knowledge acquisition. This study involved sixty (60) undergraduate elementary preservice teachers enrolled in three sections of elementary science methods classes at a large Midwestern research university. This study used a quasi-experimental nonequivalent design to collect and analyze both quantitative and qualitative data. Participants completed instruments designed to assess science teaching efficacy beliefs, science background, and demographic data. Quantitative data from pre and posttests was obtained using the science teaching efficacy belief instrument-preservice (STEBI-B) developed by Enochs and Riggs (1990) and modified by Bleicher (2004). Data collection instruments also included a demographic questionnaire, an analytic rubric, and a structured interview; both created by the researcher. Quantitative data was analyzed by conducting ANCOVA, paired samples t-test, and independent samples t-test. Qualitative data was analyzed using coding and themes. Each of the treatment groups received the same problem scenario, one group experienced a more structured PBL setting, and one group experienced a limited structure PBL setting. Research personnel administered pre and posttests to determine the elementary preservice teachers' science teaching efficacy beliefs. The results show elementary preservice teachers'science teaching efficacy beliefs can be influence by the problem based learning instructional model. This study did not find that the amount of structure in the form of core ideas to consider and resources for further research increased science teaching efficacy beliefs in this sample. Results from the science content knowledge rubric indicated that structure can increase science content knowledge in this sample. Qualitative data from the tutor, fidelity raters, and interviews indicated the participants were excited about the problem and were interested in the science content knowledge related to the problem. They also indicated they were motivated to continue informal study in the problem area. Participants indicated, during the interview, their initial frustration with the lack of knowledge gained from the tutor; however, indicated this led to more learning on their part. This study will contribute to the overall knowledge of problem based learning and its structures, science teaching efficacy beliefs of elementary preservice teachers, and to current teaching and learning practices.
Tajima, Barbara; Guydish, Joseph; Delucchi, Kevin; Passalacqua, Emma; Chan, Mable; Moore, Matt
This study examined smoking-related knowledge, beliefs, self-efficacy, smoking cessation practices, and barriers to providing smoking cessation services in a workforce sample. The 11 participating clinics (N=335 staff) included substance abuse treatment and HIV care clinics categorized into three types: Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) clinics, hospital-based clinics, and community-based clinics. Staff in both VAMC and hospital-based settings shared characteristics that may predict smok...
In this case study of a female science teacher named Laura, numerous observations, field notes, researcher interpretations, and assertions were developed. As meanings were negotiated, intent of actions was defined using significant statements, clustered to produce invariant meaning units. Both the participant's intents and how she interpreted her experiences were central to the understandings sought in this study. Whenever Laura planned for teaching science, taught, or otherwise interacted with students, the following four themes seemed to frame her actions: (1) Responsibility to Nurture/Mother/Mentor (2) Connecting to and Relating (3) Meeting Gender-Specific Expectations (4) Promoting the Fighter/Survivor Within. Each theme is examined in relation to attitudes and beliefs about teaching and learning science, and conclusions and assertions are expressed. The findings of this study point to the tensions between Laura's attitudes and beliefs and her pedagogical practices, disconfirming these as they pertain to gender in relation to teaching and learning science. It was not evident as part of her daily practice that student experiences were used in an attempt to create connections between their lives and science, although Laura always emphasized that science is a way of life. The findings support questioning the role of intentionality and a teacher's perceived ability to adhere to intentions while practicing within the norms established by the social institution of schools operating within the larger structures of society. The major findings and implications are relevant to the manner teachers are prepared and encouraged to enact their practice by departments and boards of education, prepared by institutions of higher education and subsequent participation in professional development. Specifically, calling attention to how these educational frameworks emphasize or de-emphasize the role of teachers and promote cognizance in terms of the culture of schools, reflective of the larger structures of society. Understanding the larger social structures and manner in which science in particular is formally packaged with its hegemonic reality and power arrangements reflective of such society is important if teachers are going to enact their practice in ways that facilitate this understanding to students. A lack of this understanding implicates that teachers enter the classroom without having developed a critical consciousness about societal structures and about schools as reproducers of the social and gender inequalities pervasive in society. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
FARHEEN USTAD; MOHD INAYATULLAH KHAN; PRIYAYANKA BHUSHAN; FAREEDI MUKRAM ALI
Background: Tooth avulsion is one of the commonest types of physical sport injury. Themanagement of these cases is critical in order to prevent complete loss of tooth and its subsequentconsequences. The prognosis of such avulsed tooth depends on prompt treatment. The emergencymanagement of such avulsed tooth is made by the sports teacher who is present at the sports ground. Thefirst–aid knowledge about tooth avulsion is must for the sports teacher. Aim: The objective of the presentstudy was...
Variyam, J N; Blaylock, J; Smallwood, D M
Understanding how nutrition knowledge and attitudes vary across different population groups is critical for designing and evaluating nutrition education programmes and monitoring the nation's progress toward dietary goals. In this paper we use the Diet and Health Knowledge component of the USDA Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals to examine consumer knowledge of dietary fibre, fibre consumption attitudes and the awareness of fibre-related health problems. We use a latent variable probit model to estimate the relationships between an individuals's socio-demographic characteristics and his or her fibre knowledge, attitude and disease-awareness. The results suggest that the demographic profile of persons least knowledgeable about the fibre content of foods is low income, male, Black, Hispanic, smoker and low education levels. Add to this list younger individuals and one has a good description of those who lack information on the importance of eating plenty of grain products as well as those who lack awareness of fibre/disease links. The research suggests that messages about increasing fibre intake may have greatest success when targeted to individuals with some or all of these characteristics. PMID:8614743
Saengsuwan, Jiamjit; Laohasiriwong, Wongsa; Boonyaleepan, Suwanna; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Tiamkao, Somsak
Caregivers of persons with epilepsy (PWEs) in developing countries do not always have access to correct information related to the affliction of the patients they are entrusted to care for. Epilepsy can be difficult to manage for all those involved, whether it is a family member, the PWEs themselves, or the caregiver. Misconceptions are common about epilepsy, especially in undeveloped countries where a majority of the population have lower educational levels. This study aims to acquire baseline data about caregivers of PWEs related to their knowledge, attitudes, and methods of giving care to PWEs. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 83 PWE caregivers at a university epilepsy clinic in northeastern Thailand. The caregivers believed that knowledge about epilepsy was paramount; however, they felt that their own knowledge of the condition was insufficient. Educational level, relationship to the PWEs, and sex were correlated to various aspects related to epilepsy knowledge and attitudes in caregivers. A slight negative correlation was found between caregiver knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy with Pearson's correlation coefficient (r=-0.38, P-value 0.001). Education and improved epilepsy information need to be provided to the caregivers of PWEs in northeastern Thailand. PMID:23453636
Objective was to assess the knowledge and attitudes towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) among the students of King Saud University. This study was a cross sectional survey among King Saud University students, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which took place on December 17-20, 2006. The data was collected from self-administered questionnaires prepared in Arabic. The questionnaires were distributed to all 15 colleges of the university. Out of a study sample of 2250 students, 31% did not have prior CPR information. Of those with previous knowledge, 85% feel that it is inadequate. The most common sources of information were television and movies. The 12.7% of individuals encountered a situation that required the use of CPR. However, 14% of them performed it. This was mostly due to lack of knowledge (42.8%). Eighty-eight percent of students would like to learn how to perform CPR. Out of all King Saud University students, 45% believe that CPR training should be a graduation requirement. It was found that overall attitude towards CPR was positive. However, the knowledge on the topic was insufficient. Thus, more focus should be placed on the improvement of CPR skills. In addition, more studies are needed to assess knowledge and attitudes towards CPR in the community. (author)
Students' negative experiences of science in the primary sector have commonly been blamed on poor teacher content knowledge. Yet, teacher beliefs have long been identified as strong influences on classroom practice. Understanding the nature of teacher beliefs and their influence on primary science teaching practice could usefully inform teacher development initiatives. In science education, teacher beliefs about teaching and learning have been proposed as key influences in the development of pedagogical content knowledge for science teaching. This paper uses a multiple qualitative case study design to examine the nature and influence of beliefs on the practice and knowledge development of three generalist primary teachers during the implementation of a unit of work in science. Data for each case study included observations and transcripts of recordings of the lessons forming each science unit, together with multiple interviews with the teacher throughout its implementation. Findings support those of other researchers suggesting that beliefs about purposes of science education, the nature of science, and science teaching and learning strongly influence teacher practice and knowledge. Beliefs about the purposes of science education were found to be a particularly strong influence on practice in the observed cases. However, beliefs about students and the teachers' aims for education generally, as well as teachers' notions concerning vertical science curriculum, were also crucially influential on the type of science learning opportunities that were promoted. Beliefs were found to additionally influence the nature of both subject matter knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge for science developed by the teachers.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assessed the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding disinfection procedures among nurses in Italian hospitals. Methods A face-to-face interview gathered the following information: demographic and practice characteristics; knowledge about the healthcare-associated infections (HAIs and the disinfection practices; attitudes towards the utility of guidelines/protocols and perception of the risks of acquiring/transmitting HAIs; compliance with antisepsis/disinfection procedures; and sources of information. Results Only 29% acknowledged that urinary and respiratory tract infections were the two most common HAIs and this knowledge was significantly higher in those with a higher level of education. Attitudes towards the utility of guidelines/protocols for disinfection procedures showed a mean score of 9.1. The results of the linear regression model indicated a more positive attitude in female nurses, in those with a lower number of years of activity, and in those needing additional information about disinfection procedures. Nurses with higher educational level and with a higher perception of risk of transmitting an infectious disease while working were more likely to perform appropriate antisepsis of the surgical wound and handwashing before and after medication. Conclusions Plan of successful prevention activities about HAIs and provide pointers to help optimize disinfection procedures and infection prophylaxis and management are needed.
To investigate the knowledge and attitudes of patients towards lumbar puncture (LP), its complications, and indications. In a questionnaire survey, patients who were referred to the general neurology outpatient clinic at Nemazee Hospital in Shiraz, Iran, from January 2007 to January 2008 were invited to complete a questionnaire consisting of items on demographic and socioeconomic variables, experiences with LP and complications, and knowledge of and attitudes regarding LP. A total of 410 patients were recruited (58% women, mean age 33.2 + - 2.7 years). Poor knowledge of LP was highly prevalent (92.6%), and negative attitudes toward LP were also common (63%) among our patients. Skepticism regarding LP was directly related to lack of information (p=0.00007). Lower socioeconomic status, lower educational level, and residence in rural areas were associated with being less well informed about LP, but interestingly those who had experience with LP before were better informed and had more positive attitudes. It is possible to overcome reluctance to undergo LP through education of its indications, contraindications, and complications. (author)
Romanowski, Michael H.
This study was undertaken to investigate how individual teachers' opinions and beliefs serve as a basis for classroom practice and curriculum decision making. United States history teachers are not passive transmitters of knowledge; they bring their own experiences, beliefs, attitudes, and ways of looking at the world to the classroom. The…
Phillipson, Lyn; Larsen-Truong, Karen; Pitts, Leissa; Nonu, Miriam
Context-Despite the lifesaving benefits of organ and tissue donation, a worldwide shortage of suitable and registered donors exists. Although the reasons for this shortage are multifactorial, it has been recognized that distinct barriers to registration, family discussion, and consent that require targeted intervention and action are present among minority cultural, religious, and immigrant communities.Objective-To explore the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of 3 orthodox religious communities in Australia (Macedonian, Greek, and Serbian Orthodox) and determine the implications for engaging with these communities to improve knowledge, attitudes, family discussion, and the ability to make an informed decision about donation.Design-Qualitative approach using focus groups moderated by researchers and bicultural health workers with the assistance of accredited interpreters.Participants-98 adult members of the Greek, Macedonian, and Serbian Orthodox communities in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia.Results-Clear barriers to discussing and making an informed decision about organ and tissue donation were identified. Knowledge of processes and procedures was low and discussion about death (and organ and tissue donation) with family members and loved ones was considered taboo. Despite these barriers, all 3 communities expressed a desire for more information and engagement. Of particular interest were the perspectives of 3 types of "experts": medical, religious, and other community members (who had experience with the organ and tissue donation system). Future programs designed for orthodox religious communities should consider the need for active strategies that facilitate information sharing and engagement between community members and these 3 types of experts. PMID:25758807
Solange Laurentino dos, Santos; Gabriel, Parra-Henao; Mírcia Betânia Costa e, Silva; Lia Giraldo da Silva, Augusto.
Full Text Available Introduction This study was conducted in Brazil and Colombia,where dengue is endemic and vector control programs use chemical insecticides. Methods We identified [...] knowledge, attitudes, and practices about dengue and determined the infestation levels of Aedes aegypti in one Brazilian and four Colombian communities. Results The surveys show knowledge of the vector, but little knowledge about diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Vector infestation indices show Brazil to have good relative control, while Colombia presents a high transmission risk. Conclusions Given the multidimensionality of dengue control, vertical control strategies are inadequate because they deny contextualized methods, alternative solutions, and local empowerment.
Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD has been realized as a primary cause of death in women for almost a century. However, the relationship between women’s knowledge, their wish and action on practicing heart healthy lifestyle is still vague. Aim and Objectives: This research aimed to determine the association between knowledge and attitude, knowledge and practice and attitude and practice on cardiovascular disease among women in Kelantan. Methods/ Study Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in Kelantan, Malaysia. A total of 448 women attended primary care facilities in Kelantan were included in this study. Twostage sampling process was used to select clinics in all districts in Kelantan followed by female participants from selected clinics attendance lists. Recruited were non illiterate young adult women up to 65 years of age and without psychotic symptoms. Consented participants were given a set of validated KAP questionnaire that should be completed within 15 minutes. Findings: The respondents’ mean age was about 40 years with majority of them having secondary educational level and coming from low socio-economic group. Among them, 56.8% involved in tobacco products and 41.3% reported as having CVD related medical illnesses, especially obesity (23.7% and hypertension (17.6%. About 56.2% had family history of CVD risk. Only 26.8% of them obtained the CVD information from health care workers. The good knowledge, attitude and practice score were 55.6%, 55.1 % and 51.1% accordingly. There were significant association between attitude and knowledge, practice and knowledge and practice and attitude which were found to be strong (0.10, 0.20, (0.10, 0.18 and (0.26, 0.40 95% CI, respectively and is independent with socio-demographic and personal disease characteristic. Conclusion: Positive relationship between knowledge, attitude and practice will encourage primary care doctors to take this challenge to educate, motivate community and provide full support to those who wish to modify their lifestyle.
Awad, Abdelmoneim Ismail; Aboud, Esraa Abdulwahid
Background The emergence and spread of bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a growing problem worldwide, which presents a significant threat to public health globally in the 21st century. A substantial evidence has shown that the general community plays a role in the increase and spread of antibiotic resistance. The present study was designed to determine knowledge, attitude and practice towards antibiotic use. Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed using a pretested self-administered questionnaire on a sample of 770 randomly selected Kuwaiti individuals. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used in data analysis. Results The response rate was 88.3%. Nearly three-quarters (72.8%) of respondents had been prescribed antibiotics within 12 months prior to the study period, and 36% of them had not finished the course of treatment. Over one-quarter (27.5%) were self-medicated with antibiotics to treat mainly common cold, sore throat and cough. Self-medication was more prevalent among those who were prescribed antibiotics and those who had attitudes towards using and accessing antibiotic inappropriately. Almost 47% of participants had low knowledge regarding action, use, safety and resistance of antibiotics. Forty one percent of respondents had attitudes towards using and accessing antibiotic inappropriately. Better knowledge was found to be a predictor for positive attitude. Respondents level of agreement that doctors often prescribe antibiotics to meet the patient’s expectation, and that doctors often take time to consider carefully the need for an antibiotic were 52.7% and 35.3%, respectively. Conclusions These findings will aid in the assessment of the adequacy of present public educational campaigns. Also, it will provide further insight in designing future multifaceted interventions to promote specific messages to rationalize antibiotic use, and compensate for knowledge and attitude gaps as an effort towards preventing development of antibiotic resistance. PMID:25675405
Rus, Razman Mohd; Daud, Aziah; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Naing, Lin
The purpose of this study was to determine the sawmill workers’ knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) in relation to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 83 workers from 3 factories in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Questionnaires were distributed to obtain the socio-demography, knowledge, attitude and practice level in relation to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The weak areas identified in the knowledge section were treatment aspects (15.5%), signs a...
Full Text Available Emergency Contraception (EC is used within a few days of unprotected sex to prevent an unintended pregnancy. About one quarter of pregnancies in south of Iran are unintended. EC is important option that women can use after unprotected sex or contraceptive failure for preventing of unplanned pregnancies and adverse maternal and perinatal health outcomes. Health staff have influence on women’s contraceptive behavior and their knowledge and attitudes about EC can affect women’s contraceptive behaviors. Data are lacking about the knowledge, attitude and practice of hormonal EC method among health staff in Bushehr state, south of Iran. A cross-sectional study using self administered questionnaire was conducted. A sample of 170 health staff were surveyed. The mean age of respondents was 30.6±5.1. Overall 6.5% of participants had poor knowledge, 25.2% moderate knowledge, 68.3% good knowledge about EC. Half of participants had positive and half had negative attitude towards the EC method. Midwives and family health workers were more knowledgeable (p<0.05 and more frequently counseled women about EC than general practitioners (GPs (p<0.001. The most cited reason for EC prescriptions were rupture condom and none use of contraception. Our findings showed despite of majority of health staff had good knowledge about EC, their knowledge about the indications for prescription of EC and its side effects was inadequate. The educational efforts for health staff should be focused more on the specific aspects of EC method. GPs also should be more involved in family planning program.
Full Text Available Introduction: A high leve of skill & knowledge is required in circumstances of cardiopulmonary resucitation which represents the most urgent clinical situations. The difficulties for pediatric residents who are fronted with the most cases of pediatric & neonatal resucitation are due to different causes of cardiorespiratory arrest in camparison to adults. This study aimed to assess the knowledge & their personal attitude toward the neonatal & pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitatin. Methods: By cross - sectional multicenter study between the pediatric residents who were studied in the teaching hospitals in Tehran (1378-90. Data were gathered among 140 residents by self-completed questionnaires which were included three parts as. demographic information assessment of their attitude by summation of score via ranking list questions and total score from assessment to their knowledge by different scenarios which were formatted in the multiple choice questions. Results: 35.7% of the residents studied in the first year of residency 35.0% in the second year and the remainder (29/3% in the third year More than 90% of them considered their knowledge about neonatal and pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation low & less than average. Net only 80% of the residents self - assessed their actual ability about this issue low but also declaired the insufficient education during the medical training. The total score of knowledge assessment was 14.7 + 1_0.54 from 30 without any significant relations among the residents in different hospitals or various levels of pediatric residency. (P value= 0.1 , 0.7 There was not significant correlation between the total score from their attitude & their knowledge. Conclusion: Pediatric residents as the key personnel in the management of cardiopulmonary resuscitation of the neonates and children should have enough knowledge and skills about this topic. This survey demonstrates a low level of the pediatric & neonatal resuscitation knowledge among the residents pediatrics. The effectiveness of regular training improving the situation of pediatric resusciton should considered in the of the medical education.
Haden, Van R; Niles, Meredith T; Lubell, Mark; Perlman, Joshua; Jackson, Louise E
In response to agriculture's vulnerability and contribution to climate change, many governments are developing initiatives that promote the adoption of mitigation and adaptation practices among farmers. Since most climate policies affecting agriculture rely on voluntary efforts by individual farmers, success requires a sound understanding of the factors that motivate farmers to change practices. Recent evidence suggests that past experience with the effects of climate change and the psychological distance associated with people's concern for global and local impacts can influence environmental behavior. Here we surveyed farmers in a representative rural county in California's Central Valley to examine how their intention to adopt mitigation and adaptation practices is influenced by previous climate experiences and their global and local concerns about climate change. Perceived changes in water availability had significant effects on farmers' intention to adopt mitigation and adaptation strategies, which were mediated through global and local concerns respectively. This suggests that mitigation is largely motivated by psychologically distant concerns and beliefs about climate change, while adaptation is driven by psychologically proximate concerns for local impacts. This match between attitudes and behaviors according to the psychological distance at which they are cognitively construed indicates that policy and outreach initiatives may benefit by framing climate impacts and behavioral goals concordantly; either in a global context for mitigation or a local context for adaptation. PMID:23300805
Full Text Available Objective: Health care workers especially medical students are at risk of being exposed to blood-borne pathogens. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of medical students towards standard isolation precautions (SIP. Methods: A standardized questionnaire was completed by 148 medical students from April to July of year 2009 to seek their knowledge, attitude and practice towards standard isolation precautions in a clinical setting at Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Results: The mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice towards standard isolation precautions were 6.8±2.1 (maximum 10, 16.6±4.2 (maximum 20, and 18.05 ± 4.5 (maximum 30 respectively. Significant differences were observed between practice of female and male (P < 0.008 and also knowledge of year 6 and year 7 students (P <0.021. Conclusion: Education on infection control based on standard isolation precaution must be stressed and barriers of appropriate practice must be removed.
Gholami, M; Pakdaman, A; Jafari, A; Virtanen, J I
Determining what people know and believe about periodontal health and disease is important in order to establish prevention practices. This study aimed to assess knowledge of and attitudes towards periodontal health among adults in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. We conducted a cross-sectional face-to-face interview survey in 2011 of 791 adults aged 18-50 years using a stratified, multistage sampling method. We recorded demographic characteristics including age, sex, education, marital status, employment and economic status (housing density). The lowest percentage of correct answers was related to the definition of dental plaque (11.6%) and the highest was for the role of the dental visit in prevention (92.8%). Female sex, university education and higher economic status were significantly associated with a higher mean score on periodontal health knowledge. The regression analysis showed that positive attitudes were associated with higher periodontal health knowledge and having university education. In this study positive attitudes towards prevention were related to better knowledge. PMID:24950078
Jorm Anthony F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many members of the public have poor mental health literacy. A Mental Health First Aid training course was developed in order to improve this. This paper describes the training course and reports an evaluation study looking at changes in knowledge, stigmatizing attitudes and help provided to others. Methods Data are reported on the first 210 participants in public courses. Evaluation questionnaires were given at the beginning of courses, at the end and at 6 months follow-up. Data were analyzed using an intention-to-treat approach. Results The course improved participants' ability to recognize a mental disorder in a vignette, changed beliefs about treatment to be more like those of health professionals, decreased social distance from people with mental disorders, increased confidence in providing help to someone with a mental disorder, and increased the amount of help provided to others. Conclusions Mental Health First Aid training appears to be an effective method of improving mental health literacy which can be widely applied.
Full Text Available Introduction: The harmful effects of cigarette smoking on oral health are well established. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge and attitude of dental patients about the effects of smoking on oral health and their cessation efforts.Methods and materials: In this descriptive analysis-cross sectional study, 905 patients from dental clinics in Kerman were selected. They were asked to complete a self- administered structured questionnaire on the effects of smoking on oral health. The questionnaire consisted of questions about demographic data, smoking status, patients' knowledge and attitude about the effects of smoking and cessation efforts of them. Finally, data was analyzed with SPSS program, t test and x2 test.Result: A total 905 patients (53% men and 47% women were studied. The mean age was 32.76 ± 9.509. The prevalence of smoking was 20.5%. The relationship between sex and education and smoking was significant (p value = 0.0001. Mean Knowledge score was 53.95%. Smoking patients and men were significantly less aware of the effects of smoking on oral health. In this study, 54.9% of smoking patients had tried to quit smoking. Only 12.2% had taken counselling. The attitude toward cigarettes was passive.Conclusion: Results of this study showed that the knowledge about effects of smoking on oral health, especially oral cancer, was low. Therefore dentists have a key role for awarding their patients of such effects and are placed to be have a key role in tobacco prevention and cessation.Keywords: Cigarette, Oral manifestations, Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, Dental patients
Full Text Available Introduction:Considering the population boom and its deleterious effects on different sections of societies, as well as the minimal role of men in family planning programs, we conducted the present study to investigate the impact of education using Health Belief Model (HBM on awareness and attitude of male teachers of Marvdasht regarding their participation in family planning programs.Material and Methods:This is a quasi-experimental study with pretest-posttest. Using randomized cluster sampling, we selected 90 male teachers of Marvdasht. The participants were evaluated using a questionnaire based on health belief model prior to and following the educational program. Education consisted of providing an educational pamphlet and question and answer sessions. Data were analyzed using paired t-test, chi-square, Spearman and Pearson’s correlation coefficient.Results:Our findings indicate a significant difference between awareness and attitude scores before and after education (P<0.001. We also calculated the correlation coefficient between individuals’ awareness and attitude scores and background variables such as age, spouse age, number of children, and spouse occupation and education.Conclusion:Education aimed at improving men’s participation in family planning may enhance the individuals’ awareness and attitude, thus contributing to family health. We recommend the provision of appropriate educational programs specific for men.
Full Text Available Background: Health care professionals require some understanding of statistics to successfully implement evidence based practice. Developing competency in statistical reasoning is necessary for students training in health care administration, research, and clinical care. Recently, the interest in healthcare professional’s attitudes toward statistics has increased substantially due to evidence that these attitudes can hinder professionalism developing an understanding of statistical concepts. Methods: In this study, we analyzed pre- and post-instruction attitudes towards and knowledge of statistics obtained from health science graduate students, including nurses and nurse practitioners, enrolled in an introductory graduate course in statistics (n = 165. Results and Conclusions: Results show that the students already held generally positive attitudes toward statistics at the beginning of course. However, these attitudes—along with the students’ statistical proficiency—improved after 10 weeks of instruction. The results have implications for curriculum design and delivery methods as well as for health professionals’ effective use of statistics in critically evaluating and utilizing research in their practices.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify factors that can positively influence brand attachment and brand attitude strength. Brand creation through an effective marketing strategy is necessary for creation of unique associations in the customer’s memory. Customer’s attitude, awareness and association towards the brand are primarily focused while evaluating performance of a brand, before designing the marketing strategies and subsequent evaluation of the progress. In this research, literature establishes a direct and significant effect of Knowledge metrics of the Brand equity, i.e., Brand Awareness and Brand Association, on creation of Brand Attachment and Brand Attitude Strength and this factor becomes more effectual while introducing and promoting new brands. Finding of this research imply that for achieving desirable outcome through creation of Brand attachment and Brand Attitude Strength n the target audience and for designing more effective and fruitful strategies, managers and policy makers should pay more focus on creating strong Knowledge metrics amongst the target audience.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, many studies have focused on adolescent's sex-related issues in China. However, there have been few studies of unmarried migrant females' sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, which is important for sexual health education and promotion. Methods A sample of 5156 unmarried migrant female workers was selected from three manufacturing factories, two located in Shenzhen and one in Guangzhou, China. Demographic data, sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors were assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the factors associated with premarital sexual intercourse. Results The average age of the unmarried female workers included in the sample was 20.2 years, and majority of them showed a low level of sex-related knowledge. Females from the west of China demonstrated a significant lower level of sex-related knowledge than those from the eastern or central provinces (p p p Conclusion The unmarried migrant female workers lack sexual knowledge and a substantial proportion of them are engaged in premarital sexual behaviors. Interventions aimed at improving their sexual knowledge and related skills are needed.
Full Text Available This study was designed to study knowledge, attitudes and views about health promotion among nurse clinicians in rural South Africa. The sample included 90 nurse clinicians (73 primary health care nurses and 17 midwives in the age range of 24 to 59 years (M age 38.4 yr., SD=9.3 in the Northern Province. Results indicate that nurses (66.6% had an inadequate knowledge score on health promotion in this sample. Higher knowledge scores on health promotion were not associated with age and years of experience. However, male nurses had significantly higher knowledge scores on health promotion than female nurses. The majority strongly supported the centrality of their role in health promotion acknowledging the time constraints involved. Better knowledge on health promotion was associated with more positive views on health promotion. More nurses had a satisfactory positive attitude towards health promotion (63.3% than knowledge about health promotion (33.3%. Finally, the study found that compliance with health promotion was seen as a problem but health counselling was nevertheless seen as cost effective.
Bioenergy is expected to play a significant role in the global energy mix of the next decades, transforming the current fossil fuel-based economy into a low-carbon energy economy. There is a significant research gap in our understanding of the societal aspects of bioenergy and it becomes even limited in the context of evaluating young citizens' awareness of bioenergy from an international perspective. This dissertation has investigated young students' knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes related to bioenergy with the help of cross-national data and used statistical models to explain their intentions to use bioenergy. A self-constructed survey instrument was used in the study to collect data from 15-year-old 1903 school students in Finland, Taiwan, Turkey, and Slovakia. The study found that the majority of the students appeared to have basic level of bioenergy knowledge, whereas only a minority among them demonstrated a higher level of such knowledge. The study did not reveal any statistically significant gender and living area differences related to the students' knowledge of bioenergy. The students appeared to be very critical in their perceptions of forest-based bioenergy production; however, they demonstrated their positive attitudes to bioenergy including their intentions to use it in the future. It became apparent that the students with a higher level of bioenergy-knowledge were more critical in terms of their both perceptions of and attitudes to bioenergy than those with a shallow knowledge of it. The study has found that school, home, and media discussions of bioenergy, as perceived by the Finnish students, have significant effects on their knowledge, perceptions and attitudes related to bioenergy. One of the most significant findings to emerge from this study is the key dimensions of the students' perceptions of and attitudes to bioenergy. The study found three key dimensions from the cross-national data depicting different facets of the students' perceptions of and attitudes to bioenergy. The results from the study further suggested that the internal consistency of these key components differed across the countries. This implies that young students' perceptions and attitudes are multidimensional on bioenergy issues and they could vary from one country to another country. The conceptual models based on regression analysis revealed that the students' intentions to use bioenergy in general could be explained by considering their perceptions of the societal aspects related to bioenergy. Fostering the awareness of bioenergy among young students, we need to share the educational methods among home, school, and media. It is recommended that the bioenergy policy makers and professionals must raise the awareness of bioenergy among young students in our society and regard them as an important target group while formulating bioenergy policies. The results of this research support the idea of increasing collaboration between bioenergy policies and bioenergy education strategies for school students. However, it is suggested that further research should be undertaken in these issues to have a deeper understanding of young citizens' knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes related to bioenergy with more country specific contexts. (orig.)
Juana, Macías Seda; Eugenia, Gil García; Mª de los Ángeles, Rodríguez Gázquez; José Rafael, González López; Mª del Mar, González Rodríguez; Ana Mª, Soler Castells.
Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar creencias y actitudes hacia la violencia de género (VG) en el alumnado de Enfermería de la Escuela de Ciencias de la Salud de la Universidad de Sevilla. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo transversal en el que participan 265 alumnos de Enfermería de la Universidad de Sevilla. Com [...] o instrumento se utiliza una encuesta anónima autoadministrada para evaluar la autopercepción, socialización, formación académica en género y capacitación para abordar la VG a la que se incorpora la Escala de Creencias y Actitudes hacia el Género y la Violencia (C.A.G.V.) de Díaz-Aguado. Resultados: Los chicos tienen más creencias sexistas y las chicas valoran mejor el acceso de la mujer a puestos de poder y responsabilidad. En el alumnado del primer curso es más frecuente considerar que la V.G.es consecuencia de la fatalidad biológica, el alumnado de cursos superiores consideran la V.G. un asunto privado. Conclusión: Los hombres están más influidos por las creencias sexistas y adoptan postura más fatalista a la hora de justificar la violencia. Abstract in english Objective: To identify beliefs and attitudes toward Gender-based violence (GBV) in nursing students. Methodology: a descriptive study involving 265 nursing students at the University of Seville. A self-administered anonymous survey was used to assess: a) perception, socialization, gender-based acade [...] mic training and preparedness to address the GBV, b) the scale of beliefs and attitudes towards Gender-based violence (C.A.G.V.) by Diaz-Aguado applied. Results: The boys have more sexist beliefs and about the biological fate of the GBV, whereas girls value the better the access of women to positions of power and responsibility. The first course was associated with beliefs about biological fate of the GBV, whereas in higher grades GBV is considered a private matter problem. Conclusion: Men are more influenced by sexist attitudes and adopt a more fatalistic approach when justifying the violence.
Full Text Available Background & Objective: According to Iranian national statistics, every year 400 to 500 thousand unwanted pregnancies occur in Iran. The emergency contraceptive methods are easily accessible and affordable for the women of this region. Regarding the important role of health care providers in representing these methods, this study is to determine the knowledge and attitudes of these staff toward required contraceptive methods. Methods & Materials: In this semi-experimental study, 216 health personnel working in south of Tehran health centers were randomly selected. Two 30- minute educational sessions were presented to the staff. The methods of education included face to face, and group discussion. At the end of each session a pamphlet was given to the staff. Data were gathered using a questionnaire before and 2-6 weeks after the education. Statistical analysis was carried out using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS.Results: The results showed that there were significant statistical differences between the knowledge and attitudes (P<0.001 of personnel about the emergency contraceptive methods before and after education. There was no significant relationship between demographic characteristics and attitudes of personnel. There was a significant relationship between sex (P<0.001, educational level (P<0.003, educational major (P<0.001, with knowledge after intervention.Conclusion: Knowledge and attitudes toward emergency contraceptive methods increased significantly after education. This finding reveals the importance of continuous education for health care staff such as midwives and physicians to facilitate successful guidance of their patients towards effective family planning.
Navegantes de Araújo, Wildo; Finkmoore, Brooke; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Reis, Renato B.; Felzemburgh, Ridalva D. M.; Hagan, José E.; Mitermayer G. Reis; Ko, Albert I.; Costa, Federico
Leptospirosis disproportionately affects residents of urban slums. To understand the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding leptospirosis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among residents of an urban slum community in Salvador, Brazil. Of the 257 residents who were interviewed, 225 (90%) were aware of leptospirosis and more than two-thirds of respondents correctly identified the modes of disease transmission and ways to reduce exposure. However, study participants who performed ris...
Adegbesan-omilabu, M. A.; Okunade, K. S.; Gbadegesin, A.
Objectives. The study was to assess the level of knowledge of, perception of, and attitude towards uterine fibroids among women diagnosed with the condition. Methods. It is a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out among women diagnosed as having uterine fibroids in two gynaecological clinics in Lagos, Nigeria. Eligible women were recruited and a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect the required information. Statistical analysis of data was done using EP...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol exposure in pregnancy is a common and modifiable risk factor for poor pregnancy and child outcomes. Alcohol exposure in pregnancy can cause a range of physical and neurodevelopmental problems in the child including the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD. In order to improve prevention strategies, we sought to describe the knowledge and attitudes of women of childbearing age regarding alcohol consumption during pregnancy and its effects on the fetus. Methods We conducted a national cross-sectional survey via computer assisted telephone interview of 1103 Australian women aged 18 to 45 years. Participants were randomly selected from the Electronic White Pages. Pregnant women were not eligible to participate. Quotas were set for age groups and a minimum of 100 participants per state to ensure a national sample reflecting the population. The questionnaire was based on a Health Canada survey with additional questions constructed by the investigators. Descriptive statistics were calculated and logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations with participants' knowledge and attitudes. Results Of women surveyed, 61.5% had heard about effects of alcohol on the fetus and 55.3% had heard of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Although 92.7% agreed alcohol can affect the unborn child, 16.2% did not agree that the disabilities could be lifelong. Most women agreed that pregnant women should not drink alcohol (80.2% and 79.2% reported having negative feelings towards pregnant women drinking alcohol. Women with higher education levels were more likely to know the effects of alcohol consumption in pregnancy (adjusted OR 5.62; 95% CI 3.20 to 9.87 but education level and knowledge were not associated with attitude. Conclusions There was a disjunction between knowledge and attitudes towards alcohol consumption in pregnancy. These findings will assist in developing effective health promotion campaigns to reduce fetal alcohol exposure and subsequent fetal damage.
Salam, Rehana A; Haroon, Sarah; Ahmed, Hashim H; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.
In 2012, an estimated 35.3 million people lived with HIV, while approximately two million new HIV infections were reported. Community-based interventions (CBIs) for the prevention and control of HIV allow increased access and ease availability of medical care to population at risk, or already infected with, HIV. This paper evaluates the impact of CBIs on HIV knowledge, attitudes, and transmission. We included 39 studies on educational activities, counseling sessions, home visits, mentoring, w...
Murat Uzel; Guney U. Ergun; Ekerbicer, Hasan C
OBJECTIVES For the prevention and early diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), a detailed clinical screening of the newborn performed by a primary care (PC) physician is recommended as a standard practice throughout the most western countries. We aimed to determine the knowledge and attitudes of the PC physicians towards DDH, and to develop further educational and training programs, according to the results obtained from the study. METHODS The study was a pre- and pos...
Man-Yee Emmy Wong; Tak-Ming Lawrence Lam
Internal migration in China has introduced critical challenges to the education and health of migrant adolescents. The aim of this study was to explore the differences in sexual knowledge and attitudes among migrate and local adolescents. Survey research with a total of 616 adolescents in grades equivalent to US 10th and 11th grades including 113 migrants completed a selfadministered questionnaire. Misconceptions of adolescent physical development, sexual activity, marriage, birth contro...
Eloisa Dutra Caldas; Bruno Zago Diniz; Juciê Roniery Silva; Juliana Oliveira Pasiani; Priscila Torres
In this study, the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding pesticide use and the levels of exposure of farmers and residents to organophosphorous and/or carbamates pesticides were evaluated in two rural settings in Brazil. A questionnaire was completed by 112 farm workers aged ?18 years. Almost all farmers acknowledged that pesticides were potentially harmful to their health (87.5%); however, over half rarely (48.2%) or never (7.2%) used personal protective...
Bamidele, James Olusegun; Adebimpe, Wasiu Olalekan; Oladele, Edward Adekola
Alternate medicine which has a long history has been relegated to the background by the evolution of modern medicine. In recent times, however, alternative medical therapy has been growing in popularity and getting increasing attention and interest. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and use by urban dwellers of alternative medical therapies. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study which used a semi-structured questionnaire to gather information from 812 randomly selected urban ...
Aida Malek Mahdavi; Paria Abdolahi; Reza Mahdavi
Background: Considering the significant role of consumers’ awareness about food labels in making healthy food choices, this study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and prac-tice of university students about food labeling.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 332 students aged 18-25 yr in five different academic ma-jors (including Nutrition, Public Health, Health Services Administration, Paramedical and En-gineering) were asked to complete an approved questionnaire contained f...
Aleksandra Korzeniewska-Eksterowicz; ?ukasz Przys?o; Dzierska, Bogna K. X.; Gorzata Stolarska, Ma X.; Ynarski, Wojciech M. X.
Purpose. Most undergraduate palliative care curricula omit pediatric palliative care (PPC) issues. Aim of the study was to evaluate the pilot education programme. Methods. All 391 students of Faculty of Medicine (FM) and 59 students of Division of Nursing (DN) were included in anonymous questionnaire study. Respondents were tested on their knowledge and attitude towards PPC issues before and at the end of the programme and were expected to evaluate the programme at the end. Results. For final...
Boeve-De Pauw, Jelle; Van Petegem, Peter
Abstract Eco-schools aim to improve the environment through direct and indirect effects. Direct effects are those that result from the implementation of an environmental management system. Indirect effects are educational gains. The current study examines the effectiveness of eco-schools concerning three student outcomes: (1) environmental knowledge (2) environmental attitudes and (3) environmental affect. The study includes 1287 10-12 year olds from 59 schools (38 eco-schools and ...
Ebong, Rosemary D
Developing countries are constantly and continuously confronted with a myriad of health and environmental problems that threaten the efforts to establish and maintain safe air and water supplies. Nigeria, in general, and Akwa Ibom State, in particular, are not isolated from increasing health and sanitation problems. My goal in this study was to determine the knowledge base of men and women related to sanitation and environmental health in Akwa Ibom State. I found no differences in the attitud...
Don O’Mahony; Graham Wright; Parimalarani Yogeswaran; Frederick Govere
Background: Nurses in primary healthcare record data for the monitoring and evaluation of diseases and services. Information and communications technology (ICT) can improve quality in healthcare by providing quality medical records. However, worldwide, the majority of health ICT projects have failed. Individual user acceptance is a crucial factor in successful ICT implementation.Objectives: The aim of this study is to explore nurses’ knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding ICT s...
Bahammam, A. S.
OBJECTIVES Although sleep disorders are common, these are under-recognized and underestimated by many workers in the medical field due to lack of physician's education in sleep and sleep disorders. We conducted this survey to assess the general knowledge and attitude of Primary Health Care Physicians in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia towards sleep disorders. METHODS A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to all Primary Health Care physicians working in Primary Health Care cente...
Dds, Elham Bozorgmehr; Tayebeh Malek Mohammadi Dmd, Phd; Abolghasem Hajizamani Dmd, Phd; Md, Aliasghar Vahidi; Dds, Fatemeh Khajoee
BACKGROUND AND AIM:Many pediatric oral diseases are preventable if physicians recognize and encourage preventivecare and refer patients to dentists whenever necessary. Parents usually visit pediatricians for routine care during the firstfew years of a child’s life. Therefore, pediatricians have can assist dental professionals by educating parents to maintaintheir children's oral health.The main objective of this study was to determine knowledge, attitude, and practices ofpediatricians about...
Mazen El-Hammadi; Bashar Hunien
This study aimed to assess pharmacy students’ knowledge about doping substances used in sport, explore their attitudes toward doping and investigate their misuse of doping drugs. A questionnaire was developed and employed to collect data from bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) students at the International University for Science and Technology (IUST). Two-hundred and eighty students participated in this self-administrated, paper-based survey. Around 90% of the students did not appear to know tha...
Thamir M. Alshammari; Adel A. Alrwisan; Majed I. Aljeraisy; Khaled W. Taher; Faisal M. Alissa; Mansour A. Mahmoud; Mohamad A. Hassali; Hisham S. Aljadhey
Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of healthcare professionals (HCPs) toward systems used in describing the safety of medications use during pregnancy. Methods: A cross-sectional self-administered survey was conducted in 4 tertiary hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between March and May 2012. The targeted HCPs were physicians and pharmacists. The survey was validated and contained 4 main sections. Descriptive statistics were used to report responses to the survey’s questions. ...
Aweto Happiness A; Oligbo Cynthia N; Fapojuwo Oluseun A; Olawale Olajide A
Abstract Background Physiotherapists as primary health care practitioners are well placed in promoting physically active lifestyles, but their role and practice towards its promotion among patients in Nigeria has not been fully investigated. This study was therefore aimed at determining the knowledge, attitude and practice of Nigerian physiotherapists towards promotion of non-treatment physical activity among patients. Methods Three hundred and eight practicing physiotherapists from various p...
Saleem Taimur; Ishaque Sidra; Habib Nida; Hussain Syedda; Jawed Areeba; Khan Aamir; Ahmad Muhammad; Iftikhar Mian; Mughal Hamza; Jehan Imtiaz
Abstract Background To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding organ donation in a selected adult population in Pakistan. Methods Convenience sampling was used to generate a sample of 440; 408 interviews were successfully completed and used for analysis. Data collection was carried out via a face to face interview based on a pre-tested questionnaire in selected public areas of Karachi, Pakistan. Data was analyzed using SPSS v.15 and associations were tested using the Pearso...
Rosediani Muhamad; Ranimah Yahya; Harmy Mohamed Yusoff
Introduction: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading killer not only in men but also in women worldwide and primary target for prevention. However, majority initial researchers believed it was mainly a men’s disease that resulted in fewer women being informed regarding the disease.Aim and Objectives: A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practice on cardiovascular disease among women attended outpatient clinics with Family Medicine Specia...
The overall aim of this thesis was to study knowledge, attitudes and experience of emergency contraceptive pills among women and providers. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. Focus-group interviews were conducted with teenage-girls (I) and with women who had purchased ECP without prescription (IV). Self-administered waiting-room questionnaires were administered to women presenting for induced abortion in three large hospitals (II, III), and after the deregulation of ECP, a p...
Marinelli Paolo; Albano Luciana; Abbate Rossella; Di Giuseppe Gabriella; Angelillo Italo F
Abstract Background Several public health strategic interventions are required for effective prevention and control of avian influenza (AI) and it is necessary to create a communication plan to keep families adequately informed on how to avoid or reduce exposure. This investigation determined the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors relating to AI among an adult population in Italy. Methods From December 2005 to February 2006 a random sample of 1020 adults received a questionnaire about socio-...
Sperduti, Alessandra; Crivellaro, Federica; Rossi, Paola Francesca; Bondioli, Luca
The present study contributes to the question of school literacy about the brain, with an original survey conducted on Italian students from the 3rd to 10th grades (n?=?508). The main goal was to test student's knowledge, attitudes, and interests about neuroscience, to assess needs, prospects, and difficulties in teaching about the brain from elementary to high school. A written questionnaire, maintaining anonymity, asked 12 close-ended multiple choice questions on topics related to human and...
Cheng Xiaowen; Yu Zhangda; Li Leilei; Huai Yang; Liao Qiaohong; Zhou Hang; Zhou Lei; Peng Zhibin; Ye Min; Zhang Shunxiang; Wu Jiabing; Shi Ying; Xiang Nijuan; Su Weike; Wu Xiaomin
Abstract Background Studies have revealed that visiting poultry markets and direct contact with sick or dead poultry are significant risk factors for H5N1 infection, the practices of which could possibly be influenced by people's knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) associated with avian influenza (AI). To determine the KAPs associated with AI among the Chinese general population, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in China. Methods We used standardized, structured questionnaires dis...
The use of multivitamins within a pharmaceutical setting has been the subject of considerable debate.Objective: This research aimed to provide a platform for assessing and evaluating knowledge, attitudes and professional practices of Jordaninan community pharmacists in counselling patients about the safe consumption of vitamins.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2009 and May 2010. Data collection was carried out using a 44-item semi-structured self-administrated qu...
Berin E; Sundell M; Karki C; Brynhildsen J; Hammar M
Emilia Berin,1,* Micaela Sundell,1,* Chanda Karki,2 Jan Brynhildsen,1 Mats Hammar1 1Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kathmandu Medical College, Kathmandu, Nepal *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: To map the knowledge about and attitudes toward birth control methods among women in Kathmandu, Nepal, and to compare the results between w...