In a national assessment program, 57% of Dutch ninth-grade students had a positive attitude towards the environment and 35% were prepared to make sacrifices for the environment. Student knowledge about environmental problems, however, was fragmentary and often incorrect. Environmentally responsible behavior was more strongly connected with the…
Kuhlemeier, Hans; van den Bergh, Huub; Lagerweij, Nijs
This article explores the impact of practitioners' attitudes and knowledge of sexual health on clinical behaviors. Sexual health topics are often areas of concern for clients of any age in counseling. Thus, counselors must be trained and equipped to address sexual health across the life span. This study explored whether child and adolescent…
Russell, Elizabeth B.
Full Text Available Many hospitalizations in India are due to Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR and resulting in morbidity and mortality in majority cases in addition to the huge economic burden. A survey was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and behavior of community pharmacists towards ADR related aspects. One hundred and twenty eight pharmacists from various Community pharmacies in two Districts of South India were consented in this survey. A questionnaire was prepared to investigate the knowledge, attitude and behavior of pharmacists regarding ADR reporting and distributed to the identified pharmacies. The data was collected and analyzed by ANOVA and t- test. Out of 342 community pharmacies approached, 128 (37.4% community pharmacists consented to be part of the survey and the questionnaire given was filled and returned by them. Out of these respondents, only 39 (30.5% pharmacists had knowledge about ADR, 15 (11.7% and 14 (10.9% were aware of National Pharmacovigilance Program (NPP and regional reporting centers respectively. Only 54 (43% agreed that ADR reporting is a professional obligation of pharmacist and none of the respondents reported ADRs. The main reason for not reporting any ADR was ‘they did not know how to report’ and ‘did not feel its beneficial’. This survey revealed that the community pharmacists were having least scores towards knowledge, attitude and behavior on ADRs in Indian Scenario.
Ravi Katti Venkappa
The study summarizes information obtained from interviews conducted by telephone from ORC's WATS facility in Princeton, New Jersey. The information on the extent on which American consumers are conserving energy and their awareness of the attitudes towards conserving energy in their daily lives will aid the FEA to help plan and evaluate its energy conservation policies and programs. Survey questions dealt with subjects in 7 chapters: Private Individual's Willingness to Make Energy-Saving Efforts and their Perception of the Likelihood of Others Doing the Same; Public Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Relating to Natural Gas Issues; Driving and Energy Conservation; Energy Saving Behavior Around the Home; Parents' Perceptions of their Children's Sources of Energy Information and Energy-Related Activities; Understanding of the Energy Situation and Evaluations of Alternative Actions. (MCW)
Background In this study we aimed to determine knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of mosque imams regarding organ donation. Material and Methods This study involved 322 mosque imams working in Kahramanmaras, a city in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. A questionnaire was used to determine participants' sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding organ donation. Results Out of a total of 322 participants, 253 (78.6%) stated that organ donation is allowed in Islam, while 5 (1.6%) expressed that it is religiously forbidden, and 64 (19.9%) stated that they have no idea about the issue. Only 2 (0.6%) participants were registered organ/tissue donors, wile 320 (99.4%) were not. Out of all participants, 72 (22.4%) imams were willing to donate organs. Forty-six (14.3%) imams had previously received basic training about organ donation, and 166 (51.6%) were willing to attend a related training. Television programs and healthcare professionals were the most common means of learning about organ donation. Educational programs by healthcare professionals for imams and the public were proposed to be effective in increasing the number of organ donations. Conclusions This study revealed that the knowledge of mosque imams regarding organ donation is poor and they had little willingness to donate their organs. Interestingly, many imams had no knowledge about organ donation under Islam. Collaboration of media, healthcare professionals, and mosque imams regarding organ donation might help increase organ donation. PMID:25402268
Keten, Hamit Sirri; Keten, Derya; Ucer, Huseyin; Cerit, Mustafa; Isik, Oguz; Miniksar, Okkes Hakan; Ersoy, Ozgur
Energy use per square foot from science research labs is disproportionately higher than that of other rooms in buildings on campuses across the nation. This is partly due to labs’ use of energy intensive equipment. However, laboratory management and personnel behavior may be significant contributing factors to energy consumption. Despite an apparent increasing need for energy conservation in science labs, a systematic investigation of avenues promoting energy conservation behavior in such labs appears absent in scholarly literature. This paper reports the findings of a recent study into the energy conservation knowledge, attitude and behavior of principle investigators, laboratory managers, and student lab workers at a tier 1 research university. The study investigates potential barriers as well as promising avenues to reducing energy consumption in science laboratories. The findings revealed: (1) an apparent lack of information about options for energy conservation in science labs, (2) existing operational barriers, (3) economic issues as barriers/motivators of energy conservation and (4) a widespread notion that cutting edge science may be compromised by energy conservation initiatives. - Highlights: ? Effective energy conservation and efficiency depend on social systems and human behaviors. ? Science laboratories use more energy per square foot than any other academic and research spaces. ? Time, money, quality control, and convenience overshadow personnel’s desire to save energy. ? Ignorance of conservation practices is a barrier to energy conservation in labs.
Purpose: Little is known about interrelationships among nutrition knowledge, attitude, dietary intake, and body satisfaction, which are important variables that play a role in nutrition education interventions. This paper aims to focus on these interrelationships. Design/methodology/approach: Students (n = 279; 20.12 plus or minus 1.75SD years)…
Dissen, Anthony R.; Policastro, Peggy; Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol
Using concept maps, a Kellert-type (S. R. Kellert, 1985) inventory, and self-report behavioral items, this cross-age study assessed public knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward bottlenose dolphins. Results suggest that this important megafaunal species is poorly understood by the public at large, and that negative "utilitarian" attitudes and…
Barney, Erin C.; Mintzes, Joel J.; Yen, Chiung-Fen
Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis threatens the aged population especially the menopausal women and can lead to life long disability and death. Appropriate knowledge and behavior have an important role in prevention of osteoporosis. In this study the knowledge, attitude and behavior of women regarding osteoporosis is assessed and compared in different age groups.Methods: This cross sectional study includes 390 women in reproductive, premenopausal and menopausal age groups who had come to Shariati hospital clinics and each had answered the designed questionnaire. The questionnaires were scored and analyzed. Women's knowledge, attitude and behavior were assessed and compared by X2 test in the three age groups and P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: 15-30% of women didn't know what osteoporosis is and in 380 of them attitude or behavior was not good. Education had a significant effect on knowledge of women in reproductive and premenopausal ages (P=0.002, 0.04 respectively, but had no effect on their attitude or behavior. Age had a significant effect on knowledge and attitude (P=0.001 but had no effect on behavior. Age had significant effect on the knowledge that exercise can prevent osteoporosis (P=0.014 but not on attitude or behavior. Age had no effect on knowledge, attitude or behavior of daily calcium intake to prevent osteoporosis. (P=0.123, 0.12, 0.153 respectively 93% to 95% of women thought the risks of osteoporosis are less than cardiovascular disease or breast cancer.Conclusions: 15-30% of women didn't know what osteoporosis is. The total knowledge about osteoporosis was low. Although 22-75% of women younger than 54 years old had knowledge about the predisposing factors but their attitude or behavior was not good.
Kaghaz kanani R.
Objective: To assess students' human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants/ Methods: Students (N = 1,282) at a large, public university in the Northeast United States completed a questionnaire during February 2008 assessing HPV knowledge, prevalence, transmission, cervical cancer risk and stigma; sexual behavior,…
Sandfort, Jessica R.; Pleasant, Andrew
The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to examine the sexual behavior of emerging adult women in relation to their sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and perceptions of their parents' sexual attitudes; and second, to discuss the implications of this research in working with young adult women. Three hundred and sixty-four college-age women…
Byno, Lucy H.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Mullis, Ann K.
Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to assess the rate of tobacco consumption among professional athletes in Iran and assessing their knowledge and attitude in this regard.Methods: A total of 738 athletes from 10 different types of sports were evaluated. Athletes were all members of the priority leagues. After obtaining consent from the Physical Education Organization and coordination with the related federations, athletes were asked to fill out the standard questionnaire.Findings: All understudy subjects were males. The mean age was 28.4±2.7 yrs. The mean age of initiation of sport in these subjects was reported to be 12.3±4.01 yrs. A total of 178 (24.6% subjects had experienced cigarette smoking and 308 (42.3% had experienced hookah smoking. Sixty four subjects (9% were current smokers. The mean score of knowledge about hazards of smoking was 5.6±0.9 among those who had experienced smoking. This score was 7.9±0.5 among those with no smoking experience (P=0.04.Conclusion: Rate of smoking among professional athletes is lower than general population average. So participation in organized sports may be a protective factor against tobacco use in people. Percentage of smoker athletes was significantly higher in individual sports compared to team sports. Experiencing hookah smoking was significantly higher than cigarette smoking among athletes. Athletes had good knowledge about hazards of smoking and had a positive attitude in this respect. Further studies are needed to evaluate reasons of cigarette and hookah smoking among athletes.
Full Text Available Background Infant mortality rate is an indicator of the degree of health in society. In Indonesia, the infant mortality rate remains high, with most deaths occurring in the first 24 hours of life. Breastfeeding has been shown to reduce infant mortality, especially if undertaken in the first hour of life. This practice is known as early initiation of breastfeeding (EIB. According to various studies, EIB implementation may be influenced by many factors such as knowledge, attitude, behavior, and health care facilities. Objective To assess the level of knowledge, attitude, and behavior of pregnant women towards EIB. Methods We conducted a descriptive study using questionnaires on 74 pregnant women in the outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Dustira Hospital, Cimahi, West Java, Indonesia from November to December 2012. Results Out of 74 respondents, 21% had a good level of knowledge on EIB, 23% had an adequate knowledge, and 56% had less than adequate knowledge on EIB. A positive attitude towards EIBwas found in 65% of the respondents, while 35% had a negative attitude. With regards to behavior conducive to EIB, 8% of respondents had good behavior, 57% had moderate behavior, and 35%had less than adequate behavior. Conclusion Majority of pregnant women have less than adequate knowledge on EIB, a positive attitude towards and moderate to less than adequate behavior conducive to EeIBb.
Full Text Available Health care personnel are the first line of contact for public with the health care system and therefore, can have an important role in public’s oral health promotion. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior of Health Care centers personnel in Neyshabour, Iran. One hundred and thirty four health care personnel in Neyshabour participated in this cross sectional study. A researcher-led questionnaire was used to evaluate oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior of participants. Oral hygiene examination was carried out by a qualified dentist using simplified oral hygiene index. Then the association between knowledge, attitude and behavior of health care personnel with age, gender, occupation and education level were assessed by Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The results showed that 56% of participants had good knowledge, 80% reported positive attitude and 86% of personnel reported tooth brushing once daily. Average score for oral hygiene index was 1.26±1.66. Personnel with higher educational level had more knowledge (p = 0.007 and people with higher education and income had more positive attitude (p = 0.001 and 0.04, respectively. The oral hygiene index of people with higher education was better than others (p = 0.001. It seems that level of knowledge and behavior of studied Health Care employees regarding oral health needs improvement. Enhancement and continuation of oral health educational courses is mandatory.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the melanoma and sun protection knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of college students attending a large Midwestern university. Further, gender and skin type (fair, medium, or dark) were examined as potential intervening variables. Results indicate that the college students studied had low knowledge levels…
Cottrell, Randall; McClamroch, Leslie; Bernard, Amy L.
Objective: To examine self-reported knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices on cancer among Saudis. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from Saudis aged 15 years or more, who attended one of the randomly selected 20 Primary Health Centers (PHC) or the four major private hospitals located in the Riyadh region, either as patients or their escorts. The association between the variables was evaluated by the Chi square test. Results: The study population consisted of 618 males and 719 females. Among the female respondents 23.1% reported that they practiced breast self-examination (BSE); 14.2 and 8.1%, respectively, had clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography. However, 10.0 and 16.1% of the females, aged 40 years and older, reported having had mammograms and CBE, respectively. The BSE performers were more educated, knew someone with cancer, and had heard of the cancer warning signal. Both educational level and ‘heard of cancer warning signal’ were significantly related to CBE. Cancer information was received from television / radio by 65.1% and from the physician by 29.4%. Even though 69.4% believed that cancer could be detected early, a vast majority (95.8%) felt early detection of cancer was extremely desirable and 55.1% said their participation was definite in any screening program. A majority of the respondents (92.6%) insisted on the need for physician recommendation to participate and 78.1% expected that any such program should be conducted in the existing hospitals / clinics. Conclusion: Culturally sensitive health education messages should be tailored to fulfill the knowledge gap among all population strata. Saudis will benefit from partnerships between public health educators and media to speed up the dissemination of cancer information. PMID:22175041
Ravichandran, Kandasamy; Al-Hamdan, Nasser A.; Mohamed, Gamal
Full Text Available Consanguineous marriages are traditionally favoured in most of Asian and African countries especially in the Muslim countries. However, it is apparent that these kinds of marriage are a major factor of some genetic disorders inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Although there is a long history of consanguineous marriage in Iran, the information on its prevalence is too poor. The aim of this study was to define the frequency of consanguineous marriage in Mashhad City, Khorasan Province, Iran as well as its correlations to the youths’ attitude and their knowledge about the genetic consequences of inbreeding. The concerning information was obtained by administration of a direct questionnaire including 50 open and closed questions. The subjects were 500 young people (with a mean age of 21.4 yr who were selected during a quota sampling. The results of this study revealed that most of the youth did not have favorable information about the consequences of genetic disorders of inbreeding. There was a higher rate of consanguinity in the rural rather than the urban population. The traditional beliefs and the authority of the parents who had also experienced consanguineous marriage were other predominating factors of inbreeding.
This article discusses methods and elements of three major national health survey systems, particularly as they relate to HIV infection and AIDS. The National Health Interview Survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System provide information about health-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of adults in the United States. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System measure health-related behaviors of American youth. Questions and survey designs differ among the thr...
Safran, M. A.; Wilson, R. W.
Full Text Available Background /Objective: Sixty percent of all smokers in the United States (U.S. try smoking cigarettes before they are 18 years old. Family and peer behavior (subjective norm, and attitude may influence young people to initiate smoking. The aims of this study were to 1 determine if attitude, subjective norm, and knowledge could predict smoking behaviors; 2 identify reasons for smoking; 3 determine if there were differences in attitudes toward smoking between smokers and non-smokers; and 4 determine smokers’ intent to quit. Methods: The population of interest included individuals age 30 or younger. The instrument, in the form of an online Tobacco Survey, was distributed via email, Facebook®, and other social media. The survey was created on Survey Monkey.com®. Data were collected for nine months and analyzed using SPSS® version 17 for Windows®. Results: Cronbach’s alpha for the primary factors were high to adequate, attitude a = .89, knowledge a = .71, and subjective norm a = .67. Results suggested subjective norm and attitude may predict smoking but knowledge was not a predictor. Over 70% of the smokers tried their first cigarette before the age of 18 years. Most reported reasons for smoking were alcohol consumption, smoking with friends in social settings, stress relief, and relaxation. Seventy-five percent of the smokers agreed that smoking was addictive and knowledge was high regarding the hazards of smoking. Less than 50% of the smokers planned to quit within the next year. Conclusions: Tobacco use among adolescents and young adults may be directly influenced by overall attitude and peer and family smoking behaviors. Knowledge of the hazards of smoking does not appear to influence smoking behaviors; therefore it is recommended health care providers, and others in a position to influence young people, focus on changing attitudes about smoking.
Barbara J. Ganley
Objective: To research the correlation between physical and sexual abuse by family members and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy and behavior among urban and rural adolescents in Zambia. Sample: The sample comprises 3,360 adolescents, aged 10-19, from urban and rural Zambia; 2,160 of them attended school, while 1,200 of them did…
Slonim-Nevo, Vered; Mukuka, Lawrence
Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…
M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.
A structured questionnaire was administered to assess Greek pre-service primary teachers' knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported behavior toward marine pollution issues. Exploratory factor analysis revealed several factors, all demonstrating adequate internal consistency, and showed that pre-service teachers demonstrated a moderate level of…
Boubonari, Theodora; Markos, Angelos; Kevrekidis, Theodoros
Full Text Available Background: Incidence of asthma is 5.5% in Iran. Patients with asthma need frequent self-management in order to control the symptoms maintaining natural lung activity. The aim of this study is to study the effective factors of self-management behaviors, and its relation with controlling asthma in asthmatic patients in Kashan. Materials and Method: Simple sampling was employed to recruit 102 asthmatic patients referring to asthmatic therapeutic centers of Kashan, Iran. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was conducted and the data were collected using a survey questionnaire based on knowledge and attitude factors and self-management behavior constructions and asthma control test. SPSS software for Windows was used for analyzing data (t-test, ANOVA, correlation and regression.Results: The respondents acquired 46.8% of total asthma knowledge score, 82.2% of attitude score. Respondents with acquisition 57.7% of total asthma self-management behavior score placed in middle class. The acquired score in asthma control is low class (40.28%. Negative relation between knowledge and asthma control was observed. Conclusion: The results showed that if the situation of knowledge and attitude factors are better, the self-management behaviors in asthmatic patients will be better and if the situation self-management behavior be better, asthma control will be better, too. Negative relation between knowledge and asthma control needs more researches
S. Saeed Mazloomi
The purpose of this research is to consider the environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, of adults in Minnesota, and possible factors that influence environmental literacy. Specifically, this study is designed to: (1) measure the environmental literacy of Minnesota adults, (2) explore possible relationships between Minnesota adults, environmental literacy variables and their demographic, non-formal and informal learning, and (3) determine the relative contribution of demographic and learning variables for predicting environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. This research was accomplished by conducting a secondary data analysis of The Third Minnesota Report Card on Environmental Literacy: A Survey of Adult Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior (Murphy & Olson, 2008). Phone interviews were completed between August and November 2007 with one thousand adults throughout Minnesota. Findings indicated that for age, education, and income, there was a weak positive relationship with environmental knowledge, attitude and behavior scores. There was a significant effect for gender and environmental knowledge scores, with males receiving higher environmental knowledge scores than females. There was a significant effect for gender and environmental attitudes, and behavior scores as well, with females receiving slightly higher environmental attitude and behavior scores than males. After controlling for the effects of demographic variables on environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, non-formal learning participation appears to be a moderate contributor to both environmental knowledge and environmental behaviors. After controlling for the effects of demographic variables on environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, informal learning participation appears to be a slight contributor to environmental attitudes, and a moderate contributor to environmental knowledge and behaviors. Overall, the results of this study suggest that participation in non-formal and informal education venues improved environmental knowledge, attitude and behavior models, providing evidence for the value and need for non-formal and informal environmental adult education venues.
Digby, Cynthia Louise Barrett
Attitude, personality, and customer knowledge antecedents were compared in their predictive ability of 3 service-oriented forms of employee organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs): loyalty, service delivery, and participation. For the 1st study, 236 customer-contact employees provided data concerning their OCBs and the attitude, personality, and knowledge antecedents. The 2nd investigation relied on data provided by 144 contact employees from a network of university libraries. Using hierarchical regression in both studies, the authors found that each of the 3 types of service-oriented OCBs was best predicted by different subsets of the antecedents. Job attitudes accounted for the most unique variance in loyalty OCBs, personality accounted for the most unique variance in service delivery OCBs, and customer knowledge and personality jointly were the best predictors of participation OCBs. PMID:11302230
Bettencourt, L A; Gwinner, K P; Meuter, M L
BACKGROUND: To determine The Medical Technology Vocational Training School (MTVTS) students? the knowledge about the effects of GMO on human health and environment and to evaluate their attitude and behavior has been aimed. METHODS: All of the second class students of the year 2006-2007 of MTVTS were included (N=161) in the study, response rate was 92%. The survey questionare included questions on knowledge, the risk perception and attitute about GMOs. The legal framework in Turkey about...
Safak Taner Gursoy; Isil Ergin; Zeliha Asli Ocek; Meltem Ciceklioglu
Few studies have addressed the variables that affect physicians' practice behavior in treating alcoholism. In the study reported here, the authors hypothesized that alcohol-related training and experience would influence practice behavior more significantly than attitudes or knowledge. In order to assess the most important predictors of practice behavior, the authors conducted a survey of 163 junior and senior medical residents at five training hospitals affiliated with Harvard Medical School. Of these residents, 123 responded (75 percent). Negative attitudes toward alcoholics and knowledge of alcoholism were not significantly related to the residents' estimates of the prevalence of alcoholism among their patients, to their rate of treating alcoholic patients, or to their rate of referring patients for alcoholism therapy. There was a significant relationship between having supervised clinical experience in alcoholism and these three behaviors. These results are consistent with the authors' hypothesis that changing physicians' practice in treating alcoholics may be best achieved by providing relevant clinical experience in alcoholism. PMID:3599038
Warburg, M M; Cleary, P D; Rohman, M; Barnes, H N; Aronson, M; Delbanco, T L
The objective of this study was to assess the impact of a pilot nutrition intervention program on knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of female combat soldiers in basic training serving in the Israeli army and to determine changes in nutrient intake. Seventy recruits participated in the intervention. Anthropometric measurements and food frequency questionnaires were completed at 3 time points: at enlistment, at 2 months, and at 4 months. Additional questionnaires to assess nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were administered preintervention and postintervention. Baseline results indicated that intakes of calcium, vitamin E, and vitamin D were below recommended levels. After 2 months (8 weeks), suboptimal consumption of many nutrients was observed. At this time point, a nutrition education program was initiated and activities were carried out for the final 2 months of basic training. Following completion of the intervention, a marked improvement in nutrient intake was reported, accompanied by significant changes in attitudes toward healthy eating and increased nutrition knowledge. One-year follow-up evaluation indicated that approximately 20% of participants had made long-term dietary changes. In conclusion, nutrition education increased knowledge, modified attitudes, and led to dietary changes in female recruits. Programs of this type should be considered for implementation in the military. PMID:23756010
Herzman-Harari, Sarit; Constantini, Naama; Mann, Gideon; Lencovsky, Zvi; Stark, Aliza H
Unmarried heterosexual college students' human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge, attitudes, risk perception, and sexual behavior were assessed before and after Magic Johnson's HIV-positive serostatus disclosure. After the disclosure, students showed small increases in HIV knowledge scores, but their attitudes, risk perceptions, and sexual…
Ehde, Dawn M.; And Others
Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, many studies have focused on adolescent's sex-related issues in China. However, there have been few studies of unmarried migrant females' sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, which is important for sexual health education and promotion. Methods A sample of 5156 unmarried migrant female workers was selected from three manufacturing factories, two located in Shenzhen and one in Guangzhou, China. Demographic data, sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors were assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the factors associated with premarital sexual intercourse. Results The average age of the unmarried female workers included in the sample was 20.2 years, and majority of them showed a low level of sex-related knowledge. Females from the west of China demonstrated a significant lower level of sex-related knowledge than those from the eastern or central provinces (p p p Conclusion The unmarried migrant female workers lack sexual knowledge and a substantial proportion of them are engaged in premarital sexual behaviors. Interventions aimed at improving their sexual knowledge and related skills are needed.
Full Text Available This study has developed three Logistic Regression Models to determine and analyze the factors that could affect knowledge, attitude and behavior of the urban poor concerning solid waste management. To pursue the objective, the study has collected primary data from the level of living conditions of the poor residing in the squatters and low-cost flats of Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia. The empirical results of the study are exciting as they provide evidence to the effect that knowledge, attitude and behavior of the urban poor communities concerning solid waste management are adequate and satisfactory. Hence, the low socio-economic profile of the urban poor has not been proven as causal to environmental degradation. The study suggests that it is inherent to improve the quality of lifestyles of the poor to enable them to come out of poverty threshold, even though an adequate and satisfactory solid waste management system exists amongst the communities.
M.d. Wahid Murad
The objective of this study was to assess students' knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV and AIDS. A questionnaire was administered to a cross section of 259 Chinese undergraduates. Respondents were asked to provide information about knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Study results indicated that the majority of undergraduates had a moderate level of HIV and AIDS knowledge, acceptance and attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS. Boys had more acceptance and positive attitudes tow...
Chaojun Xie; Chunhong Wang; Dong Zhou; Jingju Pan; Xiaodong Tan
The objective of the study was to determine the effect of nutrition instruction, using the curriculum guides, Nutrition In A Changing World, A Curriculum for Junior High Health, and A Curriculum for Senior High Health, on improving the nutrition knowledge, selected food/nutrition attitudes, and dietary behavior of students enrolled in secondary level health courses. Three groups of students were utilized including one experimental and two control groups at each level (junior high and senior high). The experimental group was pretested, taught the nutrition curriculum, and posttested. One control group was posttested only to measure the effect of the pretest on posttest performance. A second control group was pretested and posttested. Neither control group received nutrition instruction until after the study was completed. The three instruments used to collect data were a nutrition knowledge test, a food/nutrition attitude instrument, and a food frequency form. The results indicate that, at all grade levels, the experimental group had significantly improved knowledge scores. Little change in attitude scale scores was noted in grades seven and eight, while ninth grade experimental students scored significantly higher on the posttest for all attitude scales. Little improvement was seen in the posttest food frequency scores. PMID:6569273
Byrd-Bredbenner, C; O'Connell, L H; Shannon, B; Eddy, J M
This study examines breast cancer knowledge, attitudes and screening behaviors of Hispanic women living in the South Texas colonias of Maverick and Val Verde Counties. We used the Health Belief Model to analyze the effects of HBM constructs on clinical breast exam (CBE) and mammogram screening. Using a multistage systematic sampling approach we interviewed women living within these colonias. Logistic regression analysis was used to predict CBE and mammography screening behaviors. The results indicate that knowledge, susceptibility, barriers and source of health information were statistically significant in predicting CBE among these women. In addition, background variables such as marital status and health insurance were also significant in predicting CBE. Findings further indicate that source of health information, barriers, and health insurance significantly predicts mammography screening behaviors. Results suggest that for women living in colonias along the South Texas Border socio-demographic variables play a significant role in CBE and mammography utilization. PMID:23903907
Sunil, T S; Hurd, Thelma; Deem, Carma; Nevarez, Lucinda; Guidry, Jeffrey; Rios, Rebecca; Guerra, Hector; Ortiz, Juanita; Jones, Lovell
Full Text Available Background & Objective: Regular and adequate physical activity is a major factor in maintaining good health throughout entire life course. Levels of inactivity are high in all countries. Effective educational interventions are needed to promote physical activity in all populations. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a heath education intervention on physical activity knowledge, attitude, and behavior in health volunteers of Tehran in 2008. Methods & Materials: All active female health volunteers of Tehran, district 14 (n=100 were recruited for this experimental study. Data were gathered using a questionnaire of knowledge, attitude, and behavior regarding physical activity. The questionnaire was completed by all participants in two phases of pre- and post-intervention (four weeks after the intervention. Health education intervention strategies were presented to the intervention group during three educational sessions with one week interval between the sessions. Data were analyzed using related statistical tests. Results: Findings showed significant statistical differences in knowledge, total physical activity rate per week, and the mean sitting time per day between the control and intervention groups after the intervention (P<0.05. While, these variables were not significantly different before the educational intervention among both groups. Conclusion: The health education intervention presented in this study was effective in promoting knowledge, total physical activity rate per week, and mean sitting time per day among the female health volunteers.
Seyed Emami R
Full Text Available Background: Children and adolescent smoking is one of the most important health problems in the world. There is a major concern that child labor may generate a pseudo maturity syndrome, including smoking.The current survey focus on smoking behavior, knowledge and attitude of child labor are working in Tehran.Materials and Methods: The study adopted a cross-sectional design, based on a primary pilot descriptive cross sectional study, using GYTS self-administered questionnaire. 816 child labor, which were student of work labor schools or worked as child labor on Tehran parks and crossing roads, were randomly selected using multi stage cluster sampling. DATA analyzed using SPSS v.22 (IBM statistic software and chi square test to compare the frequency of variables in different groups.Results: 50.6% of our participants were boy and child laboring age varied from 11 to 17 years old. 18.6% of child labor had smoking experience (Confident Interval 95%=17.3-20.1. 9.8% of them were current smoker (CI 95%=8.6-10.9 and 1.2% were current regular smoker (CI 95%=0.9-2.1. Child labor smoking hazard knowledge was evaluated by considering the minimum and maximum score of 10 to 30. Results demonstrated that the mean score of knowledge, attitude and behavior were 17.1±6.2, 36.5±16.1 (range 15-45 and 46.1±3.0 (range 25-75, respectively.Conclusion: Considering to our findings, planning tobacco control program for these specific groups is required, aiming at preventing cigarette smoking by increasing the knowledge and correcting their attitude.
Full Text Available Research conducted to define general knowledge of university students’ attitudes and behaviors about family planning. The sample consisted of 755 Sakarya University students. Data were collected from an open-ended questionnaire form and faceto-face interviews. The data analysis process was conducted using specific software. Most participants (59.7% were over 22 years old and female, and 1.2 % of the females were married. Women in the study had a positive outlook regarding the positive effects of family planning on sexual health and stated that family planning is important to both society and our economy. The awareness and knowledge regarding family planning was found to be strongest among older participants. The family planning concept was understood correctly by about half of the students. Finally, young people did not have sufficient knowledge about family planning, its methods or where to obtain information on the topic.
The purpose of this study was to examine inclusive elementary teacher knowledge and attitude toward Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and applied behavior analysis (ABA) and their use of ABA. Furthermore, this study examined if knowledge and attitude predicted use of ABA. A survey was developed and administered through a web-based program. Of the…
McCormick, Jennifer A.
To gain information about AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of junior high school students, 1,967 students in three junior high schools in an inner city school district were surveyed. Ages of the participants ranged from 11-16 years, and 48% were male. Ethnically, 33% were Asian, 31% African-American, 24% Latino, and 5% white. African-American students had greater AIDS general knowledge than Asians and similar general knowledge to Latinos and whites. Most students wanted to be taught about AIDS in school. Misconceptions about casual contagion of AIDS were common. Students with these misconceptions were more likely to believe that students with AIDS should not be allowed to attend school. A high proportion of students had engaged in high-risk behavior including sexual intercourse, drinking alcoholic beverages, and using street drugs. More boys than girls reported each of these activities. Of individuals having had sexual intercourse, a positive association was found between the belief that condoms are effective in preventing HIV infection and use of condoms. These findings support the possibility that improving knowledge about HIV transmission would result in more tolerance toward students with HIV infection and would result in less high-risk behavior. PMID:1857106
Siegel, D; Lazarus, N; Krasnovsky, F; Durbin, M; Chesney, M
Full Text Available Sodium intake is high in Lebanon, a country of the Middle East region where rates of cardiovascular diseases are amongst the highest in the world. This study examines salt-related knowledge, attitude and self-reported behaviors amongst adult Lebanese consumers and investigates the association of socio-demographic factors, knowledge and attitudes with salt-related behaviors. Using a multicomponent questionnaire, a cross-sectional study was conducted in nine supermarkets in Beirut, based on systematic random sampling (n = 442. Factors associated with salt-related behaviors were examined by multivariate regression analysis. Specific knowledge and attitude gaps were documented with only 22.6% of participants identifying processed foods as the main source of salt, 55.6% discerning the relationship between salt and sodium, 32.4% recognizing the daily limit of salt intake and 44.7% reporting being concerned about the amount of salt in their diet. The majority of participants reported behavioral practices that increase salt intake with only 38.3% checking for salt label content, 43.7% reporting that their food purchases are influenced by salt content and 38.6% trying to buy low-salt foods. Knowledge, attitudes and older age were found to significantly predict salt-related behaviors. Findings offer valuable insight on salt-related knowledge, attitude and behaviors in a sample of Lebanese consumers and provide key information that could spur the development of evidence-based salt-reduction interventions specific to the Middle East.
In one region in the state of Kuwait children in first grade have been offered a systematic dental health care program. The purpose of this study was to assess (1) dental knowledge, attitudes, and health behavior among the mothers of children in first grade, and (2) dental knowledge and attitudes of schoolteachers, and their involvement in health education. Before the children were enrolled in the program 187 mothers (response 76%) were interviewed. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on schoolteachers (n = 135, response 695). Most of the mothers (74%) answered that dental caries is caused by sweets/candy; the role of bacteria was mentioned by 9%. Half of the mothers were aware of the harmful effect of sugary drinks, and 50% knew about the preventive effect of fluoride. Knowledge about causes and prevention of periodontal disease was diffuse. According to the mothers, 68% of the children were in need for dental treatment; 37% were seen by a dentist once a year for symptomatic reasons, and 49% brushed their teeth at least twice a day. Sixteen-percent of the mothers helped their child in brushing every day. Sugar consumption among mothers and children was high, e.g. 66% of the children had chocolate bars and 44% had soft drinks several times a day. The level of dental knowledge was higher among teachers than mothers; the mothers were mostly informed through television/radio, while teachers had received information from various sources, including the dentists. The teachers responded positively to prevention of dental diseases among children and should be considered key persons in dental health education. For the Kuwaiti children and the mothers the active involvement principle, group presentations, and one-to-one communications are recommended for the school based dental health program. PMID:2081134
Petersen, P E; Hadi, R; Al-Zaabi, F S; Hussein, J M; Behbehani, J M; Skougaard, M R; Vigild, M
Radiation safety managements in medical institutions are needed to protect certain radiation damages as a part of National Coalition. This study investigates the characteristics of self-efficacy that become the major factor on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the radiation safety management of radiation workers as an approach of educational aspects and analyzes the relationship between such factors to provide basic materials for improving the activity level of radiation safety managements. In order to implement the goal of this study, a survey was performed for 1,200 workers who were engaged in radiation treatments in medical centers, such as general hospital, university hospital, private hospital, and public health center for 42 days from July 23, 2006. Then, the results of the analysis can be summarized as follows: 1. Average scores on knowledge, attitude, and behavior in the radiation safety management were presented as 75.76±11.20, 90.55±8.59, 80.58±11.70, respectively. Also, the average score of self-efficacy was recorded as 73.55±9.82. 2. Knowledge levels in the radiation safety management showed significant differences according to the sex, age, marriage, education, and experience. Also, males of married, older, highly educated, and largely experienced represented high knowledge levels. Attitude levels in the radiation safety management showed certain significant differences according to the type of medical centers in which private hospitals showed ers in which private hospitals showed a relatively low level compared to that of high levels in university hospitals. Behavior levels in the radiation safety management also represented significant differences according to the age, marriage, education, experience, and types of medical centers. Factors in married, general hospital, older, highly educated, and largely experienced showed high behavior levels. In addition, the self-efficacy showed certain differences according to the marriage and types of medical centers. Factors in married and general hospital demonstrated high self-efficacy levels. 3. Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety management showed statistical differences according to the relationship between the knowledge and the attitude, the knowledge and the behavior, the attitude and the behavior, the attitude and the self-efficacy, and the behavior and the self-efficacy. The relationship between the behavior and the self-efficacy was represented as ? = 0.482, which was the strongest relationship in such factors. Also, the knowledge and self-efficacy didn't show certain relationships
Unmarried heterosexual college students' HIV knowledge, attitudes, risk perception, and sexual behavior were assessed before and after "Magic" Johnson revealed his HIV-positive serostatus. Students examined after the disclosure showed a small, though statistically significant, increase in scores on HIV knowledge. Analyses did not reveal any other differences between the pre- and postdisclosure samples. Several differences between men's and women's scores were found, however. In addition, participants in both groups demonstrated generally positive attitudes toward HIV and people with HIV disease; rated their risk of future HIV infection as none to minimal; and reported frequently engaging in vaginal, oral, and anal intercourse without the use of condoms. These results suggest that Magic's disclosure did not significantly affect these students' attitudes, risk perception, or sexual behavior and that such students continue to engage in behaviors that may put them at risk for HIV infection. PMID:7593993
Ehde, D M; Holm, J E; Robbins, G M
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine The Medical Technology Vocational Training School (MTVTS students? the knowledge about the effects of GMO on human health and environment and to evaluate their attitude and behavior has been aimed. METHODS: All of the second class students of the year 2006-2007 of MTVTS were included (N=161 in the study, response rate was 92%. The survey questionare included questions on knowledge, the risk perception and attitute about GMOs. The legal framework in Turkey about GMOs, the rationale for GMO production, the labeling for GMO and the students? perception of their knowledge was evaluated through 14 items with Likert scale. After the questionaire, the students received an informative brochure on GMOs. RESULTS: The open-ended question asking to define GMOs was answered by 59,2% of the students among which 35,6% defined as ?additive?, 34,5% as ?food with hormones?. The risk perceived for GMOs was the forth following cigarette smoking, stres, and environmental pollution in the ranking according to the risk score means. Sex has been the only determinant effecting this scoring for GMOs where girls perceived the risk greater. If family was one of the information sources about GMOs, the perceived risk was increased (p=0,000. Among the students 81,6% thought that GMO should not be grown in Turkey, 77,7% think that GMO was sold however. The leading topic of ambivalence is the state of self knowledge on GMO. The low income group are less concerned about consuming GMO for themselves or for their children (respectively p==0.003 ve p=0,012. CONCLUSION: Health workers are assigned with an important role to inform the public for healthy eating. However although the the risk perception of the study group for GMOs is high, their knowledge is low. Training activities to supply this deficiency should be implemented. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(6.000: 503-508
Safak Taner Gursoy
Background: The prevalence of smoking among Chinese adolescents has dramatically increased in recent years. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among Chinese students in 3 types of secondary schools. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 3957 students of…
Wen, Xiaozhong; Chen, Weiqing; Qian, Zhengmin; Muscat, Joshua E.; Lu, Ciyong; Ling, Wenhua
Despite the emphasis in modern zoos and aquaria on conservation and environmental education, we know very little about what people learn in these settings, and even less about how they learn it. Research on informal learning in settings such as zoos has suffered from a lack of theory, with few connections being made to theories of learning in formal settings, or to theories regarding the nature of the educational goals. This dissertation consists of three parts: the development and analysis of a test instrument designed to measure constructs of environmental learning in zoos; the application of the test instrument along with qualitative data collection in an evaluation designed to measure the effectiveness of a zoo's education programs; and the analysis of individually matched pre- and post-test data to examine how environmental learning takes place, with respect to the constructivist view of learning, as well as theories of environmental learning and the barriers to pro-environmental behavior. The test instrument consisted of 40 items split into four scales: environmental knowledge, attitudes toward the environment, support for conservation, and environmentally responsible behavior. A model-driven approach was used to develop the instrument, which was analyzed using Item Response Theory and the Rasch dichotomous measurement model. After removal of two items with extremely high difficulty, the instrument was found to be unidimensional and sufficiently reliable. The results of the IRT analyses are interpreted with respect to a modern validity framework. The evaluation portion of this study applied this test instrument to measuring the impact of zoo education programs on 750 fourth through seventh grade students. Qualitative data was collected from program observations and teacher surveys, and a comparison was also made between programs that took place at the zoo, and those that took place in the school classroom, thereby asking questions regarding the role of setting in environmental education. It was found that students in both program types significantly increased their environmental knowledge as a result of the program, but only students in the school-based programs significantly improved their attitudes towards the environment. Analyzing by grade, seventh grade students scored significantly lower on all aspects of the test than the younger students, suggesting a detrimental effect of novel settings on learning in adolescents. Teacher survey data suggests that teachers place great importance on how the education program would fit in with their school-based curriculum, but did little to integrate the program into their classroom teaching. Observations of the programs revealed some logistical issues, and some concerns regarding the zoo instructors' use of curriculum materials. Analyzing the test data from a constructivist perspective revealed that students with high incoming environmental attitudes had significant increases in environmental knowledge. That is, students with positive attitudes towards the environment are predisposed to engage in learning about the environment. Some gender-specific findings are also discussed.
Wilson, Christopher David
Despite the fact infectious diseases can spread readily in grade schools, few studies have explored prevention in this setting. Additionally, we lack valid tools for students to self-report knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. As part of an ongoing study of a curriculum intervention to promote healthy behaviors, we developed and evaluated age-appropriate surveys to determine students' understanding of influenza prevention. Surveys were adapted from adolescent and adult influenza surveys and administered to students in grades 2-5 (ages 7-11) at two Rochester public schools. We assessed student understanding by analyzing percent repeatability of 20 survey questions and compared percent "don't know" (DK) responses across grades, gender, and race. Questions thought to be ambiguous after early survey administration were investigated in student focus groups, modified as appropriate, and reassessed. The response rate across all surveys was >87 %. Survey questions were well understood; 16 of 20 questions demonstrated strong pre/post repeatability (>70 %). Only 1 question showed an increase in DK response for higher grades (p development for pediatric survey instruments. These methods may be used to assess the repeatability and validity of surveys to assess the impact of health education interventions in young children. PMID:24859735
Koep, Tyler H; Huskins, W Charles; Clemens, Christal; Jenkins, Sarah; Pierret, Chris; Ekker, Stephen C; Enders, Felicity T
Full Text Available Background and Design: This study evaluates the knowledge, behavior and attitudes about sexually transmitted infections (STIs among university students attending faculties other than medicine. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional and descriptive study was designed. A self-administered questionnaire comprising 37 questions was administered to students of Turkish nationality in a six-week period who attended to medico. Three hundred and eighty eight students completed the questionnaire. Results: Among students, 56.9% were female and 43.1% were male. Mean age was 21.18±2.46. Of the students, 76.9% claimed that they knew about STIs. ?Internet? (63.9% was the most common source of information, followed-by ?friends? (48%. HIV was the most common known disease as a STI (96.8%, followed-by gonorrhea, syphilis, hepatitis-B, genital herpes, genital warts, hepatitis-C. Of the respondents, 93.7% knew that STIs could be transmitted by vaginal sex, while 69% knew about transmission by blood, 48.9% by anal sex and 32% by oral sex. The rate of students who did not know any of the symptoms of STIs was 32.9%. Of the females 13.3% and of the males 51.6% stated to have sexual experience with statistically significant difference among sexes (c2=62.722, p=0.001. Females reported first sexual intercourse at an older age than males (t=3.970, p=0.001. Approximately half of the males (55.8% and nearly all of the females (95.8% who reported to have sexual activity had 2 or less sexual partners (c2=9.564, p=0.008. Both sexes showed risky sexual behavior about condom use (c2=3.210, p=0.523. Conclusion: It seems that most of the Turkish university students are not aware of STIs other than HIV. They especially lack knowledge about symptoms, complications and transmission routes of STIs. The low rate of condom use shows their risky behavior to get STI. Lack of knowledge about STIs, condom use and risky sexual behaviors among university students deserve attention to the lack of education on this matter in our country.
Kurtulu? Didem Yazgano?lu
Background: Influenza can spread among students, teachers, and staff in school settings. Vaccination is the most effective method to prevent influenza. We determined 2012-2013 influenza vaccination coverage among school employees, assessed knowledge and attitudes regarding the vaccine, and determined factors associated with vaccine receipt.…
de Perio, Marie A.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Brueck, Scott E.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco control effort should be first started in people that are looked upon as role models for the general population. We aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of religious officials towards smoking and the new tobacco law. Method The study group was comprised of 492 Imams and 149 Quran course instructors working in Kahramanmaras city of Turkey, 641 religious officials in total, and our survey form was applied on 406 (63.3% of those religious officials who agreed to participate in the study. Results Twenty-eight (6.9% participants were current smokers and 35 (8.6% were ex-smokers. 99.8% of the religious officials believed that smoking was harmful and/or prohibited in terms of religion. While 43.6% respondents thought smoking was "haram" (forbidden by Islam, 56.2% believed it was "makruh" (something regarded as reprehensible, though not forbidden by God according to Islam. 85.2% of the participants were aware of the recent tobacco law. 55.5% of the respondents, who were aware of the recent tobacco law, evaluated their knowledge level on the law as adequate, whereas 44.5% evaluated it as inadequate 92.4% of the participants noted that religious officials should play active roles in tobacco control effort. Conclusion Smoking rate among religious officials is much lower than that of general public. In order to help religious officials to take a more active role on this issue, they should be trained on the subject and appropriate platforms should be established.
Background Evidence in western countries indicates that the media have associations with adolescents’ and young people’ sexual behavior that may be as important as family, school and peers. In this new study of Asian adolescents and young adults in the three cities of Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei, the associations between exposure to sexual content in the media and adolescents’ and young adults’ sex-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors are explored in societies with traditional Confucian culture, but at different stages in the process of modernization. Method The data are from a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study conducted from 2006 to 2007 where a sample of 17,016 adolescents and young adults aged 15–24 years from Shanghai, Hanoi and Taipei completed face-to-face interviews coupled with computer-assisted self-interviews (CASI) for sensitive questions. For the objectives of this paper, analysis was restricted to the 16,554 unmarried respondents. Exposure to sexual content in the mass media (including the Internet and traditional media), pornographic videos, and a preference for western/Asian movies/videos were the main media influence measures. Sex-related knowledge, premarital sexual permissiveness, and sex-related behaviors were the main outcome measures. The impact of each of four contexts including family, peer, school and media on sex-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors were assessed using multiple linear regression stratified by gender and city, controlling for age, urban/rural residence, education and economic status. The change in adjusted R2 from the multiple linear regression analysis was adopted to indicate the contribution of family, peer, school and media variables to respondents’ sex-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. Results The contextual factors, including family, peer, school and media, explained 30–50% of the variance in sex-related knowledge, 8–22% of the variance in premarital sexual permissiveness and 32–41% of the variance in sex-related behaviors. Media variables explained 13–24% of the variance in sexual knowledge, 3–13% in premarital sexual permissiveness and 3–13% in sex-related behaviors, which was comparable to that of family, peer and school variables. These associations differed by city and gender. Conclusion Access to and use of mass media and the messages it presents are influential factors on sex-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of unmarried Asian adolescents and young adults, and should be considered in future research and intervention programs attempting to improve reproductive health outcomes. PMID:22340853
Lou, Chaohua; Cheng, Yan; Gao, Ersheng; Zuo, Xiayun; Emerson, Mark R.; Zabin, Laurie S.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to assess young adult's knowledge about skin cancer and it’s risk factors, attitude towards sun exposure and the interactions of various behaviors in the sun.Material and methods: The anonymous questionnaire-based inquiry of 750 respondents was created according to the anonymous form filled-in during the annual Euromelanoma Day campaign. Results: 708 questionnaires were filled-in correctly: 328 (46.3% by men, 380 (53.7% by women. Median of age was 21 (women – 22, men – 21. During the sunny days 93.2% of respondents sometimes seek shade, 17.5% of young adults never try to get a tan from 11a.m. to 3p.m. Sunglasses are worn in 52.4% of cases, however 63.1% of them with UV filters. 8,1% of respondents always wear T-shirts, 30.6% cover head in the beach. While sun-bathing one third (32.9% wear sun protection cream, while working or doing sports outdoors – 8.9%. Majority (57.4% apply sun protection cream when coming to the beach, 31.4% of them don't use it repeatedly. Those who knew, what is melanoma, were more likely to wear sunglasses (p=0.003 with UV filters (p=0.006, T-shirts (p=0.046, covered head (p<0.0001 and seeked shadow (p=0.002 on the beach; used sun protection cream while working ?1 hour outdoors (p=0.001 or sunbathing (p<0.0001, and choosed a sun protection cream according to SPF value (p<0.0001.Conclusion: The data of this study showed that respondents behave careless in the sun. One third of respondents always wear sun protection cream, the majority do not know how to use it properly. More responsible behavior in the sun depends on better knowledge of skin cancer.
The purpose of this descriptive, comparative study was to explore differences in sex knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors between teenage girls enrolled at a nursing school and those enrolled at a non-nursing school. A total of 792 students were recruited from one nursing school and one non-nursing school. Compared to non-nursing students, nursing students were more knowledgeable on sex-related issues, held more conservative attitudes toward sex, and had less sexual experience. We found also that the closer an intimate relationship was, the more liberal the sexual activities tended to be. Participants were prone to accept premarital sex, and cared less about the virginity of future spouses. Most perceived having a child before marriage unacceptable. About 23% (n = 179) of participants had intercourse experience, while only 30% of girls surveyed had used contraception every time they had sexual intercourse. Eleven students reported being pregnant, but none chose to take their pregnancy to term. The findings of this study show that nursing education may have a positive influence on teenage girl's sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with regard to practicing safer sex. This study also suggests that a comprehensive sex-related curriculum, introducing safer sex practices and the health consequences of unprotected sex, should be reinforced in both non-nursing and nursing schools. PMID:19319804
Tseng, Ying-Hua; Feng, Jui-Ying; Tesng, Li-Shu
Obesity is a worldwide epidemic problem. The downward trend of an obesity onset age calls for research efforts on how to develop useful nutrition educational programs for children to maintain adequate body weight. Understanding the roles of objective and subjective body status in obesity-related attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors can provide important information. The current study aimed to examine obesity-related attitudes and knowledge and practices of eating behavior guidelines in relatio...
Lee, Seungmin; Ahn, Hong-seok
Full Text Available Somsak Tiamkao,1 Kittisak Sawanyawisuth,1,3 Karnchanasri Singhpoo,2 Sukanda Ariyanuchitkul,2 Ratchada Ngamroop4On behalf of the Integrated Epilepsy Research Group1Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 2Community Medicine Service Section, Srinagarind Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 3The Research and Training Center for Enhancing Quality of Life of Working-Age People, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 4Health Promoting Hospital Tumbon Banladchang, Nakhon Nayok Provincial Health Office, Nakhon Nayok, ThailandBackground: Information on the knowledge of, and attitudes and practices towards epilepsy of the general population in Thailand is still limited, particularly with respect to the differences between populations in municipal and nonmunicipal areas.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted in a sample population of 1,000, with 500 participants each from municipal and nonmunicipal areas, in the Khon Kaen district.Results: The participants in the municipal area had higher incomes and higher education than did the participants in the nonmunicipal area. Both groups had low knowledge regarding epilepsy definition, causes, and treatment, but participants in the municipal area were more knowledgeable on the causes, types, and treatment of epilepsy. With respect to attitude, there were a significantly higher number of nonmunicipal participants than municipal participants who thought epilepsy was a disgusting disorder or that persons with epilepsy were sinful, had brain damage, and could not attend school. The municipal participants showed greater knowledge of correct practice than did nonmunicipal participants with regard to the following: not driving a car; avoiding acrobatic sports, fighting, or water sport; able to eat pork, not having to resign from work; not having to quit school; and able to have sexual relations.Conclusion: The participants from the municipal area had better knowledge, attitudes, and practices than did the participants from the nonmunicipal area. A campaign should be carried out to promote knowledge and understanding of, and practices towards epilepsy. Different emphases should be placed on the two groups of populations and different strategies used. Keywords: practice, rural, mental health, stigma
There is limited information about African American students attending Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) in the areas of health behavior, health knowledge, and attitudes. To fill this gap, a comprehensive examination offirst-year students was undertaken at a consortium of HBCUs. A non-random sample of 1115 freshmen were administered a survey that assessed several domains including: (1) demographics, (2) general health, (3) smoking habits, (4) disease risk, (5) weight perception, (6) physical activity, (7) perceived stress, (8) eating habits, (9) social support, (10) personal/family medical history, (11) leadership, (12) domestic violence, (13) substance use, and (14) sexual behavior. In general, most students knew about health behaviors and disease risk. Areas that warrant further exploration include physical activity, sexual behavior, and drug use. The analyses provide key information for health education and prevention. PMID:19711494
Hayes, Brenda D; Holliday, Rhonda Conerly; Wade, Bruce H; Trawick, Cynthia; Hodge, Michael; Caplan, Lee; Younge, Sinead; Quarshie, Alexander; Satcher, David
Counseling services is an important component of National AIDS Control Program which aims at creating awareness and promoting changes in reducing high risk behavior against HIV/AIDS. Pregnant women attending antenatal clinics are being counseled about HIV/AIDS under prevention of parent to child transmission (PPTCT) program. The objective of this study was to assess (KABP) regarding HIV/AIDS among pregnant women attending PPTCT program before and after counseling at Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. A Quasi-experimental study was conducted. Data was collected by interviewing 600 pregnant women attending ANC clinic during May 2006 to May 2007 using a pre-test and post-test interview schedule. About 69.2% of the pregnant women had heard about AIDS before the counseling. Knowledge regarding mother to child transmission of HIV was 53.5%. 38.2% knew that mother to child transmission can be reduced by drugs. The knowledge of pregnant women about AIDS was significantly different in pre-test (mean score = 15.3) and post test (mean score = 35.6) (P < 0.0001). Attitude of study participants towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) indicated that individuals with HIV should be allowed to work (79.9%) and all commercial sex workers should compulsorily be tested for HIV (55.1%). There was significant difference between in pre-test and post-test attitude about PLWHA and HIV testing (p < 0.0001). The condom use among the study participants significantly improved after counseling (1.2% in pre-test and 58.6% after counseling) (p < 0.0001). Counseling services were effective in increasing knowledge and changes in attitude and behavior among pregnant women and the efforts needs to be sustained. PMID:22010484
Rahbar, Tayebeh; Garg, S; Singh, M M; Malhotra, Sumit; Gupta, V K; Tripathi, R
Full Text Available Abstract Background China is currently facing a rapid and widespread increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. The activities of female sex workers (FSWs have contributed to the mounting epidemic of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitude and risk behaviors among FSWs operating in Shanghai China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in five districts of Shanghai, including three suburbs and two downtown locales. We adopted a cluster randomized sampling method to obtain ten geographic sites which consisted of one or more communities/villages proximal to a location where FSWs were accessible. A total of 324 FSWs from 109 Xitou Fang, massage parlors and hair salons who explicitly provided sexual services were enrolled in the study. Each participant completed a questionnaire survey and interview aimed to collect information on the individual's knowledge, attitude, and behaviors associated with risk for HIV/AIDs. Results The overall correct answer rate of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge was 60.8%, and the knowledge of FSWs from downtown areas was significantly higher than those from suburban areas (P P Conclusions Based on the findings from our survey, we advise that promotion of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge be targeted towards FSWs in Shanghai, especially those operating in the suburbs. HIV prevention efforts, such as urging constant condom usage with both clients and steady partners, should be sustained and reinforced among the female sex workers population.
Full Text Available Introduction: Youth seen in the emergency department (ED with injuries from youth violence (YV have increased risk for future violent injury and death. Pediatric emergency medicine (PEM physicians rarely receive training in, or perform, YV screening and intervention. Our objective was to examine effects of a web-based educational module on PEM physicians’ knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding YV screening and interventions in the ED. Methods: We invited all PEM fellows and attendings at an urban Level I pediatric trauma center to complete an interactive web-based education module (and 1-month booster with information on YV’s public health impact and how to screen, counsel and refer YV-involved patients. Consenting subjects completed electronic assessments of YV prevention knowledge and attitudes (using validated measures when possible before and after the initial module and after the booster. To measure behavior change, chart review identified use of YV-specific discharge instructions in visits by YV-injured PEM patients (age 12–17; identified by E codes 6 months before and after the intervention. We analyzed survey data were analyzed with Fisher’s exact for binary outcomes and Kruskal-Wallis for Likert responses. Proportion of patients given YV discharge instructions before and after the intervention was compared using chi-square. Results: Eighteen (67% of 27 PEM physicians participated; 1 was lost at post-module assessment and 5 at 1 month. Module completion time ranged from 15–30 minutes. At baseline, 50% of subjects could identify victims’ re-injury rate; 28% were aware of ED YV discharge instructions. After the initial module and at 1 month, there were significant increases in knowledge (p,0.001 and level of confidence speaking with patients about avoiding YV (p¼0.01, df¼2. Almost all (94% said the module would change future management. In pre-intervention visits, 1.6% of patients with YV injuries were discharged with YV instructions, versus 15.7% in the post-intervention period (p¼0.006, 95%CI for difference 3.6%-24.5%. Conclusion: A brief web-based module influenced PEM physicians’ knowledge and attitudes about YV prevention and may have affected behavior changes related to caring for YV victims in the ED. Further research should investigate web-based educational strategies to improve care of YV victims in a larger population of PEM physicians.
Tracy E. Madsen
The aim of this study is to investigate knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of secondary school teachers towards traffic safety behaviors. The study is concerning data coming from a cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaires filled in by school teachers of Lazio and Campania regions. 262 teachers entered into the study. Among the scooter holders, 69.2% did use helmet; 95.8% of people who drives car uses seatbelts. The scooter and bicycle helmet is considered useful for 99.6% and 57.4% of participants. The accident rate depends on the means of transportation used: 10.8% and 19% for bicycle and scooter riders, respectively, and 44.6%for the car drivers. Regarding injuries using a bicycle, teachers with less than 40 years are less involved in accidents compared to the over 40 years (OR = 0.19; p = 0.05), as well as teachers who are married (OR = 0.16; p = 0.03) compared to the other group (single/widowed/divorced). Car accidents involve less frequently women (OR = 0.60; p = 0.05) compared to males. Road accidents prevention is part of the health priorities indicated in the National Health Plan, the National Prevention Plan and Regional Prevention Plans. School teachers' can play an important role in students' education on road safety, and there is the need to improve knowledge and behaviors in this field. PMID:22913172
Miccoli, S; Giraldi, G; Boccia, A; La Torre, G
Full Text Available Objectives: Study was undertaken in order to determine knowledge and behaviors of the teachers teaching at 4 primary schools in Ak?ehir about epilepsy and to suggest practicable recommendations in line with the results obtained.Methods: It was a descriptive study and in the study, all of the teachers were tried to be reached between the 1 st of October and the 30 th of November 2010. The questionnaire form was designed according to the literature information.Results: It was found out that mean age of the teachers was 38.4 (24-56, 53.2% of them were male. It was seen that 65.4% of the teachers had a teaching career of ?13 years. It was detected that 17.7% met epilepsy once, 7.3% intervened for epilepsy once and 4% had students with epilepsy. 47.6% of the teachers were of the opinion that epilepsy was not a genetic-disease, 43.5% thought that epilepsy lasted life long and 45.2% said that jaws of the epilepsy patient should be opened during epileptic seizures.Conclusion: It was seen that teachers generally lacked knowledge about epilepsy, school-age children with epilepsy and actions to be done during epileptic seizures. In this sense,a multidisciplinary approach is needed in order to improve the relation between the parents of the epileptic children and the school and to increase knowledge level of the parents, teachers and the society about epilepsy.
Birsen B?LGEN S?VR?
The emerging Knowledge Governance Approach asserts the need to build microfoundations grounded in individual action. Toward this goal, using the Theory of Planned Behavior, we aim to explain individual knowledge sharing behavior as being determined by the intention to share knowledge and its antecedents: attitude toward knowledge sharing, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. In addition, we consider managerial interventions (governance mechanisms) that managers can employ to influence the identified antecedents and thereby govern individual knowledge sharing behavior. We test the model arrived at on a dataset collected among individuals engaged in knowledge sharing in two competing firms. Results of the LISREL analysis show that the use of rewards affects attitudes toward knowledge sharing negatively, while the use of reciprocal schemes and communication mechanisms have a positive effect on subjective norms and perceived behavioral control, respectively.
Minbaeva, Dana; Pedersen, Torben
Investigates the short-term impact of a smoking curriculum for children. Attitudes of the experimental group tended to become less negative, and they improved more in knowledge. The absolute gains in knowledge scores were, however, relatively small, indicating the need for further modifications in the curriculum material. (Author)
Pederson, Linda L; And Others
In the past decade, we have seen an increased focus on measuring the impact of zoos, aquariums, and other free-choice learning environments on the conservation-related knowledge, attitudes and behavior of the visiting public. However, no such studies have been conducted on the impact of such environments on the staff working in these…
Groff, Amy; Lockhart, Donna; Ogden, Jacqueline; Dierking, Lynn D.
The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a cognitive-affective intervention the attitudes, knowledge, and anticipated professional behaviors regarding homosexuality and gay and lesbian issues of pre-service teachers in the United States. Sixty-seven participants were randomly assigned either to a control group (n=34) or an…
Riggs, Angela D.; Rosenthal, Amy R.; Smith-Bonahue, Tina
China has to date in general only been moderately affected by the global HIV epidemic, but there are cities, particularly in Yunnan, with a high prevalence. This situation seems to be changing, however, with the risk of a rapidly growing epidemic. Our aim was to investigate the level of knowledge about HIV and AIDS and risk behavior among young people at Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, China. Xinjiang has a population of mixed minority groups and Han Chinese. The largest minority group is the Uygur (8.82 million), who are Sunni Muslims and speak a Turkish language. Questionnaires were handed out to 400 students. Twenty open interviews were conducted after invitation to the students answering the questionnaires and their friends. All but one had heard about HIV/AIDS and approximately 95% knew the most common routes of transmission: sexual contact, mother to child, and sharing needles. Eighty percent also knew about transmission through breastfeeding. There were some knowledge gaps about how HIV is not transmitted. The questionnaires showed that only 5.7% of the undergraduate students admitted to being sexually active. Twenty-eight percent of the undergraduates and 17% of the postgraduates would not tell anyone if they were infected with HIV. In the interviews the students' knowledge of HIV/AIDS seems to be superficial. Although they did not display high sexual risk behavior during the time of our study, attitudes are changing, and becoming more liberal. We believe that extensive information about sex, infection, and protective measures is crucial to help China prevent an epidemic. PMID:17263657
Lönn, Elin; Sahlholm, Karin; Maimaiti, Rena; Abdukarim, Kaisaier; Andersson, Rune
This report describes the effects of a peer-group intervention on Malawian urban hospital workers’ HIV-related personal knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. More than 850 clinical and nonclinical hospital workers received the intervention. Evaluation used independent surveys of a sample of workers at baseline (N = 366) and postintervention (N = 561). Compared with the baseline survey, after the intervention, workers had higher knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention; more positive attitudes including more hope, less stigmatization of persons with HIV, more positive attitudes toward HIV testing and condom use, and higher self-efficacy for practicing safer sex and for community prevention; more reported recent personal HIV tests, more discussion of safer sex with partners, and more reported community HIV prevention activities. However, health workers’ risky sexual behaviors did not differ at baseline and postintervention. The intervention should be strengthened to support more sexual risk reduction and be made available to all health workers in Malawi. PMID:19427600
Kaponda, Chrissie P. N.; Jere, Diana L.; Chimango, Jane L.; Chimwaza, Angela F.; Crittenden, Kathleen S.; Kachingwe, Sitingawawo I.; McCreary, Linda L.; Norr, James L.; Norr, Kathleen F.
The results of this survey are widely distributed to educators, policymakers, business executives, and the media to help America's leaders and the general public better understand what Americans know about the environment and how that knowledge relates to their attitudes and daily actions. The 1999 National Report Card examines the results of a…
National Environmental Education and Training Foundation, Washington, DC.
Abstract Background Although dietary supplements (DS) are widely sold in pharmacies, the legal, ethical, and practice responsibilities of pharmacists with respect to these products have not been well defined. This systematic review of pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviours toward DS is intended to inform pharmacy regulators' and educators' decision making around this topic. Methods Eligible studies were identified through a syste...
Boon Heather; Hirschkorn Kristine; Kwan Della
Full Text Available Three different school-based sex education and citizenship programs in public schools in Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, and Salvador, Brazil, were evaluated in a cross-sectional study comparing knowledge, attitudes, and practices in sexuality, citizenship, and gender issues among adolescents participating in the programs' activities as compared to adolescents enrolled in schools without such programs (controls. Results showed that Salvador's program achieved good results, with significant changes in knowledge on sexuality and reproductive physiology, attitudes regarding citizenship, and current use of modern contraceptives; Rio de Janeiro's program succeeded in improving students' knowledge of reproductive physiology and attitudes towards sexuality; Belo Horizonte's participants showed greater knowledge of reproductive physiology and STI/HIV prevention but had less positive attitudes towards gender issues, while reporting greater sexual activity. The main difference between Salvador's program and the others was the focus on creative and cultural activities; Belo Horizonte's main difference was its lack of interaction with health services and professionals. However, after the evaluation Belo Horizonte reframed its educational strategies and launched a scaling-up process in a joint effort with the health and school systems.
A needs assessment survey was developed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of poultry vendors at farmers' markets in Pennsylvania, on food safety, regulation, and poultry production. Vendors were administered a 32-question paper survey, in person, during market hours. The results revealed critical vendor practices and identified important…
Scheinberg, Joshua; Radhakrishna, Rama; Cutter, Catherine N.
Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Introdução: O aumento das IST's, da gravidez não planeada e de outros tantos riscos ligados à actividade sexual fazem com que os jovens sejam considerados um grupo de intervenção prioritário em termos de saúde sexual e reprodutiva. Para se promover atitudes e comportamentos sexuais saudáveis é essen [...] cial a concretização de uma educação sexual que tenha como objectivo desenvolver atitudes e competências nos jovens, permitindo que estes se sintam informados e seguros nas suas escolhas. Material e métodos: Este estudo (HBSC/OMS) avaliou o papel que 3331 adolescentes portugueses (1579 rapazes e 1752 raparigas), com uma média de idades de 15 anos, atribuem à educação sexual, os seus conhecimentos e atitudes face ao VIH/SIDA. Usou-se um questionário de auto-relato que foi aplicado às turmas em sala de aula. Resultados: Analisados os resultados do estudo, verificou-se que quer os factores de risco quer os de protecção em relação aos comportamentos sexuais de risco dos adolescentes são inúmeros. Conclusões: Sendo assim, é crucial que a educação sexual abranja intervenções do tipo preventivo de carácter universal, abrangendo toda a população escolar e respectivos contextos de vida: escola, família e grupo de pares, mas também intervenções mais específicas, em pequenos subgrupos identificados como prioritários. Abstract in english Introduction: Because the incidence of STI, unplanned pregnancy and several other sexual risk behaviours are increasing among youngsters, it is accepted that they are given high priority in intervention in what sexual and reproductive health is concerned. In order to promote healthy sexual attitudes [...] and behaviours, it is crucial to implement a program of sexual education that aims at developing attitudes and skills in young people, hence enabling them to make well-informed decisions and feel confident about the choices they make. Material and methods: This HBSC/WHO research evaluated the role of sexual education for Portuguese adolescents and their knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Structured self-reported questionnaires were responded within a classroom context by 3331 participants (1579 boys and 1752 girls), with an average age of 15 years. Results: The results show that there are inumerous risk and protection factors related to sex behavior. Conclusions: This suggests that sexual education should focus on preventive interventions, not only universal, including all teenagers and considering all the contexts in which they interact (the school professionals, family and peers), but also selective strategies delivered to targeted subgroups, once they are identified.
Lúcia, Ramiro; Marta, Reis; Margarida Gaspar de, Matos; José Alves, Diniz; Celeste, Simões.
Full Text Available Abstract Background African American women have higher rates of breast cancer mortality than their white counterparts. Studies have suggested that this is partly caused by discovery of cancer at a later stage, highlighting the importance of encouraging early detection of breast cancer in this population. To guide the creation of a breast cancer education intervention and help focus other health educators' and clinicians' health promotion efforts, this study explored whether a cohort of African American women living in San Diego would demonstrate the possession of adequate baseline knowledge about breast cancer screening and adherence to widely recommended screening guidelines. Methods African American women (N = 1,055 from San Diego, California participated in a beauty salon-based survey about breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening practices. Women's ages ranged from 20 to 94 years, with average age of 42.20 (SD = 13.53 years. Thirty-four percent reported completing college and/or some graduate school training, and 52% reported having some college or post high school formal training. Seventy-five percent of the sample reported working outside their home. Participating cosmetologists and their salons were recruited to the study through word-of-mouth referral by highly respected African American community leaders. Results Salon clients reported low rates of adherence to recommended breast cancer screening guidelines. Of the 1,055 participants, 31% reporting performing breast self-exam every month. Of those participants 40 and older, 57% reported having had a clinical breast exam and 43% reported having had a mammogram in the past year. Knowledge of breast cancer was associated with adherence to screening guidelines. While women recognized the serious health threat that breast cancer poses and that early detection of breast cancer is important, only 30% of women reported feeling well informed about the disease. Many participants demonstrated a lack of basic knowledge about breast cancer. The Health Belief Model postulates that access to such information is an essential element in the progression toward engaging in screening behaviors. Conclusion Data from this study reflect a continuing need for increased breast cancer education for African American women. In light of the considerable mainstream information available related to breast cancer, these data reinforce the need for more breast cancer education programs that are clearly intended to attract the attention of African American women.
Full Text Available Background: To assess the knowledge about various issues concerned with rational use of medicines in second year medical students Methods: This was a survey-based, cross-sectional study in which a self developed, pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was used. Respondents were 153 students of second year MBBS (beginning of third semester. They were explained about nature and purpose of study and necessary consent obtained. Questions were framed to obtain information about various issues concerned with use of medicines, common beliefs /misconceptions, purchase of medicines, sources of information about medicines etc. Results were expressed as counts and percentages. Results: Majority of respondents were aware about OTC (54% and generic medicines (96.7%, importance of reading medicine label (58.8%, that medicines are not needed for every illness (86.2%, medicines manufactures by big multinational companies are not always better (67.9%. 75.8% respondents were not influenced by direct to consumer advertising for purchase of medicines and 69.9% opined that medicines obtained from government hospital are not of inferior quality. 83.6% of respondents opined that they never mixed treatment of more than one doctor at a time and 83% always purchased all medicines written in prescription. For 93.4% respondents? doctors? advice was the most important factor that influenced medicine purchase. Conclusion: Though majority of respondents were aware about most of the issues addressed in the questionnaire which seems to be a positive finding, those still unaware needs to be educated by adopting suitable interventions. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(5.000: 617-621
Smita D. Sontakke
Three different school-based sex education and citizenship programs in public schools in Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, and Salvador, Brazil, were evaluated in a cross-sectional study comparing knowledge, attitudes, and practices in sexuality, citizenship, and gender issues among adolescents participating in the programs' activities as compared to adolescents enrolled in schools without such programs (controls). Results showed that Salvador's program achieved good results, with significant c...
Campos Márcia; Faúndes Anibal; Sousa Maria Helena de; Cabral Francisco; Silva Ricardo de Castro e; Díaz Margarita; Mello Maeve Brito de
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of video-based science instruction and accompanying activity-based instruction on the knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions of high school students' use of seat belts. Secondarily, the purpose was to determine order effects and interactions between the two treatments used in the study: video-based instruction and hands-on activity-based instruction. The study used Ajzen and Fishbein's theory of reasoned action to investigate the factors influencing high school students' behavioral intentions regarding seat belt use. This study used a pretest-posttest-posttest treatment design. Data were collected on 194 students in high school introductory biology and chemistry classes in Gainesville, Florida. Ten intact high school science classes (eight treatment and two control) took pretests and posttests measuring physics knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward seat belt use prior to and after participating in the two treatments. The treatment group students participated in at least 500 minutes of instructional time divided among five lessons over 10 instructional days. All participants were pretested on physics knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward seat belt use prior to two treatments. Treatment A was defined as participating in one 50-minute video-based instructional lesson. Treatment B was defined as participating in four hands-on science activities regarding crash-related physics concepts. Cronbach's coefficient alpha was used for analysis of the researcher-designed instruments, and ANOVA was used to analyze the data. The results of the analyses (p < .004) revealed that students who participated in either treatment showed significant differences in knowledge gains on 75% of the test items. The sequence of treatments did not produce significant differences in groups' posttest 2 knowledge mean scores. Combining the treatments resulted in higher mean knowledge scores than either treatment did individually. Participating in video-based instruction initially produced significant changes in students' attitudes but these changes were not maintained after students completed the activity-based instruction. Each treatment and the combined treatments resulted in significantly greater (p < .05) positive shifts in behavioral intentions regarding seat belts use. The treatment sequence did not result in significantly greater (p < .05) positive shifts in behavioral intentions regarding seat belt use. The results of this study indicate that video-based instruction and activity-based instruction can positively change knowledge and behavioral intentions related to seat belt use, thereby potentially saving the lives of young adults.
Jones, Tudor Griffith, III
This study describes the effects of garden-based education on children's vegetable consumption. As part of a pre-post panel study, 236 students complete the Garden Vegetable Frequency Questionnaire and 161 complete a taste test. Results indicate that school gardening may affect children's vegetable consumption, including improved recognition of, attitudes toward, preferences for, and willingness to taste vegetables. Gardening also increases the variety of vegetables eaten. Future research should explore whether effects persist over time and if and how changes in children's behavior affect the behavior of their caregivers. Implications of study findings for policy and practice are discussed. Suggestions for applying results to future health promotions are provided. PMID:19846682
Ratcliffe, Michelle M; Merrigan, Kathleen A; Rogers, Beatrice L; Goldberg, Jeanne P
Since the introduction of the Basic Safety Standards recommendations, the scope of the radiation protection was broadening. On behalf of the incorporation of radiation protection of the patient in medical exposures, the different groups of professionals involved: physicians, medical physicists, radiation protection officers, regulators, etc., have to work together. The objective of radiation protection, that is, to reduces doses from practices, to prevent potential exposures, to detect its occurrence as well as to evaluate and spread such abnormal situations, will be obtained only if it were possible to joint two basic conditions: knowledge and attitude. It should be well known the differences between the backgrounds needed to be for example, a medical physicist or an R.P.O., However, their attitude to solve an eventual problem involving radiation protection should be the same; as well as the behavior of the specialized physician and regulators, in order to add towards common goals. In this work, we show as an example the curricula contents about radiation protection of the cancer of medical physics in the Universidad Nacional de San Martin (UNSAM), and the corresponding module on medical exposures from the Post-Graduate course on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, held since the 80s in Buenos Aires by the National Commission of Atomic Energy, ARN, IAEA, and the Universidad de Buenos Aires. On the other hand, we describe different attitudes which leads or could start major radiological accidents, regardless the level of knowledge in radiation protection. We conclude that the larger numbers of accidents are due to problems in the attitude than in the level of knowledge of the person involved. Consequently; we suggest emphasizing the discussion on how to generate positive attitudes in every professional involucrated, independently of its cognitive profile or level. (Author) 2 refs
Full Text Available Abstract Background This survey assessed knowledge, attitudes, and compliance regarding standard precautions about health care-associated infections (HAIs and the associated determinants among healthcare workers (HCWs in emergency departments in Italy. Methods An anonymous questionnaire, self-administered by all HCWs in eight randomly selected non-academic acute general public hospitals, comprised questions on demographic and occupational characteristics; knowledge about the risks of acquiring and/or transmitting HAIs from/to a patient and standard precautions; attitudes toward guidelines and risk perceived of acquiring a HAI; practice of standard precautions; and sources of information. Results HCWs who know the risk of acquiring Hepatitis C (HCV and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV from a patient were in practice from less years, worked fewer hours per week, knew that a HCW can transmit HCV and HIV to a patient, knew that HCV and HIV infections can be serious, and have received information from educational courses and scientific journals. Those who know that gloves, mask, protective eyewear, and hands hygiene after removing gloves are control measures were nurses, provided care to fewer patients, knew that HCWs' hands are vehicle for transmission of nosocomial pathogens, did not know that a HCW can transmit HCV and HIV to a patient, and have received information from educational courses and scientific journals. Being a nurse, knowing that HCWs' hands are vehicle for transmission of nosocomial pathogens, obtaining information from educational courses and scientific journals, and needing information were associated with a higher perceived risk of acquiring a HAI. HCWs who often or always used gloves and performed hands hygiene measures after removing gloves were nurses, provided care to fewer patients, and knew that hands hygiene after removing gloves was a control measure. Conclusions HCWs have high knowledge, positive attitudes, but low compliance concerning standard precautions. Nurses had higher knowledge, perceived risk, and appropriate HAIs' control measures than physicians and HCWs answered correctly and used appropriately control measures if have received information from educational courses and scientific journals.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection rates in the United States continue unabated among some groups, with young adults of color at greater risk than others. This study sought to determine college students' knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors related to HIV/AIDS. Undergraduate students (N = 443) at a large, urban Hispanic-serving…
Polacek, Georgia Johnston N. L.; Hicks, Jennifer A.; Oswalt, Sara B.
Full Text Available Objetivo: La necesidad de generar instrumentos válidos y fiables para medir aspectos relacionados con la higiene de manos es importante para conocer la situación actual y el impacto de las acciones formativas en los profesionales. El objetivo principal del trabajo es validar un cuestionario sobre higiene de manos en médicos y analizar sus propiedades de la medida. Método: Estudio instrumental en el cual se elaboró un cuestionario que se aplicó entre enero de 2010 y marzo de 2011 en el Hospital Clínico San Cecilio (Granada. Éste constó finalmente de 44 ítems que evalúan la conducta del profesional médico antes y después del contacto con el paciente, los conocimientos declarativos y las actitudes sobre la higiene de manos. Se aplicó a 113 profesionales. Resultados: Tras realizar los análisis factoriales se obtuvieron datos que avalan la unidimensionalidad de la herramienta, con un valor de convergencia general que explica el 39,289% de la varianza total y un valor alfa de Cronbach para elementos tipificados de 0,784. Hay diferencias significativas entre la conducta de higiene de manos antes y después del contacto con el paciente (t=-8,991; p Objective: Valid and reliable instruments to measure aspects of hand hygiene are needed to determine the current situation and impact of training among health professionals. The main objective of this study was to describe the development of a questionnaire on hand hygiene among health professionals and to analyze the properties of this instrument. Method: A questionnaire was designed and implemented between January 2010 and March 2011 at the Hospital Clínico San Cecilio (Granada, Spain. The final questionnaire consisted of 44 items that assessed provider behavior before and after contact with the patient, declarative knowledge, and attitudes to hand hygiene. The questionnaire was administered to 113 health professionals. Results: A factor analysis was performed. Data were obtained that supported the unidimensionality of the instrument with a general convergence value that explained 39.289% of the total variance and a Cronbach's alpha of 0.784 for the established elements. Significant differences were found in hand hygiene behavior before and after contact with the patient (t=-8,991, p <0.001. Declarative knowledge and attitudes significantly predicted behavior. Conclusions: The questionnaire shows high internal consistency, reliability, and validity and is thus a valid tool to assess behavior, knowledge and attitudes related to hand hygiene in health professionals. This instrument also detects deficiencies in basic knowledge.
Full Text Available Efforts to improve the health of the population are now focused on promoting healthy lifestyle, improve living conditions and to reduce mortality. Health education activities include regular physical activity, optimal nutrition, reduce addictions and stress. The purpose of the survey conducted among 672 first-year female students at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (Poland was to determine the attitudes of young women towards a healthy lifestyle. Using anonymous survey questionnaire asked students about the form of physical activity, nutrition, the presence of stressful situations, the use of drugs, such as alcohol and cigarettes, and the interest in deepening knowledge of public health. The majority of students have participated only in obligatory physical education classes in high school and college. They considered that physical activity during the studies should be voluntary. Only 4.24% of students were total abstinence from alcohol, but 79.10% was non-smoking. Many of the women declared the need to change the diet, reducing alcohol intake and give up smoking habit. The students felt that stress connected with attending university is unavoidable, and thus revealed an interest in reducing and limiting mental tension. Despite their young age, students expressed interest in topics such as: first aid course, nutrition, sexuality, and pregnancy problems.
68 upper level health professionals from 20 provinces in China completed to a questionnaire while attending either a health education workshop in Guangzhou in August 1989 or a similar workshop in Beijing in December 1989. The aim of the study was to determine their knowledge and attitudes since they were opinion leaders and key players in future AIDS prevention programs and to learn about sexual practices. 90% knew that a pregnant woman can transmit HIV to her infant and that sharing unclean needles can transmit HIV, but only 82.1% knew that someone with HIV can transmit it to a partner during sexual intercourse. 29.9% thought one can tell if someone has AIDS by looking at him or her. Newspapers and professional journals provided most of them with information on AIDS (80.6% and 73.1% respectively), but friends and government only provided this information to 29.9% and 19.4%. Overall the participants viewed AIDS as a threat to others and not themselves or families. 85-95% believed certain population groups such as policy makers, high school students, and the public should undergo sex education. Only 43.3% believed elementary schools should provide sex education, however. Participants tended to approve premarital sex and sex between individuals with emotional or long term ties more than extramarital sex. Nevertheless considerable percentage did condone extramarital sex. 95.8% experienced their 1st sexual relationship with their spouses. Even though participants tended to feel condoms did not make sex enjoyable, 81.6% and 72.5% believed condoms prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases respectively. 82% thought they were easy to use. 35% used condoms for contraception. Before using these upper level health workers to conduct AIDS training for lower level workers, they need to have a more thorough understanding of HIV transmission and the signs and symptoms of AIDS. PMID:1543640
Li, V C; Clayton, S; Cheng-Zhang, C; Zian, Z S; Guang-Jen, Y; Mei, G
This study explores the impact of an urban ecology program on participating middle school students' understanding of science and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors. We gathered pre and post survey data from four classes and found significant gains in scientific knowledge, but no significant changes in student beliefs regarding the environment. We interviewed 12 students to better understand their beliefs. Although student responses showed they had learned discrete content knowledge, they lacked any ecological understanding of the environment and had mixed perceptions of the course's relevance in their lives. Students reported doing pro-environmental behaviors, but overwhelmingly contributed such actions to influences other than the urban ecology course. Analyses indicated a disconnect between the course, the environment, and the impact on the students' lives. Consequently, this suggests the importance of recognizing the implications of context, culture, and identity development of urban youth. Perhaps by providing explicit connections and skills in urban environmental programs through engaging students in environmental scientific investigations that stem from their own issues and questions can increase student engagement, motivation, and self-efficacy of environmental issues.
Hashimoto-Martell, Erin A.; McNeill, Katherine L.; Hoffman, Emily M.
To develop sustainable solutions to remediate the complex ecological problems of earth's soil, water, and air degradation requires the talents and skills of knowledgeable, motivated people (UNESCO, 1977; UNESCO, 2010). Researchers historically emphasized that time spent in outdoor, nature activities (Wells & Lekies, 2006), particularly with an adult mentor (Chawla & Cushing, 2007), promotes environmental knowledge and nature-relatedness, precursors to environmental literacy. Research has also demonstrated that technology is integral to the lives of youth, who spend 7:38 hours daily (Rideout, et al., 2010), engaged in electronics. Educators would benefit from knowing if in-nature and virtual-nature field trip experiences provide comparable levels of knowledge and connectedness, to nurture student proenvironmentalism. To investigate field trip phenomena, the researcher studied the impact of virtual-nature and in-nature experiences during which students analyzed water quality along Midwestern rivers. The quasi-experimental, mixed method convergent parallel design with a purposeful sample (n=131) of middle school students from two Midwestern K-8 schools, utilized scientist participant observer field records and narrative response, written assessment aligned to field trip content to evaluate knowledge acquisition. To gain insight into student environmental dispositions, participant observers recorded student comments and behaviors throughout field trips. A survey, administered Pre-Treatment, Post-Treatment 1 and Post-Treatment 2, focused on family water-related behaviors and student perceptions of the need for local government water protection. The findings demonstrated both field trips increased content knowledge significantly, with large effect size. Content knowledge gain from one experience transferred to and was augmented by the second experience. Skill gain (technical and observational) varied by type of field trip and did not transfer. Technical skill was often paired with critical thinking/reasoning. Survey results demonstrated that the virtual-nature, in-nature order evinced a greater proenvironmental attitude and behavioral change. The initial experience provided greater proenvironmental impact, regardless of order. Several students exhibited a Connection to Life Experience that reinforced their nature-relatedness during either field trip. These findings inform best practices associated with environmental education. The implications include teacher-practitioner collaboration with IT personnel, naturalists, hydrologists, zoological and botanical experts, to design local, site-based virtual-nature and in-nature (or hybrid) field trips to nurture environmental literacy goals.
Ferderbar, Catherine A.
Efforts to improve the health of the population are now focused on promoting healthy lifestyle, improve living conditions and to reduce mortality. Health education activities include regular physical activity, optimal nutrition, reduce addictions and stress. The purpose of the survey conducted among 672 first-year female students at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (Poland) was to determine the attitudes of young women towards a healthy lifestyle. Using anonymous survey question...
Podstawski Robert; Gornik Katarzyna; Kolankowska Ewelina; Boraczynski Michal; Boraczynska Sandra
Purpose of the Study: Behavior problems are common in nursing homes. Current guidelines recommend nonpharmacological interventions (NPHIs) as first-line treatment, but pharmacological regimens (PIs) continue to be used. Given differences in background and training of those who treat behavior problems in residents, we compared attitudes of…
Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Jensen, Barbara; Resnick, Barbara; Norris, Margaret
Introduction: Emergency Contraception is a grossly underu–tilized option of prevention of pregnancy. It is a safe and effective method which can prevent unintended pregnancies, unsafe abortions and unwanted childbirth. Knowledge and attitude of Nursing personnel who are both service providers and health educators to the community can influence the contraceptive behavior of the people exposed to them. A few studies done in our country indicate that their awareness regarding EC is low. Aim: To explore the knowledge, attitude and practice of EC amongst Nursing Personnel in a medical college hospital. Materials and Methods: In this study, 185 nursing personnel participated. A predesigned, pretested questionnaire was used to collect their responses regarding knowledge, attitude and practice of EC. Descriptive analysis of data was done. Results : Out of the total, 52.43% of the participants had good knowledge regarding the general information of EC, 51.35% had positive attitude towards EC, 47.56% had expressed willingness to use EC if indicated whereas only 22.7% had ever used EC. 72.97% had expressed willingness to attend awareness programmes on EC. Conclusion :Even though knowledge and attitude towards EC among the participants was marginally good they had many misconceptions regarding specific aspects like mode of action, indications and timing of administration. More awareness programmes would definitely clear their misconceptions and apprehensions and encourage Nursing Personnel to personally use and promote EC to others. PMID:25386489
Shanthini N, Fatima
Attitudes and knowledge regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) of 498 college students enrolled at California State University, Dominguez Hills were surveyed. The AIDS Opinion and Information Surveys were administered to subjects between the ages of 18 and 46+, with 81.5% being below the age of 32. The 19-item Opinion survey uses a…
A long-standing objective of American public education is fostering civically engaged youth. Identifying characteristics associated with likelihood of future voting, a measure of democratic participation that predicts future voting behavior, might yield targets for education programs to increase civic participation. Survey data from urban…
Cohen, Alison K.; Chaffee, Benjamin W.
The purpose of this study is to understand knowledge about and general attitudes towards nutrition, dietary restriction attitudes, and dietary restriction behavior in the Taiwanese elderly, and the relationship of these various components to each other. Data from the Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (1999-2000) were used for analysis and included 1937 elderly persons aged over 65. The results indicated that the elderly had poor nutrition knowledge, especially about the relationship between nutrition and disease. Elderly nutrition attitudes were fair; they tended to disagree with misconceptions about "healthy" or functional foods and also had quite positive general eating attitudes. However, the Taiwanese elderly hold quite strong attitudes influenced by Chinese traditional or food-texture-related dietary restrictions. Elderly people frequently avoid eating foods considered unhealthy by modern medical science (e.g. high fat/cholesterol foods) as well as foods forbidden by Chinese traditional medicine (e.g. "heating" foods, "cooling" foods). Most of the elderly regularly eat three meals a day, however, they seldom pay attention to dietary and nutrition information. The most important sources of nutrition information are offspring or family members, TV, and medical practitioners. In general, elderly men with a higher educational level and living in less remote areas had better nutrition knowledge, held more positive nutrition attitudes, and kept to dietary restrictions less frequently. Elderly people's nutrition knowledge was positively related to their health-care attitudes, general eating attitudes, high- fat or high-cholesterol food restriction behavior, fermented or pickled food restriction behavior, attention to nutrition information, and regularity of meals. However, nutrition knowledge was inversely related to Chinese traditional or food-texture-related dietary restriction behaviors. The results of this study suggest that education of elderly people about nutrition is important, and the design of such nutrition education programs should consider the low educational levels of the elderly. Children or other family members may also be included in the program. The use of TV as a medium for nutrition education of the elderly may also be important for nutrition educators. PMID:16169832
Lin, Wei; Lee, Ya-Wen
Full Text Available This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes in relation to AIDS in women over 50 years of age. The study included women from the Center for the Study of the Elderly - NETI, of the Federal University of Santa Catarina - UFSC. To achieve the proposed objectives, a descriptive-exploratory qualitative approach was chosen. A semi-structured interview was used as the data collection technique. It was identified that knowledge about AIDS and risk attitudes toward the disease, arise from the permanence of the concept of risk groups, from the dynamics of power inherent in gender relationships in our society, and from the lack of effectiveness and sustainability of public policies on AIDS prevention which effectively reach this segment of the population, as well as a lack of strategies to effectively make such policies operational.
Elza Berger Salema Coelho
A sample of 323 physicians from Edmonton, Alberta, was surveyed to evaluate their attitudes and knowledge level concerning heart disease and lipids. Of the sample, 117 physicians returned the questionnaire. When asked to choose significant risk factors of cardiovascular disease, 69% of the physicians indicated hypertension; 85% indicated smoking; and 87% indicated elevated serum cholesterol. Concerning the minimal low-density lipoprotein level that warrants treatment, 82% of the general pract...
Macdonald, Neil; Daub, Bill
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: La necesidad de generar instrumentos válidos y fiables para medir aspectos relacionados con la higiene de manos es importante para conocer la situación actual y el impacto de las acciones formativas en los profesionales. El objetivo principal del trabajo es validar un cuestionario sobre hi [...] giene de manos en médicos y analizar sus propiedades de la medida. Método: Estudio instrumental en el cual se elaboró un cuestionario que se aplicó entre enero de 2010 y marzo de 2011 en el Hospital Clínico San Cecilio (Granada). Éste constó finalmente de 44 ítems que evalúan la conducta del profesional médico antes y después del contacto con el paciente, los conocimientos declarativos y las actitudes sobre la higiene de manos. Se aplicó a 113 profesionales. Resultados: Tras realizar los análisis factoriales se obtuvieron datos que avalan la unidimensionalidad de la herramienta, con un valor de convergencia general que explica el 39,289% de la varianza total y un valor alfa de Cronbach para elementos tipificados de 0,784. Hay diferencias significativas entre la conducta de higiene de manos antes y después del contacto con el paciente (t=-8,991; p Abstract in english Objective: Valid and reliable instruments to measure aspects of hand hygiene are needed to determine the current situation and impact of training among health professionals. The main objective of this study was to describe the development of a questionnaire on hand hygiene among health professionals [...] and to analyze the properties of this instrument. Method: A questionnaire was designed and implemented between January 2010 and March 2011 at the Hospital Clínico San Cecilio (Granada, Spain). The final questionnaire consisted of 44 items that assessed provider behavior before and after contact with the patient, declarative knowledge, and attitudes to hand hygiene. The questionnaire was administered to 113 health professionals. Results: A factor analysis was performed. Data were obtained that supported the unidimensionality of the instrument with a general convergence value that explained 39.289% of the total variance and a Cronbach's alpha of 0.784 for the established elements. Significant differences were found in hand hygiene behavior before and after contact with the patient (t=-8,991, p
Joaquín, González-Cabrera; María, Fernández-Prada; Humberto M., Trujillo Mendoza.
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: La necesidad de generar instrumentos válidos y fiables para medir aspectos relacionados con la higiene de manos es importante para conocer la situación actual y el impacto de las acciones formativas en los profesionales. El objetivo principal del trabajo es validar un cuestionario sobre hi [...] giene de manos en médicos y analizar sus propiedades de la medida. Método: Estudio instrumental en el cual se elaboró un cuestionario que se aplicó entre enero de 2010 y marzo de 2011 en el Hospital Clínico San Cecilio (Granada). Éste constó finalmente de 44 ítems que evalúan la conducta del profesional médico antes y después del contacto con el paciente, los conocimientos declarativos y las actitudes sobre la higiene de manos. Se aplicó a 113 profesionales. Resultados: Tras realizar los análisis factoriales se obtuvieron datos que avalan la unidimensionalidad de la herramienta, con un valor de convergencia general que explica el 39,289% de la varianza total y un valor alfa de Cronbach para elementos tipificados de 0,784. Hay diferencias significativas entre la conducta de higiene de manos antes y después del contacto con el paciente (t=-8,991; p Abstract in english Objective: Valid and reliable instruments to measure aspects of hand hygiene are needed to determine the current situation and impact of training among health professionals. The main objective of this study was to describe the development of a questionnaire on hand hygiene among health professionals [...] and to analyze the properties of this instrument. Method: A questionnaire was designed and implemented between January 2010 and March 2011 at the Hospital Clínico San Cecilio (Granada, Spain). The final questionnaire consisted of 44 items that assessed provider behavior before and after contact with the patient, declarative knowledge, and attitudes to hand hygiene. The questionnaire was administered to 113 health professionals. Results: A factor analysis was performed. Data were obtained that supported the unidimensionality of the instrument with a general convergence value that explained 39.289% of the total variance and a Cronbach's alpha of 0.784 for the established elements. Significant differences were found in hand hygiene behavior before and after contact with the patient (t=-8,991, p
Joaquín, González-Cabrera; María, Fernández-Prada; Humberto M., Trujillo Mendoza.
Meningitis has a significant impact in the Sahel, but the mechanisms for transmission and factors determining a person's vulnerability are not well understood. Our survey examined the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of people in a meningitis-endemic area in the Upper East region of northern Ghana to identify social, economic, and behavioral factors that may contribute to disease transmission and possible interventions that might improve health outcomes. Key results suggest potential interventions in response to the risk posed by migration, especially seasonal migration, a lack of knowledge about early symptoms causing delayed treatment, and a need for further education about the protective benefits of vaccination. PMID:23775016
Hayden, Mary H; Dalaba, Maxwell; Awine, Timothy; Akweongo, Patricia; Nyaaba, Gertrude; Anaseba, Dominic; Pelzman, Jamie; Hodgson, Abraham; Pandya, Rajul
Little is known about younger adults' attitudes towards age-related sexual changes and behaviors. Research using the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale (ASKAS) (White, 1982) has been effective in determining knowledge and attitudes among the staff of long-term care facilities, nurses, undergraduate nursing students, health care…
Ewen, Heidi H.; Brown, Pamela S.
Three replications of a structural equation model for the prediction of behavior are tested, using a questionnaire assessing undergraduate students' attitudes, subjective norms, intentions, and behavior. The proposed models supersede the Fishbein-Ajzen theory in their ability to reflect the dynamics of attitude-behavior relations. (Author/RD)
Bentler, P. M.; Speckart, George
Two reliable and valid instruments to assess first- and second-grade children's (N = 100, M = 6.8 years) environmental attitudes and behaviors are presented. A series of games derived primarily from dimensions of the new ecological paradigm theory of environmental attitudes are described for the assessment of environmental attitudes. The games…
Evans, Gary W.; Brauchle, Gernot; Haq, Aliya; Stecker, Rachel; Wong, Kimberly; Shapiro, Elan
Dentists are usually the first group who can examine patients for oral cancer and the early diagnosis highly depends on their knowledge. In this study, we aim to survey the Iranian dentists' knowledge, attitude, and behaviors regarding oral cancer. A valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire was designed and sent to 150 dentists. Responses to the questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Just one fifth of the dentists reported to perform oral cancer examination for all of their patients in age of 40 and above and about 34 % of them were knowledgeable. They mostly claimed that the lack of knowledge is the main barriers to the provision of routine oral cancer examinations. The opinion of dentists about the effectiveness of continuing education courses supports the development of these courses on oral cancer. Besides, more emphasis should be placed on oral cancer prevention in dental schools. PMID:23508899
Razavi, Sayed Mohammad; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Foroohandeh, Mehrdad; Doost, Mostafa Emami; Tahani, Bahareh
Full Text Available Background: Alteration in pattern of sexuality is known to be impressed by couples’ believes about women’s physical and psychological changes during pregnancy. The objective of this study is to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of couples about sexual relations during pregnancy. Methods: In a descriptive study from February to April 2005, two hundred sixty six consecutive pregnant women referring to a university hospital were asked to answer a questionnaire containing questions their sexual status and some demographic data. In 122 cases the answers of the spouses was collected also. The answers were compared in divided groups according to age range, duration of marriage, parity and educational status. Results: Fifty five percent of men and fifty eight percent of women had a negative attitude about sexual relations during pregnancy, and 60% of men and 75% of women presented incorrect knowledge about sexuality during pregnancy. Main reasons for decreased sexual relations in pregnancy were mentioned to be dysparaunia, and the fear of trauma to the baby, abortion, membrane rapture, preterm labor and infection. Conclusion: As couples’ knowledge and attitudes about sexuality affect their general sexual behavior during pregnancy it is crucial to provide proper consultation regarding sexual relations in prenatal care services.
Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of Argentine women 65 years of age and older regarding urinary incontinence (UI. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 238 community-dwelling Argentine women 65 years of age and older was conducted in San Justo, Argentina. Data were collected by in-person interviews. Results: Regarding knowledge, 232 (97.5% of the women surveyed were familiar with the term urinary incontinence, but 152 (63.9% falsely believed that UI is a normal part of aging and 163 (68.5% did not know about pelvic exercises or a surgical option to treat UI. A total of 106 (44.5% women reported symptoms of UI. Discussion: Older Argentine women are misinformed about UI. Interventions are necessary to increase their knowledge and healthcare seeking behaviors.
This study examined the ability of a lifespan course to create positive change in both knowledge of, and attitudes toward, aging of undergraduate students. Additionally, we questioned whether students define the point at which one is considered to be old in similar ways. Findings indicated positive change in both knowledge and attitudes, but…
Cottle, Nate R.; Glover, Rebecca J.
Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these…
Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.
This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian school counselors toward diabetes mellitus. A sample of 295 counselors completed a questionnaire consisting of two parts concerning knowledge and attitudes. The face validity of the questionnaire was assessed using an informed panel of judges, and its reliability was established…
Tannous, Adel G.; Khateeb, Jamal M.; Khamra, Hatem A.; Hadidi, Muna S.; Natour, Mayada M.
The termination of the perinatal HIV transmission trial, ACTG 076, by the Data Safety and Monitoring Board in February 1994 because of the efficacy of zidovudine (ZDV) in substantially reducing maternal-infant HIV transmission has created a considerable need for efficacious patient education approaches and materials for women with and at risk of HIV infection. Complexities surrounding patients' decisions to use ZDV in accordance with the treatment arm protocol of this study must be communicated to women, especially the consequences for both themselves and their potential children. In March 1994, a public-private partnership was formed to develop and test the impact of patient education information on 076 and to explore cultural differences in decision-making surrounding ZDV use during pregnancy. Objectives were (1) to develop an efficacious patient informational booklet on the results of ACTG 076 and (2) to determine the differential attitudes and behavioral intentions of women toward taking AZT during pregnancy. A multi-disciplinary group of providers and researchers developed the patient education booklet and field-tested it in five New York City area sites. Subjects were a multiethnic group of women of childbearing age who were predominantly HIV-positive or at risk of HIV infection (n = 120). This 076 education resulted in a substantial increase in intention to use ZDV to reduce perinatal transmission despite full disclosure of the unknowns (P testing should be voluntary (P HIV, ACTG 076. PMID:8874704
Healton, C; Taylor, S; Burr, C; Dumois, A; Loewenstein, N; Kaye, J
Full Text Available In almost every country, the organ supply for transplantation does not match the increasing demand; health professionals may play an important role in eliminating barriers and increasing organ donation. Therefore, assessing medical students’ knowledge and attitudes regarding organ donation is important for the future organ supply. Some 409 of 508 first- and second-year medical students answered an anonymous, multiple-choice questionnaire about demographic variables, knowledge about transplant issues, and willingness to donate organs. The mean age was 20.3±1.8 years (range: 17 to 29 years; 50.1% were male, 49.9% were female. Some 44.8% of the total respondents reported that they had sufficient knowledge about organ donation, and 40.1% reported knowledge about organ transplantation. The primary source of their knowledge was reported as the media (72.1%. Willingness to donate their own organs was 58.4% and willingness as to their relatives’ organs was 39.9%. The acceptance of live organ donation was higher (74.6% than cadaver donation. Only 1.2% had a organ donation card. Female students were more willing to donate their own and their relatives’ organs. Since medical students are prospective leaders of promoting organ donation action, these issues should be taught within the context of social medicine lessons, and desirable behavioral changes should be implemented.
Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of knowledge, sexual practices and attitude of medical students towards AIDS/ HIV. Objective: To assess the knowledge, sexual practices and attitudes of medical students in relation to HIV/AIDS. Study Design: Cross- sectional. Participants: 409 first year medical students. Study variables: Sex knowledge, sexual practices, Attitudes, Risk perception. Results: 92% of the students had heard about AIDS predominantly through mass media. Many students had misconception about transmission of HIV infection should not be allowed to work in the clinic or hospital. 36% of male and 9% of female students admitted indulging in safe sexual practices mostly with their friends.
Amalraj Edwin R
Full Text Available Objective: High prevalence of tobacco consumption in childbearing ages is an important topic of consideration as its ill effects have influences on fertility. Worldwide studies have shown that general knowledge on fertility issues is low. Aim of the current study was to assess tobacco harm knowledge and attitude in infertile couples referring to the Avicenna center."nMaterials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. All Avicenna fertility clinics' new patients with infertility complain between November of 2007 and February 2008 was included. Information was collected trough standard knowledge and attitude questionnaire. "nResults: Among 684 individuals (342 couples, the mean score of knowledge and attitude was 0.49±0.79 (from a total of 4, 19.1±2.70 (from a total of 24. The mean knowledge score among women and men was 0.44±0.73, 0.54±0.84, respectively. The mean of attitude score in women and men was 19.35±2.55, 18.85±2.82, respectively. Significant correlation between age, gender, education and tobacco experience with knowledge was not found. Yet, attitude was significantly more appropriate in women, the educated and inexperienced tobacco usage (P=0.001, P=0.001, P=0.03, respectively."nConclusion: In the population studied, attitude was appropriate but level of knowledge was low and this suggests more steps should be taken to improve the knowledge.
Hooman Sadri Ardakani
Conocimientos, comportamientos, percepciones y actitudes concernientes a la salud oral entre pacientes diabéticos Knowledges, behaviors, perceptions, and attitudes related to oral health in diabetic patients.
Full Text Available Objetivos: Se analizan las características sociodemográficas, los aspectos psicosociales, hábitos de higiene oral y conocimientos de salud oral, en un grupo de sujetos con diabetes tipo 2 del Departamento de San Fernando, Chaco, Argentina. Métodos: Durante una cita de examen periodontal, se aplicó un cuestionario sobre 16 tópicos relacionados con las variables del estudio, a 150 pacientes con control metabólico (grupo 1: hemoglobina glucosilada [HbA1c] Aims: Sociodemograpahic and psychological features, habits of oral hygiene and knowledges of oral health in a group of subjects presenting with Type 2 diabetes, from Department of San Fernando, Chaco, Argentina. Methods: During a appointment for a periodontal examination, questionnaire on 16 related topics with study variable was applied to 150 patients with metabolic control ( group 1: glycosidal hemoglobin [HbA1c] < 8.0 %, mean 6,7%, mean age = 56,1 ± 3,1 years, and 150 patients without such control ( group 2: HbA1c ³ 8.0%, mean 13,7%; mean age = 55,4 ± 3,2 years. Statistical analysis was made considering frequencies distribution mean and standard deviation, difference among ratios test, Student t test, and Chi2 test, with a significance level (SL of p < 0,05. Results: Study showed a low knowledge by both groups on need of a periodical dental care, frequency of dental hygiene, and smoking effect on health oral. Sixty nine percentage (69% and 31% in group 1, and 35% and 65% of group 2, respectively, were seen by a odontologist ( p < 0,01 during previous 6 or 12 months. Major reason for the last visit to odontologist was due to emergence treatments, followed by control and restorations consultations, with significant differences between both groups ( p < 0,05. In general, participants had negative dental attitudes an perceptions. Lower than 50% of subjects knew relationship between oral hygiene and diabetes. Conclusions: Diabetic patients and professional staff must to be informed on oral complications of diabetes and smoking. There is a urgent need of the establishment of community programs of oral health education among diabetics of San Fernando Department.
Rolando Pablo Juárez
The development and validation of an inventory of preventive cardiology at the University of Virginia is described. The inventory contains two instruments designed to measure medical students' preinstructional and postinstructional knowledge of and attitude toward preventive cardiology. (Author/MLW)
Allred, Charlene A.; And Others
Background: Millions of workers are occupationally exposed to dyes in the world, but little is known about their knowledge and attitudes toward the effects of dye on their health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the fabric dyers? and fabric printers? knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the health hazard of dyes. Materials and Methods: The present study was taken up in the Madurai district which is situated in the Southern Tamil Nadu, Ind...
Paramasivam Parimalam; Raghavan Premalatha; Srinivasan Padmini; Kumar Ganguli
Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism.Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%. The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9; (c nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27; and (d eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8. A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively.Results: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035. The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66, 24.12 (SD=2.99, and 0.66 (SD=1.15 respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005 and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (P<0.001.Conclusions: This knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP questionnaire was developed as a standard tool in order to assess perception of subjects toward plagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission.
AIDS constitutes an important public health problem in Haiti, where it appears to be spread mainly through heterosexual encounters. The study reported here employed in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and a national cross-sectional survey of 1,300 men and 1,300 women 15 to 49 years old to assess AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices in Haiti. According to criteria established for the study, 38.1% of the 1,118 sexually active male survey respondents were found to engage in high-risk behavior. In general, the women were found to have better knowledge of AIDS than the men. Significant obstacles to condom use included the inability of women to choose whether condoms would be used and a belief that condom lubricant could cause health problems. The study also found a tendency to ostracize people with AIDS, especially in areas outside Port-au-Prince, and a belief that AIDS was imposed on people by fate--which could partially explain the tendency to persist in high-risk behavior. PMID:8220518
Adrien, A; Cayemittes, M; Bergevin, Y
Full Text Available After experiencing library service failure, the user may directly or indirectly voice his/her complaint, which is the best prescription to improve library public services. The paper explores the academic librarians and users’ attitudes towards complaints. Through surveying six hundred students from twenty universities and applying descriptive and inferential statistical techniques, the study investigates student users’ complaint preference and behavior afterwards, and perception of complaint handling and outcome. The study reports and compares their attitudes and perspectives towards library complaints. It further examines the differences in attitudes and behavior intention among respondents who had prior experience in filing complaints at libraries, did not complain, and had no prior experience in service failure. An ultimate analysis was made to contrast the user’s perception towards complaint handling of the library and of for-profit organization. [Article content in Chinese
This study investigated adolescents' and parents' perceptions regarding smoking behavior, attitudes toward smoking, and smoking communication. Instruments were developed to measure multidimensional smoking communication messages and smoking attitudes in 140 mother-adolescent dyads. The prediction of relevant adolescent smoking variables is…
Herbert, Diane F.; Schiaffino, Kathleen M.
Discussed are the determinants of environmentally responsible behavior, the attitude-behavior discrepancy problem, how environmental attitudes are formed and changed, and the effects of individual differences on appropriateness of educational techniques. (CW)
The ability to locate, share, and use knowledge is vital for effective functioning of organizations. However, such knowledge processing can be complicated by increasing cultural diversity. Recent studies have suggested that a group’s diversity attitudes may increase group outcomes. In this study, based on a sample consisting of 489 members of multicultural academic departments, we set out to investigate the relationship between openness to diversity (linguistic, social category, value, and informational) and group knowledge processing (knowledge location, knowledge needed, bring knowledge to bear, and personal knowledge). We found openness to linguistic and informational diversity to have positive associations with all group knowledge processing variables. Openness to value diversity was positively associated with most group knowledge processing variables, while openness to social category diversity only had a positive effect on personal knowledge.
Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan
Background: Epileptics are often socially discriminated due to the negative public attitudes, misconceptions and false beliefs. Thus, the main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy among Malaysian Chinese.Methods: A cross-sectional study by using a 23-item validated, self-administered questionnaire was carried out in urban areas, selected through stratified sampling. A Chinese population was randomly selected in the stratified areas of Penang, Ipoh,...
Chrishantha Abeysena; Hasan, Shahzad S.; Wg, Wayne Wei; Keivan Ahmadi; Ahmed, Imran S.; Ks, Alen Yong; Mudassir Anwar
Optimal pain management requires knowledgeable and trained nurses. The aim of this study is to investigate nurses' knowledge and attitudes regarding pain treatment in Jordan. The sample included 211 nurses from 4 hospitals in Jordan. The Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain was used to measure the nurses' pain management knowledge and attitudes. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, unpaired t test, and Spearman correlation test. The results indicate that 51.7% of participants were male and the average age was 27.2 (SD 4.7) years. In addition, most nurses had a bachelor's degree (90.5%) and worked in medical and surgical wards. Furthermore, 52% of nurses reported no previous pain education in the last five years. The average of correct answers was 19.3 out of 40 (SD 4.7) and the rate of correct answers ranged from 10% (item 38) to 72% (item 22). It was found that there were no significant differences between nurses' gender and educational level and the total knowledge and attitude score, except for exposure to previous pain education (t = -3.64; df = 195; p pain education got higher mean scores on the questionnaire. Jordanian nurses expressed a lower level of pain knowledge than that reported worldwide. Continuous education and reforming undergraduate curricula to address pain management are recommended. PMID:24602438
Al Qadire, Mohammad; Al Khalaileh, Murad
Full Text Available Educating health professionals implies the challenge of creating and developing an inquiring mind, ready to be in a state of permanent questioning. For this purpose, it is fundamental to generate a positive attitude toward the generation of knowledge and science. Objective: to determine the attitude toward science and the scientific method in undergraduate students of health sciences. Materials and methods: a cross-sectional study was made by applying a self-administered survey, excluding those who were transferred from other universities and repeated. The attitude toward science and the scientific method were valued using the scale validated and published by Hren, which contains three domains: value of scientific knowledge, value of scientific methodology, and value of science for health professions. Results: 362 students were included, 86,6% of them graded the attitude toward scientific knowledge above 135 points, neutral scale value. Similar scores were registered in the domains value of scientific knowlede for the human dimension of the students and value of science for health professions. 91,4% of the students graded the value of scientific methodology below 48 points. Conclusions: the favorable attitude of the students can be explained by the contact that they have with the scientific method since the beginning of their studies and its concordance with the evolution of science. The domain value of scientific methodology obtained the lowest grade on the part of the students, which could be related to the lack of knowledge about scientific methodology.
Merideidy Plazas Vargas
Full Text Available This study categorizes different Taiwanese gambling types using Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI, and further evaluates the perceptions and attitudes toward the legalization of casino gambling. A survey was conducted using convenient sampling and distributed by Internet. Results indicate that across groups of different types of gamblers, there are significant differences in perceptions toward the legalized casino gambling industry; and there are significant differences in attitudes toward legalized casino gambling. Additionally, there are significant differences between perceptions toward the legalized casino gambling industry, and attitudes toward the legalization of casino gambling. In general, non-gamblers are relatively more conservative toward the development of the casino gaming industry due to non-gam- blers’ sensitivity toward the involvement of the economic and social costs involved in investing in this particular indus- try. In addition, the results of this study provide the Taiwangovernment with information about Taiwanese gambling behaviors and opinions toward newly legalized gambling. By understandingTaiwanresidents’ gambling behaviors, perceptions, and attitudes prior to the opening of the casinos, this study could benefitTaiwansociety and maximize the benefits and minimize the costs associate with the development of the casino industry.
Full Text Available Public health campaigns have improved knowledge on UVR-associated skin cancer risk and increased sun protection awareness. However, tanned skin is still a common beauty ideal. The relationship between knowledge, attitudes and protective behavior is not fully understood yet. A population-based survey was thus performed in the district of Erlangen involving 2,619 parents of 3- to 6-year old children. By means of a self-administered standardized questionnaire parental knowledge about risk factors for skin cancer, their attitudes towards tanning and details of protective measures taken for their children were assessed. The study analyzed specifically the impact of parental tanning attitudes on sun-protective measures for their children while controlling for parental knowledge about skin cancer risk factors. While parental knowledge was significantly (inversely associated with agreement to the statement “Tanned skin is healthy skin”, this was not the case for “Tanning makes me look better”. Overall, tanning affirmative attitudes were inversely associated with protective measures taken for the children, whereas parental knowledge had a positive impact on sun protection at the beach only. Multivariable analyses provided evidence for an effect of parental attitude on protective behavior independent of parental knowledge. Tanning attitudes and tanned skin as the misguided ideal of beauty need to be addressed in future public health campaigns to enhance the effectiveness of preventive activities in changing sun protective behavior.
Despite an observed decrease in overall cancer death rates in the USA, immigrant minorities continue to experience disproportionately higher cancer incidence and mortality rates. Thirteen focus groups were conducted in the Haitian, English-Speaking Caribbean, Latino, Korean, and Chinese communities of New York City to better understand their health-seeking behaviors with respect to cancer prevention, screening, and treatment. Focus groups addressed the degree to which cultural, linguistic, and systematic barriers impact these behaviors and explored methods to support salutary behaviors. Findings underscored that, while there are many similarities across immigrant groups, there are significant variations between the immigrant groups to necessitate a tailored community-based approach. The prevalent misinformation observed among all groups warrants the prompt development of culturally competent programs for cancer control with immigrant minorities. PMID:16338753
Gany, Francesca M; Herrera, Angelica P; Avallone, Michelle; Changrani, Jyotsna
Objective: High prevalence of tobacco consumption in childbearing ages is an important topic of consideration as its ill effects have influences on fertility. Worldwide studies have shown that general knowledge on fertility issues is low. Aim of the current study was to assess tobacco harm knowledge and attitude in infertile couples referring to the Avicenna center."nMaterials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. All Avicenna fertility clinics' new patients with ...
Hooman Sadri Ardakani; Gholamreza Heydari; Mohamad Reza Masjedi; Mahshid Aryanpur; Mohamad Mehdi Akhondi; Majid Tarahomi
Using the theoretical framework of the Theory of Reasoned Action , we examine benefits satisfactionas an attitude formed by the beliefs about benefits (i.e., benefits knowledge) and the perceived value ofthese benefits (i.e., fit of benefits to individual needs). We use questionnaires to gather data from arandom sample of 591 employees in a large county agency in the South-eastern United States. The datasupport that knowledge of benefits is associated with enhanced benefits satisfaction an...
Gery Markova, Foard Jones
INTRODUCTION: In India, approximately 20 percent of children under the age of four suffer from severe malnutrition, while half of all the children suffer from undernutrition. The contributions of knowledge and attitudes of nutrition-conscious behaviors of the mothers to childhood malnutrition has been unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore maternal knowledge of the causes of malnutrition, health-care-seeking attitudes and socioeconomic risk factors in relation to children's nutriti...
Saito, K.; Korzenik, J. R.; Jekel, J. F.; Bhattacharji, S.
The purpose of this study was to explore agricultural science teachers' knowledge levels and attitudes toward biotechnology topics. The average agricultural science teacher in this study was a 37-year-old male who had taught for 12 years. He had a bachelor's degree and had lived or worked on a farm or ranch. He had not attended…
Mowen, Diana L.; Roberts, T. Grady; Wingenbach, Gary J.; Harlin, Julie F.
This study evaluated teachers' attitudes toward, reactions to, and knowledge of using portfolios in language arts classrooms. In May 1996, sixth, seventh, and eighth grade teachers in city and county public schools in Memphis, Tennessee, completed a 14-item questionnaire that asked: (1) if they currently used portfolios in evaluating language arts…
Starck, Thomas L.
The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…
Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara
Objective: Hookah smoking is a popular form of tobacco use on university campuses. This study documented use, attitudes, and knowledge of hookah smoking among college students. Participants: The sample included 943 university students recruited between February 2009 and January 2010. Respondents ("M" age = 20.02) included 376 males, 533…
Holtzman, Adam L.; Babinski, Dara; Merlo, Lisa J.
Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss Quine’s last analysis of propositional attitudes as involving intentionality and as regards human action and the very subject matter of social sciences. As to this problem, Quine acquiesces in both Davidson’s anomalous monism and Dennett’s intentional stance. An alternative analysis is here presented, which is based on Howard Rachlin’s teleological behaviorism. Some problems regarding this approach are also considered. Intentionality and rationality are still to be saved, but they are construed according to a lawful perspective to human behavior and social contexts of action.
Luiz Henrique de A. Dutra
Pain management requires knowledgeable and trained nurses. Because nursing students are the nurses of the future, it is important to ensure that students receive adequate education about pain management in nursing schools. The purpose of this study is to evaluate nursing students' knowledge and attitudes regarding pain management. A cross-sectional survey was used. The sample comprised 144 students from three nursing colleges in Jordan. Sixty-one percent were female and the average age was 21.6 years (SD 1.7). The students' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain was used. The rate of correct answers ranged from 11.1% to 64%. Students showed a low level of knowledge regarding pain management-the average score was just 16 (SD 5.11) out of 40. Students were weak in their knowledge of pain medications pharmacology (actions and side effects). Less than half of students (47.9%) recognised that pain may be present, even when vital signs are normal and facial expressions relaxed. Finally, students showed negative attitudes towards pain management, believing that patients should tolerate pain as much as they can before receiving opioids; almost half (48%) of students agreed that patients' pain could be managed with placebo rather than medication. In conclusion, Jordanian nursing students showed lower levels of pain knowledge compared with other nursing students around the world. This study underlines the need to include pain-management courses throughout undergraduate nursing curricula in Jordan. PMID:24280924
Al Khalaileh, Murad; Al Qadire, Mohammad
Green consumerism and the role of eco-marketing have become increasingly important for increasing the market share of sustainable (non-) food products. The current study examines the effect of social identification with certain green consumer groups on brand knowledge, brand attitude and buying behavior. An online panel study was conducted among a representative sample of the German population (N=961). For brand knowledge and brand attitude, we presented five well-known organic brands in the ...
Bartels, J.; Hoogendam, K.
Full Text Available Inadequate public knowledge about preventive oral health care may lead to increased burden of oral disease. This study aimed to assess level of knowledge of, attitudes toward and behavior of adults residing in Mashhad, Iran regarding preventive oral health care. A total of 946 adult subjects were selected by stratified-cluster random sampling approach. Data were collected via a telephone interview. The interview employed a structured questionnaire about sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practice toward preventive oral health care. Also a question was considered about the respondent’s resource for oral health prevention information. Mean score of knowledge was 0.54±0.56 (full score: 3. Higher scores were significantly more prevalent in women, younger’s, people with more income and higher level of education. Mean attitude score was 1.6±0.7 (full score: 3. only 17.6% of the respondents showed positive attitude. It showed significant correlation with level of education and monthly income. Mean of behavior score was 4.5±2.07 (full score: 8. Dental flossing was more reported in more educated (OR = 2.27 and non smoker people (OR = 1.85. Dental visit was more prevalent in more educated ones (OR = 1.34. The most important source of information was semiprofessional source (mass media and health care center staff. As conclusion knowledge of Mashhad’s people about preventive oral health care was low. Their mean attitude shifted to negative score and the average of behavior was moderate. This study certainly serves local health policy making. Reinforcing collaboration between dentist and semiprofessional sources could be suggested.
Full Text Available Background: Health sciences students are expected to have appropriate knowledge and attitudes toward medication use. However, literary evidence of such expertise among health sciences students of King Saud University is unknown. This study was completed to assess the knowledge about medicines and behavior of health science students towards safe use of medications. It also aims to assess the health knowledge, attitude and practices of the students. Methods: This cross-sectional study used a questionnaire consisting of 24 questions. This was administered by the researcher between October and December 2009 in the colleges of medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, applied medical science and nursing of the King Saud University. The survey consisted of three parts: Ten questions assessed the students’ knowledge on drug safety (Part 1. Four questions assessed student attitude toward medication consultations by the pharmacist (Part 2 and ten questions involved medication use practices and consultation with pharmacists (Part 3. A stratified sampling method was used to select participants. Results: Pharmacy students had better medication knowledge compared to other health sciences students especially regarding antihypertensive drugs, antibiotics, paracetamol and antacids (p<0.05. Pharmacy students showed a positive attitude regarding the trustworthiness of a pharmacist to give a consultation. Nearly all other health science students showed a negative attitude about dispensing and consultation concerning nutritional supplements by a pharmacist. All health sciences students had a similar perception toward medication use and practice. Conclusion Pharmacy students had better knowledge about medication practice compared to other health sciences students. All other health sciences students lacked the appropriate attitude and practice related to the safe use of medications.
Abdullah T. Eissa
Full Text Available Research question : What is the level of general awareness and knowledge of people about dog bites and its first aid measure with anti-rabies vaccines? Objectives : 1 To know the general awareness pertaining to rabies in rural community. 2 To study the knowledge of people about dog-bites. 3 To ascertain the first aid measures adopted by people after dog bite. 4 To study the awareness of people regarding anti rabies vaccines & health services utilization. 5 To know the opinion regarding control of dog population. 6 To make recommendations based on study findings. Methodology : Study design : cross sectional study. 2 Setting : village surrounding the PSMC, Anand. 3 Participants : total 225 families were contacted in nine villages with 25 families per village. Results : All of the individuals were aware about rabies and 98.6% knew about its transmission by dog bite. Only 31.1% would like to apply first aid measure and 36.4% will visit to doctor and rest either do nothing or adopt some religious practices to prevent the development of rabies. 86.6% of individuals were aware about anti-rabies vaccine and 24.4% knew that pet dogs need vaccine against rabies. Statistical analysis : The data was analyzed by using ?Epi-info? package.
Conocimientos, comportamientos, percepciones y actitudes concernientes a la salud oral entre pacientes diabéticos / Knowledges, behaviors, perceptions, and attitudes related to oral health in diabetic patients.
Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Se analizan las características sociodemográficas, los aspectos psicosociales, hábitos de higiene oral y conocimientos de salud oral, en un grupo de sujetos con diabetes tipo 2 del Departamento de San Fernando, Chaco, Argentina. Métodos: Durante una cita de examen periodontal, se aplicó u [...] n cuestionario sobre 16 tópicos relacionados con las variables del estudio, a 150 pacientes con control metabólico (grupo 1: hemoglobina glucosilada [HbA1c] Abstract in english Aims: Sociodemograpahic and psychological features, habits of oral hygiene and knowledges of oral health in a group of subjects presenting with Type 2 diabetes, from Department of San Fernando, Chaco, Argentina. Methods: During a appointment for a periodontal examination, questionnaire on 16 related [...] topics with study variable was applied to 150 patients with metabolic control ( group 1: glycosidal hemoglobin [HbA1c
Rolando, Pablo Juárez; Julio Ricardo, Chahin; Maytena, Margarita Vizcaya; Emma Isabel, Arduña.
Conocimientos, comportamientos, percepciones y actitudes concernientes a la salud oral entre pacientes diabéticos / Knowledges, behaviors, perceptions, and attitudes related to oral health in diabetic patients.
Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Se analizan las características sociodemográficas, los aspectos psicosociales, hábitos de higiene oral y conocimientos de salud oral, en un grupo de sujetos con diabetes tipo 2 del Departamento de San Fernando, Chaco, Argentina. Métodos: Durante una cita de examen periodontal, se aplicó u [...] n cuestionario sobre 16 tópicos relacionados con las variables del estudio, a 150 pacientes con control metabólico (grupo 1: hemoglobina glucosilada [HbA1c] Abstract in english Aims: Sociodemograpahic and psychological features, habits of oral hygiene and knowledges of oral health in a group of subjects presenting with Type 2 diabetes, from Department of San Fernando, Chaco, Argentina. Methods: During a appointment for a periodontal examination, questionnaire on 16 related [...] topics with study variable was applied to 150 patients with metabolic control ( group 1: glycosidal hemoglobin [HbA1c
Rolando, Pablo Juárez; Julio Ricardo, Chahin; Maytena, Margarita Vizcaya; Emma Isabel, Arduña.
Full Text Available Background: Despite advances in medical science and modern technology, epilepsy remains as a stigmatized condition and negative public attitude toward epilepsy is a common phenomenon especially in developing countries such as Iran. It is the major factor causing serious social discrimination against people with epilepsy which in turn may be more devastating than the disorder itself. Thorough understanding of the knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy is essential to modify these negative attitudes. Methods: We conducted a face-to-face questionnaire interview survey in crowd locations of Tehran in August, 2004-April 2005. A total of 1079 persons all more than 15 years old were asked to fill the questionnaire. Results: Eighty eight percent of respondents had heard about epilepsy before, 42.2% of them knew one person with epilepsy. However, out of responses about the causes of epilepsy, 52/4% said it was caused by brain damage, 26.4% said it was an inherited disease,, 14.3% said it was due to fever, 34.8% believed stress as the cause of it and1.1% said evil spirits was the cause. 56.9% considered pregnancy to be appropriate for epileptics. 94% believed children with epilepsy could go to school and have normal education. Conclusion: According to this survey, public knowledge and attitudes about epilepsy in study population is not satisfactory. It is suggested that additional efforts must be made to increase the knowledge of the general population through education programs especially among school children.
To assess the knowledge, attitude regarding family planning and the practice of contraceptives among rural women. One-hundred women between the ages 15-45, living with their husbands and coming from rural area (villages) were interviewed. Women who were pregnant, had a child younger than 2 years, or had any medical disorder were excluded. Their knowledge, attitude and practice on contraceptives were evaluated with the help of a predesigned questionnaire. The other variables used were the age of women, parity and educational status. Descriptive analysis was conducted to obtain percentages. Out of 100 interviewed women with mean age of 29.7 years, 81(81%) had some knowledge about family planning methods. The media provided information of contraceptives in 52 out of 81 (64%) women. Regarding the usage of contraceptive methods, only 53 (53%) of the respondents were using some sort of contraception. Barrier method (condoms) was in practice by 18 (33.9%) and 12 (22.6%) of women had already undergone tubal ligation. The women using injectables and intrauterine contraceptive devices were 10 (18.8%) and 7 (13.2%) respectively. Six were using oral contraceptive pills (11.3%). Positive attitude towards contraception was shown by 76 (76%) of them, while 41(41%) stated their husbands positive attitude towards contraception. In the present study, there was a low contraceptive use among women of rural origin despite good knowledge. Motivation of couples through media and health persn of couples through media and health personnel can help to achieve positive attitude of husbands for effective use of contraceptives. (author)
The study revealed poor knowledge and negative attitude of medical students' toward cancer pain. A structured teaching pain program is needed to improve the knowledge and attitude of future doctors toward pain.
Abdullah M. Kaki
Abstract The primary objective of this paper is to analyse some initiatives used to promote entrepreneurship during the last 30 years of Danish Industrial Policy. A statistical description is given of the development that the Danish society has undergone, from an agricultural society through the industrial stage to a service or knowledge society. Parallel with this historical development, several initiatives to promote entrepreneurship have been implemented as part of Danish industrial policy. These initiatives are analysed with respect to objectives and means and ordered according to Sheth and Frazier's (1982) model of planned social change, examining whether initiatives can be a means of creating change in attitudes or in behaviour or in both? The basic idea underlying Sheth and Frazier's model is that different strategies can be used to bring about socially desirable attitudes and behaviour. The choice of strategy depends on whether the target groups: 1) have a positive or negative attitude towards what issocially desired, and 2) are engaged or not engaged in socially desired action During the last 30 years, entrepreneurship has become what most nations would call a socially desirable action and thus a target for planned social change. However, the model introduced by Sheth and Frazier has never been used to analyse how this socially desirable action can be promoted. Undertaking such an analysis is the ambition of this paper, and based on this analysis, the paper will, will conclude in recommending strategies for launching future initiatives to promote entrepreneurship.
Dreisler, Poul; Blenker, Per
Full Text Available Abstract Background Young people are of particular importance in state policies against Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS. We intended to assess the knowledge and attitude of high school students regarding AIDS in Iran. Methods Through a cluster-sampling, 4641 students from 52 high schools in Tehran were assessed by anonymous questionnaires in February 2002. Results The students identified television as their most important source of information about AIDS. Only a few students answered all the knowledge questions correctly, and there were many misconceptions about the routes of transmission. Mosquito bites (33%, public swimming pools (21%, and public toilets (20% were incorrectly identified as routes of transmission. 46% believed that Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive (HIV positive students should not attend ordinary schools. Most of the students wanted to know more about AIDS. In this study knowledge level was associated with students' attitudes and discipline (p Conclusion Although the knowledge level seems to be moderately high, misconceptions about the routes of transmission were common. There was a substantial intolerant attitude towards AIDS and HIV positive patients. We recommend that strategies for AIDS risk reduction in adolescents be developed in Iranian high schools.
As teachers are one of the more important agents for disseminating information, a study was done to gauge the knowledge and attitude concerning Renewable Energy (RE) and Energy Efficiency (EE) amongst teachers in Malaysia. Results from the study have shown that teachers do not have adequate knowledge on the concept of RE. They also viewed education as the best strategy in ensuring the success of RE practices. Although there is an interest to know more about RE, the teachers felt that they were inadequately trained to teach this subject in schools, that there are not enough teachers to teach the subject in the schools and that this topic should be integrated as part of co-curricular activities. CETREE, as a centre for education and training in Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency has already started a curriculum to train teachers on the awareness of Renewable Energy (RE) and Energy Efficiency (EE). Result of this study indicates that more training and campaigns need to be implemented at school levels to promote the awareness on RE and EE. This paper will also discuss knowledge and attitude as important factors to consider in creating awareness on RE for the next generation. Teachers need to acquire the knowledge and positive attitude toward these concepts to become successful change agents. Media preference amongst teachers concerning ways to educate the public on RE will also be highlighted
This study explored the effectiveness of a pain education intervention on Mexican nurses' knowledge and attitudes toward pediatric pain. A convenience sample of 106 registered nurses from three hospitals in Mexico City was recruited. A Pediatric Pain Education Program (PPEP) was developed, implemented, and evaluated by a nurse researcher, clinical nurse specialist, and a child life specialist. The 4-hour program, which was translated into Spanish, consisted of pain assessment, physiology, and management, including pharmacology and nonpharmacology. The effects of PPEP were measured in a one-group pretest-posttest design using a translated Spanish version of the Pediatric Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey (PNKAS). A total of 79 nurses completed both tests. A paired t test indicated significant differences between pre- and posttest results (p < .0001) on the PNKAS. The hospital site and years of nursing experience were significantly related to nurses' pre- and post-PNKAS scores. One test item on children's ability to reliably report their pain had a significantly lower score after the intervention (p = .016). The intervention was effective in improving Mexican pediatric nurses' knowledge and attitudes. However, it is not known how long this effect was maintained. Health care professionals can share a common vision for pain management by increasing international collaborative efforts and by advancing pediatric pain knowledge. PMID:21095595
Huth, Myra Martz; Gregg, Theresa L; Lin, Li
Background: Providing women with information enabling an informed consent to prenatal examinations has been widely recommended. Objective: The primary purpose of this review is to summarise current knowledge of the pregnant woman's expectations and attitudes concerning prenatal examinations, as well as the knowledge possessed by pregnant women undergoing prenatal examinations. Second, we explore their reasons for accepting or declining available screening tests. Results: More than 90 %of the pregnant women expressed a positive attitude toward screening preocedures in pregnancy. Most often (70-96%), the pregnant women were found knowledgeable about the procedural and preactical aspects, but were more seldom (31-81%) able to correctly identify the purpose of tracing fetal malformations. Some 29-65 % were not familiar with the existence of a false negative result, and 30-43 % were found unaware of the possibility of a false negative result. The risk of miscarriage in relation to amniocentesis (AC) is unknown to 11-53%. Uptake rates are associated with attitudes towards prenatal examinations, but not knowledge of the test offered. A total of 88 % concidered their health care provider an important source of information, and 57 % stated that this information has influenced their decision. Conclusions: Pregnant women favor prenatal examinations, but the choice of participation does not seem to be based on insight to enable full informed consent. Health care providers are perceived as an essential source of information.
Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik
This study was designed to determine; (1) if adolescent self esteem is related to premarital sexual attitudes and intercourse behavior; (2) if religious affiliation and church attendance affect the relationship between adolescent self esteem and premarital sexual attitudes and behavior. Approximately 2400 adolescents residing in California, New Mexico, and Utah comprised the sample. Adolescents who attended church services more often reported less sexually permissive attitudes and behavior...
Christensen, Roger B.
The purpose of this study was to use a validated instrument to determine the attitudes and knowledge of high school teachers regarding food irradiation, and to determine the correlations among their knowledge and attitudes and certain demographic variables. Knowledge and attitudes about food irradiation were measured in selected high school family…
Thompson, B. M.; Ribera, K. P.; Wingenbach, G. J.; Vestal, T. A.
The present study examines how demographics, attitudes toward marriage, attitudes toward sexual activity, sexual behaviors, and dating experience are associated with three different attitudes toward cohabitation among never-married young adults. Results from a sample of 1,036 young adult college students suggest that the endorsement of…
Willoughby, Brian J.; Carroll, Jason S.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Papilloma Virus (HPV vaccine has undergone successful trials and has recently been approved for use for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine knowledge and attitudes towards HPV vaccination. Methods Semi-structured interview and questionnaire delivered in a street survey. Standardised HPV-related statements used to measure HPV knowledge and attitudes to vaccination. The setting was three different areas of Birmingham, to target a mix of social class and ethnicity. The sample population was composed of 16–54 year olds. Results A total of 420 participants were recruited. Poor knowledge of HPV and its links with cervical cancer were observed. 81% had a knowledge score of zero. Knowledge about HPV was associated with different ethnic group and socio-economic group. The majority (88% of participants were in favour of vaccination, with 83.6% indicating that they would allow a child under their care to be vaccinated. Conclusion Initial responses to the proposed HPV vaccination within the UK public are favourable. However, knowledge levels are poor and media and health professional promotion are required to raise awareness.
Powell Judy E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Military conscripts may experience a change in their attitude towards sex at times when sexual urges are at their peak during their physical growth. This study examines the experience, understanding, knowledge and attitudes regarding sexual activity of the military conscripts. Methods Data was obtained from a cross-sectional survey of 1127 young adult military conscripts, and were evaluated in Southern Taiwan from January to July 2009, their demographic data, sexual knowledge, attitudes and activities were assessed. Results Nearly 43% of the participants had performed penetrative vaginal intercourse at least once; 34% of the participants performed heterosexual oral sex at least once; almost 7% of participants had had homosexual intercourse, and 7.5% of participants had experienced homosexual oral sex in the past year. The mean sexual knowledge score based on 30 questions was 23.2 ± 4.0. The higher the educational level of the participants, the greater sexual knowledge they had obtained. Conclusion This study found that 43% of unmarried young recruits had experienced premarital sexual activity. However, their sexual knowledge was insufficient and should be strengthened by sex education from an earlier age. College aged and adult learners also have sex education needs, especially with regard to integrating sexuality and life, being able to relate responsibly as sexual beings to others, the use of contraception, and about sexually transmitted disease. Keywords Young recruits, Sexual behavior, Sexual knowledge, Sex education
Native American nurses are in an ideal position to articulate how to serve Native people in ways that respect indigenous cultures. Forty Native American nurses and nursing students completed a survey on knowledge, skills, and attitudes/values necessary for culturally competent service provision to Native patients. Four knowledge themes, four skill themes, and three attitude/value themes were identified. Nurses must know about and show respect for the culture and history of Native groups, including culturally specific health beliefs and healing practices. Skills must be tailored for work in a non-Western context, and containment skills become particularly important. Additionally, respecting diversity and traditions and being open-minded and nonethnocentric are fundamental. This study provides valuable information nurses can use to enhance their work with indigenous people. PMID:10693406
Weaver, H N
Outcomes of three different models for sex education and citizenship programs concerning knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of Brazilian adolescents Resultados de três programas de educação sexual e cidadania sobre conhecimento, atitude e comportamento de adolescentes brasileiros
Three different school-based sex education and citizenship programs in public schools in Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, and Salvador, Brazil, were evaluated in a cross-sectional study comparing knowledge, attitudes, and practices in sexuality, citizenship, and gender issues among adolescents participating in the programs' activities as compared to adolescents enrolled in schools without such programs (controls). Results showed that Salvador's program achieved good results, with significant c...
Margarita Díaz; Maeve Brito de Mello; Maria Helena Sousa; Francisco Cabral; Silva, Ricardo Castro E.; Márcia Campos; Anibal Faúndes
The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age = 11 years, 5 months) completed two newly developed measures of implicit bullying attitudes (a…
van Goethem, Anne A. J.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Wiers, Reinout W.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this paper is to assess the level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and its risk factors, attitude towards HIV/AIDS and AIDS patients and its transmission and to identify high risk behaviors associated with HIV/AIDS among university students in Xinjiang. Methodology: A cross–sectional survey was conducted among students enrolled in two universities, the Xingjiang University (XU and Xinjiang Medical University (XMU. Data was collected using self-administered standardized questionnaire on attitude and practice regarding HIV/AIDS among 200 students randomly selected students from XU and 200 students from XMU Result: Among the 400 students who participated in the study Overall, the mean knowledge score was 19.3 +5.5. Their knowledge score ranges from 2 to 30. Mean knowledge scores is significantly different by ethnicity, sex, subject major, and year of study in university. Only 33.3% of the respondents had positive attitude towards HIV/AIDS patient. With regards high risk behavior associated with HIV transmission, 15.8% had at least 1 risk behavior related to unprotected sexual exposure Conclusion: HIV/AIDS health education efforts should be intensified in non-medical universities, among female students, first year students and Uyghur and other minorities. About two-thirds of the university students in Xinjiang had negative attitude towards HIV/AIDS and HIV/AIDS patients. At the same time about 15% of these students reported having at least 1 high risk behavior related to sex and unprotected sex.
Abstract Background Several public health strategic interventions are required for effective prevention and control of avian influenza (AI) and it is necessary to create a communication plan to keep families adequately informed on how to avoid or reduce exposure. This investigation determined the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors relating to AI among an adult population in Italy. Methods From December 2005 to February 2006 a random sample of 1020 adults receiv...
Marinelli Paolo; Albano Luciana; Di Giuseppe Gabriella; Angelillo Italo F.
Abstract Background Young people are of particular importance in state policies against Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). We intended to assess the knowledge and attitude of high school students regarding AIDS in Iran. Methods Through a cluster-sampling, 4641 students from 52 high schools in Tehran were assessed by anonymous questionnaires in February 2002. Results The students identified television as their most important source of inform...
Tajik Parvin; Enzevaei Anahita; Zaferani Azadeh; Tavoosi Anahita; Ahmadinezhad Zahra
Background:Prenatal screening has become an ever increasing part of antenatal care in the western part of the world. Providing women with information enabling an informed consent to prenatal examinations has been widely recommended, with women accepting or declining the screening tests offered in full understanding of pros and contra.Objective and hypothesis:To summarize current knowledge of women's expectations and attitudes concerning prenatal examinations as well as the amount of knowledge possessed by pregnant women undergoing prenatal examinations. Reasons for accepting or declining a screening test offered, as well as the influence of information in the decision-making process is also explored. Methods:The review is based on systematic search strategy in the electronic databases Medline and Science Citation. Additional studies were identified through reference lists of individual papers obtained. Results:Women in general express a positive attitude towards screening procedures in pregnancy. Women are found most knowledgeable about procedural and practical aspects but are not always aware of the purposes or any limitations of the tests offered. Understanding and interpretation of risk estimates is low and possible consequences if the test reveals a problem is seldom considered beforehand. A woman's attitude to prenatal examinations is found decisive for up-take of prenatal tests, with no association between a woman's attitude towards prenatal examinations and her knowledge of those tests. Most women consider their doctor an important source of information, and state that information has influenced their decision. Conclusions: Pregnant women favor prenatal examinations, but participation does not seem to be based on an informed consent.
Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik
Introduction: Intensive care unit ICU syndrome is a disorder, in which patients in an ICU or a similar setting experience anxiety, hallucination and become paranoid, severely disoriented in time and place, very agitated, or even violent, etc. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of nurses with regards to prevention of ICU syndrome (Delirium). Methods: Subjects of this research were 56 nurses with including criteria of registration in nursing, university d...
Ali Dadgari; Farede Yaghmaie; Jasman Shahnazarian; Leyla Dadvar
Background: Alteration in pattern of sexuality is known to be impressed by couples’ believes about women’s physical and psychological changes during pregnancy. The objective of this study is to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of couples about sexual relations during pregnancy. Methods: In a descriptive study from February to April 2005, two hundred sixty six consecutive pregnant women referring to a university hospital were asked to answer a questionnaire containing questions their s...
Heydari, M.; Kiani Asiabar, A.; Faghih Zade, S.
This exploratory study was designed to examine the knowledge and attitudes nurses have about patients from culturally different backgrounds. A questionnaire, entitled The Cultural Fitness Survey, was used to collect data from registered nurses. Subjects were selected from a pool of 3,242 registered nurses employed in eight major acute care hospitals in urban Northern Indiana.^ Three major hypotheses were tested using repeated measures MANOVA, one-way ANOVA, multiple regression analysis, an...
Rooda, Linda Ann
Full Text Available Background: Despite the growing awareness on pain management, mild and severe pain is still common among hospitalized patients. Inadequate treatment has been mostly linked to health care workers' failure to assess patients’ pain and to intervene appropriately.Objective: To determine the pain management knowledge and attitudes of the nurses working in training and research hospital in Turkey and their relationship to demographic and educational factors. Methods: Descriptive and cross-sectional study design was used. The Nurses’ Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (NKASRP was used to determine the pain-related knowledge and attitude of the nurses. Results: A total of 246 nurses were included in the study. The percentage working at a surgical unit was 48.8% and 77.2% were staff nurses. Only 11.8% had taken a pain management course and 31.7% had read a book or journal on pain. The rate of correct responses to the NKASRP scale was 39.65% while the mean number of correct answers to all questions was 15.86±7.33 with a range of 0 to 37. A statistically significant difference was found regarding education level, working unit, whether a pain management course had been taken, whether a book or journal on pain had been read, and the evaluation of the nurse's efficacy regarding pain (p<0.05. Conclusion: We found that the nurses did not have adequate knowledge and the positive attitude for pain management although it is a very important part of patient care. We suggest that results be taken into account when the content of graduate and postgraduate training programs is determined and guidelines are prepared.
Full Text Available PurposeThis study was conducted to identify relationships among knowledge and attitudes of unmarried mothers toward emergency contraceptive pills.MethodsData were collected through structured questionnaires from 135 unmarried mothers enrolled in 7 single mothers' facilities nationwide. Data were analyzed using the SPSS/WIN 17.0 program for descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Scheffe-test, and Pearson correlation coefficients.ResultsFor knowledge about emergency contraceptive pills, there were significant differences among who live with her before pregnancy, experience of past pregnancies, state of present pregnancy and preparation in using contraceptives. For attitude toward emergency contraceptive pills, there were significant differences according to age, education level and religion. There were significant positive relationships between knowledge and attitudes toward emergency contraceptive pills.ConclusionThe results of this study suggest that unmarried women should be better informed about emergency contraceptive pills, and reassured about their safety. Efforts are needed to disseminate up-to-date information to experts in sex education including nurses.
Gyeong Mi Lee
Despite significant evidence for the integration of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) into professional nursing practice, gaps exist regarding nurses' baseline knowledge, beliefs of efficacy, and learning needs for further education to facilitate the integration of CAM into nursing practice. The top three conditions which adults identified for using CAM were back pain, neck pain, and joint pain. CAM can offer nurses additional treatment options for managing their patients' pain and discomfort. The California Board of Registered Nursing (BRN) identifies that nurses can help provide the missing link between conventional Western medicine and CAM therapies. Nurses cannot successfully advocate for CAM therapies, nor understand their patients' prior use of such treatments, unless they themselves are familiar with both the risks and the benefits of these practices. It is necessary to first establish nurses' baseline knowledge and beliefs related to CAM so that adequate educational programs can be initiated to help mitigate the barriers to incorporating CAM into the acute care setting. This descriptive study explores registered nurses' attitudes and knowledge related to CAM by using the Nurse Complementary and Alternative Medicine Nursing Knowledge and Attitudes Survey developed by Rojas-Cooley and Grant. Nurses in this study demonstrated limited self-reported knowledge of basic CAM terminology and CAM practices. PMID:24315251
Trail-Mahan, Tracy; Mao, Chia-Ling; Bawel-Brinkley, Karen
The paper presented by the author at the first IAEA Knowledge Management Conference (2004, Saclay, France) was dedicated to the main achievements of the Soviet Union and Russia in generation and systematization of nuclear knowledge and in providing human resources for their application. Nevertheless, some well-known nuclear professionals consider the breach of the normal knowledge transfer process, which occurred when nuclear power plants have been transferred from the half-military nuclear complex with its high level of discipline to the civil 'boiler power industry' (quite unprepared for that), as one of the relevant causes of the Chernobyl accident. The crises of 1980-90ies (Chernobyl accident, changed political system, collapse of the USSR) have stopped the development of nuclear power industry and gave a severe blow to the nuclear knowledge management system. In present conditions, which can be surely described in the terms of 'nuclear renaissance', it seems important to trace, how the preserved and developing knowledge management system is influenced by the attitude towards nuclear energy in the country and in its 'components' (governmental authorities, energy community, public), as well as to follow up the role of nuclear professionals in forming the above attitude
Full Text Available I shall examine Quine’s conception of logic, of propositional attitudes, and of the unity of knowledge in order to show that there are some tensions in Quine’s system. I first propose a conception of the use or application of logic, stating that logic strictly speaking applies to intentional phenomena or to things that presuppose the existence of intentional phenomena. Then, I consider briefly Quine’s philosophy of logic and discuss some issues. In Quine’s philosophy, logic stays at the very center of the web of our beliefs; it is central in science and ordinary knowledge as well. Then I examine Quine’s tendency to “quine” the mental, given his own maxim of minimum mutilation. Finally, I consider Quine’s thesis of the unity of knowledge, the thesis that there is continuity from ordinary to scientific knowledge. If I am right about the use of logic and the presence of the propositional attitude idiom in ordinary knowledge and social sciences and humanities, I think there is a problem of consistency in Quine’s system, and that Quine himself pointed to a part of the solution.
Full Text Available This study aimed to explore Iranian primary school students’ attitudes and knowledge about HIV/AIDS. The knowledge and attitudes of 597 primary school students from all areas of Ahwaz were assessed by anonymous questionnaires in November 2007. None of the students answered all the knowledge questions correctly, and results indicated that there were many misconceptions about the routes of transmission. Sneezing and coughing, contaminated food, water or hands were incorrectly identified as routes of transmission. The knowledge increased with age (P<0.001. The sources of pupils’ information primarily included: Television (66.8%, family members (20.2%, friends (10.6% and school teachers (2.4%. Also some pupils believed that there was some treatment (38.3% or an effective vaccine (63.4% for HIV/AIDS. The result of this study revealed that most primary school students in Ahvaz had a lack of proper knowledge about HIV/AIDS. There is a need to promote an AIDS education in Ahvaz and also all Iranian schools, to improve socio-cultural factors in next years.
Full Text Available Introduction. In a time that economic classification of nations is largely dependant on their scientific output, our country "Iran" in comparison to it"s facilities, has fewer scienilfic producilon than accepted. For programming to increase quantity and quality of research, at first, should carefully recognise the present condition. This study was done to survay attitiude, knowledge and practice of students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services (IUMSHS about research. Methods. Questionnaires were distribiuted among interns (n=234 who their names and sites had extracted. Students enterance year to university was between 1992 to 1994. So, they were at the end of their staying in university. Results. Average grade of knowledge was 2.92±2 (from whole grade= 10. This grade did not depend on stage of preparing thesis. The most true answer was in writing of purpose and the least was in sampling, medline and role of variables in study. Attitude in 78.2 percent, indicate agreement with necessity of learning research concept. 54.2 percent agree with necessity of participailon in at least one research project in educational period in university, but 41.8 percent believe that research activity in present condition is wasting the time. The answerers who at least had parilcipated in one research project were 11.9 percent and the highest knowledg"s grade was in these students. Discussion. Despite the positive attitude of interns to learn the research concept, their knowledge level in comparison with other Iranian univercities and other univercities" students in the world, was very low. Although more than half of them have positive attitude to participation in research project, their practice was insignificant. Radical changes in education system and management seems to be necessary.
The promotion of healthy infant feeding is increasingly recognized as an important obesity-prevention strategy. This is relevant for American Indian populations that exhibit high levels of obesity and low compliance with infant feeding guidelines. The literature examining the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs surrounding infant feeding within the American Indian population is sparse and focuses primarily on breastfeeding, with limited information on the introduction of solid foods and related practices that can be important in an obesity-prevention context. This research presents descriptive findings from a baseline knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs questionnaire on infant feeding and related behaviors administered to mothers (n=438) from five Northwest American Indian tribes that participated in the Prevention of Toddler Overweight and Teeth Health Study (PTOTS). Enrollment occurred during pregnancy or up to 6 months postpartum. The knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs questionnaire focused on themes of breastfeeding/formula feeding and introducing solid foods, with supplemental questions on physical activity. Knowledge questions were multiple choice or true/false. Attitudes and beliefs were assessed on Likert scales. Descriptive statistics included frequencies and percents and means and standard deviations. Most women knew basic breastfeeding recommendations and facts, but fewer recognized the broader health benefits of breastfeeding (eg, reducing diabetes risk) or knew when to introduce solid foods. Women believed breastfeeding to be healthy and perceived their social networks to agree. Attitudes and beliefs about formula feeding and social support were more ambivalent. This work suggests opportunities to increase the perceived value of breastfeeding to include broader health benefits, increase knowledge about solid foods, and strengthen social support. PMID:24951434
Eckhardt, Cara L; Lutz, Tam; Karanja, Njeri; Jobe, Jared B; Maupomé, Gerardo; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl
This study examined the relationship between internalized and public stigma on treatment-related attitudes and behaviors in a community sample of 449 African American and white adults aged 18 years and older. Telephone surveys were administered to assess level of depressive symptoms, demographic characteristics, stigma, and treatment-related attitudes and behaviors. Multiple regression analysis indicated that internalized stigma mediated the relationship between public stigma and attitudes to...
Brown, Charlotte; Conner, Kyaien O.; Copeland, Valire Carr; Grote, Nancy; Beach, Scott; Battista, Deena; Reynolds, Charles F.
Full Text Available Background: Epileptics are often socially discriminated due to the negative public attitudes, misconceptions and false beliefs. Thus, the main objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy among Malaysian Chinese.Methods: A cross-sectional study by using a 23-item validated, self-administered questionnaire was carried out in urban areas, selected through stratified sampling. A Chinese population was randomly selected in the stratified areas of Penang, Ipoh, Klang valley, and Kuala Lumpur and was asked to complete the questionnaire.Results: Among 382 (74.6% respondents, 16.2% believed that epilepsy is a type of mental illness. Majority (90.8% accepted that epileptics can become useful members of the society however, only 16% agreed to marry them. About 57% of respondents recognised epilepsy as nervous system problem. Significant relationships between education level and statements such as, epileptics are as intelligent as everyone else (p=0.009, epilepsy can be successfully treated with drugs (p=0.037 and epileptics can be successful in their chosen career (p=0.009, were found.Conclusions: The general Chinese population in the selected areas of peninsular Malaysia had relatively good knowledge and positive attitudes toward certain aspects of epilepsy at the time of the investigation. However, minority of the study participants demonstrated prejudice and discriminatory behaviour towards people with epilepsy.
Premarital counselling and examination have begun to play a very important role in the management of many genetic disorders. 600 villager's knowledge and attitudes toward premarital counselling and examination in Menofia Governorate was studied in order to predict the community acceptance and behaviour toward utilization of such service. The result showed a big lack in knowledge even among educated respondents about the term. The main source of information was mass media followed by medical personnel who should participate more in this service. Most respondents, except unmarried males, have a favourable attitude toward either premarital counselling and examination or consanguinous marriage. This may be related to certain social changes in village life such as declining illiteracy, increased economic pressures, increase number of nuclear families and accordingly delay in beginning a family. It was unlikely that non-contraceptive users would resort to induced abortion rather to use contraceptive methods. Educational programs should be directed toward: (a) unmarried males so that their attitude toward premarital counselling and examination can be changed to correct direction, (b) unmarried females to make consanginous marriage more undesirable, and (c) non-contraceptive users to make them more intended to use safe contraceptive methods than induced abortion. PMID:2520141
Eshra, D K; Dorgham, L S; el-Sherbini, A F
Misconception and stigma towards epilepsy have a profound impact on this disease in Africa. An unselected sample of Zambian people was interviewed to investigate their knowledge and attitudes towards epilepsy. Proper/improper answers were scored, and a composite score was developed with negative values for unsatisfactory awareness and high stigma levels. The sample comprised 231 people residing in urban (107) or in rural (124) areas. The median and interquartile range of scores for epilepsy awareness and stigma were, respectively, -1 (-3; +1) and +1 (-1; +6). Poor education was the only significant predictor of unsatisfactory awareness (p=0.0131), while education and residency were significantly associated with stigma (p<0.0001 and p=0.0004). Rural people were mostly in the highest stigma level (44.2%) and urban people in the lowest stigma level (60.4%). Misconception and negative attitudes towards epilepsy among Zambian people reflect poor education and rural residency. PMID:24681384
Pupillo, Elisabetta; Vitelli, Eugenio; Messina, Paolo; Beghi, Ettore
Understanding adolescents' attitudes regarding sexual behavior is key to understanding why they choose to engage or not engage in sex, which sexual behavior(s) they initiate and continue, and the outcomes experienced during and following sexual behavior. This article briefly explores adolescent sexual behavior, positive and negative outcomes…
Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Reznik, Yana
Full Text Available Introduction. Nurses represent an important link in mediating between the potential donors and their relatives’ consent to organ and tissue transplantation. The message of the Health Department to potential donors about the importance of organ donation was supported by the Serbian Orthodox Church, the army and other institutions through media campaigns. Nurses could contribute to this action by their personal example. Objective. The aim of this study was identification and bivariate analysis of nurse attitude about organ donation, their knowledge about the importance of transplantation as treatment methods, as well as the connection between work experience and education level with the formation of attitudes and new skills. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 291 nurses from the Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, filled in the questionnaire on the effect of correlation between the length of the service and level of education on knowledge and attitudes toward organ transplantation and organ donation. Results. Out of 291 respondents, 67.4% have completed the nursing school and 32.6% have higher education. The majority (63.9% of respondents knew that the EEG was the most valid method for determining brain death. The question regarding the possibility of buying organs was answered correctly by 68.7% of respondents. A large majority (91% would accept organ transplant, if needed, but only 32.0% would be organ donors, and only 0.3% owned a donor card. In contrast, one third of nurses were already blood donors. Conclusion. In case of necessary transplantation, nurses would accept someone else’s organ, though they do not possess donor cards, but just few would donate their organs. It is possible that prejudice arises from ignorance and distrust in the health policy of the Republic of Serbia. However, besides negative attitude, nurses have expressed interest in learning and professional development in the area of transplantation.
The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of AIDS and sexual behavior of middle school students. Structural questionnaires were designed to interview 1980 junior and senior middle school students about their basic knowledge, attitude, and behavior with respect to AIDS and sexual behavior. Students were recruited from the six most common middle schools of the six regions in Luoyang City of the Henan Province of China by cluster sampling from September to December of 2004. Results showed that 54.5% of students had not learned about the prevention of HIV/AIDS in school, and 38.3% of students did not have any knowledge about the route of transmission of HIV/AIDS. Furthermore, 91.2% of students were reluctant to share a classroom with HIV/AIDS patients. Approximately 21.7% of students had read books, watched videos, and consulted other media related to sex, 1.1% of students had had sexual intercourse during high school, and 80.5% believed that health education on HIV/AIDS and sex was necessary. The results of this survey showed that middle school students have little knowledge about HIV/AIDS and sex. Therefore, health education programs for HIV/AIDS prevention and sexual health should be developed as soon as possible to help students peacefully get through a sexually puzzling period of life. PMID:24737509
Wang, P; Zhang, Y J; Pan, X J; Xia, X Y; Lv, S Y
Full Text Available Background: Millions of workers are occupationally exposed to dyes in the world, but little is known about their knowledge and attitudes toward the effects of dye on their health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the fabric dyers? and fabric printers? knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the health hazard of dyes. Materials and Methods: The present study was taken up in the Madurai district which is situated in the Southern Tamil Nadu, India. One hundred and forty-two workers employed in small-scale dyeing and printing units participated in a face-to-face confidential interview . Results: The mean age of fabric dyers and fabric printers was 42 years (?10.7. When enquired about whether dyes affect body organ(s, all the workers agreed that dye(s will affect skin, but they were not aware that dyes could affect other parts of the body. All the workers believed that safe methods of handling of dyes and disposal of contaminated packaging used for dyes need to be considered. It was found that 34% of the workers were using personal protective equipment (PPE such as rubber hand gloves during work. Conclusion: The workers had knowledge regarding the occupational hazards, and their attitudinal approach toward the betterment of the work environment is positive.
More than 20 different pharmacogenomic tests are being used in the oncology field. The current descriptive study was conducted with 368 oncology nurses in North Carolina to identify and test key elements of Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation Theory that play a role in the adoption of pharmacogenomic testing. Oncology nurses who participated in this study had limited knowledge of genomics and pharmacogenomic testing. Attitudes toward pharmacogenomic testing were positive overall, and the study revealed that oncology nurses in this study routinely use pharmacogenomic testing information. Variable selection methods revealed that total genomic knowledge was more accurately predicted by prior experience and personality variables, pharmacogenomic knowledge was more accurately predicted by personality variables, and attitude was more accurately predicted by prior experience and perceived need of innovation. Based on these findings, several factors play key roles in the diffusion of pharmacogenomic testing within the oncology nursing field. Therefore, assessment of these variables may benefit the widespread adoption of pharmacogenomic testing. Further research should be conducted with these variables to assess the adoption of the innovation. PMID:25095306
The current study was aimed to assess Saudi school students' knowledge, attitude and practice about medicines. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used anonymously among 15-20 year-old adolescents attending tertiary schools in Taif City, KSA. A total of 1022 students completed the questionnaires. Only 15.4% of the respondents knew the medicines' uses. Most of the students 79.6% affirmed that they used to take medicines after consulting physicians, and 45.1% of the students thought that tablet size affects the medicine's efficacy. More than half of the students knew that high temperatures affect the efficacy of medicines, there was a significant difference between rural and urban areas (P = 0.005). Physicians (50.6%) and community pharmacists (15.7%), were the main students' reliable sources of information about medicines. The majority of the students 70.5% were interested in learning more about medicines. The younger students ?18 years wish to learn more than the older ones (P Saudi school students aged 15-20 years old have poor knowledge, misconception and negative attitudes about medicines. Low level of knowledge may expose adolescents to health-related problems. Educational efforts are important to improve students' practice toward medicines. PMID:25061406
Eldalo, Ahmed S; Yousif, Mirghani A; Abdallah, Mustafa Awad
The Young People for the Nuclear Energetics (FINE) was established in 1999 as the Hungarian branch of the Young Generation Network. Our purpose is to remove the misbelieves and fears arisen around the nuclear techniques and mainly the nuclear energetics and to reply the questions brought up by the Hungarian youth in this topic. In this year our main activity was to take part in the Student Island festival with a Nuclear-tent. In this paper our experience is delineated what we drawn with the help of our programmes about the attitude and the knowledge of the youth. (authors)
The nutritional care of patients is one of the primary responsibilities of all registered nurses (Persenius et al, 2008). A poor nutritional status can lead to malnutrition, which can have serious consequences for an individual\\'s quality of life (Field and Smith, 2008). This paper commences with an introduction to the concept of nutrition, provides an overview of nutritional guidelines and nutritional screening tools which identify those at risk of malnutrition. It reviews the literature on nurses\\' knowledge, attitudes and practices in the provision of nutritional care and debates challenges and opportunities encountered to help nurses ensure adequate patient nutrition.
The Hungarian Youth for Nuclear (FINE) was established in 1999 as the Hungarian branch of the Young Generation Network. Our purpose is to remove the misconceptions and fears that have arisen around the nuclear techniques, mainly nuclear energetics, and to reply to the questions brought up by the Hungarian youth on this topic. This year, our main activity was to take part in the Student Island with a Nuclear-tent. In this paper we delineate our experience that we have gained with the help of our programmes about the attitude and knowledge of the Hungarian youth. (authors)
"nBackground: The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge and attitude of pregnant women in Qazvin Province, central Iran, Relating to oral Hygiene."nMethods: The study group comprised of 760 pregnant women living in Qazvin, center of Iran in 2004. The questions were formulated to evaluate information without the need for dental examination. The age groups between 17-41 years old were randomly selected and a question was given to woman in three family planning center. St...
Hamissi, J.; Bakianian Vaziri, P.; Davalloo, A.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine gifted students’ knowledge of and attitudes towards biotechnology. A total of 62 gifted primary school students who were taught in science and art centers in Denizli and Kahramanmara? in 2010-2011 academic year participated in the study. The results indicated that most of the students (87% had an awareness regarding genetically modified (GM products. The results also revealed that students think that GM products have risks. Overall, the students thought that GM products should be used for the benefit of technology and people. Based on the findings from this study, some implications for biotechnology education are made.
OBJECTIVES:: The recently enacted Israeli Dying Patient Act was designed to strike balance between enhancing patient autonomy in end-of-life decision making and cultural/religious norms that are in opposition to active euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). The current study evaluated physician attitudes regarding active and passive euthanasia, and their knowledge of specific aspects of the law. METHODS:: A survey was administered to a convenience sample of hospital-based physicians treating terminal patients. Physicians were queried about their attitudes regarding euthanasia and PAS. Physicians were also queried about specific aspects of the law and whether they had sufficient resources to uphold the law. RESULTS:: Surveys were distributed to 270 physicians and 100 were returned and evaluated (37%). Nearly all physicians supported passive euthanasia (withholding treatment), whereas over 40% maintained that active forms of euthanasia should be allowed for terminal patients in severe physical pain. Multivariate analysis showed a negative relationship between support for more active forms of euthanasia and physicians' self-reported religiosity. Physicians cited lack of time as a reason for not complying with the new law. Physicians had a familiarity with the general aspects of the new legislation, but a large proportion was not aware of the specifics of the law. CONCLUSIONS:: Compared with previous surveys, a larger number of physicians support passive euthanasia. A sizable percentage of physicians would be willing to participate in active euthanasia and even PAS. Attitudes toward euthanasia are influenced by religious factors. PMID:23660598
Doron, Dana; Wexler, Isaiah D; Shabtai, Esther; Corn, Benjamin W
AIM: To investigate the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) in prevention and control of liver fluke infection in northeast Thailand. METHODS: A descriptive KAP survey pertaining to liver fluke infection was carried out in June 2005 to October 2006 using structured questionnaires. Data were collected by questionnaires consisting of general parameters, knowledge, attitude, practice, and a history of participation in the prevention and control of liver fluke infection. RESULTS: A total of 1077 persons who were inter-viewed and completed the questionnaires were enrolled in the study. The majority were females (69.5%) and many of them were 15-20 years of age (37.26%). The questionnaires revealed that information resources on liver fluke infection included local public health volunteers (31.37%), public health officers (18.72%), televisions (14.38%), local heads of sub-districts (12.31%), doctors and nurses (9.18%), newspaper (5.72), internets (5.37%), and others (12.95%). Fifty-five point eleven percent of the population had a good level of liver fluke knowledge concerning the mode of disease transmission and 79.72% of the population had a good level of prevention and control knowledge with regards to defecation and consumption. The attitude and practice in liver fluke prevention and control were also at a good level with a positive awareness, participation, and satisfaction of 72.1% and 60.83% of the persons studied. However, good health behavior was found in 39.26% and 41.42% of the persons studied who had unhygienic defecation and ate raw cyprinoid’s fish. The result also showed that 41.25% of the persons studied previously joined prevention and control campaigns. CONCLUSION: The persons studied have a high level of liver fluke knowledge and positive attitude. However, improvement is required regarding personal hygiene specifically with hygienic defecation and consumption of undercooked fish. PMID:17465477
Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Pengsaa, Prasit; Pilasri, Chutigan
The Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program is an ongoing project that is designed to strengthen geoscience education in South Texas public schools. It began in June 2003 and is funded by the National Science Foundation. This outreach program involves collaboration between Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi and four independent school districts in South Texas with support from the South Texas Rural Systemic Initiative, another NSF-funded project. Additional curriculum support has been provided by various local and state organizations. Across Texas, fifth grade students are demonstrating a weakness in geoscience concepts as evidenced by their scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills. As a result, fifth and sixth grade public school students from low-income school districts were selected to participate in this program. At this age students are already making decisions that will affect their high school and college years. The main purpose of this project is to encourage these students, many of whom are Hispanic, to become geoscientists. This purpose is accomplished by enhancing their geoscience knowledge, nurturing their interest in geoscience and showing them what careers are available in the geosciences. Educators and scientists collaborate to engage students in scientific discovery through hands-on laboratory exercises and exposure to state-of-the-art technology (laptop computers, weather stations, telescopes, etc.). Students' family members become involved in the geoscience learning process as they participate in Family Science Night activities. Family Science Nights constitute an effective venue to reach the public. During the course of the Cabeza de Vaca Earthmobile Program, investigators have measured success in two ways: improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience concepts and change in students' attitudes towards geoscience. Findings include significant improvement in students' knowledge of geoscience. Students also report more positive attitudes toward geoscience after having participated in laboratory activities and Family Science Nights. Preliminary findings on the extent to which geoscience and geoscience careers become part of families' purviews, discourses and planning through involvement in Family Science Nights will be presented. Implications related to the success of this program, as indicated by measurement of students' knowledge and attitudes of geoscience as well as engagement of this program by families, will be discussed.
Silliman, J. E.; Hansen, A.; McDonald, J.; Martinez, M.
Since the introduction of the Basic Safety Standards recommendations, the scope of the radiation protection was broadening. On behalf of the incorporation of radiation protection of the patient in medical exposures, the different groups of professionals involved: physicians, medical physicists, radiation protection officers, regulators, etc., have to work together. The objective of radiation protection, that is, to reduces doses from practices, to prevent potential exposures, to detect its occurrence as well as to evaluate and spread such abnormal situations, will be obtained only if it were possible to joint two basic conditions: knowledge and attitude. It should be well known the differences between the backgrounds needed to be for example, a medical physicist or an R.P.O., However, their attitude to solve an eventual problem involving radiation protection should be the same; as well as the behavior of the specialized physician and regulators, in order to add towards common goals. In this work, we show as an example the curricula contents about radiation protection of the cancer of medical physics in the Universidad Nacional de San Martin (UNSAM), and the corresponding module on medical exposures from the Post-Graduate course on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, held since the 80s in Buenos Aires by the National Commission of Atomic Energy, ARN, IAEA, and the Universidad de Buenos Aires. On the other hand, we describe different attitudes which leads or could start major radiological accidents, regardless the level of knowledge in radiation protection. We conclude that the larger numbers of accidents are due to problems in the attitude than in the level of knowledge of the person involved. Consequently; we suggest emphasizing the discussion on how to generate positive attitudes in every professional involucrated, independently of its cognitive profile or level. (Author) 2 refs.
Velez, G. R.; Sanchez, G. D.
Full Text Available Introduction: Intensive care unit ICU syndrome is a disorder, in which patients in an ICU or a similar setting experience anxiety, hallucination and become paranoid, severely disoriented in time and place, very agitated, or even violent, etc. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of nurses with regards to prevention of ICU syndrome (Delirium. Methods: Subjects of this research were 56 nurses with including criteria of registration in nursing, university degree and at least one month experience of working in open heart surgery ICUs. The data was gathered from 3 clusters in university hospitals equipped with open heart surgery ICUs in Tehran. All subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire. Moreover all subjects were observed in all shifts. During observation, two researchers observed each subject simultaneously to achieve higher accuracy of observations. Descriptive and analytic statistics were applied to analysis the data. Results: The finding of the study showed that more than 53% of the subjects had passed a continuing education course, but less than 46% of them never passed a training course on ICU. According to this research, subjects, work experience in ICUs had significant relation on their knowledge with regard to prevention of ICU psychosis. However, it has not significant relation to their attitude and skill. Conclusion: According to the results of the study, subjects have little chance to be familiar with the concepts and elements of ICU syndrome in their university program. The finding also indicated that many subjects in this study were not familiar with the important concepts such as sleep deprivation, sensory overload and sensory deprivation, etc. Ongoing progression in high-tech ICUs brings about continuing nursing education programs for all nurses. The results also showed that stress factor in ICU, such as high mortality, isolation, high workload etc. Gradually influences nurses,attitude in ICU. So, it is strongly recommended to consider rotation of nurses in order not to impose high stress to ICU nurses.
The use of genetics in medical research is one of the most important avenues currently being explored to enhance human health. For some, the idea that we can intervene in the mechanisms of human existence at such a fundamental level can be at minimum worrying and at most repugnant. In particular, religious doctrines are likely to collide with the rapidly advancing capability for science to make such interventions. The key ingredient for acceptance of genetics, on the other hand, is prototypically assumed to be scientific literacy - familiarity and understanding of the critical facts and methods of science. However, this binary opposition between science and religion runs counter to what is often found in practice. In this paper, we examine the association between religiosity, science knowledge and attitudes to medical genetics amongst the British public. In particular, we test the hypothesis that religion acts as a 'perceptual filter' through which citizens acquire and use scientific knowledge in the formation of attitudes towards medical genetics in various ways. PMID:23838683
Allum, Nick; Sibley, Elissa; Sturgis, Patrick; Stoneman, Paul
Full Text Available Using the theoretical framework of the Theory of Reasoned Action , we examine benefits satisfactionas an attitude formed by the beliefs about benefits (i.e., benefits knowledge and the perceived value ofthese benefits (i.e., fit of benefits to individual needs. We use questionnaires to gather data from arandom sample of 591 employees in a large county agency in the South-eastern United States. The datasupport that knowledge of benefits is associated with enhanced benefits satisfaction and mediates theeffect of explanations about benefits on satisfaction. The results provide strong evidence that benefitsperceived to suit employee needs generate highest benefits satisfaction. Employees satisfied with theirbenefits are less likely to consider leaving the organization. The tested model is a starting point for futurestudies to apply the extended Theory of Reasoned Action  and incorporate perceived behaviouralcontrol and subjective norms (i.e., co-workers’ attitudes in forming benefits satisfaction. Understandingemployees’ affective and cognitive reactions to compensation, including benefits, can render betterpractices. Companies should use information campaigns to improve employee beliefs about benefits.Better attentiveness to individual needs and preferences can maximize the utility of a benefits plan andimprove its acceptance. We replicate and extend past research in a parsimonious model of benefitssatisfaction with a random sample of public sector employees.
Gery Markova, Foard Jones
Developmental and behavioral pediatricians (DBP) diagnose and care for children with fragile X syndrome. Their attitudes toward FMR1 newborn screening (NBS) and FMR1 carrier testing in childhood could highlight potential pitfalls with FMR1 NBS. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with an adjusted response rate of 61%. Among DBP, 74% supported universal FMR1 NBS, preferring to identify both full mutations and premutations. DBP also support FMR1 testing of asymptomatic siblings. Although DBP support testing for premutations at various points in the lifespan, DBP are not familiar with the array of fragile X-associated disorders (FXAD). Targeted educational interventions are needed to ensure that all health care providers have the knowledge and competence to consent and to counsel families on FXAD. PMID:23937370
Acharya, Kruti; Schindler, Abigail
Consumer attitudes, knowledge, and behavior related to salt consumption in sentinel countries of the Americas / Actitudes, conocimientos y comportamiento de los consumidores en relación con el consumo de sal en países centinelas de la Región de las Américas
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Describir las actitudes, los conocimientos y el comportamiento individuales con respecto al consumo de sal, sus fuentes alimentarias, y las prácticas actuales de etiquetado de alimentos en relación con su contenido en sal y sodio en cinco países centinelas de la Región de las Américas. MÉT [...] ODOS: De septiembre del 2010 a febrero del 2011, se obtuvo una muestra de conveniencia de 1 992 adultos (de 18 años de edad o mayores) de Argentina, Canadá, Chile, Costa Rica y Ecuador (aproximadamente 400 de cada país). Se llevó a cabo la recopilación de datos en centros o áreas comerciales importantes mediante un cuestionario de 33 preguntas. Se presentan los cálculos descriptivos correspondientes a la muestra total y estratificados por países y según las características sociodemográficas de la población estudiada. RESULTADOS: Casi 90% de los participantes asociaron la ingesta excesiva de sal con la aparición de trastornos de salud, más de 60% señalaron que estaban tratando de reducir su ingesta de sal actual, y más de 30% creían que la reducción de la sal alimentaria era de gran importancia. Solo 26% de los participantes manifestaron que conocían la existencia de un valor máximo recomendado de ingesta de sal o sodio, y 47% de estos afirmaron que conocían el contenido de sal de los productos alimenticios. Más de 80% de los participantes dijeron que les gustaría que el etiquetado de los alimentos indicara si los niveles de sal o sodio eran altos, medios o bajos, y desearían que en los paquetes de los alimentos con alto contenido de sal apareciera una etiqueta de advertencia clara. CONCLUSIONES: Se requieren nuevas iniciativas para incrementar los conocimientos de los consumidores acerca de la existencia de un límite máximo de ingesta y mejorar su capacidad para vigilar estrictamente y reducir el consumo de sal. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To describe individual attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding salt intake, its dietary sources, and current food-labeling practices related to salt and sodium in five sentinel countries of the Americas. METHODS: A convenience sample of 1 992 adults (? 18 years old) from Argentina, C [...] anada, Chile, Costa Rica, and Ecuador (approximately 400 from each country) was obtained between September 2010 and February 2011. Data collection was conducted in shopping malls or major commercial areas using a questionnaire containing 33 questions. Descriptive estimates are presented for the total sample and stratified by country and sociodemographic characteristics of the studied population. RESULTS: Almost 90% of participants associated excess intake of salt with the occurrence of adverse health conditions, more than 60% indicated they were trying to reduce their current intake of salt, and more than 30% believed reducing dietary salt to be of high importance. Only 26% of participants claimed to know the existence of a recommended maximum value of salt or sodium intake and 47% of them stated they knew the content of salt in food items. More than 80% of participants said that they would like food labeling to indicate high, medium, and low levels of salt or sodium and would like to see a clear warning label on packages of foods high in salt. CONCLUSIONS: Additional effort is required to increase consumers' knowledge about the existence of a maximum limit for intake and to improve their capacity to accurately monitor and reduce their personal salt consumption.
Rafael Moreira, Claro; Hubert, Linders; Camila Zancheta, Ricardo; Branka, Legetic; Norm R. C., Campbell.
Consumer attitudes, knowledge, and behavior related to salt consumption in sentinel countries of the Americas Actitudes, conocimientos y comportamiento de los consumidores en relación con el consumo de sal en países centinelas de la Región de las Américas
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe individual attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding salt intake, its dietary sources, and current food-labeling practices related to salt and sodium in five sentinel countries of the Americas. METHODS: A convenience sample of 1 992 adults (? 18 years old from Argentina, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, and Ecuador (approximately 400 from each country was obtained between September 2010 and February 2011. Data collection was conducted in shopping malls or major commercial areas using a questionnaire containing 33 questions. Descriptive estimates are presented for the total sample and stratified by country and sociodemographic characteristics of the studied population. RESULTS: Almost 90% of participants associated excess intake of salt with the occurrence of adverse health conditions, more than 60% indicated they were trying to reduce their current intake of salt, and more than 30% believed reducing dietary salt to be of high importance. Only 26% of participants claimed to know the existence of a recommended maximum value of salt or sodium intake and 47% of them stated they knew the content of salt in food items. More than 80% of participants said that they would like food labeling to indicate high, medium, and low levels of salt or sodium and would like to see a clear warning label on packages of foods high in salt. CONCLUSIONS: Additional effort is required to increase consumers' knowledge about the existence of a maximum limit for intake and to improve their capacity to accurately monitor and reduce their personal salt consumption.OBJETIVO: Describir las actitudes, los conocimientos y el comportamiento individuales con respecto al consumo de sal, sus fuentes alimentarias, y las prácticas actuales de etiquetado de alimentos en relación con su contenido en sal y sodio en cinco países centinelas de la Región de las Américas. MÉTODOS: De septiembre del 2010 a febrero del 2011, se obtuvo una muestra de conveniencia de 1 992 adultos (de 18 años de edad o mayores de Argentina, Canadá, Chile, Costa Rica y Ecuador (aproximadamente 400 de cada país. Se llevó a cabo la recopilación de datos en centros o áreas comerciales importantes mediante un cuestionario de 33 preguntas. Se presentan los cálculos descriptivos correspondientes a la muestra total y estratificados por países y según las características sociodemográficas de la población estudiada. RESULTADOS: Casi 90% de los participantes asociaron la ingesta excesiva de sal con la aparición de trastornos de salud, más de 60% señalaron que estaban tratando de reducir su ingesta de sal actual, y más de 30% creían que la reducción de la sal alimentaria era de gran importancia. Solo 26% de los participantes manifestaron que conocían la existencia de un valor máximo recomendado de ingesta de sal o sodio, y 47% de estos afirmaron que conocían el contenido de sal de los productos alimenticios. Más de 80% de los participantes dijeron que les gustaría que el etiquetado de los alimentos indicara si los niveles de sal o sodio eran altos, medios o bajos, y desearían que en los paquetes de los alimentos con alto contenido de sal apareciera una etiqueta de advertencia clara. CONCLUSIONES: Se requieren nuevas iniciativas para incrementar los conocimientos de los consumidores acerca de la existencia de un límite máximo de ingesta y mejorar su capacidad para vigilar estrictamente y reducir el consumo de sal.
Rafael Moreira Claro
Full Text Available This study reports an investigation about knowledge and attitude of urban pregnant women on nutrition and delivery place and an attempt has also been made to identify factors that are closely related to these behaviors based on primary data. The analysis shows that educational status of pregnant women, their occupation, their husband`s occupation, monthly family income have significant influence on knowledge and attitude of pregnant women toward nutrition and health care practice. The result also shows that opinion about place of delivery depends on educational status and occupation of pregnant women and monthly family income.
We surveyed varsity athletes at a Big East university to assess attitudes toward a mandatory drug education and testing program and examined whether there were differences in drug-related attitudes and behaviors based on gender or varsity sport. We found no statistically significant differences in personal drug use behaviors based on gender or team affiliation. Attitudes about drug use and knowledge of a teammate using drugs did show significant differences based on varsity sport. Tennis players were most likely to agree that drug use by college athletes is socially acceptable. Lacrosse players were most likely to know of atleast one teammate using drugs. Overall, attitudes towards the mandatory drug education and testing program were ambivalent. About half of our responding athletes believed drug testing was necessary and discouraged drug use. Only 17% believed that the program was an invasion of privacy. PMID:16558222
Schneider, D; Morris, J
Previous studies have pointed out the importance of empathy in improving attitudes toward stigmatized groups and toward the environment. In the present article, it is argued that environmental behaviors and attitudes can be improved using empathic perspective-taking for inducing empathy. Based on Batson's Model of Altruism, it was predicted that…
The authors assessed the influences of several risk factors--self-esteem, history of unwanted sexual contact (USC), depression, and sorority membership--on eating-related and weight-related attitudes and behaviors. Findings provide support for the roles of self-esteem, depression, and USC on restricting attitudes. According to the authors' model,…
Veazey Morris, Katherine D.; Parra, Gilbert R.; Stender, Sarah R. S.
Responds to Krull's conclusions (1994) that higher educational attainment is indirectly related to sexual promiscuity through more liberal attitudes toward premarital sex. Criticizes Krull's omission of certain variables, recoding of variables, and assumption of a one-way causal relationship between sexual attitudes and behaviors. Reanalysis with…
Hager, Mark A.
The Long-Term Impact of High School Civics Curricula on Political Knowledge, Democratic Attitudes and Civic Behaviors: A Multi-Level Model of Direct and Mediated Effects through Communication. CIRCLE Working Paper #65
This report examines the effects of exposure to various elements of a civics curriculum on civic participation, two forms of political knowledge, internal political efficacy, political cynicism, news elaboration, discussion elaboration and various forms of interpersonal and mediated political communication behaviors. The data are based on a…
Hutchens, Myiah J.; Eveland, William P., Jr.
Full Text Available Organic farming is gaining popularity all over the world as it can diversify agricultural production system toward attaining improved productivity, farm income as well as food safety. The rise of organic farming was driven partly by consumers' concern with food quality and safety, as well as the protection of the environment. Organic Farming produces safe and nutritious food as it helps prevent soil pollution by stopping risky chemical reactions in the soil and avoiding produce contamination, as well as soil erosion, by wind and rain. One of the important parties that can enable the country to produce more organic products through organic farming is the growers or farmers. The final decision of farmers to use a new practice like organic farming system is usually the result of their knowledge of the practices as well as their perception. Therefore, the main purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate the knowledge, perception or attitude, and practices of vegetable growers towards organic farming. A survey method through face-to-face interview by using structured questionnaire was used to collect data from a total of 31 vegetable growers in Kundasang, Sabah which was selected by using simple random sampling method. The findings of the study show that the knowledge of the respondents on organic farming especially pertaining to the use of chemical insecticides, herbicides and fertilizers is still need to be improved, their attitude is also still negative, and they are still dependent on conventional practices (i.e. chemical especially to control pests and diseases.
Full Text Available Background and Design: This study evaluates the patients’ knowledge, opinions and attitudes about psoriasis.Materials and Methods: A total of 111 patients over the age of 18, clinically and histopathologically diagnosed with chronic plaque-type psoriasis were included in the study. Patients who have psychiatric illness and inadequate intelligence were excluded. A questionnaire including items on knowledge, opinions and attitudes on psoriasis were filled out by the patients and the results were analyzed statistically.Results: One hundred-eleven (45 female, 66 male patients were included in our study. 6.3% of patients did not know the diagnosis of their disease. 68.5% of patients thought that psoriasis was a contagious disease while18% thought that psoriasis was a hereditary condition. 88.3% of patients declined that they were informed about the disease by the doctor. 62.2% of patients believed that they had adequate information about psoriasis. 51.4% of patients believed that doctors gave them enough information about psoriasis. 44.1% of patients knew that psoriasis was aggravated by stress while 38.7% did not know any of the aggravating factors of psoriasis. 70.3% of patients believed that psoriasis would spread if not treated. Patients mostly (98.2% had idea about topical treatment options. 82% of patients were afraid of having psoriasis on their face. 5.4% of patients were uncomfortable with the idea of their partners’ having psoriasis. 72.1%, 88.3%, 72.1% of patients reported no negative effect of psoriasis on their relations with friends, family members, work or school life, respectivelyDiscussion: Our results showed that psoriasis patients do not have adequate knowledge about the disease. We think that dermatologists should pay more attention to inform and raise awareness of patie
An autonomic system is considered to be a self-adaptive system that changes its behavior in response to stimuli from its execution and operational environment. Such behavior is considered autonomic and self-adaptive and is intended to drive intelligent systems in situations requiring adaptation. Such systems encapsulate rules, constraints and mechanisms for self-adaptation and acquire and process knowledge about themselves and their environment. In this paper, an approach to knowledge represe...
Vassev, Emil; Hinchey, Mike; Gaudin, Benoit
Dementia is a prevalent syndrome in ageing societies and therefore of significant medical and social importance for the general population. We have studied knowledge and attitudes towards Alzheimer's dementia (AD) of 1245 epidemiologically representative individuals between 14 and 99 years. Only 13% mentioned memory disturbances, e.g. forgetfulness, as hallmarks of AD; 54% knew that age was a major risk factor; 47% felt that "brain-jogging" was therapeutically useful. In case of developing AD, more than 70% wished to be informed together with a close relative or friend; 7% felt that nobody else should know about their problem; and many more than 50% expected information on treatment, course, symptoms and causes. These results demonstrate, that there is a remarkable lack of relevant information on AD in the general population, and that most individuals wished to be informed about a potential diagnosis of AD together with their family and friends. PMID:18381055
Schwalen, Susanne; Förstl, Hans
Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Abdullah A Alabdrabalnabi,2 Rehab B Albacker,3 Umar A Al-Jughaiman,4 Samar N Hassan5 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2University of Dammam, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Faisal University, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1 to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2 to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF clinic. Methods and materials: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ? 0.05. Results: A generally poor level of knowledge (59% and a neutral attitude (76% toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%, black magic (67.5%, intrauterine devices (71.3%, and contraceptive pills (42.9%. The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility treatment by 6.7% and 44.2% of IVF patients, respectively. Compared with fertile patients, IVF patients were significantly less likely to favor divorce (38.5% versus 57.6%; P = 0.001 or marriage to a second wife (62.5% versus 86.2%; P < 0.001, if the woman could not have a baby. The patients with infertility had more favorable attitudes toward fertility drugs (87.5% versus 68.4%; P = 0.003 and having a test tube baby (92.4% versus 70.3%; P < 0.001. Child adoption was accepted as an option for treatment by the majority of IVF patients (60.6% and fertile outpatients (71.5%. Alternative treatments previously practiced by the IVF patients to improve fertility include practicing Ruqia (61%, using alternative medicine (42%, engaging in physical exercise (39%, eating certain foods (22%, and quitting smoking (12%. Conclusion: These findings have implications for health care providers regarding the reluctance that couples experiencing fertility problems may have, at least initially, to accept some interventions required for the couple to conceive. Keywords: infertility, knowledge, attitude, practice, KAP, misconceptions
Full Text Available Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers’ littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers’ knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000 were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05. The majority (74.1% of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7% reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66 and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32. Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94. Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of improperly.
Julia C. Cartwright
Reports a study that examined the current HIV and AIDS knowledge and attitudes of 63 preclinical medical students. Survey data indicated that a significant portion of the subjects had poor knowledge and had attitudes that might have an adverse impact on their care of AIDS patients. (SM)
McDaniel, J. Stephen; And Others
This study examines inservice elementary school teachers' beliefs, attitudes, and practical knowledge toward inquiry-based science instruction and the influence of an inquiry-based elementary science course on teachers' beliefs, attitudes, and practical knowledge regarding inquiry. Both surveys and a case study were administered to the 14…
Choi, Sanghee; Ramsey, John
Examined the relationships between athletes' (N=291) knowledge about the long-term effects of anabolic steroids and their attitudes toward this type of drug. Results show low correlation between greater knowledge and attitudes about the use of steroids in sports, suggesting that drug education programs regarding steroids may have limited value.…
Anshel, Mark H.; Russell, Kenneth G.
The Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Test was designed to measure the attitudes and knowledge of retarded individuals in fourteen areas: (1) anatomy/terminology; (2) dating; (3) marriage; (4) intimacy; (5) intercourse; (6) pregnancy, childbirth and childrearing; (8) masturbation; (9) homosexuality; (10) alcohol and drugs; (11) community risks…
Edmonson, Barbara; And Others
Outdoor educational programmes are generally believed to be a suitable alternative to conventional biology settings that improve participants' environmental attitudes and knowledge. Here we examine whether outdoor educational programmes focused solely on practical work with plants influence participants' knowledge of and attitudes towards plants.…
Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol
To assess their knowledge, use, and attitudes regarding peer-to-peer (P2P) applications, this study surveyed academic librarians (n = 162) via a mail-in survey. Correlations between the sample characteristics (age, gender, year of MLS, type of library job) and P2P knowledge, use, and attitudes were also explored. Overall, academic librarians…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer for both sexes in developed countries. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices regarding CRC of adults in Italy. Methods A random sample of 1165 adults received a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics; knowledge regarding definition, risk factors, and screening; attitudes regarding perceived risk of contracting CRC and utility of screening tests; health-related behaviors and health care use; source of information. Results Only 18.5% knew the two main modifiable risk factors (low physical activity, high caloric intake from fat and this knowledge was significantly associated with higher educational level, performing physical activity, modification of dietary habits and physical activity for fear of contracting CRC, and lower risk perception of contracting CRC. Half of respondents identified fecal occult blood testing (FOBT as main test for CRC prevention and were more knowledgeable those unmarried, more educated, who knew the main risk factors of CRC, and have received advice by physician of performing FOBT. Personal opinion that screening is useful for CRC prevention was high with a mean score of 8.3 and it was predicted by respondents' lower education, beliefs that CRC can be prevented, higher personal perceived risk of contracting CRC, and information received by physician about CRC. An appropriate behavior of performing FOBT if eligible or not performing if not eligible was significantly higher in female, younger, more educated, in those who have been recommended by physician for undergo or not undergo FOBT, and who have not personal history of precancerous lesions and familial history of precancerous lesions or CRC. Conclusion Linkages between health care and educational systems are needed to improve the levels of knowledge and to raise CRC screening adherence.
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to assess the attitudes and behaviors of practicing community pharmacists towards patient counselling and use of patient information leaflets in the state of Karnataka. Convenient sampling method was adopted to collect the responses with the help of self-completion questionnaires. A total of 258 practicing community pharmacists in the age group of 22-60 y of both gender with practicing experience of 2-30 y participated in the study. Majority of respondents (80% agreed that, patient counselling is their professional obligation. About 17% of the respondents mentioned that, they try to give basic information regarding drug usage to the patient. The reasons stated by the pharmacists to provide patient counselling were, professional satisfaction (43%, patients go with satisfaction (32%, observed increase in sales (8%, and also improved patient compliance (7.5%. The major barriers for offering patient counselling were mentioned as pharmacists? inadequate knowledge and confidence (78%, doctor dispensing (72%, no professional fee (56%, poor response from patients (82%, inadequate continuous professional development programs (75%. Many respondents agreed that, patient information leaflets certainly help in counselling but available information leaflets are company generated and prescriber focused. Many respondents found the present continuing professional development module was useful and are interested in weekend workshops to update their professional knowledge (83%. Restrictions on doctor dispensing, legalization of patient counselling, regular continuing professional development programs are the factors observed to motivate the pharmacists to offer patient counselling.
Background The incidence of prostate cancer in Uganda is one of the highest recorded in Africa. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in Uganda. Objective This study assessed the current knowledge, attitudes and practices of adult Ugandan men regarding prostate cancer. Subjects and Methods We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study using interviewer administered questionnaires and focus group discussions among 545 adult men aged 18–71 years, residing in Kampala, the capital of Uganda. Quantitative data were analyzed with SPSS version 20. Qualitative data were collected using audio recorded focus group discussions, transcribed and analyzed by clustering into themes. Results The majority of the respondents (324, 59.4%) were aged 18–28 years, 295 (54.1%) had heard about prostate cancer and 250 (45.9%) had never heard about it. The commonest source of information about prostate cancer was the mass media. Only 12.5% of the respondents obtained information about prostate cancer from a health worker, 37.4% did not know the age group that prostate cancer affects and 50.2% could not identify any risk factor for prostate cancer. Participants in the focus group discussions confused prostate cancer with gonorrhea and had various misconceptions about the causes of prostate cancer. Only 10.3% of the respondents had good knowledge of the symptoms of prostate cancer and only 9% knew about serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing. Although 63.5% thought they were susceptible to prostate cancer, only 22.9% considered getting and only 3.5% had ever undergone a serum PSA test. Conclusion There was generally poor knowledge and several misconceptions regarding prostate cancer and screening in the study population. Community based health education programs about prostate cancer are greatly needed for this population.
Nakandi, H.; Kirabo, M.; Semugabo, C.; Kittengo, A.; Kitayimbwa, P.; Kalungi, S.; Maena, J.
OBJECTIVES: To describe oral health behaviour, illness behaviour, oral health knowledge and attitudes among 35-44 and 65-74-year-old Chinese; to analyse the oral health behaviour profile of the two age groups in relation to province and urbanisation, and to assess the relative effect of socio-behavioural risk factors on dental caries experience. METHODS: A total number of 4,398 35-44-year-olds and 4,399 65-74-year-olds were selected by multistage stratified cluster random sampling which involved 11 provinces in China. Data were collected by self-administered structured questionnaires and clinical examinations (WHO criteria). RESULTS: 32% of the 35-44-year-olds and 23% of the 65-74-year-olds brushed at least twice a day but only 5% used fluoridated toothpaste; 30% and 17% respectively performed 'Love-Teeth-Day' recommended methods of tooth brushing. A dental visit within the previous 12 months was reported by 25% of all participants and 6% had a dental check-up during the past two years. Nearly 15% of the subjects would visit a dentist if they experienced bleeding from gums; about 60% of the subjects paid no attention to signs of caries if there was no pain. Two thirds of the urban residents and one fifth of the rural participants had economic support for their dental treatment from a third party, either totally or partially. Significant variations in oral health practices were found according to urbanisation and province. At age 35-44 years 43% of participants had daily consumption of sweets against 28% at age 65-74 years. Dental caries experience was affected by urbanisation, gender, frequency, time spent on and method of tooth brushing. Knowledge of causes and prevention of dental diseases was low with somewhat negative attitudes to prevention observed. CONCLUSION: Systematic community-based oral health promotion should be strengthened and preventive-oriented oral health care systems are needed, including promotion of further self-care practices and the use of fluoridated toothpaste.
Zhu, Ling; Petersen, Poul Erik
Full Text Available Background & Aim: Knowledge of nursing is necessary for caring people suffering from pain. Regarding pain management and nursing role in order to put into practice exact pain management and availing comfort, possessing knowledge and positive attitude toward nursing care in this population have an important role. Methods & Materials: This descriptive (cross- sectional study determines cancer nurses knowledge and attitudes regarding pain management in hospitalized patients in related wards in Tehran University of medical sciences. Total of 113 nurses (from 132 questionnaires were sent, 113 of them were completed who work in cancer wards in Tehran University of medical science hospitals were selected by convenience sampling (accidental sampling. For data gathering, questionnaires were used. Statistical analysis was performed using ?2 test, t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient. To compare results and for describing the results, descriptive analysis were used. Results: Results indicates that knowledge and attitude of samples is in a high school (level of knowledge 76% and level of attitude 86.6%. The correlation between knowledge and attitudes is (R=0.350, (p=0.000 that means there is a direct relation between nurses knowledge and attitudes and by increasing one of them? the other will increase. Conclusion: Some of features like level of education, taking part in continuing education, working in chemotherapy and radiotherapy ward, operating room and facing to cancer patients, influence on nurses knowledge and attitudes.
Data from a 1974 representative survey of the white American adult population indicate most white Americans (75 percent) disapprove of homosexual relations. Persons who tend to hold more favorable attitudes toward homosexual relations are those under 30 years of age, those living in larger urban centers, and those with college experience. (Author)
Nyberg, Kenneth L.; Alston, Jon P.
Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed at determining the knowledge attitude and nutritional practice of female middle school students in district 4 of Isfahan. Methods: This deh1ive study was performed on 120 female students. The data were collected through a three-part self-reported questionnaire (Demographic factors knowledge BASNEF Model. To investigate the nutritional performance the participants were interviewed to recall their previous 24-hour nutrition for three days. Results: The results indicated that 37.5% of students had poor nutritional knowledge and 90% of the students had a poor nutritional practice. The results of the BASNEF part indicated that mean of belief and evaluation of behavioral outcomes was 74.6 attitude toward the behavior was 64.64 normative belief was 72.8 subjective norms was 58.9 enabling factors was 54.2 and behavioral intention was 68.9. Conclusion: A low percentage of students had good nutritional practices and in majority of cases their nutritional practice does not accord with their nutritional knowledge and attitude. These results indicate the necessity of nutritional intervention in female students.
In the United Kingdom over 90% of women do not breastfeed for as long as they would like, despite widespread knowledge of the benefits of breastfeeding. Negative attitudes and low levels of knowledge in staff supporting breastfeeding may be a contributing factor. This paper reports on the breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes in two key workforce groups; student midwives (n = 19) and Breastfeeding Network peer supporters (n = 36) and compares them with breastfeeding women (n = 23). All three groups had high knowledge and attitude scores, but peer supporters had significantly higher levels than student midwives or breastfeeding women. Student midwives' knowledge of breastfeeding was higher than breastfeeding women's but they had similar breastfeeding attitude scores. The higher knowledge and attitude scores in peer supporters may be attributed to the effectiveness of their training, which includes challenging their existing breastfeeding attitudes and debriefing their personal breastfeeding experience. It is suggested that midwives' breastfeeding attitudes are affected by their community culture and their personal experience of breastfeeding. It is proposed that midwifery training should continue to embrace a biopsychosocial model, including training to improve breastfeeding attitudes, particularly for professionals from areas where breastfeeding is not the cultural norm, or who have had negative personal breastfeeding experiences. PMID:24594280
Darwent, Kirsty L; Kempenaar, Larissa E
University students from five classes were randomly assigned to seeing either a movie on AIDS or a movie on first aid. Six weeks later, both groups of students filled out a questionnaire measuring their knowledge of AIDS, attitudes toward AIDS, and attitudes toward homosexuals. In general, the differences between the two groups on the knowledge and attitudes measures were slight. In particular, there was little effect on social attitudes. The showing of one educational movie on AIDS (particularly the movie that was used in this experiment) appears to be insufficient to educate students on this issue. PMID:2723257
Gilliam, A; Seltzer, R
With the rising incidence of HIV/AIDS in China, nurses will increasingly be caring for patients with HIV/AIDS. Thus, it is necessary that they have enough knowledge to reduce the risk of occupationally acquired HIV infection and that they change their attitude to care for HIV/AIDS patients. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between student nurses' HIV/AIDS knowledge and their attitude using a structural equation model (SEM). A cross-sectional survey was conducted in January 2008 among 528 student nurses at the technical secondary school of the China Medical University. An SEM is proposed to determine the direction and magnitude of the interdependent effects between the latent factors. The SEM was built using LISREL version 8.5. The measurement properties of the latent factors underlying the questionnaire were based on a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Our results as following, HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitude may be measured by seven underlying constructs, namely, preventive knowledge, knowledge of transmission routes, specialty knowledge, knowledge of nontransmission routes, positive attitude toward HIV/AIDS, negative attitude toward HIV/AIDS, and occupational attitude. The SEM fits the data well. The interdependent relationships between these constructs identified the factors of preventive knowledge, specialty knowledge, and attitude toward HIV/AIDS as having both direct and indirect effects on occupational attitude. In conclusions, our results represent an initial effort to assess the relationship between student nurses' HIV/AIDS knowledge and their attitude toward the disease. CFA and SEM analysis have demonstrated their usefulness in evaluating multifactor complex constructs. PMID:20113151
Qu, Bo; Zhang, Yang; Guo, Haiqiang; Sun, Gao
To determine the level of knowledge and to assess attitudes and lifestyles in patients with unstable angina. A descriptive study was conducted among CCU patients in Mashad hospitals. 180 subjects were chosen by sequential admission. They filled an 82-item questionnaire covering demographic variables (4 items) - knowledge (5 items) –attitude (56 items) – lifestyle (17 items). Findings indicate that the global level of knowledge is sufficient on issues such as cardiac risk factors, current ...
Assasi, N.; Hosseini, M.; Shojaizadeh, D.; Shidfar, M. R.; Majlesi, F.
Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been realized as a primary cause of death in women for almost a century. However, the relationship between women’s knowledge, their wish and action on practicing heart healthy lifestyle is still vague. Aim and Objectives: This research aimed to determine the association between knowledge and attitude, knowledge and practice and attitude and practice on cardiovascular disease among women in Kelantan. Methods/ Study Design: A cross sectional stud...
Ranimah Yahya; Rosediani Muhamad; Harmy Mohamed Yusoff
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to establish the knowledge and attitude of family physcians offering primary health care, towards adult vaccination and their own vaccination coverage. Methods: This descriptive study was performed in May 2009 in Kayseri, Turkey. 282 family physician accepted to fill a questionnaire about adult vaccination. Results: Most of the family physcians (83.0% thought adult vaccination as a modality of protection and 66.7% wanted a vaccination scheme just like the one in childhood. Their own vaccination rate for Hepatitis B was 67.0% and 58.5% for influenza at any time. Only half of the physcians were vaccinated within the season for influenza. Only 9.2% of the doctors have stated that they ask questions to their patients about their vaccination status. When physcians were questioned about the vaccines they advise to their patients aged 65 and more; 70.6% stated influenza and 39.7% stated pneumococcus. Conclusion: In spite of being in the risk group, family physicians have low vaccination coverage rates. Suggestion of the necessary vaccines to the risk groups or to their patients at risk is low as well.
Full Text Available In 1998 the World Health Organization declared childhood obesity as a “global epidemic.” It has also been observed that the health problems of adult obesity can be prevented, if obesity is controlled in childhood. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge and attitude regarding prevention of obesity and Correlate the knowledge and attitude regarding prevention of obesity among adolescents in a selected pre-university college. A pre-experimental one group pre-test post-test design was adopted. Convenience sampling technique used for selecting the adolescents. A structured knowledge questionnaire on prevention of obesity and a five-point Likert scale to assess the attitude regarding prevention of obesity were developed as the tools for data collection. The data obtained were analyzed based on the objectives and hypotheses, using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result showed that the mean post-test knowledge and attitude score of adolescents on prevention of obesity was higher than the mean pretest knowledge and attitude score. There was no correlation between knowledge and the attitude. The present study concludes that the teaching programme improved the knowledge and attitude of adolescents regarding prevention of obesity.
Prashanth K and Umarani J
Full Text Available Background. Several studies have shown that Alaska Native people have higher smoking prevalence than non-Natives. However, no population-based studies have explored whether smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours also differ among Alaska Native people and non-Natives. Objective. We compared current smoking prevalence and smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of Alaska Native adults living in the state of Alaska with non-Natives. Methods. We used Alaska Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for 1996 to 2010 to compare smoking prevalence, consumption, and cessation- and second-hand smoke-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours among self-identified Alaska Native people and non-Natives. Results. Current smoking prevalence was 41% (95% CI: 37.9%–44.4% among Alaska Native people compared with 17.1% (95% CI: 15.9%–18.4% among non-Natives. Among current every day smokers, Alaska Natives were much more likely to smoke less than 10 cigarettes per day (OR=5.0, 95% CI: 2.6–9.6 than non-Natives. Compared with non-Native smokers, Alaska Native smokers were as likely to have made a past year quit attempt (OR=1.4, 95% CI: 0.9–2.1, but the attempt was less likely to be successful (OR=0.5, 95% CI: 0.2–0.9. Among current smokers, Alaska Natives were more likely to believe second-hand smoke (SHS was very harmful (OR=4.5, 95% CI: 2.8–7.2, to believe that smoking should not be allowed in indoor work areas (OR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.1–3.1 or in restaurants (OR=4.2, 95% CI: 2.5–6.9, to have a home smoking ban (OR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.6–3.9, and to have no home exposure to SHS in the past 30 days (OR=2.3, 95% CI: 1.5–3.6 than non-Natives. Conclusion. Although a disparity in current smoking exists, Alaska Native people have smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours that are encouraging for reducing the burden of smoking in this population. Programs should support efforts to promote cessation, prevent relapse, and establish smoke-free environments.
Full Text Available Background and Aims : Dentists have usually a critical role in diagnosing oral cancer lesions in their early stages. In this study we aimed to assess the senior dental student’ and dentists’ knowledge, attitude and behaviors regarding oral cancer in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: A valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire was designed to assess the current practice, knowledge and attitude of general dentists working in Isfahan-Iran and senior dental students regarding oral cancer lesions. The questionnaire was consisted of questions to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding diagnosis, risk factors and prognosis of oropharyngeal cancerous lesions. The frequencies of answers to questions in sections of practice and attitude (just for dentists and sum score of questions in knowledge section were calculated and compared using statistical analysis regarding age, sex, duration of experience and practice setting p ublic/private of participants. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, chi-square, linear regression and logistic regression. Results: 139 questionnaires from dentists and 57 questionnaires from students were returned. The mean score of dentists’ knowledge was 5.41 out of 13 (CI95%=5.03-7.79 . Significant differences were observed among dentists regarding their experience (P=0.001. Only one fifth of the dentists in our survey reported to perform oral cancer examination for all of their patients in age of 40 and above and just about 34% of dentists gained acceptable level of knowledge. Among senior dental students, the status of knowledge was better as about 58% of them gained the level of acceptance (P=0.01. Conclusion: Although dentists were willing to follow the diagnostic protocol for oral cancer, they were mostly unsatisfied with the level of their knowledge. Therefore, this study highlights the need for educational planning and training activities in general dentists with regard to the risk factors and early detection of oral cancers.
Sayed Mohamad Razavi
Background. Engagement in physical exercise in pregnancy is hamstrung by safety concerns, skepticism about usefulness, and limited individualized prescription guidelines. This study assessed knowledge and attitude of pregnant women towards antenatal exercises (ANEx). Methods. The cross-sectional study recruited 189 pregnant women from six selected antenatal clinics in Ile-Ife, South-West, Nigeria. Data were obtained on maternal characteristics, knowledge, and attitude towards ANEx. Results. Relaxation and breathing (59.8%), back care (51.3%), and muscle strengthening (51.3%) exercises were the most commonly known ANEx. Prevention of back pain risk (75.9%) and excess weight gain (69.1%) were perceived as benefits, while lower extremities swelling (31.8%) and extreme weight gain or loss (30.7%) were considered as contraindications to ANEx. 15.8% of the respondents had negative attitude towards ANEx resulting from insufficient information on exercise (83.3%) and tiredness (70.0%). Age significantly influences knowledge about contraindications to ANEx (P = 0.001), while attitude was influenced by age and occupation, respectively (P attitude and knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx (P knowledge but had positive attitude towards ANEx. Knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx significantly influenced the attitude towards exercise in pregnancy. PMID:25006478
Mbada, Chidozie E; Adebayo, Olubukayomi E; Adeyemi, Adebanjo B; Arije, Olujide O; Dada, Olumide O; Akinwande, Olabisi A; Awotidebe, Taofeek O; Alonge, Ibidun A
Relationships between measures of household energy use behavior and household characteristics are estimated using a unique dataset of approximately 5000 households in 10 EU countries and Norway. Family age-composition patterns are found to have a distinct impact on household energy use behavior. Households with young children are more likely to adopt energy-efficient technologies and energy conservation practices and place primary importance on energy savings for environmental reasons. By contrast, households with a high share of elderly members place more importance on financial savings, and have lower levels of technology adoption, energy conservation practice use, and knowledge about household energy use. Education levels also matter, with higher levels associated with energy-efficient technology adoption and energy conservation practice use. Similarly, university education increases the stated importance of energy savings for greenhouse gas reductions and decreases the stated importance for financial reasons. Education impacts also vary greatly across survey countries and there is some evidence of an Eastern–Western European divide with respect to attitudes towards energy savings. These cross-country differences highlight the need to balance a common EU energy-efficiency policy framework with flexibility for country specific policies to address unique constraints to energy-efficient technology and conservation practice adoption. - Highlights: ? Household energption. - Highlights: ? Household energy use behavior is explored with data from 11 European countries. ? Household age structure and education influence household energy use behavior and attitudes. ? Significant country differences in household energy use behavior exist. ? The EU needs to balance a common energy-efficiency policy framework with country specific policies.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Self-medication is the selection and use of medicines by individuals to treat selfrecognised illnesses or symptoms and an important initial response to illnesses if successfully used. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of self medication among Medical Sciences Faculty students of Jimma University.METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in Medical sciences Faculty students in 2009.The faculty and the three schools were selected by lottery method .Then, within the faculty respective number of students for each School was determined by proportion from the total sample size. Data was collected randomly from each School using self administered questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0RESULTS: From a total of 403 (100% participants,95 (45.89% students practiced self medication in the past two months for commonly perceived illnesses such as headache 35 (36.85%, abdominal pain 29 (30.55% and cough 33 (23.16% using mainly analgesics 40(49.38% and antibiotics 29 (35.80% mostly from drug retail outlets 88(92.63. Fifty seven (60.00% respondents can recall the dose, frequency and duration of the medicine while 38 (40% did not know. Sixty five (68.42% students agreed to practice self medication irrespective of the seriousness of illnesses.CONCLUSION: Self mediation was widely practiced for minor symptoms with both OTC and prescription only drugs. Most of respondents use self medication irrespective of the seriousness of the illnesses. Lack of proper information and the ease of access from drug outlets were the most important problems.
Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo et al.
A majority of inmates in the state of Connecticut Department of Corrections use opioids or are opioid dependent before incarceration. None of the state's prisons offer opioid substitution therapy other than for detoxification or maintenance therapy for women during pregnancy. On release to the community, most prisoners relapse to drug use and this has been associated with higher recidivism rates, and less adherence to antiretroviral medications for HIV-infected persons. Nationally and internationally, methadone (METH) and buprenorphine (BUP) have been found to decrease relapse to drug use, decrease recidivism rates, improve adherence to antiretroviral medications, decrease HIV-risk taking behaviors, and improve mortality. However, the general knowledge about opioid substitution therapy among correctionalfacility staff has been reported as substandard. This pilot study compiled results of answers to anonymous surveys from 27 individuals who work directly with inmates in a patient-care capacity for the Connecticut Department of Corrections (CT DOC) and CT DOC case-management referral program (Project TLC) in the year 2006. The surveys included questions regarding current attitudes and knowledge about opioid substitution therapy for prisoners. A minority of respondents refer released prisoners with a history of opioid dependency to METH or BUP treatment. The majority of correctional workers and case-management referral workers did not have knowledge about BUP or METH's ability to improve health and decrease HIV risk taking behaviors. This study found that more education of individuals treating and caring for HIV-infected opioid dependent prisoners is needed. PMID:18557164
Springer, Sandra A; Bruce, Robert D
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of Turkish dentists in Samsun City regarding cross-infection control. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire was designed to obtain information about procedures used for the prevention of cross-infection [...] in dental practices and determine the attitudes and perceptions of respondent dental practitioners to their procedures. The study population included all dentists in the city of Samsun, Turkey, in April 2005 (n=184). The questionnaire collected data on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge and practice of infection control procedures, sterilization, wearing of gloves, mask, use of rubber dam, method of storing instruments and disposal methods of contaminated material, etc. Questionnaire data was entered into a computer and analyzed by SPSS statistical software. RESULTS: From the 184 dentists to whom the questionnaires were submitted, 135 participated in the study (overall response rate of 73.36%). As much as 74.10% dentists expressed concern about the risk of cross-infection from patients to themselves and their dental assistants. Forty-three percent of the participants were able to define "cross-infection" correctly. The greatest majority of the respondents (95.60%) stated that all patients have to be considered as infectious and universal precautions must apply to all of them. The overall responses to the questionnaire showed that the dentists had moderate knowledge of infection control procedures. CONCLUSIONS: Improved compliance with recommended infection control procedures is required for all dentists evaluated in the present survey. Continuing education programs and short-time courses about cross-infection and infection control procedures are suitable to improve the knowledge of dentists.
Emir, Yüzbasioglu; Duygu, Saraç; Sevgi, Canbaz; Y. Sinasi, Saraç; Seda, Cengiz.
Assessed students' (N=198) knowledge of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) specific facts, their attitudes toward people with AIDS, and their general attitudes toward homosexual men and lesbian women. Found most subjects accurately informed on the subject of AIDS. Most held neither negative views toward homosexuality nor punitive views…
Grieger, Ingrid; Ponterotto, Joseph G.
Full Text Available Background: Community Psychiatry involves support and treatment of people with mental disorder in a domiciliary setting instead of mental hospital. The attitude of the public towards mental illness and mentally ill person is generally negative. Knowledge and attitude of nurses towards this topic is important because they deal directly patients, families and the community as negative attitude will hinder quality service. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitude of Registered Nurses (RNs towards Community Psychiatric services. Methods: A descriptive survey design was used for this study. A systematic random sampling method was used to select one hundred and fifty respondents. The research instrument for this study was self- developed structured questionnaire design in line with the variables to be measured. Descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages, independent t–test and Pearson Moment Correlation Coefficient analysis were used to analyze all data. Results: The study revealed that RNs with positive attitude have a higher mean value than Registered Nurses with negative attitude towards Community Psychiatric services. There is also a significant relationship between the knowledge and attitude of RNs and their participation in community psychiatric services. Conclusion: RNs disseminate information and care for mentally ill people and their relations, signifying a need for a positive knowledge and attitude that will enable the RNs to enter a personal relationship with the patient which is necessary for rehabilitation.
The relationship of knowledge, attitudes, and prevalence of steroid use among college athletes and nonathletes was investigated. Results indicated that the more individuals knew about steroids, the more favorable was their attitude toward use. Powerlifters and bodybuilders were found most likely to use steroids. (JD)
Chng, Chwee Lye; Moore, Alan
Full Text Available AZIZI, M.; RAHMANI-NIA, F.; MALAEE, M.; MALAEE, M.; KHOSRAVI, N. A study of Nutritional knowledge and attitudes of elite College Athletes in Iran. Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity, v. 4, n. 2, p. 105-112, 2010. This study designed for understanding the nutrition knowledge and attitude of elite college athletes in Iran. A researcher-built questionnaire which was developed to measure subject’s nutrition knowledge and attitude,distributed to 297 female (age 21.8 ±1.8 years and 298 males (age 22.8 ± 1.9 years randomly. The questionnaire contained 15 nutrition knowledge questions and 15 nutrition attitude questions. The collected data was analyzed by t-test, one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient (p<0.05. The mean nutrition knowledge and attitude score for male and females was 52.36±6.2; 50.61±5 and 54.3±6.3; 52.03±5.8 respectively. Nutrition knowledge and attitude score in P.E. females was significantly higher than other major (p<0.05, while the difference between P.E. males and other major was not significant. There was a significant positive correlation between nutrition knowledge and attitude among males (r= 0.424, p ? 0.01 and female (r= 0.422, p ? 0.01 elite athletes. Based on the result of our study the knowledge of Iranian college athletes is moderate, and these suggest that nutrition knowledge and attitudes of Iranian college athletes need to improve.
This study of sexual attitudes and behaviors of students in a large northeastern community college was undertaken in partial response to an outspoken community group's claims that the sexuality education courses being taught at the school were undermining the morality of its young adults and encouraging early sexual activity. Findings from 1,825 pretest respondents in human sexuality and general health courses indicated that more than 80% of the students had experienced sexual intercourse before they took the courses. In a posttest comparison with 1,456 of the same students, the authors found no significant changes in the number of students who were sexually active or in their attitudes about such issues as abortion and premarital, casual, or oral sex. Statistically significant changes did occur in human sexuality students' attitudes and behaviors about safer sex, having fewer sex partners, and using condoms and spermicides. PMID:8543724
Feigenbaum, R; Weinstein, E; Rosen, E
This article describes a survey conducted among medical practitioners in India. The study's objective was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of whole body donation among medical professionals in India. Outcomes and results are discussed.
This study investigated the effects of an educational program designed to improve the knowledge and attitudes of senior dental students in an Iranian dental school about caring for patients with HIV/AIDS. As part of an extramural program in community dentistry, a new educational program about HIV/AIDS was developed at Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2009. The program consisted of two days' observation at the Consultation Center for Behavioral Diseases and a one-day workshop on infection control. A control group was selected from dental students at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Before and after the intervention, students in both the intervention and control groups completed a questionnaire concerning their knowledge of and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Students in the intervention group also expressed their opinions in a post-test questionnaire. An independent sample t-test was used for statistical analysis. In the control group, the means of students' knowledge and attitude scores did not differ significantly from pre-test to post-test. In the intervention group, however, the means of both knowledge and attitude scores on the post-test were significantly higher than on the pre-test (p=0.001 and p=0.009, respectively). In the intervention group, more than 96 percent of the students reported that they would completely follow infection control principles in future practice. This study concludes that the educational program improved the students' knowledge of and attitudes about HIV/AIDS and will have a positive effect on their future practice. PMID:22659709
Jafari, Ahmad; Yazdani, Reza; Khami, Mohammad Reza; Mohammadi, Mansoureh; Hajiabdolbaghi, Mahboubeh
This study investigated sexuality topics discussed by parents, sources of sexuality education, sexual risk behaviors, and attitudes about who should educate children about sexuality among a sample of 204 adult Latinas. Nearly half of sexually active women (having ever had sex) reported condom use and 36.7% reported discussing sexual history with…
Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; King, Keith A.
Assessed parents' attitudes toward cross-gender behavior of boys and girls. Responses of 224 white Finnish parents of 5-year olds reveal that cross-gender boys are regarded more negatively than cross-gender girls. Men perceived more societal acceptance of cross-gender boys than did women. It is thought that cross-gender boys were more likely to…
Sandnabba, N. Kenneth; Ahlberg, Christian
Consistent with affect regulation models of eating-related psychopathology, prior research indicates that trait-like shame and state self-conscious emotion are associated with maladaptive eating-related attitudes/behaviors. The present investigation extended past research on shame and maladaptive eating-related attitudes/behaviors by examining the role of shame aversion - the perception of shame as an especially unwanted and painful emotion - in these attitudes/behaviors over and above shame-proneness, general distress, and experiential avoidance. In 488 female undergraduates, shame aversion was positively associated with dieting, self-perceptions of body shape, awareness of food content, and food preoccupation even after taking into account other possible explanatory variables. Additionally, shame aversion moderated shame-proneness' associations with dieting, awareness of food content, and food preoccupation, such that shame-proneness was positively associated with these attitudes/behaviors only when shame aversion was high. Future directions for research and clinical implications of the present findings are discussed. PMID:24183135
Manjrekar, Eishita; Schoenleber, Michelle; Mu, Wenting
Recruitment attitudes and behaviors of home economics teachers were studied. Findings indicate that greater emphasis in preservice teacher education should be placed upon recruitment techniques, home economics career education should be taught at the middle school/junior high level, and college-university home economics faculty should speak to…
Dewald-Link, Margaret R.; Lester, Rosalyn M.
This study examined the relationship between internalized and public stigma on treatment-related attitudes and behaviors in a community sample of 449 African American and white adults aged 18 years and older. Telephone surveys were administered to assess level of depressive symptoms, demographic characteristics, stigma, and treatment-related…
Brown, Charlotte; Conner, Kyaien O.; Copeland, Valire Carr; Grote, Nancy; Beach, Scott; Battista, Deena; Reynolds, Charles F., III
Objective: The purpose of this study is to further investigate the factor structure and strength of the Bystander Attitude Scale-Revised and Bystander Behavior Scale-Revised (BAS-R and BBS-R). Participants: First-year students (N = 4,054) at a large public university in the Northeast completed a survey in 2010 as part of a larger longitudinal…
McMahon, Sarah; Allen, Christopher T.; Postmus, Judy L.; McMahon, Sheila M.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Lowe Hoffman, Melanie
The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess nurse educators' and nursing service personnels' knowledge of and attitudes toward computer applicability to nursing practice in order to facilitate planning future education in the area of computer-based nursing practice. The data yielded no significant differences between nurse educators' and nursing service personnels' knowledge of and attitudes toward computer use in nursing practice. There were, however, significant differences in knowl...
Merrow, Sherry Lynne
Background: The underlying goals of the present study were (i) to assess knowledge of and attitudes towards aging in a sample of Portuguese undergraduate students undertaking various degrees in health and welfare subjects, and (ii) to analyze the extent to which knowledge, attitudes and other factors were associated with interest in working with older adults. Methods: The study was cross-sectional in design. The sample comprised 460 Portuguese undergraduate students enrolled in...
Gonc?alves, Dc; Guedes, J.; Fonseca, Am; Pinto, Fc; Marti?n, I.; Byrne, Gj; Pachana, Na
Objectives : This study was done to find out the knowledge and attitudes of pharmacists regarding oral health care and oral hygiene products in Chennai city. Materials and Methods : A cross-sectional survey among a sample of the pharmacists in Chennai city was done and data regarding their knowledge and attitudes towards oral health care and oral hygiene products were obtained using a closed-ended questionnaire. Results: Among the 60 pharmacies approached, 50 pharmacis...
Priya Shanmuga; Madan Kumar P; Ramachandran S
Objectives: The study investigates the dietary intakes of Omani preschoolers and associations with both socio-demographic characteristics and the mother’s nutritional knowledge and attitudes.Methods: A sample of 154 parents of preschoolers completed a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics, a food-frequency questionnaire to assess children’s food intake, nutritional knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating.Results: The results showed a lower dietary adequacy of ...
Saif Al-Tobi; Sadeq Al-Sheraji; Fouad Hassan; Layla Al-Shukaily; Ali Al-Shookri
Structural equation models were used to test the effectiveness of various theories in predicting cigarette smoking among adolescents. Maximum-likelihood estimation, as implemented in LISREL for Windows 8.12, was used to compare the theory of reasoned action (TRA), the theory of planned behavior, and a modified version of the theory of reasoned action incorporating past behavior. Respondents consisted of 225 high school students who were questioned in 1994 about their attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, past behavior, intentions, and actual behavior relating to the use of cigarettes. Results indicated that the modification of the TRA incorporating past behavior provided a marginally better fit than the other models. For this group of high school students, attitudes toward smoking, past behavior in relation to smoking, and perceptions of what significant others think they should do were significant predictors of their intentions to smoke. Intentions, together with past behavior, predicted their actual behavior. The models used in the present research show that this behavior can be explained with reference to a small number of key variables which are useful for furthering our understanding of the structure of adolescent smoking. PMID:10082067
O'Callaghan, F V; Callan, V J; Baglioni, A
Full Text Available An estimated 200,000 children born in Thailand each year are at risk of prenatal exposure to pesticides and associated neurodevelopmental outcomes because of their mothers’ agricultural occupations. Children born to non-agricultural workers may also be at risk of exposure from other pathways of maternal pesticide exposure, including exposure through home use, diet, and other environmental media. Pesticide exposure in Thailand has been linked to unsafe practices and beliefs about pesticides. However, limited information exists on pesticide knowledge, attitudes, and practices among pregnant women in Thailand or elsewhere. Obtaining this information is essential to understand the factors associated with prenatal pesticide exposure, identify populations potentially at risk, and ultimately protect pregnant women and their children. We administered surveys to 76 pregnant women in northern Thailand and used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate associations among pesticide-related knowledge, pregnancy trimester, and pesticide use behavior. In this pilot study, lower knowledge score and earliest trimester of pregnancy were marginally (p < 0.1 associated with unsafe practices in the home, but not at work. Women who worked in agriculture or applied pesticides before becoming pregnant, or who had a previous child were significantly (p < 0.05 more likely to engage in unsafe behaviors in the home during their current pregnancy. We preliminarily conclude that increasing pesticide-related knowledge among pregnant women may help promote safe practices and reduce prenatal exposure. Knowledge-based interventions may be most effective when implemented early in pregnancy and targeted to agricultural workers and other sub-populations at risk of pesticide exposure.
Anne M. Riederer
Attitude formation, attitude accessibility and attitude-behavior consistency were studied. Experiments indicated that subjects could respond more quickly to inquiries about their attitudes when based on direct behavioral experience with attitude objects t...
R. H. Fazio
Full Text Available Background and Aims: The objective of the present study was to investigate knowledge and attitude of senior dental students towards HIV/AIDS. Its result could help in promotion of education. Materials and Methods: This educational research was carried out in two state dental schools in Tehran. The senior dental students in Tehran and Shaheed Beheshti dental schools were asked to fill in a self-administered questionnaire regarding their age, gender, parents' job, knowledge and attitudes towards treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS in Autumn semester 2007. Fifty five dental students (83% including 27% male and 73% female in Shaheed Beheshti and fifty five dental students (85% including 34% male and 66% female in Tehran dental schools were participated. The score for knowledge and attitude of the students were calculated separately. The data were analyzed using Independent sample t-test. Results: The mean percentage of knowledge and attitude scores were 76.5% (at rang 1-3 and 50% (at range 1-5, respectively. Nearly all of the students believed that all patients should be considered as HIV positive in dental practice, while 49% preferred to refer HIV positive patients. Knowledge and attitude of students were not significantly associated with the gender and knowing HIV positive person (P>0.05. Conclusion: There is a need to improve knowledge and attitudes of dental students towards HIV/AIDS. It is suggested to emphasize on this subject in dental schools curriculum in Iran.
The research objectives were to describe the knowledge about the transmission of HIV/AIDS, analyze the sexual behavior and attitudes towards condom use among adolescents. Exploratory survey conducted in 2009 with 234 students of a school in Fortaleza, Brazil. We used semi - structured questionnaire and Likert Scale. The results showed that 46.6% of the sample have already initiated sexual life, 40.7% and 29.5% did not use condoms at the first or last intercourse, respectively, due to various reasons like not having a condom at the time (27.3%), use of contraceptive pill (15.2%) and trust in their partner (15.2%). These teenagers have questions about HIV transmission. Women were more favorable to condom use than men. One conclude that early initiation of sexual life, doubts about HIV transmission and ineffective condom use are factors that make young people's vulnerability. PMID:24676068
Chaves, Ana Clara Patriota; Bezerra, Elys Oliveira; Pereira, Maria Lúcia Duarte; Wolfgang, Wagner
Results of a provincial survey of Judges and Crown Prosecutors to determine specifically, their attitudes, knowledge, behaviors and training needs related to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. In general, the survey results suggest that while aware of some aspects of FASD, Judges and Prosecutors both desire and need more education and training to support them in their work with individuals with FASD who come into conflict with the law. The findings also suggest that access to accurate and timely assessment and diagnoses of FASD would be beneficial. Survey findings point to the need for specific action to improve the ability of Judges and Prosecutors to recognize and to work with people affected by FASD in the Criminal Justice System. The results further indicate the need for changes and improvements in several areas regarding legal policy issues, research, and professional education and practice. PMID:18678920
Cox, Lori Vitale; Clairmont, Donald; Cox, Seamus
The report presents the first attempt of the IMA-AKN Sinha Institute of continuing medical and health education and research to study the knowledge, attitude and practice of doctors regarding torture. Although, majority of the doctors in India are aware of various national and international human rights institutions, but they seem not to be aware of the human rights of the detainees. It is interesting to note that the doctors are aware of the long term physical and psychological effects of torture and also agreed that physical examination is not sufficient to detect torture sequelae. A large number of doctors have seen cases of torture, and were willing to treat them and felt reasonably competent. A significant number of doctors justified use of coercive technique and manhandling in dealing with detainees by law enforcement agencies. A small number of doctors expressed their unwillingness to get involved in the treatment of the victims of torture due to medicolegal consequence. The dissemination of information on human rights and medical ethics and incorporating them into the medical curriculum at undergraduate and postgraduate training was emphasised by majority of the respondents. Almost unanimous view was expressed by respondents on the importance of the role of medical ethics and the profession's responsibility to its members. An important finding of the study is the need for IMA to help establishing counselling and rehabilitation centres for treatment of torture victims and educate its members. A large number of doctors mentioned the need of initiating community action in case of rape, child abuse, dowry victims and sexual harassment. Further, a majority of respondents expressed the view that the medical association should take the responsibilities of protecting the doctors who fearlessly testify cases of torture besides disciplining doctors who facilitate torture. Respondents felt that the reasons for doctors' participation in torture need further study. It is encouraging that most of the responding physicians are willing to take up training and become counsellor for victims of torture to be able to provide treatment, counselling and rehabilitation. PMID:11002645
Sobti, J C; Chapparawal, B C; Holst, E
Full Text Available Findings from two studies investigating the effects of Kids on the Block (KOB puppet shows onelementary school students’ knowledge of and attitude toward individuals with disabilities aredescribed. KOB is a troupe of life-size hand-and-rod puppets used to improve knowledge and changeattitudes toward persons with disabilities. Results from both studies indicated that KOB performanceshad positive effects on both the knowledge and attitudes of second, third, and fourth grade students.Study 1 showed that the puppet show participants had more positive attitudes and more accuratefactual knowledge of individuals with disabilities compared to the control group participants who didnot experience the KOB puppets. Findings from Study 2 showed pretest-post test gain scores for theKOB group were larger than those for the control group. The results taken together provided evidencethat a rather simple intervention was effective in terms of changing the knowledge of and attitudestoward individuals with disabilities.
Carl J. DUNST
Full Text Available This research aims to determine teachers' influence in the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT at schools. Various variables are examined such as years of experience, gender, the duration of computer and Internet use, and to determine the attitude, level of knowledge on and the frequency of ICT use among teachers. The study was conducted with 1540 primary school teachers using Knowledge, Use and Attitude Scales of ICT. The results show that the most commonly used and well-known ICT types among teachers are the Internet, e-mail and word processing, and teachers' attitudes towards computers and the Internet are generally positive. It was also found that their attitudes vary with their years of experience and levels of knowledge.
Full Text Available Stigma in mental health is studied in a sample of 152 subjects of Almería city population with the aim of designing specific anti-stigma campaigns. For this, Stigma is operatized in three constructs: Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour, using MAKS, CAMI and RIBS scales for these. Results show that the younger group, under thirty-five years old are less knowledgeable about mental health related to stigma, showing a significant difference (p< .05. Moreover, we found significant differences in gender regarding the intention of stigmatizing behaviour (p=.049 as well as attitudes (p= .006 where men have more stigmatizing behaviour and attitudes than women. These results together with those that show a significant correlation between knowledge and behaviour, as well as between attitudes and behaviour will be used as a guide to design interventions aimed to reduce stigma in mental health.
Ana María Moreno Herrero
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of health education on the knowledge and attitude regarding family planning and contraception’s method among the women who obligatory attended the Premarital Counseling Center in Yasouj city, Iran. An experimental study was carried out and a total of 200 women were selected for the study using convenience sampling method among women who attended in the health centre in order to utilize the necessary premarital actions. Respondents were divided by two experimental and control groups randomly. A pre-evaluation was done on the knowledge and attitude on family planning using a structured questionnaire. After which, the health education for experimental group was done within four educational sessions during 4 consecutive weeks and control group underwent traditional education method. Post evaluation was utilized for any changes regarding their knowledge and attitude among the respondents immediately after the intervention. Independent and paired t-test was used to evaluate the mean knowledge and attitude scores differences among both groups. Results showed that there was a significant improvement in respondents’ knowledge and attitude after educational program in experimental group (p<0.001, while no significant difference was observed in knowledge and attitude of control group. The finding also indicated that age was significantly associated with the level of respondents’ knowledge. These results deal the effectiveness of the educational method. In conclusion, the educational method is effective in increasing the knowledge and improving the attitude of women regarding family planning in Yasouj compared to current used educational method. Future educational programs need to incorporate the features that have been associated with successful interventions in the past, as well as including their own evaluation procedures.
Background Palliative care is not yet integrated into the health-care system in Saudi Arabia. King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre-Riyadh (KFSH&RC-Riyadh) is a tertiary care facility and regional cancer centre in Saudia Arabia with a highly multinational nursing workforce. Little is known about these nurses' knowledge of and attitudes towards palliative care. Aim To determine the palliative care knowledge and attitudes of the nursing workforce of KFSH&RC-Riyadh and any influencing factors. Method A questionnaire including demographic data, the Palliative Care Quiz for Nurses (PCQN), and Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying scale (FATCOD) was completed by 395 staff nurses from 19 countries. Results The nurses scored a mean of 111.66 out of 150 on the FATCOD scale and of 9.06 out of 20 on the PCQN. These scores indicate moderate attitudes towards but a knowledge deficit regarding palliative care. The nurses' palliative care training and years of nursing experience significantly affected the scores. The level of palliative care integration in the nurses' home countries was the most significant factor in multiple regression tests. Conclusion Palliative care integration into the health-care system of the country in which nurses train significantly influences their knowledge of and attitudes towards palliative care. Incorporating palliative care into nursing education might promote positive attitudes towards palliative care in nurses while enhancing their knowledge and skills. PMID:25250548
Abudari, Gassan; Zahreddine, Hassan; Hazeim, Hassan; Assi, Mohammad Al; Emara, Sania
Objectives The study investigates the dietary intakes of Omani preschoolers and associations with both socio-demographic characteristics and the mother’s nutritional knowledge and attitudes. Methods A sample of 154 parents of preschoolers completed a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics, a food-frequency questionnaire to assess children’s food intake, nutritional knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating. Results The results showed a lower dietary adequacy of children’s food intake in mothers with low educational levels, high-ranked occupation, and lower levels of both nutritional knowledge and food related health attitudes. The highest food intake and healthy eating attitude scores were found in children of mothers with high education level and mother without a job. The association of the dietary adequacy with socio-demographic background can help the Omani healthcare decision makers to develop better-tailored nutrition interventions which are more suitable for the Omani community. Conclusion The results from this study of mothers’ nutritional knowledge and attitudes support the inclusion of knowledge and attitudes in dietary interventions. PMID:22043429
Al-Shookri, Ali; Al-Shukaily, Layla; Hassan, Fouad; Al-Sheraji, Sadeq; Al-Tobi, Saif
Full Text Available Objectives: The study investigates the dietary intakes of Omani preschoolers and associations with both socio-demographic characteristics and the mother’s nutritional knowledge and attitudes.Methods: A sample of 154 parents of preschoolers completed a questionnaire including socio-demographic characteristics, a food-frequency questionnaire to assess children’s food intake, nutritional knowledge and attitudes towards healthy eating.Results: The results showed a lower dietary adequacy of children’s food intake in mothers with low educational levels, high-ranked occupation, and lower levels of both nutritional knowledge and food related health attitudes. The highest food intake and healthy eating attitude scores were found in children of mothers with high education level and mother without a job. The association of the dietary adequacy with socio-demographic background can help the Omani healthcare decision makers to develop better-tailored nutrition interventions which are more suitable for the Omani community.Conclusion: The results from this study of mothers’ nutritional knowledge and attitudes support the inclusion of knowledge and attitudes in dietary interventions.
Full Text Available Knowledge about the spread of HIV has a critical impact of the prevention of AIDS young people are of particular importance in state policies against AIDS,we intended to assess the knowledge and attitude of college students regarding AIDS in Iran,.This study is a cross-sectional study that carried out in 400 first college students. A structured questionnaire was used to assess knowledge about AIDS, source of information and attitudes toward people living with HIV, the students identified mass media (40% as their most important source of information about ADIS. Only a few students answered all the knowledge questions correctly and there were many misconceptions about the routes of transmissions. College students demonstrated a moderate level of knowledge (67.5% concerning AIDS and HIV. Results showed that 85% of samples fell all people entering Iran should be tested. Twenty five percent of them believed that people with HIV should not be allowed to use common toilets and 27% incorrectly believed that HIV infected college students be removed from university bedroom. Attitude was significantly correlated with knowledge, (r = -0.38, p< 0.001, student with less knowledge scores had more negative attitude toward HIV positive Individuals. The knowledge level seems to be moderately high misconception about the routes of transmission were common. Alarming gaps in knowledge about transmission and curability put young Iranian students at risk of contracting HIV. Intolerant attitudes about people living with HIV were prevalent. Present results suggest that a more appropriate education program in colleges in Iran may be necessary to reduce the discrepancy between general knowledge and desirable attitude regarding HIV/AIDS.
Examined the relationship between infant attractiveness and maternal behavior by observing mothers feeding and playing with their firstborn infants immediately after giving birth and when the infants were three months of age. Found that mothers of more attractive infants were more affectionate and playful compared with mothers of less attractive…
Langlois, Judith H.; And Others
ween people residing no more than 5 miles from an interstate highway to those living no less than 16 miles from an interstate highway. The results of the analysis are divided into 4 sections: A. Sample Identification; B. Overall and Group Attitudes to Certain Special Precautionary Actions For Transporting Spent Fuel; C. Subgroup Attitudes toward the Transportation of Spent Fuel; D. Risk Perceptions of People Living No More than 5 Miles vs. People Living No Less than 16 Miles from and Interstate Highway. Generally conclusions are also provided
The aim of the study was to examine the effectiveness of a pain management program (PMP) in enhancing the knowledge and attitudes of health care workers in pain management. Many nursing home residents suffer from pain, and treatment of pain is often inadequate. Failure of health care workers to assess pain and their insufficient knowledge of pain management are barriers to adequate treatment. It was a quasiexperimental pretest and posttest study. Four nursing homes were approached, and 88 staff joined the 8-week PMP. Demographics and the knowledge and attitudes regarding pain were collected with the use of the Nurse's Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain-Chinese version (NKASRP-C) before and after the PMP. A deficit in knowledge and attitudes related to pain management was prominent before the PMP, and there was a significant increase in pain knowledge and attitudes from 7.9 ± SD 3.52 to 19.2 ± SD4.4 (p PMPs for nurses and all health care professionals are important in enhancing care for older adults and to inform policy on the provision of pain management. PMID:24602419
Tse, Mimi Mun Yee; Ho, Suki S K
A sample of 250 early childhood teachers were surveyed to identify their computer attitudes. Found a general sequence of stages that early childhood teachers go through when implementing the computer into the classroom: a stage of focus on buying computers; a stage of confusion; a stage of pulling it all together; and finally, a stage of full…
Background: Knowledge and attitude are significant factors impinging on whether individuals seek healthcare service. This flows on to impact public health knowledge of prevalence of diseases, and in turn, the practice of preventive medicine. As part of the international research collaboration agenda for Prediabetes and Cardiovascular Complications Study, a preliminary survey of one of the Ndokwa communities of Nigeria has been carried out. Aim: This study was to understand the baseline knowledge, attitudes and practices of a rural community in regards to cardiovascular diseases, and behavior toward risk management. Materials and Methods: Seventy-four volunteer participants were recruited, after public lectures, through secondary school and churches in the community. The survey was done using questionnaire. The knowledge component comprised questions about educational and personal health opinion. The attitude and practice components comprised questions about exercises and visiting healthcare facilities. Occupational backgrounds were also asked. Results: It is observed that majority of the community dwellers have (1) completed at least secondary education, (2) never attended a health check-up; and (3) do not engage in physical activity in the context of exercise. Twenty of the participants indicated not being in good health, of which only 35% have attended medical check-up for their ailment. Many of those who are yet to seek healthcare service cite affordability as their reason. With specific regards to diabetes and cardiovascular risk, over 71% of the survey participants are yet to do any blood sugar and/or lipid profile tests. Conclusion: This preliminary survey indicates that although the majority of respondents have secondary education and therefore are relatively literate, there is a gap between their knowledge of ill-health versus attitude and practice toward prevention; especially cardiovascular and diabetes diseases.
Oguoma, Victor Maduabuchi; Nwose, Ezekiel Uba; Bwititi, Philip Taderera
Knowledge, anxiety, and attitudes about the elderly were assessed in 113 university students using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Anxiety about Aging Scale, and the Fraboni Scale on Ageism. No significant differences in knowledge or anxiety based on age or gender were found in the sample. Female participants in the sample were found to be…
Allan, Linda J.; Johnson, James
Although there are numerous ways to obtain accurate information about sexuality, research suggests that many American adults do not have accurate sexuality and sexual health knowledge. This research investigated selected sexual knowledge and attitudes of adults in Indiana. A representative sample of men (n = 158) and women (n = 340) aged 18 to 89…
Clark, Christina A.; Baldwin, Kathleen L.; Tanner, Amanda E.
Background: Various explanations of sexual offending in men with intellectual disability (ID) have stressed sexual deviance and a lack of developmental socio-sexual knowledge. Method: Using the normative dataset of people with ID from the development of the "Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Assessment Tool--Revised" (SSKAAT-R: Griffiths &…
Lunsky, Yona; Frijters, Jan; Griffiths, Dorothy M.; Watson, Shelley L.; Williston, Stephanie
Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the level of knowledge about and attitude toward and sources of information about epilepsy.Methods: Seventy individuals with epilepsy (IWE and 56 control participants (CPs received Epilepsy Knowledge Scale, Epilepsy Attitude Scale and information forms which required answers to related open-ended questions.Results: There was a significant difference between the initial and current amount of epilepsy knowledge of the IWE. The IWE evaluate their epilepsy knowledge as adequate more than CPs, however as general, both groups stated inadequate epilepsy knowledge. Also, the IWE had more knowledge about epilepsy, but there was no difference in the attitudes toward epilepsy between IWE and CPs. The most frequently reported source of information by IWE was “doctors and other health staff”, and “family and acquaintances” by CPs.Conclusion: The level of knowledge about epilepsy was increasing with the passage of time among the IWE. As the most cited source of information, health staff have an important role in providing information to IWE. The study also indicates the need of national campaigns in order to increase the knowledge of epilepsy and create more favorable attitudes toward epilepsy.
Increasing life expectancies and more years spent living with chronic illnesses mean that increasing numbers of older adults will require nursing care. However, most nurses prefer not to work with older adults, and many nursing students have limited knowledge and negative attitudes towards aging and older adults. This study examined the knowledge…
Flood, Meredith Troutman; Clark, Robert B.
Entering ("n"?=?475) and graduating ("n"?=?454) students at 3 master's of social work programs in the northeast were compared regarding their knowledge and attitudes concerning working with substance abusing clients. In comparison to entering students, graduating students demonstrated modestly higher levels of knowledge,…
Senreich, Evan; Straussner, Shulamith Lala A.
Biotechnology has a considerable importance in Turkish biology curriculum. This study was designed to explore or indicate Turkish high school and university students' knowledge and attitudes toward biotechnology. A total number of 352 high school and 276 university students were invited to the study. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ)…
Usak, Muhammet; Erdogan, Mehmet; Prokop, Pavol; Ozel, Murat
This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian school teachers and counselors toward epilepsy. A sample of 259 teachers and counselors completed the two-part questionnaire. Validity was assessed using an informed panel of judges, and test-retest reliability was established. The results showed average knowledge of epilepsy and generally favorable attitudes toward students with epilepsy. Although participants revealed apt knowledge about the causes and symptoms of epilepsy, they demonstrated poor knowledge about methods of dealing with seizures. However, participants scored high on items relating to the equality of rights and the need for further support. Findings indicated that although participants showed favorable attitudes, more information and awareness about epilepsy should be provided to teachers and counselors within the school systems of Jordan. PMID:22683285
Alkhamra, Hatem; Tannous, Adel; Hadidi, Muna; Alkhateeb, Jamal
Full Text Available Introduction.With respect to the importance of nutritional counselling during pregnancy, the improtance of knowledge, attitude and practice of health care providers is undisputable. In this study the knowledge, attitude and practice of the health care providers in the city of shiraz with respect to the nutritional counseling in pregnancy was investigated. Methods. The survey was done upon all who practicing in MCH unit of heath care centers in the city of shiraz. The intended information was gathered using a checklist and questionnaire from 75 heath care providers. Results. Knowledge is in middle level in 60 percent, attitude is positive in 98.7 percent and practice is poor in 90.67 percent of samples. Midwifery school graduations have more knowledge than other (P < 0.05. Discussion. Education of nutritional sciences for health care providers has an important role in health promotion. During special situations such as pregnancy, this matter is more important.
Nurses play an important role in managing children's pain. The nurse's accurate assessment, appropriate intervention, and evaluation of pain relief measures are necessary for positive patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the level of knowledge and attitudes of pediatric nurses regarding the child's pain. The Pediatric Nurses' Knowledge and Attitude Survey (PNKAS) was used to evaluate the nurses' knowledge and attitudes. The PNKAS consists of 40 questions. In this study, 29.9% of nurses had a diploma and 40.6% associate's, 25.0% bachelor's, and 4.5% master's degree, and respondents had an everage 6.1 years pediatric nursing experience. The total mean score on the PNKAS scale was 38.2%. The highest score was 65%, and the lowest score 15%. The findings of the survey show that pediatric nurses in Turkey have insufficient knowledge regarding pain management and could benefit from additional education on that issue. PMID:24315279
Ekim, Ayfer; Ocakc?, Ayse Ferda
A study was conducted of sexual attitudes and behavior among students in secondary schools in Uganda. Surveys were undertaken during June-August, 1970 and 1971, in 7 schools near Kampala. These students are exposed to the following nonindigenous factors: Christianity, formal education, urbanism, and Western materialism. The survey indicates that all change has not been in the direction from traditional to modern, although there is a permissive trend among the students that differs from their restrictive cultural background. Traditional attitudes and behaviors regarding the sex act and acceptance of premarital children remain. Acceptance of premarital sex and abortion are departures from traditional views. Premarital parenthood is still preferred to abortion. Males particularly still support traditional sexual practices. In general, females were less liberal in their views than males; differences between the groups tend to disappear as age and educational level rise. Sex education, gynecological counseling, and contraceptive advice are needed among these students. PMID:950777
Kisekka, M N
Osteoporosis is an age related metabolic disease that primarily affects women and causes bone demineralization that results in fractures. Early identification of risk factors for osteoporosis and development of prevention programs is needed to halt the increasing incidence of the disease. Public health nurses (PHNs), with their emphasis on primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention with individuals and families, are in a unique position to protect the health of these vulnerable populations who are at risk for osteoporosis. This article describes the implementation and program evaluation of three osteoporosis prevention educational programs that use three levels of intensity of design. Each design is based upon the learning needs of the targeted audience. The goals of each program were to increase knowledge of osteoporosis, increase health beliefs, and increase the frequency of osteoporosis preventing behaviors. Theoretical aspects from adult learning and the Health Belief Model (HBM) were used to develop the programs. For the program evaluation, participants completed evaluation instruments before and 3 weeks after participating in an osteoporosis health education program. Participants in all programs had significantly higher levels of knowledge after completing the programs; however, overall, there was no change in health beliefs or behaviors. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:11013003
Sedlak, C A; Doheny, M O; Jones, S L
Full Text Available Introduction: The importance of the periodontal health maintenance and promotion in diabetes mellitus has been supported. Evidence showed that many patients are unaware about effects of diabetes mellitus on oral health. The aim of this study is to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and practice of diabetic patients concerning the risk of periodontal disease and prevention. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 156 diabetic patients referring to Yazd Diabetic Research Center were recruited by random selection. Patients completed questionnaires, which included 29 questions about their knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health in diabetes mellitus. The data was scored and analyzed. Result: The results showed knowledge (58.64 and attitude (46.86 scores of diabetic patients were moderate, while their practice (24.3 score were poor. There is statistical significant relation between mean scores of knowledge, attitude and practice of patients with their educational level and age. Conclusion: This study showed knowledge, attitude and practice level of diabetic patients were insufficient on oral health care.
Fazele Atarbashi Moghadam
Background: Nowadays, organ transplantation is the treatment of choice for end-stage organ failure, which increases the importance of organ procurement. It seems that the attitude towards organ donation and transplantation affects people’s satisfaction. Moreover, health care personnel, especially physicians, should be familiar with transplantation rules and standards. It seems that understanding the knowledge and attitude of this group can affect the transplantation center policies. Objective: To assess knowledge and attitude of a group of Iranian physicians towards organ and tissue donation. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 560 Iranian physicians including nephrologists, urologists and internists were asked to fill out a validated questionnaire containing their demographics, knowledge and attitude towards organ and tissue donation and transplantation. Results: Of 560 participants, 435 (78%) agreed with organ donation after death and 285 (51%) agreed with living kidney donation. The most common reason provided by those who agreed with donation was “helping people” whereas the most common cause of disagreement was “to honor the body.” Only 32 (6%) physicians had no knowledge about transplantation rules. Complete awareness about theoretical basis and financial issues of transplantation was observed in 265 (47%) and 221 (40%) participants, respectively. Conclusion: Physicians had a good attitude towards organ and tissue transplantation although less than half of them had knowledge of transplantation rules and its theoretical basis and financial issues; therefore, additional awareness and education of physicians is needed in all areas of the organ donation process in Iran. PMID:25013681
Salmani Nadoushan, M.; Nozary Heshmati, B.; Shabanzadeh Pirsaraee, A.; Salmani Nodoushan, I.; Jafari Nadoushan, R.; Yazdi, F.
Drawing from attitude-behavior research tradition, this study used a national probabilistic sample of the Spanish adult population (N = 2,432) to test hypotheses regarding correlates of public attitudes toward reporting partner violence against women, and the relationship between attitudes toward reporting and actual reporting behavior. Results…
Gracia, Enrique; Herrero, Juan
Socio-constructivist perspectives on adult education, as well as many practitioners in the field, assume that the teacher's interpersonal attitudes influence the process of knowledge construction on the part of the participants. The aim of this paper is to contribute to an empirical evaluation of this view, and in particular: (i) to understand whether the actions enacted by an educator toward learners may be taken as local cues of her underlying general interpersonal attitudes in and about th...
Tirassa, Maurizio; Mate, Davide; Brizio, Adelina
The success of tacit knowledge management lies in firms’ capabilities to attract and retain employees possessing unique knowledge. The purpose of the paper is to investigate students’ attitudes towards career in tourism in the context of tacit knowledge management. The study was conducted on the group of 345 undergraduates and graduates enrolled in tourism and hospitality studies in Poznan. Research revealed that majority of students plan short-term career in tourism, which entails tacit ...
Bednarska, Marlena A.; Olszewski, Marcin
Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to generate discussion and communication among a group of general dentists in Tehran on their viewpoints regarding denture adhesives. Have they accepted denture adhesive as a material to enhance denture retention, stability and function? Materials and Methods: In the summer of 2007, a questionnaire was mailed to 300 general dentists who were assigned with a random systematic sampling method from general dentists in Tehran. The questions were arranged in two parts of evaluating knowledge and attitude. In evaluation of knowledge, dentists were classified into groups of good, moderate, weak and lack of knowledge. In evaluation of attitude, dentists were classified into positive, moderate and negative groups. (Evaluating attitude was carried out in good and moderate groups of knowledge. Results: The study showed that 14%, 32% and 37% of the general dentists had respectively good, moderate and weak knowledge toward denture adhesive while 16.3% had no knowledge about this material. In evaluation of attitude through dentists with positive and moderate knowledge toward denture adhesive, 9.3%, 71.3% and 19.4% had respectively positive, moderate and negative attitude toward denture adhesive. The ?2 test showed a significant statistical relation between situation of knowledge and experiences of dentists. Discussion: This study demonstrated that the rate of knowledge of these 300 general dentists in Tehran towards denture adhesives has not been in a good situation. It is believed that denture adhesive be able to enhance the fitness of a denture and provide psychological relief to the patient. Dentists agreed that education, not only for practitioners but also for patients, would raise the advantageous features and reduce the misuse of denture adhesive. Education of the topic "Denture adhesive" should be more concerned in dental universities.
This study is interested in understanding curriculum as an international text and evaluating the connections between junior high school students’ global knowledge and attitudes and the required national curriculum in Taiwan. The study also examines whether the global knowledge and attitudes vary by demographic variables. By using the Global Knowledge Scale and Global Attitudes Scale, data were collected from 1,017 students in central Taiwan and analyzed by descriptive statistics, chi-square...
Su-ching Lin; Hsin-Yi Kung
Full Text Available Background: Breast Cancer is a life threatening disease affecting women. Awareness should be created among women for early detection of breast cancer. Nurses should provide information on BSE to women popula tion as a part of their profession. The aim of this study was to assess the atti tude and practice of nurses in imparting knowledge on BSE to female patients. Methods: This cross-sectional st udy was conducted among 154 nurses from different hospitals of UAE during the period Ju ne –November 2009. Self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection . Data was analysed using PASW 17 version. Results: Age group of the participants ra nged between 20 and 59 years with a mean age of 31 years and SD of 7.3 years. Majority 90.3% have positive attitude in providing knowledge regarding risk factors of breast cancer and about the purpose of performing BSE. Ei ghty eight point three percent of the nurses were with a positive attitude toward pr oviding information about BSE to all females who come to the hospital irrespective of their demand. Majority, 83.8% of the nurses reported, teaching method of BSE. Among the responde nts 60.4% reported that they follow up their clients after imparting knowledge on BSE. There was a statistically significant (p<0.001 positive correlation between attitude and practice. Conclusion: The results suggest the need of pr oving continuing educational programs to change the attitude and behavior toward s imparting knowledge of BSE which in- turn will have a positive effect on the ir practice of teac hing and motivating the women group to perform BSE.
Full Text Available Background: Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that is associated with serious morbidity and is a disease of public health concern because of the case load and the social stigma attached to the disease. Aim: To understand the knowledge of, and attitudes towards, leprosy amongst healthcare providers in Assam, India. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted during March to June 2007 in different health institutions of the Kamrup district of Assam. Results: Among the program managers interviewed, only half were organizing training sessions, and 37.5% were involved in supervision of the program activities at the periphery level. Among the program managers who were involved with leprosy elimination, only half were organizing training session and 37.5% were involved in supervision of the program activities at the periphery level. Medical officers consistently demonstrated higher knowledge about leprosy, followed by health supervisors and multipurpose workers (MPWs, including nursing staff. Regarding training status with regard to leprosy, 90% of medical officers, 80% of health supervisors and around 87% of MPWs (83% of male MPWs and 89% of female MPWs had attended training programs on leprosy. Regarding WHO MDT, 80% of health supervisors, 84.8% of male MPWs and 86.2% of female MPWs had an idea of MDT and treatment duration of various categories of patients. Conclusions: These observations suggest that there appear to be adequate knowledge and positive behavior among healthcare providers with regard to leprosy in this part of India. However, there is still a need to organize training programs at regular intervals to train new recruits, as well as reinforce and update the knowledge of those already trained.
Problem statement: Recognizing the importance of ?Environmental Education? to be introduced in every level of school education, agencies responsible for curriculum reforms and text books preparation in India have made the subject as an integral part. It is felt necessary to investigate whether the teachers, who are disseminating the knowledge, are equipped with environmental attitude and the behavior towards environment so that they may shape up the behavior of their students. Thus, ...
Full Text Available The study was set to determine whether knowledge and attitudes toward organ dona-tion differ according to geographical location. Self-administered questionnaires were employed to collect data such as demographic characteristics, basic knowledge, attitudes and source of information about organ donation from subjects in rural and urban areas. The questionnaires were distributed randomly to 1,000 individuals in both areas during 2008. The data were analyzed in a descriptive fashion. Despite similarities in knowledge and attitudes of respondents in both areas, rural res-pondents were less likely to have information about organ donation, to report willingness to donate organs, and to have knowledge about "brain death" or the "organ donation card" than their counter-parts in urban areas. The study identified that the principle respondents? source of information about organ donation was the television. More than 90% of respondents in rural and urban areas reported that the contribution of health care providers in providing them with knowledge about organ dona-tion and transplantation was "none" or "little". Respondents identified several reasons, which may influence their decisions to donate organs. In conclusion, the deficit in knowledge and attitudes of rural respondents about organ donation may be justified by the lack of information about this signi-ficant issue. Accordingly, health facilities, local mass media and educational institutions should provide intensive educational programs to encourage the public donate organs.
A computerized display has been created for the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) that incorporates information from plant sensors in a thermodynamic model display. The display is designed to provide an operator with an overall view of the plant process as a heat engine. The thermodynamics of the plant are depicted through the use of ionic figures, animated by plant signals, that are related to the major plant components and systems such as the reactor, intermediate heat exchanger, secondary system, evaporators, superheaters, steam system, steam drum, and turbine-generator. This display supports knowledge based reasoning for the operator as well as providing the traditional rule and skill based behavior, and includes side benefits such a inherent signal validation
Unmanaged pain is a prevalent problem faced by many cancer patients. One part of this problem centers on a lack of emphasis on pain management in the undergraduate nursing curriculum. This study examined the knowledge and attitudes of 41 undergraduate nursing students regarding pain management. Students voluntarily completed a demographic data form, the Nurses' Attitude Survey, and the Pain Management Principles Assessment Tool. A mean score of 19.4 out of a possible 31 was achieved on the knowledge test, whereas a mean score of 17.0 was achieved on the Nurses' Attitude Survey. A weak-to-moderate relationship between knowledge and attitudes was found. Although students had positive attitudes regarding pain management, many still lacked the fundamental knowledge essential for adequately managing pain. The sample size was relatively small and not demographically diverse, but the response from the sample was sufficient to provide statistically meaningful data. In the quest to improve patient outcomes, these findings suggest the need to develop specific strategies to effectively teach undergraduate nursing students about pain management. PMID:25032029
Full Text Available Dengue fever is an infectious disease caused by the dengue virus and transmitted by the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. If not treated quickly, it can develop into a lethal hemorrhagic disease. The study was conducted with a cross-sectional design aimed to determine the relationship of knowledge and attitudes of community leaders to its role in the control of dengue fever in Kawalu Public Health Centre Tasikmalaya City. The study population is all public jigures who are in the Kawalu Public Health Centre, with sample size of 68 respondents. Sampling technique was purposive sampling. The results were analyzed with chisquare (X2 to see the relationship of knowledge and attitudes of community leaders to its role in the control of dengue fever. The results showed that there was no significant relationship between knowledge of the role of community leaders in the control of dengue fever (p = 0.578, as well as the attitude of no significant relation to the role of community leaders (p = 0.177. The role of society is not based on the knowledge and a positive attitude, or a positive attitude and know it but not yet reflected in its role in the control of dengue fever; may be one cause of the dengue fever problem is difficult of resolve so far. Health care workers are expected to approach and field studies in more depth so that people contribute more significantly in the control of dengue fever.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing an evidence-based method of improving knowledge and attitudes concerning depression has been identified as a priority in Chinese medical education. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a self-directed learning strategy as a part of student-centred education improved knowledge of and attitudes towards depression among Chinese medical students. Methods A controlled trial in which 205 medical students were allocated to one of two groups: didactic teaching (DT group or a combined didactic teaching and self-directed learning (DT/SDL group. The DT/SDL group continued having a series of learning activities after both groups had a lecture on depression together. Student's knowledge and attitudes were assessed immediately after the activities, one month and six months later. Results The intervention (DT/SDL group showed substantially greater improvements in recognition of depression as a major health issue and identifying helpful treatments than the DT group. Only the DT/SDL group demonstrated any improvement in attitudes. This improvement was sustained over six months. Conclusions Self-directed learning is an effective education strategy in improving medical students' knowledge of and attitudes towards depression.
Davenport Tracey A
We begin with a brief overview of the Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity (NGRI) and Guilty but Mentally Ill (GBMI) verdicts in the United States and then report on a study of qualified jurors (n=96) in which we examined jurors' understanding and attitudes about mental illness verdicts and the disposition of mentally ill defendants. Results indicate that although the jury pool was highly educated, only 4.2 percent of jurors could correctly identify both the definitions and dispositions of defendants found NGRI and GBMI. Jurors with lower educational levels were less likely to identify the dispositional outcome of a GBMI verdict (p<.05). Eighty-four percent of respondents believed that juries should be informed of dispositional outcome before deciding a verdict. Also, 68.4 percent of jurors erroneously believed that a defendant found GBMI could not receive the death penalty. Among jurors who correctly identified the definition of GBMI, those with lower educational levels were more punitive in their attitudes toward disposition of the GBMI defendants, believing they should eventually be sent to prison (p<.05). PMID:15985664
Sloat, Lisa M; Frierson, Richard L
Objective: To determine the knowledge and practice of the breast cancer in medical community. The study was carried out in the Department of Oncology, Service Hospital, Lahore and completed in one month. Subjects and Methods: About 200 female doctors and nurses of the Hospital were involved. Each subject was asked to fill up a pro forma designed to assess knowledge, risk factors and preventive practices of the breast cancer. Using non-probability convenience sampling technique, breast self-examination (BSE) and mammography was performed as screening of breast cancer. Results: A majority had good knowledge of the risk factors and screening method for the early detection of breast cancer. Majority had the consensus on the benefit of mammography. Conclusions: The study shows that although medical professionals had fairly good knowledge about screening methods and risk factors of breast cancer. Their preventive practices were scanty in high risk population and, therefore, physicians and nurses need proper training. (author)
Pain management is a very important aspect of nursing care of the pediatric patient. A nurse's knowledge and attitude can affect his or her ability to adequately provide pediatric pain management. This study examined the level of knowledge of pediatric pain management, the attitudes of nurses, and the level of self-efficacy of pediatric nurses in acute care. In addition, the relationship between the years of experience and the levels of knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy were examined. A cross-sectional, correlational design was used in a convenience, non-probability sample of 25 pediatric nurses. Nurses volunteering to participate in the study were asked to complete two instruments: Pediatric Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (PNKAS-Shriners Revision) (Manworren, 2000, 2001) and Nurses' Self-Efficacy in Managing Children's Pain (Chiang, Chen, & Huang, 2006). There was no statistically significant relationship between knowledge and self-efficacy (r = 0.039, p = 0.853) or knowledge and years of nursing experience (r = 0.050, p = 0.822). There was a statistically significant relationship between the level of knowledge and the years of pediatric experience (r = 0.404, p = 0.05) and knowledge and the membership in a professional nursing organization (t = 4.050, p = 0.004). Years of pediatric nursing experience correlated with significantly higher knowledge levels, as did a membership in a professional nursing organization. Further, education may benefit pediatric nurses in regard to their management of pediatric pain. Research is needed to examine the effects of self-efficacy on pediatric pain management and how it relates to the level of knowledge. PMID:24027950
Stanley, Mercedes; Pollard, Deborah
Smoking among health professionals has been shown to influence smoking-related knowledge and counseling in clinical practice. The evidence regarding smoking as a risk factor has increased in the past decade. The present study was carried out in 2000 and investigated the associations between individual smoking behavior among hospital staff and (a). smoking-related knowledge, (b). attitudes toward counseling on smoking, and (c). self-reported smoking-related counseling provided by the staff. The study was based on a survey using self-administered questionnaires given to all hospital staff in a large university hospital in Denmark. Altogether, 82% of staff (2561) returned a completed questionnaire. Analyses focused on a subsample consisting of health professionals in the clinical wards (1429). Multivariate analyses were performed in which smoking-related knowledge, attitudes toward smoking-related counseling, smoking-related counseling practices, and self-rated qualifications for counseling were main outcome measures. Health professionals who were current smokers systematically underestimated the health consequences of smoking and differed significantly from nonsmokers in their assessments of smoking as a risk factor. Nonsmokers might overestimate smoking as a risk factor. Nonsmokers gave patients advice on smoking cessation significantly more often than did current smokers (ex-smokers, OR=2.5, 95% CI=1.8-3.4; never-smokers, OR=1.5, 95% CI=1.1-2.0). Ex-smokers and smokers felt significantly more qualified to counsel patients about smoking than did never-smokers (ex-smokers, OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.3-2.5; smokers, OR=1.4, 95% CI=1.0-1.9). Individual smoking behavior among hospital staff was strongly associated with smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and counseling practices. Lack of self-rated qualifications was a major barrier to professional counseling on smoking in a hospital framework.
Willaing, Ingrid; Ladelund, Steen
Full Text Available Introduction: Children suffering from epilepsy are high at risk of oral diseases primarily due to their underlying medical condition which can have an impact on the maintenance level of oral hygiene, but also due to adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs. Objective. The aim of this paper was to identify habits, attitudes and behavior of children with epilepsy and parents in respect to oral health. Method. The experimental group consisted of 50 children with epilepsy, 24 boys and 26 girls, 7-14 years old, mean age 11.2±2.2 years. The control group consisted of healthy children, matched by age and gender. The instruments of investigation consisted of the structured interview of children and parents concerning oral health habits, attitudes and behavior. We used medical records of children with epilepsy as a source of information on their diagnosis, duration of the illness and current therapy. Statistical analysis was performed by chi-squared test, nonparametric correlation, Wilcoxon’s signed rank test and logistic regression. Results. Results showed that more children with epilepsy and their parents had inappropriate habits and attitudes towards oral health, as well as nutrition habits (p<0.001. Compared to healthy controls, children with epilepsy washed their teeth less often and shorter, they had less knowledge about causes of oral diseases and about influence of oral diseases on general health, and they had worse self-rating of teeth and gum condition. In addition, significantly more children with epilepsy used an incorrect technique of teeth brushing (p<0.001. Characteristics of children’s epilepsy and educational degree of parents had no influence on these differences. Conclusion. Study results showed that children with epilepsy and their parents had worse habits, attitudes and behavior towards oral health than healthy controls and their parents. This difference can be explained primarily by worse parental estimation of oral health and behavior towards oral health in comparison to parents of healthy controls. .
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice of herbal remedies (HRs in infertile patients. This was a cross sectional study in a referral infertility care center. Three hundred and six outpatients, both women and men, presenting for the first time with complaint of infertility at Arash hospital, were recruited. Verbal consent for participation was received. A self administered questionnaire was used. Main outcome measure was knowledge, attitude and practice of patients toward herbal medications. 47.3% of participants were knowledgeable of HRs with female gender and lower educational background being the associated factors in knowledge. 43.4% of patients with significant female dominancy had positive attitude toward HRs. 31% of participants were using HRs. Only 3.2% of those using HRs informed their physician. The most common health condition promoting herbal use was psychological (33.3% and gastrointestinal (30.8% disorders. 3.5% of participants used HRs as fertility treatment which was significantly observed in women and those with lower levels of formal education. A considerable proportion of our population had used HRs without sufficient knowledge and had positive attitude toward HRs. More importantly, patients did not disclose their use of HRs to physicians. Therefore, physicians should inquire about the use of alternative remedies and provide patients with appropriate information
The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice of herbal remedies (HRs) in infertile patients. This was a cross sectional study in a referral infertility care center. Three hundred and six outpatients, both women and men, presenting for the first time with complaint of infertility at Arash hospital, were recruited. Verbal consent for participation was received. A self administered questionnaire was used. Main outcome measure was knowledge, attitude and practice of patients toward herbal medications. 47.3% of participants were knowledgeable of HRs with female gender and lower educational background being the associated factors in knowledge. 43.4% of patients with significant female dominancy had positive attitude toward HRs. 31% of participants were using HRs. Only 3.2% of those using HRs informed their physician. The most common health condition promoting herbal use was psychological (33.3%) and gastrointestinal (30.8%) disorders. 3.5% of participants used HRs as fertility treatment which was significantly observed in women and those with lower levels of formal education. A considerable proportion of our population had used HRs without sufficient knowledge and had positive attitude toward HRs. More importantly, patients did not disclose their use of HRs to physicians. Therefore, physicians should inquire about the use of alternative remedies and provide patients with appropriate information. PMID:23605605
Kashani, Ladan; Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Mirzabeighi, Arefeh; Akhondzadeh, Shahin
Poor oral health knowledge is thought to significantly contribute to the incidence of early childhood caries, the most common childhood disease in the U.S. This study assessed the effectiveness of a web-based educational program in increasing oral health and caries transmission knowledge, attitudes and planned behavior among mothers and primary caregivers. Study participants were recruited from subscribers to an online health information newsletter distributed by a national dental insurance company and from visitors to a health information website sponsored by the same company. Participants completed pre- and post-intervention surveys and viewed a brief educational program. Results were analyzed for pre- to post-test changes in knowledge and attitudes. Planned behavior change was also assessed. 459 participants completed pre-and post-test surveys. The sample was typically more insured (91.3 %), and college educated (76.9 %), than the general population. At baseline, respondents were knowledgeable about caries and its prevention; however, their specific knowledge about caries transmission was limited. There was a significant increase in caries knowledge from baseline to follow-up, particularly regarding caries transmission. At baseline less than half of the participants (48.8 %) knew that mothers/primary caregivers play a large role in passing cavity causing germs to children and 43.1 % knew that there is a defined period of time when the risk of transmission of cariogenic bacteria is greatest; however in post-testing 99.6 % and 98.3 % answered these question correctly respectively (p plans to prevent maternal caries transmission. The provision of web-delivered education to primary caregivers can be an effective and low cost strategy for promoting maternal and infant oral health. PMID:24357082
Albert, David; Barracks, Sharifa Z; Bruzelius, Emilie; Ward, Angela
Full Text Available Background/Aim. According to the number of active smokers, Serbia occupies a high position in Europe, as well as worldwide. More than 47% of adults are smokers according to WHO data, and 33.6% according to the National Health Survey Serbia in 2006. Smoking physicians are setting a bad example to patients, they are uncritical to this habit, rarely ask patients whether they smoke and rarely advise them not to smoke. These facts contribute to the battle for reducing the number of medical workers who smoke, as well as the number of smokers among general population. The aim of the study was to determine the smoking behavior, knowledge and attitudes and cessation advice given to patients by healthcare professionals in Serbia. Methods. A stratified random cluster sample of 1,383 participants included all types of health institutions in Serbia excluding Kosovo. The self administrated questionnaire was used to collect data about smoking habits, knowledge, attitudes and cessation advice to patients given by health professionals in Serbia. Results. Out of 1,383 participants, 45.60% were smokers, of whom 34.13% were physicians and 51.87% nurses. There were 46.4% male and 45.4% female smokers. The differences in agreement with the statements related to the responsibilities of health care professionals and smoking policy are significant between the “ever” and “never” smokers, and also between physicians and nurses. Twenty-five percent of nurses and 22% of doctors claimed they had received formal training. However, only 35.7% of the healthcare professionals felt very prepared to counsel patients, while 52.7% felt somewhat prepared and 11.6% were not prepared at all. Conclusions. According to the result of this survey, there are needs for more aggressive nationwide non-smoking campaigns for physicians and medical students. Experiences from countries where physicians smoke less and more effectively carry out smoking cessation practices need to be shared with Serbian physicians in order to improve their smoking behavior and smoking cessation practices. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43012
Construcción y validación de un cuestionario para medir conductas, conocimientos y actitudes sobre la higiene de las manos en personal sanitario en formación / Construction and Validation of a Questionnaire to Measure Behavior, Knowledge and Attitudes on Hand Hygiene in Health Personnel Training
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamento: La higiene de manos en el contexto sanitario es un comportamiento complejo. Rara vez se ha determinado el papel conjunto de los conocimientos y las actitudes como predictores de la conducta de higiene de manos. El objetivo principal del trabajo es la descripción de la elaboración de un c [...] uestionario sobre higiene de manos y el análisis de sus propiedades de medida. Método: Estudio instrumental en el que se diseñó y validó un cuestionario. Se llevó acabo en enero de 2009. Éste constó finalmente de 50 ítems que evalúan la intención de conducta antes y después del contacto con el paciente, los conocimientos declarativos y las actitudes sobre la higiene de manos. Se aplicó a 431 estudiantes de ciencias de la salud de la Universidad de Granada. Resultados: Se han realizado tres análisis factoriales, obteniendo finalmente un valor de convergencia general que explica el 46,01% de la varianza total y una alta fiabilidad (a=0,843). Existe correlación entre los conocimientos y la intención de conducta antes y después del contacto con el paciente (p Abstract in english Background: Hand hygiene in the health context is a complex behaviour. There have been rarely given the role of the knowledge and attitudes as predictors of hand hygiene behaviour. The main objective of this work is the description of the development of a questionnaire on hand hygiene and the analys [...] is of their measurement properties. Method: An instrument which was designed and validated a questionnaire. It was held in January 2009. It finally has had 50 items that assess risk behaviour intention before and after contact with the patient, declarative knowledge and attitudes about hand hygiene. It has been applied to 431 students of health sciences at the University of Granada. Results: There were three factor analysis, ultimately obtaining a general convergence value that explains 46.01% of the total variance and high reliability (a=0,843). There is correlation between knowledge and behavior intentions before and after patient contact (p
Joaquín, González-Cabrera; María, Fernández-Prada; María Dolores, Martínez-Bellón; Milagros, Fernández-Crehuet; José, Guillén-Solvas; Aurora, Bueno-Cavanillas.
Construcción y validación de un cuestionario para medir conductas, conocimientos y actitudes sobre la higiene de las manos en personal sanitario en formación / Construction and Validation of a Questionnaire to Measure Behavior, Knowledge and Attitudes on Hand Hygiene in Health Personnel Training
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamento: La higiene de manos en el contexto sanitario es un comportamiento complejo. Rara vez se ha determinado el papel conjunto de los conocimientos y las actitudes como predictores de la conducta de higiene de manos. El objetivo principal del trabajo es la descripción de la elaboración de un c [...] uestionario sobre higiene de manos y el análisis de sus propiedades de medida. Método: Estudio instrumental en el que se diseñó y validó un cuestionario. Se llevó acabo en enero de 2009. Éste constó finalmente de 50 ítems que evalúan la intención de conducta antes y después del contacto con el paciente, los conocimientos declarativos y las actitudes sobre la higiene de manos. Se aplicó a 431 estudiantes de ciencias de la salud de la Universidad de Granada. Resultados: Se han realizado tres análisis factoriales, obteniendo finalmente un valor de convergencia general que explica el 46,01% de la varianza total y una alta fiabilidad (a=0,843). Existe correlación entre los conocimientos y la intención de conducta antes y después del contacto con el paciente (p Abstract in english Background: Hand hygiene in the health context is a complex behaviour. There have been rarely given the role of the knowledge and attitudes as predictors of hand hygiene behaviour. The main objective of this work is the description of the development of a questionnaire on hand hygiene and the analys [...] is of their measurement properties. Method: An instrument which was designed and validated a questionnaire. It was held in January 2009. It finally has had 50 items that assess risk behaviour intention before and after contact with the patient, declarative knowledge and attitudes about hand hygiene. It has been applied to 431 students of health sciences at the University of Granada. Results: There were three factor analysis, ultimately obtaining a general convergence value that explains 46.01% of the total variance and high reliability (a=0,843). There is correlation between knowledge and behavior intentions before and after patient contact (p
Joaquín, González-Cabrera; María, Fernández-Prada; María Dolores, Martínez-Bellón; Milagros, Fernández-Crehuet; José, Guillén-Solvas; Aurora, Bueno-Cavanillas.
Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of the smoking habit among Mexican physicians as well as some of their attitudes and information on specific issues concerning smoking. Material and methods. In 1993, a survey was carried out among 3 568 physicians of the three major official health care institutions in Mexico City. A questionnaire designed for The Mexican National Survey of Addictions (ENA 1993 was used. Prevalence of cigarette smoking, age of onset, number of cigarettes per day; also information and attitudes concerning smoking were assessed. Results. The mean age was 37, 66% were males. Of the 3,488 (98% surveyed, 26.9% were smokers (62% daily, 20.6% were ex-smokers and 52.5% non-smokers. There were differences related to age and sex (p< 0.05. Of daily smokers, 36% smoked between 1 and 5 cigarettes. There was a significant trend among ex-smokers that linked the time they had ceased smoking with the fear to start smoking again. Physicians were well informed of the relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. Over 80% considered tobacco an addictive drug but only 65% were in favor of banning smoking from their workplaces and over 10% were not aware that it is forbidden to smoke inside health care facilities. Conclusions. These results differ from other studies that find the prevalence of smoking among physicians lower than in the general population. Our study revealed a greater prevalence of the smoking habit among female physicians and the number of cigarettes smoked per day was greater than in the general population regardless of sex.
Examines sexual behaviors, drug use, and knowledge of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among 108 runaways in Cleveland (Ohio). Results indicate variable rates of risk behavior, AIDS knowledge, and minimal drug use. Results suggest that it should not be assumed that all runaways engage in health-compromising sexual behaviors. (SLD)
Zimet, Gregory D.; And Others
Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases through the mandatory-reporting system is crucial in the planning and evaluation of disease control and prevention program. This study investigated the reporting behavior, knowledge, and attitude to reporting communicable disease in private doctors in Taiwan. The differences between the reporting and non-reporting doctors were also explored. Methods A total of 1250 clinics were randomly sampled nationwide by a 2-stage process. Data were collected from 1093 private doctors (87.4% response rate using a self-administered structured questionnaire. Four hundred and six (37.2% doctors reported having diagnosed reportable communicable diseases. Among them, 340 (83.5% have the experiences of reporting. Results The most common reasons for not reporting were "do not want to violate the patient's privacy", "reporting procedure is troublesome", and "not sure whether the diagnosed disease is reportable". Significantly higher proportions of the non-reporting doctors considered the reporting system inconvenient or were not familiar with the system. The highest percentage (65.2% of the non-reporting doctors considered that a simplified reporting procedure, among all measures, would increase their willingness to report. In addition, a significantly higher proportion of the non-reporting doctors would increase their willingness to report if there has been a good reward for reporting or a penalty for not reporting. Conclusion The most effective way to improve reporting rate may be to modify doctor's attitude to disease reporting. The development of a convenient and widely-accepted reporting system and the establishment of a reward/penalty system may be essential in improving disease reporting compliance in private doctors.
Objectives: Little is known about supplement users and their dietary behavior in India. This study was conducted with the following objectives: 1. To determine the usage of dietary supplements in health sciences students. 2. To determine their knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding micronutrients. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional, questionnaire based study conducted at a University in south India, which included second year students pursuing medical, dental and nursing courses. Data was analysed using SPSS version 19. Results: The commonest reasons for consuming supplements were to maintain good health (136, 40.1%) and ensure adequate nutrition (125, 36.9%). The respondents’ opinions about dietary supplements were generally between ‘unsure’ and ‘agree’. Medical students scored the highest percentage (44.84%) in their knowledge about micronutrients as compared to nursing (43.17%) and dental (37.8%). There was a significant difference between the scores of medical and dental students (p=0.005) while the scoring of students of medical and nursing did not vary significantly. There was no significant difference between the scoring percentage of males and females in medical and dental groups while in the nursing group female students scored a better percentage as compared to males (p=0.036). Conclusion: Although, the usage of dietary supplements in health sciences students is high, there is a dearth of knowledge, especially regarding role of micronutrients in health and disease. Hence, it is crucial this information must be highlighted in the health sciences curriculum with the objective of producing well-informed professionals who can later on have a positive impact on the health of society. PMID:25302213
Adiga, Shalini; M, Ashok
Full Text Available Objective: Despite the proved effectiveness of Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT in the treatment of many psychiatric emergencies and disorders, there are many misconceptions and groundless negative attitudes about its prescription and utilization by many health professionals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an educational experience including a two hours lecture on ECT and viewing a video of the ECT procedure on nursing students’ knowledge of and attitudes towards ECT. Methodology: A quasi experimental research design was used to conduct the current study. A 28 – items (two constructs measuring students’ attitudes and knowledge self administered questionnaire was administered before and after exposure to the two – hour lecture and a movie representing the ECT procedure to a non probability convenience sample of ninety seven female nursing students. Informed written consent was obtained from all students who agreed to participate in the study. Results: Paired sample T. test showed significant differences in students’ scores before and after their educational experience in the psychiatric/mental health nursing course as following: attitude scores (t = 20.507, P t = 20.697, p t = 23.849, p Conclusion: Positive educational experiences would increase the knowledge of ECT, which might in turn contribute to more favorable attitudes towards ECT. Proper educational materials and mass media programs aiming to increase students and practitioners’ awareness about ECT are recommended.
Assessed university students' knowledge about homosexuality in relation to their degree of homonegativism, i.e., physical, social, and emotional distancing from homosexuals, and selected personal variables. Respondents who were better informed about homosexuality proved less homonegative, particularly those with homosexual friend or family member.…
Wells, Joel W.; Franken, Mary L.
Fish is the main source of animal protein in Bangladesh. However, no previous studies I am aware of has analyzed or explored consumption and attitude toward fish in Bangladesh. In accordance with several studies in the area of food consumption behavior, this study use the Theory of Planed Behavior (TPB - Ajzen, 1991) a conceptual framework to explore the consumers attitude and consumption of fish in Dhaka city. Attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control in the traditional theory...
Ahamed, A. F. M. Jalal
Socialization includes internalization of attitudes and values critical to the development of a professional identity. Resocialization relates to the returning registered nurse student's development of professional values and roles. Nurse educators' challenge is to consider socialization/resocialization as a formation/re-formation process. The purpose of this article is to report findings from a replication qualitative descriptive study that examined the process of change in knowledge and attitudes of recent MSN graduates using Mezirow's (1994)Transformative Learning Theory. Findings substantiated the changes in attitudes, knowledge and skills of MSN graduates identified by Cragg and Andrusyszyn (2005). Results further inform nurse educators of the process of transformation in MSN graduates according to Mezirow's Phases of Perspective Transformation. PMID:20678080
Faulk, Debbie R; Parker, Francine M; Morris, Arlene H
This study explored knowledge, attitudes and practices towards HIV/AIDS infection among 1256 Egyptian industrial and tourism workers aged 16-40 years. Compared with industrial workers, tourism workers had a significantly better perception of the magnitude of the HIV/AIDS problem worldwide as well as in Egypt and of the likelihood of the problem worsening. Knowledge of tourism workers was also significantly better about causative agent of AIDS and methods of transmission. Both groups had negative attitudes towards patients living with HIV/AIDS concerning their right to confidentiality and to work. Both groups had a positive attitude towards behaviour change for protection from HIV/AIDS, principally via avoidance of extramarital sexual relations and adherence to religious beliefs. Use of condoms as a way to avoid HIV/AIDS was reported by only 0.4% of workers. PMID:19161085
El-Sayyed, N; Kabbash, I A; El-Gueniedy, M
Patient´s safety is a priority line of action in the Quality of Health Care. Adequate patient safety culture is one of the important pillars in the health care. Also the World Health Organization reports that 7 million people, of 234 million of major surgeries, suffer complications and this can be reduced by half with a system that decreases the possibility of error. Objectives: To determinate the attitude and behavior of professionals in the operating room unit in Hospital Virgen de la Salu...
María del Pilar Sánchez Moreno; Francisca Moreno Medina; José Joaquín Barrajón Martín de la Sierra; Margarita Romero Taboada
Full Text Available Background: Today, the Internet has become a part of our everyday life and online communications have made it easy for people to develop interpersonal relationships. However, certain problems and difficulties have arisen from this issue. One of these problems, which have been prevalent among couples and families, is extramarital internet relationships or internet infidelity. The present research has been done to study people's attitudes towards this phenomenon. Materials and Methods: A 43-item Internet Infidelity Questionnaire (IIQ was presented on a website designed for this purpose. 481 Iranian users who were members of Farsi language forums and chat rooms were selected through available community sampling and enrolled in the study. To analyze research data, descriptive statistics and the t-test were used.Results: The results showed that either women or men considered online sexual activities of their partners as traitorous compared with friendly and emotional activities in cyberspace. In addition, women in comparison with men had a more negative attitude towards their partners’ internet activity (especially online sexual activities.Conclusion: This study expanded our understanding of the traditional concept of infidelity that had merely limited it to face-to-face sexual and emotional behavior. The results also showed that women had more negative attitudes towards such activities compared to men.
Mohammad R. Abdi
This research was conducted for the purpose of determining the effect of education about breast cancer and breast self examination (BSE) given to female students living in the dormitory on their knowledge and attitudes. Two hundred female students staying at the Denizli Province Credit and Dormitory Institution's dormitory were taken into the sample and data were obtained using a demographic questionnaire and "Survey about Knowledge of Breast Cancer and Breast Self Examination." The research ...
Kerime Derya Beydag; Hacer Karaoglan
Purpose: To study the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) towards computer vision syndrome prevalent in Indian ophthalmologists and to assess whether ?computer use by practitioners? had any bearing on the knowledge and practices in computer vision syndrome (CVS). Materials and Methods: A random KAP survey was carried out on 300 Indian ophthalmologists using a 34-point spot-questionnaire in January 2005. Results: All the doctors who responded were ...
Bali Jatinder; Navin Neeraj; Thakur Bali
Before and 1 month after age awareness workshops, 200 British participants took the Palmore Aging Quiz and Fraboni Scale of Ageism. Palmore scores significantly improved but Fraboni scores were unchanged. Results suggest that increased awareness improves factual knowledge but does not change attitudes toward aging and older people. (Contains 18…
Stuart-Hamilton, Ian; Mahoney, Berenice
This study evaluated whether two evidence-based methods used collaboratively, intergenerational colearning and use of films/documentaries in an educational context, enhanced knowledge levels and attitudes toward older adults in nursing, social work, and other allied profession students. Students participated in a gerontology film festival where…
This study assessed how knowledge of soy protein and its relationship to heart disease influences the attitudes and practices of college students. Results showed that family members, schools, and newspapers were the primary sources of students' nutritional information. One fourth of the participating students answered at least four nutrition…
Herring, Theresa A.; Bakhiet, Raga M.
Full Text Available The study determined the relationships between food safety knowledge and practices of hospital food handlers in Davao City and also between their attitudes and practices regarding food safety. Questionnaire patterned after the Key Food Safety Guidelines of Pacific Northwest Publications was administered to 51 food handlers to generate the data. It was found that hospital food handlers in Davao City are highly knowledgeable and have favorable attitudes in food safety. The extent of food safety practices of food handlers in general is high except for their practices in cooking foods adequately and in keeping foods at safe temperatures which are only at moderate extent. In addition, there was no significant difference in the knowledge, attitudes and practices of food handlers regarding food safety when they were grouped according to sex, age, level of education and length of service. In general, this study revealed that neither of the knowledge nor attitudes of the hospital food handlers were able to establish significant relationships with their practices regarding food safety.
Jason O. Molina
We found lack of knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS transmission and means for prevention in addition to unfavorable attitudes towards HIV/AIDS individuals. We recommend an evaluation of HIV/AIDS information in the curricula of health institutes and health colleges in addition to conduction of a nationwide health education campaign on HIV/AIDS.
Yagob Y. Al-Mazrou
Surveyed the knowledge, attitudes, and perspectives of 119 Irish parents and 142 primary school teachers concerning children's grief and the concept of death education. Found high levels of understanding of the nature of children's grief, strong support for discussing death with children before they encounter it, and general support for inclusion…
McGovern, Marguerita; Barry, Margaret M.
Investigated knowledge, attitudes, and training needs of professionals working with adolescents who deliberately self-harm (DSH). Over three-quarters of participants were unaware that homosexual males and those who had been sexually abused are at greater risk of DSH; one-third were unaware adolescents who self-harm are at increased risk of…
Crawford, Tanya; Geraghty, Wendy; Street, Karen; Simonoff, Emily
This study examined personal attitudes of 152 Bachelors of Science in Nursing (BSN), registered nurse (RN) to BSN, and master's students enrolled in a school of nursing in the southwestern United States toward culturally diverse patients and their perceived knowledge of specific cultural practices and culture-specific skills. Three instruments were used to collect data: the Ethnic Attitude Scale-Part I, the Transcultural Questionnaire, and a demographic survey. Findings reveal that students in all three programs had a relatively low knowledge base about specific cultural groups. The only statistically significant difference found in attitudes, perceived knowledge of cultural patterns, or perceived cultural skills by program was the slightly higher perceived ability of generic BSN students to distinguish between concepts such as ethnocentrism and discrimination, intra- and intercultural diversity, and ethnicity and culture. Similar to other studies of measurement of provider attitudes and perceived cultural knowledge, the results of this study reinforce the struggle experienced by educators and the challenges faced by health care administrators grappling with teaching and delivering culturally competent care. The findings imply that nurse educators need to examine alternate models and teaching strategies to move students along the continuum of cultural learning. PMID:11712116
Bond, M L; Kardong-Edgren, S; Jones, M E
Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers, health educators, and social service providers before and after a training session on emergency contraceptive pills. Design: A survey study using pre-post training measurements. Setting: Two hundred and twenty-three medical, social service, and health education providers in…
Colarossi, Lisa; Billowitz, Marissa; Breitbart, Vicki
Objective: To compare the effects of learning about electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) via live observation to learning via an instructional videotape. Method: During their psychiatry clerkship, 122 medical students were randomized using these two educational methods, and their ECT knowledge and attitudes were assessed during the first and last weeks…
Warnell, Ronald L.; Duk, Anthony D.; Christison, George W.; Haviland, Mark G.
This study aimed to investigate professional staff attitudes and knowledge about adolescents who engage in self-harming behaviour and to identify training needs. Previous research has suggested that medical and health care staff perceptions may reinforce the stigma associated with such behaviour and therefore jeopardise the effectiveness of…
Timson, Debbie; Priest, Helena; Clark-Carter, David
Investigates the effect of anabolic steroid education on preadolescents' knowledge of and attitudes toward anabolic steroids with 35 male athletes. Information on psychological and physiological aspects of anabolic steroid use, weight training techniques, nutrition, social decision making, and self-esteem training were provided. Participants…
Trenhaile, Jay; Choi, Hee-Sook; Proctor, Theron B.; Work, Patricia
Many assessment studies are devoted to discovering whether student knowledge increases after successful completion of a specific course; fewer studies attempt to examine whether students undergo a change in their values and attitudes as a result of that coursework. Given the continuing emphasis on assessment and the fulfillment of core curriculum…
Martin, Pamela; Tankersley, Holley; Ye, Min
A key organizational barrier related to the implementation of open innovation strategies refers to the unwillingness of employees to undertake extra-organizational knowledge transactions. Negative attitudes against the utilization of external knowledge (i.e. the Not-invented-here (NIH) syndrome), as well as against the external commercialization of knowledge assets, for example, via licensing (i.e. the Not-sold-here (NSH) syndrome), may create resistance to these activities and, consequently, a misalignment between the intentions of top management and the attitudes of involved employees (Katz and Allen, 1982; Lichtenthaler et al., 2010). In this paper, we examine the extent to which these attitudes impact the actual adoption of both the inbound and the outbound approaches to open innovation. We posit that these attitudes have a negative influence, since they create unfavourable perceptions of the value of outside competencies and know-how, supporting only internal development and application of ideas and technologies. We test two hypotheses concerning the consequences of the NIH- and NSH-syndromes with cross-sectional survey data from 355 Danish firms. The population consists of firms in the manufacturing industries (NACE codes 10-37) with 5-499 employees. Our findings help explain the extent to which companies are able to benefit from inflows and outflows of knowledge.
Burcharth, Ana Luiza Lara de Araújo; SØndergaard, Helle Alsted
Preservation of food with ionizing radiation treatment offers many benefits to consumers. Among other factors, the lack of certainty of the acceptance of this process by the public has slowed its commercial use in the U.S. Since home economists deal with food-related issues, it is likely that they will be asked questions by the public about this process. This project was designed to obtain information using a survey method about the knowledge and attitudes of selected California home economists toward the use of irradiation to preserve food. The information was used to determine whether a need existed to provide education about the irradiation process to these professionals. The survey revealed that these home economists lacked knowledge about the irradiation process, although they had a positive attitude toward it and desired to learn more about it. Based on these findings, a 90-minute statewide teleconference was conducted and viewed by more than 300 home economists and other interested professionals. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to analyze the data. Results revealed that (a) knowledge of and a positive attitude toward food irradiation increased as a result of participation in the teleconference, (b) the information provided was helpful, and (c) the objectives of the teleconference were met. This project should be replicated using a nationwide sample of home economists to obtain information about the knowledge and attitudes of a wide range of home economists about food irradiation and, if a need is demonstrated, a nationwide teleconference should be conducted
Background: Psychiatrists are responsible for providing proper care for people with intellectual disability who have psychiatric disorders. This study examined psychiatrists' perceptions of their own training, knowledge and therapeutic skills, as well as their attitudes towards this population. Methods: Questionnaires were distributed to 679…
Werner, S.; Stawski, M.; Polakiewicz, Y.; Levav, I.
This study was designed to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of a cohort of Iranian community pharmacists about the pharmaceutical care indexes and drug therapy in female epileptic patients. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran (2011) and one hundred and twenty two community pharmacists were randomly selected using clustering method for sampling. A self-administered questionnaire which was originally made by a clinical pharmacy focus group was used. This questionnaire had 10 true/false questions for knowledge assessing (Spearman-Brown coefficient, 0.65) and 19 attitude statements (with Likert scale) about the intention of pharmacists for providing pharmaceutical care for epileptic females (Croanbach's alpha, 0.802). Face and content validity for both parts of the questionnaire were performed before the study. Results: There was a significant inverse relationship between pharmacists' knowledge on pharmaceutical care for epileptic females and the time elapsed from their graduation date. Considering the minimum passing score of 5, 85% of pharmacists did not have enough knowledge. The range of pharmacists' attitude scores was 35 to 64 and its mean was 46.09. Regarding the minimum passing score of 45, 63.3% of pharmacists had positive attitude to AEDs in epileptic females. Conclusion: It seems that the pharmaceutical care for epileptic females is a missing part of Pharmacy education. It is highly recommended to pay special attention to this topicded to pay special attention to this topic in continuing education programs for Iranian pharmacists. (author)
This study examined the effect of rehabilitation counseling students' age, sex, disability status, geographic location, marital status, religion, sexual orientation, and level of sexuality training on knowledge, comfort, approach, and attitudes toward the sexuality of people with disabilities. Participants were 312 rehabilitation counseling…
Pebdani, Roxanna N.
This study aimed to measure the effects of contact with integrated students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on the knowledge, attitudes and empathy of children (n = 224) from grades 4-6. A comparison group of children (n = 251) who had no contact with classmates with ASD was also included. All participants completed self-report instruments.…
Mavropoulou, Sophia; Sideridis, Georgios D.
Objectives: This study examined the knowledge, attitudes and practices of clinicians in promoting physical activity to prostate cancer survivors. Design: A purposeful sample was used and cross-sectional data were collected using an anonymous, self-reported online questionnaire or an identical paper-based questionnaire. Settings: Health services…
Spellman, Claire; Craike, Melinda; Livingston, Patricia M.
In this study we investigated Alberta high school counsellors' knowledge about homosexuality and their attitudes toward gay males. Three questionnaires were mailed to 648 high school counselling centres; 223 individuals returned the completed questionnaires. Most counsellors attained low scores in measured homo-negativity and high scores regarding…
Alderson, Kevin G.; Orzeck, Tricia L.; McEwen, Scott C.
The aim of the study was to investigate whether students in their fifth and sixth years of medical school in Zagreb have homophobic attitudes and assess their knowledge about homosexuality. A survey was conducted among fifth and sixth year medical students during the 2009/2010 academic year. The survey consisted of general demographic data, two validated questionnaires--"Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire" and "Heterosexual Attitudes towards Homosexuality Scale"--and questions about personal experiences created for this study. The mean knowledge scores were X = 14.8 out of 20. Furthermore, gender differences in attitudes were observed, indicating less negative attitudes among the female participants. The regression model was significant (ANOVA: Sum of Squares = 38.065; df = 17, Mean Square= 2239, F = 10.6; p homosexuality score were female gender (beta= -0.14, p = 0.015), sixth year of study (beta = -0.16, p = 0.009) and more knowledge about homosexuality (beta = -0.48, p educational efforts should be included in the curricula of medical schools to diminish the negative perceptions of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community. PMID:24851595
Grabovac, Igor; Abramovi?, Marija; Komlenovi?, Gordana; Milosevi?, Milan; Mustajbegovi?, Jadranka
The topic of sexuality and romantic relationships of people with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities was examined. We developed a questionnaire to investigate the 76 respondents' sexual knowledge, attitudes, experience, and needs. During the interviews, observational data were gathered to check the validity of the instrument. Results show…
Siebelink, Eline M.; de Jong, Menno D. T.; Taal, Erik; Roelvink, Leo
A study of 54 first-year Marshall University (West Virginia) medical students found that a preventive cardiology curriculum improved both knowledge of and attitudes about preventive cardiology in general and on all 4 subscales (epidemiological evidence, risk factor characteristics, pathophysiology, primary interventions). (Author/MSE)
Veitia, Marie C.; And Others
Compared the level of nutrition knowledge of low- and higher-income American consumers with children, and their nutrition attitudes and practices. Found that both groups had Body Mass Indexes above the range of a healthy weight, but that low-income participants were less likely to know nutrition specifics such as diet/disease relationships or…
Guthrie, Joanne F.; Morton, Joan F.
The current study explores the effectiveness of involving students in environmental science projects for their environmental knowledge and attitudes towards science. The study design is a quasi-experimental pre-post control group design. The sample was 62 11th-grade female students studying at a public school in Oman. The sample was divided into…
Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Aamri, Shamsa S.
Full Text Available This study is interested in understanding curriculum as an international text and evaluating the connections between junior high school students’ global knowledge and attitudes and the required national curriculum in Taiwan. The study also examines whether the global knowledge and attitudes vary by demographic variables. By using the Global Knowledge Scale and Global Attitudes Scale, data were collected from 1,017 students in central Taiwan and analyzed by descriptive statistics, chi-square and one-way MANOVA. The results of this study revealed that, first, the global knowledge of the junior high school students was insufficient, but their global attitudes were positive. Second, there was no gender difference in global knowledge but there was a difference in global attitudes. Third, ninth graders held significantly the highest knowledge and attitudes than eighth graders and seventh graders. Fourth, there was a socioeconomic status difference in global knowledge and attitudes. Finally, students with overseas travel experience have better global knowledge and attitudes. This study suggests that practitioners and researchers need to find practical ways to improve global education including curriculum design and implementation, teacher preparation, school environment, and students’ assessment.
Four studies on the development and validation of the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale for Heterosexuals (LGB-KASH) were conducted. Exploratory factor analysis of an initial item pool yielded 5 factors assessing internalized affirmativeness, civil rights attitudes, knowledge, religious conflict, and hate--indicating that…
Worthington, Roger L.; Dillon, Frank R.; Becker-Schutte, Ann M.
Full Text Available Introduction. People with psychiatric disorders are at high risk of oral diseases due to the impact of their primary psychiatric condition and the side-effects of antipsychotic medications. Objective. The aim of this study was to identify habits, attitudes and behavior towards oral health of hospitalized psychiatric patients with psychotic disorders, including mood disorders with psychotic characteristics, as well as to identify factors that could influence those habits, attitudes and behavior. Methods. The experimental group consisted of 186 hospitalized patients with psychiatric disorders (87 males and 99 females, aged from 18 to 59 years (mean age 46.0±8.0 years. The control group consisted of 186 healthy persons matched for age and gender. Data were obtained by using specially designed questionnaires with questions about the subjects' social, economic and demographic characteristics, as well as their habits, attitudes and behaviour concerning their oral health, in a form of a standardized interview. Other medical data were collected from medical documentation of disease history. Statistical analysis was performed by Student's t-test, Chi-square test, ANOVA, Logistic Regression and simultaneous multiple regression. Results. Psychiatric patients have worse habits, attitudes and behavior concerning their oral health in comparison with healthy persons (p<0.001: they wash their teeth more rarely and in a shorter time, have less knowledge of oral diseases and their effect on general health, and visit their dentist more rarely. The obtained results depend on social, economic and demographic characteristics and on the underlying illness of patients. Conclusion. Health educational work concerning oral health of patients should be included in psychiatric treatment, as a part of an existing therapy with the aim of improving the general quality of their life.
Full Text Available The aim of this descriptive study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of the first and fourth-year students (n=190 of Inonu University Health High School concerning HIV/AIDS. The questionnaire that developed by investigators was applied to students under observation. The main source of information was the lectures on the school. Mean scores on the knowledge of the fourth-year students were significantly higher than the first-year students. General knowledge scores of health official students were higher than midwifery and nursing students. The fourth-year students were highly knowledgeable about the transmission routes and precaution than first-year students. More than half of the students declared that they would not avoid from a person with HIV/AIDS, they would not fear to touch with a person with the disease and they would worry about getting AIDS. Nearly half of the students would not live together in the same home with a person with HIV/AIDS. Mean scores of the knowledge and the number of correct answers on main questions are definitely higher for the students. However, their some knowledge and attitudes to patients with AIDS were contradictory. This results suggest a need for effective strategies and education programmes for prevention and therapy of HIV/AIDS and developing positive attitudes to people with AIDS. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 175-180
Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients permanently confronted with serious challenges from treatment regimen. Developing a new questionnaire in MS management, through evaluation of patients’ perspectives and knowledge regarding treatment will help to identify the sources of tension, and to build a therapeutic alliance. We purposed to describe MS patients’ understanding of their treatments. Methods: About 425 completed and returned questionnaire were assessed of a total of 500 recruited MS patients. The knowledge of correct using interferon-beta (IFN-?) and attitude toward medical care were assessed using self-reported questionnaires consisted of 25 items with validity of multidisciplinary panel and pre-testing on 20 patients. Results: Knowledge about IFN-? therapy was very low; however, attitude was at a high level. Female patients, self-injection ability, higher educational level, normal functional status, delay from the start of diagnostic workup to definite diagnosis, and being younger were related to a higher level of knowledge. Attitude was associated with functional status, family history of disease and the summary of knowledge variable. Conclusion: Developing educational interventions are needed for MS patients regarding to their low levels of knowledge. PMID:25422736
Abolfazli, Roya; Elyasi, Azam; Javadi, Mohammad Reza; Gholami, Kheirollah; Torkamandi, Hassan; Amir-Shahkarami, Mohammad; Etemadifar, Masoud; Nasr, Zahra
Knowledge sharing using Knowledge Management (KM) systems helps nurses to understand and acquire appropriate knowledge that influences the quality of healthcare service. The purpose of this study was to identify organizational and individual factors influencing attitude and intention to use KM systems among Korean nurses. A cross-sectional survey design was used to study a sample of 245 nurses employed at five hospitals in Seoul. A multiple hierarchical regression was used to examine predictors of nurses' attitude and intention to use. From an individual perspective, nurse's informatics competency was identified as a significant factor influencing attitudes toward knowledge management usage within adhocracy and clan cultures. However, from an organizational perspective, level of hospital information system was identified as a significant factor influencing KM system usage within adhocracy cultures. The findings of this study will be helpful in better understanding and assessing the impact of the factors affecting the implementation of nursing knowledge management systems and in further developing successful managerial strategies using knowledge resources in healthcare settings. PMID:23806194
Yun, Eun Kyoung
Full Text Available Background and aim: Osteoporosis, a multifactor disease characterized by reduction of bone mass. It is a major cause of fractures especially femoral fractures leading to morbidity, mortality and decreased quality of life. Although there is no known cure, osteoporosis and related fractures are largely preventable. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP are the important components of any effective preventive program.The purpose of this investigation was to determine the level of KAP of osteoporosis among a group of Iranian adolescent females. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted to determine the KAP level of osteoporosis on 626 randomly selected school girls aged 10-19 (13.9±1.4 years coming from rural and urban regions of Tehran and other provinces to students' camp in north of Tehran. A designed questionnaire with four parts containing questions regarding demographic information, knowledge, attitude and practice was used in this study. Questions were made based on YES/NO and Don't Know in knowledge and attitude (this third option allowed the respondent a choice without guessing and just Yes /No related to the practice. Students were asked to read the guidelines and then to complete the questionnaire when they were in the camp. We descript +2 for correct responses, 0 for incorrect responses and +1 for don't know answers. The ethical committee of the Iran University of Medical Sciences & Health services approved the study. The SPSS version 11.5 statistical software was used for analysis. ANOVA, Pearson and student t-test were performed to compare mean values and significant P- value was considered at P<0.05. Results: The total score of KAP was 2-65(43.3±13.8 .In details a range between 14-30(23±2.9, 10-22(19.2±2.4 and 2-18(10.1±2.8 were seen in knowledge, attitude and practice respectively. There was a direct correlation between total score of KAP and parents' education. Students& Knowledge and attitude, and also attitude and practice had a positive correlation. There were no relationship between parents occupation, family number and total score of KAP. Conclusion: Iranian adolescent females would have relevant knowledge about osteoporosis but attitude and practice of them were less than knowledge. We recommend to perform further training programs to increase practice of Iranian young women about osteoporosis.
Jalil Kuhpayeh Zadeh
This study examines demographic, cognitive and behavioral factors that predict pediatric dog-bite injury risk in rural China. A total of 1,537 children (grades 4-6) in rural regions of Anhui, Hebei and Zhejiang Provinces, China completed self-report questionnaires assessing beliefs about and behaviors with dogs. The results showed that almost 30% of children reported a history of dog bites. Children answered 56% of dog-safety knowledge items correctly. Regressions revealed both demographic and cognitive/behavioral factors predicted children's risky interactions with dogs and dog-bite history. Boys behaved more riskily with dogs and were more frequently bitten. Older children reported greater risks with dogs and more bites. With demographics controlled, attitudes/beliefs of invulnerability, exposure frequency, and dog ownership predicted children's self-reported risky practice with dogs. Attitudes/beliefs of invulnerability, dog exposure, and dog ownership predicted dog bites. In conclusion, both demographic and cognitive/behavioral factors influenced rural Chinese children's dog-bite injury risk. Theory-based, empirically-supported intervention programs might reduce dog-bite injuries in rural China. PMID:23470881
Shen, Jiabin; Li, Shaohua; Xiang, Huiyun; Pang, Shulan; Xu, Guozhang; Schwebel, David C
Full Text Available This study examines demographic, cognitive and behavioral factors that predict pediatric dog-bite injury risk in rural China. A total of 1,537 children (grades 4–6 in rural regions of Anhui, Hebei and Zhejiang Provinces, China completed self-report questionnaires assessing beliefs about and behaviors with dogs. The results showed that almost 30% of children reported a history of dog bites. Children answered 56% of dog-safety knowledge items correctly. Regressions revealed both demographic and cognitive/behavioral factors predicted children’s risky interactions with dogs and dog-bite history. Boys behaved more riskily with dogs and were more frequently bitten. Older children reported greater risks with dogs and more bites. With demographics controlled, attitudes/beliefs of invulnerability, exposure frequency, and dog ownership predicted children’s self-reported risky practice with dogs. Attitudes/beliefs of invulnerability, dog exposure, and dog ownership predicted dog bites. In conclusion, both demographic and cognitive/behavioral factors influenced rural Chinese children’s dog-bite injury risk. Theory-based, empirically-supported intervention programs might reduce dog-bite injuries in rural China.
David C. Schwebel
Full Text Available Introduction. The family provides the background for developing behaviors, attitudes and knowledge related to oral health of children. The aim of this study was to compare oral health behavior of parents and their children and to asses the impact of parental behavior on children’s oral health. Material and Methods. This cross-sectional study included 99 parent - child pairs (12 to 15 years old. Data on oral health behavior, knowledge and attitudes regarding oral hygiene, fluorides and nutrition of parents and their children were collected by questionnaires. The parental dental health was assessed according to self-reported data on tooth loss and prosthodontic rehabilitation, while the dental status of children was determined by clinical examination. Results. The parents reported the use of dental floss (p < 0.001 and mouth rinses (p<0.05 more often than their children and they had better knowledge on fluorides. Approximately one third of parents thought they should not control sugar consumption of their child. There was a statistically significant correlation between parental oral hygiene and their habit to control the child in brushing with the child’s oral health status. Conclusion. Oral health education activities directed towards the prevention of risk factors for developing caries should involve both parents and their children, because parental behavior is a significant predictor of children’s oral health.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine developmental changes in metacognitive knowledge of reading strategies and attitudes toward reading during early adolescence (from 10 to 14 years, taking gender into account. A secondary aim was also to test a model of the relationships among gender, attitudes toward reading, metacognitive knowledge of reading strategies, and reading comprehension. The sample for this longitudinal study consisted of 175 students. The first data collection took place when the students were enrolled in grade 4 (10 years old, and the follow-up measurements were conducted in grades 6 and 8. At each measurement point, measures of metacognitive knowledge of reading strategies and attitudes toward reading were applied in addition to text comprehension tasks. The obtained results indicated that metacognitive knowledge of reading strategies continuously improved during early adolescence, while attitudes toward recreational reading showed continuous decline from the fourth to the eighth grade, and attitudes toward academic reading dropped significantly between sixth and eighth grades. Girls consistently demonstrated better metacognitive knowledge, as well as more positive attitudes toward both recreational and academic reading when compared to boys. The model that included only attitudes toward recreational reading fitted the data better than the model comprising both academic and recreational reading attitudes. The findings of the path analysis indicated that gender had an effect on recreational reading attitudes that consistently predicted text comprehension directly and indirectly through metacognitive knowledge during early adolescence. The model fitted the data better as students got older.
Objectives This study explored sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices of female only-child undergraduates and made a comparison with students with siblings. Methods Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the effects of only-child on sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices among female undergraduates. Results Of 4,769 female undergraduate students, 41.0% were only-child and 59.0% were students with siblings. Compared with students with siblings, only-child students scored higher on sex-related knowledge, were more inclined to agree with premarital sex, multiple sex partners, one-night stands, extramarital lovers and homosexuality, and were more likely to have a boyfriend and experience sexual intercourse (73.6% vs. 61.4%; 24.0% vs. 14.0%). Only-children were less likely to experience coercion at first sex and have first sexual intercourse with men not their “boyfriends” than children with siblings (3.3% vs. 6.4%; 20.7% vs. 28.8%). There were no significant differences on other risky sexual behaviors (e.g. multiple sex partners and inconsistent condom use) between the only-child students and students with siblings. Conclusions Sexual knowledge, attitudes and some practices of only-child female undergraduates were different from students with siblings. Intervention should be designed according to different requirements of only-children and non-only-children. PMID:24023905
Li, Shiyue; Chen, Rucheng; Cao, Yue; Li, Jingjing; Zuo, Dan; Yan, Hong
Full Text Available Ethical norms for business practices differ by intensity and variety across countries so managers from multinational corporations (MNCs entering transitional economies must be able to staff subsidiaries understanding this dilemma. The aim of this article is to get a better understanding of workers’ behavior and attitudes with respect to business ethics in Croatia. We explored four ethics issues: (1 attitude to ethical issues in general, (2 information manipulation, (3 environmental issues and (4 law issues. The question we pose is: can workers be placed into meaningful groups by consideration of the variation in a number of economic, demographic and behavioral/attitudinal traits? Improved knowledge of ethical behavior of different groups of workers should be useful to managers and policy makers who want to encourage ethical behavior among those segments of population where it is currently rare. Results could be useful both to policy makers at the government level, and to the managers who might be worried that a low sensitivity to ethical issues could influence their firms’ performance.
Full Text Available AIM: The aims of this study were; to determine incidence of pesticide intoxication among individual who live in homes with farmers and to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and behavior of employees agriculture area about pesticide. METHOD: The study was conducted in six villages in Egirdir and Gelendost districts where the most commonly apple produced and pesticide applied. In addition, the data were collected using the questionnaire prepared to evaluated sociodemographic status, individual pesticide application, information about pesticides. The incidence of pesticide intoxication was determined during the last year. RESULTS: The prevalence of pesticide poisoning was defined as 1.3% in the research group in the past year. Seventy five of poisoning cases were under 15 years. The various symptoms and complaints were seen in 71% of the research group during application or then. Those were determined that personal protective measures were not careful enough, and gloves, masks, special clothing and boots were not worn during spraying, and pesticide application was made more than the recommended dose, and the time required to wait were not followed after application and before harvest. CONCLUSION: Individuals who apply the pesticides should be educated systematically about the recommended dosages, some harmful effects substance to environment, products and to human health, together with protection methods. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 633-644
Recent research suggests that social standards for ideal female beauty are related to negative body-image and dieting among young women. We hypothesized that women who work in settings that emphasize physical appearance (women's fashion clothing sales) would have more disturbed body attitudes and eating behaviors than college women. Sales personnel (n = 21) and students (n = 25) answered questions about their occupational status, weight, and demographic characteristics, and completed the Body-esteem Scale and the Eating Disorder Inventory. Weight and scores on the two scales were similar in both groups except that sales personnel reported more dissatisfaction with their body parts on the Body dissatisfaction scale of the Eating Disorder Inventory. Among sales personnel, those who perceived their appearance to be of greater importance in their work also reported more concern about dieting and weight, as reflected on the Drive for thinness subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory. Results are discussed with regard to situational influences on women's body attitudes and their implications for eating behaviors. PMID:2263693
Waddell-Kral, L; Thomas, C D
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to scrutiny the impact of knowledge inertia on entrepreneurial behaviors of university students. Two dimensions of knowledge inertia –learning inertia; to acquire knowledge insistently on the same source and experience inertia; to use the former methodology and past experience persistently while encountering the difficulties-and entrepreneurial behaviors are investigated through the questionnaire. In this regard, the relationship of the two dimensions of knowledge inertia with entrepreneurial behavior was investigated. After collecting and analyzing the data, the results indicate that there is a meaningful relation between knowledge inertia and entrepreneurial behavior. There is also meaningful negative relation between learning inertia and entrepreneurial behavior. On the other hand, there is a positive relationship between experience inertia and entrepreneurial behavior.
Mustafa Fedai Cavus
The purpose of this preliminary study is to survey the attitude and knowledge of radiation and radioiodine treatment in thyroid cancer patients. Fifty-two thyroid cancer patients who were prepared for radioactive iodine treatment at Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital were requested to fill the questionaires before and after receiving the information about radioiodine treatment. The questionaires consisted of 12 questions of which the first five were about the attitude to radiation and radioiodine treatment. The rest was about an information on radioiodine treatment. For data analysis, firstly the percentage of correct answer of each question was calculated and compared between pre- and post-test. Secondly all patients were categorized into 2 groups according to their education: upto high school, and undergraduate or higher. The attitude and the understanding about radioiodine treatment were analyzed in each group. The results show that post-test gives higher percentages of correct answers for all questions with an average of 29% improvement. For upto high school group, the attitude improves from 69.4% to 97.2% and the understanding about radioiodine treatment improves from 88.9% to 100%. Similarly, for the undergraduate or higher group,the attitude improves from 93.3% to 100% and the understanding about radioiodine treatment improves from 73.3% to 100%. It may be concluded that our education intervention is infoed that our education intervention is informative and the well-educated patients have better attitude to radiation
Oral cancer awareness among future dental practitioners may have an impact on the early detection and prevention of oral cancer. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to assess the current knowledge of future Saudi dentists on oral cancer and their opinions on oral cancer prevention. A pretested questionnaire was sent to 550 undergraduate dental students in the fourth, fifth, and sixth year of the Al-Farabi College for Dentistry and Nursing, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Questions relating to knowledge of oral cancer, risk factors, and opinions on oral cancer prevention and practices were posed. Four hundred seventy-nine students returned the questionnaire (87.1 %). Eighty-one percent of respondents correctly answered questions relating to oral cancer awareness. Eighty-seven percent of respondents felt confident in performing a systematic oral examination to detect changes consistent with oral malignancy. Interestingly, 57 % of respondents had seen the use of oral cancer diagnostics aids. Thirty-seven percent of respondents felt inadequately trained to provide tobacco and alcohol cessation advice. There is a need to reinforce the undergraduate dental curriculum with regards to oral cancer education; particularly in its prevention and early detection. Incorporating the use of oral cancer diagnostic aids should be made mandatory. PMID:24699922
Kujan, Omar; Alzoghaibi, Ibrahim; Azzeghaiby, Saleh; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Tarakji, Bassel; Hanouneh, Salah; Idress, Majdy; Alenzi, Faris Q; Iqbal, Mazhar; Taifour, Shahama
Full Text Available In higher education, cheating has appeared as an important problem. It has increasingly led to the inaccurate results obtained from the measurements related to the students’ knowledge and skill gains and to the significant deviations to reach to the objectives of the education strategies to be implicated. The aim of the study is to determine the students’ attitude and behaviors related to their cheating motivations at Faculty of Agriculture, Ataturk University. The results of the study showed that positivist approach, unfair competition effects on the students’ success and the external negative motivation sources were the most important factors preventing their cheating motivation. On the other hand, the results also showed that the most factors stimulating cheating motivation were the external and internal positive motivation, not suitable of exam type, appropriateness of the physical facilities and the exam organizers’ illegal attitude and behaviors. Positive motivation sources could be drawn up by regulations and statutes to create a negative impact by eliminating the most appropriate factors motivating the students to cheat at the exam, and thus it could be made more affective evaluations for their knowledge and skills gains and selected the most appropriate education strategies.
Full Text Available This cross-sectional study among 1597 tertiary level students, 757 (48% males and 832 (52% females (9 respondents no mention of gender, from 12 institutions, across Papua New Guinea, examined their level of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about HIV/AIDS. The study revealed that the majority of the students have a very good knowledge of HIV/AIDS; in general students have a considerate and compassionate attitude towards those infected with HIV/AIDS; and the students have positive and healthy attitudes and beliefs regarding HIV/AIDS. Among the demographic variables of gender, province and the institution of their study a significant difference showed in their levels of knowledge and also a statistically significant association was found between beliefs and knowledge. Interestingly, about 58% of the students think that HIV/AIDS is a punishment from God. Almost half (46.5% of the respondents think that learning about sex and the use of condoms could also encourage young people to engage in more frequent sex. Although, in general the students have a very good knowledge, they indicate the need for more sex education and awareness pro-grams about HIV/AIDS that could be given in high schools.
Full Text Available Nelson Barber1, Christopher Taylor2, Sandy Strick31College of Human Sciences, Box 41240 Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA; 2School of Business, Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, NM, USA; 3School of Hotel, Restaurant, and Tourism Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USAAbstract: The last two decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in environmental consciousness worldwide. Consumers are now changing their behavior to integrate environmental considerations into lifestyle choices. This change includes consumers’ purchasing decisions based upon how well products satisfy their needs and how these products affect the natural environment. In some cases, consumers are willing to pay a premium for environmentally friendly products. Marketing professes to serve the benefit of the public by informing them of the availability of goods and services that will advance their quality of life. However, this is only true if marketing’s communication approach and methods of promotion aid in informing, educating, and channeling the needs of current and future consumers toward “green” products and services. Using wine as the product, the purpose of this study is to determine the relationship of a consumer’s involvement with a product and the environment, their knowledge of environmental issues and attitudes toward the environment, and their willingness to purchase the product. The results suggest personality segmentation, through selective marketing and redirecting of consumers needs and wants toward environmentally friendly wine products. For example, what wine consumers actually know about environmental wine issues is associated with their involvement with environmental issues more than what they self-assess they know about wine.Keywords: environmental knowledge, green products, wine
To investigate the knowledge and attitudes of patients towards lumbar puncture (LP), its complications, and indications. In a questionnaire survey, patients who were referred to the general neurology outpatient clinic at Nemazee Hospital in Shiraz, Iran, from January 2007 to January 2008 were invited to complete a questionnaire consisting of items on demographic and socioeconomic variables, experiences with LP and complications, and knowledge of and attitudes regarding LP. A total of 410 patients were recruited (58% women, mean age 33.2 + - 2.7 years). Poor knowledge of LP was highly prevalent (92.6%), and negative attitudes toward LP were also common (63%) among our patients. Skepticism regarding LP was directly related to lack of information (p=0.00007). Lower socioeconomic status, lower educational level, and residence in rural areas were associated with being less well informed about LP, but interestingly those who had experience with LP before were better informed and had more positive attitudes. It is possible to overcome reluctance to undergo LP through education of its indications, contraindications, and complications. (author)
Arts-based programs have improved HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in general and at-risk populations. With HIV transformed into a chronic condition, this study compares patients at consecutive stages of receiving antiretroviral treatment, coinciding with exposure to a radio-and-theater-based educational program (unexposed [N = 120],…
Nambiar, Devaki; Ramakrishnan, Vimala; Kumar, Paresh; Varma, Rajeev; Balaji, Nithya; Rajendran, Jeeva; Jhona, Loretta; Chandrasekar, Chokkalingam; Gere, David
Full Text Available Introduction: We report about the direct short-term effects of a Clinical Epidemiology and Evidence-based Medicine (CE-EBM module on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of students in the University Medical Center Utrecht (UMCU, Universitas Indonesia (UI, and University of Malaya (UM. Methods: We used an adapted version of a 26-item validated questionnaire, including four subscales: knowledge, attitude, behavior, and future use of evidence-based practice (EBP. The four components were compared among the students in the three medical schools before the module using one-way ANOVA. At the end of the module, we measured only knowledge and attitudes. We computed Cronbach's ? to assess the reliability of the responses in our population. To assess the change in knowledge and attitudes, we used the paired t-test in the comparison of scores before and after the module. Results: In total, 526 students (224 UI, 202 UM, and 100 UMCU completed the questionnaires. In the three medical schools, Cronbach's ? for the pre-module total score and the four subscale scores always exceeded 0.62. UMCU students achieved the highest pre-module scores in all subscales compared to UI and UM with the comparison of average (SD score as the following: knowledge 5.04 (0.4 vs. 4.73 (0.69 and 4.24 (0.74, p<0.001; attitude 4.52 (0.64 vs. 3.85 (0.68 and 3.55 (0.63, p<0.001; behavior 2.62 (0.55 vs. 2.35 (0.71 and 2.39 (0.92, p=0.016; and future use of EBP 4.32 (0.59 vs. 4.08 (0.62 and 3.7 (0.71, p<0.01. The CE-EBM module increased the knowledge of the UMCU (from average 5.04±0.4 to 5.35±0.51; p<0.001 and UM students (from average 4.24±0.74 to 4.53±0.72; p<0.001 but not UI. The post-module scores for attitude did not change in the three medical schools. Conclusion: EBP teaching had direct short-term effects on knowledge, not on attitude. Differences in pre-module scores are most likely related to differences in the system and infrastructure of both medical schools and their curriculum.
Indah S. Widyahening
There is a paucity of information about what college-age men know about testicular cancer, making targeted educational programs difficult. The most common age group affected by testicular cancer is 15- to 40-year-olds. Therefore, educating young men, including the college population, becomes paramount. Six focus groups were conducted with men between the ages of 18 and 23 years (N = 31) at a large public university in the Northeast. Major topics included risk factors for testicular cancer, screening and diagnosis, treatments, psychological effects, and beliefs about prevention and cure. Focus groups revealed college students have poor knowledge and even less understanding of testicular cancer. Students were interested in learning about testicular cancer and other health topics affecting college men, such as healthy diet and exercise and common infectious diseases on college campuses. Simple means to educate college men included courses or assignments that focused on health issues, brief factual information, health fairs, peer educators, and celebrity guest speakers. PMID:19482795
Daley, Christine Makosky
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: comparar o conhecimento e percepção em terapia nutricional (TN) de residentes de cirurgia e cirurgiões. MÉTODOS: foram aplicados dois questionários padronizados sobre conhecimentos, atitudes e condutas em TN de 50 médicos (35 residentes e 15 cirurgiões) de 12 áreas cirúrgicas distintas. Ut [...] ilizando-se o teste exato de Fisher, com significância de 5% com p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To compare the knowledge of nutritional therapy (NT) of surgery residents and surgeons. METHODS: We applied two standardized questionnaires on knowledge, attitude and behavior regarding NT to 50 physicians (35 residents and 15 surgeons) of 12 different surgical areas. We compared the prop [...] ortions of hits according to the perception on the subject of each group using the Fisher exact test, with 5% significance and p
Danilo Andriatti, Paulo; Bruno Mauricio Rodrigues de, Oliveira; Davi Wei Ming, Wang; Maysa Penteado, Guimarães; Celso, Cukier; Gaspar de Jesus, Lopes Filho.
Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD has been realized as a primary cause of death in women for almost a century. However, the relationship between women’s knowledge, their wish and action on practicing heart healthy lifestyle is still vague. Aim and Objectives: This research aimed to determine the association between knowledge and attitude, knowledge and practice and attitude and practice on cardiovascular disease among women in Kelantan. Methods/ Study Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in Kelantan, Malaysia. A total of 448 women attended primary care facilities in Kelantan were included in this study. Twostage sampling process was used to select clinics in all districts in Kelantan followed by female participants from selected clinics attendance lists. Recruited were non illiterate young adult women up to 65 years of age and without psychotic symptoms. Consented participants were given a set of validated KAP questionnaire that should be completed within 15 minutes. Findings: The respondents’ mean age was about 40 years with majority of them having secondary educational level and coming from low socio-economic group. Among them, 56.8% involved in tobacco products and 41.3% reported as having CVD related medical illnesses, especially obesity (23.7% and hypertension (17.6%. About 56.2% had family history of CVD risk. Only 26.8% of them obtained the CVD information from health care workers. The good knowledge, attitude and practice score were 55.6%, 55.1 % and 51.1% accordingly. There were significant association between attitude and knowledge, practice and knowledge and practice and attitude which were found to be strong (0.10, 0.20, (0.10, 0.18 and (0.26, 0.40 95% CI, respectively and is independent with socio-demographic and personal disease characteristic. Conclusion: Positive relationship between knowledge, attitude and practice will encourage primary care doctors to take this challenge to educate, motivate community and provide full support to those who wish to modify their lifestyle.
Found significant differences between male and female college students' (n=641) attitudes toward premarital sex among casual acquaintances and attitudes toward extramarital, oral-genital, and anal sex, with males expressing more liberal attitudes. Found no significant differences between males' and females' attitudes toward premarital sex when…
Wilson, Stephan M.; Medora, Nilufer P.
The present study reports the results of knowledge and attitudes of 280 children (mean age = 6.9 +/- 0.75 years) towards cigarettes and smoking. Subjects were divided into two groups: (I) children of parents who smoked (n = 178) and (II) children whose parents did not smoke (n = 102). The scoring for knowledge in the topics of cigarettes, smoking and the consequences was similar in the two groups (6.2 +/- 2.2 vs 6.1 +/- 2) (N.S.). The differences between the two groups were obvious and significant (p = 0.001) in their attitude towards smoking and its damage; children in group I displayed tolerant attitudes towards smoking even though they knew its consequences in comparison with the children of group II (6.1 +/- 2.4 vs 7.0 +/- 2.2). Without any exceptions among the children of the two groups, 7.4% believe that even at this young age they will begin to smoke one day. In addition, 2.1% pointed out that it is possible they will belong one day to the smokers' group. Of the population study, 90.2% believe that instruction about smoking damage should be included starting from the first grade of elementary school, and certainly, it should be at the level which will be understandable for them. As the pupils' knowledge about the consequences of smoking was lacking, we could add that the important topic of smoking and the damage it can inflict should be taught in all schools from the level of the first grade and during all subsequent years of study. Pupils should be familiar with all aspects of negative consequences caused by cigarette smoking. This knowledge may have influence upon their attitude towards smoking and smokers. More studies should be done to find what may change the positive attitudes of these pupils towards cigarettes and smoking. PMID:10640119
Brook, U; Mendelberg, A; Galili, A; Priel, I; Bujanover, Y
Full Text Available The present article challenges the prevailing perception in the field of environmental education that acquisition of environmental behavior is an ultimate goal of the educational process, in comparison to acquisition of environmental attitudes, which is perceived as a minor goal. The article presents a compilation of results obtained from two studies that shed new light on the relationship between influences on environmental attitudes and influences on environmental behavior. The results suggest that: (a among adults, the strategies required for influencing attitudes are different from those required for influencing behaviors; (b the mechanisms for achieving influence among children are different from those among adults; and (c conventional educational approaches, such as behavior modification, can influence behavior more easily than they can influence attitudes. The results provide grounds for questioning the prevailing belief that individual acquisition of responsible environmental behavior can drive changes on the global political scale. We suggest increasing the focus of environmental education on construction of attitudes.
This study analyzes the usefulness of an attitude-based target group approach in predicting the ecological impact of mobility behavior. Based on a survey of 1,991 inhabitants of three large German cities, constructs derived from an expanded version of the Theory of Planned Behavior were used to identify distinct attitude-based target groups. Five groups were identified, each representing a unique combination of attitudes, norms, and values. The groups differed significantly from each other with regard to travel-mode choice, distances traveled, and ecological impact. In comparison with segmentations based on sociodemographic and geographic factors, the predictive power of the attitude-based app