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University students and AIDS: knowledge, attitudes and behavioral adjustment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study addresses the relations between AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior change among university students. A questionnaire covering such issues and personal background variables was administered to 750 students at the University of Zagreb. Over-all, 62.7% of the knowledge items were answered correctly, while functional, self-protective aspects of knowledge proved to be much better than general knowledge. On the average, attitudinal responses were moderately liberal. Both self-reported change in risk-reduction behavior and personal concern due to the appearance of AIDS were very small. Correlations of risk-reducing behavior with permissive (.15) and restrictive (.14) attitude orientations and with general and functional knowledge (.08) were modest. The level of personal concern correlated neither with permissive attitudes nor with functional knowledge, while it correlated negatively with restrictive attitudes (-.20) and with general knowledge (-.08). Substantial association was only established between functional knowledge and permissive (.51) and restrictive attitude orientations (-.23). It is concluded that, in addition to knowledge and attitudes, a number of factors which restrain desired behavioral adjustment should be considered in anti-AIDS campaigns, such as perceived level of exposure to HIV in a particular environment, young age-specific illusion of invulnerability, peer norms, and others.

Ajdukovi? D; Ajdukovi? M

1991-08-01

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Health behavior, knowledge and attitudes among Swedish university students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A range of health behaviors was related to beliefs concerning health practices and health knowledge. A questionnaire dealing with health-related practices, health beliefs and knowledge of health risk factors was answered by 166 male and 179 female students aged 18-30 years at Stockholm University. Female students reported engaging in better health behavior than males. Beliefs about the importance of health behaviors were closely related to their frequency of occurrence. There was only a weak relationship between health behaviors and knowledge of specific health matters. It is concluded that health attitudes rather than health knowledge determine health behavior.

Näslund GK; Fredrikson M

1993-09-01

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Oral health knowledge attitudes and behaviors of migrant preschooler parents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to establish baseline data about oral health knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of migrant and seasonal farm workers (MSFW). The study focused on MSFWs that are parents of preschool-aged children, and who utilized services at 3 migrant dental clinics. METHODS: An oral health knowledge attitudes and behaviors survey was developed and pilot tested in 2006. The resulting 34 item survey was administered by trained promotores de salud (community health workers) to 45 parents of preschoolers (15 at each clinic site) served by 3 migrant dental clinics. Parents answered questions as they pertained to their oldest preschooler (up to age 5). RESULTS: Dental visits in the last 12 months were reported for 26 (58%) of the children. Fifteen parents (33%) had a dental visit in the last year. Thirty-five parents (77/8%) reported their child's oral health to be good, and 21 (46.7%) reported their own to be good. Half of the children were enrolled in Head Start (HS). Of those, 18 (79%) had a dental visit in the last year, whereas 8 (36%) of those not enrolled in HS had a visit. Discrepancies existed for the age parents believed children should stop using a bottle and the age they actually did stop using a bottle. There were discrepancies in knowledge about decay causing drinks and consumption of drinks by preschool-aged children. CONCLUSIONS: MSFWs remain an underserved population with poor access to oral health care and multiple factors affecting oral health knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. A better understanding of influences on oral health knowledge, attitudes and behaviors within the population can assist in implementing appropriate interventions for the maintenance of good oral health in MSFW families. HS can have a positive impact on oral health for MSFW children.

Lukes SM

2010-01-01

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ADVERSE DRUG REACTION: COMMUNITY PHARMACISTS KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many hospitalizations in India are due to Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR) and resulting in morbidity and mortality in majority cases in addition to the huge economic burden. A survey was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and behavior of community pharmacists towards ADR related aspects. One hundred and twenty eight pharmacists from various Community pharmacies in two Districts of South India were consented in this survey. A questionnaire was prepared to investigate the knowledge, attitude and behavior of pharmacists regarding ADR reporting and distributed to the identified pharmacies. The data was collected and analyzed by ANOVA and t- test. Out of 342 community pharmacies approached, 128 (37.4%) community pharmacists consented to be part of the survey and the questionnaire given was filled and returned by them. Out of these respondents, only 39 (30.5%) pharmacists had knowledge about ADR, 15 (11.7%) and 14 (10.9%) were aware of National Pharmacovigilance Program (NPP) and regional reporting centers respectively. Only 54 (43%) agreed that ADR reporting is a professional obligation of pharmacist and none of the respondents reported ADRs. The main reason for not reporting any ADR was ‘they did not know how to report’ and ‘did not feel its beneficial’. This survey revealed that the community pharmacists were having least scores towards knowledge, attitude and behavior on ADRs in Indian Scenario.

Sandeep A; Mamatha GT; Bhimaray Krishnagoudar; Mahadevamma L; Ravi Katti Venkappa; Shaik Shafia Begum; Girish HR

2012-01-01

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Measures of Diabetic Patient Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Regarding Self-Care. Appendix C to Summary Report: New Measures of Diabetic Patient Behavior, Knowledge, and Attitudes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The research goal was to develop a battery of reliable and valid questions that measure the self-care knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of diabetic patients in content areas specified by experts as most important. Questionnaires were developed and admini...

K. H. Marquis J. E. Ware D. A. Relles

1979-01-01

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Evaluation of the effects of cancer education on knowledge, attitude, and behavior of university undergraduate students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Reviews indicate that multiple predisposing factors such as knowledge, attitudes, and values significantly influence health-related practices and lifestyle. Some predispositions, such as basic knowledge about and attitudes toward cancer, are conducive to change through education. This study has investigated the effects of cancer education on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior scores of students concerning cancer prevention. A quasiexperimental design using pretests and posttests was the design of choice. The undergraduate students served as the experimental group and enrolled in an elective course entitled "The Nature of Cancer." Another group of students enrolled in the elective course "Sex Education" and served as a control group for one semester. A battery of instruments consisting of cancer prevention attitudes, knowledge, and behavior was used to measure the dependent variables. The findings, using a split-plot model for repeated measure data, revealed significant improvements in attitude, knowledge, and behavior scores for the experimental group over the control group.

Torabi MR; Seffrin JR

1989-01-01

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Frogs Sell Beer: The Effects of Beer Advertisements on Adolescent Drinking Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

This present research reveals how beer advertising affects adolescents' knowledge of beer brands, drinking attitudes, and drinking behaviors. In addition to traditional psychological approaches for measuring media effects on alcohol-related behaviors and attitudes, market research advertising tracking methods were included to permit a clearer and…

Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.; Bloomgren, Barry W., Jr.; Atti, Jule A.; Norman, Jessica A.

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Knowledge, Attitudes, and Informational Behaviors of College Students in Regard to the Human Papillomavirus  

Science.gov (United States)

|Objective: To assess students' human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants/ Methods: Students (N = 1,282) at a large, public university in the Northeast United States completed a questionnaire during February 2008 assessing HPV knowledge, prevalence, transmission, cervical cancer risk and stigma; sexual behavior,…

Sandfort, Jessica R.; Pleasant, Andrew

2009-01-01

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Behavior, Knowledge and Attitude of Iranian Professional Athletes towards Smoking  

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Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to assess the rate of tobacco consumption among professional athletes in Iran and assessing their knowledge and attitude in this regard.Methods: A total of 738 athletes from 10 different types of sports were evaluated. Athletes were all members of the priority leagues. After obtaining consent from the Physical Education Organization and coordination with the related federations, athletes were asked to fill out the standard questionnaire.Findings: All understudy subjects were males. The mean age was 28.4±2.7 yrs. The mean age of initiation of sport in these subjects was reported to be 12.3±4.01 yrs. A total of 178 (24.6%) subjects had experienced cigarette smoking and 308 (42.3%) had experienced hookah smoking. Sixty four subjects (9%) were current smokers. The mean score of knowledge about hazards of smoking was 5.6±0.9 among those who had experienced smoking. This score was 7.9±0.5 among those with no smoking experience (P=0.04).Conclusion: Rate of smoking among professional athletes is lower than general population average. So participation in organized sports may be a protective factor against tobacco use in people. Percentage of smoker athletes was significantly higher in individual sports compared to team sports. Experiencing hookah smoking was significantly higher than cigarette smoking among athletes. Athletes had good knowledge about hazards of smoking and had a positive attitude in this respect. Further studies are needed to evaluate reasons of cigarette and hookah smoking among athletes.

Zahra Hessami; Mahshid Aryanpur; Habib Emami; Mohammadreza Masjedi

2012-01-01

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Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of Workers towards Occupational Health and Safety  

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Full Text Available "nBackground: Studies show that about 90% of accidents occur because of unsafe behavior and human errors. Even if workers do not have the right knowledge, attitude and behavior toward safety measures in a safe workplace, all efforts for an accident-free workplace will be in vain. This study aims to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and behavior of workers toward occupational health and safety."nMethods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on workers in Mahshahr Razy Petrochemical Complexm Ahwaz, Iran. A sample size of 210 was randomly selected. Data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. Ques­tionnaire's validity was gained by content-validity and its reliability was validated by Kronbach's alpha. Data was analyzed using SPSS 13."nResults: Mean age of workers was 31.1 years. The mean of their knowledge, attitude and behavior was reported 26.02, 153.18 and 36, respectively. 52.9% of workers had low, 36.7% moderate and 10.5% high level of knowledge. In addition, 75.7% of the subjects had a positive attitude towards occupational health and safety; 30% of workers had low safety behavior and 70% had safe behavior. The mean of knowledge grade shows a significant relationship with education level. A same relationship was reported for the mean of attitudes and behavior with age."nConclusion: Managers should design and implement educational interventions to promote knowledge, attitude and safe behaviors of workers.

H Sanaei Nasab; R Tavakoli; F Ghofranipour; A Kazemnejad; A Khavanin

2009-01-01

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Do smoking and health education influence student nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and professional behavior?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Student nurses are an important target group for smoking prevention. This study analyzes (a) the relation between student nurses' smoking behavior and their knowledge, attitudes, and behavior toward smoking prevention and (b) the effect of targeted health education in improving student nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and preventive behavior. METHODS: A controlled trial was performed with school classes as the randomization unit. One hundred fifty-five first-year students from a school in nursing in Copenhagen, Denmark, participated in a baseline study and a follow-up study 7 weeks later. The intervention included eight lectures on the health consequences of smoking. RESULTS: About 40% of student nurses in both the intervention and the control groups were smokers, and this percentage did not change during follow-up. Compared with nonsmokers, smokers had less favorable attitudes and behavior toward smoking prevention. Student nurses' knowledge about the health consequences of smoking improved during the study period in both groups, but the change was larger in the intervention group. This difference was not present in multivariate analyses that controlled for age and smoking status. During follow-up the attitude improved in the intervention classes, while it deteriorated in the controls, revealing a significant difference, which persisted after multivariate adjustment. The amount of education had no effect on student nurse's preventive behavior. CONCLUSION: Targeted health education improves knowledge and attitudes toward smoking prevention in first-year student nurses.

Sejr HS; Osler M

2002-02-01

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Nursing research in a nonacademic health system: measuring knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and use of research in a large nonacademic health system prior to and following a 6-month intervention. BACKGROUND: Many organizations have begun to implement a variety of research-oriented activities to build interest in and support of nursing research. METHODS: Nurses were surveyed to measure attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors related to nursing research and familiarity with available resources. Barriers to conducting research were identified. RESULTS: Nurses with a baccalaureate degree or higher reported a greater degree of support and knowledge and higher level of familiarity with resources than did diploma/associate degree nurses. CONCLUSIONS: Outcomes suggest that implementation of the components of a typical nursing research program may help to improve nurses' attitudes and knowledge of research. Affecting behaviors requires a more targeted approach.

Silka CR; Stombaugh HA; Horton J; Daniels R

2012-07-01

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Behavior, knowledge, and attitudes towards khat among Yemeni medical students and effects of a seminar.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study describes khat behavior, knowledge, and attitudes among Yemeni medical students (MS) and the effects of a seminar. The students completed a survey (n = 62); a subgroup participated in a discussion-based seminar and follow-up survey (n = 18). Although the students demonstrated knowledge about khat's health effects and considered it unacceptable for health professionals to chew khat, they disagreed that health professionals should advise patients to quit. Knowledge and attitudes improved post-seminar (not significant, except for a borderline significant increase in students correctly identifying khat as addictive; P = 0.063). Although effects were small, seminars may help health professionals address khat use in Yemen.

Yi PH; Kim JS; Hussein KI; Saitz R

2012-01-01

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The smoking attitudes, knowledge, intent, and behaviors of adolescents and young adults: Implications for nursing practice  

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Full Text Available Background /Objective: Sixty percent of all smokers in the United States (U.S.) try smoking cigarettes before they are 18 years old. Family and peer behavior (subjective norm), and attitude may influence young people to initiate smoking. The aims of this study were to 1) determine if attitude, subjective norm, and knowledge could predict smoking behaviors; 2) identify reasons for smoking; 3) determine if there were differences in attitudes toward smoking between smokers and non-smokers; and 4) determine smokers’ intent to quit. Methods: The population of interest included individuals age 30 or younger. The instrument, in the form of an online Tobacco Survey, was distributed via email, Facebook®, and other social media. The survey was created on Survey Monkey.com®. Data were collected for nine months and analyzed using SPSS® version 17 for Windows®. Results: Cronbach’s alpha for the primary factors were high to adequate, attitude a = .89, knowledge a = .71, and subjective norm a = .67. Results suggested subjective norm and attitude may predict smoking but knowledge was not a predictor. Over 70% of the smokers tried their first cigarette before the age of 18 years. Most reported reasons for smoking were alcohol consumption, smoking with friends in social settings, stress relief, and relaxation. Seventy-five percent of the smokers agreed that smoking was addictive and knowledge was high regarding the hazards of smoking. Less than 50% of the smokers planned to quit within the next year. Conclusions: Tobacco use among adolescents and young adults may be directly influenced by overall attitude and peer and family smoking behaviors. Knowledge of the hazards of smoking does not appear to influence smoking behaviors; therefore it is recommended health care providers, and others in a position to influence young people, focus on changing attitudes about smoking.

Barbara J. Ganley; Dianne I. Rosario

2013-01-01

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Knowledge Attitude and Behavior of Medical Technology Vocational Training School Students About Genetically Modified Organisms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: To determine The Medical Technology Vocational Training School (MTVTS) students? the knowledge about the effects of GMO on human health and environment and to evaluate their attitude and behavior has been aimed. METHODS: All of the second class students of the year 2006-2007 of MTVT...

Isil Ergin; Safak Taner Gursoy; Zeliha Asli Ocek; Meltem Ciceklioglu

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Sexuality Education and HIV Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of Young Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

This exploratory study measured the sexuality education and HIV knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors of young adults (n = 410), ages 18-21, who recently graduated from public high schools in a midwestern state. Based on the participants' responses to specific questions, students were placed into one of three groups: students who received no…

Kniss, Darrel Dean; Akagi, Cynthia G.

2008-01-01

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The Relation of Knowledge, Attitude and Self-Management Behaviors in Asthmatic Patients with Controlling Asthma  

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Full Text Available Background: Incidence of asthma is 5.5% in Iran. Patients with asthma need frequent self-management in order to control the symptoms maintaining natural lung activity. The aim of this study is to study the effective factors of self-management behaviors, and its relation with controlling asthma in asthmatic patients in Kashan. Materials and Method: Simple sampling was employed to recruit 102 asthmatic patients referring to asthmatic therapeutic centers of Kashan, Iran. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was conducted and the data were collected using a survey questionnaire based on knowledge and attitude factors and self-management behavior constructions and asthma control test. SPSS software for Windows was used for analyzing data (t-test, ANOVA, correlation and regression).Results: The respondents acquired 46.8% of total asthma knowledge score, 82.2% of attitude score. Respondents with acquisition 57.7% of total asthma self-management behavior score placed in middle class. The acquired score in asthma control is low class (40.28%). Negative relation between knowledge and asthma control was observed. Conclusion: The results showed that if the situation of knowledge and attitude factors are better, the self-management behaviors in asthmatic patients will be better and if the situation self-management behavior be better, asthma control will be better, too. Negative relation between knowledge and asthma control needs more researches

S. Saeed Mazloomi; Ashraf Abbacimoghaddam-Niasar; Mohammad A. Saba; Mohammad A. Morovati; Hossein Fallahzadeh

2012-01-01

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Attitudes and knowledge about drinking: relationships with drinking behavior among pregnant teenagers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Data were collected on the drinking behavior of 415 pregnant adolescents from 1990 to 1994. The relationships between knowledge and attitudes about drinking and drinking behavior were examined. Knowledge about drinking was not related to average daily volume of alcohol before or during pregnancy. Those with specific knowledge about fetal alcohol effects drank less before pregnancy, and in the first trimester, and were also less likely to drink to intoxication. Among drinkers, general knowledge about drinking was significantly related to a decrease in drinking between pre-pregnancy and first trimester, as well as between first and third trimesters. Those with more intolerant attitudes about drinking drank less before and during pregnancy. They had fewer episodes of binge drinking, intoxication, negative consequences, and problem drinking during pregnancy. They were more likely to decrease drinking from the first to third trimesters. These relationships are relevant to developing effective education programs for the high-risk group of pregnant teenagers who drink.

Cornelius MD; Lebow HA; Day NL

1997-01-01

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Sex knowledge, attitudes, and high-risk sexual behaviors among unmarried youth in Hong Kong.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Little is known about sex knowledge, attitudes, and high-risk sexual behaviors among unmarried youth in Hong Kong. It is of public health importance to investigate this topic to inform sex education, policymaking, and prevention and intervention programs. METHODS: Based on the Youth Sexuality Survey conducted by Hong Kong Family Planning Association (FPAHK) in 2011, this study explored the characteristics of sexual knowledge, attitudes, and high-risk sexual behaviors among 1,126 unmarried youth aged 18 to 27 years. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to examine factors associated with unmarried youth's premarital sex, casual relationships, multiple sex partners, and premarital pregnancy. RESULTS: Unmarried youth in Hong Kong had adequate sex knowledge, but contraceptive knowledge was deficient. The majority of unmarried youth (63.8%) held liberal attitudes toward premarital sex and about half held liberal attitudes toward any form of sexual activity and premarital pregnancy. Around 60% held conservative attitudes toward causal sex relationships and multiple sex partners. Males tended to hold more liberal attitudes toward high-risk sex behaviors than female youth. Approximately 41.5% of unmarried youth reported having engaged in premarital sex, whereas less than 10% engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors. Males also reported higher amounts of premarital sex, casual sex relationships, and multiple sex partners. Females reported higher levels of sexual coercion. Logistic regressions indicated that being older, coming from a divorced family, out of school status and liberal attitudes toward risky sex behavior were more likely to engage in premarital sex or high-risk sex behaviors, and being female, being better educated and being immigrants were less likely to engage in premarital sex. However, being immigrants was more likely to engage in casual relationship and to have multiple partners. CONCLUSIONS: Premarital sex is becoming more prevalent among unmarried youth in Hong Kong, and a small proportion of young adults are engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. Sex education and HIV prevention programs should equip them with adequate knowledge on contraception and condom use. Intervention programs can start with their attitudes toward sex.

Yip PS; Zhang H; Lam TH; Lam KF; Lee AM; Chan J; Fan S

2013-01-01

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A comparison of attitude, personality, and knowledge predictors of service-oriented organizational citizenship behaviors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attitude, personality, and customer knowledge antecedents were compared in their predictive ability of 3 service-oriented forms of employee organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs): loyalty, service delivery, and participation. For the 1st study, 236 customer-contact employees provided data concerning their OCBs and the attitude, personality, and knowledge antecedents. The 2nd investigation relied on data provided by 144 contact employees from a network of university libraries. Using hierarchical regression in both studies, the authors found that each of the 3 types of service-oriented OCBs was best predicted by different subsets of the antecedents. Job attitudes accounted for the most unique variance in loyalty OCBs, personality accounted for the most unique variance in service delivery OCBs, and customer knowledge and personality jointly were the best predictors of participation OCBs. PMID:11302230

Bettencourt, L A; Gwinner, K P; Meuter, M L

2001-02-01

 
 
 
 
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A comparison of attitude, personality, and knowledge predictors of service-oriented organizational citizenship behaviors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Attitude, personality, and customer knowledge antecedents were compared in their predictive ability of 3 service-oriented forms of employee organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs): loyalty, service delivery, and participation. For the 1st study, 236 customer-contact employees provided data concerning their OCBs and the attitude, personality, and knowledge antecedents. The 2nd investigation relied on data provided by 144 contact employees from a network of university libraries. Using hierarchical regression in both studies, the authors found that each of the 3 types of service-oriented OCBs was best predicted by different subsets of the antecedents. Job attitudes accounted for the most unique variance in loyalty OCBs, personality accounted for the most unique variance in service delivery OCBs, and customer knowledge and personality jointly were the best predictors of participation OCBs.

Bettencourt LA; Gwinner KP; Meuter ML

2001-02-01

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[Nurses' knowledge, attitudes and behavior intentions in the care of terminal stage cancer patients with dyspnea].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The main purpose of this study was to explore the current status and correlations among key factors of influence, including knowledge, attitudes and behavior intentions, related to nurses' care for terminal cancer patients with dyspnea. This study was conducted using a crossing-sectional research method using convenience sampling. A total of 128 nurses working in a regional educational hospital in eastern Taiwan were surveyed by questionnaire. The conclusions of this study were: (1) "nursing measurement" was the most important factor affecting knowledge; (2) positive attitudes represent the result of the survey; (3) the most significant factor related to behavior intentions was "nursing measurement"; (4) knowledge was highly influenced by "nurse background" variables; (5) behavior intention was affected by "nurse background" variables; and (6) a positive correlation was identified between attitudes and behavior intentions. We recommend that training courses and practice related to palliative care should be incorporated into nursing education. To enhance nurses' knowledge and abilities in caring for dyspnea patients in the terminal cancer stage, it is also necessary to set up guidelines, including palliative care on-the-job training and cross-training programs.

Hou SY; Lee RP

2009-06-01

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Nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of israeli female combat recruits participating in a nutrition education program.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to assess the impact of a pilot nutrition intervention program on knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of female combat soldiers in basic training serving in the Israeli army and to determine changes in nutrient intake. Seventy recruits participated in the intervention. Anthropometric measurements and food frequency questionnaires were completed at 3 time points: at enlistment, at 2 months, and at 4 months. Additional questionnaires to assess nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were administered preintervention and postintervention. Baseline results indicated that intakes of calcium, vitamin E, and vitamin D were below recommended levels. After 2 months (8 weeks), suboptimal consumption of many nutrients was observed. At this time point, a nutrition education program was initiated and activities were carried out for the final 2 months of basic training. Following completion of the intervention, a marked improvement in nutrient intake was reported, accompanied by significant changes in attitudes toward healthy eating and increased nutrition knowledge. One-year follow-up evaluation indicated that approximately 20% of participants had made long-term dietary changes. In conclusion, nutrition education increased knowledge, modified attitudes, and led to dietary changes in female recruits. Programs of this type should be considered for implementation in the military.

Herzman-Harari S; Constantini N; Mann G; Lencovsky Z; Stark AH

2013-05-01

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AIDS knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors in Kansas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Clearly, medical professionals and educators must mobilize in supporting personal, professional and public AIDS education efforts. AIDS health education should continue to emphasize facts and dispel myths about risk associated with blood donation, casual contact, mosquitos and sharing eating utensils. Messages should encourage counseling, testing for those at risk and resource referrals, and should urge compassion. The noted differences in demographic categories indicate a need to expand sampling within sub-populations, specifically non-white populations, younger adults and medical professionals. Emphasis on gathering further, more specific behavioral information should be incorporated into community-based prevention programs. Continued assessment of sources of information, referral for AIDS-related services and prevalent AIDS policies should be incorporated statewide.

Bray LF

1990-03-01

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Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of the Urban Poor Concerning Solid Waste Management: A Case Study  

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Full Text Available This study has developed three Logistic Regression Models to determine and analyze the factors that could affect knowledge, attitude and behavior of the urban poor concerning solid waste management. To pursue the objective, the study has collected primary data from the level of living conditions of the poor residing in the squatters and low-cost flats of Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia. The empirical results of the study are exciting as they provide evidence to the effect that knowledge, attitude and behavior of the urban poor communities concerning solid waste management are adequate and satisfactory. Hence, the low socio-economic profile of the urban poor has not been proven as causal to environmental degradation. The study suggests that it is inherent to improve the quality of lifestyles of the poor to enable them to come out of poverty threshold, even though an adequate and satisfactory solid waste management system exists amongst the communities.

M.d. Wahid Murad; Chamhuri Siwar

2007-01-01

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Assessment of AIDS knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and risk level of Northwestern American Indians.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A survey was made of 710 American Indians of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho to assess the population's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in respect to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), to estimate the population's risk, and to plan strategies to reduce it. In contrast to 3 percent of the general population, this study found 10.6 percent of male and 6.4 percent of female Pacific Northwestern American Indians in groups considered at high risk for AIDS.

Hall RL; Wilder D; Bodenroeder P; Hess M

1990-07-01

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The Sex Knowledge and Attitude Test (SKAT).  

Science.gov (United States)

|Presents the Sex Knowledge and Attitude Test (SKAT), designed to measure knowledge, attitudes and degree of experience in a variety of sexual behaviors, and to be used as a teaching and research instrument. (Author)|

Miller, William R.; Lief, Harold I.

1979-01-01

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Breast Cancer Knowledge, Attitude and Screening Behaviors Among Hispanics in South Texas Colonias.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examines breast cancer knowledge, attitudes and screening behaviors of Hispanic women living in the South Texas colonias of Maverick and Val Verde Counties. We used the Health Belief Model to analyze the effects of HBM constructs on clinical breast exam (CBE) and mammogram screening. Using a multistage systematic sampling approach we interviewed women living within these colonias. Logistic regression analysis was used to predict CBE and mammography screening behaviors. The results indicate that knowledge, susceptibility, barriers and source of health information were statistically significant in predicting CBE among these women. In addition, background variables such as marital status and health insurance were also significant in predicting CBE. Findings further indicate that source of health information, barriers, and health insurance significantly predicts mammography screening behaviors. Results suggest that for women living in colonias along the South Texas Border socio-demographic variables play a significant role in CBE and mammography utilization.

Sunil TS; Hurd T; Deem C; Nevarez L; Guidry J; Rios R; Guerra H; Ortiz J; Jones L

2013-08-01

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The impact of a school garden on nutrition knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of urban youth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hypothesis: A garden-based high school curriculum and school lunch program positively impact the nutrition knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and health outcomes of participating urban youth. Specific aims: 1. To characterize the objectives and implementation of the Common Ground High Schools garden-based curriculum and school lunch program 2. To evaluate the effectiveness of the program in promoting healthy nutrition knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and health outcomes among Common Ground students Methods: Mixed quantitative and qualitative methods were used to conduct the program evaluation. The Common Ground curriculum was characterized through in-depth staff interviews and review of relevant policies and procedures. Surveys on nutrition attitudes, knowledge, and behavior were administered in the Fall and Spring at Common Ground and two comparison schools. Student focus groups were conducted at the three schools. Demographic data and body mass index data were gathered at Common Ground and one of the comparison schools. Direct observations were conducted in the cafeterias of the three schools; students were served vegetables during three different typical lunch periods, and the number of students that tasted and ate the vegetables were counted. Results: Common Ground students learn about health, nutrition and the food system through coursework in the organic garden, the school lunch program, and informal interactions with teachers and staff. Students at comparison schools desire higher quality school food and more control over what is served. Students at Common Ground have more knowledge about the food system than students at comparison schools, but not more knowledge about basic nutrition. Students at Common Ground ate 6.6 and 9.0 servings per week of fruits and vegetables at school at the beginning and end of the school year, respectively, while students at Comparison School #2 ate 7.7 and 6.9 servings per week. In the cafeteria observations, students at comparison schools ate more of the familiar vegetables than students at Common Ground. Students at Common Ground ate more of the unfamiliar vegetables. Average BMI of students at Common Ground from freshmen to seniors is 27.4, 26.1, 23.4, and 26.3 kg/m2. At Comparison School #2, average BMI of freshmen to seniors is 26.5, 24.1, 26.6 and 29.7 kg/m2 (ANOVA shows p = 0.0622). Conclusion: Common Grounds garden-based curriculum and school lunch program positively influences students nutrition knowledge, attitudes, behavior, and health outcomes. Similar interventions should be implemented in other schools and school systems in order to improve population health.

Mintzer ERM

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Effect of a Health Education Intervention on Physical Activity Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior in Health Volunteers  

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Full Text Available Background & Objective: Regular and adequate physical activity is a major factor in maintaining good health throughout entire life course. Levels of inactivity are high in all countries. Effective educational interventions are needed to promote physical activity in all populations. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a heath education intervention on physical activity knowledge, attitude, and behavior in health volunteers of Tehran in 2008. Methods & Materials: All active female health volunteers of Tehran, district 14 (n=100) were recruited for this experimental study. Data were gathered using a questionnaire of knowledge, attitude, and behavior regarding physical activity. The questionnaire was completed by all participants in two phases of pre- and post-intervention (four weeks after the intervention). Health education intervention strategies were presented to the intervention group during three educational sessions with one week interval between the sessions. Data were analyzed using related statistical tests. Results: Findings showed significant statistical differences in knowledge, total physical activity rate per week, and the mean sitting time per day between the control and intervention groups after the intervention (P<0.05). While, these variables were not significantly different before the educational intervention among both groups. Conclusion: The health education intervention presented in this study was effective in promoting knowledge, total physical activity rate per week, and mean sitting time per day among the female health volunteers.  

Seyed Emami R; Eftekhar Ardebili H; Golestan B

2010-01-01

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Use of Genetic Tests among Neurologists and Psychiatrists: Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors, and Needs for Training.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study explores neurologists' and psychiatrists' knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning genetic tests. Psychiatrists (n?=?5,316) and neurologists (n?=?2,167) on the American Medical Association master list who had agreed to receive surveys were sent an email link to a survey about their attitudes and practices regarding genetic testing; 372 psychiatrists and 163 neurologists responded. A higher proportion of neurologists (74 %) than psychiatrists (14 %) who responded to the survey had ordered genetic testing in the past 6 months. Overall, most respondents thought that genetic tests should be performed more frequently, but almost half believed genetic tests could harm patients psychologically and considered legal protections inadequate. Almost half of neurologists (49 %) and over 75 % of psychiatrists did not have a genetics professional to whom to refer patients; those who had ordered genetic tests were more likely than those who did not do so to have access to a genetic counselor. Of respondents, 10 % had received patient requests not to document genetic information and 15 % had received inquiries about direct-to-consumer genetic testing. Neurologists reported themselves to be relatively more experienced and knowledgeable about genetics than psychiatrists. These data, the first to examine several important issues concerning knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of neurologists and psychiatrists regarding genetic tests, have important implications for future practice, research, and education.

Salm M; Abbate K; Appelbaum P; Ottman R; Chung W; Marder K; Leu CS; Alcalay R; Goldman J; Curtis AM; Leech C; Taber KJ; Klitzman R

2013-06-01

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Smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among Alaska Native people: a population-based study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Several studies have shown that Alaska Native people have higher smoking prevalence than non-Natives. However, no population-based studies have explored whether smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors also differ among Alaska Native people and non-Natives. Objective We compared current smoking prevalence and smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of Alaska Native adults living in the state of Alaska with non-Natives. Methods We used Alaska Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for 1996 to 2010 to compare smoking prevalence, consumption, and cessation- and second-hand smoke-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among self-identified Alaska Native people and non-Natives. Results Current smoking prevalence was 41% (95% CI: 37.9%–44.4%) among Alaska Native people compared with 17.1% (95% CI: 15.9%–18.4%) among non-Natives. Among current every day smokers, Alaska Natives were much more likely to smoke less than 10 cigarettes per day (OR=5.0, 95% CI: 2.6–9.6) than non-Natives. Compared with non-Native smokers, Alaska Native smokers were as likely to have made a past year quit attempt (OR=1.4, 95% CI: 0.9–2.1), but the attempt was less likely to be successful (OR=0.5, 95% CI: 0.2–0.9). Among current smokers, Alaska Natives were more likely to believe second-hand smoke (SHS) was very harmful (OR=4.5, 95% CI: 2.8–7.2), to believe that smoking should not be allowed in indoor work areas (OR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.1–3.1) or in restaurants (OR=4.2, 95% CI: 2.5–6.9), to have a home smoking ban (OR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.6–3.9), and to have no home exposure to SHS in the past 30 days (OR=2.3, 95% CI: 1.5–3.6) than non-Natives. Conclusion Although a disparity in current smoking exists, Alaska Native people have smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors that are encouraging for reducing the burden of smoking in this population. Programs should support efforts to promote cessation, prevent relapse, and establish smoke-free environments.

Rohde, Kristen; Boles, Myde; Bushore, Chris J.; Pizacani, Barbara A.; Maher, Julie E.; Peterson, Erin

2013-01-01

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Smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among Alaska Native people: a population-based study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that Alaska Native people have higher smoking prevalence than non-Natives. However, no population-based studies have explored whether smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors also differ among Alaska Native people and non-Natives. OBJECTIVE: We compared current smoking prevalence and smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of Alaska Native adults living in the state of Alaska with non-Natives. METHODS: We used Alaska Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for 1996 to 2010 to compare smoking prevalence, consumption, and cessation- and second-hand smoke-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among self-identified Alaska Native people and non-Natives. RESULTS: Current smoking prevalence was 41% (95% CI: 37.9%-44.4%) among Alaska Native people compared with 17.1% (95% CI: 15.9%-18.4%) among non-Natives. Among current every day smokers, Alaska Natives were much more likely to smoke less than 10 cigarettes per day (OR=5.0, 95% CI: 2.6-9.6) than non-Natives. Compared with non-Native smokers, Alaska Native smokers were as likely to have made a past year quit attempt (OR=1.4, 95% CI: 0.9-2.1), but the attempt was less likely to be successful (OR=0.5, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9). Among current smokers, Alaska Natives were more likely to believe second-hand smoke (SHS) was very harmful (OR=4.5, 95% CI: 2.8-7.2), to believe that smoking should not be allowed in indoor work areas (OR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.1) or in restaurants (OR=4.2, 95% CI: 2.5-6.9), to have a home smoking ban (OR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.6-3.9), and to have no home exposure to SHS in the past 30 days (OR=2.3, 95% CI: 1.5-3.6) than non-Natives. CONCLUSION: Although a disparity in current smoking exists, Alaska Native people have smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors that are encouraging for reducing the burden of smoking in this population. Programs should support efforts to promote cessation, prevent relapse, and establish smoke-free environments.

Rohde K; Boles M; Bushore CJ; Pizacani BA; Maher JE; Peterson E

2013-01-01

34

Association of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors for colon cancer screening in Hispanic patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The purpose of our cross-sectional study was to examine the association between sociodemographic, knowledge, attitude and behavior factors with colon cancer screening among low-income Hispanic patients from an urban family medicine clinic in San Antonio, Texas. METHODS: Using random stratified sampling, 804 patients were surveyed with 274 Hispanic patients meet the eligibility criteria for colon cancer screening (aged > or = 50 years). A 10-page self-administered questionnaire in Spanish or English completed in the clinic waiting room included self-reported colonoscopy, sociodemographic characteristics, health status, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward colon cancer screening. Associations between colonoscopy and patient characteristics were assessed using logistic regression. RESULTS: 62% of patients reported having been tested for colonoscopy. Older Hispanics (age mean=59 + 6.1 SD) were more likely to have a colonoscopy than younger Hispanics (age mean = 56 +/- 4.8 SD) (P < .001). Bivariate analysis showed that patients who discussed colon cancer risk with their doctor (P = .001), did not smoke (P = .004), or encouraged family members or friends to be tested for colon cancer (P < .001) were more likely to be screened. Multiple variable logistic regression analysis showed that older age, having cancer, discussing the risk factors with their doctor, and encouraging family members or friends to get tested were significant predictors for colonoscopy testing in Hispanics. CONCLUSIONS: Colonoscopy screening in a sample of low-income Hispanic patients differed by age and health experience. Intervention programs that increase colon cancer screening in Hispanics patients should concentrate on those aged < 60. Patient education for knowledge, positive attitude, and behaviors may improve colon cancer screening.

Otiniano ME; Wood RC; Poursani RS; Katerndahl DA; Siddiqui S; Nadeau MT

2013-01-01

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Evaluation of knowledge, attitude and behavior of Turkish university students regarding family planning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research conducted to define general knowledge of university students’ attitudes and behaviors about family planning. The sample consisted of 755 Sakarya University students. Data were collected from an open-ended questionnaire form and faceto-face interviews. The data analysis process was conducted using specific software. Most participants (59.7%) were over 22 years old and female, and 1.2 % of the females were married. Women in the study had a positive outlook regarding the positive effects of family planning on sexual health and stated that family planning is important to both society and our economy. The awareness and knowledge regarding family planning was found to be strongest among older participants. The family planning concept was understood correctly by about half of the students. Finally, young people did not have sufficient knowledge about family planning, its methods or where to obtain information on the topic.

Dilek Aygin; Fatma Fidan

2012-01-01

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Breast and cervical cancer screening: knowledge, attitudes and behavior among schoolteachers in Italy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study explores knowledge, attitudes and behavior regarding screening for breast and cervical cancers. All female teachers in primary and secondary schools in Crotone and in Cassino (Italy) received a questionnaire on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, clinical history, knowledge, behavior and attitudes about breast and cervical cancer and related screening procedures. A response rate of 65% was achieved. Knowledge on effectiveness of mammography and pap test in finding related cancers was widely spread in the sample. Only about 30% and 50% had respectively undergone their last mammogram and pap test according to the recommended time interval. Having been examined by a physician in the previous year and having had a screening CBE or a screening pap smear in the past three years were significantly more likely in women who underwent mammography for screening purposes in the past two years. Pap smear in the previous three years was significantly more likely in women in their forties, with a higher family income and in those who had been examined by a physician in the previous year. The results strongly recommend continued emphasis of physicians on education of women regarding mammography and pap smear.

Pavia M; Ricciardi G; Bianco A; Pantisano P; Langiano E; Angelillo IF

1999-04-01

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Breast and cervical cancer screening: knowledge, attitudes and behavior among schoolteachers in Italy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study explores knowledge, attitudes and behavior regarding screening for breast and cervical cancers. All female teachers in primary and secondary schools in Crotone and in Cassino (Italy) received a questionnaire on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, clinical history, knowledge, behavior and attitudes about breast and cervical cancer and related screening procedures. A response rate of 65% was achieved. Knowledge on effectiveness of mammography and pap test in finding related cancers was widely spread in the sample. Only about 30% and 50% had respectively undergone their last mammogram and pap test according to the recommended time interval. Having been examined by a physician in the previous year and having had a screening CBE or a screening pap smear in the past three years were significantly more likely in women who underwent mammography for screening purposes in the past two years. Pap smear in the previous three years was significantly more likely in women in their forties, with a higher family income and in those who had been examined by a physician in the previous year. The results strongly recommend continued emphasis of physicians on education of women regarding mammography and pap smear. PMID:10414369

Pavia, M; Ricciardi, G; Bianco, A; Pantisano, P; Langiano, E; Angelillo, I F

1999-04-01

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HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of Construction Workers in China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of the study was to describe HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, risk behaviors, and sources of information among construction workers in China. A cross-sectional survey of 458 construction workers was conducted among 4 construction sites in Shenyang city in 2006. All 458 participants were individually interviewed in a private setting by a trained team of medical researchers using a structured questionnaire, which included questions on general personal information and the knowledge, attitudes, practice questions and the favorable mode of health education. A total of 428 valid questionnaires were collected. Data entry and statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 13.0. Our results indicated that the majority of construction workers in China are sexually active youths and adults with limited education and poor knowledge of HIV/AIDS. The proportions of correct answers to questions about HIV/AIDS ranged from 4.9% to 70.7%. The score was significantly different by education level (?(2)=47.51, p<0.01), and marrital status (?(2)=16.48, p<0.01). More than 60% of the construction workers had a negative attitude toward HIV/AIDS-infected individuals. The source of workers' knowledge toward HIV/AIDS mainly came from TV (35.8%), newspaper (14.3%), family and friend (13.1%) and others (28.2%). Chinese migrant workers in general lack knowledge about HIV/AIDS. Our study suggests prevention programs should be encouraged and these may have the potential role to limit the emergence of China's HIV/AIDS epidemic.

Qu B; Guo H; Sun G; Zuo T; Zhang Y; Li BY

2008-09-01

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HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, related behaviors, and sources of information among Korean adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To examine HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, related behaviors, and sources of HIV/AIDS information among high school-aged students in South Korea. One thousand and seventy-seven students (586 females and 491 males) from 5 high schools from 5 representative school districts participated in the survey. A self-administered questionnaire measuring knowledge (19 true-false items), attitudes (4 items, 5-point Likert-type scale), sources of information (6 items, yes/no), and sexual behaviors (8 items, yes/no) was utilized. The level of HIV/AIDS knowledge among Korean adolescents was moderate, with the mean scores of 13.93 out of 19 for males and 13.35 for females (p < .01). Attitudes toward persons with HIV/AIDS were negative, with the mean scores of 3.06 for males and 3.09 for females. Of 42 respondents (4.4%) who had engaged in sexual intercourse, 18 (40%) had used condoms. Almost half of the total respondents reported they were not concerned about HIV/AIDS (46.0%), and 94.4% indicated the need for receiving HIV prevention education in the future. The respondents identified TV (52.5%) and school classes (32.1%) as the two major sources of information on HIV/AIDS. Only a few pointed to their parents (1.3%) as a source of information. This preliminary study summarizes the current status of prevention education on HIV/AIDS available in Korea and can provide implications for developing more differentiated intervention strategies specific to culture, age, and gender.

Yoo H; Lee SH; Kwon BE; Chung S; Kim S

2005-12-01

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AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among inner city, junior high school students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To gain information about AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of junior high school students, 1,967 students in three junior high schools in an inner city school district were surveyed. Ages of the participants ranged from 11-16 years, and 48% were male. Ethnically, 33% were Asian, 31% African-American, 24% Latino, and 5% white. African-American students had greater AIDS general knowledge than Asians and similar general knowledge to Latinos and whites. Most students wanted to be taught about AIDS in school. Misconceptions about casual contagion of AIDS were common. Students with these misconceptions were more likely to believe that students with AIDS should not be allowed to attend school. A high proportion of students had engaged in high-risk behavior including sexual intercourse, drinking alcoholic beverages, and using street drugs. More boys than girls reported each of these activities. Of individuals having had sexual intercourse, a positive association was found between the belief that condoms are effective in preventing HIV infection and use of condoms. These findings support the possibility that improving knowledge about HIV transmission would result in more tolerance toward students with HIV infection and would result in less high-risk behavior.

Siegel D; Lazarus N; Krasnovsky F; Durbin M; Chesney M

1991-04-01

 
 
 
 
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Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior of Physicians Regarding Predictive Genetic Tests for Breast and Colorectal Cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Genetic testing for cancer susceptibility is an emerging technology in medicine. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and professional behavior of Italian physicians regarding the use of predictive genetic tests for breast and colorectal cancer, including the BRCA1/2 and APC tests. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of a random sample of Italian physicians was performed in 2010 through a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: A response rate of 69.6% (1,079 questionnaires) was achieved. A significant lack of knowledge was detected, particularly for APC testing. Less than half of the physicians agreed on the importance of efficacy and cost-effectiveness evidence in the selection of predictive genetic tests to be offered to the patients. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that education had a positive influence on knowledge, attitudes and, to a lesser extent, professional use. The factor most strongly related to the physicians' use of genetic testing was patients requests for breast (OR=12.65; 95% CI 7.77-20.59) or colorectal cancer tests (OR=7.02; 95% CI 3.61-13.64). A high level of interest for specific training was reported by almost all physicians surveyed. CONCLUSIONS: Targeted educational programs are needed to improve the expertise of physicians, and, ultimately, to enhance the appropriate use of genetic tests in clinical practice.

Marzuillo C; De Vito C; Boccia S; D'Addario M; D'Andrea E; Santini P; Boccia A; Villari P

2013-07-01

42

Knowledge, Attitude, and Concussion-Reporting Behaviors Among High School Athletes: A Preliminary Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Context : Many athletes continue to participate in practices and games while experiencing concussion-related symptoms, potentially predisposing them to subsequent and more complicated brain injuries. Limited evidence exists about factors that may influence concussion-reporting behaviors. Objective : To examine the influence of knowledge and attitude on concussion-reporting behaviors in a sample of high school athletes. Design :? Cross-sectional study. Setting : Participants completed a validated survey instrument via mail. Patients or Other Participants : A total of 167 high school athletes (97 males, 55 females, 5 sex not indicated; age = 15.7 ± 1.4 years) participating in football, soccer, lacrosse, or cheerleading. Intervention(s) : Athlete knowledge and attitude scores served as separate predictor variables. Main Outcome Measure(s) : We examined the proportion of athletes who reported continuing to participate in games and practices while symptomatic from possible concussion and the self-reported proportion of recalled concussion and bell-ringer events disclosed after possible concussive injury. Results : Only 40% of concussion events and 13% of bell-ringer recalled events in the sample were disclosed after possible concussive injury. Increased athlete knowledge of concussion topics (increase of 1 standard deviation = 2.8 points) was associated with increased reporting prevalence of concussion and bell-ringer events occurring in practice (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.60, 3.21) and the reporting prevalence of bell-ringer-only events overall (PR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.38, 2.54). Athlete attitude scores (increase of 1 standard deviation = 11.5 points) were associated with decreases in the proportion of athletes stating they participated in games (PR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.66, 0.82) and practices (PR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.59, 0.77) while symptomatic from concussions. Conclusions : Most recalled concussion events in our study were not reported to a supervising adult. Clinicians should be aware that knowledge and attitude influence concussion reporting. Clinicians and administrators should make concussion education a priority and encourage an optimal reporting environment to better manage and prevent concussive injuries in young athletes.

Register-Mihalik JK; Guskiewicz KM; McLeod TC; Linnan LA; Mueller FO; Marshall SW

2013-07-01

43

Knowledge, attitude, and concussion-reporting behaviors among high school athletes: a preliminary study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Context: Many athletes continue to participate in practices and games while experiencing concussion-related symptoms, potentially predisposing them to subsequent and more complicated brain injuries. Limited evidence exists about factors that may influence concussion-reporting behaviors. Objective: To examine the influence of knowledge and attitude on concussion-reporting behaviors in a sample of high school athletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Participants completed a validated survey instrument via mail. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 167 high school athletes (97 males, 55 females, 5 sex not indicated; age = 15.7 ± 1.4 years) participating in football, soccer, lacrosse, or cheerleading. Intervention(s): Athlete knowledge and attitude scores served as separate predictor variables. Main Outcome Measure(s): We examined the proportion of athletes who reported continuing to participate in games and practices while symptomatic from possible concussion and the self-reported proportion of recalled concussion and bell-ringer events disclosed after possible concussive injury. Results: Only 40% of concussion events and 13% of bell-ringer recalled events in the sample were disclosed after possible concussive injury. Increased athlete knowledge of concussion topics (increase of 1 standard deviation = 2.8 points) was associated with increased reporting prevalence of concussion and bell-ringer events occurring in practice (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.60, 3.21) and the reporting prevalence of bell-ringer-only events overall (PR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.38, 2.54). Athlete attitude scores (increase of 1 standard deviation = 11.5 points) were associated with decreases in the proportion of athletes stating they participated in games (PR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.66, 0.82) and practices (PR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.59, 0.77) while symptomatic from concussions. Conclusions: Most recalled concussion events in our study were not reported to a supervising adult. Clinicians should be aware that knowledge and attitude influence concussion reporting. Clinicians and administrators should make concussion education a priority and encourage an optimal reporting environment to better manage and prevent concussive injuries in young athletes. PMID:23848520

Register-Mihalik, Johna K; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; McLeod, Tamara C Valovich; Linnan, Laura A; Mueller, Frederick O; Marshall, Stephen W

2013-07-12

44

Knowledge, attitude, and concussion-reporting behaviors among high school athletes: a preliminary study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Context: Many athletes continue to participate in practices and games while experiencing concussion-related symptoms, potentially predisposing them to subsequent and more complicated brain injuries. Limited evidence exists about factors that may influence concussion-reporting behaviors. Objective: To examine the influence of knowledge and attitude on concussion-reporting behaviors in a sample of high school athletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Participants completed a validated survey instrument via mail. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 167 high school athletes (97 males, 55 females, 5 sex not indicated; age = 15.7 ± 1.4 years) participating in football, soccer, lacrosse, or cheerleading. Intervention(s): Athlete knowledge and attitude scores served as separate predictor variables. Main Outcome Measure(s): We examined the proportion of athletes who reported continuing to participate in games and practices while symptomatic from possible concussion and the self-reported proportion of recalled concussion and bell-ringer events disclosed after possible concussive injury. Results: Only 40% of concussion events and 13% of bell-ringer recalled events in the sample were disclosed after possible concussive injury. Increased athlete knowledge of concussion topics (increase of 1 standard deviation = 2.8 points) was associated with increased reporting prevalence of concussion and bell-ringer events occurring in practice (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.60, 3.21) and the reporting prevalence of bell-ringer-only events overall (PR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.38, 2.54). Athlete attitude scores (increase of 1 standard deviation = 11.5 points) were associated with decreases in the proportion of athletes stating they participated in games (PR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.66, 0.82) and practices (PR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.59, 0.77) while symptomatic from concussions. Conclusions: Most recalled concussion events in our study were not reported to a supervising adult. Clinicians should be aware that knowledge and attitude influence concussion reporting. Clinicians and administrators should make concussion education a priority and encourage an optimal reporting environment to better manage and prevent concussive injuries in young athletes.

Register-Mihalik JK; Guskiewicz KM; McLeod TC; Linnan LA; Mueller FO; Marshall SW

2013-09-01

45

Sexual and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of adolescents in sierra leone, west Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A survey of 307 Sierra Leonean adolescents between the ages of thirteen and nineteen was assessed to determine their sexual and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Results indicate high sexual activity rates among the sampled group; 89 percent of the males and 68 percent of the females had engaged in sexual intercourse. The mean age at first sexual intercourse was found to be 14.4 years for males and 15.1 years for females. Sixty-five percent of the males and 35 percent of the females reported having three or more sexual partners over their lifetime. Other findings included high rates of STDs and HIV/AIDS, low reported condom use, low reported use of other birth control methods, and low knowledge scores concerning pregnancy prevention, HIV/AIDS and STDs. Implications of these findings are discussed.

Richter DL; Barnes B; Strack RW; Rao R; Vincent ML

1996-01-01

46

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior in Avoiding Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Non-Smoking Employed Women with Higher Education in Jordan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is a serious public health threat worldwide; in the developing world there are less serious efforts towards controlling women’s and children’s exposure to SHS. Knowledge, attitudes and avoidance practices among Jordanian women have never been thoroughly studied. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and avoidance behavior towards SHS exposure among employed Jordanian women with higher education. Methods: A survey was conducted among employed Jordanian women at two universities. A total of 209 women were included in the analysis. Two questionnaires regarding SHS exposure were used to measure knowledge, attitudes and avoidance practices. Results: Most respondents were regularly exposed to SHS in various locations during daily life, even though they were very knowledgeable about the dangers of SHS exposure for women and children. However, the subject’s attitudes and avoidance behavior did not reflect the level of knowledge about SHS risks. The results suggests there is a large discrepancy between SHS exposure, knowledge, attitudes and avoidance behavior among highly educated Jordanian women that is likely influenced by culture and traditional gender roles. Public health initiatives are needed in Jordan to address public policy, institutional practices and to empowerment of women to reduce SHS exposure.

Huda Gharaibeh; Linda Haddad; Sukaina Alzyoud; Omar El-Shahawy; Nesrin Abu Baker; Mary Umlauf

2011-01-01

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Knowledge, attitudes, cultural, social and spiritual beliefs on healthseeking behaviors of Gambian adults with HIV/AIDS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

HIV/AIDS continues to grow exponentially in sub-Saharan Africa. Early HIV/AIDS care is essential for early interventions to increase quality of life and reduce mortality. The objectives of the study were: (1) to determine the relationship among attitudes, spiritual beliefs, cultural beliefs, social beliefs and knowledge on health-seeking behaviors (HSB) of Gambian adults living with HIV/AIDS; and (2) to provide preliminary data on psychometric characteristics of the newly developed HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes and Beliefs Patient Questionnaire. The descriptive design included 93 adults aged 21 to 65 years. Correlation and hierarchical regression analyses were used. Bivariate analyses demonstrated significant relationships between all five variables and HSB at p Attitudes significantly contributed to the variance, F(1, 90) =4.865; p =.03; spiritual beliefs, though not statistically significant, had clinical significance. The unique contributions of this study are the separation of the variable attitudes from beliefs and knowledge, which independently explained HSB. Spiritual beliefs and attitudes are critical in developing appropriate HIV/AIDS interventions. Furthermore, the HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs Patient Questionnaire provides a valid means for measuring attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of HIV/AIDS for use in future research.

Njie-Carr VP

2009-12-01

48

The association between health literacy and cancer-related attitudes, behaviors, and knowledge.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Using a multidimensional assessment of health literacy (the Cancer Message Literacy Test-Listening, the Cancer Message Literacy Test-Reading, and the Lipkus Numeracy Scale), the authors assessed a stratified random sample of 1013 insured adults (40-70 years of age). The authors explored whether low health literacy across all 3 domains (n =111) was associated with sets of variables likely to affect engagement in cancer prevention and screening activities: (a) attitudes and behaviors relating to health care encounters and providers, (b) attitudes toward cancer and health, (c) knowledge of cancer screening tests, and (d) attitudes toward health related media and actual media use. Adults with low health literacy were more likely to report avoiding doctor's visits, to have more fatalistic attitudes toward cancer, to be less accurate in identifying the purpose of cancer screening tests, and more likely to avoid information about diseases they did not have. Compared with other participants, those with lower health literacy were more likely to say that they would seek information about cancer prevention or screening from a health care professional and less likely to turn to the Internet first for such information. Those with lower health literacy reported reading on fewer days and using the computer on fewer days than did other participants. The authors assessed the association of low health literacy with colorectal cancer screening in an age-appropriate subgroup for which colorectal cancer screening is recommended. In these insured subjects receiving care in integrated health care delivery systems, those with low health literacy were less likely to be up to date on screening for colorectal cancer, but the difference was not statistically significant.

Morris NS; Field TS; Wagner JL; Cutrona SL; Roblin DW; Gaglio B; Williams AE; Han PJ; Costanza ME; Mazor KM

2013-01-01

49

The relationship between portrayals of nonsuicidal self-injury, attitudes, knowledge, and behavior.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among young people has prompted research into why this may be a chosen coping strategy. One possibility is that the behavior is modeled from media depictions. AIMS: The study examined the relationship between viewing films featuring NSSI and an individuals' knowledge, attitudes toward, and engagement in NSSI. METHOD: 317 individuals (18-30 years) completed an online survey measuring these key variables. RESULTS: Exposure to NSSI in film was related to history of NSSI; an even stronger relationship emerged when individuals identified with the character. Films increase knowledge and empathy toward those engaging NSSI, but they may also serve to trigger NSSI. CONCLUSIONS: Portrayal of NSSI in film could be designed to minimize imitation and to consider the potential to increase knowledge of NSSI among those with little exposure to the behavior. However, because films may also trigger NSSI, further work is needed to determine under what circumstances, and for which individuals, films exert a protective or harmful effect.

Radovic S; Hasking P

2013-01-01

50

Measures of Diabetic Patient Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior Regarding Self-Care: Summary Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report presents research undertaken to identify or develop reliable, valid measures of diabetic patient self-care in the areas of management tasks, patient knowledge of drug self-administration, and patient attitudes about compliance. Self-care topics...

K. H. Marquis J. E. Ware D. A. Relles

1979-01-01

51

Relationship of periodontal status and dental caries status with oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior among professional students in India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To find the relationship of periodontal status and dental caries status with oral health knowledge, attitude, behavior, among professional students in India. METHODOLOGY: In a cross sectional study, a total of 825 students (males: 577, females: 248) from six professions were surveyed using a self administered structured questionnaire including 41 multiple choice questions and the WHO Oral Health Assessment Form (1997). The data was analyzed using the SPSS version 13.0 to perform the Student's t-test, ANOVA test, Scheffe's test and Chi-square test, linear regression analysis. RESULTS: The mean percentage scores of the students for knowledge were 53.25 +/- 15.05; for attitude 74.97 +/- 20.48; and for behavior 59.09 +/- 18.77. The percentage of students with calculus score was found to be significantly high (43.8%). The percentage of professional students with DMFT >4 was 14.1% and the percentage of students with decayed teeth was 46.2%. The regression analysis showed that the oral health behavior of the students was dependent on the attitude (P < 0.001), but showed no significant linear relation with the knowledge. Also, that the mean DMFT score was dependent on the oral health behavior (P < 0.05), but showed no significant relationship with the knowledge and attitude of the students. The periodontal status was independent on the knowledge, but showed a significant relationship with attitude and behavior of the students. CONCLUSION: A positive attitude and adherence to good oral hygiene behaviors is associated with better oral health.

Sharda AJ; Shetty S

2009-12-01

52

Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety management of radiation workers in medical institutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation safety managements in medical institutions are needed to protect certain radiation damages as a part of National Coalition. This study investigates the characteristics of self-efficacy that become the major factor on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the radiation safety management of radiation workers as an approach of educational aspects and analyzes the relationship between such factors to provide basic materials for improving the activity level of radiation safety managements. In order to implement the goal of this study, a survey was performed for 1,200 workers who were engaged in radiation treatments in medical centers, such as general hospital, university hospital, private hospital, and public health center for 42 days from July 23, 2006. Then, the results of the analysis can be summarized as follows: 1. Average scores on knowledge, attitude, and behavior in the radiation safety management were presented as 75.76±11.20, 90.55±8.59, 80.58±11.70, respectively. Also, the average score of self-efficacy was recorded as 73.55±9.82. 2. Knowledge levels in the radiation safety management showed significant differences according to the sex, age, marriage, education, and experience. Also, males of married, older, highly educated, and largely experienced represented high knowledge levels. Attitude levels in the radiation safety management showed certain significant differences according to the type of medical centers in which private hospitals showed a relatively low level compared to that of high levels in university hospitals. Behavior levels in the radiation safety management also represented significant differences according to the age, marriage, education, experience, and types of medical centers. Factors in married, general hospital, older, highly educated, and largely experienced showed high behavior levels. In addition, the self-efficacy showed certain differences according to the marriage and types of medical centers. Factors in married and general hospital demonstrated high self-efficacy levels. 3. Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety management showed statistical differences according to the relationship between the knowledge and the attitude, the knowledge and the behavior, the attitude and the behavior, the attitude and the self-efficacy, and the behavior and the self-efficacy. The relationship between the behavior and the self-efficacy was represented as ? = 0.482, which was the strongest relationship in such factors. Also, the knowledge and self-efficacy didn't show certain relationships.

2007-01-01

53

Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety management of radiation workers in medical institutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiation safety managements in medical institutions are needed to protect certain radiation damages as a part of National Coalition. This study investigates the characteristics of self-efficacy that become the major factor on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the radiation safety management of radiation workers as an approach of educational aspects and analyzes the relationship between such factors to provide basic materials for improving the activity level of radiation safety managements. In order to implement the goal of this study, a survey was performed for 1,200 workers who were engaged in radiation treatments in medical centers, such as general hospital, university hospital, private hospital, and public health center for 42 days from July 23, 2006. Then, the results of the analysis can be summarized as follows: 1. Average scores on knowledge, attitude, and behavior in the radiation safety management were presented as 75.76{+-}11.20, 90.55{+-}8.59, 80.58{+-}11.70, respectively. Also, the average score of self-efficacy was recorded as 73.55{+-}9.82. 2. Knowledge levels in the radiation safety management showed significant differences according to the sex, age, marriage, education, and experience. Also, males of married, older, highly educated, and largely experienced represented high knowledge levels. Attitude levels in the radiation safety management showed certain significant differences according to the type of medical centers in which private hospitals showed a relatively low level compared to that of high levels in university hospitals. Behavior levels in the radiation safety management also represented significant differences according to the age, marriage, education, experience, and types of medical centers. Factors in married, general hospital, older, highly educated, and largely experienced showed high behavior levels. In addition, the self-efficacy showed certain differences according to the marriage and types of medical centers. Factors in married and general hospital demonstrated high self-efficacy levels. 3. Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety management showed statistical differences according to the relationship between the knowledge and the attitude, the knowledge and the behavior, the attitude and the behavior, the attitude and the self-efficacy, and the behavior and the self-efficacy. The relationship between the behavior and the self-efficacy was represented as {gamma} = 0.482, which was the strongest relationship in such factors. Also, the knowledge and self-efficacy didn't show certain relationships.

Han, Eun Ok [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

2007-06-15

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Breast cancer prevention knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among college women and mother-daughter communication.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although breast cancer prevention targets mostly women ages 40 and older, little is known about breast cancer prevention for young women and mother's advice. The purpose of this study was to examine breast cancer prevention knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among college women and mother-daughter communication. Hispanic and non-Hispanic students at a southwestern university completed a breast cancer prevention survey with items for mother's advice, breast self-awareness and risk reduction knowledge, self-efficacy, susceptibility, family history, provider breast self-exam (BSE) recommendation, peer norms, BSE practice, and demographics. An openended item was also used to elicit types of mother's advice. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors for receiving mother's advice for breast cancer prevention and BSE practice. Self-reported data using a survey were obtained from 546 college women with a mean age of 23.3 (SD = 7.75). Nearly 36 % received mothers' advice and 55 % conducted BSE. Predictors for receiving mother's advice were age, self-efficacy, and family history of breast cancer. Predictors for BSE practice were mother's advice, age, self-efficacy, and provider BSE recommendation. Family history of breast cancer and knowledge were not significant predictors for BSE practice. Findings support the need for clinicians, community health educators, and mothers to provide breast cancer prevention education targeting college women. PMID:23358794

Kratzke, Cynthia; Vilchis, Hugo; Amatya, Anup

2013-06-01

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Breast cancer prevention knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among college women and mother-daughter communication.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although breast cancer prevention targets mostly women ages 40 and older, little is known about breast cancer prevention for young women and mother's advice. The purpose of this study was to examine breast cancer prevention knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among college women and mother-daughter communication. Hispanic and non-Hispanic students at a southwestern university completed a breast cancer prevention survey with items for mother's advice, breast self-awareness and risk reduction knowledge, self-efficacy, susceptibility, family history, provider breast self-exam (BSE) recommendation, peer norms, BSE practice, and demographics. An openended item was also used to elicit types of mother's advice. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors for receiving mother's advice for breast cancer prevention and BSE practice. Self-reported data using a survey were obtained from 546 college women with a mean age of 23.3 (SD = 7.75). Nearly 36 % received mothers' advice and 55 % conducted BSE. Predictors for receiving mother's advice were age, self-efficacy, and family history of breast cancer. Predictors for BSE practice were mother's advice, age, self-efficacy, and provider BSE recommendation. Family history of breast cancer and knowledge were not significant predictors for BSE practice. Findings support the need for clinicians, community health educators, and mothers to provide breast cancer prevention education targeting college women.

Kratzke C; Vilchis H; Amatya A

2013-06-01

56

Knowledge, behavior, and attitudes of adolescent university students towards HIV infection and AIDS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, behavior, and attitudes of students entering the University of Buenos Aires (UBA) towards HIV/AIDS, as well as to determine the differences between genders and between groups with different behavior in terms of HIV/AIDS risk behavior, through the conduct of an ad hoc semi-structured questionnaire. This questionnaire was completed anonymously by 12,000 university students going in for compulsory medical check-up at the Health and Social Welfare Office of the UBA. Two thousand cases were selected by simple randomized sampling and statistically analyzed. Results revealed that: (1) 87.2% of the population under study was between 18 and 27 years old; (2) the students' knowledge of the subject was acceptable; (3) the percentage of respondents who reported having sexual intercourse with more than one person decreased as the number of sexual partners in a year increased. Less than 1.5% explicitly stated being homosexual or bisexual; (4) 53.9% of the men and 46.7% of the women claimed they always used condoms; (5) analysis of the perception of their own risk showed that 75% considered they were not at risk; (6) between 95.8% and 98% were in favor of developing educational-preventive activities and 64.2% thought compulsory AIDS screening for job applicants or candidates for educational courses was discrimination. Conclusions: (a) Information available to admission course students is sufficient. However, there are contradictions in their responses about their own behaviors; (b) Most of the respondents are in favor of the corresponding Faculties implementing educational and preventive measures. The students would regard the University's intervention as a way of fulfilling its social role.

Squassi A; Scholnik L; Bordoni N

2003-01-01

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Knowledge Attitude and Behavior of Medical Technology Vocational Training School Students About Genetically Modified Organisms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine The Medical Technology Vocational Training School (MTVTS) students? the knowledge about the effects of GMO on human health and environment and to evaluate their attitude and behavior has been aimed. METHODS: All of the second class students of the year 2006-2007 of MTVTS were included (N=161) in the study, response rate was 92%. The survey questionare included questions on knowledge, the risk perception and attitute about GMOs. The legal framework in Turkey about GMOs, the rationale for GMO production, the labeling for GMO and the students? perception of their knowledge was evaluated through 14 items with Likert scale. After the questionaire, the students received an informative brochure on GMOs. RESULTS: The open-ended question asking to define GMOs was answered by 59,2% of the students among which 35,6% defined as ?additive?, 34,5% as ?food with hormones?. The risk perceived for GMOs was the forth following cigarette smoking, stres, and environmental pollution in the ranking according to the risk score means. Sex has been the only determinant effecting this scoring for GMOs where girls perceived the risk greater. If family was one of the information sources about GMOs, the perceived risk was increased (p=0,000). Among the students 81,6% thought that GMO should not be grown in Turkey, 77,7% think that GMO was sold however. The leading topic of ambivalence is the state of self knowledge on GMO. The low income group are less concerned about consuming GMO for themselves or for their children (respectively p==0.003 ve p=0,012). CONCLUSION: Health workers are assigned with an important role to inform the public for healthy eating. However although the the risk perception of the study group for GMOs is high, their knowledge is low. Training activities to supply this deficiency should be implemented. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(6.000): 503-508

Isil Ergin; Safak Taner Gursoy; Zeliha Asli Ocek; Meltem Ciceklioglu

2008-01-01

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HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and behaviors assessment of Chinese students: a questionnaire study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to assess students' knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV and AIDS. A questionnaire was administered to a cross section of 259 Chinese undergraduates. Respondents were asked to provide information about knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Study results indicated that the majority of undergraduates had a moderate level of HIV and AIDS knowledge, acceptance and attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS. Boys had more acceptance and positive attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS than girls. Students majoring in medicine performed better (more knowledgeable and accepting) than non-medical students. Differences between students with various monthly expenditures were found-- 6.2% of students had 3-5 sexual partners which has rarely been found in Chinese students; most students did not know HIV VCT centers and most students did not show their confidence for controlling of HIV and AIDS in China. In conclusion, students' knowledge about HIV/AIDS was uneven. A peer educational program to talk about self esteem, healthy sexual attitudes, being human-accepting and loving should be developed in the near future.

Tan X; Pan J; Zhou D; Wang C; Xie C

2007-09-01

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HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Assessment of Chinese Students: A Questionnaire Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess students' knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV and AIDS. A questionnaire was administered to a cross section of 259 Chinese undergraduates. Respondents were asked to provide information about knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Study results indicated that the majority of undergraduates had a moderate level of HIV and AIDS knowledge, acceptance and attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS. Boys had more acceptance and positive attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS than girls. Students majoring in medicine performed better (more knowledgeable and accepting) than non-medical students. Differences between students with various monthly expenditures were found-- 6.2% of students had 3-5 sexual partners which has rarely been found in Chinese students; most students did not know HIV VCT centers and most students did not show their confidence for controlling of HIV and AIDS in China. In conclusion, students’ knowledge about HIV/AIDS was uneven. A peer educational program to talk about self esteem, healthy sexual attitudes, being human-accepting and loving should be developed in the near future.

Xiaodong Tan; Jingju Pan; Dong Zhou; Chunhong Wang; Chaojun Xie

2007-01-01

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Consumer attitudes, knowledge, and behavior related to salt consumption in sentinel countries of the Americas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To describe individual attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding salt intake, its dietary sources, and current food-labeling practices related to salt and sodium in five sentinel countries of the Americas. METHODS: A convenience sample of 1 992 adults (? 18 years old) from Argentina, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, and Ecuador (approximately 400 from each country) was obtained between September 2010 and February 2011. Data collection was conducted in shopping malls or major commercial areas using a questionnaire containing 33 questions. Descriptive estimates are presented for the total sample and stratified by country and sociodemographic characteristics of the studied population. RESULTS: Almost 90% of participants associated excess intake of salt with the occurrence of adverse health conditions, more than 60% indicated they were trying to reduce their current intake of salt, and more than 30% believed reducing dietary salt to be of high importance. Only 26% of participants claimed to know the existence of a recommended maximum value of salt or sodium intake and 47% of them stated they knew the content of salt in food items. More than 80% of participants said that they would like food labeling to indicate high, medium, and low levels of salt or sodium and would like to see a clear warning label on packages of foods high in salt. CONCLUSIONS: Additional effort is required to increase consumers' knowledge about the existence of a maximum limit for intake and to improve their capacity to accurately monitor and reduce their personal salt consumption.

Claro RM; Linders H; Ricardo CZ; Legetic B; Campbell NR

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
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A tool to assess knowledge, attitude and behavior of indonesian health care workers regarding infection control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim: to investigate knowledge, attitude and behaviour toward infection control in two teaching hospitals on the island of Java by means of a questionnaire and to evaluate the use of the questionnaire as a tool. Methods: we investigated knowledge, attitude and behaviour toward infection control in two teaching hospitals on the island of Java by means of a questionnaire to identify problem areas, barriers and facilitators. The target was to include at least 50% of all health care workers (physicians, nurses, assistant nurses and infection control nurses) in each hospital, department and profession. Differences between demographic variables and scores for individual questions and groups of questions were compared using the chi-square statistic and analysis of variance and Spearman's rho was used to test for correlations between knowledge, attitude, self-reported behaviour and perceived obstacles. Results: more than half of the health care workers of the participating departments completed the questionnaire. Of the 1036 respondents (44% nurses, 37% physicians and 19% assistant nurses), 34% were vaccinated against hepatitis B, 77% had experienced needle stick accidents and 93% had been instructed about infection control. The mean of the correct answers to the knowledge questions was 44%; of the answers to the attitude questions 67% were in agreement with the correct attitude; obstacles to compliance with infection control guidelines were perceived in 30% of the questions and the mean self-reported compliance was 63%. Safe handling of sharps, hand hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment were identified as the most important aspects for interventions. Significant positive correlations were found between knowledge, attitude, self-reported behaviour and perceived obstacles. Conclusion: the questionnaire in conjunction with site visits and interviews was a valuable strategy to identify trouble spots in the hospitals and to determine barriers to facilitators of change that should be taken into account when planning interventions. Successful interventions should cover hospital management, the infection control team, as well as the health care workers on the wards. PMID:24045391

Duerink, D O; Hadi, U; Lestari, E S; Roeshadi, Djoko; Wahyono, Hendro; Nagelkerke, N J D; Meulen, R G Van der; Broek, P J Van den

2013-07-01

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A tool to assess knowledge, attitude and behavior of indonesian health care workers regarding infection control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aim: to investigate knowledge, attitude and behaviour toward infection control in two teaching hospitals on the island of Java by means of a questionnaire and to evaluate the use of the questionnaire as a tool. Methods: we investigated knowledge, attitude and behaviour toward infection control in two teaching hospitals on the island of Java by means of a questionnaire to identify problem areas, barriers and facilitators. The target was to include at least 50% of all health care workers (physicians, nurses, assistant nurses and infection control nurses) in each hospital, department and profession. Differences between demographic variables and scores for individual questions and groups of questions were compared using the chi-square statistic and analysis of variance and Spearman's rho was used to test for correlations between knowledge, attitude, self-reported behaviour and perceived obstacles. Results: more than half of the health care workers of the participating departments completed the questionnaire. Of the 1036 respondents (44% nurses, 37% physicians and 19% assistant nurses), 34% were vaccinated against hepatitis B, 77% had experienced needle stick accidents and 93% had been instructed about infection control. The mean of the correct answers to the knowledge questions was 44%; of the answers to the attitude questions 67% were in agreement with the correct attitude; obstacles to compliance with infection control guidelines were perceived in 30% of the questions and the mean self-reported compliance was 63%. Safe handling of sharps, hand hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment were identified as the most important aspects for interventions. Significant positive correlations were found between knowledge, attitude, self-reported behaviour and perceived obstacles. Conclusion: the questionnaire in conjunction with site visits and interviews was a valuable strategy to identify trouble spots in the hospitals and to determine barriers to facilitators of change that should be taken into account when planning interventions. Successful interventions should cover hospital management, the infection control team, as well as the health care workers on the wards.

Duerink DO; Hadi U; Lestari ES; Roeshadi D; Wahyono H; Nagelkerke NJ; Meulen RG; Broek PJ

2013-07-01

63

Religious Officials' knowledge, attitude, and behavior towards smoking and the new tobacco law in Kahramanmaras, Turkey  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco control effort should be first started in people that are looked upon as role models for the general population. We aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of religious officials towards smoking and the new tobacco law. Method The study group was comprised of 492 Imams and 149 Quran course instructors working in Kahramanmaras city of Turkey, 641 religious officials in total, and our survey form was applied on 406 (63.3%) of those religious officials who agreed to participate in the study. Results Twenty-eight (6.9%) participants were current smokers and 35 (8.6%) were ex-smokers. 99.8% of the religious officials believed that smoking was harmful and/or prohibited in terms of religion. While 43.6% respondents thought smoking was "haram" (forbidden by Islam), 56.2% believed it was "makruh" (something regarded as reprehensible, though not forbidden by God according to Islam). 85.2% of the participants were aware of the recent tobacco law. 55.5% of the respondents, who were aware of the recent tobacco law, evaluated their knowledge level on the law as adequate, whereas 44.5% evaluated it as inadequate 92.4% of the participants noted that religious officials should play active roles in tobacco control effort. Conclusion Smoking rate among religious officials is much lower than that of general public. In order to help religious officials to take a more active role on this issue, they should be trained on the subject and appropriate platforms should be established.

Sucakli Mustafa; Ozer Ali; Celik Mustafa; Kahraman Hasan; Ekerbicer Hasan

2011-01-01

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[Adolescents and AIDS: knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, perceptions and consequences for prevention].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The vital issues at stake in the credibility and effectiveness of AIDS prevention programs for young people have led to the emergence of a trend in research focused on the study of adolescents' understanding of AIDS, their attitudes and behaviour towards it, and their beliefs about it. This research can be classified under the three main ways of approaching the problem: 1) results of inquiries about knowledge, attitudes and behaviour; 2) research centred on beliefs and their consequences on a social and individual level; 3) reports and analysis of prevention programs. The results obtained by the different authors bring to light certain characteristics among the adolescent population, notably, their understanding of the disease, their attitudes towards people who are HIV positive, their sexual behaviour, their beliefs about AIDS, and the general direction of the prevention programs which are best adapted to this particular population.

Ferron C; Laurent-Beq A; Deschamps JP

1993-07-01

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Media's contribution to sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors for adolescents and young adults in three Asian cities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Evidence in western countries indicates that the media have associations with adolescents' and young people's sexual behavior that may be as important as family, school, and peers. In this new study of Asian adolescents and young adults in the three cities of Hanoi, Shanghai, and Taipei, the associations between exposure to sexual content in the media and adolescents' and young adults' sex-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors are explored in societies with traditional Confucian culture, but at different stages in the process of modernization. METHODS: The data are from a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study conducted from 2006 to 2007, where a sample of 17,016 adolescents and young adults aged 15-24 years from Shanghai, Hanoi, and Taipei completed face-to-face interviews coupled with computer-assisted self-interviews for sensitive questions. For the objectives of this article, analysis was restricted to the 16,554 unmarried respondents. Exposure to sexual content in the mass media (including the Internet and traditional media), pornographic videos, and a preference for western/Asian movies/videos were the main media influence measures. Sex-related knowledge, premarital sexual permissiveness (PSP), and sex-related behaviors were the main outcome measures. The impact of each of four contexts including family, peer, school, and media on sex-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were assessed using multiple linear regression stratified by gender and city, controlling for age, urban/rural residence, education, and economic status. The change in adjusted R(2) from the multiple linear regression analysis was adopted to indicate the contribution of family, peer, school, and media variables to respondents' sex-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. RESULTS: The contextual factors, including family, peer, school, and media, explained 30%-50% of the variance in sex-related knowledge, 8%-22% of the variance in PSP, and 32%-41% of the variance in sex-related behaviors. Media variables explained 13%-24% of the variance in sexual knowledge, 3%-13% in PSP, and 3%-13% in sex-related behaviors, which was comparable with that of family, peer, and school variables. These associations differed by city and gender. CONCLUSIONS: Access to and use of mass media and the messages they present are influential factors on sex-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of unmarried Asian adolescents and young adults, and should be considered in future research and intervention programs attempting to improve reproductive health outcomes.

Lou C; Cheng Y; Gao E; Zuo X; Emerson MR; Zabin LS

2012-03-01

66

Skin cancer knowledge, attitude and behavior towards sun exposure among young adults in Lithuania  

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Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to assess young adult's knowledge about skin cancer and it’s risk factors, attitude towards sun exposure and the interactions of various behaviors in the sun.Material and methods: The anonymous questionnaire-based inquiry of 750 respondents was created according to the anonymous form filled-in during the annual Euromelanoma Day campaign. Results: 708 questionnaires were filled-in correctly: 328 (46.3%) by men, 380 (53.7%) by women. Median of age was 21 (women – 22, men – 21). During the sunny days 93.2% of respondents sometimes seek shade, 17.5% of young adults never try to get a tan from 11a.m. to 3p.m. Sunglasses are worn in 52.4% of cases, however 63.1% of them with UV filters. 8,1% of respondents always wear T-shirts, 30.6% cover head in the beach. While sun-bathing one third (32.9%) wear sun protection cream, while working or doing sports outdoors – 8.9%. Majority (57.4%) apply sun protection cream when coming to the beach, 31.4% of them don't use it repeatedly. Those who knew, what is melanoma, were more likely to wear sunglasses (p=0.003) with UV filters (p=0.006), T-shirts (p=0.046), covered head (p<0.0001) and seeked shadow (p=0.002) on the beach; used sun protection cream while working ?1 hour outdoors (p=0.001) or sunbathing (p<0.0001), and choosed a sun protection cream according to SPF value (p<0.0001).Conclusion: The data of this study showed that respondents behave careless in the sun. One third of respondents always wear sun protection cream, the majority do not know how to use it properly. More responsible behavior in the sun depends on better knowledge of skin cancer.

Ieva Laniauskait?; Agn? Ožalinskait?; Rasa Strupait?; Matilda Bylait?

2011-01-01

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MALARIA, KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE & PRACTICE  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of people about malaria in a semiurban area near Rawalpindi and Islamabad. DESIGN: Descriptive Cross Sectional Study.SETTING: A cross sectional survey was conducted in a semi urban area of model village Humaknear Rawalpindi and Islamabad. METHOD: Universal questionnaire was used to assess theknowledge, attitude and practices about malaria. The head of family (Male or Female) was interviewed bystructured Questionnaire. RESULTS: In 85% of respondents opinion malaria is a dangerous disease and97% were in favor of protective measures against malaria. Regarding the protective measures 56% were infavor of mosquito net. By the use of mosquito net or repellent 98% of respondents attitude was preventionagainst the mosquito bite. 93% respondents answered that they would like to know about details of malariaproblem. Regarding the practices 72% of respondents, family members suffered from malaria during thepast. 70% of respondents, recognized the malaria on their own by recognizing signs and symptoms ofmalaria, and doctor diagnosed 5%. 70% were planning protection from mosquito bite and 5% were doingself-medication. During malaria season 32% were taking Chemoprophylaxis. 66% were planning tosafeguard their family from mosquito bite and 40% were using mosquito nets. 30% of respondents wereusing mosquito repellents when they were going out of home. Those who were using chemical mat 68%were using regularly and 32% were occasional user. CONCLUSION: The study explores that there is needfor more accurate knowledge transmission from media and health workers and effective health educationprograms and energetic malaria control and eradication steps.

Abida Sultana

2001-01-01

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Breast cancer knowledge, attitudes and screening behaviors in two groups of Iranian women: physicians and non-health care personnel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Breast cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies worldwide which is characterized by early onset and diagnosis at advanced stages in Iranian women. Increasing women's awareness and implementing breast cancer screening programs detect cancer earlier and reduce mortality. Physicians play a pivotal role in this regard. Further, there is limited literature about knowledge, attitude, and screening behaviors in Iranian women. Using a questionnaire, we assessed and compared breast cancer knowledge, attitude, and screening behaviors in 102 female physicians and 94 female non-health care personnel, who were mostly from the hospital's cleaning and housekeeping sections. Of the physicians and of non-health care personnel, respectively, 93.1 and 24.7 % felt confident about their knowledge and 37.6 and 26.1 % performed monthly breast self-examination. Of physicians aged 40 and over, 31.25 and 18.75 % had clinical breast examination and mammogram, respectively, within 12 months prior to date of data collection. In non-health care personnel aged 40 and over, the results were 27.59 % for clinical breast examination and 17.24 % for mammogram at the same period of time. Despite the higher knowledge and socioeconomic class of physicians, there were no significant difference in screening behaviors between physicians and non-health care personnel (P?>?0.05). PMID:22723153

Kadivar, Maryam; Joolaee, Soodabeh; Joulaee, Azadeh; Bahrani, Nasser; Hosseini, Niloufar

2012-12-01

69

Breast cancer knowledge, attitudes and screening behaviors in two groups of Iranian women: physicians and non-health care personnel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Breast cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies worldwide which is characterized by early onset and diagnosis at advanced stages in Iranian women. Increasing women's awareness and implementing breast cancer screening programs detect cancer earlier and reduce mortality. Physicians play a pivotal role in this regard. Further, there is limited literature about knowledge, attitude, and screening behaviors in Iranian women. Using a questionnaire, we assessed and compared breast cancer knowledge, attitude, and screening behaviors in 102 female physicians and 94 female non-health care personnel, who were mostly from the hospital's cleaning and housekeeping sections. Of the physicians and of non-health care personnel, respectively, 93.1 and 24.7 % felt confident about their knowledge and 37.6 and 26.1 % performed monthly breast self-examination. Of physicians aged 40 and over, 31.25 and 18.75 % had clinical breast examination and mammogram, respectively, within 12 months prior to date of data collection. In non-health care personnel aged 40 and over, the results were 27.59 % for clinical breast examination and 17.24 % for mammogram at the same period of time. Despite the higher knowledge and socioeconomic class of physicians, there were no significant difference in screening behaviors between physicians and non-health care personnel (P?>?0.05).

Kadivar M; Joolaee S; Joulaee A; Bahrani N; Hosseini N

2012-12-01

70

High Risk Behavior, Knowledge and Attitude of HIV/AIDS among Workers in Factories Manufacturing Alcohol in Mandalay, Myanmar  

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Full Text Available Analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in Mandalay, Myanmar to identify high risk sexual behavior, knowledge and attitude regarding HIV/AIDS and prevention practice related to HIV/AIDS among male workers in factories manufacturing alcohol. Participants included male workers (n = 219) from 10 alcohol factories in Industrial Zone (A). Data were collected through face to face interviews using pretested structured questionnaire. Results showed that 38.8% of the respondents were able to get discount to buy alcohol from their factory, and 70.3% of them consumed alcohol in the last 12 months. Regarding high risk sexual behavior, 38.4% of the respondents had intercourse with a casual partner of opposite gender, while 31.5% had intercourse with commercial sex workers and 19.2% had homosexual relationship during last 12 months. Among the married, 45% had extramarital intercourse. More than 80% of the respondents received HIV/AIDS related information from media and colleagues while 51.1% of them received from NGOs or health education at workplace. Among the respondents who engaged in different high risk sexual behaviors, 50% - 88.9% did not use condom consistently and they had significantly lower knowledge about HIV/AIDS. However, the knowledge and attitude regarding HIV/AIDS were not significantly different between the respondents who used condom consistently and those who did not. This study highlights the need of health education about HIV/AIDS and access to affordable condoms among workers in factories manufacturing alcohol to improve their knowledge, attitude and behavior, as well as to promote consistent condom usage as it is vital for prevention and control of HIV/AIDS.

Khin Thiri Maung; Htoo Htoo Kyaw Soe; Nan Nitra Than; Simerjit Singh Madan; Senthil Kumar P.

2013-01-01

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Assessing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to HIV and AIDS in Nicaragua: a community-level perspective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Nicaragua's HIV epidemic is concentrated among men who have sex with men. Nevertheless, the increasing number of HIV cases among heterosexuals, high levels of poverty and migration rates, and incomplete epidemiological data suggest the need to improve the understanding of the epidemic. OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and sexual risk-taking behaviors, and their predictors among the adult population. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2009 among 520 participants ages 15-49 from an ongoing Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Nicaragua. Bivariate analysis and adjusted prevalence ratios were use to examine factors associated with HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behavior. RESULTS: Contributing factors for risk-taking behaviors included cognitive, psychosocial, and emotional elements. Insufficient knowledge affecting the accurate assessment of HIV risk were low educational level, poverty, and rural origin, especially among females. Recognizing risk was not sufficient to promote safer sex: 90% of the females and 70% of the males who reported being sexually active in the past year did not use condoms during their last sexual encounter. Inconsistent condom use among men was associated with older age, long-term relationships, and lack of awareness about acquiring HIV infection. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to reduce social-structural contextual factors in Nicaragua are needed so that individuals may adopt and maintain HIV risk reduction strategies. Increased gender-specific HIV education and skills-building programs need to be implemented. Sensitive mass media messages may also increase the knowledge of HIV and AIDS, and serve to encourage protective attitudes and behaviors.

Ugarte WJ; Högberg U; Valladares E; Essén B

2013-03-01

72

Nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes, and dietary behaviors among head start teachers in Texas: a cross-sectional study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Head Start teachers are responsible for providing nutrition education to over 1 million low-income children annually, yet little is known about their nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. The purpose of this study is to assess the self-reported nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among Head Start teachers from one urban Head Start organization in Harris County, TX. A cross-sectional, descriptive analysis was conducted using baseline surveys in the 2008-2009 school year. One hundred eighty-one Head Start teachers completed self-reported surveys of their nutrition knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, weight status, and other weight-related behaviors. The sample was predominantly female (97%) and minority (93%); 24% were overweight and 55% were obese. One fourth of the sample did not consume fruit (26%) or vegetables (23%) the previous day. Half of the teachers reported consuming french fries (52%) and soda (44%), and one fourth consumed fried meat (28%) at least once on the previous day. Only four teachers (3%) answered at least four of the five nutrition knowledge questions correctly. Half of the teachers (54%) agreed that it was hard to know which nutrition information to believe, and only 9% reported that their nutrition habits were healthy. A majority of teachers were trying to lose weight (71%) and said they would like to weigh less (81%). This study underscores the importance of providing nutrition education and wellness opportunities to Head Start teachers to better enable them to teach nutrition education to their students and to improve their own health.

Sharma S; Dortch KS; Byrd-Williams C; Truxillio JB; Rahman GA; Bonsu P; Hoelscher D

2013-04-01

73

Physicians' knowledge, attitude, and behavior regarding fertility issues for young breast cancer patients: a national survey for breast care specialists.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Fertility is one of the key aspects of quality of life for breast cancer patients of childbearing age. The objective of this study was to describe fertility-related practice for young breast cancer patients in Japan and to identify healthcare provider factors that contribute to physicians' behavior towards fertility preservation. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was developed in order for Japanese breast cancer specialists (n = 843) to self-evaluate their knowledge, attitude, and behavior regarding fertility preservation. Survey items included questions regarding knowledge of and attitude toward fertility issues in cancer patients, fertility-related practice, potential barriers for the discussion of fertility with patients, and responding physicians' socio-demographic background. RESULTS: Four hundred and thirty-four (52%) breast oncologists responded to the survey. Female and younger oncologists (age less than 50 years) had significantly higher probability of referring patients to reproductive specialists. Physicians who had better knowledge score and positive attitudes toward fertility preservation were more likely to discuss potential fertility issues with cancer patients. This was significantly associated with consultation and referral to reproduction specialists when encountering fertility issues with cancer patients. Risk of recurrence, lack of collaborating reproductive specialists, and time constraints in the clinic were identified as major barriers to discussion of fertility preservation with breast cancer patients. CONCLUSION: Female and younger physicians as well as physicians working in a multidisciplinary environment had positive attitudes and behavior towards fertility preservation in breast cancer patients. The development of comprehensive and interdisciplinary programs for healthcare providers is necessary to meet the expectations and fertility needs of breast cancer patients.

Shimizu C; Bando H; Kato T; Mizota Y; Yamamoto S; Fujiwara Y

2013-07-01

74

Knowledge, attitudes, and demographic factors influencing cervical cancer screening behavior of Zimbabwean women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: The aims of this study were (1) to estimate what proportion of rural females had received cervical screening, (2) to assess knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and demographics that influence cervical screening, and (3) to predict cervical screening accessibility based on demographic factors, knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes that influence cervical screening. METHODS: The study sample consisted of randomly selected, sexually active, rural females between 12 and 84 years of age. Five hundred fourteen females responded to an individually administered questionnaire. RESULTS: Of the 514 participants, 91% had never had cervical screening and 81% had no previous knowledge of cervical screening tests; 80% of the group expressed positive beliefs about cervical screening tests after an educational intervention. Females who were financially independent were 6.61% more likely to access cervical screening compared with those who were dependent on their husbands. Females in mining villages were 4.47% more likely to access cervical screening than those in traditional rural reserve villages. Females in resettlement villages were 20% less likely to access cervical screening than those in traditional rural reserve villages. CONCLUSIONS: Accessibility of screening services could be improved through planning and implementation of screening programs involving community leaders and culturally appropriate messages. The government should incorporate the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in its immunization program for adolescents, and health education should be intensified to encourage women and their partners to comply with diagnostic and treatment regimens.

Mupepi SC; Sampselle CM; Johnson TR

2011-06-01

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Knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and perceptions of risk related to HIV/AIDS among Chinese university students in Hunan, China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this paper is to describe HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions and identify personal risk behaviors among undergraduate students in China. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey of 1326 students between ages 17 through 28 was conducted in 2002. Results indicated that students held considerable misconceptions about HIV transmission by casual contact and needle sharing as well as stigmatizing attitudes about injection drug use, homosexuality and HIV-positive women who bear children. Results indicated that 14% of Chinese university students are sexually active and risk behaviors tended to increase with age. Additionally, 24% of the students considered themselves to be at moderate to very high risk of contracting HIV and 40% of sexually active students never used condoms. Therefore, it is important to design HIV prevention strategies that target university students in China.

Huang J; Bova C; Fennie KP; Rogers A; Williams AB

2005-11-01

76

Knowledge, attitude and health behavior of dental students towards HIV patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: HIV/AIDS had profoundly affected every aspect of the health sector. Most importantly doctor’s attitude of avoiding treatment of HIV patients is mainly due to their apprehensions caused by their lack of understanding of the disease and its modes of transmission. Aims and objective: To investigate a group of dental students’ knowledge about HIV infection, attitudes towards treating HIV/AIDS patients and behaviour practices. Materials and methods: study population consisted of 150 dental students from College of Dental Science and Research Center, Bopal, Ahmedabad. who were treating patients in the clinics of the college. The survey instrument was a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Result: Mean age of the study population is 20.5 yrs. According to them most common modes of transmission – sexual transmission and contaminated blood transfusion. Preventive measures are use of condom and safe blood transfusion and common oral manifestation are Candidiasis, Apthous ulcer, Hairy leukoplakia. Range of score is 0-13. Mean score of knowledge regarding general and dental aspects was 9.73 and 5.08 respectively. Difference between two is statistically significant. Most of them were using gloves and mask but not using protective eye wear as Universal Work Precautions. Conclusions: These findings highlight the importance of teaching the dental students on various aspects of the disease. Universal Work Precautions implementation should be emphasized at an early level of their curriculum and reinforced from time to time.

Venu Shan; Nimisha D. Shethwala; D.V.Bala

2011-01-01

77

The Sex Knowledge and Attitude Test (SKAT).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Sex Knowledge and Attitude Test (SKAT) was designed to measure knowledge, attitudes and degree of experience in a variety of sexual behaviors, and to be used as a teaching and research instrument. The SKAT has been administered to over 35,000 students, approximately two-thirds of whom have been medical students. SKAT has served two major objectives: to measure changes in knowledge and attitudes after a course or program in human sexuality and to demonstrate the deficiencies of medical and nursing education in preparing health professionals to aid patients with sexual problems. Additional types of research using the SKAT are suggested.

Miller WR; Lief HI

1979-01-01

78

The impact of lifestyle medicine continuing education on provider knowledge, attitudes, and counseling behaviors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is a need for effective continuing medical education (CME) programs to increase healthcare providers' knowledge and skills in lifestyle medicine so that healthcare providers are better equipped to assist patients in adopting and maintaining healthier lifestyle behaviors. AIMS: To evaluate the impact of five live face-to-face CME programs in lifestyle medicine on providers' barriers, knowledge, confidence, and professional counseling behaviors. METHODS: 200 participants completed researcher-generated surveys before and 90 days after each CME program. Paired t-tests measured significant changes for all outcome variables, and regression analyses assessed predictors of these changes. RESULTS: Barriers that were targeted during the programs, i.e. lack of knowledge/skills, lack of materials, and perceived poor patient compliance showed highly significant improvement. Participants also reported significant changes in knowledge, confidence, and counseling behaviors in the areas of exercise and stress management. Some improvements occurred in areas that the CME programs did not target as much, i.e. nutrition, smoking, and weight management. The greatest predictor of change was the baseline level of scores. Those participants who could most benefit from change did show the largest improvements. CONCLUSIONS: Live CME programs can be effective in educating healthcare providers about topics within the rapidly expanding field of lifestyle medicine.

Dacey M; Arnstein F; Kennedy MA; Wolfe J; Phillips EM

2013-05-01

79

The Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of HIV/AIDS Patients’ Family toward Their Patients before and after Counseling  

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Full Text Available Background: Acquired immunodeficiency may impose considerableconsequences on patients’ family behaviors towardthem. The objective of the present study was to investigatewhether a counseling program at Behavioral Counseling Centerin the city of Shiraz, Iran could change the attitude, knowledgeand behavior of patients' family members.Methods: 125 HIV/AIDS patients’ family members were interviewed,using a valid and reliable questionnaire before andafter performing counseling sessions at Behavioral CounselingCenter. The findings were analyzed using nonparametric tests.Results: The age of the participants was 40±13 years. Sixty fivepercent were female, 63% married and 79% educated. Forty fourpercent of participants had spousal relationships with their patients.Their knowledge about the main routes of HIV transmissionwere 9.76 ± 2.59 and10.64±0.88 before and after counseling,respectively (P=0.028). Supportive behaviors of families towardtheir patients reached to 79% after counseling compared with 44% before that (P=0.004). Belief to isolate the patients and thepractice of this approach at home dropped from 71% to 15% andfrom 29% to 7% after counseling, respectively (P0.05).Conclusion: Ongoing counseling for HIV/AIDS patients’ familiesat Behavioral Counseling Center of Shiraz did advance theirknowledge about AIDS and improved their attitude and behaviortoward their patients However, the counseling program didnot show remarkable success in some aspects such as the removalof fear about HIV spread in the family or the change ofthe patients’ wives attitude to have protected sex with their HIVinfected husbands.Iran J Med Sci 2010; 35(4): 287-292.

Behnam Honarvar

2010-01-01

80

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of Female Teachers Related to Breast Cancer and Breast Examination in Southern Turkey  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary Background The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of female teachers related to breast cancer in Southern Turkey. Materials and Methods There are almost 5,000 female teachers working in Hatay, Turkey, and we aimed to reach 10% of this population. Our questionnaire consisted of 14 questions about personal information, 14 questions about knowledge related to breast cancer, and 14 questions about attitudes and behaviors of teachers. Results In all, 490 female teachers participated in the study. The mean age was 34.6 years, and most were married (77.1%). 62.9% of participants reported to have insufficient knowledge about breast cancer. The source of information was newspaper/TV in 84.6%, and medical health care providers in 22.8%. While all of the participants think that early diagnosis of breast cancer is important; 19% think personal hygiene is protective against breast cancer. Among all the participants, 53.7% have never practiced breast self-examination (BSE). Of those who practice BSE; 80.6% practice it as they remember, 12.5% practice it once a month. 38.4% of these learned BSE from a doctor, and 38.0% from TV. The reason for not practicing BSE was underestimation in 46.7% and lack of knowledge in 37.9%. 152 participants had a clinical breast examination (CBE) done, and 145 of these had it done by an expert doctor. A total of 86 participants had undergone mammography, while 67 of the over-40-year-old group had not. Conclusion 3/5 of the female teachers think that they do not have enough knowledge related to breast cancer. More than half of them do not practice BSE, and only 12.5% of them practice BSE regularly.

Temiz, Muhyittin; Asian, Ahmet; Inandi, Tacettin; Beshirov, Elmir; Beyaz, Fikret

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

A study of HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitude and behaviors among female sex workers in Shanghai China  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background China is currently facing a rapid and widespread increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The activities of female sex workers (FSWs) have contributed to the mounting epidemic of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Therefore, this study aimed to assess the HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitude and risk behaviors among FSWs operating in Shanghai China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in five districts of Shanghai, including three suburbs and two downtown locales. We adopted a cluster randomized sampling method to obtain ten geographic sites which consisted of one or more communities/villages proximal to a location where FSWs were accessible. A total of 324 FSWs from 109 Xitou Fang, massage parlors and hair salons who explicitly provided sexual services were enrolled in the study. Each participant completed a questionnaire survey and interview aimed to collect information on the individual's knowledge, attitude, and behaviors associated with risk for HIV/AIDs. Results The overall correct answer rate of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge was 60.8%, and the knowledge of FSWs from downtown areas was significantly higher than those from suburban areas (P P Conclusions Based on the findings from our survey, we advise that promotion of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge be targeted towards FSWs in Shanghai, especially those operating in the suburbs. HIV prevention efforts, such as urging constant condom usage with both clients and steady partners, should be sustained and reinforced among the female sex workers population.

Cai Yong; Shi Rong; Shen Tian; Pei Bei; Jiang Xueqin; Ye Xiuxia; Xu Gang; Li Shenghui; Huang Hong; Shang Meili

2010-01-01

82

Knowledge, attitudes, and perceived risk of AIDS among urban Rwandan women: relationship to HIV infection and behavior change.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined factors associated with perceived risk of AIDS, behavior change, and HIV infection in a representative sample of 1458 child-bearing urban women in Rwanda, central Africa. Although 68% of women reported only one lifetime partner, and the majority (87%) lived with a husband or steady partner, the prevalence of HIV antibodies was still high (32%). Before receiving their HIV test results, the women completed a questionnaire about AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Knowledge about HIV transmission was high, with 96-98% of women correctly identifying the three primary routes of infection. However, only 16% of women reported taking any action to avoid AIDS in the previous year, and most (11%) had done so merely by asking their male partners to change their behavior. Only 7% of women had ever tried condoms, and many (68%) thought they could be dangerous to use. Women who perceived themselves at risk of AIDS (57%) were more likely to report changing behavior; they were also more likely to be infected with HIV. Other factors associated with behavior change included having known someone with AIDS, having discussed AIDS with a male partner, and believing that condoms are not dangerous. Future interventions should enhance perception of risk, encourage male sexual partners to reduce risky behavior, and increase familiarity with condoms.

Lindan C; Allen S; Carael M; Nsengumuremyi F; Van de Perre P; Serufilira A; Tice J; Black D; Coates T; Hulley S

1991-08-01

83

An assessment of the HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of adolescents living in a large metropolitan area.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article assesses the HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of a predominately African-American sample of adolescents (N=1503) attending 8th grade in a major Southeastern metropolitan area. Although their knowledge about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission was high, respondents held several misconceptions about HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and not all students knew which type of condom effectively blocks HIV transmission. Respondents in general felt confident that they could resist pressure to smoke marijuana or drink alcohol, but were less confident of their ability to resist pressure to have sex. Sexual activity was also more prevalent than drinking and smoking marijuana among this group of adolescents. Information from this and similar assessments can facilitate responsiveness of healthcare professions to the current educational needs of adolescents.

DiIorio C; Van Marter DF; Dudley WN

2002-01-01

84

[AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors: a prevalence survey among 309 homosexual men in a Chinese city].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To gain an insight into the demographic characteristics and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of men who have sex with men (MSM) in a Chinese city, and to offer a base for preventive measures against AIDS. METHODS: We carried out a prevalence survey, using "snowball" methods to set up survey sites in the "comrade" community, the "comrades" looking for the respondents by various means. RESULTS: Among 309 respondents, 265 (85.8%) were younger than 30 years, 187 (60.5%) received college education or above, 187 (60.5%) were government officials or employees, and 91 (29.4%) were students; 299 (96.8%) were willing or very willing to get knowledge about HIV prevention and treatment, 201 (65.1%) considered themselves as MSM, 76 (24.6%) admitted bisexuality, 117 (37.9%) had insertion sex with at least three men in the past six months, 61 (19.7%) had two or more regular male sexual partners, 140 (45.3%) used condoms on >80% occasions and 34 (11.0%) occasionally or never used them during vaginal sex in the past six months. CONCLUSION: MSM in the city showed the characteristics of younger age, higher education, stable employment and income, more than one sexual partner, high frequency of high-risk behavior, and negligence of condom-use, and most (96.8%) of them are willing or very willing to obtain AIDS prevention knowledge, which deserves particular attention from relevant institutions.

Mu LH; Huang AL; Peng HB; Feng YH; Feng JL; Yang F; Wang L

2011-05-01

85

[School teachers' knowledge, attitudes and behaviors towards road safety: results from a multicenter cross-sectional study in Italy].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study is to investigate knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of secondary school teachers towards traffic safety behaviors. The study is concerning data coming from a cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaires filled in by school teachers of Lazio and Campania regions. 262 teachers entered into the study. Among the scooter holders, 69.2% did use helmet; 95.8% of people who drives car uses seatbelts. The scooter and bicycle helmet is considered useful for 99.6% and 57.4% of participants. The accident rate depends on the means of transportation used: 10.8% and 19% for bicycle and scooter riders, respectively, and 44.6%for the car drivers. Regarding injuries using a bicycle, teachers with less than 40 years are less involved in accidents compared to the over 40 years (OR = 0.19; p = 0.05), as well as teachers who are married (OR = 0.16; p = 0.03) compared to the other group (single/widowed/divorced). Car accidents involve less frequently women (OR = 0.60; p = 0.05) compared to males. Road accidents prevention is part of the health priorities indicated in the National Health Plan, the National Prevention Plan and Regional Prevention Plans. School teachers' can play an important role in students' education on road safety, and there is the need to improve knowledge and behaviors in this field.

Miccoli S; Giraldi G; Boccia A; La Torre G

2012-07-01

86

Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors of The Teachers Teaching at Primary Schools About Epilepsy  

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Full Text Available Objectives: Study was undertaken in order to determine knowledge and behaviors of the teachers teaching at 4 primary schools in Ak?ehir about epilepsy and to suggest practicable recommendations in line with the results obtained.Methods: It was a descriptive study and in the study, all of the teachers were tried to be reached between the 1 st of October and the 30 th of November 2010. The questionnaire form was designed according to the literature information.Results: It was found out that mean age of the teachers was 38.4 (24-56), 53.2% of them were male. It was seen that 65.4% of the teachers had a teaching career of ?13 years. It was detected that 17.7% met epilepsy once, 7.3% intervened for epilepsy once and 4% had students with epilepsy. 47.6% of the teachers were of the opinion that epilepsy was not a genetic-disease, 43.5% thought that epilepsy lasted life long and 45.2% said that jaws of the epilepsy patient should be opened during epileptic seizures.Conclusion: It was seen that teachers generally lacked knowledge about epilepsy, school-age children with epilepsy and actions to be done during epileptic seizures. In this sense,a multidisciplinary approach is needed in order to improve the relation between the parents of the epileptic children and the school and to increase knowledge level of the parents, teachers and the society about epilepsy.

Birsen B?LGEN S?VR?; Funda ÖZPULAT

2013-01-01

87

Governing Individual Knowledge Sharing Behavior  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The emerging Knowledge Governance Approach asserts the need to build microfoundations grounded in individual action. Toward this goal, using the Theory of Planned Behavior, we aim to explain individual knowledge sharing behavior as being determined by the intention to share knowledge and its antecedents: attitude toward knowledge sharing, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. In addition, we consider managerial interventions (governance mechanisms) that managers can employ to influence the identified antecedents and thereby govern individual knowledge sharing behavior. We test the model arrived at on a dataset collected among individuals engaged in knowledge sharing in two competing firms. Results of the LISREL analysis show that the use of rewards affects attitudes toward knowledge sharing negatively, while the use of reciprocal schemes and communication mechanisms have a positive effect on subjective norms and perceived behavioral control, respectively.

Minbaeva, Dana; Pedersen, Torben

2010-01-01

88

[Evaluation of the knowledge, attitude and behaviors of individuals who suffer from pain towards complementary and alternative medicines].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: This study was carried out as a descriptive study in order to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and behaviors of individuals who suffer from pain towards complementary and alternative medicines (CAM). METHODS: The research was applied to 535 adult individuals suffering from pain who visited a family health center in Erzurum between September 5 and November 30, 2010. The data were collected using a questionnaire form and evaluated by computer analysis. RESULTS: 42.4% of the individuals mentioned that they use CAM in order to eliminate pain, 83.7% stated that the method they app- lied eliminated their pain, and 39.6% used CAM based on a recommendation. It was observed that 95.5% of the participants believed that positive thinking helps them recover from their minor diseases, 91.6% believed that it is necessary to perform more scientific tests on CAM, 65.6% believed that CAM may be dangerous, 68.4% believed that CAM may be used as a last resort, 93.6% believed that they are likely to be ill due to a range of stressful events, 61.9% believed that it is worthless to try CAM before seeing a doc- tor, 68.2% believed that CAM should not be used for serious diseases, and 76.3% believed that CAM helps the permanent treatment by strengthening the body's own defense. CONCLUSION: It was determined that people who suffer from the pain apply for modern medical treatment and have a positive attitude towards CAM.

Güngörmü? Z; Kiyak E

2012-01-01

89

Knowledge, attitude, and behavior in managing patients with HIV/AIDS among a group of Indian dental students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With increasing numbers of people with HIV/AIDS receiving oral dental care, dentists should have sufficient knowledge of the disease, and their attitude should meet professional expectations. HIV and AIDS-related knowledge among dental students provides a crucial foundation for efforts aimed at developing appropriate education on these topics. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to assess the HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and attitudes amongst the 460 dental students of the Institute of Dental Sciences, Bareilly (UP), India. A self-administered survey consisting of fifty-three structured questions was conducted with the students. Overall, the response rate was 79.7 percent. The total mean knowledge and attitudes scores were 78.8 percent (excellent) and 77.7 percent (positive). There was no statistically significant difference between the knowledge and attitude scores of males and females. Regarding oral manifestations, Kaposi's sarcoma and candidiasis were the most identified. The results indicated that the students' knowledge on HIV/AIDS generally increased as they progressed through the curriculum, but their utilization of all barrier techniques for infection control and clinical protocol lacked consistency and compliance. Hence, there is a need to address, more clearly, the students' misconceptions and attitudes towards the disease.

Aggarwal A; Panat SR

2013-09-01

90

The Impact of a Combined Cognitive-Affective Intervention on Pre-Service Teachers' Attitudes, Knowledge, and Anticipated Professional Behaviors regarding Homosexuality and Gay and Lesbian Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a cognitive-affective intervention the attitudes, knowledge, and anticipated professional behaviors regarding homosexuality and gay and lesbian issues of pre-service teachers in the United States. Sixty-seven participants were randomly assigned either to a control group (n=34) or an…

Riggs, Angela D.; Rosenthal, Amy R.; Smith-Bonahue, Tina

2011-01-01

91

Connecting Urban Youth with Their Environment: The Impact of an Urban Ecology Course on Student Content Knowledge, Environmental Attitudes and Responsible Behaviors  

Science.gov (United States)

|This study explores the impact of an urban ecology program on participating middle school students' understanding of science and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors. We gathered pre and post survey data from four classes and found significant gains in scientific knowledge, but no significant changes in student beliefs regarding the…

Hashimoto-Martell, Erin A.; McNeill, Katherine L.; Hoffman, Emily M.

2012-01-01

92

A traditional society in change encounters HIV/AIDS: knowledge, attitudes, and risk behavior among students in northwestern China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

China has to date in general only been moderately affected by the global HIV epidemic, but there are cities, particularly in Yunnan, with a high prevalence. This situation seems to be changing, however, with the risk of a rapidly growing epidemic. Our aim was to investigate the level of knowledge about HIV and AIDS and risk behavior among young people at Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, China. Xinjiang has a population of mixed minority groups and Han Chinese. The largest minority group is the Uygur (8.82 million), who are Sunni Muslims and speak a Turkish language. Questionnaires were handed out to 400 students. Twenty open interviews were conducted after invitation to the students answering the questionnaires and their friends. All but one had heard about HIV/AIDS and approximately 95% knew the most common routes of transmission: sexual contact, mother to child, and sharing needles. Eighty percent also knew about transmission through breastfeeding. There were some knowledge gaps about how HIV is not transmitted. The questionnaires showed that only 5.7% of the undergraduate students admitted to being sexually active. Twenty-eight percent of the undergraduates and 17% of the postgraduates would not tell anyone if they were infected with HIV. In the interviews the students' knowledge of HIV/AIDS seems to be superficial. Although they did not display high sexual risk behavior during the time of our study, attitudes are changing, and becoming more liberal. We believe that extensive information about sex, infection, and protective measures is crucial to help China prevent an epidemic.

Lönn E; Sahlholm K; Maimaiti R; Abdukarim K; Andersson R

2007-01-01

93

Outcomes of three different models for sex education and citizenship programs concerning knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of Brazilian adolescents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three different school-based sex education and citizenship programs in public schools in Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, and Salvador, Brazil, were evaluated in a cross-sectional study comparing knowledge, attitudes, and practices in sexuality, citizenship, and gender issues among adolescents participating in the programs' activities as compared to adolescents enrolled in schools without such programs (controls). Results showed that Salvador's program achieved good results, with significant changes in knowledge on sexuality and reproductive physiology, attitudes regarding citizenship, and current use of modern contraceptives; Rio de Janeiro's program succeeded in improving students' knowledge of reproductive physiology and attitudes towards sexuality; Belo Horizonte's participants showed greater knowledge of reproductive physiology and STI/HIV prevention but had less positive attitudes towards gender issues, while reporting greater sexual activity. The main difference between Salvador's program and the others was the focus on creative and cultural activities; Belo Horizonte's main difference was its lack of interaction with health services and professionals. However, after the evaluation Belo Horizonte reframed its educational strategies and launched a scaling-up process in a joint effort with the health and school systems.

Díaz Margarita; Mello Maeve Brito de; Sousa Maria Helena de; Cabral Francisco; Silva Ricardo de Castro e; Campos Márcia; Faúndes Anibal

2005-01-01

94

Breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors among African American women: the Black cosmetologists promoting health program  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background African American women have higher rates of breast cancer mortality than their white counterparts. Studies have suggested that this is partly caused by discovery of cancer at a later stage, highlighting the importance of encouraging early detection of breast cancer in this population. To guide the creation of a breast cancer education intervention and help focus other health educators' and clinicians' health promotion efforts, this study explored whether a cohort of African American women living in San Diego would demonstrate the possession of adequate baseline knowledge about breast cancer screening and adherence to widely recommended screening guidelines. Methods African American women (N = 1,055) from San Diego, California participated in a beauty salon-based survey about breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening practices. Women's ages ranged from 20 to 94 years, with average age of 42.20 (SD = 13.53) years. Thirty-four percent reported completing college and/or some graduate school training, and 52% reported having some college or post high school formal training. Seventy-five percent of the sample reported working outside their home. Participating cosmetologists and their salons were recruited to the study through word-of-mouth referral by highly respected African American community leaders. Results Salon clients reported low rates of adherence to recommended breast cancer screening guidelines. Of the 1,055 participants, 31% reporting performing breast self-exam every month. Of those participants 40 and older, 57% reported having had a clinical breast exam and 43% reported having had a mammogram in the past year. Knowledge of breast cancer was associated with adherence to screening guidelines. While women recognized the serious health threat that breast cancer poses and that early detection of breast cancer is important, only 30% of women reported feeling well informed about the disease. Many participants demonstrated a lack of basic knowledge about breast cancer. The Health Belief Model postulates that access to such information is an essential element in the progression toward engaging in screening behaviors. Conclusion Data from this study reflect a continuing need for increased breast cancer education for African American women. In light of the considerable mainstream information available related to breast cancer, these data reinforce the need for more breast cancer education programs that are clearly intended to attract the attention of African American women.

Sadler Georgia R; Ko Celine M; Cohn Jennifer A; White Monique; Weldon Rai-nesha; Wu Phillis

2007-01-01

95

Smoking-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors in the lesbian, gay and bisexual community: a population-based study from the U.S. Pacific Northwest.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Several studies have shown that lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) persons have higher smoking prevalence than heterosexuals. However, few population-based studies have explored whether smoking-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors also differ between the communities. METHODS: We used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for 2003 to 2005 from two states (Washington and Oregon) to compare smoking-related indicators between the self-identified LGB population and their heterosexual counterparts. RESULTS: Lesbians, gays and bisexuals were more likely to be current or ever smokers than their heterosexual counterparts. All except bisexual men and had lower quit ratios than heterosexuals. Among successful quitters, bisexual men were less likely to be long-term quitters than heterosexuals. For all groups, attitudes and behaviors regarding secondhand smoke (SHS) were similar to those of heterosexuals, except for bisexual women, who were more likely to be exposed to SHS. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a disparity in smoking prevalence, the LGB population in these two states appeared to have similar levels of knowledge and attitudes toward tobacco control as their heterosexual counterparts. Nevertheless, tobacco control programs should continue to focus on this population to prevent smoking initiation, promote cessation, and reduce secondhand smoke exposure.

Pizacani BA; Rohde K; Bushore C; Stark MJ; Maher JE; Dilley JA; Boysun MJ

2009-06-01

96

Increase in safe sex among the young and non-monogamous: knowledge, attitudes and behavior regarding safe sex and condom use in The Netherlands from 1987 to 1993.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1987, the Dutch STD Foundation started several safe sex campaigns targeting the general population. These campaigns have been accompanied by surveys which were conducted every 6 months. Questions were asked about knowledge, attitudes and behavior. The number of people who regard condom use as being a safe sex practice increased over the years, as did the number of people who know that condoms protect against STDs and AIDs. Surprisingly, no accompanying changes in attitudes occurred. Nevertheless, the number of people saying they have done something to prevent HIV infection increased significantly among the young and non-monogamous. Also, specifically in these groups, both actual and intentional condom use increased remarkably. Although it is encouraging that those towards whom the campaigns were particularly directed, show the largest changes, there are also signs that these behavioral changes are levelling off. PMID:7753721

de Vroome, E M; Paalman, M E; Dingelstad, A A; Kolker, L; Sandfort, T G

1994-12-01

97

Knowledge plus Attitude in Radiation Protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the introduction of the Basic Safety Standards recommendations, the scope of the radiation protection was broadening. On behalf of the incorporation of radiation protection of the patient in medical exposures, the different groups of professionals involved: physicians, medical physicists, radiation protection officers, regulators, etc., have to work together. The objective of radiation protection, that is, to reduces doses from practices, to prevent potential exposures, to detect its occurrence as well as to evaluate and spread such abnormal situations, will be obtained only if it were possible to joint two basic conditions: knowledge and attitude. It should be well known the differences between the backgrounds needed to be for example, a medical physicist or an R.P.O., However, their attitude to solve an eventual problem involving radiation protection should be the same; as well as the behavior of the specialized physician and regulators, in order to add towards common goals. In this work, we show as an example the curricula contents about radiation protection of the cancer of medical physics in the Universidad Nacional de San Martin (UNSAM), and the corresponding module on medical exposures from the Post-Graduate course on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, held since the 80s in Buenos Aires by the National Commission of Atomic Energy, ARN, IAEA, and the Universidad de Buenos Aires. On the other hand, we describe different attitudes which leads or could start major radiological accidents, regardless the level of knowledge in radiation protection. We conclude that the larger numbers of accidents are due to problems in the attitude than in the level of knowledge of the person involved. Consequently; we suggest emphasizing the discussion on how to generate positive attitudes in every professional involucrated, independently of its cognitive profile or level. (Author) 2 refs

2003-01-01

98

Effect of educational intervention on physical activity-related knowledge, attitude and behavior of among first-grade students of male high schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Regular physical activity has positive effects on physical, mental and social aspects of individual and community health. Considering the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases such as primary hypertension, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases for which sedentary lifestyle is a responsible factor, health policy makers have planned to encourage people to do more physical activities. Development of beneficial health habits during childhood and early adolescence are very important because the behaviors, which start at adolescence tend to continue into adulthood, too. This study aimed to determine the effect of educational intervention on physical activity-related knowledge, attitude and behavior of the first grade students in male high schools of Bavanat in 2010. Materials and Methods: In this prospective experimental study, after selecting two qualified schools from five high schools, all students of one school (two classes including 42 individuals) were randomly assigned to the experimental group and all the students of another high school (two classes including 43 individuals) were randomly assigned to the control group. The data gathering tool was a 4-section questionnaire which included demographic questions, knowledge- and attitude-related questions and the questionnaire of physical activity performance. The first three sections of the questionnaire were the researcher-designed and validated by face and content validity. Test-retest and internal consistency (Cronbach's Alpha) methods were used to determine the reliability of knowledge questionnaire and attitude questionnaire, respectively. For the measurement of physical activity behavior, a self-reporting questionnaire (valid and reliable Garcia scale) was used in this study. After conducting the pretest, the educational intervention was done for the experimental group. Post-tests were conducted immediately and 1 month after intervention. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS18 statistical software (independent t-test, paired t-test, chi-square, Mann-Whitney test and repeated measures ANOVA). The participants voluntarily and consciously participated in this study. Results: The findings indicated no significant differences between the groups in terms of mean scores of knowledge (P = 0.934), attitude (P = 0.155) and behavior (P = 0.387) before the intervention. There was a significant difference between mean scores of knowledge in the immediate follow-up (Pstudents, in the experimental group compared with the control one in terms of physical activities; thus, physical activity behavior of intervention group increased. Although the mean scores of physical activity in the control group significantly increased, other studies should be done which can control and consider confounding variables.

Ghaffari, Mohtasham; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Malekmakan, Esmaeil; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

2013-01-01

99

Comparison of AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among incarcerated adolescents and a public school sample in San Francisco.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Data collected from incarcerated youth (n = 113) and a public school sample (n = 802) demonstrate that both adolescent groups have a high level of AIDS knowledge. Incarcerated youth are less aware of HIV risk-reduction behaviors and report markedly higher rates of HIV risk behaviors. Incarcerated youth are at substantially increased risk of HIV infection relative to their school-based counterparts and should be a primary target of HIV prevention programs.

DiClemente RJ; Lanier MM; Horan PF; Lodico M

1991-05-01

100

Assessment of knowledge, attitude and risk behaviors towards HIV/AIDS and other sexual transmitted infection among preparatory students of Gondar town, north west Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The first case of HIV in Ethiopia was reported in 1984. Since then, HIV/AIDS has become a major public health concern in the country, leading the Government of Ethiopia to declare a public health emergency in 2002. Although the epidemic is currently stable, HIV/AIDS remains a major development challenge for Ethiopia. The spread of HIV in any community is in part determined by the knowledge of attitude towards sexuality of its members and by their actual sexual practices. The aim of the study was to assess students' knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding HIV/AIDS and STDs in Gondar, North West Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted between February 1 to March 1, 2009 in preparatory high school students. Pre-tested questioner was used to generate the data and analysis was made by SPSS version 15. Chi -square value was calculated and p-value Results All the students had heard about AIDS before the interview. Knowledge on some aspect of the disease was quite low in the study group. Only half of the students knew that at present, AIDs is incurable and that HIV infection can be acquired through sexual contact with a 'familiar' person. Knowledge about STI was also quite low, 39% knew that pus in the urine is a symptom of STI and 45.4% knew that acquisition of other STIs is increases the chance of HIV transmission following unsafe sex with known cases. 25% of the study group had previous sexual intercourse and exposed at least one risk behavior. About 34% of the respondents had negative attitude towards AIDS and STDs. Conclusion Awareness about STDs and methods of prevention of HIV and STDs was low. More risk behavior was observed in male and those with alcohol and drugs of abuse.

Shiferaw Yitayal; Alemu Agersew; Girma Amanuel; Getahun Afera; Kassa Andarge; Gashaw Alemayehu; Alemu Abebe; Teklu Takele; Gelaw Baye

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Analysing lawyers’ attitude towards knowledge sharing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers’ attitudes to knowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated the relationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers’, and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) in the knowledge sharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection. Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. Principal Component Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression was applied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance.Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the major determinants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was not significantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitude towards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge, although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positive knowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT) usage was also found to significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’.Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more IT infrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers. 

Wole M. Olatokun; Isioma N. Elueze

2012-01-01

102

Cuestionario para evaluar en médicos conductas, conocimientos y actitudes sobre la higiene de manos Questionnaire to assess behavior, knowledge and attitudes on hand hygiene among physicians  

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Full Text Available Objetivo: La necesidad de generar instrumentos válidos y fiables para medir aspectos relacionados con la higiene de manos es importante para conocer la situación actual y el impacto de las acciones formativas en los profesionales. El objetivo principal del trabajo es validar un cuestionario sobre higiene de manos en médicos y analizar sus propiedades de la medida. Método: Estudio instrumental en el cual se elaboró un cuestionario que se aplicó entre enero de 2010 y marzo de 2011 en el Hospital Clínico San Cecilio (Granada). Éste constó finalmente de 44 ítems que evalúan la conducta del profesional médico antes y después del contacto con el paciente, los conocimientos declarativos y las actitudes sobre la higiene de manos. Se aplicó a 113 profesionales. Resultados: Tras realizar los análisis factoriales se obtuvieron datos que avalan la unidimensionalidad de la herramienta, con un valor de convergencia general que explica el 39,289% de la varianza total y un valor alfa de Cronbach para elementos tipificados de 0,784. Hay diferencias significativas entre la conducta de higiene de manos antes y después del contacto con el paciente (t=-8,991; p Objective: Valid and reliable instruments to measure aspects of hand hygiene are needed to determine the current situation and impact of training among health professionals. The main objective of this study was to describe the development of a questionnaire on hand hygiene among health professionals and to analyze the properties of this instrument. Method: A questionnaire was designed and implemented between January 2010 and March 2011 at the Hospital Clínico San Cecilio (Granada, Spain). The final questionnaire consisted of 44 items that assessed provider behavior before and after contact with the patient, declarative knowledge, and attitudes to hand hygiene. The questionnaire was administered to 113 health professionals. Results: A factor analysis was performed. Data were obtained that supported the unidimensionality of the instrument with a general convergence value that explained 39.289% of the total variance and a Cronbach's alpha of 0.784 for the established elements. Significant differences were found in hand hygiene behavior before and after contact with the patient (t=-8,991, p <0.001). Declarative knowledge and attitudes significantly predicted behavior. Conclusions: The questionnaire shows high internal consistency, reliability, and validity and is thus a valid tool to assess behavior, knowledge and attitudes related to hand hygiene in health professionals. This instrument also detects deficiencies in basic knowledge.

Joaquín González-Cabrera; María Fernández-Prada; Humberto M. Trujillo Mendoza

2012-01-01

103

HEALTH ATTITUDES OF THE FEMALE STUDENTS FROM OLSZTYN, POLAND - THE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, ADDICTIONS AND THE KNOWLEDGE ABOUT HEALTH BEHAVIORS  

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Full Text Available Efforts to improve the health of the population are now focused on promoting healthy lifestyle, improve living conditions and to reduce mortality. Health education activities include regular physical activity, optimal nutrition, reduce addictions and stress. The purpose of the survey conducted among 672 first-year female students at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (Poland) was to determine the attitudes of young women towards a healthy lifestyle. Using anonymous survey questionnaire asked students about the form of physical activity, nutrition, the presence of stressful situations, the use of drugs, such as alcohol and cigarettes, and the interest in deepening knowledge of public health. The majority of students have participated only in obligatory physical education classes in high school and college. They considered that physical activity during the studies should be voluntary. Only 4.24% of students were total abstinence from alcohol, but 79.10% was non-smoking. Many of the women declared the need to change the diet, reducing alcohol intake and give up smoking habit. The students felt that stress connected with attending university is unavoidable, and thus revealed an interest in reducing and limiting mental tension. Despite their young age, students expressed interest in topics such as: first aid course, nutrition, sexuality, and pregnancy problems.

Podstawski Robert; Gornik Katarzyna; Kolankowska Ewelina; Boraczynski Michal; Boraczynska Sandra

2013-01-01

104

Comparison of the Knowledge and Attitudes of Midwives about Breastfeeding with Breastfeeding Behaviors of the Mothers They Provide Counseling  

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Full Text Available Objectives: Midwives and nurses are considered as the essential sources of information about feeding and nutrition of the babies, who encourage breastfeeding and support the mother. In this study, it is aimed to compare the knowledge and attitudes of midwives and nurses about breastfeeding with breastfeeding practices of the mothers they provide counseling on baby feeding.Patients and Methods: The present study was carried out on 161 mothers having babies aged 12-18 months who lived in Edirne and on 59 midwives and nurses who had conducted their counseling and follow-up visits. Data were collected via two questionnaires prepared for the midwives and mothers.Results: Midwives/nurses reported that they were visited by each mother for a mean of 6.5±2.9 times during their pregnancy. Twenty-two of them had fed their babies only with breast milk for at least six months and 33 of them had suckled their babies for at least 12 months. Of the mothers, 65 had fed their babies only with breast milk for at least six months, while 82 had suckled their babies for at least 12 months.Conclusion: This study stresses the importance that nurses/midwives should enhance mothers' consciousness for a successful breastfeeding. It is important that midwives should provide continuous support to mothers, which can be achieved by continuous professional training to midwives, nurses and other health staff regularly.

Sedef DURAN

2010-01-01

105

Mental health first aid training for the public: evaluation of effects on knowledge, attitudes and helping behavior  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Many members of the public have poor mental health literacy. A Mental Health First Aid training course was developed in order to improve this. This paper describes the training course and reports an evaluation study looking at changes in knowledge, stigmatizing attitudes and help provided to others. Methods Data are reported on the first 210 participants in public courses. Evaluation questionnaires were given at the beginning of courses, at the end and at 6 months follow-up. Data were analyzed using an intention-to-treat approach. Results The course improved participants' ability to recognize a mental disorder in a vignette, changed beliefs about treatment to be more like those of health professionals, decreased social distance from people with mental disorders, increased confidence in providing help to someone with a mental disorder, and increased the amount of help provided to others. Conclusions Mental Health First Aid training appears to be an effective method of improving mental health literacy which can be widely applied.

Kitchener Betty A; Jorm Anthony F

2002-01-01

106

Effects of Knowledge of an Endangered Species on Recreationists' Attitudes and Stated Behaviors and the Significance of Management Compliance for Ohlone Tiger Beetle Conservation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recreation is a leading cause of species decline on public lands, yet sometimes it can be used as a tool for conservation. Engagement in recreational activities, such as hiking and biking, in endangered species habitats may even enhance public support for conservation efforts. We used the case of the endangered Ohlone tiger beetle (Cicindela ohlone) to investigate the effect of biking and hiking on the beetle's behavior and the role of recreationists' knowledge of and attitudes toward Ohlone tiger beetle in conservation of the species. In Inclusion Area A on the University of California Santa Cruz (U.S.A.) campus, adult Ohlone tiger beetles mate and forage in areas with bare ground, particularly on recreational trails; however, recreation disrupts these activities. We tested the effect of recreation on Ohlone tiger beetles by observing beetle behavior on trails as people walked and road bikes at slow and fast speed and on trails with no recreation. We also surveyed recreationists to investigate how their knowledge of the beetle affected their attitudes toward conservation of the beetle and stated compliance with regulations aimed at beetle conservation. Fast cycling caused the beetles to fly off the trail more often and to fly farther than slow cycling or hiking. Slow cycling and hiking did not differ in their effect on the number of times and distance the beetles flew off the trail. Recreationists' knowledge of the beetle led to increased stated compliance with regulations, and this stated compliance is likely to have tangible conservation outcomes for the beetle. Our results suggest management and education can mitigate the negative effect of recreation and promote conservation of endangered species. Efectos del Conocimiento de una Especie en Peligro sobre las Actitudes y Comportamientos Declarados de los Recreacionistas y el Significado del Manejo de la Conformidad para la Conservación del Escarabajo Tigre de Ohlone.

Cornelisse TM; Duane TP

2013-07-01

107

Cross-Sectional Study Assessing HIV Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior in Namibian Public Sector Employees in Capital and Regional Settings  

Science.gov (United States)

The study objective was to assess the current status of HIV knowledge, attitudes and behavior (KAB) among employees of Namibian ministries. As most HIV campaigning takes place in the capital of Windhoek, an additional aim was to compare Windhoek to four regions (Hardap, Erongo, Oshana, and Caprivi). Between January and March 2011 a cross-sectional survey was conducted in two Namibian ministries, with participants selected randomly from the workforce. Data collection was based on questionnaires. 832 participants were included in the study (51.6% male). Nearly 90% of participants reported to have been tested for HIV before. Knowledge about HIV transmission ranged from 67% to 95% of correct answers, with few differences between the capital and regions. However, a knowledge gap regarding HIV transmission and prevention was seen. In particular, we found significantly lower knowledge regarding transmission from mother-to-child during pregnancy and higher rate of belief in a supernatural role in HIV transmission. In addition, despite many years of HIV prevention activities, a substantial proportion of employees had well-known HIV risk factors including multiple concurrent partnership rates (21%), intergenerational sex (19%), and lower testing rates for men (82% compared to women with 91%).

Kiderlen, Til R.; Conteh, Michael; Roll, Stephanie; Seeling, Stefanie; Weinmann, Stefan

2013-01-01

108

Cross-Sectional Study Assessing HIV Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior in Namibian Public Sector Employees in Capital and Regional Settings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study objective was to assess the current status of HIV knowledge, attitudes and behavior (KAB) among employees of Namibian ministries. As most HIV campaigning takes place in the capital of Windhoek, an additional aim was to compare Windhoek to four regions (Hardap, Erongo, Oshana, and Caprivi). Between January and March 2011 a cross-sectional survey was conducted in two Namibian ministries, with participants selected randomly from the workforce. Data collection was based on questionnaires. 832 participants were included in the study (51.6% male). Nearly 90% of participants reported to have been tested for HIV before. Knowledge about HIV transmission ranged from 67% to 95% of correct answers, with few differences between the capital and regions. However, a knowledge gap regarding HIV transmission and prevention was seen. In particular, we found significantly lower knowledge regarding transmission from mother-to-child during pregnancy and higher rate of belief in a supernatural role in HIV transmission. In addition, despite many years of HIV prevention activities, a substantial proportion of employees had well-known HIV risk factors including multiple concurrent partnership rates (21%), intergenerational sex (19%), and lower testing rates for men (82% compared to women with 91%).

Kiderlen TR; Conteh M; Roll S; Seeling S; Weinmann S

2013-01-01

109

Analysing lawyers’ attitude towards knowledge sharing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers’ attitudes toknowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated therelationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers’,and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) in the knowledgesharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection.Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. PrincipalComponent Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression wasapplied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance.Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the majordeterminants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was notsignificantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitudetowards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge,although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positiveknowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT) usage was also foundto significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’.Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more ITinfrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers.

Wole M. Olatokun; Elueze I. Nneamaka

2012-01-01

110

Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of low-income women considered high priority for receiving the novel influenza A (H1N1) vaccine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The primary purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of low-income women considered high priority for receiving the novel influenza A (H1N1) vaccine to improve communication in emergency preparedness and response. Researchers sought to identify the factors that affect this high priority population's ability to successfully comply with vaccination recommendations. By utilizing an existing communication framework through the special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children (WIC) they were able to document the systems and infrastructure needed to foster constructive responses in a sustainable manner in the future. Six focus group discussions with WIC clients (n = 56) and 10 individual interviews with staff members were conducted at two WIC clinics in Georgia (1 urban and 1 rural). Data were collected after the 2009-2010 influenza season and analyzed using thematic analysis. Knowledge and attitudes regarding H1N1 differed among participants with regard to perceived severity and perceived risk of influenza illness. Participants identified several barriers and motivators to receiving the vaccination, as well as information needs, sources, and information-seeking behaviors. Similarities emerged among both WIC clients and staff members regarding impressions of H1N1 and the vaccine's use, suggesting that while the information may be provided, it is not effectively understood or accepted. Comprehensive education, policy and planning development regarding pandemic influenza and vaccine acceptance among low-income women is necessary, including improvements in risk communication messages and identifying effective methods to disseminate trusted information to these high priority groups.

Boyd CA; Gazmararian JA; Thompson WW

2013-07-01

111

Knowledge, attitude and behavioral intention to act regarding HIV infection and prevention in immigrants from the Former Soviet Union in Germany: a comparative study with the native population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Germany, immigrants from Former Soviet Union (FSU) countries represent one of the largest immigrant groups. Some FSU countries face the highest HIV prevalence in the region of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. However, the HIV knowledge, attitude and behavioral intent have not been investigated in FSU immigrants compared to the native population yet. A cross-sectional anonymous survey among 1,205 FSU immigrants and 435 native Germans (aged 18-65 years) in Bavaria. Data analysis from the participating 435 (36 %) immigrants and 334 (76.8 %) natives showed that the immigrants were less knowledgeable (p < .001) about HIV transmission (median score 8 vs. 9, ranged from 0 to 10) and HIV prevention (4 vs. 5, ranged from 0 to 6) than the native Germans, especially with regard to HIV transmission during anal (67 vs. 79.1 %; OR = 1.86 [1.32-2.62]) and oral (49.7 vs. 61.8 %; OR = 1.63 [1.21-2.20]) intercourse and showed a high misconception rate. Age and education were associated with knowledge about sexual HIV transmission; male gender, age and education with HIV prevention by single-use of needles/syringes. In case of a suspected HIV contraction, fewer immigrants would request a test; in case of a confirmed HIV diagnosis fewer would use a condom or inform their sexual partner(s). This first comparative study indicates an urgent need for HIV/AIDS education among FSU immigrants.

Kuznetsov L; Matterne U; Crispin A; Ruzicka T; Zippel SA; Kuznetsov AV

2013-02-01

112

Differences and similarities in sexual and contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among Latino male adolescent students in California, United States and Lima, Peru  

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Full Text Available To identify the differences and similarities in sexual and contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among Latino male adolescent students living in California and Lima. Self-administered, anonymous surveys were completed by Latino male students aged 12-19 participating in California, and by male adolescent students in four high schools in Lima. Both surveys contained similar questions allowing for comparisons regarding sexual activity and contraceptive behavior. The mean age of male students were 16 and 15 years, respectively. More California males reported having engaged in sexual intercourse (69% vs 43%. The sexual debut was 13 years in both samples. More students in California were aware of their risk of pregnancy at first sexual intercourse than in Lima (82% vs 50%). One-third of the California males reported communicating with their partner about sex and contraception to be "easy" as compared to 53% of males in Lima. More students in California reported knowing a place to obtain contraceptives if they need them (85% vs 63%), having ever gotten someone pregnant (29% vs 7%), and having fathered a child (67% vs 16%).

Chirinos Jesús L.; Brindis Claire; Tye Sheri; McCarter Virginia

2001-01-01

113

Knowledge and attitudes of Texas dentists concerning AIDS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A total of 1,200 practicing Texas dentists were surveyed concerning AIDS knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. The results were analyzed and an analysis of variance indicated an inverse relationship between city population and avoidance behavior towards AIDS by dentists. Additionally, dentists in practice over 10 years manifested higher avoidance characteristics towards AIDS. Increased knowledge did not correlate with less avoidance behavior. The results of this study indicate that additional methods of educating dentists concerning HIV infection and AIDS, infection control, and the role of health care professionals concerning patients with infectious diseases are needed.

Dove SB; Cottone JA

1990-02-01

114

Knowledge and attitude about neonatal ICTR  

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Full Text Available AbstractBackground and purpose : Neonatal icer is one of the common problems in neonates caused by different etiologies. Because of CNS complications which causes mortality or mental relardation, neonatal icter is very important. According to the role of knowledge and attitude of the mothers and inappropriate referral of the neonates to physician, effectiveness of treatment and prevention of serious complication, we studied the knowledge and the sttitude about neonatal icter among mothers in Sari.Materials and methods : This was a decriptive crossectional research. Study population were mothers of neonates at the public and private hospitals. Sampling method was stratified and simple. The tool for data collection was questionnaire consisted of demographic variables, 16 questions for knowledge and 14 questions for attitude about neonatal icter with 16 and 28 scores respectively. Validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by experts consultant and reliability by test method. After data collection and definition of level of the knowledge and attitude, analysis was performed by SPSS software using X2, t test abd ANOVA.Results : Totally 400 mothers were studied. Age of them was 25.81 ± 4.88, 4.25% of them were at the high risk age for pregnancy, 52% were urban and 4.5% were illiterate. Also 42.3% had prenatal care, mostly (64.4%) by specialist physician. Most of the mothers were in the low (42.3%) or moderate (23.3%) socioeconomic status, 76.5% of the mothers had low knowledge, 23.3% moderate and only 1.3% have high level of knowledge about the neonatal icter. This knowledge significantly was related with elder age mothers, higher level of education, higher socioeconomic state and history of icter in the pervious child (P=0.000). The attitude about neonatal icter was inappropriate in 19.3% of the mothers, relatively appropriate in 60.3% and appropriate in 20.5% . This Attitude was significantly related with elder age and higher level of education of the mothers, living in urban areas, higher socioeconomic state and higher number of childs (p=0.000).Conclusion: Most of the mothers had low level of knowledge and attitude about the neonatal icter. Therefore serious attention and designing of appropriate intervention for improvement of the knowledge on attitude about neonatal icter are essential.

V. Gaffari; K. Vahidshani; B.A. Taleshi

2006-01-01

115

A Controlled Pre-Post Evaluation of a Computer-based HIV/AIDS Education on Students' Sexual Behaviors, Knowledge and Attitudes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Unlike traditional approaches to sexuality and HIV education which can be constrained by the sensitive nature of the subject, Information Technology (IT) can be an innovative teaching tool that can be used to educate people about HIV. This is especially relevant to interventions targeting young people; the population group fond of using IT, and the same group that is more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Yet, there are significantly few empirical studies that rigorously evaluated computer-assisted school-based HIV/AIDS interventions in developing countries. The modest studies conducted in this area have largely been conducted in developed countries, leaving little known about the effectiveness of such interventions in low resource settings, which moreover host the majority of HIV/AIDS infections. This research addresses this gap by conducting a controlled pre-post intervention evaluation of the impacts of the World Starts With Me (WSWM), a computer-assisted HIV/AIDS intervention implemented in schools in Uganda. The research question was: did the WSWM intervention significantly influence students' sexual behaviors, HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy? To address this question, questionnaires were simultaneously administering to 146 students in an intervention group (the group receiving the WSWM intervention) and 146 students in a comparison group (the group who did not receive the WSWM intervention), before (February 2009) and after the intervention (December 2009). Findings indicate that the intervention significantly improved students' HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes self-efficacy, sex abstinence and fidelity, but had no significant impact on condom use. The major reason for non-use of condoms was lack of knowledge about condom use which can be attributed to teachers' failure and inabilities to demonstrate condom use in class. To address this challenge, intervention teachers should be continuously trained in skills-based and interactive sexuality education. This training will equip them with self-confidence and interactive teaching skills, including tactics for emphasizing building students' skills through role plays and interactive assignments. In addition, the HIV interventions themselves should include interactive virtual condom use demonstrations that can be accessed by students themselves.

Musiimenta A

2012-01-01

116

A Controlled Pre-Post Evaluation of a Computer-based HIV/AIDS Education on Students' Sexual Behaviors, Knowledge and Attitudes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unlike traditional approaches to sexuality and HIV education which can be constrained by the sensitive nature of the subject, Information Technology (IT) can be an innovative teaching tool that can be used to educate people about HIV. This is especially relevant to interventions targeting young people; the population group fond of using IT, and the same group that is more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Yet, there are significantly few empirical studies that rigorously evaluated computer-assisted school-based HIV/AIDS interventions in developing countries. The modest studies conducted in this area have largely been conducted in developed countries, leaving little known about the effectiveness of such interventions in low resource settings, which moreover host the majority of HIV/AIDS infections. This research addresses this gap by conducting a controlled pre-post intervention evaluation of the impacts of the World Starts With Me (WSWM), a computer-assisted HIV/AIDS intervention implemented in schools in Uganda. The research question was: did the WSWM intervention significantly influence students' sexual behaviors, HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy? To address this question, questionnaires were simultaneously administering to 146 students in an intervention group (the group receiving the WSWM intervention) and 146 students in a comparison group (the group who did not receive the WSWM intervention), before (February 2009) and after the intervention (December 2009). Findings indicate that the intervention significantly improved students' HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes self-efficacy, sex abstinence and fidelity, but had no significant impact on condom use. The major reason for non-use of condoms was lack of knowledge about condom use which can be attributed to teachers' failure and inabilities to demonstrate condom use in class. To address this challenge, intervention teachers should be continuously trained in skills-based and interactive sexuality education. This training will equip them with self-confidence and interactive teaching skills, including tactics for emphasizing building students' skills through role plays and interactive assignments. In addition, the HIV interventions themselves should include interactive virtual condom use demonstrations that can be accessed by students themselves. PMID:23569630

Musiimenta, Angella

2012-05-17

117

Evaluation of physician's attitude and knowledge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available (Received 19 Jun, 2008; Accepted 20 Oct, 2008) Abstract This study aimed to determine the knowledge and attitudes to wards homeopathy among general practitioner and specialist physicians in Sari.Our results indicate Sari physicians had not sufficient knowledge obout homeopathy; but they liked collaboration with homeopaths for treatment of their patients and have courses for homeopathy education. J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2008; 18(66): 102-103(Persian

Sekineh Shafia; Jobin Hemati; Leila Meskini; Aliraza Khalilian

2008-01-01

118

Effects of a Classroom-Based Asthma Education Curriculum on Asthma Knowledge, Attitudes, Self-Efficacy, Quality of Life, and Self-Management Behaviors among Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

Asthma education interventions primarily target young children and adults, and a few target adolescents. Several constructs of the social cognitive theory were used to design a classroom-based high school asthma education curriculum and to determine if the curriculum would improve asthma knowledge and attitudes among 10th grade students, as well…

Shaw, Sally Fontamillas; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Dyjack, David T.; Neish, Christine M.

2005-01-01

119

Nutrition knowledge, attitudes and dietary restriction behaviour of Taiwanese elderly.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to understand knowledge about and general attitudes towards nutrition, dietary restriction attitudes, and dietary restriction behavior in the Taiwanese elderly, and the relationship of these various components to each other. Data from the Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (1999-2000) were used for analysis and included 1937 elderly persons aged over 65. The results indicated that the elderly had poor nutrition knowledge, especially about the relationship between nutrition and disease. Elderly nutrition attitudes were fair; they tended to disagree with misconceptions about "healthy" or functional foods and also had quite positive general eating attitudes. However, the Taiwanese elderly hold quite strong attitudes influenced by Chinese traditional or food-texture-related dietary restrictions. Elderly people frequently avoid eating foods considered unhealthy by modern medical science (e.g. high fat/cholesterol foods) as well as foods forbidden by Chinese traditional medicine (e.g. "heating" foods, "cooling" foods). Most of the elderly regularly eat three meals a day, however, they seldom pay attention to dietary and nutrition information. The most important sources of nutrition information are offspring or family members, TV, and medical practitioners. In general, elderly men with a higher educational level and living in less remote areas had better nutrition knowledge, held more positive nutrition attitudes, and kept to dietary restrictions less frequently. Elderly people's nutrition knowledge was positively related to their health-care attitudes, general eating attitudes, high- fat or high-cholesterol food restriction behavior, fermented or pickled food restriction behavior, attention to nutrition information, and regularity of meals. However, nutrition knowledge was inversely related to Chinese traditional or food-texture-related dietary restriction behaviors. The results of this study suggest that education of elderly people about nutrition is important, and the design of such nutrition education programs should consider the low educational levels of the elderly. Children or other family members may also be included in the program. The use of TV as a medium for nutrition education of the elderly may also be important for nutrition educators. PMID:16169832

Lin, Wei; Lee, Ya-Wen

2005-01-01

120

Nutrition knowledge, attitudes and dietary restriction behaviour of Taiwanese elderly.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study is to understand knowledge about and general attitudes towards nutrition, dietary restriction attitudes, and dietary restriction behavior in the Taiwanese elderly, and the relationship of these various components to each other. Data from the Elderly Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (1999-2000) were used for analysis and included 1937 elderly persons aged over 65. The results indicated that the elderly had poor nutrition knowledge, especially about the relationship between nutrition and disease. Elderly nutrition attitudes were fair; they tended to disagree with misconceptions about "healthy" or functional foods and also had quite positive general eating attitudes. However, the Taiwanese elderly hold quite strong attitudes influenced by Chinese traditional or food-texture-related dietary restrictions. Elderly people frequently avoid eating foods considered unhealthy by modern medical science (e.g. high fat/cholesterol foods) as well as foods forbidden by Chinese traditional medicine (e.g. "heating" foods, "cooling" foods). Most of the elderly regularly eat three meals a day, however, they seldom pay attention to dietary and nutrition information. The most important sources of nutrition information are offspring or family members, TV, and medical practitioners. In general, elderly men with a higher educational level and living in less remote areas had better nutrition knowledge, held more positive nutrition attitudes, and kept to dietary restrictions less frequently. Elderly people's nutrition knowledge was positively related to their health-care attitudes, general eating attitudes, high- fat or high-cholesterol food restriction behavior, fermented or pickled food restriction behavior, attention to nutrition information, and regularity of meals. However, nutrition knowledge was inversely related to Chinese traditional or food-texture-related dietary restriction behaviors. The results of this study suggest that education of elderly people about nutrition is important, and the design of such nutrition education programs should consider the low educational levels of the elderly. Children or other family members may also be included in the program. The use of TV as a medium for nutrition education of the elderly may also be important for nutrition educators.

Lin W; Lee YW

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Understanding knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to influenza and the influenza vaccine in US-Mexico border communities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hispanics are less likely to receive the influenza vaccine compared to other racial and ethnic groups in the US. Hispanic residents of the US-Mexico border region may have differing health beliefs and behaviors, and their cross-border mobility impacts disease control. To assess beliefs and behaviors regarding influenza prevention and control among border populations, surveys were conducted at border clinics. Of 197 respondents, 34 % reported conditions for which vaccination is indicated, and travel to Mexico was common. Few (35 %) believed influenza could make them 'very sick', and 76 % believed they should take antibiotics to treat influenza. Influenza vaccine awareness was high, and considered important, but only 36 % reported recent vaccination. The belief that influenza vaccination is 'very important' was strongly associated with recent vaccination; "Didn't think about it" was the most common reason for being un-vaccinated. Misconceptions about influenza risk, prevention and treatment were common in this Hispanic border population; improved educational efforts and reminder systems could impact vaccination behaviors.

Phippard AE; Kimura AC; Lopez K; Kriner P

2013-08-01

122

Baby walkers: paediatricians' knowledge, attitudes, and health promotion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paediatricians were surveyed about baby walker knowledge, attitudes, and practice. Advising about walkers was associated with working in community paediatrics, treating walker related injuries, knowledge about walkers, and positive attitudes towards walker health promotion. Greater knowledge about walkers was associated with more negative attitudes to walkers. Educating paediatricians and parents about the risks of, and alternatives to using walkers is important. PMID:14670775

Rhodes, K; Kendrick, D; Collier, J

2003-12-01

123

Baby walkers: paediatricians' knowledge, attitudes, and health promotion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Paediatricians were surveyed about baby walker knowledge, attitudes, and practice. Advising about walkers was associated with working in community paediatrics, treating walker related injuries, knowledge about walkers, and positive attitudes towards walker health promotion. Greater knowledge about walkers was associated with more negative attitudes to walkers. Educating paediatricians and parents about the risks of, and alternatives to using walkers is important.

Rhodes K; Kendrick D; Collier J

2003-12-01

124

High School Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Biotechnology Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology and its various applications. In addition, whether students' knowledge and attitudes differed according to age and gender were also explored. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and the Biotechnology Attitude

Ozel, Murat; Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol

2009-01-01

125

Knowledge and Attitudes of Women regarding AID  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes in relation to AIDS in women over 50 years of age. The study included women from the Center for the Study of the Elderly - NETI, of the Federal University of Santa Catarina - UFSC. To achieve the proposed objectives, a descriptive-exploratory qualitative approach was chosen. A semi-structured interview was used as the data collection technique. It was identified that knowledge about AIDS and risk attitudes toward the disease, arise from the permanence of the concept of risk groups, from the dynamics of power inherent in gender relationships in our society, and from the lack of effectiveness and sustainability of public policies on AIDS prevention which effectively reach this segment of the population, as well as a lack of strategies to effectively make such policies operational.

Alessandra Tourinho; Elza Berger Salema Coelho; Carlos Frederico Tourinho dos Santos

2011-01-01

126

University students' knowledge and attitudes towards leprosy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Patients with leprosy may be affected psychologically and socially by the negative attitude of society toward leprosy, caused by widespread ignorance and prevailing stereotypes surrounding the disease. This study aimed to determine the knowledge and attitudes toward leprosy among students at the University of Guadalajara. METHODOLOGY: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 1,300 students over 18 years of age from various Thematic University Centres in Guadalajara. Students' degree subjects included the health sciences, humanities, exact sciences (i.e., chemistry, physics), arts, biological-agricultural sciences, and administration. Students were randomly selected regardless of gender and all students were enrolled in either the first, second, or third year of their undergraduate studies. RESULTS: Overall, students showed an intermediate level of knowledge of leprosy. Results showed that 67% correctly responded that leprosy is an infectious disease, 64% knew of the presence of skin lesions, and 60% knew that a microbe causes the disease. Furthermore, 45% correctly responded that leprosy is a disease associated with poverty and 40% responded that leprosy is disabling. Only 31% stated that leprosy is curable. Negative attitudes were evident regarding the question of employing a leprosy patient (57%) and having a leprosy patient as a spouse or partner (30%). Discussion: The results revealed that there is insufficient knowledge of and poor attitudes toward leprosy among students at the University of Guadalajara. It is necessary to improve current health education measures by using updated educational strategies to reduce the stigma of leprosy and the segregation of leprosy patients and their families.

Graciano-Machuca O; Velarde-de la Cruz EE; Ramirez-Dueñas MG; Alvarado-Navarro A

2013-01-01

127

Measures of Diabetic Patient Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Regarding Self-Care. Appendix B to Summary Report: An Evaluation of Published Measures of Diabetes Self-Care Variables.  

Science.gov (United States)

This appendix identifies and evaluates published measures of diabetic self-management variables using secondary data sources. Attention is focused on the patient behavioral, knowledge, and attitudinal areas that an expert panel judged to be 'very importan...

K. H. Marquis J. E. Ware R. Johnston S. Marquis M. Michnich

1979-01-01

128

Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to meningitis in northern ghana.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract. Meningitis has a significant impact in the Sahel, but the mechanisms for transmission and factors determining a person's vulnerability are not well understood. Our survey examined the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of people in a meningitis-endemic area in the Upper East region of northern Ghana to identify social, economic, and behavioral factors that may contribute to disease transmission and possible interventions that might improve health outcomes. Key results suggest potential interventions in response to the risk posed by migration, especially seasonal migration, a lack of knowledge about early symptoms causing delayed treatment, and a need for further education about the protective benefits of vaccination.

Hayden MH; Dalaba M; Awine T; Akweongo P; Nyaaba G; Anaseba D; Pelzman J; Hodgson A; Pandya R

2013-08-01

129

Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to meningitis in northern Ghana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Meningitis has a significant impact in the Sahel, but the mechanisms for transmission and factors determining a person's vulnerability are not well understood. Our survey examined the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of people in a meningitis-endemic area in the Upper East region of northern Ghana to identify social, economic, and behavioral factors that may contribute to disease transmission and possible interventions that might improve health outcomes. Key results suggest potential interventions in response to the risk posed by migration, especially seasonal migration, a lack of knowledge about early symptoms causing delayed treatment, and a need for further education about the protective benefits of vaccination. PMID:23775016

Hayden, Mary H; Dalaba, Maxwell; Awine, Timothy; Akweongo, Patricia; Nyaaba, Gertrude; Anaseba, Dominic; Pelzman, Jamie; Hodgson, Abraham; Pandya, Rajul

2013-06-17

130

Cuestionario para evaluar en médicos conductas, conocimientos y actitudes sobre la higiene de manos/ Questionnaire to assess behavior, knowledge and attitudes on hand hygiene among physicians  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Objetivo: La necesidad de generar instrumentos válidos y fiables para medir aspectos relacionados con la higiene de manos es importante para conocer la situación actual y el impacto de las acciones formativas en los profesionales. El objetivo principal del trabajo es validar un cuestionario sobre higiene de manos en médicos y analizar sus propiedades de la medida. Método: Estudio instrumental en el cual se elaboró un cuestionario que se aplicó entre enero de 2010 y (more) marzo de 2011 en el Hospital Clínico San Cecilio (Granada). Éste constó finalmente de 44 ítems que evalúan la conducta del profesional médico antes y después del contacto con el paciente, los conocimientos declarativos y las actitudes sobre la higiene de manos. Se aplicó a 113 profesionales. Resultados: Tras realizar los análisis factoriales se obtuvieron datos que avalan la unidimensionalidad de la herramienta, con un valor de convergencia general que explica el 39,289% de la varianza total y un valor alfa de Cronbach para elementos tipificados de 0,784. Hay diferencias significativas entre la conducta de higiene de manos antes y después del contacto con el paciente (t=-8,991; p Abstract in english Objective: Valid and reliable instruments to measure aspects of hand hygiene are needed to determine the current situation and impact of training among health professionals. The main objective of this study was to describe the development of a questionnaire on hand hygiene among health professionals and to analyze the properties of this instrument. Method: A questionnaire was designed and implemented between January 2010 and March 2011 at the Hospital Clínico San Cecilio (more) (Granada, Spain). The final questionnaire consisted of 44 items that assessed provider behavior before and after contact with the patient, declarative knowledge, and attitudes to hand hygiene. The questionnaire was administered to 113 health professionals. Results: A factor analysis was performed. Data were obtained that supported the unidimensionality of the instrument with a general convergence value that explained 39.289% of the total variance and a Cronbach's alpha of 0.784 for the established elements. Significant differences were found in hand hygiene behavior before and after contact with the patient (t=-8,991, p

González-Cabrera, Joaquín; Fernández-Prada, María; Trujillo Mendoza, Humberto M.

2012-10-01

131

Dentists' knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding oral cancer in iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dentists are usually the first group who can examine patients for oral cancer and the early diagnosis highly depends on their knowledge. In this study, we aim to survey the Iranian dentists' knowledge, attitude, and behaviors regarding oral cancer. A valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire was designed and sent to 150 dentists. Responses to the questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Just one fifth of the dentists reported to perform oral cancer examination for all of their patients in age of 40 and above and about 34 % of them were knowledgeable. They mostly claimed that the lack of knowledge is the main barriers to the provision of routine oral cancer examinations. The opinion of dentists about the effectiveness of continuing education courses supports the development of these courses on oral cancer. Besides, more emphasis should be placed on oral cancer prevention in dental schools.

Razavi SM; Zolfaghari B; Foroohandeh M; Doost ME; Tahani B

2013-06-01

132

Farmers' Attitudes and Behavior toward Sustainable Agriculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

A mail survey of Iowa farmers with membership in Practical Farmers of Iowa (PFI), a sustainable agriculture organization, was used to examine the attitude-behavior relationship of these farmers and the role social influences played in this relationship. Results indicate that when controlling explanatory factors, the attitude-behavior relationship…

Petrzelka, Peggy; Korsching, Peter F.; Malia, James E.

1996-01-01

133

Jordanian School Counselors' Knowledge about and Attitudes toward Diabetes Mellitus  

Science.gov (United States)

|This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian school counselors toward diabetes mellitus. A sample of 295 counselors completed a questionnaire consisting of two parts concerning knowledge and attitudes. The face validity of the questionnaire was assessed using an informed panel of judges, and its reliability was established…

Tannous, Adel G.; Khateeb, Jamal M.; Khamra, Hatem A.; Hadidi, Muna S.; Natour, Mayada M.

2012-01-01

134

Stigmatizing attitudes and behaviors toward PLHA in rural China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Stigma is a significant barrier to effective control of HIV/AIDS, despite laws to control it. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with HIV stigma in a rural Chinese community. A survey was conducted in north-west Anhui province among 963 residents to assess HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants scored a mean of 16.6/26 (63.8%) for knowledge. Sixty-eight percent of respondents held at least one fear of casual transmission, 42% would blame people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) for their disease, and 73% thought having HIV is shameful. More than half reported that they had observed at least one stigmatizing behavior toward PLHA in their villages. Multivariable analysis indicated that people with higher education, higher HIV knowledge, higher household wealth and who learned about HIV from professional sources were less likely to hold a stigmatizing attitude, while people who had observed discriminating behaviors toward PLHA in their community and lived in villages with fewer PLHA were more likely to hold a stigmatizing attitude. Despite education campaigns, knowledge remains low and stigmatizing attitudes and behaviors toward PLHA remain a problem.

Sullivan SG; Xu J; Feng Y; Su S; Xu C; Ding X; Gao Y; Dou Z; Wu Z

2010-01-01

135

Nursing and medical students' sexual attitudes and knowledge. Curricular implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexual attitudes and knowledge of graduate nursing students were compared with those of sophomore medical students in a large, urban Midwestern university and also with the national normative values for nonmedical graduate students. The Sex Knowledge and Attitude Test (SKAT) was used to collect data. Graduate nursing students did not differ significantly in the attitude and knowledge of human sexuality when compared with sophomore medical students. Graduate nonmedical students were not significantly more knowledgeable, but were significantly more tolerant toward human sexuality than sophomore medical students and graduate nursing students. The fundamental implication is the need for more constructive education in human sexuality as a planned part of the nursing curricula. PMID:6906463

Kuczynski, H J

136

Nursing and medical students' sexual attitudes and knowledge. Curricular implications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sexual attitudes and knowledge of graduate nursing students were compared with those of sophomore medical students in a large, urban Midwestern university and also with the national normative values for nonmedical graduate students. The Sex Knowledge and Attitude Test (SKAT) was used to collect data. Graduate nursing students did not differ significantly in the attitude and knowledge of human sexuality when compared with sophomore medical students. Graduate nonmedical students were not significantly more knowledgeable, but were significantly more tolerant toward human sexuality than sophomore medical students and graduate nursing students. The fundamental implication is the need for more constructive education in human sexuality as a planned part of the nursing curricula.

Kuczynski HJ

1980-11-01

137

Attitudes about Children and Fertility Limitation Behavior.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relationship between attitudes and individual behavior is at the core of virtually all demographic theories of fertility. This paper extends our understanding of fertility behavior by exploring how psychic costs of childbearing and contraceptive use, conceptualized as attitudes about children and contraception, are related to the transition from high fertility and little contraceptive use to lower fertility and wide spread contraceptive use. Using data from rural Nepal I examine models of the relationship between multiple, setting-specific attitudes about children and contraception and the hazard of contraceptive use to limit childbearing. Specific attitude measures attempt to capture the relative value of children versus consumer goods, the religiously based value of children, and the acceptability of contraceptive use. Findings demonstrate that multiple measures of women's attitudes about children and contraception were all independently related to their fertility limitation behavior.

Brauner-Otto SR

2013-02-01

138

[Treating ICD patients at the end of their lives: attitudes, knowledge, and behavior of doctors and patients. A critical literature analysis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is highly effective in the therapy of malign heart rhythm abnormalities. However, the ethical dilemma of harming a dying patient has received little attention. We studied the current state of knowledge and behavior of physicians and the subjective needs of ICD patients with respect to end-of-life issues. METHODS: A literature search of articles published between 8/2010 and 3/2011 in PubMed resulted in the identification of 32 reports, of which 25 met selection criteria. RESULTS: Practically no clinical institution (96% in Europe) offers routine counseling of ICD patients on end-of-life issues. In only about 25% of cases do doctors initiate a discussion on this issue with the ICD patient, of which the majority takes place during the final hours of the patient's life. Knowledge of legal aspects of ICD deactivation is insufficient in about 50% of physicians. Many physicians underestimate the impact of ICD shocks and often have unrealistic expectations about the patient's knowledge on technical aspects of the ICD device. The majority of patients are reluctant to address this topic and prefer to rely on the decision of their attending physician. CONCLUSION: Despite insufficient empirical data, findings point to a low willingness of ICD patients to confront the end-of-life issue and prefer decisions to be made by their physician. Substantial knowledge gaps of physicians may cause barriers in considering the option of deactivating the ICD.

Ladwig KH; Ischinger NF; Ronel J; Kolb C

2011-09-01

139

First Year Medical Students? AIDS Knowledge and Attitude  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of knowledge, sexual practices and attitude of medical students towards AIDS/ HIV. Objective: To assess the knowledge, sexual practices and attitudes of medical students in relation to HIV/AIDS. Study Design: Cross- sectional. Participants: 409 first year medical students. Study variables: Sex knowledge, sexual practices, Attitudes, Risk perception. Results: 92% of the students had heard about AIDS predominantly through mass media. Many students had misconception about transmission of HIV infection should not be allowed to work in the clinic or hospital. 36% of male and 9% of female students admitted indulging in safe sexual practices mostly with their friends.

Amalraj Edwin R; Chandrasekaran Nirmala; Solomon Sunithi; Sumbandam Raja P

1995-01-01

140

Medical Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Related to HIV/AIDS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: What attitudes do medical students express about AIDS and does their knowledge correlate with these attitudes. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of purposively selected 400 students of 1st and 2nd MBBS, Medical College Baroda was conducted during July 2008. They were asked to complete a ...

Shaikh Mohsin, Sunil Nayak, Vipul Mandaviya

 
 
 
 
141

Sexual knowledge and attitudes of general practitioners in Wessex.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A survey of the sexual attitudes and knowledge of general practitioners in Wessex found that GP trainees and those in practice for less than 10 years were less conservative and better informed than doctors in practice for 20 years or more, The results suggest that the attitudes of the doctors are de...

Elstein, M; Gordon, A D; Buckingham, M S

142

Factors associated with knowledge and attitudes in persons with epilepsy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Treating persons with epilepsy (PWE) in developing countries may be different from elsewhere. Knowledge and attitudes of PWE are known to be associated with seizure control. This study aims to evaluate factors related with the knowledge and attitudes of PWE in northeastern Thailand. A cross-sectional survey using questionnaires and interviews was undertaken at the Khon Kaen University epilepsy clinic. The questionnaire comprised 22 questions (14 knowledge questions and 8 attitude questions). Two hundred three PWE participated in the study with a mean age of 36.5 years. Four factors were significantly associated with the knowledge about epilepsy, which included education level, age, epilepsy duration, and a history of experiencing antiepileptic medication side effects. In addition, there were four factors significantly associated with the attitudes about epilepsy, which included seizure control, education level, epilepsy duration, and marital status. There is a need to provide more education, preferably community based, to help PWE obtain more accurate information.

Saengsuwan J; Boonyaleepan S; Srijakkot J; Sawanyawisuth K; Tiamkao S

2012-05-01

143

Measures of Knowledge and Attitude Toward Preventive Cardiology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development and validation of an inventory of preventive cardiology at the University of Virginia is described. The inventory contains two instruments designed to measure medical students' preinstructional and postinstructional knowledge of and attitude toward preventive cardiology. (Author/MLW)

Allred, Charlene A.; And Others

1985-01-01

144

Construction of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Questionnaire for Assessing Plagiarism  

Science.gov (United States)

Background This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively. Results: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (P<0.001). Conclusions: This knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) questionnaire was developed as a standard tool in order to assess perception of subjects toward plagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission.

Poorolajal, J; Cheraghi, P; Irani, A Doosti; Cheraghi, Z; Mirfakhraei, M

2012-01-01

145

Construction of knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire for assessing plagiarism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. METHODS: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) questionnaire was developed as a standard tool in order to assess perception of subjects toward plagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission.

Poorolajal J; Cheraghi P; Irani AD; Cheraghi Z; Mirfakhraei M

2012-01-01

146

Construction of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Questionnaire for Assessing Plagiarism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism.Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively.Results: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (P<0.001).Conclusions: This knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) questionnaire was developed as a standard tool in order to assess perception of subjects toward plagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission.

J Poorolajal; P Cheraghi; A Doosti Irani; Z Cheraghi; M Mirfakhraei

2012-01-01

147

[Investigation of nurses' pain related knowledge, attitude and clinical decision making skills].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the nurses' ain related knowledge, attitude and clinical decision making skills. Three instruments were used in the study: (1) Nurses' Introduction Form, (2) The Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Questionnaire and (3) Clinical Decision Making Survey Questionnaire developed by McCaffery and Ferrell was translated into Turkish and used with permission. The results showed that many nurses have inadequate knowledge about pain assessment and management, nurses' (% 47.4) did not observe patient's behaviors to determine/assess the patient's intensity of pain and % 74.5 of nurses' did not use pain assessment scales to measure the patient's pain.

Ozer S; Akyürek B; Ba?bakkal Z

2006-10-01

148

[Investigation of nurses' pain related knowledge, attitude and clinical decision making skills].  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the nurses' ain related knowledge, attitude and clinical decision making skills. Three instruments were used in the study: (1) Nurses' Introduction Form, (2) The Nurses' Knowledge and Attitudes Questionnaire and (3) Clinical Decision Making Survey Questionnaire developed by McCaffery and Ferrell was translated into Turkish and used with permission. The results showed that many nurses have inadequate knowledge about pain assessment and management, nurses' (% 47.4) did not observe patient's behaviors to determine/assess the patient's intensity of pain and % 74.5 of nurses' did not use pain assessment scales to measure the patient's pain. PMID:17457712

Ozer, Serap; Akyürek, Banu; Ba?bakkal, Zümrüt

2006-10-01

149

Knowledge and Attitude of Persons Living with HIV+/AIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: As number of Persons Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWAs) increases, caring for them is a new rising problem. The World Health Organization encourages caring these people at home. Patients themselves also prefer to stay at home than staying in hospital. Adequate knowledge and positive attitude are important factors in providing better care for a patient. Approach: This study was conducted to assess level of knowledge and describe attitudes existing between family members of PLWAs. A cross-sectional study was conducted on PLWAs to assess the basic level of knowledge and attitude regarding AIDS. One hundred family members of PLWAs were selected using simple random sampling. A three-part questionnaire was delivered to measure HIV/AIDS-related attitude and knowledge. Results: Mean score of participants were 10.69±2.05 of a maximum of 14 points in knowledge. Knowledge on some aspect of the disease was quite high in the study group; Mean score was 25.42±6.05 from a maximum of 40 points in attitude. Female gender, higher income and education level were associated with a greater level of knowledge. Parents in comparison with other relatives and persons older than 60 usually had lower level of knowledge. Patients with higher income or education level also had more positive attitude toward patient. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggest that the family members of patients living with AIDS have a satisfactory level of essential knowledge on HIV/AIDS. Most of them have good attitudes toward person with HIV/AIDS. However, there are some misconceptions about the routes of transmission that can be problems on the way of providing homebased care.

Jamshidi M. Mahin; Davoodian Parivash; Abdoul H. Madani; Allemohammad Azadeh; Amiri Zinab; Daryanavard Ali; Golvardi Y.M. Sadegh; Pourbahri Maryam; Moosavi Afsaneh

2010-01-01

150

Attitudes and beliefs, not just knowledge, influence the effectiveness of environmental cleaning by environmental service workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Hospital environmental service workers (ESWs) play an important role in interrupting the chain of infection because the environment is a reservoir for nosocomial pathogens. Improving ESWs' knowledge through education has been shown to improve ESW cleaning, but the behavioral determinants of their work have not been studied. Understanding and targeting ESWs' attitudes and beliefs may inform strategies to improve environmental cleaning. METHODS: With the theory of planned behavior as framework, we used questionnaires and focus groups to examine intensive care unit ESWs' attitudes, beliefs [behavioral, normative, and control], and control) and intent about their job. Baseline quantitative microbial cultures of high-touch services were performed before and after cleaning. After an educational intervention addressing their attitudes, beliefs, and general infection control knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and microbial contamination were reassessed. RESULTS: Beliefs were uniformly strong (4.5/5-5/5), and normative beliefs correlated best with intent to clean (R(2) = 0.3). Themes elicited from the focus groups included "me versus them," lack of appreciation, pride in work, and "if it were me." The rate of environmental contamination was significantly improved after the intervention (P = .0074 vs P = .0023, respectively); the measured relationship among attitudes, beliefs, and intent was not significantly changed. CONCLUSION: ESWs' attitudes and beliefs about their job may impact their intent to clean and in turn the effectiveness of their efforts. Understanding and addressing these attitudes and beliefs can be used to inform strategies for sustained improvement of environmental cleaning.

Matlow AG; Wray R; Richardson SE

2012-04-01

151

Knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and factors affecting HIV/AIDS prevention among Thai university students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objectives of this study were to describe knowledge, attitudes, and self-awareness, and to identify predictable factors affecting HIV/AIDS prevention among Thai university students. A cross sectional survey was conducted among 844 first-year university students using a validated, self-administered questionnaire as a research instrument. The questionnaire included items assessing knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and HIV/AIDS preventive behaviors. It was found that 22.4% of the subjects received various sexually provocative media. The university student's knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and preventive behaviors toward HIV/AIDS were at a high level. The results from the multiple regression analysis identified self-awareness, faculty, sex, sexual-risk score, income-per-month, GPA, and knowledge as significant independent predictors of HIV/AIDS preventive behaviors. These factors contributed to 36.9% of the explanation of HIV preventive behaviors, and the strongest predictor was found to be self-awareness. Scientific information, and useful and productive life skills are needed to educate the university students regarding the health consequences of HIV/AIDS. An integrated approach is strongly suggested for creating knowledge, attitudes, and awareness to control the spread of HIV/AIDS among young people.

Durongritichai V

2012-11-01

152

Knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and factors affecting HIV/AIDS prevention among Thai university students.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to describe knowledge, attitudes, and self-awareness, and to identify predictable factors affecting HIV/AIDS prevention among Thai university students. A cross sectional survey was conducted among 844 first-year university students using a validated, self-administered questionnaire as a research instrument. The questionnaire included items assessing knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and HIV/AIDS preventive behaviors. It was found that 22.4% of the subjects received various sexually provocative media. The university student's knowledge, attitudes, self-awareness, and preventive behaviors toward HIV/AIDS were at a high level. The results from the multiple regression analysis identified self-awareness, faculty, sex, sexual-risk score, income-per-month, GPA, and knowledge as significant independent predictors of HIV/AIDS preventive behaviors. These factors contributed to 36.9% of the explanation of HIV preventive behaviors, and the strongest predictor was found to be self-awareness. Scientific information, and useful and productive life skills are needed to educate the university students regarding the health consequences of HIV/AIDS. An integrated approach is strongly suggested for creating knowledge, attitudes, and awareness to control the spread of HIV/AIDS among young people. PMID:23413715

Durongritichai, Vanida

2012-11-01

153

The Role of Knowledge, Social Norms, and Attitudes toward Organic Products and Shopping Behavior: Survey Results from High School Students in Vienna  

Science.gov (United States)

|In 2005 a survey was used to investigate social norms and attitudes of Viennese high school students (14-20 years, n = 340) toward organic products. Young people, who already participate in household decisions and consume organic products, have not yet been recognized sufficiently in research. The Theory of Reasoned Action and discriminant…

Gotschi, Elisabeth; Vogel, Stefan; Lindenthal, Thomas; Larcher, Manuela

2010-01-01

154

Knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning in Israel.  

Science.gov (United States)

The success of mammal cloning in 1997 has brought the issue of human cloning into public discussion. Human cloning has several aspects and potential applications for use in both reproductive and non-reproductive matters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning in Israel. Data from 120 respondents (68 health professionals and 52 non-health professionals), all Jewish, Hebrew speaking with at least 15 years of education each, were collected using two questionnaires that dealt with knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning. Results showed that although health professionals had significantly more knowledge that non-health professionals, all respondents had poor knowledge about cloning. No difference in attitudes was found between the groups. Most respondents opposed human cloning, but more positive attitudes toward non-reproductive cloning were found. The results are discussed in the context of the deficit model. The findings indicate a need to provide information about human cloning to allow people to form their attitudes based on factual knowledge. PMID:17312628

Barnoy, Sivia; Ehrenfeld, Malka; Sharon, Rina; Tabak, Nili

2006-04-01

155

Knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning in Israel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The success of mammal cloning in 1997 has brought the issue of human cloning into public discussion. Human cloning has several aspects and potential applications for use in both reproductive and non-reproductive matters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning in Israel. Data from 120 respondents (68 health professionals and 52 non-health professionals), all Jewish, Hebrew speaking with at least 15 years of education each, were collected using two questionnaires that dealt with knowledge and attitudes toward human cloning. Results showed that although health professionals had significantly more knowledge that non-health professionals, all respondents had poor knowledge about cloning. No difference in attitudes was found between the groups. Most respondents opposed human cloning, but more positive attitudes toward non-reproductive cloning were found. The results are discussed in the context of the deficit model. The findings indicate a need to provide information about human cloning to allow people to form their attitudes based on factual knowledge.

Barnoy S; Ehrenfeld M; Sharon R; Tabak N

2006-04-01

156

Teens and tanning knowledge and attitudes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The incidence of skin cancer, including melanoma, continues to increase. Teenagers are especially vulnerable, as are young females. The incidence of melanoma among young women in their twenties and thirties has begun to increase again. These young people are also the population that frequent tanning salons. Objective: This voluntary, anonymous, New York University, Institutional Review Board-approved survey was given to students in grades 9 through 12 to ascertain their understanding of what causes skin cancers and the dangers of excessive sun exposure and tanning salons. Methods and materials: An Institutional Review Board-approved, 22-question survey was administered anonymously to more than 450 students with 368 returned responses. The survey was administered to students in grades 9 through 12 at two high schools in New York and New Jersey. Results: More than 80 percent of students view movie stars as tan and almost 60 percent see "tan" people as better looking. In addition, more than 90 percent believe that a tan does not prevent further damage to the skin (as opposed to the customary belief that a "base" tan can protect against extreme sun exposures, such as when on a tropical vacation). There appears to be a disconnect between knowledge and sun tanning behaviors. Most teenagers still believe that tans are attractive and teenage girls continue to use tanning salons and tan naturally. We need to address the connection between sun tanning in youth and skin cancers years later. Legislation to limit access of tanning salons to teenagers needs to be enacted. PMID:20967182

Ashinoff, Robin; Levine, Vicki J; Steuer, Alexa B; Sedwick, Carly

2009-02-01

157

Diversity attitudes and group knowledge processing in multicultural organizations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The ability to locate, share, and use knowledge is vital for effective functioning of organizations. However, such knowledge processing can be complicated by increasing cultural diversity. Recent studies have suggested that a group’s diversity attitudes may increase group outcomes. In this study, based on a sample consisting of 489 members of multicultural academic departments, we set out to investigate the relationship between openness to diversity (linguistic, social category, value, and informational) and group knowledge processing (knowledge location, knowledge needed, bring knowledge to bear, and personal knowledge). We found openness to linguistic and informational diversity to have positive associations with all group knowledge processing variables. Openness to value diversity was positively associated with most group knowledge processing variables, while openness to social category diversity only had a positive effect on personal knowledge.

Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

2013-01-01

158

Complaint Attitudes and Behavior in Academic Libraries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After experiencing library service failure, the user may directly or indirectly voice his/her complaint, which is the best prescription to improve library public services. The paper explores the academic librarians and users’ attitudes towards complaints. Through surveying six hundred students from twenty universities and applying descriptive and inferential statistical techniques, the study investigates student users’ complaint preference and behavior afterwards, and perception of complaint handling and outcome. The study reports and compares their attitudes and perspectives towards library complaints. It further examines the differences in attitudes and behavior intention among respondents who had prior experience in filing complaints at libraries, did not complain, and had no prior experience in service failure. An ultimate analysis was made to contrast the user’s perception towards complaint handling of the library and of for-profit organization. [Article content in Chinese

Shiao-Feng Su

2012-01-01

159

Knowledge and attitudes regarding pain management among Jordanian nursing students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The presence of pain is one of the main reasons why people seek health care, however pain is often undertreated. Inadequate treatment has been linked to health care professionals' failure to assess pain and to intervene appropriately. It may also result from the limited attention given to pain management in nursing curricula. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to explore the current knowledge and attitudes regarding pain management among baccalaureate nursing students and the factors that might influence such knowledge and attitudes, and nursing students perceived barriers to adequate pain management during clinical practice. METHODS: The descriptive design included a sample of 240 baccalaureate nursing students in three nursing schools in three governmental universities in Jordan. The Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain scale was used to measure knowledge and attitudes regarding pain management. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and independent sample t test. Data were collected over a period of three months from April 2012 to June 2012. RESULTS: Of the 340 distributed questionnaires; 240 completed questionnaires were returned. The data showed that nursing students were found to have inadequate knowledge and attitudes related to pain and its management. The mean correct score for the entire scale was 34.1%. (SD=9.9). Findings revealed that there were significant differences found in the students' scores related to pain management training and frequency of using pain assessment tools (p<0.05).The most frequently identified barriers were lack of knowledge and training regarding pain management followed by not using pain assessment tools by nurses who are working in the clinical areas. CONCLUSION: The study findings demonstrated that nursing students have insufficient knowledge and attitudes regarding pain and its management and could benefit from additional education and training on that issue.

Al-Khawaldeh OA; Al-Hussami M; Darawad M

2013-04-01

160

Energy attitudes, beliefs, and behavior: a specification of situational and personal determinants of residential conservation behavior  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Utilizing data from a mailed questionnaire of Knoxville and area residents (N = 286), this study examined a number of key issues in conceptualizing the relationship between situational and personal characteristics of residential energy consumers, conservation behavior, and energy use. The review of literature raises three issues in need of further analysis: (1) clarifying the link between knowledge of energy conservation and behavior, (2) clarifying the link between consumer attitudes, beliefs, and opinions and conservation behavior, and (3) examining relationships among determinants of conservation behavior at different causal levels. Chapter III addresses the first issue. The bivariate association between energy knowledge and behavior is not very strong (r = .01 to .20). Chapter IV approaches the second question by comparing the utility of two attitude-behavior models for predicting conservation behavior. Results indicate that they are relatively equivalent when the behavior is under consumer's control. Chapter 5 addresses the problem of causal order. Results indicate that home ownership functions both as a resource factor affecting behavioral options as well as influencing energy beliefs and attitudes. Homeowners tend to be more committed to personal conservation and to view the energy problem as more serious. A second finding is that general energy beliefs do play a role in guiding behavior.

Hand, C.M.

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Knowledge and attitudes of psychiatrists towards eating disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the eating disorder mental health literacy of psychiatrists. METHOD: A sample of psychiatrists completed a questionnaire measuring knowledge of and attitudes towards eating disorders. Knowledge questions were based on the academic literature, standard diagnostic criteria and national guidelines on the management of eating disorders. Attitude items covered beliefs about the aetiology and treatment of eating disorders, confidence levels in diagnosis and management and the use of compulsory measures in anorexia nervosa. RESULTS: Psychiatrists’ knowledge of eating disorders was variable with specific gaps in both diagnosis and management. Psychiatrists felt more confident in diagnosing eating disorders than managing these conditions. Attitudes towards eating disorders were less stigmatizing than those seen in other health professionals. DISCUSSION: There is a clear need for greater education of psychiatrists regarding the diagnosis and management of eating disorders. Implementing training programmes and making information readily available could contribute to addressing these issues.

Jones WR; Saeidi S; Morgan JF

2013-01-01

162

Parental knowledge and attitudes towards dental radiography for children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Radiographs are an essential part of most clinical dental examinations and diagnoses. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of parents towards dental radiographs for their children. METHODS: A 21-item questionnaire, covering parental level of radiation knowledge and socio-demographics was applied. Sliding scales were used to assess attitude towards dental radiographs. RESULTS: There were 1467 questionnaires distributed between five primary schools in the Perth (Western Australia) metropolitan area, with 309 surveys (21%) returned for collection. Most parents displayed a low level of knowledge, but had a positive attitude towards dental radiographs. Parents with children who have previously had dental radiographs perceived dental radiographs as 'good', 'useful' and 'pleasant'. A higher level of education and parents with children who have previously had radiographs were significantly associated with a higher level of knowledge about dental radiography. Parents who had higher scores on questions assessing radiation knowledge were more likely to perceive dental radiographs as 'safe' and 'beneficial'. CONCLUSIONS: Most parents have a positive attitude towards dental radiographs on their children. However, the majority of parents lack knowledge regarding dental radiography, especially regarding the risks involved.

Chiri R; Awan S; Archibald S; Abbott PV

2013-06-01

163

HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and risk behaviours among Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Orang Asli, the indigenous people of Peninsular Malaysia comprises only 0.5% of total Malaysia population but contribute to 0.06% of total notified HIV cases in the country. Their current knowledge, attitude and practice related to HIV was not known. A cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice among Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia was carried out involving 2706 Orang Asli from 33 remote and 47 fringe villages. Generally, the level of knowledge was fair (30%-50%) with mean scores of 55.7% (SD 31.7) while attitudes were negative. There was gender bias towards misconception on HIV transmission and sources of information. HIV seroprevalence of 0.3% was detected while risk behaviors were low. This study provides baseline information for HIV/AIDS preventive programs to the Orang Asli communities.

Anita S; Zahir WM; Sa'iah A; Rahimah MA; Sha'ari BN

2007-08-01

164

Nurses' knowledge and attitudes about pain in hospitalized patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to measure knowledge and attitudes of nursing about pain management in patients before education, immediately after, and 6 months later. The end-point measure was Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems quarterly scores and percentile rank. DESIGN: This longitudinal, quasi-experimental, quantitative study used survey method with pretest and posttest scores to measure immediate learning and 6 months later to measure sustained changes in knowledge and attitudes for nurses in this facility. SETTING: The setting was a 360-bed acute care community hospital in the midsouth. SAMPLE: The sample consisted of approximately 206 bedside nurses who worked in an acute care facility and 164 final posttest participants. METHODS: The survey was used in a group setting immediately prior to a didactic learning experience. Immediately after the session, a posttest survey was administered. The 6-month follow-up occurred via an online module developed by the principal investigator. A repeated-measures analysis of variance, a pairwise comparison with a paired t test, and a Bonferroni correction were performed to determine if sustained knowledge and attitudes have changed. FINDINGS: Posttest scores were significantly higher than pretest scores on the Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain immediately after a didactic education session and 6 months later (P < .017). CONCLUSIONS: Six months later, scores remained higher than pretest or immediate posttest scores. IMPLICATIONS: Nurses with a stronger knowledge base may lead to better pain management, improved outcomes, and higher patient satisfaction scores.

Jarrett A; Church T; Fancher-Gonzalez K; Shackelford J; Lofton A

2013-03-01

165

Identifying Knowledge-Attitude-Practice Gaps to Enhance HPV Vaccine Diffusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

To examine differences in knowledge, attitudes, and related practices among adopters and nonadopters of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, the researchers conducted 83 in-depth interviews with 18- to 26-year-old women. The study identified knowledge-attitude-practice gaps in the context of the HPV vaccine to explain why diffusion of a preventive innovation (such as the HPV vaccine) requires targeted risk communication strategies in order to increase demand. Salient findings included similarities between vaccinated and unvaccinated women's lack of knowledge and uncertainties about HPV and cervical cancer. Vaccinated women who had no knowledge of HPV or no-risk/low-risk perceptions of HPV reported receiving vaccination, indicating HPV risk protection behavior could precede knowledge acquisition for vaccinated women. These vaccinated women identified an interpersonal network supportive of vaccination and reported supportive social influences. Among unvaccinated women, unsupportive vaccination attitudes included low perceived personal risk of HPV. In contrast, unvaccinated women often cited erroneous beliefs that HPV could be avoided by abstinence, monogamy, and knowledge of their partners' sexual history as reasons that the vaccine was not personally relevant. Unvaccinated women cited interpersonal influences that activated short- and long-term vaccination safety and efficacy concerns. Different levels of fear regarding the HPV vaccine may underlie (a) attitudinal differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated women in perceived vaccination value and (b) attitude-practice gaps. PMID:23767775

Cohen, Elisia L; Head, Katharine J

2013-06-14

166

Identifying Knowledge-Attitude-Practice Gaps to Enhance HPV Vaccine Diffusion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To examine differences in knowledge, attitudes, and related practices among adopters and nonadopters of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, the researchers conducted 83 in-depth interviews with 18- to 26-year-old women. The study identified knowledge-attitude-practice gaps in the context of the HPV vaccine to explain why diffusion of a preventive innovation (such as the HPV vaccine) requires targeted risk communication strategies in order to increase demand. Salient findings included similarities between vaccinated and unvaccinated women's lack of knowledge and uncertainties about HPV and cervical cancer. Vaccinated women who had no knowledge of HPV or no-risk/low-risk perceptions of HPV reported receiving vaccination, indicating HPV risk protection behavior could precede knowledge acquisition for vaccinated women. These vaccinated women identified an interpersonal network supportive of vaccination and reported supportive social influences. Among unvaccinated women, unsupportive vaccination attitudes included low perceived personal risk of HPV. In contrast, unvaccinated women often cited erroneous beliefs that HPV could be avoided by abstinence, monogamy, and knowledge of their partners' sexual history as reasons that the vaccine was not personally relevant. Unvaccinated women cited interpersonal influences that activated short- and long-term vaccination safety and efficacy concerns. Different levels of fear regarding the HPV vaccine may underlie (a) attitudinal differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated women in perceived vaccination value and (b) attitude-practice gaps.

Cohen EL; Head KJ

2013-10-01

167

Baby walkers--health visitors' current practice, attitudes and knowledge.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Baby walkers are a commonly used item of nursery equipment. Between 12% and 50% of parents whose infant uses a walker report that their child has suffered a walker-related injury. Health visitors' knowledge, attitudes and practice with regard to walkers and related health education has not been explored so far. AIM: The aim of the study was to describe health visitors' knowledge of walkers and walker-related injuries, their attitudes towards walkers and current practice with regard to walker health education, and to examine the relationship between knowledge and attitudes and knowledge and practice. METHOD: A survey was carried out with 64 health visitors prior to participation in a randomized controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of an educational package in reducing baby walker use. RESULTS: The response rate was 95%. Half of the health visitors always discussed walkers postnatally, most frequently at the 6-9 month check. Most did not usually discuss the frequency of walker-related injuries. Most had negative attitudes towards walkers, but believed that parents hold positive attitudes to them and that it is hard to persuade parents not to use them. Health visitors had a limited knowledge of walker use and walker-related injuries. Those giving advice on walkers most often had higher knowledge scores than those giving advice less often (P = 0.03). Those with higher knowledge scores held more negative attitudes towards walkers (rs = 0.29, P = 0.023) and believed parents to have more positive attitudes towards walkers (rs = -0.49, P < 0.001). Few health visitors had resources to discuss walkers. CONCLUSIONS: Health visitor advice regarding walkers needs to be given earlier in the postnatal period than is currently common practice, and they need more knowledge about walker use and related injuries. Education about baby walkers needs to be incorporated into undergraduate and in-service education, which may need to include the development of skills in exploring reasons why parents use walkers and in negotiating alternatives to their use. The provision of audio-visual aids for discussing walkers might also be helpful.

Kendrick D; Illingworth R; Hapgood R; Woods AJ; Collier J

2003-09-01

168

MEDICATION ERRORS: KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF NURSES IN AJMAN, UAE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives:This study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of practicing nurses onmedication administration and medication errors.Materials and Methods:A questionnaire assessing knowledge on medication errors and attitude of the stafftowards medication errors was distributed to 170 nurses working in Gulf Medical CollegeHospital, Ajman.Analyses were made by appropriate statistical test procedures.Results:In the present study, 67.1% possessed the qualification of GNM (explain) and the remainingwere graduates. Twenty one questions were asked to elicit the knowledge regarding medicationerrors. Mean knowledge score was 15.1±2.6 among participants with graduate level educationwhereas it was 14.2±2.8 for those with GNM as education level.

JOLLY JOHNSON; MERLIN THOMAS

2013-01-01

169

Bioterrorism education effect on knowledge and attitudes of nurses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: The most important way against bioterrorism is reinforcement of knowledge of health and medical team to diagnose and rapid reaction during these events. AIMS: To assess the effect of bioterrorism education on knowledge and attitudes of nurses. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: the setting of study was one of the infectious disease wards, emergency rooms or internal wards of the hospitals under supervision of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this pre-experimental study, 65 nurses who had all inclusion criteria are selected by accessible sampling method. Data on nurses knowledge and attitudes toward bioterrorism were collected using a self-administered questionnaire before and after two two-h sessions education. After a month of education, the units responded to questionnaire again. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: A descriptive statistics Wilcoxon tests and Spearman correlation coefficient were used. RESULTS: Before education, the majority of units (96.9%) had low knowledge about bioterrorism (0-33.3% score of 100%),whereas after education, the majority of them (100%) had good knowledge(well done) (66.7-100% score of 100%). And majority of units (96.9%) before education had indifferent attitude toward bioterrorism (33.4-66.6% score of 100%), whereas a majority of them (98.5%) after education had positive attitude (66.7-100% score of 100%). CONCLUSIONS: The education has a positive effect on nurses' knowledge and attitudes and it can be a guideline for administrators of the Ministry of Health and medicine for planning to achieve the goals of preventive and defense against bioterrorism.

Aghaei N; Nesami MB

2013-04-01

170

Bioterrorism education effect on knowledge and attitudes of nurses  

Science.gov (United States)

Context: The most important way against bioterrorism is reinforcement of knowledge of health and medical team to diagnose and rapid reaction during these events. Aims: To assess the effect of bioterrorism education on knowledge and attitudes of nurses. Settings and Design: the setting of study was one of the infectious disease wards, emergency rooms or internal wards of the hospitals under supervision of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: In this pre-experimental study, 65 nurses who had all inclusion criteria are selected by accessible sampling method. Data on nurses knowledge and attitudes toward bioterrorism were collected using a self-administered questionnaire before and after two two-h sessions education. After a month of education, the units responded to questionnaire again. Statistical Analysis Used: A descriptive statistics Wilcoxon tests and Spearman correlation coefficient were used. Results: Before education, the majority of units (96.9%) had low knowledge about bioterrorism (0-33.3% score of 100%),whereas after education, the majority of them (100%) had good knowledge(well done) (66.7-100% score of 100%). And majority of units (96.9%) before education had indifferent attitude toward bioterrorism (33.4-66.6% score of 100%), whereas a majority of them (98.5%) after education had positive attitude (66.7-100% score of 100%). Conclusions: The education has a positive effect on nurses’ knowledge and attitudes and it can be a guideline for administrators of the Ministry of Health and medicine for planning to achieve the goals of preventive and defense against bioterrorism.

Aghaei, Nahid; Nesami, Masoumeh Bagheri

2013-01-01

171

Genetically Modified Food: Knowledge and Attitude of Teachers and Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The concepts behind the technology of genetic modification of organisms and its applications are complex. A diverse range of opinions, public concern and considerable media interest accompanies the subject. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes of science teachers and senior secondary biology students about the application of a rapidly…

Mohapatra, Animesh K.; Priyadarshini, Deepika; Biswas, Antara

2010-01-01

172

Biotechnology: An Assessment of Agricultural Science Teachers' Knowledge and Attitudes  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to explore agricultural science teachers' knowledge levels and attitudes toward biotechnology topics. The average agricultural science teacher in this study was a 37-year-old male who had taught for 12 years. He had a bachelor's degree and had lived or worked on a farm or ranch. He had not attended…

Mowen, Diana L.; Roberts, T. Grady; Wingenbach, Gary J.; Harlin, Julie F.

2007-01-01

173

Secondary School Teachers' Knowledge and Attitudes towards Renewable Energy Sources  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigating knowledge, perceptions as well as attitudes of the public that concern various aspects of environmental issues is of high importance for Environmental Education. An integrated understanding of these parameters can properly support the planning of Environmental Education curriculum and relevant educational materials. In this survey we…

Liarakou, Georgia; Gavrilakis, Costas; Flouri, Eleni

2009-01-01

174

Attitudes and knowledge of nurses regarding HIV+/AIDS patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To know attitudes and knowledge of nursing personnel regarding HIV/AIDS patients in the Hospital General de Huelva. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Sample: Nursing staff of the Hospital General de Huelva (Registered nurses and Nursing auxiliar personnel) randomised selected (N=980, n=88). Selected subjects were asked to answer a validated questionnaire including questions about personal and professional characteristics, attitudes about HIV+/AIDS patients and knowledge about HIV infection. Additionally, 8 interviews were performed to Nursing staff who suffered occupational accidents with HIV contaminated fluids. Another 8 interviews were performed to HIV+/AIDS patients about the nurses attitudes when working with them. Results: Participating subjects were worried about the risk of infection. A low rate of knowledge about HIV infection was observed. Conclusion: A modification of some attitudes of Nursing staff is mandatory as well as an improvement of specific knowledge about HIV infection and measures to avoid the infection in a professional setting. Strategies to improve nurses abilities when working with HIV+/AIDS patients should be provided.

Angeles Merino Godoy

2004-01-01

175

Thai dental practitioners' knowledge and attitudes regarding patients with HIV.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To investigate the knowledge and attitudes of Thai dental practitioners regarding patients with HIV, a cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaires was conducted. The questionnaires requested demographic information and included questions evaluating the knowledge and attitude of dental practitioners towards HIV. The results were analyzed using Scheffe method for multiple comparisons at the 95 percent confidence level. Out of 1,200 questionnaires sent, 446 questionnaires were returned (response rate 37.2 percent). The subjects included final (sixth)-year dental students (11.9 percent), general dentists (29.1 percent), specialist dentists (15.5 percent), dental hygienists (30.5 percent), and dental assistants (13 percent). More than 80 percent of the dental practitioners correctly answered the questions testing their basic knowledge of HIV such as routes of transmission and common opportunistic infections. However, knowledge about HIV pathogenesis, complications, and advances in HIV management was lacking. Dental hygienists and dental assistants had statistically significant lower scores in knowledge about HIV than other groups. Sixty-seven percent of dental practitioners said they feel worried when treating patients with HIV, and 20.4 percent said they would deny treatment for patients with HIV if possible. While knowledge about HIV may be adequate among dental practitioners in Thailand, greater effort should be put into emphasizing positive attitudes towards patients with HIV.

Rungsiyanont S; Lam-Ubol A; Vacharotayangul P; Sappayatosok K

2013-09-01

176

Correlations of Attitude to Avoid Sharing Risk and Trust with Informal Knowledge Sharing  

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Full Text Available Knowledge sharing is one of sub issues in knowledge management. This research aims to investigate the relationship among informal knowledge sharing, attitude to avoid sharing risk and Trust. The data collected from 439 respondents. Statistical power analysis was run to reject type 1 and type 2 statistical errors and to get practical significations on hypotheses test results. Instrument validity of this research tested using discriminant validity and convergent validity. Instrument of this research has good reliability score. This research use first order Partial Least Square (PLS) technique to test research model. Attitude to Avoid Sharing Risk have negative correlation with Informal Knowledge Sharing. Attitude to Avoid Sharing Risk have negative correlation with Trust. Trust has a positive correlation with Informal Knowledge Sharing. This research does discussion using descriptive data and individual character of respondents. This research use extraversion and openness to experiences, two of basic individual characters, to explain unsupported hypotheses. Two interesting findings are identified first respondent concern on sharing risk is one of key factors in informal knowledge sharing behaviors. Second, individual characteristics will influence overall sharing behavior.

Mahendra Adhi Nugroho

2012-01-01

177

Fever management: paediatric nurses' knowledge, attitudes and influencing factors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: This paper describes Australian paediatric nurses' knowledge of and attitudes toward fever and its management and the predictors of their intentions to administer paracetamol to a febrile child. BACKGROUND: Despite evidence-based support for the beneficial effects of fever over the past three decades, health professionals' negative attitudes toward fever and their reliance on antipyretics to reduce it have persisted and continue to be reported in the literature. METHODS: A self-report questionnaire was used. An instrument was developed, piloted by test-retest and revised prior to data collection. Fifty-one paediatric nurses working in medical wards of a metropolitan paediatric hospital in Australia participated. RESULTS: Nurses' mean knowledge score about the physiology of fever, general fever management and antipyretics was 62%, which was not as high as expected. Participants reported positive attitudes toward the benefits of fever, the necessity for its reduction in children with pre-existing cardiac or respiratory conditions and towards regular antipyretic administration masking the infective process. Negative attitudes included disbelief that temperature is often unrelated to illness severity. Conflicting attitudes toward febrile convulsions were highlighted by beliefs that antipyretic therapy prevents these and that antipyretics do not prevent initial febrile convulsions. Predictors of intentions to administer paracetamol were beliefs about the effectiveness of paracetamol and nurses' beliefs about the expectations of others in relation to paracetamol administration. Nurses reported strong intentions to administer paracetamol to the next febrile child they cared for. Limitations of the study include the use of a nurse manager for recruitment and collecting the data at only one site. CONCLUSIONS: Fever management is an integral aspect of paediatric nursing. For its consistent rational management, nurses must have appropriate knowledge and positive attitudes. This highlights the need for continuing education in fever management.

Walsh AM; Edwards HE; Courtney MD; Wilson JE; Monaghan SJ

2005-03-01

178

Homeless youth and AIDS: knowledge, attitudes and behaviour.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study conducted in Brisbane, Queensland, assessed homeless youths' knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Data obtained from 40 homeless youths aged 15 to 19 years were compared with that from controls. The findings identified a significantly lower level of accurate knowledge of AIDS by the homeless youth on questions related to the transmission of AIDS and on measures to prevent infection. Furthermore, homeless youth exhibited higher levels of at-risk behaviours for the contraction of AIDS. No significant differences regarding attitudes and beliefs about the disease were found. A subgroup of particularly high-risk youth is identified and described. Given the established knowledge deficits, homeless youth were also assessed for educational measures to which they might respond favourably. Implications for future educational programmes are described. It is concluded that homeless youth are comparatively ignorant of AIDS and comparatively at risk of contracting the disease.

Matthews BR; Richardson KD; Price J; Williams G

1990-07-01

179

Public knowledge and attitudes toward Epilepsy in Tehran  

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Full Text Available Background: Despite advances in medical science and modern technology, epilepsy remains as a stigmatized condition and negative public attitude toward epilepsy is a common phenomenon especially in developing countries such as Iran. It is the major factor causing serious social discrimination against people with epilepsy which in turn may be more devastating than the disorder itself. Thorough understanding of the knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy is essential to modify these negative attitudes. Methods: We conducted a face-to-face questionnaire interview survey in crowd locations of Tehran in August, 2004-April 2005. A total of 1079 persons all more than 15 years old were asked to fill the questionnaire. Results: Eighty eight percent of respondents had heard about epilepsy before, 42.2% of them knew one person with epilepsy. However, out of responses about the causes of epilepsy, 52/4% said it was caused by brain damage, 26.4% said it was an inherited disease,, 14.3% said it was due to fever, 34.8% believed stress as the cause of it and1.1% said evil spirits was the cause. 56.9% considered pregnancy to be appropriate for epileptics. 94% believed children with epilepsy could go to school and have normal education. Conclusion: According to this survey, public knowledge and attitudes about epilepsy in study population is not satisfactory. It is suggested that additional efforts must be made to increase the knowledge of the general population through education programs especially among school children.

K. Gharegozli; F. Abbasi siar; A.S Kolahi; J. Bolhari; GH. Zaman; Z.T. Keyhanidoost; P. Poortaherian

2006-01-01

180

HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and beliefs among Nepalese adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: This paper reports an exploration of Nepalese adolescents' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of HIV/AIDS. BACKGROUND: Nepal is confronted with an increasing incidence of HIV/AIDS among adolescents and young adults. A priority of nurses and other health professionals in Nepal is the prevention of the spread of HIV infection. The first step in prevention is assessing the HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional correlational design was carried out in 2003 in a private school in Kathmandu, Nepal. A total of 150 adolescents participated in the study. Two instruments were used: a demographic questionnaire and the Youth Survey, which included questions on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs. FINDINGS: The majority of the adolescents had a moderate level of overall HIV/AIDS knowledge, but lacked knowledge in the areas of mode of transmission and prevention of HIV/AIDS. Approximately 79% thought that AIDS was a big problem and 67% were afraid of getting AIDS. However, only 16.7% reported that they were likely to get AIDS, and 18.7% did not perceive living in Kathmandu as a risk for HIV/AIDS. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study will help policymakers and healthcare professionals develop a culturally sensitive and needs specific educational programme for urban Nepalese adolescents. The findings may also have lessons for public health and school nurses working in similar contexts. Nurses, and more specifically public health nurses in Nepal, need to play an active role in the development and implementation of educational programs on HIV/AIDS. Research needs to be done in rural as well as urban areas of Nepal on adolescents' HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and beliefs.

Mahat G; Scoloveno MA

2006-03-01

 
 
 
 
181

[Correlation between self-management and knowledge of and attitude to diabetes in type 2 diabetic patients in Changsha].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the level of diabetes knowledge, attitude and self-management activities of the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and explore the correlation between diabetes knowledge, attitude and self-care. METHODS: Totally 200 T2DM patients finished the questionnaires, including the demographic information questionnaire, the Audit of Diabetes Knowledge (ADKnowl), the third version of Diabetes Attitude scale (DAS-3) and the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA). RESULTS: The ADKnowl score was 68.06±10.07. The DAS-3 score was 122.60±5.66. The SDSCA score was 57.98±15.30. Education level, duration of diabetes, complications and periodic review were the influential factors for self-care behaviors. The score of self-care behaviors was positively related to diabetes knowledge (r=0.176, P<0.05) and attitude (r=0.256, P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Diabetes knowledge and self-care behaviors in the vast majority of T2DM patients are at a low level. Medical staff should not only emphasize the diabetes knowledge, but also pay enough attention to the attitude of T2DM patients and improve their self-care behaviors.

Huang J; Liu Y; Zhang Y; Yao H

2013-02-01

182

Preventing AIDS: knowledge, attitudes, and practices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. Because health care providers are the key professionals in advising patients about prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS, the degree to which spread can be prevented is at least partially a function of preventive and education measures taken by health care professionals. 2. Nurses surveyed believe that they do not have the right to refuse treatment to patients infected with HIV. 3. Twenty percent of health care professionals indicated they did not have adequate information concerning HIV, with the largest group being nurse executives in long-term care facilities. 4. The survey indicated that more efficient and effective educational methods should be used to increase health care practitioners' knowledge about AIDS.

Lewis J; Doyle K; Roemer L

1994-02-01

183

Informed consent: attitudes, knowledge and information concerning prenatal examinations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Providing women with information enabling an informed consent to prenatal examinations has been widely recommended. OBJECTIVE: The primary purpose of this review is to summarise the current knowledge of the pregnant woman's expectations and attitudes concerning prenatal examinations, as well as the knowledge possessed by pregnant women undergoing prenatal examinations. Second, we explore their reasons for accepting or declining available screening tests. RESULTS: More than 90% of the pregnant women expressed a positive attitude toward screening procedures in pregnancy. Most often (70-96%), the pregnant women were found knowledgeable about the procedural and practical aspects, but were more seldom (31-81%) able to correctly identify the purpose of tracing fetal malformations. Some 29-65% were not familiar with the existence of a false negative result, and 30-43% were found unaware of the possibility of a false positive result. The risk of miscarriage in relation to amniocentetesis [AC] is unknown to 11-53%. Uptake rates are associated with attitudes toward prenatal examinations, but no knowledge of the test offered. A total of 88% considered their health care provider an important source of information, and 57% stated that this information has influenced their decision. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women favor prenatal examinations, but the choice of participation does not seem to be based on insight to enable full informed consent. Health care providers are perceived as an essential source of information.

Dahl K; Kesmodel U; Hvidman L; Olesen F

2006-01-01

184

Knowledge and attitude on renewable energy amongst teachers in Malaysia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As teachers are one of the more important agents for disseminating information, a study was done to gauge the knowledge and attitude concerning Renewable Energy (RE) and Energy Efficiency (EE) amongst teachers in Malaysia. Results from the study have shown that teachers do not have adequate knowledge on the concept of RE. They also viewed education as the best strategy in ensuring the success of RE practices. Although there is an interest to know more about RE, the teachers felt that they were inadequately trained to teach this subject in schools, that there are not enough teachers to teach the subject in the schools and that this topic should be integrated as part of co-curricular activities. CETREE, as a centre for education and training in Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency has already started a curriculum to train teachers on the awareness of Renewable Energy (RE) and Energy Efficiency (EE). Result of this study indicates that more training and campaigns need to be implemented at school levels to promote the awareness on RE and EE. This paper will also discuss knowledge and attitude as important factors to consider in creating awareness on RE for the next generation. Teachers need to acquire the knowledge and positive attitude toward these concepts to become successful change agents. Media preference amongst teachers concerning ways to educate the public on RE will also be highlighted.

2006-01-01

185

Knowledge and attitude towards HIV/AIDS among Iranian students  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Young people are of particular importance in state policies against Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). We intended to assess the knowledge and attitude of high school students regarding AIDS in Iran. Methods Through a cluster-sampling, 4641 students from 52 high schools in Tehran were assessed by anonymous questionnaires in February 2002. Results The students identified television as their most important source of information about AIDS. Only a few students answered all the knowledge questions correctly, and there were many misconceptions about the routes of transmission. Mosquito bites (33%), public swimming pools (21%), and public toilets (20%) were incorrectly identified as routes of transmission. 46% believed that Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive (HIV positive) students should not attend ordinary schools. Most of the students wanted to know more about AIDS. In this study knowledge level was associated with students' attitudes and discipline (p Conclusion Although the knowledge level seems to be moderately high, misconceptions about the routes of transmission were common. There was a substantial intolerant attitude towards AIDS and HIV positive patients. We recommend that strategies for AIDS risk reduction in adolescents be developed in Iranian high schools.

Tavoosi Anahita; Zaferani Azadeh; Enzevaei Anahita; Tajik Parvin; Ahmadinezhad Zahra

2004-01-01

186

Reality vs Illusion: Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among ?Diabetic Patients ?  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with ?high morbidity and mortality among patients. The data from NHMS III has reported that the ?present prevalence of DM in Malaysia has exceeded the projected prevalence for the year 2025 as ?estimated by the International Diabetes Federation.1 Assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and ?practices (KAP) is a crucial element of DM control.2 However, very few studies have focused on ?this area and there is paucity of KAP data among Malaysian diabetic patients. ?Objective: This cross-sectional study aims to assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices ??(KAP) towards DM and the association between the patients’ KAP and control of DM among ?patients with type II DM (T2DM).?Method: Diabetic patients were recruited using the convenient sampling method from an urban ?diabetes care centre managed by a non-government, non-profit organisation. KAP were assessed ?using a 25 item structured KAP questionnaire and control of DM was evaluated from the ?HbA1C and fasting blood glucose levels respectively.?Result: Seventy five patients with T2DM participated in this study. There was a strong ?association between knowledge and attitude as well as knowledge and practice (P7mmol/l.?Conclusion: Our data suggests that factors beyond knowledge and attitude contribute to disease ?management. The plausible factors could be poor self-management, lack of motivation, ?inadequate social support or lack of resources that are necessary for sustained life style ?modification behaviour. A patient/self-empowerment approach to diabetes care may enhance the ?efficiency of DM prevention and control programs in countries experiencing DM as a major ?public health problem.?

?1Shu Hui Ng; Kheng Hooi Chan; Zi Yang Lian; Yee Hooi Chuah; Aishath Noora ?Waseem; Amudha Kadirvelu

2012-01-01

187

Improving paediatric nurses' knowledge and attitudes in childhood fever management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: This paper reports an evaluation of the effectiveness of a peer education programme in developing paediatric nurses' evidence-based knowledge and attitudes towards fever management and the sustainability of these changes. BACKGROUND: In general, paediatric nurses' fever management knowledge seems to be mediocre. They believe fever to be harmful, causing febrile convulsions and brain damage. Antipyretics are administered to prevent febrile convulsions and alternate antipyretics are given when temperatures are not reduced. METHOD: A quasi-experiment was conducted from August 2002 to March 2003. An experimental group of Registered Nurses received the peer education programme and peer support and education were promoted for those unable to attend the sessions. A control group continued its normal practices. Seventy-seven nurses were eligible to attend the programme; 74.0% attended at least one session, 52% two or more. Questionnaire data were collected 1 month before and 1 and 4 months after the peer education programme from 56.3% to 77.8% of eligible experimental and 40.9% to 51.6% of eligible control group nurses. FINDINGS: Interaction effects between group and time were found in overall knowledge (P = 0.01), specifically knowledge of the physiology of fever (P = 0.001), and attitudes towards evidence-based fever management (P = 0.05). In addition, experimental group nurses demonstrated statistically significantly more knowledge of general fever management principles at 4 months after the intervention than control group nurses (P = 0.01), and compared with their own knowledge at baseline (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Educational programmes targeting practice change must be theoretically based and target knowledge, attitudes and barriers to change. The programme tested here, which incorporated peer education and support and facilitated group change, is adaptable to other practices, groups and settings.

Edwards H; Walsh A; Courtney M; Monaghan S; Wilson J; Young J

2007-02-01

188

Nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice of guidance-school girls of two regions in Iran  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Nutritional concepts learned by young girls as would-be mothers will play an important part in children’s and family's health. This study aimed at evaluating nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice of female junior high school students in two regions of Iran. Methods: In this descriptive study, 587 female students within the age range of 11 to 16 years old were selected through random sampling in cities of Malayer and Shahrood in 2009. To evaluate the nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP), questionnaires containing items on demographic, KAP and food behaviors were used. Based on the yielded results analyzed by SPSS software Pack, those who scored 75%, within the range of 75%- 50% and lower than 50% of the highest score were considered as desirable, moderate and low, respectively. Results: On the Whole, the majority of subjects in the two cities, had moderate knowledge (59.5%), had good attitude (55.2%) and had moderate practice (55.53%). Conclusions: The results showed that the subjects had moderate knowledge and practice, but since nutritional practice does not accord with their attitude, constant nutritional intervention seems necessary.

mehhi delvarianzadeh; Ahmad Khosravi; Nasrin Razavianzade; Nahid Bolbolhaghighi; Maryam Abbasian; Nozahatossadat Taghavi

2011-01-01

189

The Survey of Women's Knowledge, Attitude and Practice about Prevention of Breast Cancer in Kerman City  

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Full Text Available Background: Fighting against cancers includes management in prevention, early treatment, and rehabilitation. This research is a descriptive study that was done to determine the women's knowledge attitude and practice about prevention of breast cancer. Methods: The sample of this research included 630 women in Kerman city, more than 15 years old, that selected in several stages (cluster, randomized, systematic) . For data gathering a questionnaire was used and for data analysis ANOVA, kruskal-walis, Tukey χ2 and regression (Pearson) were used. Results: Results showed most of women had weak to moderate knowledge. Women who were employed with diploma and higher educational level had more awareness than others. Also most of women had positive or impartial attitude, and positive attitude in employed women and those with higher educational level was more than others. In practice no body had proper practice (P ). Results showed no relationship among knowledge, attitude and practice. Conclusion: Results indicated that health services members have an important role in increasing knowledge and improving health behavior in prevention of cancers.

Sakineh Sabzevari; Sakineh Mohammadalizadeh; Fariba Borhanii; Shahnaz Zohreh Kermani

2011-01-01

190

Sexual knowledge, attitudes and activity of men conscripted into the military  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Military conscripts may experience a change in their attitude towards sex at times when sexual urges are at their peak during their physical growth. This study examines the experience, understanding, knowledge and attitudes regarding sexual activity of the military conscripts. Methods Data was obtained from a cross-sectional survey of 1127 young adult military conscripts, and were evaluated in Southern Taiwan from January to July 2009, their demographic data, sexual knowledge, attitudes and activities were assessed. Results Nearly 43% of the participants had performed penetrative vaginal intercourse at least once; 34% of the participants performed heterosexual oral sex at least once; almost 7% of participants had had homosexual intercourse, and 7.5% of participants had experienced homosexual oral sex in the past year. The mean sexual knowledge score based on 30 questions was 23.2 ± 4.0. The higher the educational level of the participants, the greater sexual knowledge they had obtained. Conclusion This study found that 43% of unmarried young recruits had experienced premarital sexual activity. However, their sexual knowledge was insufficient and should be strengthened by sex education from an earlier age. College aged and adult learners also have sex education needs, especially with regard to integrating sexuality and life, being able to relate responsibly as sexual beings to others, the use of contraception, and about sexually transmitted disease. Keywords Young recruits, Sexual behavior, Sexual knowledge, Sex education

Chao Jiankang; Lin Yenchin; Ma Michia; Ku Yanchiou; Tsai Chinghong; Shi Mingder

2010-01-01

191

Medical Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Related to HIV/AIDS  

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Full Text Available Objectives: What attitudes do medical students express about AIDS and does their knowledge correlate with these attitudes. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of purposively selected 400 students of 1st and 2nd MBBS, Medical College Baroda was conducted during July 2008. They were asked to complete a pretested, prestructured, and designed written proforma and information was gathered. Results: About 18?lieved that urine is a potential source of infection while only 64% believed that tattooing can spread HIV. About 90% stressed upon HIV testing for patients before admission. 66% students are not willing for mouth-to-mouth resuscitation and 40 % were unwilling to assist in surgical procedure on HIV/AIDS patients. Conclusions: The results indicate that student’s knowledge about transmission was incomplete and their general willingness to provide care for patients with HIV, tempered by substantial concerns regarding the provision of such care.

Shaikh Mohsin, Sunil Nayak, Vipul Mandaviya

2010-01-01

192

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice regarding HIV/AIDS among University students in Xinjiang  

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Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this paper is to assess the level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and its risk factors, attitude towards HIV/AIDS and AIDS patients and its transmission and to identify high risk behaviors associated with HIV/AIDS among university students in Xinjiang. Methodology: A cross–sectional survey was conducted among students enrolled in two universities, the Xingjiang University (XU) and Xinjiang Medical University (XMU). Data was collected using self-administered standardized questionnaire on attitude and practice regarding HIV/AIDS among 200 students randomly selected students from XU and 200 students from XMU Result: Among the 400 students who participated in the study Overall, the mean knowledge score was 19.3 +5.5. Their knowledge score ranges from 2 to 30. Mean knowledge scores is significantly different by ethnicity, sex, subject major, and year of study in university. Only 33.3% of the respondents had positive attitude towards HIV/AIDS patient. With regards high risk behavior associated with HIV transmission, 15.8% had at least 1 risk behavior related to unprotected sexual exposure Conclusion: HIV/AIDS health education efforts should be intensified in non-medical universities, among female students, first year students and Uyghur and other minorities. About two-thirds of the university students in Xinjiang had negative attitude towards HIV/AIDS and HIV/AIDS patients. At the same time about 15% of these students reported having at least 1 high risk behavior related to sex and unprotected sex.

Namaitijiang Maimaiti; Khadijah Shamsuddin; Anwar Abdurahim & Nurungul Tohti; Rena Memet

2010-01-01

193

Informed Consent - Attitudes, knowledge and information concerning prenatal examination  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  Background:Prenatal screening has become an ever increasing part of antenatal care in the western part of the world. Providing women with information enabling an informed consent to prenatal examinations has been widely recommended, with women accepting or declining the screening tests offered in full understanding of pros and contra.Objective and hypothesis:To summarize current knowledge of women's expectations and attitudes concerning prenatal examinations as well as the amount of knowledge possessed by pregnant women undergoing prenatal examinations. Reasons for accepting or declining a screening test offered, as well as the influence of information in the decision-making process is also explored. Methods:The review is based on systematic search strategy in the electronic databases Medline and Science Citation. Additional studies were identified through reference lists of individual papers obtained. Results:Women in general express a positive attitude towards screening procedures in pregnancy. Women are found most knowledgeable about procedural and practical aspects but are not always aware of the purposes or any limitations of the tests offered. Understanding and interpretation of risk estimates is low and possible consequences if the test reveals a problem is seldom considered beforehand. A woman's attitude to prenatal examinations is found decisive for up-take of prenatal tests, with no association between a woman's attitude towards prenatal examinations and her knowledge of those tests. Most women consider their doctor an important source of information, and state that information has influenced their decision.      Conclusions: Pregnant women favor prenatal examinations, but participation does not seem to be based on an informed consent.

Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik

194

Attitude and knowledge change in response to sexuality education training.  

Science.gov (United States)

Teachers of human sexuality classes are one of the most important factors in the success of school based programs; until recently, professionals involved in sex education acquired their expertise randomly and informally. The purpose of this paper is to report the effect of a 16 week sexuality education training program on attitudes and knowledge about human sexuality among teachers in a public school district. 39 participants (teachers, school nurses, and psychologists) were enrolled in a University of South Carolina course which consisted of lectures, group discussions, role playing, and films. The evaluation instrument used was the Sex Knowledge and Attitude Test (SKAT), and was administered to each participant before and after the course was given. Results show that there are significant changes in knowledge, acceptance and rejection of sexual myths, and attitudes concerning abortion and autoeroticism. The training course resulted in a shift deemed positive and conducive for teacher effectiveness in teaching sex education. There was a significant shift in a more liberal direction in all of the attitudinal scales except heterosexual relations. This positive change in attitudinal scores is essential for teachers who will be instructing students from a variety of family backgrounds. PMID:12314199

Vincent, M L; Bartley, G L; Clearie, A F

1985-01-01

195

Midwives' knowledge of, attitudes to and practice with baby walkers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: to determine community midwives' knowledge, attitudes and practice with regard to baby walkers. DESIGN: survey, using questionnaires. SETTING: primary care, East Midlands, UK. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-five community midwives participating in a cluster randomised controlled trial to reduce baby walker use. FINDINGS: there was a 94% response. Seventy per cent of the midwives, felt that it was part of their role to discuss baby walkers, and 62% felt that giving advice about walkers before birth acceptable. The midwives had a limited knowledge of baby walker injury risk and only one midwife had any baby walker-related health education material. Three attitude scales were computed and indicated that the midwives held a negative view of baby walkers and were positive about baby walker health education, believing that parents hold a positive attitude to baby walkers. Those midwives who had used a walker with their own children were more positive about baby walkers and less positive about baby walker health education. KEY CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: midwives are willing to be involved in baby walker health education during pregnancy. However, they require evidence-based knowledge and materials rather than relying on personal experience.

Woods AJ; Hapgood R; Colier J; Kendrick D; Watts K; Illinworth R

2003-03-01

196

Correlates of Attitudes toward Cohabitation: Looking at the Associations with Demographics, Relational Attitudes, and Dating Behavior  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examines how demographics, attitudes toward marriage, attitudes toward sexual activity, sexual behaviors, and dating experience are associated with three different attitudes toward cohabitation among never-married young adults. Results from a sample of 1,036 young adult college students suggest that the endorsement of…

Willoughby, Brian J.; Carroll, Jason S.

2012-01-01

197

HIV/AIDS Knowledge and attitudes of Southern Iranian students  

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Full Text Available This study aimed to explore Iranian primary school students’ attitudes and knowledge about HIV/AIDS. The knowledge and attitudes of 597 primary school students from all areas of Ahwaz were assessed by anonymous questionnaires in November 2007. None of the students answered all the knowledge questions correctly, and results indicated that there were many misconceptions about the routes of transmission. Sneezing and coughing, contaminated food, water or hands were incorrectly identified as routes of transmission. The knowledge increased with age (P<0.001). The sources of pupils’ information primarily included: Television (66.8%), family members (20.2%), friends (10.6%) and school teachers (2.4%). Also some pupils believed that there was some treatment (38.3%) or an effective vaccine (63.4%) for HIV/AIDS. The result of this study revealed that most primary school students in Ahvaz had a lack of proper knowledge about HIV/AIDS. There is a need to promote an AIDS education in Ahvaz and also all Iranian schools, to improve socio-cultural factors in next years.

Shadi Sarahroodi; Fatemeh Jahanbakhsh Sefidi

2009-01-01

198

Explicit- and Implicit Bullying Attitudes in Relation to Bullying Behavior  

Science.gov (United States)

The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age = 11 years, 5 months) completed two newly developed measures of implicit bullying attitudes (a…

van Goethem, Anne A. J.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Wiers, Reinout W.

2010-01-01

199

RESEARCH SITUATION AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS: IUMSHS 2000 KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE, PRACTICE  

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Full Text Available Introduction. In a time that economic classification of nations is largely dependant on their scientific output, our country "Iran" in comparison to it"s facilities, has fewer scienilfic producilon than accepted. For programming to increase quantity and quality of research, at first, should carefully recognise the present condition. This study was done to survay attitiude, knowledge and practice of students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services (IUMSHS) about research. Methods. Questionnaires were distribiuted among interns (n=234) who their names and sites had extracted. Students enterance year to university was between 1992 to 1994. So, they were at the end of their staying in university. Results. Average grade of knowledge was 2.92±2 (from whole grade= 10). This grade did not depend on stage of preparing thesis. The most true answer was in writing of purpose and the least was in sampling, medline and role of variables in study. Attitude in 78.2 percent, indicate agreement with necessity of learning research concept. 54.2 percent agree with necessity of participailon in at least one research project in educational period in university, but 41.8 percent believe that research activity in present condition is wasting the time. The answerers who at least had parilcipated in one research project were 11.9 percent and the highest knowledg"s grade was in these students. Discussion. Despite the positive attitude of interns to learn the research concept, their knowledge level in comparison with other Iranian univercities and other univercities" students in the world, was very low. Although more than half of them have positive attitude to participation in research project, their practice was insignificant. Radical changes in education system and management seems to be necessary.

M TALAEI; S ROOHI; B SABET; A.M BAGHAEI; P BAHMAN ZIARI

2001-01-01

200

Knowledge, attitude and performance of dentists in Shiraz in relation to AIDS  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Health care workers and dental practitioners are always concerned about occupational transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This study evaluated knowledge, attitudes and performance of dental practitioners in Shiraz, Iran in relation to AIDS. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional survey a 45-item questionnaire was distributed among 68 general and specialist dental practitioners in Shiraz. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using t-test, ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation coefficient (? = 0.05). Results: The response rate was 88% (n = 60). The mean of dentists’ knowledge was 8.9 ± 1.9 out of 13 and the mean of dentists’ performance was 10.15 ± 3.2. The difference between males and females were not significant (p value = 0.51). Knowledge of dentists was significantly associated with age, i.e. there was a decrease in knowledge (p value = 0.03) and an improvement in performance (p value = 0.001) with an increase in age. A total of 93.3% of respondents felt an obligation to treat HIV-positive patients; 70% of dentists believed that the risk of HIV infection was high despite the necessary precautions. I relation to questions about attitude, no significant differences were observed between the respondents (p value = 0.29). Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, the dental practitioners evaluated had a low level of knowledge and performance in relation to AIDS. It is necessary to improve knowledge, attitude and infection control behaviors of dental practitioners in relation to AIDS. It is suggested that more emphasis be placed on this subject in dental school curricula. Key words: AIDS, Attitude, Dentists, Knowledge, Performance.

Mahroo Vojdani; Mitra Farzin; Reza Darafshi; Anahita Safari; Golsa Madadi

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Trends in public knowledge and attitudes about AIDS, South Carolina, 1987-1988.  

Science.gov (United States)

The South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control AIDS Program assessed the state population's knowledge and attitudes about AIDS and HIV transmission in 1987 and 1988. Each year approximately 1,800 adults were selected by a random 3-stage cluster design and asked seventeen questions by telephone about AIDS and HIV. Questions addressed attitudes, general knowledge, HIV transmission by casual contact, HIV transmission by sex and IV drug contact, and HIV transmission by blood donation and transfusion. Over 90 percent of respondents were knowledgeable about HIV transmission by high risk behaviors addressed in the questionnaire. Respondents were less knowledgeable about HIV transmission by casual contact (12 to 41 percent gave incorrect answers), HIV testing (45 to 48 percent gave incorrect answers), and transmission by blood donation (43 to 52 percent gave incorrect answers). In general, a higher percentage of correct responses were given in 1988 than in 1987. In regard to responses measured by this survey, we conclude that: (1) there is a high level of knowledge in the state about transmission by high risk behaviors, (2) there are still many misconceptions about casual transmission, HIV testing, and blood donation, and (3) there was improvement in knowledge about AIDS and HIV from 1987 to 1988. PMID:2615326

Jones, J L; Lackland, D T; Kettinger, L D; Gamble, W B

1989-12-01

202

Trends in attitudes toward people living with HIV, homophobia, and HIV transmission knowledge in Quebec, Canada (1996, 2002, and 2010).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

People living with HIV (PWHIV) face negative attitudes that isolate and discourage them from accessing services. Understanding negative attitudes and the social environment can lead to more effective health promotion strategies and programs. However, a scale to measure attitudes has been lacking. We developed and validated attitudes toward PWHIV Scale to examine trends in attitudes toward PWHIV in Quebec in 1996, 2002, and 2010. We also examined the relationship between negative attitudes toward PWHIV, homophobia, and knowledge about HIV transmission. The scale included 16 items and had a five-factor structure: F1 (fear of being infected), F2 (fear of contact with PWHIV), F3 (prejudicial beliefs toward groups at high risk of HIV), F4 (tolerance regarding sexual mores and behaviors), and F5 (social support for PWHIV). The validity and reliability of the scale were assessed and found to be high. Overall, Quebecers had positive attitudes toward PWHIV, with more negative attitudes observed in subgroups defined as male, ?50 years of age, <14 years of education, higher levels of homophobia, and below-average knowledge about HIV transmission. Scores were stable between 1996 and 2002, and increased in 2010. Negative attitudes were correlated with higher levels of homophobia and lesser knowledge about HIV transmission. The lowest scores for each factor were observed in the same subgroups that had low overall scores on the Attitudes Scale. The findings from this study can be used to intensify interventions that promote compassion for PWHIV, address attitudes toward homosexuality, and encourage greater knowledge about the transmission of HIV in these subgroups.

Adrien A; Beaulieu M; Leaune V; Perron M; Dassa C

2013-01-01

203

Food cooperative shoppers: nutrition, knowledge, attitudes, and concerns.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A study of the nutrition knowledge and attitudes of shoppers in a new kind of cooperative food store indicated shoppers were primarily interested in cooperatives because of the food: its believed superiority in terms of growing conditions, freedom from processing, or nutritional value. Shoppers were skeptical of processed foods and believed organic foods, vitamin supplements, and other special nutrition measures are needed to ensure health. Working members and vegetarians were significantly less orthodox in their nutrition attitudes than nonworking members and nonvegetarians. Seventy-five percent of the sample thought nutrition information and the education function of the cooperative were important. Topics of greatest interest to these food cooperative shoppers were organic gardening, food preservation and preparation, and vegetarianism.

Ehlers KM; Fox H

1982-02-01

204

Food cooperative shoppers: nutrition, knowledge, attitudes, and concerns.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of the nutrition knowledge and attitudes of shoppers in a new kind of cooperative food store indicated shoppers were primarily interested in cooperatives because of the food: its believed superiority in terms of growing conditions, freedom from processing, or nutritional value. Shoppers were skeptical of processed foods and believed organic foods, vitamin supplements, and other special nutrition measures are needed to ensure health. Working members and vegetarians were significantly less orthodox in their nutrition attitudes than nonworking members and nonvegetarians. Seventy-five percent of the sample thought nutrition information and the education function of the cooperative were important. Topics of greatest interest to these food cooperative shoppers were organic gardening, food preservation and preparation, and vegetarianism. PMID:7054260

Ehlers, K M; Fox, H

1982-02-01

205

Attitudes of the knowledgeable toward the transportation of spent fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the paper is to discuss the recent data analysis of a mail-in survey which investigated the attitudes of people having some knowledge of the nuclear industry. The survey contained 74 items which solicited 4 major types of information. Thirty-seven items investigated respondents' perception of risk concerning spent fuel transportation, 12 examined respondents' confidence in certain governing agencies' abilities of managing the safe transportation of spent fuel, 19 examined respondents' attitudes toward certain special precautionary actions for spent fuel transport, and 6 requested demographic data. The 637 people who responded to the survey were divided into 5 mutually exclusive groups for analysis. These included: safety professionals, government employees, employees of the nuclear industry, employees of environmental organizations, and Native Americans. The safety, government, and Native American groups were divided into subgroups for further analysis. Overall and group responses concerned with special precautionary actions for the transportation of spent fuel were examined. Native American, safety, and government subgroup responses to items which examined respondents' perceived risks, confidence in certain governing agencies, and attitudes concerning special precautionary actions for the transportation of spent fuel were also investigated. Additionally, risk perceptions of spent fuel transport was compared between people residing no more than 5 miles from an interstate highway to those living no less than 16 miles from an interstate highway. The results of the analysis are divided into 4 sections: A. Sample Identification; B. Overall and Group Attitudes to Certain Special Precautionary Actions For Transporting Spent Fuel; C. Subgroup Attitudes toward the Transportation of Spent Fuel; D. Risk Perceptions of People Living No More than 5 Miles vs. People Living No Less than 16 Miles from and Interstate Highway. Generally conclusions are also provided

1993-01-01

206

Women's Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Anal Pap Testing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to determine women's knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and anal cancer and knowledge and attitudes toward the anal Pap test. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A convenience sample of 370 women from the general population 21 years or older completed a 48-question preintervention survey; read an informational pamphlet about anal cancer, HPV, and anal Pap tests; and then completed a 21-question postintervention survey in Augusta, Atlanta, and Savannah, GA. The survey assessed their knowledge about anal cancer, HPV, and the anal Pap test and determined their attitudes toward the anal Pap test. Only preintervention results were considered in this article. Descriptive statistics were determined for all variables. RESULTS: Only 17.6% of women had previously heard of anal Pap tests, and the majority knew nothing (48.9%) or only a little (38.5%) about anal cancer. Yet, most women (78.6%) knew that anal Pap tests help to prevent anal cancer, and 86.2% knew that anal Pap tests are not only for people who have anal sex. Only a minority of women recognized known risk factors for anal cancer. Lack of knowledge about anal Pap tests (43.8%), pain or discomfort (41.3%), cost (24.0%), and embarrassment (21.2%) were the main reasons cited for not wanting an anal Pap test. CONCLUSIONS: Although most women had limited knowledge about anal cancer and anal Pap tests and few recognized known risk factors for anal cancer, women were receptive to screening. Further implementation of anal Pap testing for women may be improved by understanding women's limited knowledge and concerns.

Ferris D; Lambert R; Waller J; Dickens P; Kabaria R; Han CS; Steelman C; Fawole F

2013-06-01

207

Work Attitudes and Work Experience: The Impact of Attitudes on Behavior. R & D Monograph 60.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using data from the fifteen-year National Longitudinal Study (NLS), a special study examined the interaction of work-related attitudes and subsequent behavior for eight age-sex-race groups. It was found that attitudes do influence subsequent work behavior. Specifically, it was established that individuals who felt they could influence their future…

Casey, Florence M., Ed.

208

Ship management attitudes and their relation to behavior and performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to adapt the Crew Resource Management (CRM) Attitudes Questionnaire (CMAQ) to the maritime domain, to assess the ship management attitudes of junior naval officers, and to determine the extent to which these attitudes correlate with behavior and performance in a naval exercise. BACKGROUND: CRM attitudes have been shown to be associated with performance in aviation, but it is unclear whether this construct is applicable and relevant to the maritime domain. METHOD: Participants were 121 active seafarers and 101 junior officers of the German Navy who completed the Ship Management Attitudes Questionnaire-German Navy (SMAQ-GN). Ratings of nontechnical skills and ratings of mission success of the junior officers were collected during a real-world naval exercise. RESULTS: Internal consistencies of SMAQ-GN were similar to those of the original CMAQ and retest reliability was rather high. Attitudes of junior officers toward communication and coordination were positive. Regarding command responsibility and the recognition of stressor effects, positive as well as neutral and negative attitudes were found. Overall, attitudes did not correlate with behavior and performance. Separate analysis of those participants reporting negative to neutral ship management attitudes showed substantial positive correlations of attitudes with behavior and performance. CONCLUSION: Ship management attitudes play a significant role in commanding ships. The attitude-performance linkage is not linear. Behavior and performance are less effective in officers with negative attitudes and equally effective in officers with slightly positive and very positive attitudes. APPLICATION: Ship management attitudes can be used to assess training needs for nautical teams.

Röttger S; Vetter S; Kowalski JT

2013-06-01

209

Knowledge, attitude, and practice of dyeing and printing workers  

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Full Text Available Background: Millions of workers are occupationally exposed to dyes in the world, but little is known about their knowledge and attitudes toward the effects of dye on their health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the fabric dyers? and fabric printers? knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the health hazard of dyes. Materials and Methods: The present study was taken up in the Madurai district which is situated in the Southern Tamil Nadu, India. One hundred and forty-two workers employed in small-scale dyeing and printing units participated in a face-to-face confidential interview . Results: The mean age of fabric dyers and fabric printers was 42 years (?10.7). When enquired about whether dyes affect body organ(s), all the workers agreed that dye(s) will affect skin, but they were not aware that dyes could affect other parts of the body. All the workers believed that safe methods of handling of dyes and disposal of contaminated packaging used for dyes need to be considered. It was found that 34% of the workers were using personal protective equipment (PPE) such as rubber hand gloves during work. Conclusion: The workers had knowledge regarding the occupational hazards, and their attitudinal approach toward the betterment of the work environment is positive.

Paramasivam Parimalam; Raghavan Premalatha; Srinivasan Padmini; Kumar Ganguli

2010-01-01

210

Nursing faculties' knowledge and attitude on evidence-based practice  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Evidence-based practice (EBP) is one of the main professional competencies for health care professionals and a priority for medicine and nursing curriculum as well. EBP leads to improve effective and efficient care and patient outcomes. Nurse educators have responsibility to teach the future nurses, and an opportunity to promote patient outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe nurse educators’ knowledge and attitude on EBP. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study conducted in nursing faculties of two major universities of medical sciences affiliated to Ministry of Health and Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran. Data were gathered using a three-section questionnaire. Content and face validity was further enhanced by submitting it to nursing research and education experts. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11 software. Results: According the results, nursing faculties’ knowledge of EBP was mainly moderate (47.1%). Significant statistical relationship was found between the level of knowledge with education and teaching experience in different nursing programs. Nurses generally held positive attitudes toward EBP (88.6%) and there was no statistical significant relationship with demographic variables. Conclusion: Nursing educators are in a position to influence nursing research in clinical practice in the future. Therefore, it is critical to achieve implementation of EBP and be a change agent for a paradigm shift toward EBP.

Mehrdad, Neda; Joolaee, Soodabeh; Joulaee, Azadeh; Bahrani, Naser

2012-01-01

211

Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Mothers Regarding Infant Feeding Practices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Present study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers towards infant feeding practices. Materials and methods: The mothers of infants, coming to a tertiary care centre, Ahmedabad, on outpatient basis were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire. Total 150 mothers were interviewed. Results: Out of the total, 18% mothers were illiterate.58.67% mothers have been counselled by doctor about feeding. Regarding breast feeding, 96% knew about exclusive breast feeding up to 6months. 90.67% think that colostrum is good for baby.34.67% mothers have given pre-lacteal feeds, tea and jaggery was most common.84.67% mothers knew that they should take extra food during lactation. Father (36%) most commonly help in feeding while 31.33% don?t get any domestic help.78.67% women consult doctor for feeding problems. Most common reason of stopping breast feeding was inadequate milk secretion(54.67%).18% think that feeding should be stopped during illness. 75.33% women were completely satisfied with their feeding practices. Conclusion-Mothers had good knowledge about infant feeding practices. Inspite of good knowledge there are lacunae in the practices of mothers due to social and economic reasons. Level of education has positive impact on infant feeding practices. Counselling by doctors had a better impact on the attitude and practices of mothers. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(2.000): 147-150

Sushma Sriram; Priyanka Soni; Rashmi Thanvi; Nisha Prajapati; K M Mehariya

2013-01-01

212

Knowledge and Attitude of University Students Towards Premarital Screening Program  

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Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and attitude of Sultan Qaboos University students towards premarital screening program.Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted at the students’ clinic from January to April 2011. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 590 unmarried Omani students of both genders. The questionnaire consisted of 3 main parts; the first part was based on socio-demographic data, the second part dealt with the students’ knowledge about the premarital screening program while the third part explored their attitudes towards the screening program.Results: Most of the participants (n=469; 79%) were aware about the availability of premarital screening program in Oman. The main sources of information were: school/college (n=212; 36%), media (n=209; 35%), family and friends (n=197; 33%), and/or health services (n=181, 31%). The vast majority of the participants (n=540; 92%) thought it is important to carry out premarital screening and agreed to do it. Around half of the participants (n=313; 53%) favored having premarital screening as an obligatory procedure before marriage and about one third (n=212; 36%) favored making laws and regulation to prevent marriage in case of positive results.Conclusion: Even though the majority of the participants thought it is important to carry out premarital screening; only half favored making it obligatory before marriage and one third favored making laws and regulations to prevent marriage in case of positive results. This reflects the importance of health education as a keystone in improving knowledge and attitude towards premarital screening program.

Rahma Al Kindi; Salha Al Rujaibi; Maya Al Kendi

2012-01-01

213

The Impact of Breast Cancer Knowledge and Attitudes on Screening and Early Detection Among an Immigrant Iranian Population in Southern California.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Few studies explored factors influencing breast cancer screening and early detection behaviors among immigrant Iranian women residing in the USA. Using a cross-sectional survey, a convenience sample of 319 Iranian American women was selected to investigate the impact of breast cancer knowledge and attitude on screening. A self-administered questionnaire assessed breast cancer screening knowledge, attitude, and mammography use (ever, previous year, and future intention). 79 % of the women in the study reported ever receiving at least one mammogram and 74 % received a mammogram in the past year. Personal attitude had an independent significant effect on: mammography use in the last year, ever use of mammography, and future intention to screen. Knowledge and morality-induced attitude influenced screening behavior but not significantly. Interventions targeting breast cancer screening among immigrant Iranian women in the USA should focus on enhancing personal attitudes in order to influence actual screening behavior.

Kobeissi L; Samari G; Telesca D; Esfandiari M; Galal O

2013-10-01

214

Gifted Students’ Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Biotechnology  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine gifted students’ knowledge of and attitudes towards biotechnology. A total of 62 gifted primary school students who were taught in science and art centers in Denizli and Kahramanmara? in 2010-2011 academic year participated in the study. The results indicated that most of the students (87%) had an awareness regarding genetically modified (GM) products. The results also revealed that students think that GM products have risks. Overall, the students thought that GM products should be used for the benefit of technology and people. Based on the findings from this study, some implications for biotechnology education are made.

Kadir Bilen; Murat Özel

2012-01-01

215

The Hungarian youth's knowledge and attitude in the nuclear field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Young People for the Nuclear Energetics (FINE) was established in 1999 as the Hungarian branch of the Young Generation Network. Our purpose is to remove the misbelieves and fears arisen around the nuclear techniques and mainly the nuclear energetics and to reply the questions brought up by the Hungarian youth in this topic. In this year our main activity was to take part in the Student Island festival with a Nuclear-tent. In this paper our experience is delineated what we drawn with the help of our programmes about the attitude and the knowledge of the youth. (authors)

2001-01-01

216

The Hungarian youth's knowledge and attitude in the nuclear field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Hungarian Youth for Nuclear (FINE) was established in 1999 as the Hungarian branch of the Young Generation Network. Our purpose is to remove the misconceptions and fears that have arisen around the nuclear techniques, mainly nuclear energetics, and to reply to the questions brought up by the Hungarian youth on this topic. This year, our main activity was to take part in the Student Island with a Nuclear-tent. In this paper we delineate our experience that we have gained with the help of our programmes about the attitude and knowledge of the Hungarian youth. (authors)

2000-01-01

217

Outcomes of three different models for sex education and citizenship programs concerning knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of Brazilian adolescents Resultados de três programas de educação sexual e cidadania sobre conhecimento, atitude e comportamento de adolescentes brasileiros  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three different school-based sex education and citizenship programs in public schools in Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, and Salvador, Brazil, were evaluated in a cross-sectional study comparing knowledge, attitudes, and practices in sexuality, citizenship, and gender issues among adolescents participating in the programs' activities as compared to adolescents enrolled in schools without such programs (controls). Results showed that Salvador's program achieved good results, with significant changes in knowledge on sexuality and reproductive physiology, attitudes regarding citizenship, and current use of modern contraceptives; Rio de Janeiro's program succeeded in improving students' knowledge of reproductive physiology and attitudes towards sexuality; Belo Horizonte's participants showed greater knowledge of reproductive physiology and STI/HIV prevention but had less positive attitudes towards gender issues, while reporting greater sexual activity. The main difference between Salvador's program and the others was the focus on creative and cultural activities; Belo Horizonte's main difference was its lack of interaction with health services and professionals. However, after the evaluation Belo Horizonte reframed its educational strategies and launched a scaling-up process in a joint effort with the health and school systems.Três programas de educação sexual e cidadania, em escolas públicas do Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte e Salvador, Brasil, foram avaliados por meio de um estudo de corte transversal, comparando-se adolescentes da 5ª a 8ª série que participaram dos projetos, com adolescentes de escolas não-participantes. Os resultados mostraram que em Salvador houve mudanças significativas no conhecimento sobre sexualidade e fisiologia da reprodução, atitudes em cidadania e no uso atual de anticoncepcionais modernos. No Rio de Janeiro houve mudanças positivas no conhecimento sobre fisiologia da reprodução e melhoria das atitudes em sexualidade; o projeto de Belo Horizonte mostrou um maior conhecimento sobre fisiologia reprodutiva e prevenção das DST/AIDS, atitudes em gênero menos favoráveis e uma maior atividade sexual. A principal característica do projeto de Salvador foi, a centralização das ações em atividades culturais. O projeto de Belo Horizonte era o único que não havia estabelecido parceria com o setor da saúde, mas, após a avaliação, redefiniu sua estratégia de capacitação e iniciou uma expansão para todo o estado, em uma ação conjunta das Secretarias Estaduais de Saúde e de Educação.

Margarita Díaz; Maeve Brito de Mello; Maria Helena de Sousa; Francisco Cabral; Ricardo de Castro e Silva; Márcia Campos; Anibal Faúndes

2005-01-01

218

Outcomes of three different models for sex education and citizenship programs concerning knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of Brazilian adolescents/ Resultados de três programas de educação sexual e cidadania sobre conhecimento, atitude e comportamento de adolescentes brasileiros  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Três programas de educação sexual e cidadania, em escolas públicas do Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte e Salvador, Brasil, foram avaliados por meio de um estudo de corte transversal, comparando-se adolescentes da 5ª a 8ª série que participaram dos projetos, com adolescentes de escolas não-participantes. Os resultados mostraram que em Salvador houve mudanças significativas no conhecimento sobre sexualidade e fisiologia da reprodução, atitudes em cidadania (more) e no uso atual de anticoncepcionais modernos. No Rio de Janeiro houve mudanças positivas no conhecimento sobre fisiologia da reprodução e melhoria das atitudes em sexualidade; o projeto de Belo Horizonte mostrou um maior conhecimento sobre fisiologia reprodutiva e prevenção das DST/AIDS, atitudes em gênero menos favoráveis e uma maior atividade sexual. A principal característica do projeto de Salvador foi, a centralização das ações em atividades culturais. O projeto de Belo Horizonte era o único que não havia estabelecido parceria com o setor da saúde, mas, após a avaliação, redefiniu sua estratégia de capacitação e iniciou uma expansão para todo o estado, em uma ação conjunta das Secretarias Estaduais de Saúde e de Educação. Abstract in english Three different school-based sex education and citizenship programs in public schools in Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, and Salvador, Brazil, were evaluated in a cross-sectional study comparing knowledge, attitudes, and practices in sexuality, citizenship, and gender issues among adolescents participating in the programs' activities as compared to adolescents enrolled in schools without such programs (controls). Results showed that Salvador's program achieved good result (more) s, with significant changes in knowledge on sexuality and reproductive physiology, attitudes regarding citizenship, and current use of modern contraceptives; Rio de Janeiro's program succeeded in improving students' knowledge of reproductive physiology and attitudes towards sexuality; Belo Horizonte's participants showed greater knowledge of reproductive physiology and STI/HIV prevention but had less positive attitudes towards gender issues, while reporting greater sexual activity. The main difference between Salvador's program and the others was the focus on creative and cultural activities; Belo Horizonte's main difference was its lack of interaction with health services and professionals. However, after the evaluation Belo Horizonte reframed its educational strategies and launched a scaling-up process in a joint effort with the health and school systems.

Díaz, Margarita; Mello, Maeve Brito de; Sousa, Maria Helena de; Cabral, Francisco; Silva, Ricardo de Castro e; Campos, Márcia; Faúndes, Anibal

2005-04-01

219

[Seniors' knowledge of and attitudes to advance directive documents].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine seniors' knowledge of and attitudes toward advance directive documents. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional descriptive study in a primary care setting in the provinces of Albacete and Guadalajara, Spain (n = 464). RESULTS: A total of 86.2% (95% CI: 83.0-89.5) of the participants were unaware of advance directive documents and only 3.4% (95% CI: 1.7-5.3) had formalized one. These documents were positively viewed by 76.7% of the participants (95% CI: 72.8-80.7). The variables associated with positive attitudes toward advance directives in logistic regression were educational level (OR = 4.7; 95% CI: 2.6-8.4) and experience of a situation in which such a document would have helped (OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1-3.4). CONCLUSIONS: Seniors had positive attitudes toward advance directives, but the proportion of persons aware of these documents was low.

Andrés-Pretel F; Navarro Bravo B; Párraga Martínez I; de la Torre García MA; Jiménez Del Val MD; López-Torres Hidalgo J

2012-11-01

220

Consumer attitudes, knowledge, and consumption of organic yogurt.  

Science.gov (United States)

The segment of organic products occupies an increasingly important place in dairy assortments. The European Union (EU) introduced a new EU organic logo in 2010 with the aim of harmonizing its organic sector and boosting consumer trust in organic food. This study focuses on organic yogurt and investigates consumer awareness and knowledge of the new EU logo. Consumers evaluate organic yogurt as superior compared with conventional yogurt on healthiness, environmental friendliness, quality, and safety. More frequent buyers of organic yogurt have a stronger belief that organic yogurt is superior. The willingness-to-pay for organic yogurt ranged from a premium of 15% for nonbuyers to 40% for habitual buyers, indicating the market potential for this product. A structural equations model reveals the positive association between knowledge, attitudes, and the frequency of purchasing and consuming organic yogurt. Nevertheless, consumer awareness of the EU organic logo remains rather low, which suggests a need for more effective information campaigns and marketing actions. PMID:23415537

Van Loo, Ellen J; Diem, My Nguyen Hoang; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim

2013-02-15

 
 
 
 
221

Knowledge plus Attitude in Radiation Protection; Aptitud mas Actitud en Proteccion Radiologica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since the introduction of the Basic Safety Standards recommendations, the scope of the radiation protection was broadening. On behalf of the incorporation of radiation protection of the patient in medical exposures, the different groups of professionals involved: physicians, medical physicists, radiation protection officers, regulators, etc., have to work together. The objective of radiation protection, that is, to reduces doses from practices, to prevent potential exposures, to detect its occurrence as well as to evaluate and spread such abnormal situations, will be obtained only if it were possible to joint two basic conditions: knowledge and attitude. It should be well known the differences between the backgrounds needed to be for example, a medical physicist or an R.P.O., However, their attitude to solve an eventual problem involving radiation protection should be the same; as well as the behavior of the specialized physician and regulators, in order to add towards common goals. In this work, we show as an example the curricula contents about radiation protection of the cancer of medical physics in the Universidad Nacional de San Martin (UNSAM), and the corresponding module on medical exposures from the Post-Graduate course on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, held since the 80s in Buenos Aires by the National Commission of Atomic Energy, ARN, IAEA, and the Universidad de Buenos Aires. On the other hand, we describe different attitudes which leads or could start major radiological accidents, regardless the level of knowledge in radiation protection. We conclude that the larger numbers of accidents are due to problems in the attitude than in the level of knowledge of the person involved. Consequently; we suggest emphasizing the discussion on how to generate positive attitudes in every professional involucrated, independently of its cognitive profile or level. (Author) 2 refs.

Velez, G. R.; Sanchez, G. D.

2003-07-01

222

Organic foods: do eco-friendly attitudes predict eco-friendly behaviors?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether student awareness and attitudes about organic foods would predict their behaviors with regard to organic food consumption and other healthy lifestyle practices. A secondary purpose was to determine whether attitudes about similar eco-friendly practices would result in socially conscious behaviors. PARTICIPANTS: The sample was students (N = 443) enrolled in 1 of 2 core courses in a mid-sized Southern university. METHOD SUMMARY: Students completed an anonymous 28-item survey about their awareness, attitudes, and behaviors. Linear regression and path analysis were used to test whether attitudes were related to purchase of organic foods and eco-friendly behaviors. RESULTS: Many students (49%) possessed factual knowledge about organic foods. More (64%) felt positively about having organic food options available to them both on campus and elsewhere. Taste and price most influenced the purchase of such foods. Attitudes were significant predictors of consumption behaviors and healthy practices. CONCLUSIONS: Positive attitudes toward organic foods and other environmentally friendly practices significantly predicted similar behaviors. Student consumers seem to act upon their beliefs.

Dahm MJ; Samonte AV; Shows AR

2009-11-01

223

Nurses knowledge, attitude and practice in prevention of ICU syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Intensive care unit ICU syndrome is a disorder, in which patients in an ICU or a similar setting experience anxiety, hallucination and become paranoid, severely disoriented in time and place, very agitated, or even violent, etc. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of nurses with regards to prevention of ICU syndrome (Delirium). Methods: Subjects of this research were 56 nurses with including criteria of registration in nursing, university degree and at least one month experience of working in open heart surgery ICUs. The data was gathered from 3 clusters in university hospitals equipped with open heart surgery ICUs in Tehran. All subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire. Moreover all subjects were observed in all shifts. During observation, two researchers observed each subject simultaneously to achieve higher accuracy of observations. Descriptive and analytic statistics were applied to analysis the data. Results: The finding of the study showed that more than 53% of the subjects had passed a continuing education course, but less than 46% of them never passed a training course on ICU. According to this research, subjects, work experience in ICUs had significant relation on their knowledge with regard to prevention of ICU psychosis. However, it has not significant relation to their attitude and skill. Conclusion: According to the results of the study, subjects have little chance to be familiar with the concepts and elements of ICU syndrome in their university program. The finding also indicated that many subjects in this study were not familiar with the important concepts such as sleep deprivation, sensory overload and sensory deprivation, etc. Ongoing progression in high-tech ICUs brings about continuing nursing education programs for all nurses. The results also showed that stress factor in ICU, such as high mortality, isolation, high workload etc. Gradually influences nurses,attitude in ICU. So, it is strongly recommended to consider rotation of nurses in order not to impose high stress to ICU nurses.

Ali Dadgari; Farede Yaghmaie; Jasman Shahnazarian; Leyla Dadvar

2007-01-01

224

Dietitian preceptor knowledge, skills, attitudes, and training: key informant perceptions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Through consultation with Canadian dietitian informants, we aimed to identify the desired knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSA) for preceptors, training opportunities, and the barriers that prevent preceptor training. METHODS: In this qualitative study, an open-ended survey was sent electronically to 100 key informants across Canada. Informants had experience as preceptors or with dietitian preceptors. Informants were asked to reflect upon the desired KSA, training needs, and barriers to training for dietitian preceptors. Categories of responses under each of these headings were developed on the basis of informants' responses. RESULTS: Forty-nine key informants completed the survey, for a 49% response rate. Of the respondents, 41% (20/49) were in clinical practice and 35% (17/49) worked in community/public health areas. The knowledge and skills domains consisted of themes related to teaching and learning, including assessing, planning, and evaluating. Attitudes expressed included considering learners as colleagues and the training of learners as a professional responsibility. Perceived barriers to training preceptors included workload demands and a lack of recognition from peers and employers for this work. Dietitian preceptor training opportunities ranged from no training to formal programs. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are integral to the basic understanding of the desired KSA and training needs of Canadian dietitian preceptors.

Nasser R; Morley C; Cook SL; Coleman J; Berenbaum S

2011-01-01

225

Religious beliefs, knowledge about science and attitudes towards medical genetics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of genetics in medical research is one of the most important avenues currently being explored to enhance human health. For some, the idea that we can intervene in the mechanisms of human existence at such a fundamental level can be at minimum worrying and at most repugnant. In particular, religious doctrines are likely to collide with the rapidly advancing capability for science to make such interventions. The key ingredient for acceptance of genetics, on the other hand, is prototypically assumed to be scientific literacy - familiarity and understanding of the critical facts and methods of science. However, this binary opposition between science and religion runs counter to what is often found in practice. In this paper, we examine the association between religiosity, science knowledge and attitudes to medical genetics amongst the British public. In particular, we test the hypothesis that religion acts as a 'perceptual filter' through which citizens acquire and use scientific knowledge in the formation of attitudes towards medical genetics in various ways.

Allum N; Sibley E; Sturgis P; Stoneman P

2013-07-01

226

Breast Self-examination: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice among Female Dental Students in Hyderabad City, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: The aim was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding breast self-examination (BSE) in a cohort of Indian female dental students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire study was conducted on dental students at Panineeya Institute of Dental Sciences, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 12). Chi-square test was used for analysis of categorical variables. Correlation was analyzed using Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient. The total scores for KAP were categorized into good and poor scores based on 70% cut-off point out of the total expected score for each. P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: This study involved a cohort of 203 female dental students. Overall, the total mean knowledge score was 14.22 ± 8.04 with the fourth year students having the maximum mean score (19.98 ± 3.68). The mean attitude score was 26.45 ± 5.97. For the practice score, the overall mean score was 12.64 ± 5.92 with the highest mean score noted for third year 13.94 ± 5.31 students. KAP scores upon correlation revealed a significant correlation between knowledge and attitude scores only (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The study highlights the need for educational programs to create awareness regarding regular breast cancer screening behavior.

Doshi D; Reddy BS; Kulkarni S; Karunakar P

2012-01-01

227

Young adults' contraceptive knowledge, norms and attitudes: associations with risk of unintended pregnancy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: Women aged 18-29 have higher rates of unintended pregnancy than any other age-group. Information is needed to understand what characteristics are associated with risky contraceptive use practices among this population and to develop new strategies for reducing these women's risk of unintended pregnancy. METHODS: Data related to unintended pregnancy risk were collected from a nationally representative sample of 1,800 unmarried women and men aged 18-29 surveyed by telephone in 2009. Among those at risk of unintended pregnancy, multiple logistic regression was used to assess associations between contraceptive knowledge, norms and attitudes and selected risky contraceptive behaviors. RESULTS: More than half of young men and a quarter of young women received low scores on contraceptive knowledge, and six in 10 underestimated the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. Among women, for each correct response on a contraceptive knowledge scale, the odds of expecting to have unprotected sex in the next three months decreased by 9%, of currently using a hormonal or long-acting reversible method increased by 17%, and of using no method decreased by 17%. Fear of side effects, norms and attitudes that favor nonmarital pregnancy or undervalue the importance of contraception, pregnancy ambivalence and mistrust of government's role in promoting contraception were also associated with one or more risky contraceptive use behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Programs to increase young adults' knowledge about contraceptive methods and use are urgently needed. Given the demonstrated link between method knowledge and contraceptive behaviors, such programs may be useful in addressing risky behavior in this population.

Frost JJ; Lindberg LD; Finer LB

2012-06-01

228

Knowledge and Attitude of Urban Pregnant Women of Bangladesh Toward Nutrition, Health Care Practice and Delivery Place  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study reports an investigation about knowledge and attitude of urban pregnant women on nutrition and delivery place and an attempt has also been made to identify factors that are closely related to these behaviors based on primary data. The analysis shows that educational status of pregnant women, their occupation, their husband`s occupation, monthly family income have significant influence on knowledge and attitude of pregnant women toward nutrition and health care practice. The result also shows that opinion about place of delivery depends on educational status and occupation of pregnant women and monthly family income.

M.N. Islam; M.O. Ullah

2005-01-01

229

DOCTORS’ KNOWLEDGE LEVEL AND ATTITUDES CONCERNING AVIAN INFLUENZA  

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Full Text Available Objective: Avian influenza cases have been detected in Turkey and human deaths have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of doctors concerning avian influenza.Method: A questionnaire was applied to a total of 172 doctors, 82 in the university, 46 in the state hospital and 44 in primary care clinics, in a district of Istanbul, in 2006.Results: The participant doctors were general practitioners(GPs) (27%), specialists(31%), and residents(42%). The male/female ratio was 48/52% and the median age value was 32(23-53). The mean knowledge score was 14.4±4.4; 15.9% of the doctors had low, 77% medium, 7% high knowledge level. Transmission (94%), symptoms in humans (94%) and preventive measures (89%) were well-known. The agent of avian flu, timing of the treatment, antiviral agents were less well-known. The GPs were more knowledgeable and felt more competent than the specialists and residents to give counselling; 53% felt competent and 74% responsible to give counselling. Half of the participants revealed a decrease in their habit of eating egg and chicken.Conclusion: Doctors need more information to enable early diagnosis and an early start to the therapy which would help to decrease fatality and to prevent the spread of the virus.

Arzu Uzuner; Pemra Ünalan Cöbek; Hande Aliba?; ?rem K?l?ç; Murat Sar?; Elif Karakoç; Akbar Akbarov

2008-01-01

230

Knowledge and attitude of European urology residents about ionizing radiation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the attitude and knowledge of urology residents concerning ionizing radiation, we undertook a survey of European urology residents. METHODS: The questionnaire was sent to 1184 urology residents within the database of the European Society of Residents in Urology (ESRU) by e-mail between November 2011 and January 2012. The questionnaire was composed of demographic questions and questions about the frequency of radiation exposure and use of radiation safety measures during fluoroscopy-guided endourologic procedures. In addition, there were questions about education programs and respondents' knowledge about diagnostic imaging modalities. RESULTS: A total of 124 questionnaires were returned from urology residents in 20 different European countries. All of the respondents reported that they were routinely exposed to ionizing radiation, and 69 (72.5%) were exposed more than 3 times per week. Despite the common but not sufficient use of lead aprons (75%), use of other radiation protection measures was very low. Although 55% of the respondents had attended an education program in Europe about radiation safety, attendance was highest in Poland (82.6%). The level of knowledge about ionizing radiation was low among urology residents, and approximately half of responders had no idea that commonly used imaging modalities have a fatal cancer risk. CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed the lack of knowledge and awareness about the importance of ionizing radiation protection among urology residents in Europe. We therefore suggest radiation safety courses in every step of medical life for doctors, especially for endourologists.

Söylemez H; Sancaktutar AA; Silay MS; Penbegül N; Bozkurt Y; Atar M; Altunoluk B; Bodakci MN; Hatipoglu NK

2013-01-01

231

KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES OF FARMERS TOWARDS ORGANIC FARMING  

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Full Text Available Organic farming is gaining popularity all over the world as it can diversify agricultural production system toward attaining improved productivity, farm income as well as food safety. The rise of organic farming was driven partly by consumers' concern with food quality and safety, as well as the protection of the environment. Organic Farming produces safe and nutritious food as it helps prevent soil pollution by stopping risky chemical reactions in the soil and avoiding produce contamination, as well as soil erosion, by wind and rain. One of the important parties that can enable the country to produce more organic products through organic farming is the growers or farmers. The final decision of farmers to use a new practice like organic farming system is usually the result of their knowledge of the practices as well as their perception. Therefore, the main purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate the knowledge, perception or attitude, and practices of vegetable growers towards organic farming. A survey method through face-to-face interview by using structured questionnaire was used to collect data from a total of 31 vegetable growers in Kundasang, Sabah which was selected by using simple random sampling method. The findings of the study show that the knowledge of the respondents on organic farming especially pertaining to the use of chemical insecticides, herbicides and fertilizers is still need to be improved, their attitude is also still negative, and they are still dependent on conventional practices (i.e. chemical) especially to control pests and diseases.

Assis, K.; Mohd Ismail, H.A

2011-01-01

232

Knowledge, Beliefs and Attitudes of Psoriasis Patients About the Disease  

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Full Text Available Background and Design: This study evaluates the patients’ knowledge, opinions and attitudes about psoriasis.Materials and Methods: A total of 111 patients over the age of 18, clinically and histopathologically diagnosed with chronic plaque-type psoriasis were included in the study. Patients who have psychiatric illness and inadequate intelligence were excluded. A questionnaire including items on knowledge, opinions and attitudes on psoriasis were filled out by the patients and the results were analyzed statistically.Results: One hundred-eleven (45 female, 66 male) patients were included in our study. 6.3% of patients did not know the diagnosis of their disease. 68.5% of patients thought that psoriasis was a contagious disease while18% thought that psoriasis was a hereditary condition. 88.3% of patients declined that they were informed about the disease by the doctor. 62.2% of patients believed that they had adequate information about psoriasis. 51.4% of patients believed that doctors gave them enough information about psoriasis. 44.1% of patients knew that psoriasis was aggravated by stress while 38.7% did not know any of the aggravating factors of psoriasis. 70.3% of patients believed that psoriasis would spread if not treated. Patients mostly (98.2%) had idea about topical treatment options. 82% of patients were afraid of having psoriasis on their face. 5.4% of patients were uncomfortable with the idea of their partners’ having psoriasis. 72.1%, 88.3%, 72.1% of patients reported no negative effect of psoriasis on their relations with friends, family members, work or school life, respectivelyDiscussion: Our results showed that psoriasis patients do not have adequate knowledge about the disease. We think that dermatologists should pay more attention to inform and raise awareness of patie

Asl? Küçükünal; ?lknur K?vanç Altunay; Ezgi Akta?; Gül?en Tükenmez Demirci

2013-01-01

233

Consumer attitudes, knowledge, and behavior related to salt consumption in sentinel countries of the Americas Actitudes, conocimientos y comportamiento de los consumidores en relación con el consumo de sal en países centinelas de la Región de las Américas  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe individual attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding salt intake, its dietary sources, and current food-labeling practices related to salt and sodium in five sentinel countries of the Americas. METHODS: A convenience sample of 1 992 adults (? 18 years old) from Argentina, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, and Ecuador (approximately 400 from each country) was obtained between September 2010 and February 2011. Data collection was conducted in shopping malls or major commercial areas using a questionnaire containing 33 questions. Descriptive estimates are presented for the total sample and stratified by country and sociodemographic characteristics of the studied population. RESULTS: Almost 90% of participants associated excess intake of salt with the occurrence of adverse health conditions, more than 60% indicated they were trying to reduce their current intake of salt, and more than 30% believed reducing dietary salt to be of high importance. Only 26% of participants claimed to know the existence of a recommended maximum value of salt or sodium intake and 47% of them stated they knew the content of salt in food items. More than 80% of participants said that they would like food labeling to indicate high, medium, and low levels of salt or sodium and would like to see a clear warning label on packages of foods high in salt. CONCLUSIONS: Additional effort is required to increase consumers' knowledge about the existence of a maximum limit for intake and to improve their capacity to accurately monitor and reduce their personal salt consumption.OBJETIVO: Describir las actitudes, los conocimientos y el comportamiento individuales con respecto al consumo de sal, sus fuentes alimentarias, y las prácticas actuales de etiquetado de alimentos en relación con su contenido en sal y sodio en cinco países centinelas de la Región de las Américas. MÉTODOS: De septiembre del 2010 a febrero del 2011, se obtuvo una muestra de conveniencia de 1 992 adultos (de 18 años de edad o mayores) de Argentina, Canadá, Chile, Costa Rica y Ecuador (aproximadamente 400 de cada país). Se llevó a cabo la recopilación de datos en centros o áreas comerciales importantes mediante un cuestionario de 33 preguntas. Se presentan los cálculos descriptivos correspondientes a la muestra total y estratificados por países y según las características sociodemográficas de la población estudiada. RESULTADOS: Casi 90% de los participantes asociaron la ingesta excesiva de sal con la aparición de trastornos de salud, más de 60% señalaron que estaban tratando de reducir su ingesta de sal actual, y más de 30% creían que la reducción de la sal alimentaria era de gran importancia. Solo 26% de los participantes manifestaron que conocían la existencia de un valor máximo recomendado de ingesta de sal o sodio, y 47% de estos afirmaron que conocían el contenido de sal de los productos alimenticios. Más de 80% de los participantes dijeron que les gustaría que el etiquetado de los alimentos indicara si los niveles de sal o sodio eran altos, medios o bajos, y desearían que en los paquetes de los alimentos con alto contenido de sal apareciera una etiqueta de advertencia clara. CONCLUSIONES: Se requieren nuevas iniciativas para incrementar los conocimientos de los consumidores acerca de la existencia de un límite máximo de ingesta y mejorar su capacidad para vigilar estrictamente y reducir el consumo de sal.

Rafael Moreira Claro; Hubert Linders; Camila Zancheta Ricardo; Branka Legetic; Norm R. C. Campbell

2012-01-01

234

Consumer attitudes, knowledge, and behavior related to salt consumption in sentinel countries of the Americas/ Actitudes, conocimientos y comportamiento de los consumidores en relación con el consumo de sal en países centinelas de la Región de las Américas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Describir las actitudes, los conocimientos y el comportamiento individuales con respecto al consumo de sal, sus fuentes alimentarias, y las prácticas actuales de etiquetado de alimentos en relación con su contenido en sal y sodio en cinco países centinelas de la Región de las Américas. MÉTODOS: De septiembre del 2010 a febrero del 2011, se obtuvo una muestra de conveniencia de 1 992 adultos (de 18 años de edad o mayores) de Argentina, Canadá, Chile, Cost (more) a Rica y Ecuador (aproximadamente 400 de cada país). Se llevó a cabo la recopilación de datos en centros o áreas comerciales importantes mediante un cuestionario de 33 preguntas. Se presentan los cálculos descriptivos correspondientes a la muestra total y estratificados por países y según las características sociodemográficas de la población estudiada. RESULTADOS: Casi 90% de los participantes asociaron la ingesta excesiva de sal con la aparición de trastornos de salud, más de 60% señalaron que estaban tratando de reducir su ingesta de sal actual, y más de 30% creían que la reducción de la sal alimentaria era de gran importancia. Solo 26% de los participantes manifestaron que conocían la existencia de un valor máximo recomendado de ingesta de sal o sodio, y 47% de estos afirmaron que conocían el contenido de sal de los productos alimenticios. Más de 80% de los participantes dijeron que les gustaría que el etiquetado de los alimentos indicara si los niveles de sal o sodio eran altos, medios o bajos, y desearían que en los paquetes de los alimentos con alto contenido de sal apareciera una etiqueta de advertencia clara. CONCLUSIONES: Se requieren nuevas iniciativas para incrementar los conocimientos de los consumidores acerca de la existencia de un límite máximo de ingesta y mejorar su capacidad para vigilar estrictamente y reducir el consumo de sal. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To describe individual attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding salt intake, its dietary sources, and current food-labeling practices related to salt and sodium in five sentinel countries of the Americas. METHODS: A convenience sample of 1 992 adults (? 18 years old) from Argentina, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, and Ecuador (approximately 400 from each country) was obtained between September 2010 and February 2011. Data collection was conducted in shoppi (more) ng malls or major commercial areas using a questionnaire containing 33 questions. Descriptive estimates are presented for the total sample and stratified by country and sociodemographic characteristics of the studied population. RESULTS: Almost 90% of participants associated excess intake of salt with the occurrence of adverse health conditions, more than 60% indicated they were trying to reduce their current intake of salt, and more than 30% believed reducing dietary salt to be of high importance. Only 26% of participants claimed to know the existence of a recommended maximum value of salt or sodium intake and 47% of them stated they knew the content of salt in food items. More than 80% of participants said that they would like food labeling to indicate high, medium, and low levels of salt or sodium and would like to see a clear warning label on packages of foods high in salt. CONCLUSIONS: Additional effort is required to increase consumers' knowledge about the existence of a maximum limit for intake and to improve their capacity to accurately monitor and reduce their personal salt consumption.

Claro, Rafael Moreira; Linders, Hubert; Ricardo, Camila Zancheta; Legetic, Branka; Campbell, Norm R. C.

2012-10-01

235

Knowledge, attitude, and practices of infertility among Saudi couples.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1) to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2) to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinic. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ? 0.05. RESULTS: A generally poor level of knowledge (59%) and a neutral attitude (76%) toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%), black magic (67.5%), intrauterine devices (71.3%), and contraceptive pills (42.9%). The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility treatment by 6.7% and 44.2% of IVF patients, respectively. Compared with fertile patients, IVF patients were significantly less likely to favor divorce (38.5% versus 57.6%; P = 0.001) or marriage to a second wife (62.5% versus 86.2%; P < 0.001), if the woman could not have a baby. The patients with infertility had more favorable attitudes toward fertility drugs (87.5% versus 68.4%; P = 0.003) and having a test tube baby (92.4% versus 70.3%; P < 0.001). Child adoption was accepted as an option for treatment by the majority of IVF patients (60.6%) and fertile outpatients (71.5%). Alternative treatments previously practiced by the IVF patients to improve fertility include practicing Ruqia (61%), using alternative medicine (42%), engaging in physical exercise (39%), eating certain foods (22%), and quitting smoking (12%). CONCLUSION: These findings have implications for health care providers regarding the reluctance that couples experiencing fertility problems may have, at least initially, to accept some interventions required for the couple to conceive.

Abolfotouh MA; Alabdrabalnabi AA; Albacker RB; Al-Jughaiman UA; Hassan SN

2013-01-01

236

[General practitioners and doping in sports: knowledge and attitudes].  

Science.gov (United States)

Most campaigns of prevention from doping (use of certain substances by athlete that could have an effect like an artificial improvement of his (or her) physical and/or mental conditions) have been relied on the physicians considered as main actors in this field. However do the physicians have the necessary knowledge and attitudes and do they simply wish to take part pertinently in actions of doping prevention? This study has been conducted in order to examine their knowledge and attitudes in front of doping, to evaluate their role in the prevention campaign. So 280 french physicians have randomly been selected and interviewed by telephone. The response rate was about 62%. The selected population was made up of 173 physicians in which were 122 males and 51 females, the average age was 44.5 +/- 6.5 years. The questioned physicians seemed to have a few knowledge about doping, in particular through the eight families of prohibited substances in which they only mentioned anabolic steroids and amphetamines. Only 50% of them think doping can also concern children, therefore 33.6% had have to face this problem in the latest 12 months. For 86.5% of the questioned physicians, doping is a serious public health problem and 60% of them consider it as a kind of drug addiction. According to 60.9% of them, campaigns of prevention from doping are inefficient; and 92.5% would like to take part in it but 83.3% of them do not feel themselves prepared enough. The results are always similar with or without sports medicine diploma. Three different families of the physicians' attitudes are described. The physicians' involvement in doping prevention claims an action in two parts: to change their behaviours facing to doping they have to consider as any health issue, to provide them with prevention efficient "tools" for their sports patients. At last, considering doping as a public health issue and not only as a marginal practice restricted to the athletic elite is really essential. PMID:9417372

Laure, P

1997-06-01

237

[General practitioners and doping in sports: knowledge and attitudes  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Most campaigns of prevention from doping (use of certain substances by athlete that could have an effect like an artificial improvement of his (or her) physical and/or mental conditions) have been relied on the physicians considered as main actors in this field. However do the physicians have the necessary knowledge and attitudes and do they simply wish to take part pertinently in actions of doping prevention? This study has been conducted in order to examine their knowledge and attitudes in front of doping, to evaluate their role in the prevention campaign. So 280 french physicians have randomly been selected and interviewed by telephone. The response rate was about 62%. The selected population was made up of 173 physicians in which were 122 males and 51 females, the average age was 44.5 +/- 6.5 years. The questioned physicians seemed to have a few knowledge about doping, in particular through the eight families of prohibited substances in which they only mentioned anabolic steroids and amphetamines. Only 50% of them think doping can also concern children, therefore 33.6% had have to face this problem in the latest 12 months. For 86.5% of the questioned physicians, doping is a serious public health problem and 60% of them consider it as a kind of drug addiction. According to 60.9% of them, campaigns of prevention from doping are inefficient; and 92.5% would like to take part in it but 83.3% of them do not feel themselves prepared enough. The results are always similar with or without sports medicine diploma. Three different families of the physicians' attitudes are described. The physicians' involvement in doping prevention claims an action in two parts: to change their behaviours facing to doping they have to consider as any health issue, to provide them with prevention efficient "tools" for their sports patients. At last, considering doping as a public health issue and not only as a marginal practice restricted to the athletic elite is really essential.

Laure P

1997-06-01

238

The impacts of an invasive species citizen science training program on participant attitudes, behavior, and science literacy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citizen science can make major contributions to informal science education by targeting participants' attitudes and knowledge about science while changing human behavior towards the environment. We examined how training associated with an invasive species citizen science program affected participants in these areas. We found no changes in science literacy or overall attitudes between tests administered just before and after a one-day training program, matching results from other studies. However, we found improvements in science literacy and knowledge using context-specific measures and in self-reported intention to engage in pro-environmental activities. While we noted modest change in knowledge and attitudes, we found comparison and interpretation of these data difficult in the absence of other studies using similar measures. We suggest that alternative survey instruments are needed and should be calibrated appropriately to the pre-existing attitudes, behavior, and levels of knowledge in these relatively sophisticated target groups. PMID:23825234

Crall, Alycia W; Jordan, Rebecca; Holfelder, Kirstin; Newman, Gregory J; Graham, Jim; Waller, Donald M

2012-04-10

239

ATTITUDE AND KNOWLEDGE TOWARDS TOOTH AVULSION AMONG SPORTS TEACHERS  

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Full Text Available Background: Tooth avulsion is one of the commonest types of physical sport injury. Themanagement of these cases is critical in order to prevent complete loss of tooth and its subsequentconsequences. The prognosis of such avulsed tooth depends on prompt treatment. The emergencymanagement of such avulsed tooth is made by the sports teacher who is present at the sports ground. Thefirst–aid knowledge about tooth avulsion is must for the sports teacher. Aim: The objective of the presentstudy was to evaluate the knowledge about management of tooth avulsion among sports teachers inAhmednagar District. Methods: A sample of 60 sports teachers were interviewed from different schools.The data was collected using a self administered questionnaire containing seven items which wasdistributed among the sports teacher from different schools. Results: we found that 90% of the sportsteachers were not having the first-aid knowledge about the emergency management of avulsed tooth andthe benefit of timely care. This demands an effort to properly educate sports teachers about first-aidmanagement and consequently change their attitude towards dental trauma.

FAREEDI MUKRAM ALI; PRIYAYANKA BHUSHAN; MOHD INAYATULLAH KHAN; FARHEEN USTAD

2013-01-01

240

The Effects of a Safety Unit on Student Safety Knowledge and Behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Determined that an instructional unit on laboratory safety could increase student safety knowledge and reduce the number of unsafe behaviors. A list of unsafe behaviors which were observed with the 333 students is included. A recommendation that positive attitudes toward safety be developed is given. (DH)

Dombrowski, JoAnne Morgan; Hagelberg, Ray R.

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

A SURVEY OF STUDENTS KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS FAMILY LIFE AND SEX EDUCATION  

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Full Text Available The study of cognition and attitudes toward family life and sex, particularly among the young population, is one of the important areas of health behavior. This study attempts to find the degree of knowledge and attitudes of the female students of Teheran University. The findings reveal that although the girls under the study expressed some attitudes towards family life not common in the traditional cultural patterns of Iranian society, such as selecting their own future husband, and prefer to have a boyfriend before marriage. However, they lacked the basic information on the subject of human reproductive system, family planning and venereal disease. The findings on the desired number of children by the study group indicate that family planning education has not reached this target population and /or has had no affect on their attitudes. On the basis of the findings of this and other studies and the available literatures, a family life and sex education programme at high school level should be included in the high school curriculum in Iranian system of education.

F.Shafii; MR.Torabi

1978-01-01

242

Knowledge, attitude and practice of hospital staff management.  

Science.gov (United States)

The proper handling and disposal of biomedical waste (BMW) is very imperative. There is a defined set of rules for handling BMW worldwide. Unfortunately, laxity and lack of adequate training and awareness in the execution of these rules leads to staid health and environment apprehension. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of hospital staff to BMW management. The cross-sectional study was conducted on 261 healthcare workers from 9 hospitals, which were randomized from 32 hospitals. The most important finding was a significant (P BMW management. Twenty-nine (19.9%) members of government hospital staff and 37 (32.2%) members of staff from the private sector agreed that BMW management is not just the government's responsibility, but one that every member of personnel should share. This finding will help to address the issue more appropriately, and plan for better training programs and monitoring of BMW management systems in hospitals. PMID:23585502

Lakbala, Parvin; Lakbala, Mahboobeh

2013-04-12

243

Knowledge, behaviors of nurses and midwives with emergency contraception  

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Full Text Available Aim: The using of emergency contraception may play important role for preventing unplanned pregnancies and induced abortion. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and behaviors of nurses and midwives with emergency contraception. Material and Methods: Sample of this descriptive and cross-sectional study were voluntary 89 nurses and 100 midwives. The data of study were collected using face-to-face interwiev methods via questionnarie. This study was made 1st-15th February, 2005.Results: It was determined that 46.6% of nurses and midwives heard emergency contraception. Of the nurses and midwives who completed the sample 74.1% reported that they did not know about what used for emergency contraception and 77.2% of them did not know about beginning time to emergency contraception. It was found that rate of using the emergency contraception among nurses and midwives was 4.2%. Half of nurses and midwives who used emergency contraception reported that emergency contraception prevented their pregnancy. It was found that occupation (p=0.000) and institution (p=0.000) of participants effected hearing of emergency contraception by nurses and midwives the differences were significant. Conclusion: Knowledge and behaviors of nurses and midwives with emergency contraception are not adequate. The education should prepare to health care providers for the presenting of knowledge and behavior about this subject. Advance researches into knowledge, attitude and behaviors of health professionals are advised.

Nülüfer Erbil; Özgül Bostan

2010-01-01

244

Health professionals' knowledge, attitude and practices towards pharmacovigilance in Nepal  

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Full Text Available Pharmacovigilance can be helpful in protecting consumers from harmful effects of medicines. Healthcare professionals should consider Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) reporting as their professional obligation and should be aware of the existing pharmacovigilance mechanisms in their countries. In Nepal, pharmacovigilance activities were initiated in 2004. Objectives: The present study evaluated the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of the healthcare professionals towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance in Manipal Teaching Hospital (MTH), a tertiary care teaching hospital attached to the regional pharmacovigilance center in western Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2007 using a pretested (Cronbach alpha=0.72) questionnaire having 25 questions (15 questions on knowledge, 5 on attitude and 5 on practice). The correct/positive responses were given a score of ‘2’ and the wrong/negative responses ‘1’, maximum possible score of ‘50’. Results: A total of 131 responses were obtained among which 42 were incomplete and remaining 89 [females 49 (55.1%)] were analyzed. Of the 89 professionals, 29 (32.6%) were doctors, 46 (51.8) nurses and 14 (15.7%) pharmacists. The mean age was 28.32 (SD=8.46) years and the median (interquartile range) of duration of the service 14.5 (6-36) months. The total KAP scores was 40.06 (SD=3.51) for doctors, 38.92 (SD=4.83) for pharmacists, and 35.82 (SD=3.75) for nurses. Among the 89 professionals, 59 (62.3%) had not reported even a single ADR to the pharmacovigilance center. Conclusion: The healthcare professionals at the MTH had a poor KAP towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance and there is a need for educational and awareness intervention for these professionals.

Palaian S; Ibrahim MI; Mishra P

2011-01-01

245

Mothers and vaccination: knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour in Italy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study evaluates knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of mothers regarding the immunization of 841 infants who attended public kindergarten in Cassino and Crotone, Italy. Overall, 57.8% of mothers were aware about all four mandatory vaccinations for infants (poliomyelitis, tetanus, diphtheria, hepatitis B). The results of a multiple logistic regression analysis showed that this knowledge was significantly greater among mothers with a higher education level and among those who were older at the time of the child's birth. Respondents' attitudes towards the utility of vaccinations for preventing infectious diseases were very favourable. Almost all children (94.4%) were vaccinated with all three doses of diphtheria-tetanus (DT), oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), and hepatitis B. The proportion of children vaccinated who received all three doses of OPV, DT or diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), and hepatitis B vaccines within 1 month of becoming age-eligible ranged from 56.6% for the third dose of hepatitis B to 95.7% for the first dose of OPV. Results of the regression analysis performed on the responses of mothers who had adhered to the schedule for all mandatory vaccinations indicated that birth order significantly predicted vaccination nonadherence, since children who had at least one older sibling in the household were significantly less likely to be age-appropriately vaccinated. The coverage for the optional vaccines was only 22.5% and 31% for measles-mumps-rubella and for all three doses against pertussis, respectively. Education programmes promoting paediatric immunization, accessibility, and follow-up should be targeted to the entire population. PMID:10212512

Angelillo, I F; Ricciardi, G; Rossi, P; Pantisano, P; Langiano, E; Pavia, M

1999-01-01

246

Mothers and vaccination: knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour in Italy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study evaluates knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of mothers regarding the immunization of 841 infants who attended public kindergarten in Cassino and Crotone, Italy. Overall, 57.8% of mothers were aware about all four mandatory vaccinations for infants (poliomyelitis, tetanus, diphtheria, hepatitis B). The results of a multiple logistic regression analysis showed that this knowledge was significantly greater among mothers with a higher education level and among those who were older at the time of the child's birth. Respondents' attitudes towards the utility of vaccinations for preventing infectious diseases were very favourable. Almost all children (94.4%) were vaccinated with all three doses of diphtheria-tetanus (DT), oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), and hepatitis B. The proportion of children vaccinated who received all three doses of OPV, DT or diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), and hepatitis B vaccines within 1 month of becoming age-eligible ranged from 56.6% for the third dose of hepatitis B to 95.7% for the first dose of OPV. Results of the regression analysis performed on the responses of mothers who had adhered to the schedule for all mandatory vaccinations indicated that birth order significantly predicted vaccination nonadherence, since children who had at least one older sibling in the household were significantly less likely to be age-appropriately vaccinated. The coverage for the optional vaccines was only 22.5% and 31% for measles-mumps-rubella and for all three doses against pertussis, respectively. Education programmes promoting paediatric immunization, accessibility, and follow-up should be targeted to the entire population.

Angelillo IF; Ricciardi G; Rossi P; Pantisano P; Langiano E; Pavia M

1999-01-01

247

Attitudes and behaviors of dental hygienists concerning tobacco use.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study surveyed a proportionate random sample of licensed dental hygienists in five states and the District of Columbia, to assess their antitobacco use behaviors and attitudes. The response rate was 79.4 percent. Descriptive data as well as chi-square, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Duncan's multiple range test statistical results were reported. Only 6.9 percent of the hygienists sampled currently smoked. These hygienists appeared to exhibit significantly different aggregate attitudes and select clinical practice behaviors than their nonsmoking counterparts. Years of employment and geographic location showed no significant relationship to aggregate clinical practice behaviors or attitudes, although each was related to individual behaviors and attitudes. Overall, dental hygienists appeared committed to involvement in both individualized and community-based antitobacco-use efforts. Measures to coordinate hygienists' involvement at both of these levels need to be enhanced.

Fried JL; Rubinstein L

1990-01-01

248

Computer vision syndrome: A study of the knowledge, attitudes and practices in Indian Ophthalmologists  

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Purpose: To study the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) towards computer vision syndrome prevalent in Indian ophthalmologists and to assess whether ?computer use by practitioners? had any bearing on the knowledge and practices in computer vision syndrome (CVS). Mater...

Bali Jatinder; Navin Neeraj; Thakur Bali

249

Chinese nursing students' HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and practice intentions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nurses have important roles in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treatment and educational programs. Chinese senior nursing students completed a survey on HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and practice intentions. A weak positive relationship between attitudes and practice intentions (r = .140, P = .036) was noted. No significant associations between knowledge levels, attitudes, and practice intentions were found. Although the majority exhibited adequate knowledge of basic HIV transmission mechanisms, many disconcerting misconceptions were evident. Although most were empathetic to people with HIV/AIDS, stigmatization of high-risk groups persisted. Improved patient care will require intensified educational efforts and more positive attitudes toward persons with HIV/AIDS.

Li Y; Scott CS; Li L

2008-08-01

250

Consumer Online Shopping Attitudes and Behavior: An Assessment of Research  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The current status of studies of online shopping attitudes and behavior is investigated through an analysis of35 empirical articles found in nine primary Information Systems (IS) journals and three major IS conferenceproceedings. A taxonomy is developed based on our analysis. A conceptual model of online shopping ispresented and discussed in light of existing empirical studies. Areas for further research are discussed.Keywords: Online shopping, consumer attitude, consumer behavior, Web, empirical study

Na Li; Ping Zhang

251

Knowledge of, and Attitudes to, Indoor Air Pollution in Kuwaiti Students, Teachers and University Faculty  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentrations of air pollutants in residences can be many times those in outside air, and many of these pollutants are known to have adverse health consequences. Despite this, there have been very few attempts to delineate knowledge of, and attitudes to, indoor air pollution. This study aimed to establish the knowledge of, and attitudes to,…

Al Khamees, Nedaa A.; Alamari, Hanaa

2009-01-01

252

Medical and Psychology Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Aging and Sexuality  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study surveys medical and doctoral psychology students (N = 100) from an urban northeastern university regarding knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality and aging using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale, and measures of interest in gerontology, academic/clinical exposure to aging and…

Snyder, Rachel J.; Zweig, Richard A.

2010-01-01

253

Plants Have a Chance: Outdoor Educational Programmes Alter Students' Knowledge and Attitudes towards Plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Outdoor educational programmes are generally believed to be a suitable alternative to conventional biology settings that improve participants' environmental attitudes and knowledge. Here we examine whether outdoor educational programmes focused solely on practical work with plants influence participants' knowledge of and attitudes towards plants.…

Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

2011-01-01

254

Is a Little Knowledge a Good Thing? College Students Gain Knowledge, but Knowledge Increase Does Not Equal Attitude Change regarding Same-Sex Sexual Orientation and Gender Reassignment Surgery in Sexuality Courses  

Science.gov (United States)

The gains in knowledge and changes of attitudes of students in undergraduate sexuality courses in two different academic disciplines were compared to those of their peers without college sexuality education in a variety of other psychology courses. All students had similar scores on tests of sexual anatomy, behavior, and health at the start of the…

Noland, Ramona M.; Bass, Martha A.; Keathley, Rosanne S.; Miller, Rowland

2009-01-01

255

HIV-Related knowledge, attitudes, and practice among educated young adults in Botswana.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Students at the University of Botswana, an at-risk group, have previously been shown to have high levels of risky sexual behavior despite widespread knowledge that these behaviors might lead to HIV-1 infection. As there have recently been considerable efforts focused on HIV-1 prevention in Botswana through nationwide media education campaigns and the opening of voluntary counselling and testing centers, re-evaluation of HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices among students is needed. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 393 students chosen via a random cluster method. Respondents were 50% junior and 50% senior students with 42% males. Half (52%) were "single", 44% were "in a relationship", and 4% were "married". The mean percentage of knowledge questions answered correctly was 96%. 98% agreed that all sexually active adults should know their status and that condom use is important, but only 56% believed getting tested was common and 66% believed that it was common for students to always use a condom. As with the previous survey, we again found that students had excellent knowledge yet perceived use of testing services and condoms remain lower than might be predicted based on knowledge scores.

Stephens LL; Bachhuber MA; Seloilwe E; Gungqisa N; Mmelesi M; Bussmann H; Marlink RG; Wester CW

2012-06-01

256

Aggressive driving: a survey of attitudes, opinions and behaviors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Aggressive driving encompasses a continuum of behaviors that range from extreme acts, such as shootings, to less severe manifestations, such as arguments and gestures. It is clear from the available data that aggressive driving is not uncommon and very risky. However, little is known about the opinions and practices of drivers. The purpose of this study was to help bridge these gaps. METHODS: The data were gathered by means of a public opinion poll among a representative sample of 1,201 Canadian drivers. Univariate frequency distributions and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and logistic regression and generalized linear latent models were used to summarize the data. RESULTS: It was found that the issue of aggressive driving is a significant one as a considerable percentage of drivers admits to it. The results coming from the logistic regression and the generalized linear latent model suggest that male and younger drivers are more likely to behave aggressively in traffic and that behaving more aggressively is associated with a history of traffic tickets. DISCUSSION: When gauging people's attitudes, opinions, and behaviors, it becomes clear that aggressive driving is a considerable problem. There also seems to be a need for a better understanding of which specific behaviors respondents associate with the generic term "aggressive driving." IMPACT ON INDUSTRY: Results from this study further emphasize the need of increasing the aggressive driving knowledge base.

Vanlaar W; Simpson H; Mayhew D; Robertson R

2008-01-01

257

Knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding infection control measures among dental students in Central India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A questionnaire study was conducted among 245 dental students from Bhopal city, Central India, to determine their level of knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding infection control measures and if any correlation exists among the knowledge, attitudes, and practice scores. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three parts: knowledge, attitudes, and practice. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to compare mean of knowledge, attitudes, and practice scores and Kendall's test to compute the correlation between knowledge, attitudes, and practice scores. A p value of ?0.05 was considered significant for all statistical analyses. We found that 61.2 percent of the dental students had not been vaccinated with hepatitis B. Use of face mask, gloves, eyewear, and protective clothing as standard infection control measures was practiced only by two students. Mean knowledge, attitude, and practice scores were 3.75 (1.01), 3.40 (0.75), and 3.35 (1.04), respectively. Significant linear correlation was seen between attitude and practice scores (r=0.20, p?0.01). The level of knowledge and practice of infection control measures was poor among dental students. The attitude towards infection control measures was positive, but a greater compliance was needed. We recommend rigorous training on infection control measures prior to graduation and mandatory hepatitis B immunization of students before exposure to clinical practice.

Singh A; Purohit BM; Bhambal A; Saxena S; Singh A; Gupta A

2011-03-01

258

Effects of knowledge and persuasion on high-school students' attitudes toward nuclear power plants  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers report finding correlational data to identify a positive relationship between nuclear knowledge and positive attitudes toward the use of nuclear energy. This study investigated the relationship between nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitudes and to the understanding of Science-Technology-Society attitudes involving technological attitude objects. This quasi-experimental study tested the causal relationship between knowledge about nuclear power plants and attitudes toward their use in electrical generation. Subjects were presented with systematically designed communications developed to change either their knowledge about or attitude toward nuclear plants. The Standard Events of Instruction was the basis of the knowledge instruction, whereas the Learning Theory Approach and the Theory of Reasoned Action were the theoretical bases of the persuasive communication. The principal finding was that nuclear knowledge and nuclear attitude each can be changed independently of the other. Although knowledge and attitudes are correlationally linked, this study shows no evidence of a cause-effect relationship.Received: 4 May 1994; Revised: 14 July 1994;

Showers, Dennis E.; Shrigley, Robert L.

259

URBAN-RURAL DISPARITIES IN THE KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES & PRACTICES TOWARDS TUBERCULOSIS  

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Full Text Available The study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices towards tuberculosis (TB) among the residents living in the urban and rural areas. The study was carried out in ten districts across Pakistan. The 1000 respondents aged 15 years and above, including 392 urban and 608 rural respondents, were randomly selected using multistage sampling. An in-depth interview was taken from the respondents. The chi-square test was used to test the association between the variables. The differences in knowledge, attitudes, practices and information sources between the urban and rural respondents were highlighted through multivariate analysis. Thestudy reported poor knowledge and awareness among people regarding thesymptoms, treatment and prevention of TB. The overall health seeking behavior of respondents was found unsatisfactory. Widespread stigmas and myths were prevalent among people obstructing the intended treatment of TB. People have strong faith on the treatment of TB by traditional and spiritual healers. This inclination was foundmore in the rural areas. Television was the main sources for getting TB related information in both the urban as well as the rural areas. The urban-rural inequalities suggests that the area of residence must be kept in view designing future interventions for TB prevention and control, resulting in successful implementation of the programs and policies. The study provides guidelines to conduct advocacy,communication and social mobilization (ACSM) activities as part of the broader TB control strategy.

Ra’ana Malik

2013-01-01

260

Cigarette litter: smokers' attitudes and behaviors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers' littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers' knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05). The majority (74.1%) of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of improperly.

Rath JM; Rubenstein RA; Curry LE; Shank SE; Cartwright JC

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
261

Cigarette Litter: Smokers’ Attitudes and Behaviors  

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Full Text Available Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers’ littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers’ knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05). The majority (74.1%) of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of improperly.

Jessica M. Rath; Rebecca A. Rubenstein; Laurel E. Curry; Sarah E. Shank; Julia C. Cartwright

2012-01-01

262

Drinking and driving in Vietnam: public knowledge, attitudes, and practices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Injuries are among the 10 leading causes of death for all ages in Vietnam, and road traffic fatalities account for approximately half of those deaths. Despite having what is considered to be one of the most stringent alcohol legislations in the region, alcohol involvement in road traffic crashes remains high. This study aims to illustrate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices around alcohol use and drinking and driving by age and sex in 3 provinces in Vietnam. METHODS: This study was conducted between January and February 2011, surveying randomly selected road users over the age of 17 years at gas stations in 3 provinces: Ha Nam, Ninh Binh, and Bac Giang, Vietnam. Data were collected for one week at each gas station. A knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) survey was administered in 7 time blocks of 90 min throughout the day, from 07:30 am to 9:30 pm. RESULTS: There were a total of 633 respondents almost evenly divided among the 3 provinces. Males accounted for 69.1 percent of respondents; the majority were 36 years of age or younger. Despite the belief that drinking and driving will increase the risk of a crash, a significant proportion of respondents (44.9%) reported drinking and driving; 56.7 percent admitted to drinking and driving within the last month. Drinking and driving was more common among males, with approximately 60.2 percent indicating a history of drinking and driving. This proportion was particularly high among males aged 17 to 26 (71.4%). It was found that preferred alternatives to drinking and driving when available were leaving with a nondrinker (42%), resting until "feeling conscious" (23%), and drinking less (20%). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that, in general, alcohol use and drinking and driving remain a problem in Vietnam, a major concern given that the country is rapidly motorizing and likewise increasing the likelihood of road traffic crashes in the absence of effective interventions. To target drinking and driving in Vietnam we call for a multifaceted approach, including social marketing and public education campaigns, enhanced enforcement, and programs that either limit the number of drinks to drivers or young individuals or those that provide alternatives to drinking and driving.

Tran NT; Bachani AM; Pham VC; Lunnen JC; Jo Y; Passmore J; Nguyen PN; Hyder AA

2012-01-01

263

Environmental education and its effect on the knowledge and attitudes of preparatory school students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Considering the serious environmental threats facing Egypt, environmental education (EE) that provides the knowledge, skills, and motivation to take individual or collective action is needed to create a sustainable quality of life. This study was carried out aiming at measuring the level of environmental knowledge among preparatory school students in Alexandria, determining their attitudes towards some environmental concepts, and assessing the effect of EE on these knowledge and attitudes. The study sample was selected by stratified random method, and the assessment was conducted using a questionnaire. Results of the study revealed that 77% of the students had poor level of environmental knowledge and that 23% had fair level. In addition, 80% of the students were found to have negative attitude toward the environment and the remainder 20% were indifferent. Such knowledge and attitudes were positively correlated to their socio-economic levels. Following six EE sessions, an improvement in their knowledge and attitudes was observed where 69% of the students had a satisfactory level of knowledge and 88% had positive attitude toward the environment. Attitude was found to be positively correlated to their level of knowledge prior to and following the EE sessions. These results support the need for development and implementation of environmental education programs as part of the regular school curriculum.

Abd El-Salam MM; El-Naggar HM; Hussein RA

2009-01-01

264

Environmental education and its effect on the knowledge and attitudes of preparatory school students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Considering the serious environmental threats facing Egypt, environmental education (EE) that provides the knowledge, skills, and motivation to take individual or collective action is needed to create a sustainable quality of life. This study was carried out aiming at measuring the level of environmental knowledge among preparatory school students in Alexandria, determining their attitudes towards some environmental concepts, and assessing the effect of EE on these knowledge and attitudes. The study sample was selected by stratified random method, and the assessment was conducted using a questionnaire. Results of the study revealed that 77% of the students had poor level of environmental knowledge and that 23% had fair level. In addition, 80% of the students were found to have negative attitude toward the environment and the remainder 20% were indifferent. Such knowledge and attitudes were positively correlated to their socio-economic levels. Following six EE sessions, an improvement in their knowledge and attitudes was observed where 69% of the students had a satisfactory level of knowledge and 88% had positive attitude toward the environment. Attitude was found to be positively correlated to their level of knowledge prior to and following the EE sessions. These results support the need for development and implementation of environmental education programs as part of the regular school curriculum. PMID:19889360

Abd El-Salam, Magda M; El-Naggar, Hesham M; Hussein, Rim A

2009-01-01

265

Attitudes and behaviors of practicing community pharmacists towards patient counselling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was conducted to assess the attitudes and behaviors of practicing community pharmacists towards patient counselling and use of patient information leaflets in the state of Karnataka. Convenient sampling method was adopted to collect the responses with the help of self-completion questionnaires. A total of 258 practicing community pharmacists in the age group of 22-60 y of both gender with practicing experience of 2-30 y participated in the study. Majority of respondents (80%) agreed that, patient counselling is their professional obligation. About 17% of the respondents mentioned that, they try to give basic information regarding drug usage to the patient. The reasons stated by the pharmacists to provide patient counselling were, professional satisfaction (43%), patients go with satisfaction (32%), observed increase in sales (8%), and also improved patient compliance (7.5%). The major barriers for offering patient counselling were mentioned as pharmacists? inadequate knowledge and confidence (78%), doctor dispensing (72%), no professional fee (56%), poor response from patients (82%), inadequate continuous professional development programs (75%). Many respondents agreed that, patient information leaflets certainly help in counselling but available information leaflets are company generated and prescriber focused. Many respondents found the present continuing professional development module was useful and are interested in weekend workshops to update their professional knowledge (83%). Restrictions on doctor dispensing, legalization of patient counselling, regular continuing professional development programs are the factors observed to motivate the pharmacists to offer patient counselling.

Adepu R; Nagavi B

2009-01-01

266

Investigating the Knowledge Attitude and Nutritional Practice of Female Middle School Second Graders in Isfahan in 2008  

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Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed at determining the knowledge attitude and nutritional practice of female middle school students in district 4 of Isfahan. Methods: This deh1ive study was performed on 120 female students. The data were collected through a three-part self-reported questionnaire (Demographic factors knowledge BASNEF Model). To investigate the nutritional performance the participants were interviewed to recall their previous 24-hour nutrition for three days. Results: The results indicated that 37.5% of students had poor nutritional knowledge and 90% of the students had a poor nutritional practice. The results of the BASNEF part indicated that mean of belief and evaluation of behavioral outcomes was 74.6 attitude toward the behavior was 64.64 normative belief was 72.8 subjective norms was 58.9 enabling factors was 54.2 and behavioral intention was 68.9. Conclusion: A low percentage of students had good nutritional practices and in majority of cases their nutritional practice does not accord with their nutritional knowledge and attitude. These results indicate the necessity of nutritional intervention in female students.

Mohammad-Mahdi Hazavehei; Asiyeh Pirzadeh; Mohammad-Hasan Entezari; Akbar Hasan-Zadeh; Nimah Bahraynian

2009-01-01

267

Nurses' knowledge of and attitudes towards fever and fever management in one Irish children's hospital.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aims to describe nurses' knowledge of and attitudes towards the management of fever in one children's hospital in Ireland. A descriptive, quantitative research design was employed. One hundred and nineteen nurses working in one children's hospital completed a self-report questionnaire. Nurses' mean knowledge score about the physiology of fever, fever management and antipyretics was 51 per cent (n = 119), which was lower than expected. Nurses had both appropriate and inappropriate attitudes towards fever and fever management. Inconsistent attitudes between nurses were identified. Nurses who participated in this study are not expert managers of fever. Their lack of knowledge and inconsistent attitudes are affecting the care of febrile children, and may be fuelling parents' fever phobia. Further education is required to improve nurses' knowledge of fever and fever management. Inappropriate attitudes need to be challenged and addressed in an effort to promote evidence-based care for febrile children.

Greensmith L

2013-09-01

268

Nurses' knowledge of and attitudes towards fever and fever management in one Irish children's hospital.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to describe nurses' knowledge of and attitudes towards the management of fever in one children's hospital in Ireland. A descriptive, quantitative research design was employed. One hundred and nineteen nurses working in one children's hospital completed a self-report questionnaire. Nurses' mean knowledge score about the physiology of fever, fever management and antipyretics was 51 per cent (n = 119), which was lower than expected. Nurses had both appropriate and inappropriate attitudes towards fever and fever management. Inconsistent attitudes between nurses were identified. Nurses who participated in this study are not expert managers of fever. Their lack of knowledge and inconsistent attitudes are affecting the care of febrile children, and may be fuelling parents' fever phobia. Further education is required to improve nurses' knowledge of fever and fever management. Inappropriate attitudes need to be challenged and addressed in an effort to promote evidence-based care for febrile children. PMID:23455871

Greensmith, Louise

2013-03-01

269

Attitude change and behavior change: a field experiment investigating responses to an alternative electric rate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis examines the ability of a persuasive communications and consumer-education campaign to produce attitude change and behavior change. The study involved a field experiment investigating the responses of residential consumers to an alternative electric rate designed to reduce the amount of electricity used during the utility's hours of peak demand. Knowledge and attitudes of treatment group subjects were experimentally manipulated through a two-year program featuring a variety of persuasive communications and educational materials. Behavior measures were taken from electricity meter readings for the summer months of June through August, 1986, the time period immediately following the attitude survey. The treatment group showed greater levels of knowledge about their new electric rate and more-favorable attitudes toward changing their electricity-use patterns in comparison to a control group of subjects who were assigned to the same electric rate, but received a less-intensive consumer-education program. An analysis of behavior measures for the treatment and control groups showed that the treatment group reduced their electricity use during the peak hours. These attitudinal and behavioral differences were found after nearly two years of experience with the new electric rate.

Baumgartner, R.M.

1987-01-01

270

Dental habits, knowledge, and attitudes of young drug addicts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to obtain information about a group of young drug addicts' dental habits, knowledge, and attitudes. Semistructured interviews with open-ended questions based on well-defined hypotheses were obtained with 20 intravenous drug addicts attending a Danish addiction clinic. All the interviews were taped and typed out verbatim. The analysis of the interviews was primarily carried out qualitatively. Almost all the addicts had been enrolled in the Public Child Dental Care system and the majority vividly remembered this as an unpleasant experience. None of the addicts attended a dentist regularly after having finished school, when the drug abuse usually started. Only a need for acute relief could generally motivate the addicts to visit a dentist, and in the few instances they were questioned about any drug abuse or viral hepatitis infection they usually concealed this. They evidenced very limited knowledge concerning the causes and prevention of dental decay and periodontal disease, and the high prevalence of dental caries was often believed to be caused solely or partly by the ascorbic acid or citric acid that is mixed and injected together with the drugs. A distinct behaviour with a neglected oral hygiene and an excessive intake of candy, soft drinks, and other food with a high sugar content was common. The dietary habits were related to the injection of the drugs in a ritual manner. The drug addicts only realized how deplorable their dental health had become during periods of abstinence, and then they were often embarrassed or ashamed of their esthetic appearance, although this was not perceived to have a negative influence on attempts at resocialization.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3992214

Scheutz, F

1985-01-01

271

Dental habits, knowledge, and attitudes of young drug addicts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the present study was to obtain information about a group of young drug addicts' dental habits, knowledge, and attitudes. Semistructured interviews with open-ended questions based on well-defined hypotheses were obtained with 20 intravenous drug addicts attending a Danish addiction clinic. All the interviews were taped and typed out verbatim. The analysis of the interviews was primarily carried out qualitatively. Almost all the addicts had been enrolled in the Public Child Dental Care system and the majority vividly remembered this as an unpleasant experience. None of the addicts attended a dentist regularly after having finished school, when the drug abuse usually started. Only a need for acute relief could generally motivate the addicts to visit a dentist, and in the few instances they were questioned about any drug abuse or viral hepatitis infection they usually concealed this. They evidenced very limited knowledge concerning the causes and prevention of dental decay and periodontal disease, and the high prevalence of dental caries was often believed to be caused solely or partly by the ascorbic acid or citric acid that is mixed and injected together with the drugs. A distinct behaviour with a neglected oral hygiene and an excessive intake of candy, soft drinks, and other food with a high sugar content was common. The dietary habits were related to the injection of the drugs in a ritual manner. The drug addicts only realized how deplorable their dental health had become during periods of abstinence, and then they were often embarrassed or ashamed of their esthetic appearance, although this was not perceived to have a negative influence on attempts at resocialization.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Scheutz F

1985-01-01

272

Knowledge, attitude and behaviour of boys and parents about circumcision.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To determine the knowledge, attitude and behaviour of parents and previously circumcised early adolescent boys about circumcision. METHODS: Half of the boys attending the sixth class of the primary school in our city centre and their parents were included in this cross-sectional, descriptive study. Questionnaires were prepared by the authors, which include 38 questions for parents and 25 questions for boys. RESULTS: Sixty-six per cent of the students were circumcised at the age of 7 years and above, 26% between three and 6 years and 8% below 3 years of age. Forty-two per cent of boys were circumcised by a traditional circumciser and 64% were circumcised at home. Main reasons of circumcision for parents were religious purposes (79%) and health issues (51%). When the boys were asked about their thoughts during circumcision, they mostly stated that 'it was necessary to become a man' (58%) and 'it would hurt much' (50%). Thirty-eight per cent of boys were frightened during circumcision and 46% were worried. Boys circumcised in the 7 years and above age group were most content about their age of circumcision. CONCLUSIONS: We consider that it is reasonable to wait up to an age at which the child could understand and participate in the decision of the concept and timing of circumcision.

Corduk N; Unlu G; Sarioglu-Buke A; Buber A; Savran B; Zencir M

2013-04-01

273

Families' knowledge, attitudes, and experiences of the tissue donation process.  

Science.gov (United States)

Context-Most existing research on the experiences of donor families has been focused on organ donation, with few studies pertaining specifically to the experiences of tissue donor families. Further investigation into tissue donation in Australia is needed in order to improve the process, support, and potential rate of tissue donation consent.Objective-To assess the experiences of families of recent tissue donors, to compare changes in the tissue donation process with previously published research, and to identify areas for improvement.Design-Cross-sectional survey by postal questionnaire.Setting and Participants-Families who consented to tissue donation through DonateLife Western Australia (the coordinating organization for deceased organ and tissue donation in Western Australia) between 2004 and 2009 were invited to participate.Main Outcome Measures-Donor families' experience, knowledge, and attitudes toward tissue donation and their satisfaction with the approach and quality/effectiveness of support services provided to donor families.Results-One hundred one (39%) of the 256 questionnaires were completed. Most respondents were satisfied with how they were approached, whether by phone or in person. Most participants who received ongoing support after donation (91%) found it beneficial. Nearly half (46%) of respondents supported the use of tissue for research; however, only 28% could recall the topic being discussed at the time of donation. Only 40% of respondents knew of the differences between organ and tissue donation before the donation process. Overall, respondents rated the experience of donating tissue as positive. PMID:23996947

Luo, Jingjing; Rothnie, Alison; Sanderson, Elaine; Smith, Melissa; Cowie, Anne; Musiello, Toni

2013-09-01

274

Families' knowledge, attitudes, and experiences of the tissue donation process.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: Most existing research on the experiences of donor families has been focused on organ donation, with few studies pertaining specifically to the experiences of tissue donor families. Further investigation into tissue donation in Australia is needed in order to improve the process, support, and potential rate of tissue donation consent. OBJECTIVE: To assess the experiences of families of recent tissue donors, to compare changes in the tissue donation process with previously published research, and to identify areas for improvement. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey by postal questionnaire. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Families who consented to tissue donation through DonateLife Western Australia (the coordinating organization for deceased organ and tissue donation in Western Australia) between 2004 and 2009 were invited to participate. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Donor families' experience, knowledge, and attitudes toward tissue donation and their satisfaction with the approach and quality/effectiveness of support services provided to donor families. RESULTS: One hundred one (39%) of the 256 questionnaires were completed. Most respondents were satisfied with how they were approached, whether by phone or in person. Most participants who received ongoing support after donation (91%) found it beneficial. Nearly half (46%) of respondents supported the use of tissue for research; however, only 28% could recall the topic being discussed at the time of donation. Only 40% of respondents knew of the differences between organ and tissue donation before the donation process. Overall, respondents rated the experience of donating tissue as positive.

Luo J; Rothnie A; Sanderson E; Smith M; Cowie A; Musiello T

2013-09-01

275

Evaluating Oral Hygiene Knowledge and Attitude of Pregnant Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nBackground: The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge and attitude of pregnant women in Qazvin Province, central Iran, Relating to oral Hygiene."nMethods: The study group comprised of 760 pregnant women living in Qazvin, center of Iran in 2004. The questions were formulated to evaluate information without the need for dental examination. The age groups between 17-41 years old were randomly selected and a question was given to woman in three family planning center. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS."nResults: 94.4% responded the questionnaire and participated in statistical procedure. 73.1% of the patients used to brush their teeth at least twice a day and also 70.3% used to brush their teeth after meal."nConclusion: Health authorities should strengthen the implementation of community- based oral disease prevention and health promotion programmes. More importance must be given to oral health care center in family planning centers.

J Hamissi; P Bakianian Vaziri; A Davalloo

2010-01-01

276

[Knowledge and attitudes toward vaccination among midwives in Quebec].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Vaccine acceptability among Quebec midwives is not well documented. The purpose of this study was to examine midwives' knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to immunization in Quebec. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 participants (17 midwives and 8 midwifery students). The mean duration of the interviews was 1 hour. The interviews were conducted in 2010 and were audiotaped, transcribed and submitted to content analysis using NVivo 8 software. RESULTS: In addition to the laws regulating midwifery practice in Quebec, the findings suggest that most midwifery interventions are based on midwifery philosophy. Informed choice is one of the key principles of this philosophy. In order to help women make an informed decision about vaccination, midwives seek to outline the pros and cons of vaccination using government documentation, as well as other sources such as books on naturopathy. Most of the participating midwives recognized that vaccination has advantages, including disease prevention and free vaccines. Various arguments against vaccination were also identified. Most of these were related to the vaccination schedule and to combined vaccines. Some of the participants noted that it was difficult to find unbiased information about vaccination. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the key role of midwifery philosophy in midwifery practice. Most decisions (such as vaccination) are made on the basis of the principle of informed choice. Most of the participants noted that they lacked information on vaccination.

Dubé E; Vivion M; Valderrama A; Sauvageau C

2013-01-01

277

[Knowledge, attitude and practice about phototherapy among nursing professionals of teaching hospitals].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article consists of a KAP (Knowledge, Attitude and Practice) survey to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice of phototherapy among nursing professionals from two teaching hospitals at the city of Recife, Brazil, through semi-structured questionnaire applied to 111 professionals. It was used the T Student test to compare means of correct answers. Thus, there were higher means for practice, followed by those related to attitude and a lower percentage of correct answers for knowledge. When comparing the means between knowledge and practice the differences were statistically significant for all variables (p<0.05). The results of the study highlight the need to implement activities that will allow a balance among knowledge, attitude and practice of nursing professionals about phototherapy.

Machado SP; Samico IC; Braga TD

2012-01-01

278

Financial Knowledge and Best Practice Behavior  

Science.gov (United States)

The current research examines the relationship between personal financial knowledge (both objective and subjective), financial satisfaction, and selected demographic variables in terms of best practice financial behavior. Data are taken from the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority's (FINRA) National Financial Capability Study, a nationally…

Robb, Cliff A.; Woodyard, Ann S.

2011-01-01

279

Smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours among Alaska Native people: a population-based study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. Several studies have shown that Alaska Native people have higher smoking prevalence than non-Natives. However, no population-based studies have explored whether smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours also differ among Alaska Native people and non-Natives. Objective. We compared current smoking prevalence and smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour of Alaska Native adults living in the state of Alaska with non-Natives. Methods. We used Alaska Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for 1996 to 2010 to compare smoking prevalence, consumption, and cessation- and second-hand smoke-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours among self-identified Alaska Native people and non-Natives. Results. Current smoking prevalence was 41% (95% CI: 37.9%–44.4%) among Alaska Native people compared with 17.1% (95% CI: 15.9%–18.4%) among non-Natives. Among current every day smokers, Alaska Natives were much more likely to smoke less than 10 cigarettes per day (OR=5.0, 95% CI: 2.6–9.6) than non-Natives. Compared with non-Native smokers, Alaska Native smokers were as likely to have made a past year quit attempt (OR=1.4, 95% CI: 0.9–2.1), but the attempt was less likely to be successful (OR=0.5, 95% CI: 0.2–0.9). Among current smokers, Alaska Natives were more likely to believe second-hand smoke (SHS) was very harmful (OR=4.5, 95% CI: 2.8–7.2), to believe that smoking should not be allowed in indoor work areas (OR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.1–3.1) or in restaurants (OR=4.2, 95% CI: 2.5–6.9), to have a home smoking ban (OR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.6–3.9), and to have no home exposure to SHS in the past 30 days (OR=2.3, 95% CI: 1.5–3.6) than non-Natives. Conclusion. Although a disparity in current smoking exists, Alaska Native people have smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours that are encouraging for reducing the burden of smoking in this population. Programs should support efforts to promote cessation, prevent relapse, and establish smoke-free environments.

Kristen Rohde; Myde Boles; Chris J. Bushore; Barbara A. Pizacani; Julie E. Maher; Erin Peterson

2013-01-01

280

Dietary sodium intake: knowledge, attitudes and practices in Shandong Province, China, 2011.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) for dietary sodium intake among adult residents of Shandong Province, China. METHODS: In 2011, we conducted a cross sectional survey among a representative sample of 15,350 adults aged 18 to 69 years using a standardized questionnaire to assess their KAP for sodium. Variation in the KAPs by gender, and residence location were compared using the Chi-square tests. Predictors for the 'intention to' and 'currently taking action to' reduce sodium intake were determined by multivariate logistic regression with adjustment for confounding factors. RESULTS: KAPs for dietary sodium intake among urban residents was generally more favorable than among rural residents. Women were likely to have more favorable KAPs than men. About four fifth of subjects reported that they favored a low sodium diets. However, 31% reported that consumption of less sodium results in less physical strength. Overall, 70% indicated their intention to reduce sodium intake, although only 39 % reported that they had taken action to reduce sodium. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that favorable actions to dietary sodium reduction were more likely to occur among those who were aware of the link between sodium and hypertension, and less likely among those who had unfavorable attitudes towards dietary sodium reduction. CONCLUSION: Increasing knowledge levels about the benefits of sodium reduction will be a key success factor for effective sodium reduction initiatives and is linked to favorable behavioral change. Emphasis should be placed on the rural area.

Zhang J; Xu AQ; Ma JX; Shi XM; Guo XL; Engelgau M; Yan LX; Li Y; Li YC; Wang HC; Lu ZL; Zhang JY; Liang XF

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Attitudes toward problem drinkers: cognitive, affective, and behavioral intention dimensions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Attitudes toward problem drinkers were investigated in an experiment utilizing a 2 X 2 X 2 X 2 multivariate analysis of variance design. Subjects read one of eight case vignettes about hypothetical stimulus persons and then completed verbal report inventories to assess attitudes. All vignettes were identical except for references to the stimulus person's drinking behavior (problem or nonproblem drinking), sex, and socioeconomic status (upper-middle or low). Sex of the rater was the other independent variable in the four-way design. Problem drinking elicited a powerful halo effect such that attitudes toward persons exhibiting such behavior were found to be negative relative to normal drinkers in all attitudinal domains and across almost all variables measured. Drinking behavior may have exerted such a strong effect that the potential influence of the other variables was overpowered.

McNeil DW; Janzen WB

1987-10-01

282

Residential energy-efficient technology adoption, energy conservation, knowledge, and attitudes: An analysis of European countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Relationships between measures of household energy use behavior and household characteristics are estimated using a unique dataset of approximately 5000 households in 10 EU countries and Norway. Family age-composition patterns are found to have a distinct impact on household energy use behavior. Households with young children are more likely to adopt energy-efficient technologies and energy conservation practices and place primary importance on energy savings for environmental reasons. By contrast, households with a high share of elderly members place more importance on financial savings, and have lower levels of technology adoption, energy conservation practice use, and knowledge about household energy use. Education levels also matter, with higher levels associated with energy-efficient technology adoption and energy conservation practice use. Similarly, university education increases the stated importance of energy savings for greenhouse gas reductions and decreases the stated importance for financial reasons. Education impacts also vary greatly across survey countries and there is some evidence of an Eastern–Western European divide with respect to attitudes towards energy savings. These cross-country differences highlight the need to balance a common EU energy-efficiency policy framework with flexibility for country specific policies to address unique constraints to energy-efficient technology and conservation practice adoption. - Highlights: ? Household energy use behavior is explored with data from 11 European countries. ? Household age structure and education influence household energy use behavior and attitudes. ? Significant country differences in household energy use behavior exist. ? The EU needs to balance a common energy-efficiency policy framework with country specific policies.

2012-01-01

283

KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF SELF MEDICATION IN SOUTHWEST ETHIOPIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Self-medication is the selection and use of medicines by individuals to treat selfrecognised illnesses or symptoms and an important initial response to illnesses if successfully used. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of self medication among Medical Sciences Faculty students of Jimma University.METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in Medical sciences Faculty students in 2009.The faculty and the three schools were selected by lottery method .Then, within the faculty respective number of students for each School was determined by proportion from the total sample size. Data was collected randomly from each School using self administered questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0RESULTS: From a total of 403 (100%) participants,95 (45.89%) students practiced self medication in the past two months for commonly perceived illnesses such as headache 35 (36.85%), abdominal pain 29 (30.55%) and cough 33 (23.16%) using mainly analgesics 40(49.38%) and antibiotics 29 (35.80%) mostly from drug retail outlets 88(92.63). Fifty seven (60.00%) respondents can recall the dose, frequency and duration of the medicine while 38 (40%) did not know. Sixty five (68.42%) students agreed to practice self medication irrespective of the seriousness of illnesses.CONCLUSION: Self mediation was widely practiced for minor symptoms with both OTC and prescription only drugs. Most of respondents use self medication irrespective of the seriousness of the illnesses. Lack of proper information and the ease of access from drug outlets were the most important problems.

Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo et al.

2012-01-01

284

A Study of Steroid Use among Athletes: Knowledge, Attitude and Use.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship of knowledge, attitudes, and prevalence of steroid use among college athletes and nonathletes was investigated. Results indicated that the more individuals knew about steroids, the more favorable was their attitude toward use. Powerlifters and bodybuilders were found most likely to use steroids. (JD)

Chng, Chwee Lye; Moore, Alan

1990-01-01

285

A STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES OF ELITE COLLEGE ATHLETES IN IRAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AZIZI, M.; RAHMANI-NIA, F.; MALAEE, M.; MALAEE, M.; KHOSRAVI, N. A study of Nutritional knowledge and attitudes of elite College Athletes in Iran. Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity, v. 4, n. 2, p. 105-112, 2010. This study designed for understanding the nutrition knowledge and attitude of elite college athletes in Iran. A researcher-built questionnaire which was developed to measure subject’s nutrition knowledge and attitude,distributed to 297 female (age 21.8 ±1.8 years) and 298 males (age 22.8 ± 1.9 years) randomly. The questionnaire contained 15 nutrition knowledge questions and 15 nutrition attitude questions. The collected data was analyzed by t-test, one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient (p<0.05). The mean nutrition knowledge and attitude score for male and females was 52.36±6.2; 50.61±5 and 54.3±6.3; 52.03±5.8 respectively. Nutrition knowledge and attitude score in P.E. females was significantly higher than other major (p<0.05), while the difference between P.E. males and other major was not significant. There was a significant positive correlation between nutrition knowledge and attitude among males (r= 0.424, p ? 0.01) and female (r= 0.422, p ? 0.01) elite athletes. Based on the result of our study the knowledge of Iranian college athletes is moderate, and these suggest that nutrition knowledge and attitudes of Iranian college athletes need to improve.

Mohammad Azizi; Farhad Rahmani-Nia; Maryam Malaee; Mina Malaee; Narges Khosravi

2010-01-01

286

A survey of cross-infection control procedures: knowledge and attitudes of Turkish dentists.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of Turkish dentists in Samsun City regarding cross-infection control. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire was designed to obtain information about procedures used for the prevention of cross-infection in dental practices and determine the attitudes and perceptions of respondent dental practitioners to their procedures. The study population included all dentists in the city of Samsun, Turkey, in April 2005 (n=184). The questionnaire collected data on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge and practice of infection control procedures, sterilization, wearing of gloves, mask, use of rubber dam, method of storing instruments and disposal methods of contaminated material, etc. Questionnaire data was entered into a computer and analyzed by SPSS statistical software. RESULTS: From the 184 dentists to whom the questionnaires were submitted, 135 participated in the study (overall response rate of 73.36%). As much as 74.10% dentists expressed concern about the risk of cross-infection from patients to themselves and their dental assistants. Forty-three percent of the participants were able to define 'cross-infection' correctly. The greatest majority of the respondents (95.60%) stated that all patients have to be considered as infectious and universal precautions must apply to all of them. The overall responses to the questionnaire showed that the dentists had moderate knowledge of infection control procedures. CONCLUSIONS: Improved compliance with recommended infection control procedures is required for all dentists evaluated in the present survey. Continuing education programs and short-time courses about cross-infection and infection control procedures are suitable to improve the knowledge of dentists.

Yüzbasioglu E; Saraç D; Canbaz S; Saraç YS; Cengiz S

2009-11-01

287

A survey of cross-infection control procedures: knowledge and attitudes of Turkish dentists  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of Turkish dentists in Samsun City regarding cross-infection control. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire was designed to obtain information about procedures used for the prevention of cross-infection in dental practices and determine the attitudes and perceptions of respondent dental practitioners to their procedures. The study population included all dentists in the city o (more) f Samsun, Turkey, in April 2005 (n=184). The questionnaire collected data on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge and practice of infection control procedures, sterilization, wearing of gloves, mask, use of rubber dam, method of storing instruments and disposal methods of contaminated material, etc. Questionnaire data was entered into a computer and analyzed by SPSS statistical software. RESULTS: From the 184 dentists to whom the questionnaires were submitted, 135 participated in the study (overall response rate of 73.36%). As much as 74.10% dentists expressed concern about the risk of cross-infection from patients to themselves and their dental assistants. Forty-three percent of the participants were able to define "cross-infection" correctly. The greatest majority of the respondents (95.60%) stated that all patients have to be considered as infectious and universal precautions must apply to all of them. The overall responses to the questionnaire showed that the dentists had moderate knowledge of infection control procedures. CONCLUSIONS: Improved compliance with recommended infection control procedures is required for all dentists evaluated in the present survey. Continuing education programs and short-time courses about cross-infection and infection control procedures are suitable to improve the knowledge of dentists.

Yüzbasioglu, Emir; Saraç, Duygu; Canbaz, Sevgi; Saraç, Y. Sinasi; Cengiz, Seda

2009-12-01

288

An AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices survey among schoolchildren in Barbados.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices (KABP) survey was performed among Barbadian secondary schoolchildren 11-16 years old in January 1990. The survey sought to assess the children's knowledge of AIDS and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission; their attitudes toward people with HIV/AIDS; their sexual practices; and changes needed in education programs seeking to reduce childhood HIV transmission. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used. The survey sample was derived by selecting every eleventh student on the rosters of all the secondary schools in Barbados. All of the survey respondents completed the questionnaire on the same day, having been assembled examination-style for that purpose. The results showed high levels of correct knowledge about the principal routes of HIV transmission. However, a considerable proportion of the respondents harbored incorrect beliefs regarding mosquito transmission and dangers to blood donors, and many showed uncertainty or incorrect knowledge regarding possible HIV transmission by biting, spitting, or use of public toilets. About a third of the children (51.4% of the boys and 18.7% of the girls) said they had experienced sexual intercourse, though only 20% reported being sexually active in the year preceding the survey. Three-quarters of the sexually experienced group said they knew how to use condoms, but only a third said there was any time when they had used protection during sexual intercourse. Overall, the results indicate that education efforts prior to the survey had been effective, but that reinforcement of such efforts as well as their extension into the primary schools is warranted. Further research directed at helping these efforts to encourage more meaningful changes in sexual behavior is also needed.

Walrond E; Jones F; Hoyos M; Souder M; Ellis H; Roach T

1992-01-01

289

Preferences, attitudes, and behaviors of health services consumers in Turkey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate preferences, attitudes, and behaviors of consumers in health care services. METHODS: The study was conducted in the Turkish health care context. A total of 810 people who reside in the urban and rural residential areas of Ankara were surveyed. RESULTS: The study results suggest that consumer attitudes toward health care services differ by the demographic and socio-cultural characteristics of consumers. CONCLUSIONS: Several managerial recommendations pertinent to the analysis of consumer behavior and the development of long-term relationships with consumers were made. Also, future research suggestions were provided.

Tengilimoglu D; Dursun-Kilic T; Güleç D

2012-03-01

290

Academic misconduct in nursing students: behaviors, attitudes, rationalizations, and cultural identity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge about academic misconduct in associate degree nursing students enrolled in two nursing programs in the northeastern United States. Study respondents (n = 193) identified the frequency of engagement in behaviors of misconduct in both the classroom and clinical setting and their attitudes toward the identified behaviors of misconduct, neutralization behaviors, ethical standards of the nursing profession, and the ethic of caring within the nursing profession. Findings were consistent with previous research on academic misconduct in baccalaureate nursing students. Analysis of self-reported cultural identities refuted the prevailing literature on academic misconduct across differing cultures and nations. PMID:20795612

McCrink, Andrea

2010-08-31

291

Lack of chart reminder effectiveness on family medicine resident JNC-VI and NCEP III guideline knowledge and attitudes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The literature demonstrates that medical residents and practicing physicians have an attitudinal-behavioral discordance concerning their positive attitudes towards clinical practice guidelines (CPG), and the implementation of these guidelines into clinical practice patterns. METHODS: A pilot study was performed to determine if change in a previously identified CPG compliance factor (accessibility) would produce a significant increase in family medicine resident knowledge and attitude toward the guidelines. The primary study intervention involved placing a summary of the Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC VI) and the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (NCEP III) CPGs in all patient (>18 yr.) charts for a period of three months. The JNC VI and NCEP III CPGs were also distributed to each Wayne State family medicine resident, and a copy of each CPG was placed in the preceptor's area of the involved clinics. Identical pre- and post- intervention questionnaires were administered to all residents concerning CPG knowledge and attitude. RESULTS: Post-intervention analysis failed to demonstrate a significant difference in CPG knowledge. A statistically significant post-intervention difference was found in only on attitude question. The barriers to CPG compliance were identified as 1) lack of CPG instruction; 2) lack of critical appraisal ability; 3) insufficient time; 4) lack of CPG accessibility; and 5) lack of faculty modeling. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated no significant post intervention changes in CPG knowledge, and only one question that reflected attitude change. Wider resident access to dedicated clinic time, increased faculty modeling, and the implementation of an electronic record/reminder system that uses a team-based approach are compliance factors that should be considered for further investigation. The interpretation of CPG non-compliance will benefit from a causal matrix focused on physician knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. Recent findings in resident knowledge-behavior discordance may direct the future investigation of physician CPG non-compliance away from generalized barrier research, and toward the development of information that maximizes the sense of individual practitioner urgency and certainty.

Echlin PS; Upshur RE; Markova TP

2004-07-01

292

Lack of chart reminder effectiveness on family medicine resident JNC-VI and NCEP III guideline knowledge and attitudes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature demonstrates that medical residents and practicing physicians have an attitudinal-behavioral discordance concerning their positive attitudes towards clinical practice guidelines (CPG), and the implementation of these guidelines into clinical practice patterns. Methods A pilot study was performed to determine if change in a previously identified CPG compliance factor (accessibility) would produce a significant increase in family medicine resident knowledge and attitude toward the guidelines. The primary study intervention involved placing a summary of the Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC VI) and the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (NCEP III) CPGs in all patient (>18 yr.) charts for a period of three months. The JNC VI and NCEP III CPGs were also distributed to each Wayne State family medicine resident, and a copy of each CPG was placed in the preceptor's area of the involved clinics. Identical pre- and post- intervention questionnaires were administered to all residents concerning CPG knowledge and attitude. Results Post-intervention analysis failed to demonstrate a significant difference in CPG knowledge. A stastically significant post-intervention difference was found in only on attitude question. The barriers to CPG compliance were identified as 1) lack of CPG instruction; 2) lack of critical appraisal ability; 3) insufficient time; 4) lack of CPG accessibility; and 5) lack of faculty modeling. Conclusion This study demonstrated no significant post intervention changes in CPG knowledge, and only one question that reflected attitude change. Wider resident access to dedicated clinic time, increased faculty modeling, and the implementation of an electronic record/reminder system that uses a team-based approach are compliance factors that should be considered for further investigation. The interpretation of CPG non-compliance will benefit from a causal matrix focused on physician knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. Recent findings in resident knowledge-behavior discordance may direct the future investigation of physician CPG non-compliance away from generalized barrier research, and toward the development of information that maximizes the sense of individual practitioner urgency and certainty.

Echlin Paul S; Upshur Ross EG; Markova Tsveti P

2004-01-01

293

Knowledge, attitudes and practices survey on organ donation among a selected adult population of Pakistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding organ donation in a selected adult population in Pakistan. Methods Convenience sampling was used to generate a sample of 440; 408 interviews were successfully completed and used for analy...

Saleem Taimur; Ishaque Sidra; Habib Nida; Hussain Syedda; Jawed Areeba; Khan Aamir; Ahmad Muhammad; Iftikhar Mian; Mughal Hamza

294

A Canadian national survey of attitudes and knowledge regarding preventive vaccines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Vaccines have virtually eliminated many diseases, but public concerns about their safety could undermine future public health initiatives. Objective To determine Canadians' attitudes and knowledge about vaccines, particularly in view of increasing p...

Ritvo Paul; Irvine Jane; Klar Neil; Wilson Kumanan; Brown Laura; Bremner Karen E; Rinfret Aline; Remis Robert; Krahn Murray D

295

A psychoeducational model for changing nurses' AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and practices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A review of the research literature over the last five years reveals that nurses' knowledge of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has improved dramatically. However, attitudes and fears about HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have not changed commensurately with nurses' knowledge. Also, there is evidence that nurses' clinical practice is not always safe. This paper summarizes the research literature and proposes a three-tiered psychoeducational model for changing knowledge and clinical skills, knowledge and attitudes, and attitudes alone. These approaches include information and demonstration, expression of attitudes and fears, role-playing, group discussions, practice in designing policies, and exposure to various sociocultural groups, to persons with HIV, and to religious, legal, and ethical spokespersons.

Flaskerud JH

1991-11-01

296

Supermarket tour: the effect of presentation mode on nutrition knowledge and attitudes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A supermarket tour is an interactive experience in which students learn nutrient composition of common foods, requirements for various nutrients, issues related to eating behaviors, diseases associated with nutrient intake, and how food marketing, labeling, and regulation influence what people choose to eat. This study determined if presentation mode of a supermarket tour influenced medical students' nutrition knowledge and attitudes. METHODS: Senior medical students received nutrition instruction in one of four presentation modes: live (n=11), small-group 2-hour virtual (n=8), large-group 2-hour virtual (n=69), and large-group virtual in four half-hour sessions across 4 days (n=37). The same instructor gave all tours. Students completed pre- and post-course evaluations and knowledge tests. RESULTS: After the intervention, students participating in live and single-session groups had greater nutrition knowledge than the students participating in the extended course. Students in small groups also had higher confidence in giving nutrition advice. There was no difference among the four groups for enthusiasm. Students gave a higher recommendation to the live mode than to the extended version. CONCLUSIONS: The virtual tour is effective at improving knowledge, engaging, and provides information that students may use for themselves and their patients. Single-session live teaching is most well received.

Kahn RF; O'Sullivan P; Vannatta PM

2003-11-01

297

Knowledge, attitude and practice of Nigerian women towards breast cancer: A cross-sectional study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Late presentation of patients at advanced stages when little or no benefit can be derived from any form of therapy is the hallmark of breast cancer in Nigerian women. Recent global cancer statistics indicate rising global incidence of breast cancer and the increase is occurring at a faster rate in populations of the developing countries that hitherto enjoyed low incidence of the disease. Worried by this prevailing situation and with recent data suggesting that health behavior may be influenced by level of awareness about breast cancer, a cross-sectional study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of community-dwelling women in Nigeria towards breast cancer. Methods One thousand community-dwelling women from a semi-urban neighborhood in Nigeria were recruited for the study in January and February 2000 using interviewer-administered questionnaires designed to elicit sociodemographic information and knowledge, attitude and practices of these women towards breast cancer. Data analysis was carried out using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS) version 8.2. Results Study participants had poor knowledge of breast cancer. Mean knowledge score was 42.3% and only 214 participants (21.4%) knew that breast cancer presents commonly as a painless breast lump. Practice of breast self examination (BSE) was low; only 432 participants (43.2%) admitted to carrying out the procedure in the past year. Only 91 study participants (9.1%) had clinical breast examination (CBE) in the past year. Women with higher level of education (X2 = 80.66, p 2 = 47.11, p Conclusion The results of this study suggest that community-dwelling women in Nigeria have poor knowledge of breast cancer and minority practice BSE and CBE. In addition, education appears to be the major determinant of level of knowledge and health behavior among the study participants. We recommend the establishment and sustenance of institutional framework and policy guidelines that will enhance adequate and urgent dissemination of information about breast cancer to all women in Nigeria.

Okobia Michael N; Bunker Clareann H; Okonofua Friday E; Osime Usifo

2006-01-01

298

Pilot Study of Pesticide Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among Pregnant Women in Northern Thailand  

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Full Text Available An estimated 200,000 children born in Thailand each year are at risk of prenatal exposure to pesticides and associated neurodevelopmental outcomes because of their mothers’ agricultural occupations. Children born to non-agricultural workers may also be at risk of exposure from other pathways of maternal pesticide exposure, including exposure through home use, diet, and other environmental media. Pesticide exposure in Thailand has been linked to unsafe practices and beliefs about pesticides. However, limited information exists on pesticide knowledge, attitudes, and practices among pregnant women in Thailand or elsewhere. Obtaining this information is essential to understand the factors associated with prenatal pesticide exposure, identify populations potentially at risk, and ultimately protect pregnant women and their children. We administered surveys to 76 pregnant women in northern Thailand and used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate associations among pesticide-related knowledge, pregnancy trimester, and pesticide use behavior. In this pilot study, lower knowledge score and earliest trimester of pregnancy were marginally (p < 0.1) associated with unsafe practices in the home, but not at work. Women who worked in agriculture or applied pesticides before becoming pregnant, or who had a previous child were significantly (p < 0.05) more likely to engage in unsafe behaviors in the home during their current pregnancy. We preliminarily conclude that increasing pesticide-related knowledge among pregnant women may help promote safe practices and reduce prenatal exposure. Knowledge-based interventions may be most effective when implemented early in pregnancy and targeted to agricultural workers and other sub-populations at risk of pesticide exposure.

Alyson N. Lorenz; Tippawan Prapamontol; Warangkana Narksen; Niphan Srinual; Dana B. Barr; Anne M. Riederer

2012-01-01

299

[Factors associated with level of knowledge and attitudes toward research among medical students in Peru, 2011].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To identify the factors associated with level of knowledge and attitudes toward research among undergraduate medical students in Peru. METHODS: In this analytical cross-sectional study, a validated questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to research was applied to a representative sample of students at 17 Peruvian medical schools. The categorical and quantitative variables were subjected to simple two-factor analysis with adjustment for intraclass correlation. Prevalence ratios were derived on the basis of generalized linear models using bifactorial and multifactorial analysis. RESULTS: Questionnaires from 1 554 students (51.0% women) with an average age of 20.5 ± 2.86 years were analyzed. Only 46.7% of the respondents had a good level of knowledge and 37.7% had appropriate attitudes toward research. The variables that correlated with a good level of knowledge were the respondent having completed at least four years of academic study, belonging to a research group, and having an adviser. Having appropriate attitudes toward research correlated with being a woman and having an adviser. No differences were found between the level of knowledge and attitudes of the students at the universities studied. CONCLUSIONS: In general, the level of knowledge about research was unsatisfactory and the attitudes toward it were inappropriate. In order to change this situation, it will be critical to make changes in the curriculum to ensure that students engage in research from the beginning of their academic careers and develop research skills in their final years of study.

Cabrera-Enríquez JA; Cruzado-Mendoza C; Purizaca-Rosillo N; López-Samanamú RO; Lajo-Aurazo Y; Peña-Sánchez ER; Apolaya-Segura M; Díaz-Vélez C

2013-03-01

300

Knowledge and attitude of senior dental students towards HIV/AIDS  

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Full Text Available Background and Aims: The objective of the present study was to investigate knowledge and attitude of senior dental students towards HIV/AIDS. Its result could help in promotion of education. Materials and Methods: This educational research was carried out in two state dental schools in Tehran. The senior dental students in Tehran and Shaheed Beheshti dental schools were asked to fill in a self-administered questionnaire regarding their age, gender, parents' job, knowledge and attitudes towards treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS in Autumn semester 2007. Fifty five dental students (83%) including 27% male and 73% female in Shaheed Beheshti and fifty five dental students (85%) including 34% male and 66% female in Tehran dental schools were participated. The score for knowledge and attitude of the students were calculated separately. The data were analyzed using Independent sample t-test. Results: The mean percentage of knowledge and attitude scores were 76.5% (at rang 1-3) and 50% (at range 1-5), respectively. Nearly all of the students believed that all patients should be considered as HIV positive in dental practice, while 49% preferred to refer HIV positive patients. Knowledge and attitude of students were not significantly associated with the gender and knowing HIV positive person (P>0.05). Conclusion: There is a need to improve knowledge and attitudes of dental students towards HIV/AIDS. It is suggested to emphasize on this subject in dental schools curriculum in Iran.

Jafari A; Khami MR; Yazdani R; Mohammadi M

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Nutritional knowledge, eating attitudes and chronic dietary restraint among men with eating disorders.  

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We compared nutritional knowledge, eating attitudes and chronic dietary restraint scores among 17 men (10 with bulimia nervosa and 7 with anorexia nervosa) and 50 women (20 with bulimia nervosa and 30 with anorexia nervosa), who were consecutive patients at a major treatment center in Brazil. There were no differences in nutritional knowledge and concern with food between men and women. For both genders, chronic dietary restraint scores were higher among bulimics. Men with eating disorders had better eating attitudes scores than women. Anorexic men tended to have worse eating attitudes scores than bulimic men, while the opposite was observed for women, suggesting an interaction between gender and diagnosis. PMID:19733200

Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza; Nakagawa, Katia Akemi; Campos, Rosana Maria; Kotait, Marcela; Fabbri, Alessandra; Sato, Priscila; Cordás, Táki Athanássios

2009-09-03

302

Knowledge and attitudes about transmission and prevention of tuberculosis in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the level of knowledge and attitudes about the transmission and prevention of tuberculosis in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), compared by sex and education level, and specify the main sources of information about tuberculosis. Methods: Observational, cross-sectional study. We studied 70 patients diagnosed with MDR-TB in treatment during 2009, from five health centers, DISA V Lima-Ciudad, which were chosen by consulting experts. Variables were grouped into three categories: 1. general information (age, sex, marital status, education level, occupation, current diagnosis, primary means of acquiring information and time of the acquisition of knowledge), 2. knowledge about the transmission and preventive measures on tuberculosis and 3. attitudes towards their disease. We used a survey to collect the necessary information. Results: The mean age was 32.10±12.92 years, 55.7% and 44.3% were male and female respectively. 82.9% of patients achieved an adequate knowledge about TB transmission, 51.4% had adequate knowledge on prevention and 60% were classified as having a proper attitude towards their disease. The distribution by sex and educational level was not significantly different in any of the categories of knowledge and attitudes (p> 0.05). Conclusion: Most patients had an adequate level of knowledge about transmission of tuberculosis, there was an understatement of this knowledge. Nevertheless, we found an overestimation of knowledge about preventive measures, and only about half of the patients had an adequate level of this knowledge. The patient’s attitude regarding their disease was adequate in most cases. There was not significant difference in the level of knowledge and patients attitudes by sex nor educational level. The main source of information was the local health center.

Jonny Laurente; Fany Remuzgo; Jorge Gallardo; Lizbeth Taype; Janice Huapaya; Jeanett Carrillo; Carmen Narro; Emily Navarro; Dany Bustos; Yanina Pérez

2010-01-01

303

Substance use attitudes and behaviors at three pharmacy colleges.  

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The objective of this study was to profile and compare alcohol and other drug (AOD) use attitudes and behaviors in three pharmacy colleges. Student surveys of AOD use attitudes and behaviors were conducted at one southwestern and two midwestern pharmacy colleges. Response was 86.5% (566/654). Reported past-year use included alcohol 82.8%, tobacco 25.4%, and marijuana 6.9%. Past-year AOD-associated events included blackouts 18.2%, class or work under influence 7.8%, patient care under influence 1.4%, lowered grades or job evaluations 5.8%, legal charges 2.7%, and heavy drinking 29.0%. Family histories of alcohol or drug problems were reported by 35.5% and 13.1%, respectively. A number of significant differences in AOD use attitudes and behaviors between the three colleges were identified. Pharmacy students reported a number of risky drug-use attitudes and behaviors in this survey. Student AOD prevention, assistance, and education should be proactively addressed by pharmacy colleges.

Baldwin JN; Scott DM; DeSimone EM 2nd; Forrester JH; Fankhauser MP

2011-01-01

304

Sexuality Education among Latinas: Experiences, Preferences, Attitudes and Risk Behavior  

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This study investigated sexuality topics discussed by parents, sources of sexuality education, sexual risk behaviors, and attitudes about who should educate children about sexuality among a sample of 204 adult Latinas. Nearly half of sexually active women (having ever had sex) reported condom use and 36.7% reported discussing sexual history with…

Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; King, Keith A.

2008-01-01

305

Assessment of Attitude and Knowledge about Intentional Abortion in Pre-married Females  

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Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Assessment of intentional abortion and women's knowledge about its causes and complications is an important priority for women's health, but because of the sensitivity, the investigations in this topic are rare. This study was performed for the first time in order to determine women's knowledge and attitude toward intentional abortion.Methods: Women referring to pre-marriage counseling centers in Mashhad, Iran, were selected with easy sampling method and accessed with knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Data were analyzed by Q-Square, T-Test and Pearson correlation. Results: Of 480 participants, 71% (CI95%=66.8-75.0) had opposed attitudes about the intentional abortion and 26.5% (CI95%=22.6-30.5) had appropriate knowledge. Between lower age and lower education, lack of interest to contraceptive use with low women's knowledge-attitude scores, there was a significant relationship (p<0.05). Conclusion: Most of the participants opposed attitudes to intentional abortion, but more than 70% of them had low knowledge about this topic. Inappropriate knowledge about causes and its adverse consequences, especially the beginning of marital life can lead to unwanted pregnancy, intentional and unsafe abortion that need attention.

Jarahi L.; Meysamie A.P.; Fayaz Bakhsh A.

2012-01-01

306

HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes among alcohol and drug abusers in Egypt.  

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The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitudes and practice towards HIV/AIDS among alcohol and drug abusers and the effect of health education (HE) on their knowledge and attitudes. Participants were 265 substance abusers, recruited from 8 addiction rehabilitation centers. A base line study preceding HE was done using a questionnaire composed of five sections. Three scores were developed to assess HIV/AIDS related knowledge. The base line study indicates that addicts with good knowledge scores > or =75%) regarding modes of transmission were significantly higher among males than females. About 70% of the addicts had negative attitudes towards dealing with HIV/AIDS patients, while 55.5% felt sympathy for them. Eleven percent of the injection drug abusers were sharing needle with others, while 38% of the participating females were previously convicted of prostitution. Logistic analysis showed that high level of education was the best predictive variable for good knowledge scores (> or =75%). Evaluation of the health education program revealed a highly significant increase in the knowledge scores among both males and females compared to the pretest scores. An increase in the percentages of male and female addicts with improved attitudes towards HIV/AIDS patients was also noted after HE. So, HE was found to be a successful tool in improving the knowledge and attitudes of substance abusers towards HIV/AIDS.

Salama II; Kotb NK; Hemeda SA; Zaki F

1998-01-01

307

Jordanian nursing students' knowledge of, attitudes towards, and compliance with infection control precautions.  

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Nursing students' noncompliance with infection control precautions has its effects not only on patients, but also on nursing students themselves. Little is known about the actual status of infection control knowledge and compliance among Jordanian nursing students. This correlational descriptive study used a cross-sectional survey design to explore Jordanian nursing students' knowledge of, attitudes toward, and compliance with infection control precautions. The target population was all nursing students at the faculty of nursing-University of Jordan. Participants were found to have inadequate knowledge about infection control precautions (M=49.64%), positive attitudes (M=89.8%), and moderate compliance (M=75.91%). Participants' attitudes toward infection control precautions was the only variable that predicts (B=.410, p=0.000) and correlates (r=.51, p<0.01) with their compliance score. Special courses for infection control precautions within nursing schools in Jordan are recommended with special focus on students' attitudes. PMID:22789874

Darawad, Muhammad W; Al-Hussami, Mahmoud

2012-07-11

308

Jordanian nursing students' knowledge of, attitudes towards, and compliance with infection control precautions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nursing students' noncompliance with infection control precautions has its effects not only on patients, but also on nursing students themselves. Little is known about the actual status of infection control knowledge and compliance among Jordanian nursing students. This correlational descriptive study used a cross-sectional survey design to explore Jordanian nursing students' knowledge of, attitudes toward, and compliance with infection control precautions. The target population was all nursing students at the faculty of nursing-University of Jordan. Participants were found to have inadequate knowledge about infection control precautions (M=49.64%), positive attitudes (M=89.8%), and moderate compliance (M=75.91%). Participants' attitudes toward infection control precautions was the only variable that predicts (B=.410, p=0.000) and correlates (r=.51, p<0.01) with their compliance score. Special courses for infection control precautions within nursing schools in Jordan are recommended with special focus on students' attitudes.

Darawad MW; Al-Hussami M

2013-06-01

309

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and diabetic foot ulcers: knowledge and attitudes of Canadian primary care physicians.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To explore physicians' knowledge of and attitudes toward hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in order to better understand current diabetic foot ulcer management practices and to determine potential barriers to HBOT use. DESIGN: A 24-item questionnaire. SETTING: Primary Care Today conference in Toronto, Ont, in May of 2006. PARTICIPANTS: Physician attendees, 313 of whom completed the survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported knowledge of and attitudes toward HBOT. RESULTS: Less than 10% of respondents had a good knowledge of HBOT, but 57% had a good attitude toward HBOT. Knowledge of and attitude toward HBOT were positively correlated (P < .0001). Good knowledge of HBOT was associated with sex (P = .0334), age younger than 40 years (P = .0803), years in medical practice (P = .0646), patient requests for HBOT referrals (P = .0127), and having previously referred patients for HBOT (P < .001). Twenty years or more in medical practice (P = .0593) and receiving patient requests for HBOT (P = .0394) were multivariate predictors of having good knowledge of HBOT. Good attitude toward HBOT was associated with age younger than 40 years (P = .0613) and having previously referred patients for HBOT (P = .0013). Multivariate analysis showed that male physicians (P = .0026) received more patient requests for HBOT (P < .0001), had good knowledge (P = .0129) and a good attitude (P = .0488), and were more likely to refer patients for HBOT. CONCLUSION: Primary care physicians have underdeveloped knowledge of HBOT, but their generally positive attitudes toward its use suggest that they might be receptive to educational interventions. Educating both physicians and patients about HBOT, specifically its cost-effectiveness, might encourage future use.

Evans AW; Gill R; Valiulis AO; Lou W; Sosiak TS

2010-05-01

310

Impact of family planning health education on the knowledge and attitude among Yasoujian women.  

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The aim of this study was to determine the effect of health education on the knowledge and attitude regarding family planning and contraception's method among the women who obligatory attended the Premarital Counseling Center in Yasouj city, Iran. An experimental study was carried out and a total of 200 women were selected for the study using convenience sampling method among women who attended in the health centre in order to utilize the necessary premarital actions. Respondents were divided by two experimental and control groups randomly. A pre-evaluation was done on the knowledge and attitude on family planning using a structured questionnaire. After which, the health education for experimental group was done within four educational sessions during 4 consecutive weeks and control group underwent traditional education method. Post evaluation was utilized for any changes regarding their knowledge and attitude among the respondents immediately after the intervention. Independent and paired t-test was used to evaluate the mean knowledge and attitude scores differences among both groups. RESULTS showed that there was a significant improvement in respondents' knowledge and attitude after educational program in experimental group (p<0.001), while no significant difference was observed in knowledge and attitude of control group. The finding also indicated that age was significantly associated with the level of respondents' knowledge. These results deal the effectiveness of the educational method. In conclusion, the educational method is effective in increasing the knowledge and improving the attitude of women regarding family planning in Yasouj compared to current used educational method. Future educational programs need to incorporate the features that have been associated with successful interventions in the past, as well as including their own evaluation procedures. PMID:22980158

Mahamed, Fariba; Parhizkar, Saadat; Raygan Shirazi, Alireza

2012-02-29

311

Impact of family planning health education on the knowledge and attitude among Yasoujian women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of health education on the knowledge and attitude regarding family planning and contraception's method among the women who obligatory attended the Premarital Counseling Center in Yasouj city, Iran. An experimental study was carried out and a total of 200 women were selected for the study using convenience sampling method among women who attended in the health centre in order to utilize the necessary premarital actions. Respondents were divided by two experimental and control groups randomly. A pre-evaluation was done on the knowledge and attitude on family planning using a structured questionnaire. After which, the health education for experimental group was done within four educational sessions during 4 consecutive weeks and control group underwent traditional education method. Post evaluation was utilized for any changes regarding their knowledge and attitude among the respondents immediately after the intervention. Independent and paired t-test was used to evaluate the mean knowledge and attitude scores differences among both groups. RESULTS showed that there was a significant improvement in respondents' knowledge and attitude after educational program in experimental group (p<0.001), while no significant difference was observed in knowledge and attitude of control group. The finding also indicated that age was significantly associated with the level of respondents' knowledge. These results deal the effectiveness of the educational method. In conclusion, the educational method is effective in increasing the knowledge and improving the attitude of women regarding family planning in Yasouj compared to current used educational method. Future educational programs need to incorporate the features that have been associated with successful interventions in the past, as well as including their own evaluation procedures.

Mahamed F; Parhizkar S; Raygan Shirazi A

2012-03-01

312

Knowledge and Attitude Towards HIV/AIDS Among College Students in Ardabil, Iran  

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Full Text Available Knowledge about the spread of HIV has a critical impact of the prevention of AIDS young people are of particular importance in state policies against AIDS,we intended to assess the knowledge and attitude of college students regarding AIDS in Iran,.This study is a cross-sectional study that carried out in 400 first college students. A structured questionnaire was used to assess knowledge about AIDS, source of information and attitudes toward people living with HIV, the students identified mass media (40%) as their most important source of information about ADIS. Only a few students answered all the knowledge questions correctly and there were many misconceptions about the routes of transmissions. College students demonstrated a moderate level of knowledge (67.5%) concerning AIDS and HIV. Results showed that 85% of samples fell all people entering Iran should be tested. Twenty five percent of them believed that people with HIV should not be allowed to use common toilets and 27% incorrectly believed that HIV infected college students be removed from university bedroom. Attitude was significantly correlated with knowledge, (r = -0.38, p< 0.001), student with less knowledge scores had more negative attitude toward HIV positive Individuals. The knowledge level seems to be moderately high misconception about the routes of transmission were common. Alarming gaps in knowledge about transmission and curability put young Iranian students at risk of contracting HIV. Intolerant attitudes about people living with HIV were prevalent. Present results suggest that a more appropriate education program in colleges in Iran may be necessary to reduce the discrepancy between general knowledge and desirable attitude regarding HIV/AIDS.

B. Dadkha; M.A. Mohammadi; N. Mozafari

2008-01-01

313

Knowledge and Usage of Contraceptives, Influencing Male Reproductive Health Behavior  

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Full Text Available Introduction: In Pakistan, male involvement in reproductive health started long before the concept of a holistic approach emerged from ICPD in 1994. Men are far behind the knowledge about contraceptives, authority of decisions making, religiosity, and exposure of media, health attitude, physical cost, Knowledge of HIV/STDs, drugs and family planning services. These circumstances have damaging-effect on men's reproductive health as well. The poor reproductive health of men in the entire Pakistan has been reported in many studies. The different national and international agencies have shown a great concern on this alarming situation of men's deteriorating reproductive health status. They have recommended investigating the men reproductive health status in relation to different aspects. In this context the main objectives of this study is to identify and analyze different types of socio-cultural characteristics, affect the attitudes, lack of awareness of respondents toward reproductive health behavior were examined in Punjab-Pakistan. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted in 3-districts of Punjab province. In this way the total sample size will be 600, 300 from rural and 300 from urban areas. A well-structured questionnaire consisting of open ended and close ended questions has been prepared in the light of research objectives. Pre-testing was also in the study plan to examine the work-ability of questionnaire and to know the sensitive issues which can be tackled intelligently. Results: Bi-variate and multivariate analyses were used to explore the relationship between different terms MRHB. The results regarding age, discussion about reproductive health problems, general health status, Knowledge about Contraceptive, Contraceptive use behavior of the respondents and their reproductive health behavior were having their strong relationship and communication of affairs with wife having no relation and in multivariate analysis were used to build model and respondents age at marriage were highly significant and age of the respondent, communication of affairs, ideal number of children in a family were non-significant with MRHB.. The value of adjusting R2 is 0.660 and it indicates that about 66% variation in the dependent variable is explained by knowledge about contraceptive and use of contraceptive.

Yasir Nawaz; Ashfaq Ahmed Maan; Babak Mahmood; Fawad Asif

2013-01-01

314

Quality of Life, Optimism/Pessimism, and Knowledge and Attitudes toward HIV Screening among Pregnant Women in Ghana  

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Objective To explore optimism/pessimism, knowledge of HIV, and attitudes toward HIV screening and treatment among Ghanaian pregnant women. Method Pregnant women in Accra, Ghana completed a self-administered questionnaire including the Life Orientation Test – Revised (LOT-R, an optimism/pessimism measure), an HIV knowledge and screening attitudes questionnaire, the Short Form 12 (SF-12, a measure of health-related quality of life (HRQOL)), and a demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using t-tests, ANOVA, correlations, chi-square. Result N=101, 28% nulliparious; 31.8 mean weeks gestation, 29.7 mean age. 100% had heard of AIDS, 27.7% had been tested for HIV before this pregnancy, 46.5% had been tested during this pregnancy, and 59.4% of the sample had ever been tested for HIV. Of those not tested during this pregnancy, 64.2% were willing to be tested. Of all respondents, 89% said they would get tested if ARVs were readily available and might prevent maternal-to-child transmission. Neither optimism/pessimism nor HRQOL was associated with attitudes toward HIV screening. Optimism was negatively correlated with HIV knowledge (p=.001) and was positively correlated with having never been tested prior to this pregnancy (p=.007). Conclusion The relationship between optimism/pessimism and HIV knowledge and screening behavior is worthy of further study using larger samples and objective measures of testing beyond self-report.

Moyer, CA; Ekpo, G; Calhoun, C; Greene, J; Naik, S; Sippola, E; Stern, DT; Adanu, R; Koranteng, I; Kwawukume, EY; Anderson, FJ

2008-01-01

315

Sexual behavior and AIDS-related knowledge among community college students in Orange County, California.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Whereas college students are not identified as a high-risk group for acquiring the HIV infection, they exhibit high-risk behaviors consistent with their age group, including multiple sexual partners and high rates of unprotected intercourse. This study was conducted to determine levels of HIV-related sexual behavior, along with knowledge and attitudes among students attending community colleges in a relatively affluent multiethnic community. This study used a random sample survey (N = 319) of students attending selected classes at four community colleges in Orange County, California, to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and patterns of past and present sexual behavior. The level of student knowledge concerning HIV disease was found to be relatively high, and pronounced differences in knowledge and sexual permissiveness were identified as a function of ethnicity and religion, with Asians showing lower knowledge and lower concern about HIV, and religion/religiosity related to these variables and also to levels of sexual permissiveness. Respondents' comfort in asking a partner about his/her sexual history was positively associated with their level of self-esteem, and negatively related to peer pressure in this population. As in previous studies of college populations, HIV knowledge per se does not confer a protective effect against high-risk behavior. However, knowledge was found to be an enabling factor with regard to students' comfort levels in asking about their partner's sexual histories, and in requesting that partners take an AIDS test.

Shapiro J; Radecki S; Charchian AS; Josephson V

1999-02-01

316

Development of a Brief Survey on Colon Cancer Screening Knowledge and Attitudes Among Veterans  

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Full Text Available Introduction Poor knowledge of and negative attitudes toward available screening tests may account in part for colorectal cancer screening rates being the lowest among 17 quality measures reported for the Department of Veterans Affairs health care system, the largest integrated health system in the United States. The purpose of this study was to develop a brief assessment tool to evaluate knowledge and attitudes among veterans toward colorectal cancer screening options. Methods A 44-item questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about colorectal cancer and screening and was then administered as part of an ongoing randomized controlled trial among 388 veterans receiving care in a general medicine clinic. Sixteen candidate items on colorectal cancer knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs were selected for further evaluation using principal components analysis. Two sets of items were then further analyzed. Results Because the Cronbach a for beliefs was low (a = 0.06), the beliefs subscale was deleted from further consideration. The final scale consisted of seven items: a four-item attitude subscale (a = 0.73) and a three-item knowledge subscale (a = 0.59). Twelve-month follow-up data were used to evaluate predictive validity; improved knowledge and attitudes were significantly associated with completion of flexible sigmoidoscopy (P = .004) and completion of either flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (P = .02). Conclusion The two-factor scale offers a parsimonious and reliable measure of colorectal cancer screening knowledge and attitudes among veterans. This colorectal Cancer Screening Survey (CSS) may especially be useful as an evaluative tool in developing and testing of interventions designed to improve screening rates within this population.

Michael S. Wolf, PhD, MPH; Alfred Rademaker, PhD; Charles L. Bennett, MD, PhD; M. Rosario Ferreira, MD; Nancy C. Dolan, MD; Marian Fitzgibbon, PhD; Terry C. Davis, PhD; Franklin Medio, PhD; Dachao Liu, MA; June Lee

2005-01-01

317

Exploring Knowledge and Attitudes toward Aging among Nursing and Non-Nursing Students  

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Increasing life expectancies and more years spent living with chronic illnesses mean that increasing numbers of older adults will require nursing care. However, most nurses prefer not to work with older adults, and many nursing students have limited knowledge and negative attitudes towards aging and older adults. This study examined the knowledge

Flood, Meredith Troutman; Clark, Robert B.

2009-01-01

318

Sexual knowledge and attitudes of men with intellectual disability who sexually offend.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Various explanations of sexual offending in men with intellectual disability (ID) have stressed sexual deviance and a lack of developmental socio-sexual knowledge. METHOD: Using the normative dataset of people with ID from the development of the Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Assessment Tool - Revised (SSKAAT-R: Griffiths & Lunsky, 2003), two samples of individuals with ID and a history of sexual offence were compared on sexual knowledge to matched samples of individuals with ID and no known sexual offences. RESULTS: Offenders with ID who were identified as having engaged in sexually inappropriate behaviour, such as public masturbation or touching someone inappropriately, did not differ in terms of sexual knowledge from their matched sample of individuals with ID with no sexual offence history, whereas offenders who had committed more serious offences demonstrated greater sexual knowledge than matched non-offenders. When only those individuals who had received prior sex education were compared in terms of sexual knowledge, there were no differences between groups. However, sex offenders (serious offences) expressed more liberal attitudes than sex offenders (inappropriate behaviour) and non-offenders towards same-sex activities. CONCLUSIONS: The study points to the dynamic effect of socio-sexual education on offenders' knowledge and attitudes, and highlights potential differences in the knowledge and attitudes of different subtypes of offenders.

Lunsky Y; Frijters J; Griffiths DM; Watson SL; Williston S

2007-06-01

319

The Influence of a Psychology and Law Class on Legal Attitudes and Knowledge Structures  

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Students in an undergraduate psychology and law course and an introductory psychology course completed a variety of measures, at both the beginning and end of the semester, to assess their knowledge of and attitudes toward psycholegal topics. The psychology and law course improved students' knowledge of psychological topics concerning the legal…

Laub, Cindy E.; Maeder, Evelyn M.; Bornstein, Brian H.

2010-01-01

320

Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes of Men with Intellectual Disability Who Sexually Offend  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Various explanations of sexual offending in men with intellectual disability (ID) have stressed sexual deviance and a lack of developmental socio-sexual knowledge. Method: Using the normative dataset of people with ID from the development of the "Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Assessment Tool--Revised" (SSKAAT-R: Griffiths &…

Lunsky, Yona; Frijters, Jan; Griffiths, Dorothy M.; Watson, Shelley L.; Williston, Stephanie

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

High School and University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Biotechnology: A Turkish Experience  

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Biotechnology has a considerable importance in Turkish biology curriculum. This study was designed to explore or indicate Turkish high school and university students' knowledge and attitudes toward biotechnology. A total number of 352 high school and 276 university students were invited to the study. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ)…

Usak, Muhammet; Erdogan, Mehmet; Prokop, Pavol; Ozel, Murat

2009-01-01

322

Knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding Clostridium difficile: a survey of physicians in an academic medical center.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Using current guidelines, we surveyed physicians at our hospital to ascertain knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding Clostridium difficile infection. The survey identified significant gaps in knowledge and practice. Infection control professionals should include physician education on Clostridium difficile infection diagnosis, isolation precautions, and treatment as part of a comprehensive control program.

Fayerberg E; Bouchard J; Kellie SM

2013-03-01

323

Level of Knowledge About and Attitude Toward, and Sources of ?nformation About Epilepsy  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the level of knowledge about and attitude toward and sources of information about epilepsy.Methods: Seventy individuals with epilepsy (IWE) and 56 control participants (CPs) received Epilepsy Knowledge Scale, Epilepsy Attitude Scale and information forms which required answers to related open-ended questions.Results: There was a significant difference between the initial and current amount of epilepsy knowledge of the IWE. The IWE evaluate their epilepsy knowledge as adequate more than CPs, however as general, both groups stated inadequate epilepsy knowledge. Also, the IWE had more knowledge about epilepsy, but there was no difference in the attitudes toward epilepsy between IWE and CPs. The most frequently reported source of information by IWE was “doctors and other health staff”, and “family and acquaintances” by CPs.Conclusion: The level of knowledge about epilepsy was increasing with the passage of time among the IWE. As the most cited source of information, health staff have an important role in providing information to IWE. The study also indicates the need of national campaigns in order to increase the knowledge of epilepsy and create more favorable attitudes toward epilepsy.

Nuran Aydemir; P?nar Ünsal; Çi?dem Özkara

2011-01-01

324

Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes of Men with Intellectual Disability Who Sexually Offend  

Science.gov (United States)

|Background: Various explanations of sexual offending in men with intellectual disability (ID) have stressed sexual deviance and a lack of developmental socio-sexual knowledge. Method: Using the normative dataset of people with ID from the development of the "Socio-Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Assessment Tool--Revised" (SSKAAT-R: Griffiths &…

Lunsky, Yona; Frijters, Jan; Griffiths, Dorothy M.; Watson, Shelley L.; Williston, Stephanie

2007-01-01

325

KNOWLEDGE,ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS ABOUT NUTRITIONAL COUNSELLING DURING PREGNANEY  

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Full Text Available Introduction.With respect to the importance of nutritional counselling during pregnancy, the improtance of knowledge, attitude and practice of health care providers is undisputable. In this study the knowledge, attitude and practice of the health care providers in the city of shiraz with respect to the nutritional counseling in pregnancy was investigated. Methods. The survey was done upon all who practicing in MCH unit of heath care centers in the city of shiraz. The intended information was gathered using a checklist and questionnaire from 75 heath care providers. Results. Knowledge is in middle level in 60 percent, attitude is positive in 98.7 percent and practice is poor in 90.67 percent of samples. Midwifery school graduations have more knowledge than other (P < 0.05). Discussion. Education of nutritional sciences for health care providers has an important role in health promotion. During special situations such as pregnancy, this matter is more important.

G BROMAND-FAR; A YOUSEFI; M TABATABAIE

2001-01-01

326

Assessment of knowledge, skill and attitude of oncology nurses in chemotherapy administration in tertiary hospital Pakistan  

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Full Text Available Objective: To measure the levels of nurse’s knowledge and attitude after the conduct of education session regarding chemotherapy administration and management. Methodology: This research study was conducted at two oncology units of tertiary Hospital Rawalpindi. A prepost test intervention study design was used on 35 nurses by using Verity’s tools. Results: The mean scores of knowledge were calculated by Cochran’s Q test showed that knowledge scores have significantly increased with ‘educational training’ (p value < 0.001). The difference in the attitude of the nurses was not found to be statistically significant in repeated measure of ANOVA. Conclusion: The results show that knowledge is the weakest component and attitude is strongest component of oncology nurses ‘competencies in chemotherapy administration.

Najma Khan; Khurshid Zulfiqar Ali Khowaja; Tazeen Saeed Ali

2012-01-01

327

Parents' attitudes, knowledge and behaviours relating to safe child occupant travel.  

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This study investigated parents' attitudes, knowledge and behaviours relating to safe child occupant travel following new Australian legislation regarding child restraint system (CRS) and motor vehicle restraint use for children aged 7 years and under. A questionnaire exploring attitudes, knowledge and behaviours regarding general road safety, as well as safe child occupant travel, was completed by 272 participants with at least one child aged between 3 and 10 years residing in the Australian state of Victoria. Responses to the questionnaire revealed that participants' attitudes, knowledge and behaviours towards road safety in general were fairly positive, with most participants reporting that they restrict their alcohol consumption or do not drink at all while driving (87%), drive at or below the speed limit (85%) and 'always' wear their seatbelts (98%). However, more than half of the participants reported engaging in distracting behaviours 'sometimes' or 'often' (54%) and a small proportion of participants indicated that they 'sometimes' engaged in aggressive driving (14%). Regarding their attitudes, knowledge and behaviours relating to safe child occupant travel, most participants reported that they 'always' restrain their children (99%). However, there was a surprisingly high proportion of participants who did not know the appropriate age thresholds' to transition their child from a booster seat to an adult seatbelt (53%) or the age for which it is appropriate for their child to sit in the front passenger seat of the vehicle (20%). Logistic regression analyses revealed that parents' knowledge regarding safe child occupant travel was significantly related to their attitudes, knowledge and behaviours towards road safety in general, such as drinking habits while driving and CRS safety knowledge. Based on the findings of this study, a number of recommendations are made for strategies to enhance parents' attitudes, knowledge and behaviours relating to safe child occupant travel, as well as for future research. PMID:23182779

Koppel, Sjaan; Muir, Carlyn; Budd, Laurie; Devlin, Anna; Oxley, Jennie; Charlton, Judith L; Newstead, Stuart

2012-11-24

328

Parents' attitudes, knowledge and behaviours relating to safe child occupant travel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated parents' attitudes, knowledge and behaviours relating to safe child occupant travel following new Australian legislation regarding child restraint system (CRS) and motor vehicle restraint use for children aged 7 years and under. A questionnaire exploring attitudes, knowledge and behaviours regarding general road safety, as well as safe child occupant travel, was completed by 272 participants with at least one child aged between 3 and 10 years residing in the Australian state of Victoria. Responses to the questionnaire revealed that participants' attitudes, knowledge and behaviours towards road safety in general were fairly positive, with most participants reporting that they restrict their alcohol consumption or do not drink at all while driving (87%), drive at or below the speed limit (85%) and 'always' wear their seatbelts (98%). However, more than half of the participants reported engaging in distracting behaviours 'sometimes' or 'often' (54%) and a small proportion of participants indicated that they 'sometimes' engaged in aggressive driving (14%). Regarding their attitudes, knowledge and behaviours relating to safe child occupant travel, most participants reported that they 'always' restrain their children (99%). However, there was a surprisingly high proportion of participants who did not know the appropriate age thresholds' to transition their child from a booster seat to an adult seatbelt (53%) or the age for which it is appropriate for their child to sit in the front passenger seat of the vehicle (20%). Logistic regression analyses revealed that parents' knowledge regarding safe child occupant travel was significantly related to their attitudes, knowledge and behaviours towards road safety in general, such as drinking habits while driving and CRS safety knowledge. Based on the findings of this study, a number of recommendations are made for strategies to enhance parents' attitudes, knowledge and behaviours relating to safe child occupant travel, as well as for future research.

Koppel S; Muir C; Budd L; Devlin A; Oxley J; Charlton JL; Newstead S

2013-03-01

329

Religiosity, AIDS, and sexuality knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices of black South-African first-year university students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated the association of religiosity with sexuality and AIDS knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices of 1,817 black first-year students in South Africa. On a structured questionnaire, consenting students rated themselves on scales of religiosity, attitudes toward homosexuality, intrafamilial communication about contraception, AIDS attitudes, and AIDS knowledge. Negative attitudes toward homosexuality were significantly associated with negative attitudes towards AIDS, high knowledge of AIDS, and high religiosity. Religious commitment diminished propensity to engage in sexual intercourse and delayed age for onset of sexual intercourse.

Nicholas L; Durrheim K

1995-12-01

330

Tobacco usage in school children in Bombay, India. A study of knowledge, attitude and practise.  

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Full Text Available A study of knowledge, attitude and practice with regard to tobacco usage was conducted in 1278 boys and 353 girls studying in the final year in various schools in Bombay. The proportion of boys given to one or the other form of tobacco usage (including experimenters/triers) was significantly higher in private English median schools (22.5%) compared to private Indian language schools (6.9%) or municipal Indian language schools (13.8%). There was also a significant difference between the two types of Indian schools. Girls from only Indian language schools were entered into the study and the proportion of tobacco users in them was very low (1.1%). Most (86%) boys who used tobacco were smokers. Hence the detailed analysis is restricted to smokers. Several probable factors influencing smoking behavior were studied. It was found that significantly higher proportion of boys smoked if their father or best friend smoked. Generally boys were more sensitive to best friend?s or elder brother?s disapproval than to parental. They were well informed about harmfulness of smoking but knowledge about specific health hazards was limited. Most of them had a positive attitude towards nonsmoking and smoking control programmes. Tobacco use has been proven to be a major health hazard. Although its use in adults in India is common, prevalence in adolescents in urban schools is not yet high. Before the situation changes we need to mount anti-tobacco educational programmes and work towards a non-tobacco generation to contain the harmful consequences of tobacco usage.

Jayant K; Notani P; Gulati S; Gadre V

1991-01-01

331

Speech-language pathologists' knowledge of genetics: perceived confidence, attitudes, knowledge acquisition and practice-based variables.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: The purpose of this study was to determine (a) the general knowledge bases demonstrated by school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the area of genetics, (b) the confidence levels of SLPs in providing services to children and their families with genetic disorders/syndromes, (c) the attitudes of SLPs regarding genetics and communication disorders, (d) the primary sources used by SLPs to learn about genetic disorders/syndromes, and (e) the association between general knowledge, confidence, attitudes, the number of years of experience working as an SLP, and the number of children currently provided services with genetic disorders/syndromes on SLPs' caseloads. Survey data from a nationwide sample of 533 SLPs was analyzed. Results showed SLPs earned a median knowledge score about genetics of 66% correct responses. Their mean confidence and attitude ratings were in the "unsure" categories while they reported they learned about genetics from three main sources, (a) self-study via web and internet-based searches, (b) on-the-job training and (c) popular press magazines and newspapers. Analyses revealed that Confidence summary scores, Attitude Summary scores, the number of children with genetic disorders/syndromes on SLPs' caseloads are positively associated with the ratings of participants with the highest Knowledge scores. LEARNING OUTCOMES: Readers will be able to (a) explain the important links between developmental and communication disabilities and genetics, (b) describe the associations between knowledge about genetics and confidence, attitudes, and the number of children with genetic disorders/syndromes on their caseloads, and (c) outline the clinical and theoretical implications of the results from this study.

Tramontana GM; Blood IM; Blood GW

2013-01-01

332

Knowledge and attitude of Rafsanjan physicians about complementary and alternative medicine  

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Full Text Available Background: Alternative or complementary medicine includes models for treatment or prevention of disease, which are different in method or efficacy from current biologic medicine. Interest in alternative and complementary medical practices have increased in recent years. This study has been conducted to determine the knowledge and attitude of the general physicians about complementary and alternative medicine.Materials and method: This descriptive study was done on all general physicians of Rafsanjan city (n=80) in a census method. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, which included three parts; demographic, knowledge and attitude questions about complementary and alternative medicine. After collecting, the questionnaires, data were collected and entered in SPSS-16 software and were analyzed statistically by means of descriptive statistics (charts and tables) and analytical statistics (Chi-squared and Fisher statistical tests).Results: The findings of this study (n=80) showed 53.8% (n=43) had a good knowledge and 5% (n=4) had a positive attitude about complementary and alternative medicine. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, knowledge and positive attitude of general physicians of Rafsanjan about complementary and alternative medicine is low. For promotion of their knowledge, continuous education is needed for proper attitude to be developed

Vahid Mirzai; Ahmad R. Saiadi; Mehdi Heydarinasab

2011-01-01

333

Knowledge, attitude and practices of diabetic patients in the United Arab Emirates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Diabetes self-management education is a cornerstone of diabetes care. However, many diabetics in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) lack sufficient knowledge about their disease due to illiteracy. Thus, before considering any possible intervention it was imperative to assess present knowledge, attitudes, and practices of patients towards the management of diabetes. METHODS: A random sample of 575 DM patients was selected from diabetes outpatient's clinics of Tawam and Al-Ain hospitals in Al-Ain city (UAE) during 2006-2007, and their knowledge attitude and practice assessed using a questionnaire modified from the Michigan Diabetes Research Training Center instrument. RESULTS: Thirty-one percent of patients had poor knowledge of diabetes. Seventy-two had negative attitudes towards having the disease and 57% had HbA(1c) levels reflecting poor glycemic control. Only seventeen percent reported having adequate blood sugar control, while 10% admitted non-compliance with their medications. Knowledge, practice and attitude scores were all statistically significantly positively, but rather weakly, associated, but none of these scores was significantly correlated with HbA(1c). CONCLUSIONS: The study showed low levels of diabetes awareness but positive attitudes towards the importance of DM care and satisfactory diabetes practices in the UAE. Programs to increase patients' awareness about DM are essential for all diabetics in the UAE in order to improve their understanding, compliance and management and, thereby, their ability to cope with the disease.

Al-Maskari F; El-Sadig M; Al-Kaabi JM; Afandi B; Nagelkerke N; Yeatts KB

2013-01-01

334

Medical students and AIDS: knowledge, attitudes and implications for education.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Second year medical students at a large midwestern university were surveyed about their attitudes regarding AIDS. Results indicated: (1) students with homosexual and/or HIV-positive friends were significantly more tolerant toward AIDS patients, (2) over half the students believed that treating AIDS patients may be hazardous and that their education had not prepared them to treat these patients safely, (3) one-third believed they had the right to refuse to treat AIDS patients, and (4) AIDS-phobia was significantly associated with homophobia. These data suggest that medical educators may need to help students overcome AIDS-phobia before some students will be able to incorporate instruction about AIDS since AIDS-phobia may inhibit this learning. Didactic instruction must be coupled with modeling by educators of non-prejudicial attitudes and strict adherence to medical professionalism.

Kopacz DR; Grossman LS; Klamen DL

1999-02-01

335

Consumer attitudes toward health policy and knowledge about health legislation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Consumer attitudes toward key issues affecting health policy decisions in the local community have been ignored both by local health policy makers and by medical sociologists. The authors report an empirical analysis of: (1) consumer attitudes towards federal intervention in health care; (2) consumer perceptions of the free market philosophy of health providers; (3) consumer perceptions of their involvement in health policy making; (4) consumer confidence in present systems of health services delivery; and (5) consumer awareness of recent major health legislation. It was found that consumers are poorly informed about recent health care legislation. The authors compared the attitudes of consumers with those held by local hospital board members toward health policy issues. The differences for all comparisons were statistically significant. The authors argue that hospital board members attribute problems in health services delivery to demand dysfunctions while consumers perceive the problems to be a result of supply dysfunctions. Thus, failure to include consumers on health policy boards guarantees the absence of a solution-oriented dialogue and promotes the continuing predominance of a provider-biased ideology.

Riska E; Taylor JA

1978-01-01

336

Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour of Women Working in Government Hospitals Regarding Breast Self Examination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Breast self examination (BSE), performed regularly every month, is one of the most important methods in the early diagnosis of breast cancer. This study was performed with the aim of establishing the knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of women working in government hospitals within the province of Samsun regarding BSE. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between January-March 2012, on a total of 550 women (500 health personnel, and 50 general administration services (GAS) workers) from 7 government hospitals and the Cancer Early Diagnosis, Screening, and Education Centre (CEDSEC). Percentages were used for the descriptive statistics, and the chi-square test for the evaluation of statistical importance. Values of p<0.05 were accepted as significant. Results: The mean age of the participants was 36.2± 15.3, and 42.5% were in the 30-39 year old age group, 78.0% being married. Seventy-eight point four percent (78.4%) of the health personnel and 76.0% of the GAS workers performed BSE. However, the rates of performing BSE regularly every month were only 25.6% and 5.0%. Within the health personnel, 1.4% stated that they did not perform BSE because they found it unnecessary as they had no history of breast cancer in their family, 3.6% did not do so due to fear and stress, 13.2% because they forgot, and 14.6% because they had no complaints. Some 22.2% of the health personnel and 52.0% of the GAS workers had undergone mammographic evaluation, the difference being significant (p<0.05), 84.1% of the health personnel and 61.9% of the GAS workers knowing symptoms of breast cancer. Conclusions: Women in society should be brought to a certain level of awareness and knowledge regarding BSE. It is of the utmost importance that health personnel, who carry the responsibility for counseling and enlightening society, should interiorize the necessary knowledge, attitudes and behavior.

Yurdakos K; Gulhan YB; Unalan D; Ozturk A

2013-01-01

337

The knowledge and attitude of general dentists toward denture adhesives in Tehran  

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Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to generate discussion and communication among a group of general dentists in Tehran on their viewpoints regarding denture adhesives. Have they accepted denture adhesive as a material to enhance denture retention, stability and function? Materials and Methods: In the summer of 2007, a questionnaire was mailed to 300 general dentists who were assigned with a random systematic sampling method from general dentists in Tehran. The questions were arranged in two parts of evaluating knowledge and attitude. In evaluation of knowledge, dentists were classified into groups of good, moderate, weak and lack of knowledge. In evaluation of attitude, dentists were classified into positive, moderate and negative groups. (Evaluating attitude was carried out in good and moderate groups of knowledge.) Results: The study showed that 14%, 32% and 37% of the general dentists had respectively good, moderate and weak knowledge toward denture adhesive while 16.3% had no knowledge about this material. In evaluation of attitude through dentists with positive and moderate knowledge toward denture adhesive, 9.3%, 71.3% and 19.4% had respectively positive, moderate and negative attitude toward denture adhesive. The ?2 test showed a significant statistical relation between situation of knowledge and experiences of dentists. Discussion: This study demonstrated that the rate of knowledge of these 300 general dentists in Tehran towards denture adhesives has not been in a good situation. It is believed that denture adhesive be able to enhance the fitness of a denture and provide psychological relief to the patient. Dentists agreed that education, not only for practitioners but also for patients, would raise the advantageous features and reduce the misuse of denture adhesive. Education of the topic "Denture adhesive" should be more concerned in dental universities.

Fakhri Hamidreza; Fayaz Amir; Faramarzi Farhad; Javaheri Homan

2009-01-01

338

The knowledge and attitude of general dentists toward denture adhesives in Tehran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to generate discussion and communication among a group of general dentists in Tehran on their viewpoints regarding denture adhesives. Have they accepted denture adhesive as a material to enhance denture retention, stability and function? MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the summer of 2007, a questionnaire was mailed to 300 general dentists who were assigned with a random systematic sampling method from general dentists in Tehran. The questions were arranged in two parts of evaluating knowledge and attitude. In evaluation of knowledge, dentists were classified into groups of good, moderate, weak and lack of knowledge. In evaluation of attitude, dentists were classified into positive, moderate and negative groups. (Evaluating attitude was carried out in good and moderate groups of knowledge.) RESULTS: The study showed that 14%, 32% and 37% of the general dentists had respectively good, moderate and weak knowledge toward denture adhesive while 16.3% had no knowledge about this material. In evaluation of attitude through dentists with positive and moderate knowledge toward denture adhesive, 9.3%, 71.3% and 19.4% had respectively positive, moderate and negative attitude toward denture adhesive. The chi2 test showed a significant statistical relation between situation of knowledge and experiences of dentists. DISCUSSION: This study demonstrated that the rate of knowledge of these 300 general dentists in Tehran towards denture adhesives has not been in a good situation. It is believed that denture adhesive be able to enhance the fitness of a denture and provide psychological relief to the patient. Dentists agreed that education, not only for practitioners but also for patients, would raise the advantageous features and reduce the misuse of denture adhesive. Education of the topic "Denture adhesive" should be more concerned in dental universities.

Fakhri H; Fayaz A; Faramarzi F; Javaheri HH

2009-04-01

339

KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS INCLUSIVE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES: THE CASE OF THAI PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS*  

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Full Text Available Thailand amended legislation to allow children with disabilities to attend regular public schools. However, a variety of cultural considerations influences teachers' responses to this legislation. This study uses descriptive-survey method to investigate Thai teachers’ knowledge and attitude towards inclusive education of children with learning disabilities (LD) in public primary schools in Nonthaburi Province, Thailand in the school year 2011-2012. Three hundred ten general education teachers completed a modified- translated-to- Thai-Language version of Opinions Relative to the Integration of Children with Disabilities (ORI) survey. Therespondents had partial knowledge on the provision of legislation and exhibited moderate knowledge on the symptoms of learning disabilities. The Thai public primary school teachers had a favorable attitude towards inclusion of LD children in regular classrooms in terms of their beliefs, feelings and actions. There is a need for Thailand to open up more training and qualification advancement programs to improve the knowledge and attitude of the Thai teachers. The officials of the Ministry of Education possibly will transition the previous education system toward a systemthat now integrates children with exceptionality, provides teachers with scientific research and model of change to help indicate the kind of educational change and/or program needed in order to work with students with disabilities and designs advocacy program to create less discriminating society. Finally, there is a need toinvestigate explicit details about teacher attitudes as they relate to inclusion, student’s learning, classroom management and the emerging factors related to perceptions of how inclusion will affect behavior and the school environment.

Richel C. Dapudong

2013-01-01

340

Current knowledge attitudes, and practices of healthcare providers about leprosy in Assam, India  

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Full Text Available Background: Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that is associated with serious morbidity and is a disease of public health concern because of the case load and the social stigma attached to the disease. Aim: To understand the knowledge of, and attitudes towards, leprosy amongst healthcare providers in Assam, India. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted during March to June 2007 in different health institutions of the Kamrup district of Assam. Results: Among the program managers interviewed, only half were organizing training sessions, and 37.5% were involved in supervision of the program activities at the periphery level. Among the program managers who were involved with leprosy elimination, only half were organizing training session and 37.5% were involved in supervision of the program activities at the periphery level. Medical officers consistently demonstrated higher knowledge about leprosy, followed by health supervisors and multipurpose workers (MPWs), including nursing staff. Regarding training status with regard to leprosy, 90% of medical officers, 80% of health supervisors and around 87% of MPWs (83% of male MPWs and 89% of female MPWs) had attended training programs on leprosy. Regarding WHO MDT, 80% of health supervisors, 84.8% of male MPWs and 86.2% of female MPWs had an idea of MDT and treatment duration of various categories of patients. Conclusions: These observations suggest that there appear to be adequate knowledge and positive behavior among healthcare providers with regard to leprosy in this part of India. However, there is still a need to organize training programs at regular intervals to train new recruits, as well as reinforce and update the knowledge of those already trained.

Kar Sumit; Ahmad S; Pal Ranabir

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Knowledge and attitude of the primary school male students about the Iranian fluoride mouth rinse  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was designed to assess the knowledge and attitude of male students of Kerman primaryschools about 0.2% sodium fluoride mouthwash solution that students used it once a week.METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 502 boys, eight to nine year-old and students of Kerman primaryschools were selected for the study. The data related to their knowledge and attitude about the sodium fluoridemouthwash were collected by questionnaire.RESULTS: The boy students’ knowledge about the sodium fluoride mouthwash solution was good but their attitude wasnegative.CONCLUSIONS: The oral health education program concerning the optimal use of the fluoride mouthwash in dentalcaries prevention is highly recommended. It is suggested that its taste is improved

Hamid Reza Poureslami DDS, MSc; Lila Shafie DDS, MSc; Elham Farrokh Gisoure DDS, MSc; Lida Pishbin DDS, MSc

2012-01-01

342

Knowledge and attitudes toward organ donation: a community-based study comparing rural and urban populations  

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Full Text Available The study was set to determine whether knowledge and attitudes toward organ dona-tion differ according to geographical location. Self-administered questionnaires were employed to collect data such as demographic characteristics, basic knowledge, attitudes and source of information about organ donation from subjects in rural and urban areas. The questionnaires were distributed randomly to 1,000 individuals in both areas during 2008. The data were analyzed in a descriptive fashion. Despite similarities in knowledge and attitudes of respondents in both areas, rural res-pondents were less likely to have information about organ donation, to report willingness to donate organs, and to have knowledge about "brain death" or the "organ donation card" than their counter-parts in urban areas. The study identified that the principle respondents? source of information about organ donation was the television. More than 90% of respondents in rural and urban areas reported that the contribution of health care providers in providing them with knowledge about organ dona-tion and transplantation was "none" or "little". Respondents identified several reasons, which may influence their decisions to donate organs. In conclusion, the deficit in knowledge and attitudes of rural respondents about organ donation may be justified by the lack of information about this signi-ficant issue. Accordingly, health facilities, local mass media and educational institutions should provide intensive educational programs to encourage the public donate organs.

Alghanim Saad

2010-01-01

343

Knowledge and attitudes towards genetic testing in those affected with Parkinson's disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Advances in genetic tests provide valuable information for clinicians and patients around risks and inheritance of Parkinson's Disease (PD); however, questions arise whether those affected or at risk of PD will want genetic testing, particularly given that there are no preventive or disease-modifying therapies currently available. This study sought to determine knowledge and attitudes toward genetic testing for those affected with PD. A cross-sectional study was undertaken using a standardized questionnaire with six multi-choice genetic knowledge and 17 multi-choice attitude items. Participants were selected from a registry of people affected with PD living in Queensland, Australia. Half of the selected index cases had a family history of PD. Ordinal regression was used to evaluate the association between support for genetic testing and demographic, knowledge, and other attitudinal factors. The level of genetic knowledge was relatively low (37 % correct responses). The vast majority supported diagnostic testing (97 %) and 90 % would undertake a genetic test themselves. Support for predictive was lower (78 %) and prenatal genetic testing had the least support (58 %). Benefits of testing were identified as the ability to know the child's risk, seek therapies, and helping science with finding a cure. Concerns about genetic testing included potential emotional reactions and test accuracy. Genetic knowledge was not significantly associated with attitudes towards genetic testing. Patients with PD have strong interest in genetic testing for themselves with support for diagnostic testing but less support for predictive and prenatal testing. Genetic knowledge was unrelated to testing attitudes.

Scuffham TM; McInerny-Leo A; Ng SK; Mellick G

2013-09-01

344

Improving knowledge and attitudes towards depression: a controlled trial among Chinese medical students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Establishing an evidence-based method of improving knowledge and attitudes concerning depression has been identified as a priority in Chinese medical education. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a self-directed learning strategy as a part of student-centred education improved knowledge of and attitudes towards depression among Chinese medical students. METHODS: A controlled trial in which 205 medical students were allocated to one of two groups: didactic teaching (DT) group or a combined didactic teaching and self-directed learning (DT/SDL) group. The DT/SDL group continued having a series of learning activities after both groups had a lecture on depression together. Student's knowledge and attitudes were assessed immediately after the activities, one month and six months later. RESULTS: The intervention (DT/SDL) group showed substantially greater improvements in recognition of depression as a major health issue and identifying helpful treatments than the DT group. Only the DT/SDL group demonstrated any improvement in attitudes. This improvement was sustained over six months. CONCLUSIONS: Self-directed learning is an effective education strategy in improving medical students' knowledge of and attitudes towards depression.

Rong Y; Glozier N; Luscombe GM; Davenport TA; Huang Y; Hickie IB

2011-01-01

345

Improving Knowledge and Attitudes towards Depression: a controlled trial among Chinese medical students  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing an evidence-based method of improving knowledge and attitudes concerning depression has been identified as a priority in Chinese medical education. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a self-directed learning strategy as a part of student-centred education improved knowledge of and attitudes towards depression among Chinese medical students. Methods A controlled trial in which 205 medical students were allocated to one of two groups: didactic teaching (DT) group or a combined didactic teaching and self-directed learning (DT/SDL) group. The DT/SDL group continued having a series of learning activities after both groups had a lecture on depression together. Student's knowledge and attitudes were assessed immediately after the activities, one month and six months later. Results The intervention (DT/SDL) group showed substantially greater improvements in recognition of depression as a major health issue and identifying helpful treatments than the DT group. Only the DT/SDL group demonstrated any improvement in attitudes. This improvement was sustained over six months. Conclusions Self-directed learning is an effective education strategy in improving medical students' knowledge of and attitudes towards depression.

Rong Ye; Glozier Nick; Luscombe Georgina M; Davenport Tracey A; Huang Yueqin; Hickie Ian B

2011-01-01

346

Relationship of Community Leaders Knowledge and Attitude in Role of Dengue Fever Control in Kawalu Tasikmalaya  

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Full Text Available Dengue fever is an infectious disease caused by the dengue virus and transmitted by the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. If not treated quickly, it can develop into a lethal hemorrhagic disease. The study was conducted with a cross-sectional design aimed to determine the relationship of knowledge and attitudes of community leaders to its role in the control of dengue fever in Kawalu Public Health Centre Tasikmalaya City. The study population is all public jigures who are in the Kawalu Public Health Centre, with sample size of 68 respondents. Sampling technique was purposive sampling. The results were analyzed with chi­square (X2) to see the relationship of knowledge and attitudes of community leaders to its role in the control of dengue fever. The results showed that there was no