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1

A light mosquito trapping and killing device of catch basin  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The light inducing catch basin device for killing mosquito lava includes draining grating comprising grating, grating frame, water collecting tank and draining pipe and separated egg laying cavity, mosquito raising chamber and emergence chamber. The present invention features the grating as inclined shading sheet, the mosquito raising chamber and the emergence chamber lighted through the grating frame, and the draining pipe inserted into water and with opened lower mouth for draining. Female mosquito flies through the holes in the grating into the egg laying cavity to lay egg, the mosquito lava is induced by light into the mosquito raising chamber, and the emerged mosquito can not escape from the emergence chamber. The present invention has simple structure, and may be used widely in catch basin to control mosquito propagation.

HUANG ZHU; HUANG SHAN

2

Photoacoustically-guided photothermal killing of mosquitoes targeted by nanoparticles.  

Science.gov (United States)

In biomedical applications, nanoparticles have demonstrated the potential to eradicate abnormal cells in small localized pathological zones associated with cancer or infections. Here, we introduce a method for nanotechnology-based photothermal (PT) killing of whole organisms considered harmful to humans or the environment. We demonstrate that laser-induced thermal, and accompanying nano- and microbubble phenomena, can injure or kill C. elegans and mosquitoes fed carbon nanotubes, gold nanospheres, gold nanoshells, or magnetic nanoparticles at laser energies that are safe for humans. In addition, a photoacoustic (PA) effect was used to control nanoparticle delivery. Through the integration of this technique with molecular targeting, nanoparticle clustering, magnetic capturing and spectral sharpening of PA and PT plasmonic resonances, our laser-based PA-PT nano-theranostic platform can be applied to detection and the physical destruction of small organisms and carriers of pathogens, such as malaria vectors, spiders, bed bugs, fleas, ants, locusts, grasshoppers, phytophagous mites, or other arthropod pests, irrespective of their resistance to conventional treatments. (© 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim). PMID:23450780

Foster, Stephen R; Galanzha, Ekaterina I; Totten, Daniel C; Beneš, Helen; Shmookler Reis, Robert J; Zharov, Vladimir P

2013-03-01

3

Common host-derived chemicals increase catches of disease-transmitting mosquitoes and can improve early warning systems for Rift Valley fever virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rift Valley fever (RVF), a mosquito-borne zoonosis, is a major public health and veterinary problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Surveillance to monitor mosquito populations during the inter-epidemic period (IEP) and viral activity in these vectors is critical to informing public health decisions for early warning and control of the disease. Using a combination of field bioassays, electrophysiological and chemical analyses we demonstrated that skin-derived aldehydes (heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal) common to RVF virus (RVFV) hosts including sheep, cow, donkey, goat and human serve as potent attractants for RVFV mosquito vectors. Furthermore, a blend formulated from the four aldehydes and combined with CO(2)-baited CDC trap without a light bulb doubled to tripled trap captures compared to control traps baited with CO(2) alone. Our results reveal that (a) because of the commonality of the host chemical signature required for attraction, the host-vector interaction appears to favor the mosquito vector allowing it to find and opportunistically feed on a wide range of mammalian hosts of the disease, and (b) the sensitivity, specificity and superiority of this trapping system offers the potential for its wider use in surveillance programs for RVFV mosquito vectors especially during the IEP. PMID:23326620

Tchouassi, David P; Sang, Rosemary; Sole, Catherine L; Bastos, Armanda D S; Teal, Peter E A; Borgemeister, Christian; Torto, Baldwyn

2013-01-10

4

Common host-derived chemicals increase catches of disease-transmitting mosquitoes and can improve early warning systems for Rift Valley fever virus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rift Valley fever (RVF), a mosquito-borne zoonosis, is a major public health and veterinary problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Surveillance to monitor mosquito populations during the inter-epidemic period (IEP) and viral activity in these vectors is critical to informing public health decisions for early warning and control of the disease. Using a combination of field bioassays, electrophysiological and chemical analyses we demonstrated that skin-derived aldehydes (heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal) common to RVF virus (RVFV) hosts including sheep, cow, donkey, goat and human serve as potent attractants for RVFV mosquito vectors. Furthermore, a blend formulated from the four aldehydes and combined with CO(2)-baited CDC trap without a light bulb doubled to tripled trap captures compared to control traps baited with CO(2) alone. Our results reveal that (a) because of the commonality of the host chemical signature required for attraction, the host-vector interaction appears to favor the mosquito vector allowing it to find and opportunistically feed on a wide range of mammalian hosts of the disease, and (b) the sensitivity, specificity and superiority of this trapping system offers the potential for its wider use in surveillance programs for RVFV mosquito vectors especially during the IEP.

Tchouassi DP; Sang R; Sole CL; Bastos AD; Teal PE; Borgemeister C; Torto B

2013-01-01

5

Single light source wide-band floor model lamp for killing mosquitoes  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model relates to a broadband floor type mosquito killing light of a single light source, which comprises a light body, wherein the upper body of the light body is provided with an electric box body, and the middle part is provided with a temptation mosquito light source body and a metal inner net fuses, a high-voltage generator, an electronic ballast and a water-proof power supply switch are arranged in the electric box body the temptation mosquito light source body comprises at least two fluorescent tubes of the same characteristic the electronic ballast is a special broadband electronic ballast which generates voltage of high-frequency balance power to drive the temptation mosquito light source body to give out broadband light waves which are broadband purple light, and the wavelength of the broadband purple light is from 365 to 395 nm. The period of the service life of the entire light is improved by more than 30 percent than other similar products on the market. Besides, the temptation and killing effects are also satisfactory.

BAOTAI YUAN; YAOHUI OU; SHUMIN YUAN

6

Parasite killing in malaria non-vector mosquito Anopheles culicifacies species B: implication of nitric oxide synthase upregulation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Anopheles culicifacies, the main vector of human malaria in rural India, is a complex of five sibling species. Despite being phylogenetically related, a naturally selected subgroup species B of this sibling species complex is found to be a poor vector of malaria. We have attempted to understand the differences between vector and non-vector Anopheles culicifacies mosquitoes in terms of transcriptionally activated nitric oxide synthase (AcNOS) physiologies to elucidate the mechanism of refractoriness. Identification of the differences between genes and gene products that may impart refractory phenotype can facilitate development of novel malaria transmission blocking strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a study on phylogenetically related susceptible (species A) and refractory (species B) sibling species of An. culicifacies mosquitoes to characterize biochemical and molecular differences in AcNOS gene and gene elements and their ability to inhibit oocyst growth. We demonstrate that in species B, AcNOS specific activity and nitrite/nitrates in mid-guts and haemolymph were higher as compared to species A after invasion of the mid-gut by P. vivax at the beginning and during the course of blood feeding. Semiquantitative RT-PCR and real time PCR data of AcNOS concluded that this gene is more abundantly expressed in midgut of species B than in species A and is transcriptionally upregulated post blood meals. Dietary feeding of L-NAME along with blood meals significantly inhibited midgut AcNOS activity leading to an increase in oocyst production in An. culicifacies species B. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We hypothesize that upregulation of mosquito innate cytotoxicity due to NOS in refractory strain to Plasmodium vivax infection may contribute to natural refractoriness in An. culicifacies mosquito population. This innate capacity of refractory mosquitoes could represent the ancestral function of the mosquito immune system against the parasite and could be utilized to understand the molecular basis of refractoriness in planning effective vector control strategies.

Vijay S; Rawat M; Adak T; Dixit R; Nanda N; Srivastava H; Sharma JK; Prasad GB; Sharma A

2011-01-01

7

Parasite Killing in Malaria Non-Vector Mosquito Anopheles culicifacies Species B: Implication of Nitric Oxide Synthase Upregulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Anopheles culicifacies, the main vector of human malaria in rural India, is a complex of five sibling species. Despite being phylogenetically related, a naturally selected subgroup species B of this sibling species complex is found to be a poor vector of malaria. We have attempted to understand the differences between vector and non-vector Anopheles culicifacies mosquitoes in terms of transcriptionally activated nitric oxide synthase (AcNOS) physiologies to elucidate the mechanism of refractoriness. Identification of the differences between genes and gene products that may impart refractory phenotype can facilitate development of novel malaria transmission blocking strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a study on phylogenetically related susceptible (species A) and refractory (species B) sibling species of An. culicifacies mosquitoes to characterize biochemical and molecular differences in AcNOS gene and gene elements and their ability to inhibit oocyst growth. We demonstrate that in species B, AcNOS specific activity and nitrite/nitrates in mid-guts and haemolymph were higher as compared to species A after invasion of the mid-gut by P. vivax at the beginning and during the course of blood feeding. Semiquantitative RT-PCR and real time PCR data of AcNOS concluded that this gene is more abundantly expressed in midgut of species B than in species A and is transcriptionally upregulated post blood meals. Dietary feeding of L-NAME along with blood meals significantly inhibited midgut AcNOS activity leading to an increase in oocyst production in An. culicifacies species B. Conclusions/Significance We hypothesize that upregulation of mosquito innate cytotoxicity due to NOS in refractory strain to Plasmodium vivax infection may contribute to natural refractoriness in An. culicifacies mosquito population. This innate capacity of refractory mosquitoes could represent the ancestral function of the mosquito immune system against the parasite and could be utilized to understand the molecular basis of refractoriness in planning effective vector control strategies.

Vijay, Sonam; Rawat, Manmeet; Adak, Tridibes; Dixit, Rajnikant; Nanda, Nutan; Srivastava, Harish; Sharma, Joginder K.; Prasad, Godavarthi B. K. S.; Sharma, Arun

2011-01-01

8

Wind mosquito killer  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model relates to a wind mosquito killer which comprises a micro fan. The fan is provided with a closed shell, a hollow air inlet duct and a hollow outtake, wherein the air inlet duct and the outtake are communicated with the outside space and the hollow of the shell a mosquito retaining net is arranged in the air inlet duct the fan end of the outtake is connected with a micro battery and the battery is provided with an external jack and a knob switch for transforming an anode and a cathode. Compared with the prior art, the wind mosquito killer has the advantages that mosquitos are rapidly caught in a suction mode and killed by wind the wind mosquito killer is easy, convenient and rapid to kill the mosquitos and not only is the smoke pollution of mosquito incense avoided, but also the electric energy does not need to be consumed overnight. Moreover, the defect that when the mosquitos are killed by a mosquito basketry or double hands, the wall and the palms are dirtied by blood of the mosquitos so that the mode of killing mosquitos by the mosquito basketry or the double hands is not beneficial to the health of a human body can be avoided.

JUNLING ZHANG

9

Using a new odour-baited device to explore options for luring and killing outdoor-biting malaria vectors: a report on design and field evaluation of the Mosquito Landing Box  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Mosquitoes that bite people outdoors can sustain malaria transmission even where effective indoor interventions such as bednets or indoor residual spraying are already widely used. Outdoor tools may therefore complement current indoor measures and improve control. We developed and evaluated a prototype mosquito control device, the ‘Mosquito Landing Box’ (MLB), which is baited with human odours and treated with mosquitocidal agents. The findings are used to explore technical options and challenges relevant to luring and killing outdoor-biting malaria vectors in endemic settings. Methods Field experiments were conducted in Tanzania to assess if wild host-seeking mosquitoes 1) visited the MLBs, 2) stayed long or left shortly after arrival at the device, 3) visited the devices at times when humans were also outdoors, and 4) could be killed by contaminants applied on the devices. Odours suctioned from volunteer-occupied tents were also evaluated as a potential low-cost bait, by comparing baited and unbaited MLBs. Results There were significantly more Anopheles arabiensis, An. funestus, Culex and Mansonia mosquitoes visiting baited MLB than unbaited controls (P?0.028). Increasing sampling frequency from every 120 min to 60 and 30 min led to an increase in vector catches of up to 3.6 fold (P?0.002), indicating that many mosquitoes visited the device but left shortly afterwards. Outdoor host-seeking activity of malaria vectors peaked between 7:30 and 10:30pm, and between 4:30 and 6:00am, matching durations when locals were also outdoors. Maximum mortality of mosquitoes visiting MLBs sprayed or painted with formulations of candidate mosquitocidal agent (pirimiphos-methyl) was 51%. Odours from volunteer occupied tents attracted significantly more mosquitoes to MLBs than controls (Pagents used should be environmentally safe, long lasting, and have different modes of action (other than pyrethroids as used on LLINs), to curb the risk of physiological insecticide resistance.

2013-01-01

10

Using a new odour-baited device to explore options for luring and killing outdoor-biting malaria vectors: a report on design and field evaluation of the Mosquito Landing Box.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes that bite people outdoors can sustain malaria transmission even where effective indoor interventions such as bednets or indoor residual spraying are already widely used. Outdoor tools may therefore complement current indoor measures and improve control. We developed and evaluated a prototype mosquito control device, the 'Mosquito Landing Box' (MLB), which is baited with human odours and treated with mosquitocidal agents. The findings are used to explore technical options and challenges relevant to luring and killing outdoor-biting malaria vectors in endemic settings. METHODS: Field experiments were conducted in Tanzania to assess if wild host-seeking mosquitoes 1) visited the MLBs, 2) stayed long or left shortly after arrival at the device, 3) visited the devices at times when humans were also outdoors, and 4) could be killed by contaminants applied on the devices. Odours suctioned from volunteer-occupied tents were also evaluated as a potential low-cost bait, by comparing baited and unbaited MLBs. RESULTS: There were significantly more Anopheles arabiensis, An. funestus, Culex and Mansonia mosquitoes visiting baited MLB than unbaited controls (P?0.028). Increasing sampling frequency from every 120 min to 60 and 30 min led to an increase in vector catches of up to 3.6 fold (P?0.002), indicating that many mosquitoes visited the device but left shortly afterwards. Outdoor host-seeking activity of malaria vectors peaked between 7:30 and 10:30 pm, and between 4:30 and 6:00 am, matching durations when locals were also outdoors. Maximum mortality of mosquitoes visiting MLBs sprayed or painted with formulations of candidate mosquitocidal agent (pirimiphos-methyl) was 51%. Odours from volunteer occupied tents attracted significantly more mosquitoes to MLBs than controls (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: While odour-baited devices such as the MLBs clearly have potential against outdoor-biting mosquitoes in communities where LLINs are used, candidate contaminants must be those that are effective at ultra-low doses even after short contact periods, since important vector species such as An. arabiensis make only brief visits to such devices. Natural human odours suctioned from occupied dwellings could constitute affordable sources of attractants to supplement odour baits for the devices. The killing agents used should be environmentally safe, long lasting, and have different modes of action (other than pyrethroids as used on LLINs), to curb the risk of physiological insecticide resistance.

Matowo NS; Moore J; Mapua S; Madumla EP; Moshi IR; Kaindoa EW; Mwangungulu SP; Kavishe DR; Sumaye RD; Lwetoijera DW; Okumu FO

2013-01-01

11

Towards mosquito sterile insect technique programmes: Exploring genetic, molecular, mechanical and behavioural methods of sex separation in mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

When considering a mosquito release programme, one of the first issues to be addressed is how to eliminate/separate the females. The greatest number of options might eventually be available for those who can use transgenic mosquitoes, but the inherent characteristics of the target species may also provide possibilities for interim measures until more efficient methods can be developed. Differences in intrinsic size, in behaviour and in development rate between females and males are often available and useful for sexing. Efficient species-specific systems for eliminating females at the embryo stage have been developed, but most have since been discarded due to lack of use. Ideal systems specifically kill female embryos using some treatment that can be manipulated during production. Such killing systems are far more efficient than using intrinsic sexual differences, but they systems require selectable genetic markers and sex-linkage created by rare random chromosomal rearrangements. While intrinsic sexual differences should not be considered as long-term candidates for the development of robust and efficient sexing approaches, in the absence of these, the accessibility and integration of less efficient systems can provide a stop-gap measure that allows rapid start up with a minimum of investment. The International Atomic Energy Agency is funding over a 5 year period (2013-2018) a new Coordinated Research Project on "Exploring Genetic, Molecular, Mechanical and Behavioural Methods of Sex Separation in Mosquitoes" to network researchers and to address the critical need of genetic sexing strains for the implementation of the sterile insect technique (using radiation-sterilised or transgenic male mosquitoes) and for insect incompatibility technique programmes against disease-transmitting mosquitoes.

Gilles J; Schetelig M; Scolari F; Marec F; Capurro ML; Franz G; Bourtzis K

2013-08-01

12

Device for entrapping mosquitoes  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model relates to a device for entrapping mosquitoes. The device mainly utilizes luminescence components which are arranged inside a pedestal and have different wavelengths to attract the mosquitoes of different phototactic characteristics. The utility model also relates to a device for entrapping mosquitoes. The device utilizes a solar panel to absorb light energy emitted by the luminescence components and to convert the light energy into electric energy and takes the electric energy as another power supplied for the luminescence components, and an electric grid outside the pedestal can help achieve the aims of recycling, energy conservation and mosquito entrapping and killing.

RUIZHAO CHEN

13

Wash resistance and repellent properties of Africa University mosquito blankets against mosquitoes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of permethrin-treated Africa University (AU) mosquito blankets on susceptible female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes was studied under laboratory conditions at Africa University Campus in Mutare, Zimbabwe. Wash resistance (ability to retain an effective dose that kills ?80% of mosquitoes after a number of washes) and repellence (ability to prevent ?80% of mosquito bites) properties were studied. The AU blankets were wash resistant when 100% mortality was recorded up to 20 washes, declining to 90% after 25 washes. Untreated AU blankets did not cause any mortality on mosquitoes. However, mosquito repellence was 96%, 94%, 97.9%, 87%, 85% and 80.7% for treated AU blankets washed 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 times, respectively. Mosquito repellence was consistently above 80% from 0-25 washes. In conclusion, AU blankets washed 25 times were effective in repelling and killing An. gambiae sl mosquitoes under laboratory conditions.

N. Lukwa; A. Makuwaza; T. Chiwade; S.L. Mutambu; M. Zimba; P. Munosiyei

2013-01-01

14

Intelligent mosquito repellent device  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A smart mosquito killer comprises a settling tank and a water tank which is arranged in the settling tank through the opening of the settling tank and positioned in the upper part of the settling tank. The water tank can be filled with marsh water and the upper part of the water tank is provided with a top cover, an electric controller, a mosquito induction inlet, an oviposition cavity, a water inlet and an overflow pipe, and the bottom of the water tank is provided with an electromagnetic valve and a duct, wherein the duct inserting into the marsh water of the settling tank. The top of the settling tank is provided with a separation net for closing an emergence chamber, the settling tank is provided with a down comer communicated with an underground leaky pipe, and the lower part of the settling tank is buried into green land with ambient hedge for shielding. The water inlet is communicated with an electric water pump arranged in the marsh water through a water inlet pipe, and the electric controller which has a control circuit turns on the electric water pump periodically to pour marsh water into the water tank. Female mosquitoes fly into the oviposition cavity and oviposit on water surface. Before hatched mosquito larvae escape after emergence, the electromagnetic valve can automatically open to let mosquito larvae drop into the settling tank with marsh water and be killed, while the marsh water can drains into the underground leaky pipe to irrigate flowers and trees. The device can be arranged in residential quarters or scenic areas to kill mosquito larvae and root away mosquito hazard.

HUANG ZHU HUANG

15

Fly-killing dustbin (barrel)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A fly trap fruit-rind bin (can) is an indoor and outdoor fly trap device which combines a daily fruit-rind trash bin with a device for killing flies and mosquitoes. The fly trap fruit-rind bin (can) is divided into an upper part and a lower part. The upper part is a device for luring and exterminating the flies (or the mosquitoes), and the lower part is used for collecting garbage. The fly trap fruit-rind bin (can) lures the flies and mosquitoes around the fruit-rind bin and the trash bin to the top of the fly trap fruit-rind bin (can) by a high-efficiency attractant, and the like, at the top thereof, and kills the flies and the mosquitoes by methods such as electric shock, and the like. The killed flies and mosquitoes fall into the fruit-rind bin (trash bin). The fly trap fruit-rind bin has the advantages of environmental protection, sanitation, and being clean and safe. The fly trap fruit-rind bin (can) can be an uncharged simple type, and can be an electric type with an external power supply or a self-contained power supply, such as a storage battery or solar energy. The popularization and application of the fly trap fruit-rind bin has better social benefits and economic benefits.

XIN PAN

16

110V electronic ballast specially for mosquito eradication lamp  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 110V electronic ballast specially designed for a mosquito killing lamp which belongs to electronic ballast technical field. The mosquito killing lamp is a special electronic device for trapping and killing mosquito, the mosquito killing lamp tube is normally supplied power by 220V AC electronic ballast. Considering the product will be exported to 110V power supply countries such as Japan, the development of special 110V electronic ballast for mosquito killing lamp is necessary. The technic proposal of the utility model is that voltage multiplying circuit 1, a power factor correction circuit 2, a inverter driving circuit 3, and a abnormal situation protection circuit 4 are connected in series. The utility model has advantages of unique circuit design, circuit power factor is larger than 0.99, the input current total harmonic content is lower than 10%, the lamp power current wave crest coefficient is lower than 1.7, stable work frequency, and high light emission rate.

YU XIAOPING; WANG PING; ZHANG TONGYIN

17

Mosquito Modifications: New Approaches to Controlling Malaria  

Science.gov (United States)

This article from the November 2007 issue of BioScience examines the historical and current methods to control Malaria.Malaria kills about one million people each year, but efforts to destroy disease-carrying mosquitoes have succeeded only in breeding tougher bugs. Researchers have begun to look for ways to create malaria-resistant mosquitoes. One approach is to bioengineer transgenic mosquitoes that, when released into the wild, would lead to a new race of malaria-proof young. Another approach uses mosquitoes' natural resistance to Plasmodium infection.

Sharon Levy (;)

2007-11-01

18

[Mosquito allergy].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Virtually all Finns are sensitized to mosquito bites already during childhood. Skin reactions caused by mosquito bites vary from rapidly appearing urticarial wheals to persistent itching papules. Allergic shock is fortunately extremely rare. The symptoms are strongest in early summer. Immediate symptoms result from proteins that get into the skin along with mosquito saliva and induce the production of IgE class antibodies by the body. The originating mechanism of delayed symptoms is unclear. Both immediate and delayed symptoms of mosquito allergy can be relieved with antihistamine drugs.

Brummer-Korvenkontio H; Reunala T

2013-01-01

19

Entomopathogenic fungi for mosquito control: A review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fungal diseases in insects are common and widespread and can decimate their populations in spectacular epizootics. Virtually all insect orders are susceptible to fungal diseases, including Dipterans. Fungal pathogens such as Lagenidium, Coelomomyces and Culicinomyces are known to affect mosquito populations, and have been studied extensively. There are, however, many other fungi that infect and kill mosquitoes at the larval and/or adult stage. The discovery, in 1977, of the selective mosquito-pathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner israelensis (Bti) curtailed widespread interest in the search for other suitable biological control agents. In recent years interest in mosquito-killing fungi is reviving, mainly due to continuous and increasing levels of insecticide resistance and increasing global risk of mosquito-borne diseases. This review presents an update of published data on mosquito-pathogenic fungi and mosquito-pathogen interactions, covering 13 different fungal genera. Notwithstanding the potential of many fungi as mosquito control agents, only a handful have been commercialized and are marketed for use in abatement programs. We argue that entomopathogenic fungi, both new and existing ones with renewed/improved efficacies may contribute to an expansion of the limited arsenal of effective mosquito control tools, and that they may contribute in a significant and sustainable manner to the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue and filariasis.

Ernst-Jan Scholte; Bart G.J. Knols; Robert A. Samson; Willem Takken

2004-01-01

20

Insect killing device  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model relates to a bug killer. A pothook is installed at the top of a columnar canister, and a lighting circuit and bug bait are arranged inside the columnar canister the columnar canister is made of transparent material and is provided with vent holes on the outer wall a lap of electric grid is wound on the surface of the outer wall of the columnar canister. When in use, the user can hang the columnar canister on the wall or place the columnar canister on the ground. When in work, firstly, the lighting circuit is switched on so that the lighting equipment can irradiate to attract mosquitoes and bugs meanwhile, the power source of the electric grid is connected so current runs through the surface of the electric grid. Mosquitoes and bugs are photophil and when the mosquitoes and bugs approach the light source inside the columnar canister, they will be shot faint or killed by the electric grid on the outer wall of the columnar canister. The bug killer is simple in structure, convenient and practical, nice-looking in appearance and reasonable in process.

LIN ZHANG

 
 
 
 
21

Mosquito species geographical distribution in Iraq 2009.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Mosquitoes transmit diseases to >700 million people annually. Malaria kills three million persons every year, including one child every 30 sec. Worldwide there are >3000 mosquito species. In Iraq, 37 species have been identified in different surveys over several decades. We conducted an entomological survey to determine the mosquito species and their distribution in Iraq in 2009. METHODS: Between January 20 and December 31, 2009, mosquitoes in houses in 12 Iraqi provinces were collected and speciated. Five to 10 villages were selected randomly in each province and in each village 10 houses were selected randomly to collect mosquitoes and the density of mosquitoes per room was calculated. Kits for entomological investigation were used and the collected mosquitoes were sent to the vector borne disease section laboratory for classification using the Naval Medical Research Unit 3 standard classification key. RESULTS: A total of 29,156 mosquitoes were collected, representing two genera: Anopheles (n=13,268, or 46% of the total collected) and Culex (n=15,888, or 54% of the total collected). Four Anopheles (An. pulcherrimus, An. stephensi, An. superpictus, and An. sacharovi) and one Culex (Cx. pipiens) species were identified. Anopheles pulcherrimus was found in 11 provinces, An. stephensi in 7, An. superpictus in 2 and An. sacharovi in one province, while Cx. pipiens was found in all the 12 provinces. Two peaks of mosquito density were found: the first from April-June and the other from September-October. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: There are clear differences in Anopheles mosquito species geographical distribution and density among Iraqi provinces, while Cx. pipiens mosquitoes are distributed all over Iraq. All mosquito genera show clear seasonal density variation. The study highlights that the manual mosquito classification is not enough to identify all the species of mosquitoes in Iraq.

Hantosh HA; Hassan HM; Ahma B; Al-fatlawy A

2012-03-01

22

HERBAL CONTROL OF MOSQUITO LARVAE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mosquitoes are the vectors for the dreadful diseases of mankind. For control of larval stages of mosquito, herbal plant extracts/ botanical insecticides are being tried. In the present study aqueous extract of some traditional medicinal herbal plants i.e. Neem (Azadirechta indica), Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Tulasi (Ocimum santum), and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) were tested for their Larvicidal activity. The successful attempt is made to kill the larvae, the premature stage of mosquitoes by using safe and socio-economical herbal plant extract mixtures. Ginger+Tobacco, Neem+Tobbaco and Ginger Neem, Turmeric, Tobacco and Tulasi showed highest larvicidal activity. The results obtained show that this plant material exhibited larvicidal activity and could be considered as potent natural larvicidal agent without any toxic effects.

Chaudhari Priyanka S, Chaudhari SV* Jangam Sampada, Shinde JS, Wankhede Sneha

2013-01-01

23

Killing fetuses and killing newborns.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The argument for the moral permissibility of killing newborns is a challenge to liberal positions on abortion because it can be considered a reductio of their defence of abortion. Here I defend the liberal stance on abortion by arguing that the argument for the moral permissibility of killing newborns on ground of the social, psychological and economic burden on the parents recently put forward by Giubilini and Minerva is not valid; this is because they fail to show that newborns cannot be harmed and because there are morally relevant differences between fetuses and newborns.

Di Nucci E

2013-05-01

24

Detecting malaria sporozoites in live, field-collected mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method is described for identifying malaria-infected mosquitoes, without killing them or hampering their fitness. Individual mosquitoes were induced to salivate on coverslips, and sporozoites, deposited on the glass surface, were visualized by Giemsa staining. Of 21 mosquitoes found to contain sporozoites by salivary gland dissection, 13 had delivered sporozoites on coverslips. A positive correlation was found between the amount of saliva expelled and ejection of sporozoites, indicating that the sensitivity of the method may be increased by improving the probing behaviour of the mosquitoes. The procedure described may be suitable for selecting infected mosquitoes which are able to eject sporozoites during probing. Being applicable to wild Anopheles and to large numbers of mosquitoes, the method lends itself for use in field studies on malaria.

Habluetzel A; Merzagora L; Jenni L; Betschart B; Rotigliano G; Esposito F

1992-03-01

25

Detecting malaria sporozoites in live, field-collected mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method is described for identifying malaria-infected mosquitoes, without killing them or hampering their fitness. Individual mosquitoes were induced to salivate on coverslips, and sporozoites, deposited on the glass surface, were visualized by Giemsa staining. Of 21 mosquitoes found to contain sporozoites by salivary gland dissection, 13 had delivered sporozoites on coverslips. A positive correlation was found between the amount of saliva expelled and ejection of sporozoites, indicating that the sensitivity of the method may be increased by improving the probing behaviour of the mosquitoes. The procedure described may be suitable for selecting infected mosquitoes which are able to eject sporozoites during probing. Being applicable to wild Anopheles and to large numbers of mosquitoes, the method lends itself for use in field studies on malaria. PMID:1440771

Habluetzel, A; Merzagora, L; Jenni, L; Betschart, B; Rotigliano, G; Esposito, F

26

Mosquito Life Cycle  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners build a plastic emergence chamber (or use purchased "mini mosquito breeder") to observe and analyze the mosquito life cycle. Learners record daily observations for 8-14 days by counting the number of larvae, pupae, and adults present in the chamber. This resource includes background information about the mosquito life cycle and mosquitoes as disease vectors plus a link to a mosquito reference manual.

Institute, Howard H.

2010-01-01

27

Mosquito repellent incense containing plant vinegar liquid and use thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to an anti-mosquito incense containing plant vinegar and application thereof, belonging to the sanitary insecticide article technical field. When made into a solid sheet type, the anti-mosquito incense comprises 45 to 65 percent of plant vinegar, 35 to 55 percent of binder and 0.1 to 1.0 percent of essence when made into a liquid type, the anti-mosquito incense comprises 90 to 99 percent of plant vinegar, and 4 to 8 percent of essence. The plant vinegar is one or a plurality of bamboo vinegar, wood vinegar and/or grass vinegar the binder is carbon powder, flour, corn starch, polyvinyl alcohol, WX-602 gelatine powder produced by Juxiang (a name of a company) and sticky wood powder the essence is one or a plurality of benzyl acetate, citric acid, wintergreen oil, dodecanoic acid, Australian orange essence oil, 2, 3-diacetyl propyl lauric acid ester, menthol and citronella oil. The anti-mosquito incense adopts plant vinegar as the active ingredient, has three functions of killing mosquito, killing fly and killing cockroach with good control effect and solves the problem that the using of chemical anti-mosquito incense can cause the insect to generate resistance to drugs.

JIANYI MA

28

Interrupting malaria transmission by genetic manipulation of anopheline mosquitoes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malaria ranks among the deadliest infectious diseases that kills more than one million persons everyyear. The mosquito is an obligatory vector for malaria transmission. In the mosquito, Plasmodiumundergoes a complex series of developmental events that includes transformation into severaldistinct morphological forms and the crossing of two different epithelia—midgut and salivarygland. Circumstantial evidence suggests that crossing of the epithelia requires specific interactionsbetween Plasmodium and epithelial surface molecules. By use of a phage display library we haveidentified a small peptide-SM1—that binds to the surfaces of the mosquito midgut and salivaryglands. Transgenic Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes expressing a SM1 tetramer from a bloodinducibleand gut-specific promoter are substantially impaired in their ability to sustain parasitedevelopment and transmission. A second effector gene, phospholipase A2, also impairs parasitetransmission in transgenic mosquitoes. These findings have important implications for the developmentof new strategies for malaria control.

Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena

2003-01-01

29

Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis to adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Adult female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were killed by the parasporal crystals of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (ONR-60A) when the crystals were introduced into the insect midgut as an enema. The 50% lethal dose for intact parasporal crystals was 0.21 microgram/mg of mosquito (wet weight),...

Klowden, M J; Held, G A; Bulla, L A

30

Transgenic mosquitoes for malaria control: progresses and challenges/ Mosquitos transgênicos para o controle da malária: progressos e desafios  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A malária mata milhões de pessoas a cada ano e as estratégias atuais de controle da doença, como inseticidas e drogas não têm sido tão eficientes. Por este motivo, novos meios para o combate à malária são de extrema importância. Avanços no estudo do mosquito vetor e sua interação com o parasito da malária fizeram os cientistas pensarem que é possível a manipulação genética dos mosquitos para torná-los vetores ineficientes. Neste artigo, revisamos os a (more) vanços na introdução de genes exógenos na linhagem germinativa de mosquitos, a caracterização de promotores específicos de certos tecidos, a identificação de produtos gênicos que bloqueiam o parasita no mosquito, bem como discutimos a recente geração de mosquitos transgênicos, menos eficientes na transmissão de malária. Enquanto muitos progressos foram obtidos, muitos anos de pesquisa são ainda necessários para que mosquitos transgênicos possam ser utilizados na natureza. Abstract in english Malaria kills millions of people every year and the current strategies to control the disease, such as insecticides and drugs have not been completely efficient. Because of that, novel means to fight against malaria are of utmost importance. Advances in the study of the mosquito vector and its interactions with the malaria parasite made scientists think that it is possible to genetically manipulate the mosquitoes to make them inefficient vectors. Here we review the advanc (more) es on the introduction of foreign genes into the mosquito germ line, the characterization of tissue-specific promoters, the identification of gene products that block development of the parasite in the mosquito, and we discuss the recent generation of transgenic mosquitoes impaired for malaria transmission. While much progress has been made, many years of research are still needed before transgenic mosquitoes can be used in the field.

Moreira, Luciano A.; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

2003-12-01

31

Portable electrical mosquito flap  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a portable electrical mosquito flap, which comprises a handle and a flap surface. The flap surface is equipped with a flap frame and an electric grid. The flap surface and the handle can be separated from each other. The handle is detachably connected with the flap frame of the flap surface. According to the structure of the portable electrical mosquito flap, the flap surface and the handle are detachable, so that the electrical mosquito flap is convenient to transport and carry about. Therefore, the transportation cost of the electrical mosquito flap is effectively reduced. The portable electrical mosquito flap has certain economic value and industrial value.

WENCHUN LOU

32

APPARATUS FOR KILLING ANIMALS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Apparatus for killing animals consists of a cylinder on legs. The cylinder contains a revolvable unit with compartments for separating the animals. By keeping the animals apart in compartments, damaging of the pelt is prevented. The killing is rapid (about 4 seconds). Nitrogen is used for the killing.

SVENDSEN Ronald Charles

33

Malaria mosquitoes attracted by fatal fungus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Insect-killing fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are being evaluated as possible active ingredients for use in novel biopesticides against mosquito vectors that transmit malaria. Fungal pathogens infect through contact and so applications of spores to surfaces such as walls, nets, or other resting sites provide possible routes to infect mosquitoes in and around domestic dwellings. However, some insects can detect and actively avoid fungal spores to reduce infection risk. If true for mosquitoes, such behavior could render the biopesticide approach ineffective. Here we find that the spores of B. bassiana are highly attractive to females of Anopheles stephensi, a major anopheline mosquito vector of human malaria in Asia. We further find that An. stephensi females are preferentially attracted to dead and dying caterpillars infected with B. bassiana, landing on them and subsequently becoming infected with the fungus. Females are also preferentially attracted to cloth sprayed with oil-formulated B. bassiana spores, with 95% of the attracted females becoming infected after a one-minute visit on the cloth. This is the first report of an insect being attracted to a lethal fungal pathogen. The exact mechanisms involved in this behavior remain unclear. Nonetheless, our results indicate that biopesticidal formulations comprising B. bassiana spores will be conducive to attraction and on-source visitation by malaria vectors.

George J; Jenkins NE; Blanford S; Thomas MB; Baker TC

2013-01-01

34

ANOPHELES ARABIENSIS EGG TREATMENT WITH DIELDRIN FOR SEX SEPARATION LEAVES RESIDUES IN MALE ADULT MOSQUITOES THAT CAN BIOACCUMULATE IN GOLDFISH (CARASSIUS AURATUS AURATUS).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a biological control tactic, used as a component of area wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes. The SIT can only be applied against disease transmitting mosquitoes when only sterile male mosquitoes are released and the blood-sucking, and potentially disease transmitting females are eliminated from the production line. For Anopheles arabiensis, a potent vector of malaria, a genetic sexing strain was developed whereby females can be eliminated by treating the eggs or larvae with the insecticide dieldrin. To evaluate the presence of dieldrin residues in the male mosquitoes designated for SIT releases, a simple, sensitive and accurate gas chromatography- electron capture detector (GC-ECD) method was developed. Additionally, bioaccumulation and food chain transfer of these residues to fish after feeding with treated mosquitoes was demonstrated. The overall recovery from method validation studies was 77.3?±?2.2% (mean?±?RSD) for the mosquitoes, and 99.1?±?4.4% (mean?±?RSD) for the fish. The average dieldrin concentration found in adult male An. arabiensis was 28.1?±?2.9?µg/kg (mean?±?SD). A range of 23.9?±?1.1 to73.9?±?5.2?µg/kg (mean?±?SD) of dieldrin was found in the fish samples. These findings raise the need to reassess the environmental and health implications of control operations with an SIT component against An. arabiensis that involve the use of persistent organochlorines in the sexing process. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2013 SETAC.

Yamada H; Jandric Z; Chhem-Kieth S; Vreysen MJ; Rathor MN; Gilles JR; Cannavan A

2013-08-01

35

AUTO MOSQUITO REPELLENT BY MOSQUITO FREQUENCY DETECTION  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An automatic mosquito expeller is provided to achieve an automatic switching-on/off by detecting a frequency and level change caused by a flapping of the mosquito so that a user doesn't need to switch on the expeller itself and prevents a waste of a mosquito repellent previously. An automatic mosquito expeller(100) comprises a rectifier(120), rectifying an alternating current power into a constant direct current one a Micom(110), controlling the expeller entirely by using the direct current supplied by the rectifier a light emitter(130), switched on or off according to a control signal of the Micom so as to indicate an operation state a switching unit(140), switched on or off according to the control signal of the Micom so as to apply an electric power source to a heating member(150) which generates a heat of a determined temperature and a frequency detector(170), detecting a frequency band caused by a flapping of the mosquito so as to output a corresponding level value.

CHONG CHINE HWA; CHU EU GINE

36

Mosquitoes and tyres.  

Science.gov (United States)

Car tyres not only help people to move about, they also assist exotic mosquitoes in travelling thousands of miles around the world to colonise new areas. The remarkable adaptability of mosquitoes that has led to their enormous success in the past can be seen close to home. PMID:11932500

Snow, Keith; Ramsdale, Clement

2002-04-01

37

Mosquitoes and tyres.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Car tyres not only help people to move about, they also assist exotic mosquitoes in travelling thousands of miles around the world to colonise new areas. The remarkable adaptability of mosquitoes that has led to their enormous success in the past can be seen close to home.

Snow K; Ramsdale C

2002-04-01

38

Perfumed mosquito repellent composition  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a perfumed mosquito repellent composition, characterized in that the composition is prepared by the following ingredients, based on percent by weight, of: 0.1-1% of wild lemonleaf oil, 0.1-2% of eucalyptus oil, 0.5-3% of tea tree oil, 1-10% of eucalyptus citriodora leaf oil, 0-0.5% of clove oil, 0-0.2% of linaloe wood oil, 0-0.5% of dementholised peppermint oil and the balance as diluent of alkane C14. The mosquito repellent composition makes full use of three mosquito repellent essential oils including eucalyptus oil, tea tree oil and eucalyptus citriodora leaf oil, which all have no pesticide ingredients contained, but are excellent in repelling mosquito, bugs and ants, thus achieving ideal mosquito repellent effect and acceptance for human body and generating noside effect to human body, besides, the cost of the composition is low.

HUIXIAN XU

39

The role of volatile semiochemicals in mediating host location and selection by nuisance and disease-transmitting cattle flies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of volatile semiochemicals in mediating the location and selection within herds of Holstein-Friesian heifers by nuisance and disease-transmitting cattle flies was investigated using coupled gas chromatography-electrophysiology (GC-EAG), coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), electrophysiology (EAG), laboratory behaviour and field studies. Using volatile extracts collected by air entrainment from heifers in the Netherlands, a number of active peaks were located by coupled GC-EAG for Musca autumnalis (de Geer) (Diptera: Muscidae) and Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae). Volatile samples were also collected from two heifers in Denmark shown in previous counting experiments to differ significantly in their fly loads. Coupled GC-EAG using Ha. irritans antennae revealed differences in the EAG response to the samples, with additional EAG activity in the sample collected from the heifer with the lower fly load. To identify more EAG active compounds, volatiles were also collected from 48-h-old urine by air entrainment. In total, 23 compounds were located and identified by coupled GC-EAG and GC-MS. Further electrophysiological testing of these compounds with five fly species [M. autumnalis, Ha. irritans, Hydrotaea irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Musicidae) and Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)] showed that only some of the compounds were physiologically active across the range of flies tested. These included 1-octen-3-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, naphthalene, and all EAG active compounds identified from urine. Compounds showing significant EAG activity were tested for behavioural activity using a wind-tunnel designed for measuring upwind flight behaviour. At certain concentrations, 1-octen-3-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and 3-octanol increased upwind flight, whereas naphthalene, propyl butanoate and linalool reduced upwind flight. In field studies using small herds of heifers ranked according to their fly load, individual slow-release formulations of 1-octen-3-ol and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, when applied to low and high fly loading heifers, reduced fly loads on these individuals. This study provides evidence for the hypothesis that the natural differential attractiveness within herds of Holstein-Freisian heifers, i.e. a single host species, for cattle flies is partly due to differences in volatile semiochemicals emitted from the host. It is suggested that this phenomenon applies to other vertebrate host species and their associated insect pests. PMID:15641996

Birkett, M A; Agelopoulos, N; Jensen, K-M V; Jespersen, J B; Pickett, J A; Prijs, H J; Thomas, G; Trapman, J J; Wadhams, L J; Woodcock, C M

2004-12-01

40

Improved electric shock swatter for killing fly  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model relates to a rechargeable electric mosquito swatting racket, in particular to an improved electric mosquito swatting racket, which is characterized in that a racket handle is respectively provided with an upper handle part, a middle handle part and a lower handle part the two ends of the middle handle part are respectively connected with the upper handle part and the lower handle part the upper handle part is connected with a net frame a reflector cup, a reflector piece and an LED tube seat are arranged at the middle handle part the reflector cup is arranged as a hollow horn a reflector layer is arranged on the outer surface of the horn the reflector piece is a circular piece a hole for an LED tube to pass through is formed on the circular face of the reflector piece the LED tube seat is a circular piece and at least two LED tubes are arranged on the circular face of the LED tube seat. As the horn-shaped reflector cup is arranged at the middle part of the racket handle, the racket well improves the status of deficient ray of the mosquito swatting racket at night, and causes the racket to be provided with the characteristics of a light ray at night and improved catching and killing efficiency. The racket has a simple and reasonable structure and has a use value.

DUANRONG LIN

 
 
 
 
41

Null Killing vectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Space-times admitting a null Killing vector are studied, using the Newman-Penrose spin coefficient formalism. The properties of the eigenrays (principal null curves of the Killing bivector) are shown to be related to the twist of the null Killing vector. Among the electrovacs, the ones containing a null Maxwell field turn out to belong to the twistfree class. An electrovac solution is obtained for which the null Killing vector is twisting and has geodesic and shearfree eigenrays. This solution is parameterless and appears to be the field of a zero-mass, spinning and charged source. (author).

1980-01-01

42

Foraging ranges of insectivorous bats shift relative to changes in mosquito abundance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The need to develop effective management strategies for insectivorous bat populations requires an understanding of factors influencing habitat use. Availability of pest prey, such as mosquitoes is likely to be one such factor. To assess whether this is the case, we radio-tracked Vespadelus vulturnus Thomas (little forest bat), a predator of Aedes vigilax Skuse (saltmarsh mosquito), in saltmarsh and adjacent coastal swamp forest during periods of high and low Ae. vigilax abundance. When mosquito abundance in structurally-open saltmarsh was similar to the more cluttered coastal swamp forest, use of saltmarsh by V. vulturnus was disproportionately greater than its availability, with saltmarsh selected preferentially for foraging. However, at times of low Ae. vigilax abundance in saltmarsh, use of saltmarsh by V. vulturnus was reduced and all habitats were used in proportion to availability in the study area. This is the first radio-tracking study to demonstrate a shift in foraging range by an insectivorous bat species correlated with fluctuations in the distribution and abundance of a particular prey resource. The shift in foraging range by V. vulturnus, corresponding with a spatio-temporal variation in abundance of Ae. vigilax highlights the importance of mosquitoes as a dietary item. Broadscale pest control of Ae. vigilax may have ecological implications for the diet and habitat use of V. vulturnus. An adaptive management approach is proposed, whereby careful monitoring of insectivorous bat populations is recommended before and after any application of broadscale mosquito control measures. We also suggest a precautionary approach is taken such that broadscale control of mosquitoes avoids the lactation period of bats, a time when their energetic demands are greatest and when there is reduced risk of contracting mosquito-borne diseases transmitted by Ae. vigilax.

Gonsalves L; Law B; Webb C; Monamy V

2013-01-01

43

Killing Spinor Identities  

CERN Multimedia

We have found generic Killing spinor identities which bosonic equations of motion have to satisfy in supersymmetric theories if the solutions admit Killing spinors. Those identities constrain possible quantum corrections to bosonic solutions with unbroken supersymmetries. As an application we show that purely electric static extreme dilaton black holes may acquire specific quantum corrections, but the purely magnetic ones cannot.

Kallosh, Renata E; Kallosh, Renata; Ortin, Tomas

1993-01-01

44

Activation of Akt signaling reduces the prevalence and intensity of malaria parasite infection and lifespan in Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria (Plasmodium spp.) kills nearly one million people annually and this number will likely increase as drug and insecticide resistance reduces the effectiveness of current control strategies. The most important human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, undergoes a complex developmental cycle in the mosquito that takes approximately two weeks and begins with the invasion of the mosquito midgut. Here, we demonstrate that increased Akt signaling in the mosquito midgut disrupts parasite development and concurrently reduces the duration that mosquitoes are infective to humans. Specifically, we found that increased Akt signaling in the midgut of heterozygous Anopheles stephensi reduced the number of infected mosquitoes by 60-99%. Of those mosquitoes that were infected, we observed a 75-99% reduction in parasite load. In homozygous mosquitoes with increased Akt signaling parasite infection was completely blocked. The increase in midgut-specific Akt signaling also led to an 18-20% reduction in the average mosquito lifespan. Thus, activation of Akt signaling reduced the number of infected mosquitoes, the number of malaria parasites per infected mosquito, and the duration of mosquito infectivity. PMID:20664791

Corby-Harris, Vanessa; Drexler, Anna; Watkins de Jong, Laurel; Antonova, Yevgeniya; Pakpour, Nazzy; Ziegler, Rolf; Ramberg, Frank; Lewis, Edwin E; Brown, Jessica M; Luckhart, Shirley; Riehle, Michael A

2010-07-15

45

Correction: Activation of Akt signaling reduces the prevalence and intensity of malaria parasite infection and lifespan in Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria (Plasmodium spp.) kills nearly one million people annually and this number will likely increase as drug and insecticide resistance reduces the effectiveness of current control strategies. The most important human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, undergoes a complex developmental cycle in the mosquito that takes approximately two weeks and begins with the invasion of the mosquito midgut. Here, we demonstrate that increased Akt signaling in the mosquito midgut disrupts parasite development and concurrently reduces the duration that mosquitoes are infective to humans. Specifically, we found that increased Akt signaling in the midgut of heterozygous Anopheles stephensi reduced the number of infected mosquitoes by 60-99%. Of those mosquitoes that were infected, we observed a 75-99% reduction in parasite load. In homozygous mosquitoes with increased Akt signaling parasite infection was completely blocked. The increase in midgut-specific Akt signaling also led to an 18-20% reduction in the average mosquito lifespan. Thus, activation of Akt signaling reduced the number of infected mosquitoes, the number of malaria parasites per infected mosquito, and the duration of mosquito infectivity. PMID:20714345

Corby-Harris, Vanessa; Drexler, Anna; Watkins de Jong, Laurel; Antonova, Yevgeniya; Pakpour, Nazzy; Ziegler, Rolf; Ramberg, Frank; Lewis, Edwin E; Brown, Jessica M; Luckhart, Shirley; Riehle, Michael A

2010-08-10

46

Suppression of RNA interference increases alphavirus replication and virus-associated mortality in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) can persistently infect and cause limited damage to mosquito vectors. RNA interference (RNAi) is a mosquito antiviral response important in restricting RNA virus replication and has been shown to be active against some arboviruses. The goal of this study was to use a recombinant Sindbis virus (SINV; family Togaviridae; genus Alphavirus) that expresses B2 protein of Flock House virus (FHV; family Nodaviridae; genus Alphanodavirus), a protein that inhibits RNAi, to determine the effects of linking arbovirus infection with RNAi inhibition. RESULTS: B2 protein expression from SINV (TE/3'2J) inhibited the accumulation of non-specific small RNAs in Aedes aegypti mosquito cell culture and virus-specific small RNAs both in infected cell culture and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. More viral genomic and subgenomic RNA accumulated in cells and mosquitoes infected with TE/3'2J virus expressing B2 (TE/3'2J/B2) compared to TE/3'2J and TE/3'2J virus expressing GFP. TE/3'2J/B2 exhibited increased infection rates, dissemination rates, and infectious virus titers in mosquitoes following oral bloodmeal. Following infectious oral bloodmeal, significantly more mosquitoes died when TE/3'2J/B2 was ingested. The virus was 100% lethal following intrathoracic inoculation of multiple mosquito species and lethality was dose-dependent in Ae. aegypti. CONCLUSION: We show that RNAi is active in Ae. aegypti cell culture and that B2 protein inhibits RNAi in mosquito cells when expressed by a recombinant SINV. Also, SINV more efficiently replicates in mosquito cells when RNAi is inhibited. Finally, TE/3'2J/B2 kills mosquitoes in a dose-dependent manner independent of infection route and mosquito species.

Cirimotich CM; Scott JC; Phillips AT; Geiss BJ; Olson KE

2009-01-01

47

Suppression of RNA interference increases alphavirus replication and virus-associated mortality in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) can persistently infect and cause limited damage to mosquito vectors. RNA interference (RNAi) is a mosquito antiviral response important in restricting RNA virus replication and has been shown to be active against some arboviruses. The goal of this study was to use a recombinant Sindbis virus (SINV; family Togaviridae; genus Alphavirus) that expresses B2 protein of Flock House virus (FHV; family Nodaviridae; genus Alphanodavirus), a protein that inhibits RNAi, to determine the effects of linking arbovirus infection with RNAi inhibition. Results B2 protein expression from SINV (TE/3'2J) inhibited the accumulation of non-specific small RNAs in Aedes aegypti mosquito cell culture and virus-specific small RNAs both in infected cell culture and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. More viral genomic and subgenomic RNA accumulated in cells and mosquitoes infected with TE/3'2J virus expressing B2 (TE/3'2J/B2) compared to TE/3'2J and TE/3'2J virus expressing GFP. TE/3'2J/B2 exhibited increased infection rates, dissemination rates, and infectious virus titers in mosquitoes following oral bloodmeal. Following infectious oral bloodmeal, significantly more mosquitoes died when TE/3'2J/B2 was ingested. The virus was 100% lethal following intrathoracic inoculation of multiple mosquito species and lethality was dose-dependent in Ae. aegypti. Conclusion We show that RNAi is active in Ae. aegypti cell culture and that B2 protein inhibits RNAi in mosquito cells when expressed by a recombinant SINV. Also, SINV more efficiently replicates in mosquito cells when RNAi is inhibited. Finally, TE/3'2J/B2 kills mosquitoes in a dose-dependent manner independent of infection route and mosquito species.

Cirimotich Chris M; Scott Jaclyn C; Phillips Aaron T; Geiss Brian J; Olson Ken E

2009-01-01

48

Mite-killing composition  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a mite-killing composition. The active ingredients of the mite-killing composition are bifenazate and amitraz in a mass part ratio of 100:1-1:100 and the mite-killing composition can be prepared into wettable powder, water dispersible granules and cream. The mite-killing composition has good synergistic effect, can delay the medicament resistance of harmful organisms and prolong the service life of pesticide varieties and when applied to preventing and controlling various harmful mites on crops, the composition is particularly suitable for preventing and controlling panonychus ulmi koch, tetranychus urticae, tetranychus cinnabarinus, tetranychus truncatus, polyphagotarsonemus latus and rust mite, and the effect of the composition is obvious superior to that of the bifenazate or amitraz which is separately used.

MINGZHANG CAO; GUANGZE LI; XINJUN WANG; QIYUN XU

49

FISH KILLS, NORTH CAROLINA  

Science.gov (United States)

Data related to fish kills in North Carolina are collected and stored in tables on the Web at the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources. http://www.esb.enr.state.nc.us/Fishkill/fishkill00.htm...

50

What makes killing wrong?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

What makes an act of killing morally wrong is not that the act causes loss of life or consciousness but rather that the act causes loss of all remaining abilities. This account implies that it is not even pro tanto morally wrong to kill patients who are universally and irreversibly disabled, because they have no abilities to lose. Applied to vital organ transplantation, this account undermines the dead donor rule and shows how current practices are compatible with morality.

Sinnott-Armstrong W; Miller FG

2013-01-01

51

Complex environmental drivers of immunity and resistance in malaria mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Considerable research effort has been directed at understanding the genetic and molecular basis of mosquito innate immune mechanisms. Whether environmental factors interact with these mechanisms to shape overall resistance remains largely unexplored. Here, we examine how changes in mean ambient temperature, diurnal temperature fluctuation and time of day of infection affected the immunity and resistance of Anopheles stephensi to infection with Escherichia coli. We used quantitative PCR to estimate the gene expression of three immune genes in response to challenge with heat-killed E. coli. We also infected mosquitoes with live E. coli and ran bacterial growth assays to quantify host resistance. Both mosquito immune parameters and resistance were directly affected by mean temperature, diurnal temperature fluctuation and time of day of infection. Furthermore, there was a suite of complex two- and three-way interactions yielding idiosyncratic phenotypic variation under different environmental conditions. The results demonstrate mosquito immunity and resistance to be strongly influenced by a complex interplay of environmental variables, challenging the interpretation of the very many mosquito immune studies conducted under standard laboratory conditions.

Murdock CC; Moller-Jacobs LL; Thomas MB

2013-01-01

52

Complex environmental drivers of immunity and resistance in malaria mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Considerable research effort has been directed at understanding the genetic and molecular basis of mosquito innate immune mechanisms. Whether environmental factors interact with these mechanisms to shape overall resistance remains largely unexplored. Here, we examine how changes in mean ambient temperature, diurnal temperature fluctuation and time of day of infection affected the immunity and resistance of Anopheles stephensi to infection with Escherichia coli. We used quantitative PCR to estimate the gene expression of three immune genes in response to challenge with heat-killed E. coli. We also infected mosquitoes with live E. coli and ran bacterial growth assays to quantify host resistance. Both mosquito immune parameters and resistance were directly affected by mean temperature, diurnal temperature fluctuation and time of day of infection. Furthermore, there was a suite of complex two- and three-way interactions yielding idiosyncratic phenotypic variation under different environmental conditions. The results demonstrate mosquito immunity and resistance to be strongly influenced by a complex interplay of environmental variables, challenging the interpretation of the very many mosquito immune studies conducted under standard laboratory conditions. PMID:24048159

Murdock, Courtney C; Moller-Jacobs, Lillian L; Thomas, Matthew B

2013-09-18

53

"Bird biting" mosquitoes and human disease: a review of the role of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes in epidemiology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The transmission of vector-borne pathogens is greatly influenced by the ecology of their vector, which is in turn shaped by genetic ancestry, the environment, and the hosts that are fed on. One group of vectors, the mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex, play key roles in the transmission of a range of pathogens including several viruses such as West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses, avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.), and filarial worms. The Cx. pipiens complex includes Culex pipiens pipiens with two forms, pipiens and molestus, Culex pipiens pallens, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex australicus, and Culex globocoxitus. While several members of the complex have limited geographic distributions, Cx. pipienspipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus are found in all known urban and sub-urban temperate and tropical regions, respectively, across the world, where they are often principal disease vectors. In addition, hybrids are common in areas of overlap. Although gaps in our knowledge still remain, the advent of genetic tools has greatly enhanced our understanding of the history of speciation, domestication, dispersal, and hybridization. We review the taxonomy, genetics, evolution, behavior, and ecology of members of the Cx. pipiens complex and their role in the transmission of medically important pathogens. The adaptation of Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes to human-altered environments led to their global distribution through dispersal via humans and, combined with their mixed feeding patterns on birds and mammals (including humans), increased the transmission of several avian pathogens to humans. We highlight several unanswered questions that will increase our ability to control diseases transmitted by these mosquitoes.

Farajollahi A; Fonseca DM; Kramer LD; Marm Kilpatrick A

2011-10-01

54

"Bird biting" mosquitoes and human disease: a review of the role of Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes in epidemiology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The transmission of vector-borne pathogens is greatly influenced by the ecology of their vector, which is in turn shaped by genetic ancestry, the environment, and the hosts that are fed on. One group of vectors, the mosquitoes in the Culex pipiens complex, play key roles in the transmission of a range of pathogens including several viruses such as West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses, avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.), and filarial worms. The Cx. pipiens complex includes Culex pipiens pipiens with two forms, pipiens and molestus, Culex pipiens pallens, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex australicus, and Culex globocoxitus. While several members of the complex have limited geographic distributions, Cx. pipienspipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus are found in all known urban and sub-urban temperate and tropical regions, respectively, across the world, where they are often principal disease vectors. In addition, hybrids are common in areas of overlap. Although gaps in our knowledge still remain, the advent of genetic tools has greatly enhanced our understanding of the history of speciation, domestication, dispersal, and hybridization. We review the taxonomy, genetics, evolution, behavior, and ecology of members of the Cx. pipiens complex and their role in the transmission of medically important pathogens. The adaptation of Cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes to human-altered environments led to their global distribution through dispersal via humans and, combined with their mixed feeding patterns on birds and mammals (including humans), increased the transmission of several avian pathogens to humans. We highlight several unanswered questions that will increase our ability to control diseases transmitted by these mosquitoes. PMID:21875691

Farajollahi, Ary; Fonseca, Dina M; Kramer, Laura D; Marm Kilpatrick, A

2011-08-22

55

Perspectives in the control of infectious diseases by transgenic mosquitoes in the post-genomic era: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Arthropod-borne diseases caused by a variety of microorganisms such as dengue virus and malaria parasites afflict billions of people worldwide imposing major economic and social burdens. Despite many efforts, vaccines against diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, with the exception of yellow fever, are not available. Control of such infectious pathogens is mainly performed by vector management and treatment of affected individuals with drugs. However, the numbers of insecticide-resistant insects and drug-resistant parasites are increasing. Therefore, inspired in recent years by a lot of new data produced by genomics and post-genomics research, several scientific groups have been working on different strategies to control infectious arthropod-borne diseases. This review focuses on recent advances and perspectives towards construction of transgenic mosquitoes refractory to malaria parasites and dengue virus transmission.

Márcia Aparecida Sperança; Margareth Lara Capurro

2007-01-01

56

Perspectives in the control of infectious diseases by transgenic mosquitoes in the post-genomic era: a review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Arthropod-borne diseases caused by a variety of microorganisms such as dengue virus and malaria parasites afflict billions of people worldwide imposing major economic and social burdens. Despite many efforts, vaccines against diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, with the exception of yellow fever, are not available. Control of such infectious pathogens is mainly performed by vector management and treatment of affected individuals with drugs. However, the numbers of insecti (more) cide-resistant insects and drug-resistant parasites are increasing. Therefore, inspired in recent years by a lot of new data produced by genomics and post-genomics research, several scientific groups have been working on different strategies to control infectious arthropod-borne diseases. This review focuses on recent advances and perspectives towards construction of transgenic mosquitoes refractory to malaria parasites and dengue virus transmission.

Sperança, Márcia Aparecida; Capurro, Margareth Lara

2007-06-01

57

Solar energy mosquito eradicator  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a solar mosquito killer, which comprises a bracket, wherein, the bracket is connected with a base, and a mosquito storage box is arranged in the base the upper end of the base is connected with a middle cylinder, and a mosquito screen and a liner are arranged in the middle cylinder a fan is arranged in the liner, and the upper end of the middle cylinder is connected with a top cap with a through hole a reflecting plate with an LED light is arranged in the top cap, and the top cap is connected with a solar panel through a top cap bracket and storage batteries connected with the solar panel are arranged on the bracket. The product utilizes the solar energy to supply power so as to effectively save the energy without an external power supply, thereby eliminating the trouble that the product keeps away from a power pull wire. The product can be put indoors and outdoors in which the sun can shine, and can be directly put on the flat ground indoors or fixed on the ground outdoors, and has no electricity consumption, free maintenance, safety, reliability, good effect and the like, which can be widely applied to the manufacture of the mosquito killer.

SHENGYAN GUO

58

Mosquito glutathione transferases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The glutathione transferases (glutathione S-transferases, GSTs) are a diverse family of enzymes involved in a wide range of biological processes, many of which involve the conjugation of the tripeptide glutathione to an electrophilic substrate. Relatively little is known about the endogenous substrates of mosquito GSTs, and most studies have focused on their role in insecticide metabolism, because elevated levels of GST activity have been associated with resistance to all the major classes of insecticides. In addition, there is growing interest in the role of this enzyme family in maintaining the redox status of the mosquito cell, particularly in relation to vectorial capacity. Most GSTs are cytosolic dimeric proteins, although a smaller class of microsomal GSTs exists in insects, mammals, and plants. Each GST subunit has a G site that binds glutathione and a substrate-binding site or H site. There are more than 30 GST genes in mosquitoes. Additional diversity is contributed by alternative splicing to produce GSTs with differing substrate specificities. In this review, we first discuss the diversity of insect GST enzymes and their mode of action before focusing on the various functions that have been attributed to specific mosquito GSTs.

Ranson H; Hemingway J

2005-01-01

59

Prevention of mosquito borne diseases by using mosquito repellents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mosquitoes, the disease transmitters are responsible for around 1.3 milliondeaths annually. Diseases such as West Nile Virus, malaria, dengue fever andyellow fever are transmitted to humans by blood-feeding mosquitoes.The immediate hypersensitivity and delayed hypersensitivity reactions aredue to mosquito bites. Chemical remedies for mosquito bites are applicationof antihistamines, diphenhydramine and topical corticosteroids. An understandingof vector’s lifecycle and behavioural characteristics guides mosquito controlactivities. Meta-N, N diethyl toluamide (DEET) protects against tick bitesand mosquito bites by blocking insect receptors which are used to locate hosts.DEET products are safest and most effective insect repellents. Naturally occurringrepellants are usually plant volatile oils like pyrethrum. Permethrinis a synthetic pyrethroid causing nervous system toxicity of the insect leadingto its death. The repellant activities can be measured by the blood-feedingmembrane tests. Safe and effective repellants should be chosen.

Saurabh Dahiya; Prof.Roop K.Khar; Dr. Aruna Chhikkara

2006-01-01

60

Skew Killing spinors  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we study the existence of a skew Killing spinor (see the definition below) on 2 and 3-dimensional Riemannian spin manifolds. We establish the integrability conditions and prove that these spinor fields correspond to twistor spinors in the two dimensional case while, up to a conformal change of the metric, they correspond to parallel spinors in the three dimensional case.

Habib, Georges

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Children Who Kill.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two recent books, "When Good Kids Kill," by Michael D. Kelleher, and "Lost Boys," by James Garbarino, explore how children become killers and suggest ways to reduce our high-pressure society's epidemic levels of youth violence. Physically or psychologically distant parents and unaffirmative media messages are negative influences. (MLH)

Natale, Jo Anna

1999-01-01

62

Analysis of mosquito larvicidal potential exhibited by vegetative cells of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vegetative Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis cells (6 X 10(5)/ml) achieved 100% mortality of Aedes aegypti larvae within 24 h. This larvicidal potential was localized within the cells; the cell-free supernatants did not kill mosquito larvae. However, they did contain a heat-labile hemolysin ...

Walther, C J; Couche, G A; Pfannenstiel, M A; Egan, S E; Bivin, L A; Nickerson, K W

63

Plying of speedboats along canals in the city of Kolkata, India, to prevent mosquito breeding.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Two long sewerage canals in the city of Kolkata, India were heavily infested with larvae, pupae and egg rafts of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. Although the burden of bancroftian filariasis and other diseases transmitted by C. quinquefasciatus in the city is practically zero, the night-biting mosquitoes are a great nuisance to residents living alongside the canals. It is known that mosquitoes survive poorly in water agitated by wave and wind action. METHOD: The health department of Kolkata Municipal Corporation undertook, from November 2010 to April 2012, a programme of plying speedboats along the canals to prevent C. quinquefasciatus breeding. At the same time, along stretches of canal too shallow to permit the use of speedboats and where the canal banks are inaccessible to spraymen, the edges were treated with larvicidal spray, Temephos 50% EC (emulsifiable concentrate), using small rowing boats as transport. RESULT: The densities of egg rafts and immature and adult insects declined dramatically when the speedboats were deployed and remained low for the duration of the project. For Feburary, the peak month for C. quinquefasciatus breeding, densities for egg rafts, larvae, pupae and adults, respectively, declined from 800, 2942, 1457 and 662 to 3, 75, 15 and 27. The cost was comparable to that of using larvicidal spray where this required the use of rowing boats. CONCLUSION: Speedboat-generated waves are effective in preventing the breeding of mosquitoes in otherwise mosquitogenic canals. Where use of boats is an option and use of insecticides is unfeasible or undesirable, the plying of speedboats is a potentially ecofriendly approach to mosquito control.

Biswas D; Mandal B; Biswas B; Banerjee A; Mukherjee TK

2013-03-01

64

[Evolutionary ecology and epidemiology of interactions between Anopheles mosquitoes and malaria].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The transmission of malaria is largely determined by two parameters: the biting rate of the mosquito vector and its mortality. In this paper, data on the interactions among these parameters are reviewed to describe possible evolutionary mechanisms underlying the parasite's life cycle. In particular, in contrast to conventional wisdom about medical entomology, the author suggests that malaria parasites are not always expected to minimise the damage they inflict on their mosquito host. Rather, when they have developed into the infectious stage, they can increase their transmission by manipulating the mosquito to bite more frequently; this, however, is associated with a higher risk of being killed by the human host. This example illustrates that parameters determining malaria transmission can only be understood by integrating ecological and evolutionary ideas into more traditional epidemiology. Such an evolutionary view of malaria and mosquitoes will eventually lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology of malaria and may help to predict the effect of malaria control.

Koella JC

1999-08-01

65

A Visit to Florida's Mosquito Man  

Science.gov (United States)

This radio broadcast features an interview with George O'Meara, the world's foremost expert on mosquitoes, who studies mosquito biology and dispenses fun facts (such as: only female mosquitoes bite). There are descriptions of the most aggressive mosquito species, how to tell female mosquitoes from males, and a discussion of landing rates of mosquitoes in the Everglades National Park. The clip is 5 minutes and 30 seconds in length.

2010-10-01

66

Mosquito repellent spray  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a mosquito repellent spray which comprises the following raw materials by weight portion: 2-4 portions of largespike woodnettle roots, 2-4 portions of roots of common sesbania, 4-6 portions of polyporus, 10-20 portions of artemisia leaves, 20-24 portions of Japan pagodatrees, 2-4 portions of scorpio, 4-6 portions of sapanwood, 6-10 portions of puncture vines, 2-6 portions of oak mushroom, 6-10 portions of garlic, 4-10 portions of styrax, 6-8 portions of ramulus cinnamomi, 4-6 portions of asiatic pennywort herbs, 4-6 portions of sunflower roots, 8-10 portions of polygonum hydropipers, 10-16 portions of vanilla herbs, 6-8 portions of angelica dahurica, 6-10 portions of camphor, 10-14 portions of mints, 10-14 portions of sweet osmanthus, 8-12 portions of cloves, 4-6 portions of arachniodes, 6-8 portions of common sowthistle roots and 2-4 portions of preservatives. The invention has the advantages of good effect, easy operation, low cost and small toxic and side effects. Pyrethrins are not used, and mosquitoes can not generate resistance easily. The mosquito repellent spray is carried and used conveniently without limitations of environmental conditions, has low cost and needs less producing equipment, thereby being convenient for popularization and application.

GUISONG ZHANG

67

Development of briquettes from natural products for knockdown of mosquitoes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malaria is a major death cause in many parts of the world. This necessitates the development of alternative ways of curbing the problem. This study focused on the development of briquettes that would knockdown (KD) mosquitoes in the course of burning. The briquettes were developed using jatropha seed husks (source of energy), cow dung (binder) and pyrethrin (insecticide), which were then tested for their ability to knockdown and kill mosquitoes at Kenya Pyrethrum Board laboratory. The results were analysed using the analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) tool. The results showed that a hand pressed mixture of jatropha seed husks, pyrethrin and cow dung (binder) in the ratio of 3 g: 0.5 ml: 2 g respectively can cause a 100 % mosquito knockdown within 10 min. and mortality of 97.50 % within 24 hr when burnt indoors. The percentage mosquito knockdown and percentage mortality rate were found to vary significantly with the amount of pyrethrin used. It is expected that the findings of this study will generate new knowledge on briquette development and also contribute to waste management. The research findings will also contribute towards reducing the death rate resulting from malaria.

Thuku L. Nyakeru; Benson H. K. Karanja

2012-01-01

68

Flowerpot type photoelectric odorless wastebin for killing flies and insects  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed is a flowerpot type photoelectric odorless flies and insects killing garbage can comprising a framework wherein the top of the framework is provided with a flowerpot both sides of the framework are provided with a garbage can respectively and a photoelectric flies and insects trapping and killing device is arranged between the two garbage cans and the upper side of the opening of the two garbage cans is provided with a purification and deodorization device respectively. The garbage can has attractive appearance, not only can be appreciated by the passers-by, but also can storage garbage, trap the flies and mosquitoes, be odorless and tasteless, and can be widely used in cities and towns and other public places such as large plaza, hotel, and scenic spot.

QINGQUAN SHI

69

Eliciting renal failure in mosquitoes with a small-molecule inhibitor of inward-rectifying potassium channels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever take a large toll on global health. The primary chemical agents used for controlling mosquitoes are insecticides that target the nervous system. However, the emergence of resistance in mosquito populations is reducing the efficacy of available insecticides. The development of new insecticides is therefore urgent. Here we show that VU573, a small-molecule inhibitor of mammalian inward-rectifying potassium (Kir) channels, inhibits a Kir channel cloned from the renal (Malpighian) tubules of Aedes aegypti (AeKir1). Injection of VU573 into the hemolymph of adult female mosquitoes (Ae. aegypti) disrupts the production and excretion of urine in a manner consistent with channel block of AeKir1 and renders the mosquitoes incapacitated (flightless or dead) within 24 hours. Moreover, the toxicity of VU573 in mosquitoes (Ae. aegypti) is exacerbated when hemolymph potassium levels are elevated, suggesting that Kir channels are essential for maintenance of whole-animal potassium homeostasis. Our study demonstrates that renal failure is a promising mechanism of action for killing mosquitoes, and motivates the discovery of selective small-molecule inhibitors of mosquito Kir channels for use as insecticides.

Raphemot R; Rouhier MF; Hopkins CR; Gogliotti RD; Lovell KM; Hine RM; Ghosalkar D; Longo A; Beyenbach KW; Denton JS; Piermarini PM

2013-01-01

70

Eliciting Renal Failure in Mosquitoes with a Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Inward-Rectifying Potassium Channels  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever take a large toll on global health. The primary chemical agents used for controlling mosquitoes are insecticides that target the nervous system. However, the emergence of resistance in mosquito populations is reducing the efficacy of available insecticides. The development of new insecticides is therefore urgent. Here we show that VU573, a small-molecule inhibitor of mammalian inward-rectifying potassium (Kir) channels, inhibits a Kir channel cloned from the renal (Malpighian) tubules of Aedes aegypti (AeKir1). Injection of VU573 into the hemolymph of adult female mosquitoes (Ae. aegypti) disrupts the production and excretion of urine in a manner consistent with channel block of AeKir1 and renders the mosquitoes incapacitated (flightless or dead) within 24 hours. Moreover, the toxicity of VU573 in mosquitoes (Ae. aegypti) is exacerbated when hemolymph potassium levels are elevated, suggesting that Kir channels are essential for maintenance of whole-animal potassium homeostasis. Our study demonstrates that renal failure is a promising mechanism of action for killing mosquitoes, and motivates the discovery of selective small-molecule inhibitors of mosquito Kir channels for use as insecticides.

Raphemot, Rene; Rouhier, Matthew F.; Hopkins, Corey R.; Gogliotti, Rocco D.; Lovell, Kimberly M.; Hine, Rebecca M.; Ghosalkar, Dhairyasheel; Longo, Anthony; Beyenbach, Klaus W.; Denton, Jerod S.; Piermarini, Peter M.

2013-01-01

71

What Killed Substantial Form?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available What killed substantial form, and can it live again? Substantial form died at the beginning of the scientific revolution when a new method made it unnecessary and a new view of the senses revealed by this new method made it unknowable. Conway's Game of Life as a model for Mechanism reveals not only the problems that make it impossible for contemporary thinkers to take substantial form seriously, but also a way in which the idea might be revived in a different form. The proponent of substantial form in the modern world should not oppose mechanism, but should insist upon it. If a thoroughgoing mechanism is true, it implies its own limits and requires the resurrection of form in a way that even a mechanist could love.

David Banach

2007-01-01

72

Does smoking really kill anybody?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Statements that so many people are killed by smoking use the term "kill" in a very unusual manner which is easily misunderstood by people not expert in epidemiology. In addition, the usual calculations leave out of account the fact that smoking interacts synergistically with other risk factors, so that it is a combination of risk factors rather than any specific one that is likely to have a causal influence on mortality. Strictly speaking it is quite inappropriate to state that smoking kills anybody, if we use the term "kill" in a meaningful fashion.

Eysenck HJ

1995-12-01

73

Does smoking really kill anybody?  

Science.gov (United States)

Statements that so many people are killed by smoking use the term "kill" in a very unusual manner which is easily misunderstood by people not expert in epidemiology. In addition, the usual calculations leave out of account the fact that smoking interacts synergistically with other risk factors, so that it is a combination of risk factors rather than any specific one that is likely to have a causal influence on mortality. Strictly speaking it is quite inappropriate to state that smoking kills anybody, if we use the term "kill" in a meaningful fashion. PMID:8643789

Eysenck, H J

1995-12-01

74

Biochemical pathway of melanotic encapsulation of Brugia malayi in the mosquito, Armigeres subalbatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mosquito, Armigeres subalbatus, is naturally resistant to the filarial worm, Brugia malayi, and microfilariae (mf) penetrating the midgut are killed by melanotic encapsulation reactions in the hemocoel within 48 h following ingestion. This vector-parasite system was used to assess changes in hemolymph tyrosine, tyrosine derivatives, and catecholamine-metabolizing enzyme activities using high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED) during melanotic encapsulation reactions against mf. Tyrosine and dopa were detected in the hemolymph of both control and immune-activated (mf-exposed) mosquitoes, but not dopamine or N-acetyl dopamine (NADA). Tyrosine was significantly increased in immune-activated mosquitoes at 6 and 12 h post blood feeding, but was depleted following intrathoracic inoculation of mf in the absence of a blood meal. Dopa also was elevated in immune-activated mosquitoes at 6, 12, and 24 h post-exposure to mf. There were significant increases in phenol oxidase (PO) and dopa decarboxylase (DDC) activities in immune-activated mosquitoes as compared to controls, and these elevated activities were correlated with changes in tyrosine and dopa levels in the hemolymph. No significant differences in N-acetyl transferase (NAT) and dopachrome conversion enzyme (DCE) activities between control and immune-activated mosquitoes were observed. The possible roles these molecules play in melanotic encapsulation reactions of A. subalbatus against mf are discussed. PMID:8595819

Zhao, X; Ferdig, M T; Li, J; Christensen, B M

75

Biochemical pathway of melanotic encapsulation of Brugia malayi in the mosquito, Armigeres subalbatus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mosquito, Armigeres subalbatus, is naturally resistant to the filarial worm, Brugia malayi, and microfilariae (mf) penetrating the midgut are killed by melanotic encapsulation reactions in the hemocoel within 48 h following ingestion. This vector-parasite system was used to assess changes in hemolymph tyrosine, tyrosine derivatives, and catecholamine-metabolizing enzyme activities using high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED) during melanotic encapsulation reactions against mf. Tyrosine and dopa were detected in the hemolymph of both control and immune-activated (mf-exposed) mosquitoes, but not dopamine or N-acetyl dopamine (NADA). Tyrosine was significantly increased in immune-activated mosquitoes at 6 and 12 h post blood feeding, but was depleted following intrathoracic inoculation of mf in the absence of a blood meal. Dopa also was elevated in immune-activated mosquitoes at 6, 12, and 24 h post-exposure to mf. There were significant increases in phenol oxidase (PO) and dopa decarboxylase (DDC) activities in immune-activated mosquitoes as compared to controls, and these elevated activities were correlated with changes in tyrosine and dopa levels in the hemolymph. No significant differences in N-acetyl transferase (NAT) and dopachrome conversion enzyme (DCE) activities between control and immune-activated mosquitoes were observed. The possible roles these molecules play in melanotic encapsulation reactions of A. subalbatus against mf are discussed.

Zhao X; Ferdig MT; Li J; Christensen BM

1995-05-01

76

License to kill:Honour killings in Pakistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pakistan has one of the highest incidences of honour killings in the world. This is a major human rights issue that has received little attention outside of human rights groups and women activist networks. This paper provides a critical reassessment of honour killings in Pakistan and argues that the...

Knudsen, Are

77

Mosquito-eliminating wet tissue  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed is a mosquito repellent wet tissue which is made with spun-laced non-woven fabrics as base material by soaking in Chinese herbal medicine liquid. The Chinese herbal medicine liquid is the mixture of mint extract, clove extract, sting herb extract, asphodel extract and water, and the weight percentages of the five are respectively 1%, 1%,1%,1% and 96%. The weight percentages of the spun-laced non-woven fabrics and the Chinese herbal medicine liquid are respectively 15% and 85%. The invention has the advantages that the mosquito repellent wet tissue has the special functions of cooling the skin and relieving itch, and repelling mosquitoes and preventing ant the mosquito repellent wet tissue is fresh in fragrance and soft in texture and is not irritative to skin and has no side effect after long-time use.

DEMING LI

78

ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITIONS FOR KILLING OR REPELLING ECTOPARASITES AND PESTS AND METHODS FOR USE THEREOF  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Essential-oil compositions comprising Lippia javanica essential oil in combination with one, two, three, four, five, six or more essential oils are provided. The Lippia javanica essential-oil compositions are effective for killing and/or repelling ectoparasites and/or pests, including lice, ticks, mosquitoes, mites, ants and fleas. Methods of using the compositions comprising Lippia javanica essential oil in combination with one, two, three, four, five, six or more essential oils for killing or repelling ectoparasites and/or pests also are provided. Also provided are articles of manufacture and kits that include the Lippia javanica essential-oil compositions.

DE WOLFF RICKI

79

PCR detection of malaria parasites in desiccated Anopheles mosquitoes is uninhibited by storage time and temperature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable methods to preserve mosquito vectors for malaria studies are necessary for detecting Plasmodium parasites. In field settings, however, maintaining a cold chain of storage from the time of collection until laboratory processing, or accessing other reliable means of sample preservation is often logistically impractical or cost prohibitive. As the Plasmodium infection rate of Anopheles mosquitoes is a central component of the entomological inoculation rate and other indicators of transmission intensity, storage conditions that affect pathogen detection may bias malaria surveillance indicators. This study investigated the effect of storage time and temperature on the ability to detect Plasmodium parasites in desiccated Anopheles mosquitoes by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methods Laboratory-infected Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes were chloroform-killed and stored over desiccant for 0, 1, 3, and 6 months while being held at four different temperatures: 28, 37, -20 and -80°C. The detection of Plasmodium DNA was evaluated by real-time PCR amplification of a 111 base pair region of block 4 of the merozoite surface protein. Results Varying the storage time and temperature of desiccated mosquitoes did not impact the sensitivity of parasite detection. A two-way factorial analysis of variance suggested that storage time and temperature were not associated with a loss in the ability to detect parasites. Storage of samples at 28°C resulted in a significant increase in the ability to detect parasite DNA, though no other positive associations were observed between the experimental storage treatments and PCR amplification. Conclusions Cold chain maintenance of desiccated mosquito samples is not necessary for real-time PCR detection of parasite DNA. Though field-collected mosquitoes may be subjected to variable conditions prior to molecular processing, the storage of samples over an inexpensive and logistically accessible desiccant will likely ensure accurate assessment of malaria parasite presence without diminishing PCR-detection of parasites in mosquitoes stored for at least six months.

Rider Mark A; Byrd Brian D; Keating Joseph; Wesson Dawn M; Caillouet Kevin A

2012-01-01

80

PCR detection of malaria parasites in desiccated Anopheles mosquitoes is uninhibited by storage time and temperature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Reliable methods to preserve mosquito vectors for malaria studies are necessary for detecting Plasmodium parasites. In field settings, however, maintaining a cold chain of storage from the time of collection until laboratory processing, or accessing other reliable means of sample preservation is often logistically impractical or cost prohibitive. As the Plasmodium infection rate of Anopheles mosquitoes is a central component of the entomological inoculation rate and other indicators of transmission intensity, storage conditions that affect pathogen detection may bias malaria surveillance indicators. This study investigated the effect of storage time and temperature on the ability to detect Plasmodium parasites in desiccated Anopheles mosquitoes by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). METHODS: Laboratory-infected Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes were chloroform-killed and stored over desiccant for 0, 1, 3, and 6 months while being held at four different temperatures: 28, 37, -20 and -80°C. The detection of Plasmodium DNA was evaluated by real-time PCR amplification of a 111 base pair region of block 4 of the merozoite surface protein. RESULTS: Varying the storage time and temperature of desiccated mosquitoes did not impact the sensitivity of parasite detection. A two-way factorial analysis of variance suggested that storage time and temperature were not associated with a loss in the ability to detect parasites. Storage of samples at 28°C resulted in a significant increase in the ability to detect parasite DNA, though no other positive associations were observed between the experimental storage treatments and PCR amplification. CONCLUSIONS: Cold chain maintenance of desiccated mosquito samples is not necessary for real-time PCR detection of parasite DNA. Though field-collected mosquitoes may be subjected to variable conditions prior to molecular processing, the storage of samples over an inexpensive and logistically accessible desiccant will likely ensure accurate assessment of malaria parasite presence without diminishing PCR-detection of parasites in mosquitoes stored for at least six months.

Rider MA; Byrd BD; Keating J; Wesson DM; Caillouet KA

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

The effect of pyrethroid impregnated mosquito nets on field malaria vector populations in experimental huts and in individual local houses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies were carried out in Tak Province, northwest Thailand to determine repellency and killing effects of four commercially available pyrethroids etofenprox, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin and permethrin treated mosquito nets on field malaria vector populations in experimental huts and local houses. The studies reveal that all four test pyrethroids have a highly repellency effect. Repellency ratio between lifted and torn nets also showed some different among the four pyrethroids. Mosquito net treated with 0.3 g/m2 permethrin was most toxic to mosquito followed by 0.02 g/m2 deltamathrin, etofenprox 0.3 g/m2 and 0.02 g/m2 lambdacyhalothrin. However, careful consideration for future use should also include problem of cross-resistance, persistence of chemicals and also type of mosquito net material. PMID:9185279

Prasittisuk, M; Prasittisuk, C; Pothichiti, V; Aum-aung, B; Mongklangkul, P

1996-09-01

82

The effect of pyrethroid impregnated mosquito nets on field malaria vector populations in experimental huts and in individual local houses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Studies were carried out in Tak Province, northwest Thailand to determine repellency and killing effects of four commercially available pyrethroids etofenprox, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin and permethrin treated mosquito nets on field malaria vector populations in experimental huts and local houses. The studies reveal that all four test pyrethroids have a highly repellency effect. Repellency ratio between lifted and torn nets also showed some different among the four pyrethroids. Mosquito net treated with 0.3 g/m2 permethrin was most toxic to mosquito followed by 0.02 g/m2 deltamathrin, etofenprox 0.3 g/m2 and 0.02 g/m2 lambdacyhalothrin. However, careful consideration for future use should also include problem of cross-resistance, persistence of chemicals and also type of mosquito net material.

Prasittisuk M; Prasittisuk C; Pothichiti V; Aum-aung B; Mongklangkul P

1996-09-01

83

Remote-controlled electric-shock mosquito eradicating lamp  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model relates to a remote control and electric shock mosquito killing lamp which comprises a lamp tube, a high voltage electric shock net and a seat frame. The utility model is characterized in that the mosquito killing lamp also comprises an infrared remote controller which comprises a transmitting device and a receiving device, wherein the transmitting device comprises a switch K, a capacitance C2, a power supply E1 and an oscillator which is composed of a triode T1, a triode T2, a resistance R1, a resistance R2, a capacitance C1 and an infrared transmitting tube IR. The receiving device comprises an infrared receiving head, a D trigger, an optical coupling bidirectional thyristor, a resistance R3, a resistance R4, a capacitance C3 and a coupling capacitance C4. The 3 end and the 4 end of the optical coupling bidirectional thyristor are connected with the positive pole wire of a power supply wire. A user can control the connection or disconnection through the button switch of the transmitting device of the infrared remote controller. Thereby, the utility model can prevent a human body from being irradiated and the operation is convenient.

WANG TAICAI

84

Exploiting mosquito sugar feeding to detect mosquito-borne pathogens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) represent a global public health problem, with dengue viruses causing millions of infections annually, while emerging arboviruses, such as West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and chikungunya viruses have dramatically expanded their geographical ranges. Surveillance of arboviruses provides vital data regarding their prevalence and distribution that may be utilized for biosecurity measures and the implementation of disease control strategies. However, current surveillance methods that involve detection of virus in mosquito populations or sero-conversion in vertebrate hosts are laborious, expensive, and logistically problematic. We report a unique arbovirus surveillance system to detect arboviruses that exploits the process whereby mosquitoes expectorate virus in their saliva during sugar feeding. In this system, infected mosquitoes captured by CO(2)-baited updraft box traps are allowed to feed on honey-soaked nucleic acid preservation cards within the trap. The cards are then analyzed for expectorated virus using real-time reverse transcription-PCR. In field trials, this system detected the presence of Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses in multiple traps deployed at two locations in Australia. Viral RNA was preserved for at least seven days on the cards, allowing for long-term placement of traps and continuous collection of data documenting virus presence in mosquito populations. Furthermore no mosquito handling or processing was required and cards were conveniently shipped to the laboratory overnight. The simplicity and efficacy of this approach has the potential to transform current approaches to vector-borne disease surveillance by streamlining the monitoring of pathogens in vector populations.

Hall-Mendelin S; Ritchie SA; Johansen CA; Zborowski P; Cortis G; Dandridge S; Hall RA; van den Hurk AF

2010-06-01

85

Mosquito driving essential oil composition and mosquito driving method  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a composition of mosquito preventing extract, which comprises components of 0-10wt percent of clove oil, 0-10wt percent of litsea cubeba oil, 0-10wt percent of eucalyptus oil, 0-50wt percent of pure linaloe wood leaf oil, 0-10wt percent of thyme oil, 0-20wt percent of citionella oil, 0-10wt percent of geranium oil, 0-20wt percent of aspic oil, 0-10wt percent of wintergreen oil, 0-10wt percent of dementholized peppermint oil, 0-10wt percent of cinnamon oil, 0-60wt percent of cedar wood oil, .0-10wt percent of michelia alba leaf oil, 0-10wt percent of rue oil, 0-10wt percent of rose oil, 0-10wt percent of tea tree oil. The rest of the composition is at least any one of the following aromatic alcohols: linalool, rhodinol, nerol, geraniol, isogeraniol, citronellol and terpineol. The average mosquito preventing efficiency of the composition of mosquito preventing extract can realize above 90 percent and the scent is widely acceptable to be more than 90 percent the mosquito preventing method of the invention is simple and can be directly dispersed by ultrasonic or sprayed or dropped in a mosquito preventer device made of porous ceramic for naturally dispersing without heating.

XIANGYUN LIN

86

Larvicidal Activity of Tephrosia vogelii Crude Extracts on Mosquito Larval Stages  

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Full Text Available The use of natural products and biological insect control methods is gaining importance because of concerns about the environment, since they are more easily biodegradable. In some parts of Uganda, organic farmers have adopted the use of Tephrosia vogelii, a shrubby, leguminous and woody plant for control of storage pests. However, the efficacy of Tephrosia vogelii crude extracts in the control of Dipteran insect larvae under field conditions has not been well tested. Their use for the control of insect vectors such as mosquitoes has not also been fully evaluated. Tephrosia vogelii plant materials were collected from two selected sites, one on a higher altitude than the other using polythene study. The material was chopped, properly labeled and air-dried in a shade for two weeks. Four solvents where used for extraction: Water, Petroleum ether, Chloroform, Methanol. The extract was dried in an oven at about 32-33°C for several days, after which it was weighed and stored in the fridge at 4°C until the time of exposing the mosquito larvae. Shoot Evening Methanol (SEM) was the most effective among methanol extracts; killing an average of 4.57 mosquito larvae in 8 min while Shoot Evening Water (SEW) was the most effective of water extracts killing an average of 2.57 mosquito larvae in 8 min; hence the SEM was considered to be nearly two times more efficacious than SEW on mosquito larvae, at a concentration of 25%: 10.8% or 2.3:1 SEM: SEW, respectively. Tephrosia vogelii crude extracts could potentially therefore be used to control the larval stages of mosquitoes.

H. Matovu; D. Olila

2007-01-01

87

Use of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) and Shredded Waste Polystyrene (SWAP) Beads for Control of Mosquitoes  

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Full Text Available Background: Mosquitoes transmit several diseases to human. There are several measures for control of larvae. As part of Integrated Vector Management (IVM) program, the utility of floating layers of polystyrene beads (EPS) is a po­ten­tial alternative in habitats of mosquito larva. EPS beads prevent oviposition of mosquito as well as killing the im­ma­ture stages by forming a tick layer on the water surface.  They are cheap, environmentally safe and do not need fre­quent application and remain on the surface of water for long time. The objective of the current study was to asses the effectiveness of two types of polystyrene beads of (EPS) and (SWAP) for control of mosquito larvae under labo­ra­tory conditions."nMethods: Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus were used for experimental purposes. In each tray 250 lar­vae of late 3rd and early 4th instars were introduced. The experiment was conducted on 4 replicates for An. ste­phensi, Cu. quinquefasciatus and combination of both. Emerging of adult mosquitoes were calculated every day until the end of experiments."nResults: Mortality rate and Inhibition of Emerge (IE) for Cu. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensi and combination of both spe­cies was 97.8%, 100% and 99.07%, respectively using EPS. In average, EPS was able to kill 98.9% of lar­vae. The fig­ures with SWAP were 63%, 91.05% and 72.65%, respectively. The average mortality for mosquitoes was 75.57%"nConclusion: EPS and SWAP beads can be very effective and practical for elimination of An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefas­ciatus under the laboratory conditions.

A Soltani; H Vatandoost; H Jabbari; AR Mesdaghinia; AH Mahvi; M Younesian; AA Hanafi-Bojd; S Bozorgzadeh; MR Abai; A Pakari; H Shabkhiz

2008-01-01

88

Electric mosquito swatter structure  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses an electric mosquito swatter structure, which mainly comprises a swatter body, a handle and a light emitting device, wherein the central portion of the swatter body is a swatter net, the circumference thereof is provided with a frame body and the lower portion of the frame body is provided with a pivoting portion, the handle is formed by a plurality of tubes which can be telescopically sleeved, the top end of the handle is provided with a muff-coupling portion and the lower section thereof is provided with a holding portion and an electrical device. The pivoting portion of the swatter body and the muff-coupling portion of the handle can be in adjustably and movably pivoted with each other, thereby enabling the swatter body to have a function of selecting rotating angle. Further, the lower section of the handle is provided with a solar electrical device or a rechargeable AC/DC current electrical device, and the light emitting device is required to be mounted at the frame body close to the swatter net or a proper position of the tubes to be favorable for illuminating.

YILUN YANG; PEIYU XIE

89

Novel mosquito-absorbing device  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a novel mosquito absorbing device which comprises a shell and a motor, and the shell is hollow in the interior with one closed end and the other open end the motor is arranged in the shell, and fan blades are arranged on a rotating shaft of the motor at the closed end of the shell, a handle is arranged a tuck net is mounted at the open end of the shell and in the handle, the power supply of the motor is mounted a motor switch is arranged on the handle. The mosquito absorbing device of the utility model can effectively absorb mosquitoes, is convenient for use, energy-saving and environment-friendly and has low cost and promising market prospect at the same time, thus having great value in use.

SICHAO YAO

90

Bait for mosquito and fly  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a mosquito and fly bait, which at least comprises mosquito and fly bait feed. The utility model is characterized in that the mosquito and fly bait feed is packaged in a blocky box body, an air hole is arranged on the surface of the box body. The blocky box body is mould by the plastic molding. An air hole is arranged on the upper surface of the box body and is covered by a thin film. The blocky box body is embeded by the lower box body and upper cap. An air hole is arranged on the surface of the upper cap and is covered by a thin film. The blocky box body is thin fan shaped. The utility model is convenient, safe, environment-friendly and sanitation.

XILIN HU

91

Radiation biology of mosquitoes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract There is currently renewed interest in assessing the feasibility of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control African malaria vectors in designated areas. The SIT relies on the sterilization of males before mass release, with sterilization currently being achieved through the use of ionizing radiation. This paper reviews previous work on radiation sterilization of Anopheles mosquitoes. In general, the pupal stage was irradiated due to ease of handling compared to the adult stage. The dose-response curve between the induced sterility and log (dose) was shown to be sigmoid, and there was a marked species difference in radiation sensitivity. Mating competitiveness studies have generally been performed under laboratory conditions. The competitiveness of males irradiated at high doses was relatively poor, but with increasing ratios of sterile males, egg hatch could be lowered effectively. Males irradiated as pupae had a lower competitiveness compared to males irradiated as adults, but the use of partially-sterilizing doses has not been studied extensively. Methods to reduce somatic damage during the irradiation process as well as the use of other agents or techniques to induce sterility are discussed. It is concluded that the optimal radiation dose chosen for insects that are to be released during an SIT programme should ensure a balance between induced sterility of males and their field competitiveness, with competitiveness being determined under (semi-) field conditions. Self-contained 60Co research irradiators remain the most practical irradiators but these are likely to be replaced in the future by a new generation of high output X ray irradiators.

Helinski Michelle EH; Parker Andrew G; Knols Bart GJ

2009-01-01

92

Mosquito capture system  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a flying insect hunting and eliminating system. The utility model is composed of a gas cylinder bundle device, a gas-supplying control device, and a plurality of flying insect hunting and eliminating devices wherein, the gas cylinder bundle device is used to store and release CO <2> the gas-supplying control device is used to depressurize the CO <2> gas input by the gas cylinder bundle device to the set range first and then to output the depressurized CO <2> gas to all of flying insect hunting and eliminating devices and the flying insect hunting and eliminating devices are adopted to attract and kill flying insects by discontinuously releasing the input CO <2> gas. The utility model has the advantages that the eliminating effect towards flying insects is prompted greatly, the use and transportation costs are lowered by a large margin, centralized management and control may be implemented more conveniently, functions such as real-time monitoring, failure report, auto diagnosis report, auto-shutdown protection, and auto-recovering restarting at terminals are available, thereby providing a great convenience for the customers and lowering the costs of operation and management greatly, and making a centralized flying insect eliminating in more public areas possible.

ZENG RUI

93

Mosquito-repellent incense rack  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The product is a mosquito-repellent incense frame, comprised by a assembly frame set in a box body with a cover and a pedestal box , the assembly frame is a horizontal blind frame comprised by a tie bar crossing between the both corresponding walls of the box and a variety of metal sheets arranged parallel on the tie bar, rotary shafts connect with the metal sheets on the both ends, the metal sheet bonded with an end of a three-segment crutch connecting bar whose final segment inserts directly the corresponding holes on the tie bar which crosses the joint holes paralleling with the rotary shaft on the side walls of the pedestal box, the first segment of the crutch tie bar is in a same vertical surface with the metal sheets, the middle segment of the tie bar is parallel to the axial line of the tie bar, the final segment is vertical to the axial line of the tie bar, each of the metal sheets appear long-strip shape, its breadth is at least same as the distance between two sheets. Pulling the tie bar will drive the metal sheets to rotate, and then the base surface of the horizontal blind frame will arrange a metal sheet board. As the metal sheet board has a lager contact area with the mosquito-repellent incense, the heat conduction amount of the board to the mosquito-repellent incense will increase, and then burning of the mosquito-repellent incense can be controlled.

YAN JUNJIE LU

94

Killing spinors and gravitational perturbations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that in a vacuum space-time, possibly with a nonzero cosmological constant, which admits a D(1,0) Killing spinor, one component of the perturbed Weyl spinor that satisfies a decoupled equation, when multiplied by an appropriate factor made out of the components of the Killing spinor, constitutes a Debye potential that generates metric perturbations of the considered background. It is also shown that in the case where the background is of type N, there is an operation that relates the gravitational perturbations and the zero-rest-mass fields of spin-0, - 1/2 , and -1.

1986-01-01

95

Does Assessment Kill Student Creativity?  

Science.gov (United States)

|Does assessment kill creativity? In this article, creativity is defined and discussed and an overview of creativity and motivational research is provided to describe how assessment practices can influence students' creativity. Recommendations for protecting creativity when assessing students also are provided.|

Beghetto, Ronald A.

2005-01-01

96

Identification of mosquito repellent odours from Ocimum forskolei  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Native mosquito repellent plants have a good potential for integrated mosquito control in local settings. Ocimum forskolei, Lamiaceae, is used in Eritrea as a spatial mosquito repellent inside houses, either through crushing fresh plants or burning dry p...

Dekker Teun; Ignell Rickard; Ghebru Maedot; Glinwood Robert; Hopkins Richard

97

The unexpected importance of mosquito oviposition behaviour for malaria: non-productive larval habitats can be sources for malaria transmission  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes commute between blood-meal hosts and water. Thus, heterogeneity in human biting reflects underlying spatial heterogeneity in the distribution and suitability of larval habitat as well as inherent differences in the attractiveness, suitability and distribution of blood-meal hosts. One of the possible strategies of malaria control is to identify local vector species and then attack water bodies that contain their larvae. Methods Biting and host seeking, not oviposition, have been the focus of most previous studies of mosquitoes and malaria transmission. This study presents a mathematical model that incorporates mosquito oviposition behaviour. Results The model demonstrates that oviposition is one potential factor explaining heterogeneous biting and vector distribution in a landscape with a heterogeneous distribution of larval habitat. Adult female mosquitoes tend to aggregate around places where they oviposit, thereby increasing the risk of malaria, regardless of the suitability of the habitat for larval development. Thus, a water body may be unsuitable for adult mosquito emergence, but simultaneously, be a source for human malaria. Conclusion Larval density may be a misleading indicator of a habitat's importance for malaria control. Even if mosquitoes could be lured to oviposit in sprayed larval habitats, this would not necessarily mitigate – and might aggravate – the risk of malaria transmission. Forcing mosquitoes to fly away from humans in search of larval habitat may be a more efficient way to reduce the risk of malaria than killing larvae. Thus, draining, fouling, or filling standing water where mosquitoes oviposit can be more effective than applying larvicide.

Menach Arnaud; McKenzie F Ellis; Flahault Antoine; Smith David L

2005-01-01

98

Mosquito-repellent incense bracket  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a mosquito-repellent incense rack, comprising a main body constituted by triangle plate bar pieces respectively set on the three edges of the main body with one end fixedly connected with the main body and another end being free end and bending towards the same direction according to the main body plane to form three supporting legs position limitation components composed of at least two lineaments extend towards the main body along the two sides of the triangle wide area in bar pieces. The mosquito-repellent incense rack is placed into the package box in the form of plane, therefore the package space is saved and during using, the bar pieces bend at an angle to form the triangle supporting legs.

LONG ZHAO

99

Mosquito transcriptome profiles and filarial worm susceptibility in Armigeres subalbatus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Armigeres subalbatus is a natural vector of the filarial worm Brugia pahangi, but it kills Brugia malayi microfilariae by melanotic encapsulation. Because B. malayi and B. pahangi are morphologically and biologically similar, comparing Ar. subalbatus-B. pahangi susceptibility and Ar. subalbatus-B. malayi refractoriness could provide significant insight into recognition mechanisms required to mount an effective anti-filarial worm immune response in the mosquito, as well as provide considerable detail into the molecular components involved in vector competence. Previously, we assessed the transcriptional response of Ar. subalbatus to B. malayi, and now we report transcriptome profiling studies of Ar. subalbatus in relation to filarial worm infection to provide information on the molecular components involved in B. pahangi susceptibility. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Utilizing microarrays, comparisons were made between mosquitoes exposed to B. pahangi, B. malayi, and uninfected bloodmeals. The time course chosen facilitated an examination of key events in the development of the parasite, beginning with the very start of filarial worm infection and spanning to well after parasites had developed to the infective stage in the mosquito. At 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 h post infection and 2-3, 5-6, 8-9, and 13-14 days post challenge there were 31, 75, 113, 76, 54, 5, 3, 13, and 2 detectable transcripts, respectively, with significant differences in transcript abundance (increase or decrease) as a result of parasite development. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Herein, we demonstrate that filarial worm susceptibility in a laboratory strain of the natural vector Ar. subalbatus involves many factors of both known and unknown function that most likely are associated with filarial worm penetration through the midgut, invasion into thoracic muscle cells, and maintenance of homeostasis in the hemolymph environment. The data show that there are distinct and separate transcriptional patterns associated with filarial worm susceptibility as compared to refractoriness, and that an infection response in Ar. subalbatus can differ significantly from that observed in Ae. aegypti, a common laboratory model.

Aliota MT; Fuchs JF; Rocheleau TA; Clark AK; Hillyer JF; Chen CC; Christensen BM

2010-01-01

100

Spills on the Arthur Kill and the Kill Van Kull  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Arthur Kill between Staten Island, New York City, and New Jersey is a heavily industrialized corridor, the site of major petroleum refineries and chemical processing facilities. New York Harbor is a busy port, second largest in the U.S. on a tonnage basis. Six thousand vessels call on the port annually, including 1700 tankers. eighteen billion gallons of petroleum are delivered annually, of which 2/3 are handled on the Kills. In this interplay of wildlife, oil and marine based transfer operations, New York harbor COTP area experiences oil spills, releasing 250,000 average total annual volume. In the first three months of 1990 the volume of oil spilled approximately 750,000 gallons was released, threefold the annual average. The three major spills which caused this large release, and the governmental response, from the subject of this paper.

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Genetically Modified Mosquito: Myth and Reality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been applied successfully in some agricultural pest control programs in the past, but in many cases, success has not been sustainable in the long run. Various attempts have been made to duplicate this limited success SIT application in agriculture to other areas of applications, particularly in vector control. For example, a recent mosquito control program has been initiated in Malaysia to eliminate dengue-mosquitoes Aedes aegypti by releasing large amount of genetically modified GM male mosquitoes into the field to outcompete the wild male mosquitoes. Field experimental data that has been made available in the literature is limited, rendering it difficult to make independent assessment on its short-term efficacy and long-term sustainability of this GM control strategy. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of GM mosquito in controlling dengue mosquito population by means of model simulations via DEER (Dengue Encephalitis Eradication Routines). Preliminary results indicate negative conclusion regarding the effectiveness of GM mosquitoes in controlling wild A. aegypti population over the long-term. Essentially, significant reduction of wild mosquito population is possible only if large over-flooding ratios are applied. Further, repeated releases must be maintained over an infinite time horizon to continue to sustain low population of mosquitoes. Major difficulty remains to be resolved. In particular, in-depth costbenefit analysis on this control program is essential to ensure long-term institutional and social support.

Teh Su Yean; Koh Hock Lye; Yeap Kiew Lee

2013-01-01

102

Cytochrome B Analysis of Mosquito Blood Meals: Identifying Wildlife Hosts of West Nile Virus Mosquito Vectors in Wyoming, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

Female mosquitoes commonly exhibit patterns of blood feeding from vertebrate hosts, a behavior that strongly influences mosquito pathogen infection and transmission. The vertebrate host dynamics of the mosquito transmitted arbovirus, West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) in sa...

103

Identification of putative innate immune related genes from a cell line of the mosquito Aedes albopictus following bacterial challenge.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report identification of putative innate immune related genes from a cell line of the mosquito Aedes albopictus challenged with heat-killed bacteria. Using a subtractive hybridization and sequencing approach, we analyzed a total 309 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) which clustered in 40 contigs. Thirty-five percent of genes yielded homology to known immune genes corresponding to antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), pathogen-associated molecular patterns, protease and immune signaling cascades. Interestingly, most of the genes have not been previously described from this mosquito and thus represent a class of novel immune genes. Further, 25% sequences did not match to any known species in the non-redundant databases, appear to be specific to the mosquito A. albopictus and merit further study.

Dixit R; Patole MS; Shouche YS

2011-02-01

104

Mosquito larval source management for controlling malaria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Malaria is an important cause of illness and death in people living in many parts of the world, especially sub-Saharan Africa. Long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) reduce malaria transmission by targeting the adult mosquito vector and are key components of malaria control programmes. However, mosquito numbers may also be reduced by larval source management (LSM), which targets mosquito larvae as they mature in aquatic habitats. This is conducted by permanently or temporarily reducing the availability of larval habitats (habitat modification and habitat manipulation), or by adding substances to standing water that either kill or inhibit the development of larvae (larviciding). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of mosquito LSM for preventing malaria. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; CABS Abstracts; and LILACS up to 24 October 2012. We handsearched the Tropical Diseases Bulletin from 1900 to 2010, the archives of the World Health Organization (up to 11 February 2011), and the literature database of the Armed Forces Pest Management Board (up to 2 March 2011). We also contacted colleagues in the field for relevant articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included cluster randomized controlled trials (cluster-RCTs), controlled before-and-after trials with at least one year of baseline data, and randomized cross-over trials that compared LSM with no LSM for malaria control. We excluded trials that evaluated biological control of anopheline mosquitoes with larvivorous fish. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two authors assessed each trial for eligibility. We extracted data and at least two authors independently determined the risk of bias in the included studies. We resolved all disagreements through discussion with a third author. We analyzed the data using Review Manager 5 software. MAIN RESULTS: We included 13 studies; four cluster-RCTs, eight controlled before-and-after trials, and one randomized cross-over trial. The included studies evaluated habitat modification (one study), habitat modification with larviciding (two studies), habitat manipulation (one study), habitat manipulation plus larviciding (two studies), or larviciding alone (seven studies) in a wide variety of habitats and countries. Malaria incidenceIn two cluster-RCTs undertaken in Sri Lanka, larviciding of abandoned mines, streams, irrigation ditches, and rice paddies reduced malaria incidence by around three-quarters compared to the control (RR 0.26, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.31, 20,124 participants, two trials, moderate quality evidence). In three controlled before-and-after trials in urban and rural India and rural Kenya, results were inconsistent (98,233 participants, three trials, very low quality evidence). In one trial in urban India, the removal of domestic water containers together with weekly larviciding of canals and stagnant pools reduced malaria incidence by three quarters. In one trial in rural India and one trial in rural Kenya, malaria incidence was higher at baseline in intervention areas than in controls. However dam construction in India, and larviciding of streams and swamps in Kenya, reduced malaria incidence to levels similar to the control areas. In one additional randomized cross-over trial in the flood plains of the Gambia River, where larval habitats were extensive and ill-defined, larviciding by ground teams did not result in a statistically significant reduction in malaria incidence (2039 participants, one trial). Parasite prevalenceIn one cluster-RCT from Sri Lanka, larviciding reduced parasite prevalence by almost 90% (RR 0.11, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.22, 2963 participants, one trial, moderate quality evidence). In five controlled before-and-after trials in Greece, India, the Philippines, and Tanzania, LSM resulted in an average reduction in parasite prevalence of around two-thirds (RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.55, 8041 participants, five trials, mod

Tusting LS; Thwing J; Sinclair D; Fillinger U; Gimnig J; Bonner KE; Bottomley C; Lindsay SW

2013-01-01

105

The effect of bacterial challenge on ferritin regulation in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Secreted ferritin is the major iron storage and transport protein in insects. Here, we characterize the message and protein expression profiles of yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) ferritin heavy chain homologue (HCH) and light chain homologue (LCH) subunits in response to iron and bacterial challenge. In vivo experiments demonstrated tissue-specific regulation of HCH and LCH expression over time post-blood meal (PBM). Transcriptional regulation of HCH and LCH was treatment specific, with differences in regulation for naïve versus mosquitoes challenged with heat-killed bacteria (HKB). Translational regulation by iron regulatory protein (IRP) binding activity for the iron-responsive element (IRE) was tissue-specific and time-dependent PBM. However, mosquitoes challenged with HKB showed little change in IRP/IRE binding activity compared to naïve animals. The changes in ferritin regulation and expression in vivo were confirmed with in vitro studies. We challenged mosquitoes with HKB followed by a blood meal to determine the effects on ferritin expression, and demonstrate a synergistic, time-dependent regulation of expression for HCH and LCH.

Geiser DL; Zhou G; Mayo JJ; Winzerling JJ

2013-10-01

106

The effect of bacterial challenge on ferritin regulation in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.  

Science.gov (United States)

Secreted ferritin is the major iron storage and transport protein in insects. Here, we characterize the message and protein expression profiles of yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) ferritin heavy chain homologue (HCH) and light chain homologue (LCH) subunits in response to iron and bacterial challenge. In vivo experiments demonstrated tissue-specific regulation of HCH and LCH expression over time post-blood meal (PBM). Transcriptional regulation of HCH and LCH was treatment specific, with differences in regulation for naïve versus mosquitoes challenged with heat-killed bacteria (HKB). Translational regulation by iron regulatory protein (IRP) binding activity for the iron-responsive element (IRE) was tissue-specific and time-dependent PBM. However, mosquitoes challenged with HKB showed little change in IRP/IRE binding activity compared to naïve animals. The changes in ferritin regulation and expression in vivo were confirmed with in vitro studies. We challenged mosquitoes with HKB followed by a blood meal to determine the effects on ferritin expression, and demonstrate a synergistic, time-dependent regulation of expression for HCH and LCH. PMID:23956079

Geiser, Dawn L; Zhou, Guoli; Mayo, Jonathan J; Winzerling, Joy J

2012-12-11

107

Relative efficacy of insecticide treated mosquito nets (Diptera: Culicidae) under field conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relative efficacy of insecticide treated mosquito nets was evaluated under field conditions in Dehra village of Dhaulana PHC, District Ghaziabad, U.P., India, during 1996. Nylon nets were impregnated with deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and etofenprox at 25 mg/m2 by standard methods. Repellent, excito-repellency, killing, and airborne actions were monitored from dusk to dawn by hourly collection of mosquitoes that entered and rested in rooms and also females that landed on treated and untreated mosquito nets. Results revealed 15.3-22.9% repellent action, 98.3-99.3% excito-repellency action, and 100% mortality of females that landed on treated fabrics. No significant differences were observed in the efficacy of different synthetic pyrethroids against anophelines. However, against Culex quinquefasciatus Say there was a significant difference between deltamethrin and etofenprox. Control of anophelines was more pronounced than Cx. quinquefasciatus. There was no pronounced airborne action with any insecticide tested. Synthetic pyrethroids with strong airborne action may be more appropriate for impregnation of mosquito nets.

Ansari MA; Razdan RK

2000-01-01

108

Relative efficacy of insecticide treated mosquito nets (Diptera: Culicidae) under field conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relative efficacy of insecticide treated mosquito nets was evaluated under field conditions in Dehra village of Dhaulana PHC, District Ghaziabad, U.P., India, during 1996. Nylon nets were impregnated with deltamethrin, cyfluthrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and etofenprox at 25 mg/m2 by standard methods. Repellent, excito-repellency, killing, and airborne actions were monitored from dusk to dawn by hourly collection of mosquitoes that entered and rested in rooms and also females that landed on treated and untreated mosquito nets. Results revealed 15.3-22.9% repellent action, 98.3-99.3% excito-repellency action, and 100% mortality of females that landed on treated fabrics. No significant differences were observed in the efficacy of different synthetic pyrethroids against anophelines. However, against Culex quinquefasciatus Say there was a significant difference between deltamethrin and etofenprox. Control of anophelines was more pronounced than Cx. quinquefasciatus. There was no pronounced airborne action with any insecticide tested. Synthetic pyrethroids with strong airborne action may be more appropriate for impregnation of mosquito nets. PMID:15218929

Ansari, M A; Razdan, R K

2000-01-01

109

Differential partitioning of maternal fatty acid and phospholipid in neonate mosquito larvae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In animals, lipids are a source of energy, cell membrane components, signaling pathway modulators and emulsifying agents. In egg-laying animals, maternal yolk lipids, imported into the egg before laying, are metabolized or distributed in the developing embryo to serve these functions. Studies with birds, reptiles and insects have described lipid metabolism in adults and in eggs, but no studies have addressed how lipids are distributed in developing organs in the embryo. Here we show that maternal fatty acid and phospholipids segregate differently in tissues of newly hatched mosquito larvae. In the mother, both lipids are colocalized in yolk granules of developing oocytes and distributed evenly. In neonate larvae, however, the maternal fatty acid is stored along the side of the body, especially at the base of the body hair, and in the thorax, where the muscles are located, probably to provide energy for the rapid movements needed to find food immediately after birth. Most maternal phospholipids, however, are concentrated in the motile intestinal gastric caeca, from which they are released into the gut lumen where they may act as emulsifiers, probably to facilitate assimilation of the food the neonate ingests. Similar phenomena were observed in both Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, suggesting that such differential segregation of lipids is common to both insects. This study may lead to improved delivery of larvicidal agents and to efficient killing of newly hatched mosquito larvae as a control strategy for mosquito-borne diseases.

Atella GC; Shahabuddin M

2002-12-01

110

Wind power and bird kills  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The accidental killing of birds by wind generators, and design improvements in the towers that support the turbines that might cut down on the bird killings were discussed. The first problem for the industry began in the late 1980s when the California Energy Commission reported as many as 160 birds (the majority being raptors, including the protected golden eagle) killed in one year in the vicinity of wind power plants. The key factor identified was the design of the towers as birds of prey are attracted to lattice towers as a place to hunt from. Tubular towers do not provide a place for the birds to perch, therefore they reduce the potential for bird strikes. Bird strikes also have been reported in Spain and the siting of the towers have been considered as the principal cause of the bird strikes. In view of these incidents, the wind power industry is developing standards for studying the potential of bird strikes and is continuing to study bird behaviour leading to collisions, the impact of topography, cumulative impacts and new techniques to reduce bird strikes. Despite the reported incidents, the risk of bird strikes by wind turbines, compared to other threats to birds such as pollution, oil spills, and other threats from fossil and nuclear fuels, is considered to be negligible. With continuing efforts to minimize incidents by proper design and siting, wind power can continue to grow as an environmentally sound and efficient source of energy.

Raynolds, M.

1998-12-01

111

Wind power and bird kills  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accidental killing of birds by wind generators, and design improvements in the towers that support the turbines that might cut down on the bird killings were discussed. The first problem for the industry began in the late 1980s when the California Energy Commission reported as many as 160 birds (the majority being raptors, including the protected golden eagle) killed in one year in the vicinity of wind power plants. The key factor identified was the design of the towers as birds of prey are attracted to lattice towers as a place to hunt from. Tubular towers do not provide a place for the birds to perch, therefore they reduce the potential for bird strikes. Bird strikes also have been reported in Spain and the siting of the towers have been considered as the principal cause of the bird strikes. In view of these incidents, the wind power industry is developing standards for studying the potential of bird strikes and is continuing to study bird behaviour leading to collisions, the impact of topography, cumulative impacts and new techniques to reduce bird strikes. Despite the reported incidents, the risk of bird strikes by wind turbines, compared to other threats to birds such as pollution, oil spills, and other threats from fossil and nuclear fuels, is considered to be negligible. With continuing efforts to minimize incidents by proper design and siting, wind power can continue to grow as an environmentally sound and efficient source of energy

1998-01-01

112

Comparison of mosquito densoviruses: two clades of viruses isolated from indigenous mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We analyzed the phylogenetic tree of densoviruses isolated from indigenous mosquitoes and mosquito cell lines. Our findings suggest two distinct clades of densovirus. The viruses in the first clade were isolated from an indigenous mosquito which had the Aedes aegypti densovirus (AaeDNV) as a representative virus. The other clade of viruses was isolated from mosquito indigenous cell line which had the Aedes albopictus densovirus (AalDNV) as the representative virus. The origin of the two clades of DNVs is unclear but the phylogenetic trees were significantly different from each other. The two major densoviruses, AaeDNV and AalDNV, that infect mosquitoes that are known to carry viruses responsible for dengue hemorrhagic fever and yellow fever. Understanding the evolution of these two clades of densoviruses is important for studying the distribution of these viruses in mosquito cell lines and the information gained may be applied to understanding other viruses in various mosquito cell lines.

Sangdee K; Pattanakitsakul SN

2013-07-01

113

Aquatic insect predators and mosquito control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquitoes are serious biting pests and obligate vectors of many vertebrate pathogens. Their immature larval and pupal life stages are a common feature in most tropical and many temperate water bodies and often form a significant proportion of the biomass. Control strategies rely primarily on the use of larvicides and environmental modification to reduce recruitment and adulticides during periods of disease transmission. Larvicides are usually chemical but can involve biological toxins, agents or organisms. The use of insect predators in mosquito control has been exploited in a limited fashion and there is much room for further investigation and implementation. Insects that are recognized as having predatorial capacity with regard to mosquito prey have been identified in the Orders Odonata, Coleoptera, Diptera (primarily aquatic predators), and Hemiptera (primarily surface predators). Although their capacity is affected by certain biological and physical factors, they could play a major role in mosquito control. Furthermore, better understanding for the mosquitoes-predators relationship(s) could probably lead to satisfactory reduction of mosquito-borne diseases by utilizing either these predators in control programs, for instance biological and/or integrated control, or their kairomones as mosquitoes' ovipoisting repellents. This review covers the predation of different insect species on mosquito larvae, predator-prey-habitat relationships, co-habitation developmental issues, survival and abundance, oviposition avoidance, predatorial capacity and integrated vector control.

Shaalan EA; Canyon DV

2009-12-01

114

Microsporidian isolates from mosquitoes of Argentina  

Science.gov (United States)

Microsporidia are among the most common and widely distributed microbial pathogens associated with mosquitoes in nature. Since 1980 studies of microsporidia in mosquitoes of Argentina were conducted at the Laboratory of Insect Vectors of CEPAVE. Eleven morphologically unique species of microsporidia...

115

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles for the control of mosquito vectors of malaria, filariasis, and dengue.  

Science.gov (United States)

A biological method was used to synthesize stable silver nanoparticles that were tested as mosquito larvicides against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Annona squamosa leaf broth (5%) reduced aqueous 1?mM AgNO? to stable silver nanoparticles with an average size of 450?nm. The structure and percentage of synthesized nanoparticles was characterized by using ultraviolet spectrophotometry, X-Ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy methods. The median lethal concentrations (LC??) of silver nanoparticles that killed fourth instars of Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and An. stephensi were 0.30, 0.41, and 2.12 ppm, respectively. Adult longevity (days) in male and female mosquitoes exposed as larvae to 0.1 ppm silver nanoparticles was reduced by ~30% (p<0.05), whereas the number of eggs laid by females exposed as larvae to 0.1 ppm silver nanoparticles decreased by 36% (p<0.05). PMID:22022807

Arjunan, Naresh Kumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Rejeeth, Chandrababu; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Barnard, Donald R

2011-10-24

116

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles for the control of mosquito vectors of malaria, filariasis, and dengue.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A biological method was used to synthesize stable silver nanoparticles that were tested as mosquito larvicides against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Annona squamosa leaf broth (5%) reduced aqueous 1?mM AgNO? to stable silver nanoparticles with an average size of 450?nm. The structure and percentage of synthesized nanoparticles was characterized by using ultraviolet spectrophotometry, X-Ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy methods. The median lethal concentrations (LC??) of silver nanoparticles that killed fourth instars of Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and An. stephensi were 0.30, 0.41, and 2.12 ppm, respectively. Adult longevity (days) in male and female mosquitoes exposed as larvae to 0.1 ppm silver nanoparticles was reduced by ~30% (p<0.05), whereas the number of eggs laid by females exposed as larvae to 0.1 ppm silver nanoparticles decreased by 36% (p<0.05).

Arjunan NK; Murugan K; Rejeeth C; Madhiyazhagan P; Barnard DR

2012-03-01

117

History of Aedes mosquitoes in Hawaii.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As a geographically isolated island chain with no native mosquitoes, Hawaii is a model for examining the mechanisms behind insect vector invasions and their subsequent interactions with each other and with human populations. The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and the Asian tiger mosquito, Ae. albopictus, have been responsible for epidemics of dengue in Hawaii. As one of the world's earliest locations to be invaded by both species, Hawaii's history is particularly relevant because both species are currently invading new areas worldwide and are implicated in outbreaks of emergent or reemergent pathogens such as dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. Here we analyze the historical records of mosquito introductions in order to understand the factors that have led to the current distribution of these 2 mosquitoes in the Hawaiian Islands.

Winchester JC; Kapan DD

2013-06-01

118

Free flight of the mosquito Aedes aegypti  

CERN Document Server

High speed video observations of free flying male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the dengue and yellow fever vector, along with custom measurement methods, enable measurement of wingbeat frequency, body position and body orientation of mosquitoes during flight. We find these mosquitoes flap their wings at approximately 850 Hz. We also generate body yaw, body pitch and wing deviation measurements with standard deviations of less than 1 degree and find that sideways velocity and acceleration are important components of mosquito motion. Rapid turns involving changes in flight direction often involve large sideways accelerations. These do not correspond to commensurate changes in body heading, and the insect's flight direction and body heading are decoupled during flight. These findings call in to question the role of yaw control in mosquito flight. In addition, using orientation data, we find that sideways accelerations are well explained by roll-based rotation of the lift vector. In contrast, the insect's body pitch...

Iams, S M

2012-01-01

119

Kick-over preventive mosquito coil box  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model relates to a kick-over preventive mosquito coil box, which comprises a box body, a plurality of flat supports and a holder. The flat supports are arranged inside the box body, and the inner diameter of the holder disposed outside the box body is equal to the outer diameter of the box body. The kick-over preventive mosquito coil box can be used for containing a burning mosquito coil, and also is capable of collecting ash of the mosquito coil and being prevented from being kicked over by people. Further, the kick-over preventive mosquito coil box is simple in structure, convenient in use and suitable for most populations.

ZHENG ZHUGE

120

Genetic control of Aedes mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aedes mosquitoes include important vector species such as Aedes aegypti, the major vector of dengue. Genetic control methods are being developed for several of these species, stimulated by an urgent need owing to the poor effectiveness of current methods combined with an increase in chemical pesticide resistance. In this review we discuss the various genetic strategies that have been proposed, their present status, and future prospects. We focus particularly on those methods that are already being tested in the field, including RIDL and Wolbachia-based approaches.

Alphey L; McKemey A; Nimmo D; Neira Oviedo M; Lacroix R; Matzen K; Beech C

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
121

Persistence of viral RNA in chikungunya virus-infected Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes after prolonged storage at 28°C.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments were conducted to determine the persistence of chikungunya viral (CHIKV) RNA in experimentally infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes stored for prolonged periods at 28°C. Intra-thoracically inoculated mosquitoes with confirmed positivity were killed by quick freezing at -80°C, applied to sticky tape, and stored at 28°C with 80 ± 5% relative humidity (RH). At weekly intervals, five mosquitoes were removed from the tape randomly and assayed individually for detection of viral RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). CHIKV RNA was detected up to 12 weeks in dry mosquitoes by RT-PCR. Virus could not be isolated either in cell culture or in the suckling Swiss-albino mouse system at any stage. This study demonstrated the persistence of CHIKV viral RNA up to 12 weeks when stored at 28°C with RH 80 ± 5%. This finding will have significance in CHIKV surveillance programs in mosquito populations or field-based studies in countries where maintenance of a cold chain is a concern. PMID:22232470

Mavale, Mangala; Sudeep, Anakkathil; Gokhale, Mangesh; Hundekar, Supriya; Parashar, Deepti; Ghodke, Youwaraj; Arankalle, Vidya; Mishra, Akhilesh Chandra

2012-01-01

122

Persistence of viral RNA in chikungunya virus-infected Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes after prolonged storage at 28°C.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Experiments were conducted to determine the persistence of chikungunya viral (CHIKV) RNA in experimentally infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes stored for prolonged periods at 28°C. Intra-thoracically inoculated mosquitoes with confirmed positivity were killed by quick freezing at -80°C, applied to sticky tape, and stored at 28°C with 80 ± 5% relative humidity (RH). At weekly intervals, five mosquitoes were removed from the tape randomly and assayed individually for detection of viral RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). CHIKV RNA was detected up to 12 weeks in dry mosquitoes by RT-PCR. Virus could not be isolated either in cell culture or in the suckling Swiss-albino mouse system at any stage. This study demonstrated the persistence of CHIKV viral RNA up to 12 weeks when stored at 28°C with RH 80 ± 5%. This finding will have significance in CHIKV surveillance programs in mosquito populations or field-based studies in countries where maintenance of a cold chain is a concern.

Mavale M; Sudeep A; Gokhale M; Hundekar S; Parashar D; Ghodke Y; Arankalle V; Mishra AC

2012-01-01

123

MERCY KILLING METHODS IN ANIMALS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The word euthanasia means a gentle death and should be regarded as an act of humane killing with the minimum ofpain, fear and distress. Euthanatizing agents cause death by three basic mechanisms: Hypoxia, direct or indirect;Direct depression of neurons necessary for life function; and Physical disruption of brain activity and destruction ofneurons necessary for life. Euthanasia should be conducted in such a manner and in such a location as to ensurepublic safety and to protect the public from having to witness euthanasia activities. Advantages and disadvantagesof different euthanasia used in animals are also described in detail in this article.

Nimisha Kakadia*1, Dr. Niranjan S Kanaki2

2011-01-01

124

Hyperthermic cell killing and radiosensitization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hyperthermic inhibition of DNA repair may not only cause radiosensitization, but might also play a substantial role in the mechanism of cell killing by heat alone, e.g. by the inhibition of post-replication repair. If cell survival after hyperthermia or a combined heat plus radiation treatment is determined by the impairment of only one specific step of DNA repair, the degree of impairment has to correlate with survival after heat alone or in combination with radiation, under a variety of conditions that alter cell survival. The protective effect of thermotolerance and erythritol, and sensitization by step-down heating and procaine were used as tools to study whether such a correlation could be found for the inhibition of strand-break repair or DNA polymerase inactivation. During this study a small number of DNA strand breaks (or alkali-labile lesions) was observed to arise from hyperthermia alone. The relationship of these lesions to hyperthermic cell killing was further investigated. 524 refs.; 59 figs.; 15 tabs.

1986-01-01

125

Plant extracts as potential mosquito larvicides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquitoes act as a vector for most of the life threatening diseases like malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya ferver, filariasis, encephalitis, West Nile Virus infection, etc. Under the Integrated Mosquito Management (IMM), emphasis was given on the application of alternative strategies in mosquito control. The continuous application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance in vector species, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain and adverse effects on environmental quality and non target organisms including human health. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. These are non-toxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. In this article, the current state of knowledge on phytochemical sources and mosquitocidal activity, their mechanism of action on target population, variation of their larvicidal activity according to mosquito species, instar specificity, polarity of solvents used during extraction, nature of active ingredient and promising advances made in biological control of mosquitoes by plant derived secondary metabolites have been reviewed. PMID:22771587

Ghosh, Anupam; Chowdhury, Nandita; Chandra, Goutam

2012-05-01

126

9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.205... Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. Newcastle Disease Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall...

2009-01-01

127

Ecology of mosquitoes of Midwestern Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & objectives: The ecology and distribution of various mosquito species is important inthe determination of mosquito vector abundance and associated diseases prevalence. The distributionof various mosquito genera in natural and artificial habitats and their relative species abundancewas studied between August 2002 and July 2003 in three foci (Uromi, Ekpoma and Auchi) comprisingthe Esan and Etsako regions of Midwestern Nigeria.Methods: Sampling was carried out by the method of Hopkins (1952) by dipping using a pipette orladle depending on container types. Pooled contents of smaller containers were sampled with a pondnet. All breeding sources of mosquito larvae were grouped into five (5) depending on their nature,constitution and the physiochemical properties. Artificial mosquito cultures were also carried out infour different container types; plastics, metal cans, earthenware pots and bamboo strips, in parts oftwo different macro habitats subdivided into area of high human activities (AHHA) and areas ofderived/secondary vegetation (ADSV). Environmental temperatures, rainfall and relative humiditywere monitored during the study.Results: The present study revealed 17 mosquito species belonging to three genera (Anopheles,Culex and Aedes) which are potential vectors of four human diseases in the areas surveyed. A total of736 mosquito larvae were encountered in artificial sources and 568 larvae were harvested from naturalsources. Pools, plastics and metal cans were the predominant artificial sources of mosquito larvae.Conclusion: The contribution of human activities and increasing environmental modification to thebreeding of human disease vector mosquitoes is of importance and selective vector control measuresincluding larviciding are recommended particularly before onset of rainy season

Godwin R.A. Okogun, Jude C. Anosike, Anthony N. Okere & Bethran E.B. Nwoke

2005-01-01

128

Rickettsia species in African Anopheles mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is higher rate of R. felis infection among febrile patients than in healthy people in Sub-Saharan Africa, predominantly in the rainy season. Mosquitoes possess a high vectorial capacity and, because of their abundance and aggressiveness, likely play a role in rickettsial epidemiology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative and traditional PCR assays specific for Rickettsia genes detected rickettsial DNA in 13 of 848 (1.5%) Anopheles mosquitoes collected from Côte d'Ivoire, Gabon, and Senegal. R. felis was detected in one An. gambiae molecular form S mosquito collected from Kahin, Côte d'Ivoire (1/77, 1.3%). Additionally, a new Rickettsia genotype was detected in five An. gambiae molecular form S mosquitoes collected from Côte d'Ivoire (5/77, 6.5%) and one mosquito from Libreville, Gabon (1/88, 1.1%), as well as six An. melas (6/67, 9%) mosquitoes collected from Port Gentil, Gabon. A sequence analysis of the gltA, ompB, ompA and sca4 genes indicated that this new Rickettsia sp. is closely related to R. felis. No rickettsial DNA was detected from An. funestus, An. arabiensis, or An. gambiae molecular form M mosquitoes. Additionally, a BLAST analysis of the gltA sequence from the new Rickettsia sp. resulted in a 99.71% sequence similarity to a species (JQ674485) previously detected in a blood sample of a Senegalese patient with a fever from the Bandafassi village, Kedougou region. CONCLUSION: R. felis was detected for the first time in An. gambiae molecular form S, which represents the major African malaria vector. The discovery of R. felis, as well as a new Rickettsia species, in mosquitoes raises new issues with respect to African rickettsial epidemiology that need to be investigated, such as bacterial isolation, the degree of the vectorial capacity of mosquitoes, the animal reservoirs, and human pathogenicity.

Socolovschi C; Pages F; Ndiath MO; Ratmanov P; Raoult D

2012-01-01

129

Nest Mosquito Trap quantifies contact rates between nesting birds and mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Accurate estimates of host-vector contact rates are required for precise determination of arbovirus transmission intensity. We designed and tested a novel mosquito collection device, the Nest Mosquito Trap (NMT), to collect mosquitoes as they attempt to feed on unrestrained nesting birds in artificial nest boxes. In the laboratory, the NMT collected nearly one-third of the mosquitoes introduced to the nest boxes. We then used these laboratory data to estimate our capture efficiency of field-collected bird-seeking mosquitoes collected over 66 trap nights. We estimated that 7.5 mosquitoes per trap night attempted to feed on nesting birds in artificial nest boxes. Presence of the NMT did not have a negative effect on avian nest success when compared to occupied nest boxes that were not sampled with the trap. Future studies using the NMT may elucidate the role of nestlings in arbovirus transmission and further refine estimates of nesting bird and vector contact rates.

Caillouët KA; Riggan AE; Rider M; Bulluck LP

2012-06-01

130

Can mosquitoes fly in the rain?  

CERN Document Server

Collisions with raindrops are one of many obstacles insects face during flight. In this fluid dynamics video, we present a series of high-speed films of impacts between mosquitoes and raindrops. We also present drop impacts upon insect mimics, which are unsupported styrofoam balls of the same mass as mosquitoes. High-speed videography and particle tracking during collision are employed to determine the insect position versus time. We determine the magnitude of acceleration by considering the momentum transfer and impact duration. Experiments with live mosquitoes indicate a surprising ability to quickly recover flight post-collision, despite accelerations of 30-300 gravities over durations of 1 ms.

Dickerson, Andrew; Madhavan, Nihar; Hu, David

2011-01-01

131

Spacetime Encodings III - Second Order Killing Tensors  

CERN Document Server

This paper explores the Petrov type D, stationary axisymmetric vacuum (SAV) spacetimes that were found by Carter to have separable Hamilton-Jacobi equations, and thus admit a second-order Killing tensor. The derivation of the spacetimes presented in this paper borrows from ideas about dynamical systems, and illustrates concepts that can be generalized to higher- order Killing tensors. The relationship between the components of the Killing equations and metric functions are given explicitly. The origin of the four separable coordinate systems found by Carter is explained and classified in terms of the analytic structure associated with the Killing equations. A geometric picture of what the orbital invariants may represent is built. Requiring that a SAV spacetime admits a second-order Killing tensor is very restrictive, selecting very few candidates from the group of all possible SAV spacetimes. This restriction arises due to the fact that the consistency conditions associated with the Killing equations require...

Brink, Jeandrew

2009-01-01

132

Chromosome phylogenies of malaria mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malaria mosquitoes often belong to complexes of sibling species, members of which are morphologically and genetically similar to each other. However, members within these complexes can vary significantly in their ecological adaptations and abilities to transmit the malaria parasite. The high degree of genetics similarity among sibling species makes the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships within species complexes difficult. This paper reviews studies that infer the ancestral--descendant relationships among sibling species using molecular markers and chromosomal inversions. A methodology based on analyzing breakpoints of fixed overlapping inversions is shown to be useful for rooting phylogenies in complexes of sibling species, if the chromosomal arrangements in outgroup species are known. The construction of detailed phylogenies for malaria vectors will help to identify the association of evolutionary genomic changes with the origin of human blood choice and specific ecological adaptations.

Sharakhov IV

2013-01-01

133

Gauge Theories on Sphere and Killing Vectors  

CERN Document Server

We study manifestly $O(n+1)$ covariant formulation of vector and antisymmetric tensor gauge theories by stereographically projecting these theories, defined in flat Euclidean space, onto the surface of a hypersphere. The gauge fields in the two descriptions are mapped by conformal Killing vectors while conformal Killing spinors are necessary for the matter fields, allowing for a very compact analysis and presentation of results. General expressions for these Killing vectors and spinors are given.

Banerjee, R

2003-01-01

134

West Nile Virus and Preventing Mosquito Bites  

Science.gov (United States)

... to... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks West Nile Virus and Preventing Mosquito Bites Stay healthy this summer. ... case counts by state [PDF - 270KB] . Where is West Nile virus a problem? Some states, such as those in ...

135

Mosquito transcriptome changes and filarial worm resistance in Armigeres subalbatus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Armigeres subalbatus is a natural vector of the filarial worm Brugia pahangi, but it rapidly and proficiently kills Brugia malayi microfilariae by melanotic encapsulation. Because B. malayi and B. pahangi are morphologically and biologically similar, the Armigeres-Brugia system serves as a valuable model for studying the resistance mechanisms in mosquito vectors. We have initiated transcriptome profiling studies in Ar. subalbatus to identify molecular components involved in B. malayi refractoriness. Results These initial studies assessed the transcriptional response of Ar. subalbatus to B. malayi at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hrs after an infective blood feed. In this investigation, we initiated the first holistic study conducted on the anti-filarial worm immune response in order to effectively explore the functional roles of immune-response genes following a natural exposure to the parasite. Studies assessing the transcriptional response revealed the involvement of unknown and conserved unknowns, cytoskeletal and structural components, and stress and immune responsive factors. The data show that the anti-filarial worm immune response by Ar. subalbatus to be a highly complex, tissue-specific process involving varied effector responses working in concert with blood cell-mediated melanization. Conclusion This initial study provides a foundation and direction for future studies, which will more fully dissect the nature of the anti-filarial worm immune response in this mosquito-parasite system. The study also argues for continued studies with RNA generated from both hemocytes and whole bodies to fully expound the nature of the anti-filarial worm immune response.

Aliota Matthew T; Fuchs Jeremy F; Mayhew George F; Chen Cheng-Chen; Christensen Bruce M

2007-01-01

136

The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana reduces instantaneous blood feeding in wild multi-insecticide-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in Benin, West Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquito-borne diseases are still a major health risk in many developing countries, and the emergence of multi-insecticide-resistant mosquitoes is threatening the future of vector control. Therefore, new tools that can manage resistant mosquitoes are required. Laboratory studies show that entomopathogenic fungi can kill insecticide-resistant malaria vectors but this needs to be verified in the field. Methods The present study investigated whether these fungi will be effective at infecting, killing and/or modifying the behaviour of wild multi-insecticide-resistant West African mosquitoes. The entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were separately applied to white polyester window netting and used in combination with either a permethrin-treated or untreated bednet in an experimental hut trial. Untreated nets were used because we wanted to test the effect of fungus alone and in combination with an insecticide to examine any potential additive or synergistic effects. Results In total, 1125 female mosquitoes were collected during the hut trial, mainly Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Unfortunately, not enough wild Anopheles gambiae Giles were collected to allow the effect the fungi may have on this malaria vector to be analysed. None of the treatment combinations caused significantly increased mortality of Cx. quinquefasciatus when compared to the control hut. The only significant behaviour modification found was a reduction in blood feeding by Cx. quinquefasciatus, caused by the permethrin and B. bassiana treatments, although no additive effect was seen in the B. bassiana and permethrin combination treatment. Beauveria bassiana did not repel blood foraging mosquitoes either in the laboratory or field. Conclusions This is the first time that an entomopathogenic fungus has been shown to reduce blood feeding of wild mosquitoes. This behaviour modification indicates that B. bassiana could potentially be a new mosquito control tool effective at reducing disease transmission, although further field work in areas with filariasis transmission should be carried out to verify this. In addition, work targeting malaria vector mosquitoes should be carried out to see if these mosquitoes manifest the same behaviour modification after infection with B. bassiana conidia.

Howard Annabel FV; N'Guessan Raphael; Koenraadt Constantianus JM; Asidi Alex; Farenhorst Marit; Akogbéto Martin; Thomas Matthew B; Knols Bart GJ; Takken Willem

2010-01-01

137

The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana reduces instantaneous blood feeding in wild multi-insecticide-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in Benin, West Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Mosquito-borne diseases are still a major health risk in many developing countries, and the emergence of multi-insecticide-resistant mosquitoes is threatening the future of vector control. Therefore, new tools that can manage resistant mosquitoes are required. Laboratory studies show that entomopathogenic fungi can kill insecticide-resistant malaria vectors but this needs to be verified in the field. METHODS: The present study investigated whether these fungi will be effective at infecting, killing and/or modifying the behaviour of wild multi-insecticide-resistant West African mosquitoes. The entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were separately applied to white polyester window netting and used in combination with either a permethrin-treated or untreated bednet in an experimental hut trial. Untreated nets were used because we wanted to test the effect of fungus alone and in combination with an insecticide to examine any potential additive or synergistic effects. RESULTS: In total, 1125 female mosquitoes were collected during the hut trial, mainly Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Unfortunately, not enough wild Anopheles gambiae Giles were collected to allow the effect the fungi may have on this malaria vector to be analysed. None of the treatment combinations caused significantly increased mortality of Cx. quinquefasciatus when compared to the control hut. The only significant behaviour modification found was a reduction in blood feeding by Cx. quinquefasciatus, caused by the permethrin and B. bassiana treatments, although no additive effect was seen in the B. bassiana and permethrin combination treatment. Beauveria bassiana did not repel blood foraging mosquitoes either in the laboratory or field. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first time that an entomopathogenic fungus has been shown to reduce blood feeding of wild mosquitoes. This behaviour modification indicates that B. bassiana could potentially be a new mosquito control tool effective at reducing disease transmission, although further field work in areas with filariasis transmission should be carried out to verify this. In addition, work targeting malaria vector mosquitoes should be carried out to see if these mosquitoes manifest the same behaviour modification after infection with B. bassiana conidia.

Howard AF; N'guessan R; Koenraadt CJ; Asidi A; Farenhorst M; Akogbéto M; Thomas MB; Knols BG; Takken W

2010-01-01

138

Engineering, mosquitoes and filariasis: a case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The results of larval surveys were used to assess the relative numbers of mosquitoes breeding in different types of habitat and in different parts of the town of Pondicherry, India. The results illustrate an effective method to set priorities for mosquito control by identifying the most significant breeding sites in a town, and show that they are not necessarily the most obvious, the most extensive or those intuitively most likely.

Cairncross S; Rajavel AR; Vanamail P; Subramaniam S; Paily KP; Ramaiah KD; Amalraj D; Mariappan T; Srinivasan R

1988-06-01

139

Engineering, mosquitoes and filariasis: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of larval surveys were used to assess the relative numbers of mosquitoes breeding in different types of habitat and in different parts of the town of Pondicherry, India. The results illustrate an effective method to set priorities for mosquito control by identifying the most significant breeding sites in a town, and show that they are not necessarily the most obvious, the most extensive or those intuitively most likely. PMID:2899174

Cairncross, S; Rajavel, A R; Vanamail, P; Subramaniam, S; Paily, K P; Ramaiah, K D; Amalraj, D; Mariappan, T; Srinivasan, R

1988-06-01

140

Repelentes electrónicos contra mosquitos: propaganda y realidad  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión bibliográfica acerca del uso de dispositivos electroacústicos con supuesta acción repelente sobre las hembras de diferentes especies de mosquitos hematófagos. Se dan 15 referencias directas y 2 indirectas, en todas se concluye que estos dispositivos no protegen a quienes los portan de las picadas de los mosquitos. Se dan los nombres de 9 de los dispositivos probados, así como de 16 de las principales especies de mosquitos presentes en las pruebas de campo. Estas pruebas de campo se han realizado en condiciones ecológicas muy diferentes, que van desde alaska hasta el África Ecuatorial. También se menciona el efecto potencialmente dañino al hombre de los dispositivos que emiten frecuencias a alta intensidad.A bibliographic review about the use of electroacustic devices with a supposed repellent action on the females of different species of hematophagous mosquitoes is presented. 15 direct references and 2 indirect ones are given, in which it is concluded that these devices do not protect those who have them from the stings of mosquitoes. The names of 9 of the tested devices as well as of 16 of the main species of mosquitoes present in the field tests are mentioned. These tests have been carried out in very different ecological conditions from Alaska to Equatorial Africa. It is also stressed that the high intensity ultrasonic frequencies emitted by these devices produces a potentially harmful effect on man.

Frank Coro; Silvia Suárez

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

HIV treatments have malaria gametocyte killing and transmission blocking activity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: ?Millions of individuals being treated for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) live in malaria-endemic areas, but the effects of these treatments on malaria transmission are unknown. While drugs like HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) have known activity against parasites during liver or asexual blood stages, their effects on transmission stages require further study. METHODS: ?The HIV PIs lopinavir and saquinavir, the nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor nevirapine, and the antibiotic TMP-SMX were assessed for activity against Plasmodium falciparum transmission stages. The alamarBlue assay was used to determine the effects of drugs on gametocyte viability, and exflagellation was assessed to determine the effects of drugs on gametocyte maturation. The effects of drug on transmission were assessed by calculating the mosquito oocyst count as a marker for infectivity, using standard membrane feeding assays. RESULTS: ?Lopinavir and saquinavir have gametocytocidal and transmission blocking activities at or approaching clinically relevant treatment levels, while nevirapine does not. TMP-SMX is not gametocytocidal, but at prophylactic levels it blocks transmission. CONCLUSIONS: ?Specific HIV treatments have gametocyte killing and transmission-blocking effects. Clinical studies are warranted to evaluate these findings and their potential impact on eradication efforts.

Hobbs CV; Tanaka TQ; Muratova O; Van Vliet J; Borkowsky W; Williamson KC; Duffy PE

2013-07-01

142

75 FR 62469 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0907] Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their Tributaries, NY, Maintenance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from...

2010-10-12

143

75 FR 30299 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0355] Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their Tributaries, NY, Maintenance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from...

2010-06-01

144

Immunopathological Features Developing in the Mosquito Midgut after Feeding on Anopheles gambiae Mucin-1 / Interleukin-12 cDNA Immunized Mice/ Desarrollo de Características Inmunopatológicas en el Intestino Medio del Mosquito Después de Alimentarse de Ratones Inmunizados con Mucina-1 / Interleucina-12 ADNc de Anopheles gambiae  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El intestino medio es el órgano al cual pasa la sangre consumida por el mosquito y donde, mediante una membrana peritrófica secretada por el epitelio, esta sangre es mantenida durante la digestión y absorción. El intestino del mosquito está revestido por microvellosidades llenas de actina que son expuestas a las complejas condiciones en torno a la luz intestinal, tales como la abrasión producida por partículas de alimentos, hidrolasas digestivas y el ataque de pat? (more) ?genos y parásitos que son tomados en la sangre consumida. Estas microvellosidades se protegen de estos efectos mediante la matriz peritrófica, el glicocálix y las proteínas de mucina que revisten las superficies epiteliales. La inmunización con AgMUC1/IL-12 ADNc en ratones BALB/c ha demostrado ser útil para matar los mosquitos cuando se alimentan de estos ratones. La mucina es una de las proteínas producidas en el intestino medio del mosquito después de consumir sangre. La fina estructura del epitelio del intestino interactúa con factores inmunes tales como anticuerpos o células inmunes es de especial importancia para interpretar los eventos tempranos en la interacción entre el revestimiento del intestino medio y los componentes inmunológicos específicos presentes en la sangre de ratones BALB/c inmunizados con AgMUC1/IL-12 cDNA. Después de observar mediante microscopías de luz, electrónica de barrido y de transmisión las características de secciones del intestino medio del mosquito Anopheles gambiae alimentado de ratones BALB/c inmunizados con AgMUC1/IL-12 cDNA, mecanismos inmunes mediados por citotoxicidad celular dependiente de anticuerpos (ADCC) podrían ser los responsables de matar a los mosquitos. Los procesos necróticos y apoptóticos que pueden ser la causa de la muerte del mosquito tienen lugar en las células que recubren el epitelio del intestino medio. Abstract in english The mosquito midgut is the organ into which the blood meal passes and in which, within a peritrophic membrane secreted by the epithelium, the blood is retained during digestion and absorption. The mosquito midgut is lined with an actin filled microvilli that are exposed to the harsh environment of the gut lumen such as food particle abrasion, digestive hydrolases and attack by pathogens and parasites that are taken in by the blood meal. These microvilli are protected them (more) these effects by the peritrophic matrix, the glycocalyx and the mucin proteins that line their epithelial surfaces. Immunization of BALB/c mice with AgMUC1/IL-12 cDNA has been shown to kill mosquitoes when fed on these mice. Mucin is one of the proteins produced in the mosquito midgut after a blood meal. The fine structure of the mosquito midgut epithelium interacting with immune factors such as antibodies or immune cells is of special significance for interpreting early events in the interaction between the mosquito midgut lining and the specific immune components present in the blood of AgMUC1/IL-12 cDNA immunized BALB/c mice. Following bright light microscopy, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopic observations of the features seen in mosquito midgut sections from An. gambiae mosquitoes fed on BALB/c mice immunized with AgMUC1/IL-12 cDNA, the most likely immune mechanisms responsible for mosquito killing could be cell mediated, most likely antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Both necrotic and apoptotic processes that could be the cause of mosquito death were seen to take place in the cells lining the midgut epithelium.

Injera, Wilfred E; Kabiru, Elphantus W; Gicheru, Michael M; Githure, John I; Beier, John C

2013-03-01

145

Immunopathological Features Developing in the Mosquito Midgut after Feeding on Anopheles gambiae Mucin-1 / Interleukin-12 cDNA Immunized Mice Desarrollo de Características Inmunopatológicas en el Intestino Medio del Mosquito Después de Alimentarse de Ratones Inmunizados con Mucina-1 / Interleucina-12 ADNc de Anopheles gambiae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The mosquito midgut is the organ into which the blood meal passes and in which, within a peritrophic membrane secreted by the epithelium, the blood is retained during digestion and absorption. The mosquito midgut is lined with an actin filled microvilli that are exposed to the harsh environment of the gut lumen such as food particle abrasion, digestive hydrolases and attack by pathogens and parasites that are taken in by the blood meal. These microvilli are protected them these effects by the peritrophic matrix, the glycocalyx and the mucin proteins that line their epithelial surfaces. Immunization of BALB/c mice with AgMUC1/IL-12 cDNA has been shown to kill mosquitoes when fed on these mice. Mucin is one of the proteins produced in the mosquito midgut after a blood meal. The fine structure of the mosquito midgut epithelium interacting with immune factors such as antibodies or immune cells is of special significance for interpreting early events in the interaction between the mosquito midgut lining and the specific immune components present in the blood of AgMUC1/IL-12 cDNA immunized BALB/c mice. Following bright light microscopy, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopic observations of the features seen in mosquito midgut sections from An. gambiae mosquitoes fed on BALB/c mice immunized with AgMUC1/IL-12 cDNA, the most likely immune mechanisms responsible for mosquito killing could be cell mediated, most likely antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Both necrotic and apoptotic processes that could be the cause of mosquito death were seen to take place in the cells lining the midgut epithelium.El intestino medio es el órgano al cual pasa la sangre consumida por el mosquito y donde, mediante una membrana peritrófica secretada por el epitelio, esta sangre es mantenida durante la digestión y absorción. El intestino del mosquito está revestido por microvellosidades llenas de actina que son expuestas a las complejas condiciones en torno a la luz intestinal, tales como la abrasión producida por partículas de alimentos, hidrolasas digestivas y el ataque de patógenos y parásitos que son tomados en la sangre consumida. Estas microvellosidades se protegen de estos efectos mediante la matriz peritrófica, el glicocálix y las proteínas de mucina que revisten las superficies epiteliales. La inmunización con AgMUC1/IL-12 ADNc en ratones BALB/c ha demostrado ser útil para matar los mosquitos cuando se alimentan de estos ratones. La mucina es una de las proteínas producidas en el intestino medio del mosquito después de consumir sangre. La fina estructura del epitelio del intestino interactúa con factores inmunes tales como anticuerpos o células inmunes es de especial importancia para interpretar los eventos tempranos en la interacción entre el revestimiento del intestino medio y los componentes inmunológicos específicos presentes en la sangre de ratones BALB/c inmunizados con AgMUC1/IL-12 cDNA. Después de observar mediante microscopías de luz, electrónica de barrido y de transmisión las características de secciones del intestino medio del mosquito Anopheles gambiae alimentado de ratones BALB/c inmunizados con AgMUC1/IL-12 cDNA, mecanismos inmunes mediados por citotoxicidad celular dependiente de anticuerpos (ADCC) podrían ser los responsables de matar a los mosquitos. Los procesos necróticos y apoptóticos que pueden ser la causa de la muerte del mosquito tienen lugar en las células que recubren el epitelio del intestino medio.

Wilfred E Injera; Elphantus W Kabiru; Michael M Gicheru; John I Githure; John C Beier

2013-01-01

146

The discerning predator: decision rules underlying prey classification by a mosquito-eating jumping spider.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Evarcha culicivora is an East African jumping spider that feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by choosing blood-fed female Anopheles mosquitoes as prey. Previous studies have shown that this predator can identify its preferred prey even when restricted to using only visual cues. Here, we used lures and virtual mosquitoes to investigate the optical cues underlying this predator's prey-choice behaviour. We made lures by dissecting and then reconstructing dead mosquitoes, combining the head plus thorax with different abdomens. Depending on the experiment, lures were either moving or motionless. Findings from the lure experiments suggested that, for E. culicivora, seeing a blood-fed female mosquito's abdomen on a lure was a necessary, but not sufficient, cue by which preferred prey was identified, as cues from the abdomen needed to be paired with cues from the head and thorax of a mosquito. Conversely, when abdomens were not visible or were identical, spiders based their decisions on the appearance of the head plus thorax of mosquitoes, choosing prey with female characteristics. Findings from a subsequent experiment using animated 3D virtual mosquitoes suggest that it is specifically the mosquito's antennae that influence E. culicivora's prey-choice decisions. Our results show that E. culicivora uses a complex process for prey classification.

Nelson XJ; Jackson RR

2012-07-01

147

Deformations of M-theory Killing superalgebras  

CERN Document Server

We classify the Lie superalgebra deformations of the Killing superalgebras of some M-theory backgrounds. We show that the Killing superalgebras of the Minkowski, Freund--Rubin and M5-brane backgrounds are rigid, whereas the ones for the M-wave, the Kaluza--Klein monopole and the M2-brane admit deformations, which we give explicitly.

Figueroa-O'Farrill, José

2007-01-01

148

Mount Unzen kills three volcanologists  

Science.gov (United States)

Three AGU members were among 37 people killed June 3 when Mount Unzen, a volcano in Nagasaki prefecture, Japan, erupted. Unzen last erupted in 1792. The first signs of renewed activity appeared in mid-1990, with increases in seismicity and the first volcanic tremor since observations began in 1966. The three volcanologists, Harry Glicken and Maurice and Katia Krafft, had traveled to Mount Unzen to monitor the increased seismic activity. Glicken, 33, was a visiting scientist at Tokyo Metropolitan University and an assistant researcher in geological sciences at the University of California, Santa Barbara. He worked for the U.S. Geological Survey until 1989, and narrowly escaped death in the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington.Glicken had been an AGU member since 1980 and was known for his work in debris avalanches. Maurice, 45, and Katia Krafft, 44, of Cernay, France, were professional volcanologists known for their extensive work in publishing books and films on volcanology for the general public. Both Kraffts joined AGU in 1975.

DeVito, M. Catherine

149

Indoor use of plastic sheeting impregnated with carbamate combined with long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets for the control of pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The combined efficacy of a long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) and a carbamate-treated plastic sheeting (CTPS) or indoor residual spraying (IRS) for control of insecticide-resistant mosquitoes was evaluated in experimental huts in Burkina Faso. Anopheles gambiae from the area is resistant to pyrethroids and to a lesser extent, carbamates. Relatively low mortality rates were observed with the LLIN (44%), IRS (42%), and CTPS (52%), whereas both combinations killed significantly more mosquitoes (~70% for LLIN + CTPS and LLIN + IRS). Blood feeding by An. gambiae was uninhibited by IRS and CTPS compared with LLIN (43%), LLIN + CTPS (58%), and LLIN + IRS (56%). No evidence for selection of the kdr and ace-1(R) alleles was observed with the combinations, whereas a survival advantage of mosquitoes bearing the ace-1(R) mutation was observed with IRS and CTPS. The results suggest that the combination of the two interventions constitutes a potential tool for vector-resistance management.

Djènontin A; Chandre F; Dabiré KR; Chabi J; N'guessan R; Baldet T; Akogbéto M; Corbel V

2010-08-01

150

Indoor Use of Plastic Sheeting Impregnated with Carbamate Combined with Long-Lasting Insecticidal Mosquito Nets for the Control of Pyrethroid-Resistant Malaria Vectors  

Science.gov (United States)

The combined efficacy of a long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) and a carbamate-treated plastic sheeting (CTPS) or indoor residual spraying (IRS) for control of insecticide-resistant mosquitoes was evaluated in experimental huts in Burkina Faso. Anopheles gambiae from the area is resistant to pyrethroids and to a lesser extent, carbamates. Relatively low mortality rates were observed with the LLIN (44%), IRS (42%), and CTPS (52%), whereas both combinations killed significantly more mosquitoes (~70% for LLIN + CTPS and LLIN + IRS). Blood feeding by An. gambiae was uninhibited by IRS and CTPS compared with LLIN (43%), LLIN + CTPS (58%), and LLIN + IRS (56%). No evidence for selection of the kdr and ace-1R alleles was observed with the combinations, whereas a survival advantage of mosquitoes bearing the ace-1R mutation was observed with IRS and CTPS. The results suggest that the combination of the two interventions constitutes a potential tool for vector-resistance management.

Djenontin, Armel; Chandre, Fabrice; Dabire, K. Roch; Chabi, Joseph; N'Guessan, Raphael; Baldet, Thierry; Akogbeto, Martin; Corbel, Vincent

2010-01-01

151

Mosquito consumption by insectivorous bats: does size matter?  

Science.gov (United States)

Insectivorous bats have often been touted as biological control for mosquito populations. However, mosquitoes generally represent only a small proportion of bat diet. Given the small size of mosquitoes, restrictions imposed on prey detectability by low frequency echolocation, and variable field metabolic rates (FMR), mosquitoes may not be available to or profitable for all bats. This study investigated whether consumption of mosquitoes was influenced by bat size, which is negatively correlated with echolocation frequency but positively correlated with bat FMR. To assess this, we investigated diets of five eastern Australian bat species (Vespadelus vulturnus Thomas, V. pumilus Gray, Miniopterus australis Tomes, Nyctophilus gouldi Tomes and Chalinolobus gouldii Gray) ranging in size from 4-14 g in coastal forest, using molecular analysis of fecal DNA. Abundances of potential mosquito and non-mosquito prey were concurrently measured to provide data on relative prey abundance. Aedes vigilax was locally the most abundant mosquito species, while Lepidoptera the most abundant insect order. A diverse range of prey was detected in bat feces, although members of Lepidoptera dominated, reflecting relative abundance at trap sites. Consumption of mosquitoes was restricted to V. vulturnus and V. pumilus, two smaller sized bats (4 and 4.5 g). Although mosquitoes were not commonly detected in feces of V. pumilus, they were present in feces of 55 % of V. vulturnus individuals. To meet nightly FMR requirements, Vespadelus spp. would need to consume ~600-660 mosquitoes on a mosquito-only diet, or ~160-180 similar sized moths on a moth-only diet. Lower relative profitability of mosquitoes may provide an explanation for the low level of mosquito consumption among these bats and the absence of mosquitoes in feces of larger bats. Smaller sized bats, especially V. vulturnus, are likely to be those most sensitive to reductions in mosquito abundance and should be monitored during mosquito control activities. PMID:24130851

Gonsalves, Leroy; Bicknell, Brian; Law, Brad; Webb, Cameron; Monamy, Vaughan

2013-10-10

152

Mosquito consumption by insectivorous bats: does size matter?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Insectivorous bats have often been touted as biological control for mosquito populations. However, mosquitoes generally represent only a small proportion of bat diet. Given the small size of mosquitoes, restrictions imposed on prey detectability by low frequency echolocation, and variable field metabolic rates (FMR), mosquitoes may not be available to or profitable for all bats. This study investigated whether consumption of mosquitoes was influenced by bat size, which is negatively correlated with echolocation frequency but positively correlated with bat FMR. To assess this, we investigated diets of five eastern Australian bat species (Vespadelus vulturnus Thomas, V. pumilus Gray, Miniopterus australis Tomes, Nyctophilus gouldi Tomes and Chalinolobus gouldii Gray) ranging in size from 4-14 g in coastal forest, using molecular analysis of fecal DNA. Abundances of potential mosquito and non-mosquito prey were concurrently measured to provide data on relative prey abundance. Aedes vigilax was locally the most abundant mosquito species, while Lepidoptera the most abundant insect order. A diverse range of prey was detected in bat feces, although members of Lepidoptera dominated, reflecting relative abundance at trap sites. Consumption of mosquitoes was restricted to V. vulturnus and V. pumilus, two smaller sized bats (4 and 4.5 g). Although mosquitoes were not commonly detected in feces of V. pumilus, they were present in feces of 55 % of V. vulturnus individuals. To meet nightly FMR requirements, Vespadelus spp. would need to consume ~600-660 mosquitoes on a mosquito-only diet, or ~160-180 similar sized moths on a moth-only diet. Lower relative profitability of mosquitoes may provide an explanation for the low level of mosquito consumption among these bats and the absence of mosquitoes in feces of larger bats. Smaller sized bats, especially V. vulturnus, are likely to be those most sensitive to reductions in mosquito abundance and should be monitored during mosquito control activities.

Gonsalves L; Bicknell B; Law B; Webb C; Monamy V

2013-01-01

153

Spacetime encodings. III. Second order Killing tensors  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the Petrov type D, stationary axisymmetric vacuum (SAV) spacetimes that were found by Carter to have separable Hamilton-Jacobi equations, and thus admit a second-order Killing tensor. The derivation of the spacetimes presented in this paper borrows from ideas about dynamical systems, and illustrates concepts that can be generalized to higher-order Killing tensors. The relationship between the components of the Killing equations and metric functions are given explicitly. The origin of the four separable coordinate systems found by Carter is explained and classified in terms of the analytic structure associated with the Killing equations. A geometric picture of what the orbital invariants may represent is built. Requiring that a SAV spacetime admits a second-order Killing tensor is very restrictive, selecting very few candidates from the group of all possible SAV spacetimes. This restriction arises due to the fact that the consistency conditions associated with the Killing equations require that the field variables obey a second-order differential equation, as opposed to a fourth-order differential equation that imposes the weaker condition that the spacetime be SAV. This paper introduces ideas that could lead to the explicit computation of more general orbital invariants in the form of higher-order Killing tensors.

Brink, Jeandrew

2010-01-01

154

The trial detection of malaria sporozoit in field-collected mosquito by immunoradiometric assay in Thailand  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sporozoite rate, species of parasite and vector are important in the epidemiology of malaria. The investigation of sporozoite by dissection and examination under a microscope is time-consuming and it could be done only on freshly killed mosquitoes. Immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) that can detect, identify and quantify malaria sporozoite (Zavala et al., 1982) was therefore applied to detect sporozoite in laboratory-maintained Anopheles dirus and wild-caught mosquitoes. Study on P. falciparum-infected An. dirus showed that the circumsporozoite (CS) antigen was first found in the abdomen on the 10th day post-infection, whilst the sporozoites were examined in salivary glands from day 15 onwards. The malaria infection in wild-caught mosquitoes were investigated in Anopheles spp collected by human baites from three endemic areas in Thailand. Since the sporozoite rate refers to the presence of sporozoite in the salivary gland, then only head-thorax part of the specimens were detected by IRMA to prevent an exaggeration over the true results. It was found that none of mosquitoes collected from Phrae was positive for malaria. Four out of 1243 An. dirus among eight species collected from Chantaburi were positive for P. falciparum with sporozoites ranged from 270 to 3875. Of all ten species collected from Kanchanaburi, two and one out of 3123 An. minimus were positive for P. falciparum and P. vivax with sporozoites found in head-thorax portions were 1880, 2380 and 1026 respectively. It is evident that the IRMA is suitable for the investigation of malaria sporozoites in this region. The application of this technique in the further epidemiological study is in progress

1988-01-01

155

Immature mosquitoes associated with urban parklands: implications for water and mosquito management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the present study was to compare 2 urban habitat types: pools artificially filled with water from damaged or leaking water pipes (AF) and pools naturally filled by rainwater (NF), with regard to their favorability as breeding sites for mosquitoes. Two study areas were analyzed, 1 for 5 months and the other for 9 months, covering the whole period when AF pools contained water. The AF pools held water during the entire study, and showed lower fluctuations in surface area than NF pools. The AF pools showed higher levels of total mosquitoes and of stagnant-water mosquitoes. The floodwater mosquitoes were numerically (but not significantly) more abundant in NF pools. Nine mosquito species were identified. Habitat type, temperature, and season were significant in explaining the variability in species composition according to the canonical correspondence analysis. The most abundant species were Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (= Aedes albifasciatus, predominantly in NF pools), Culex dolosus, and Cx. pipiens (mainly in AF pools). The latter 2 species differed in their temporal dynamics, with Cx. dolosus associated with lower temperatures and Cx. pipiens with higher temperatures. Overall, the results indicate that although both habitat types harbored immature mosquitoes, the AF pools were more favorable than co-occurring rain pools. Easy-to-implement management actions such as the design of adequate drainage systems and the fast repair of broken pipes will be helpful to reduce the risk of human illness associated with mosquitoes in urban green areas.

Quiroga L; Fischer S; Schweigmann N

2013-03-01

156

The effects of climate change and globalization on mosquito vectors: evidence from Jeju Island, South Korea on the potential for Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) influxes and survival from Vietnam rather than Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Climate change affects the survival and transmission of arthropod vectors as well as the development rates of vector-borne pathogens. Increased international travel is also an important factor in the spread of vector-borne diseases (VBDs) such as dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, chikungunya, and malaria. Dengue is the most important vector-borne viral disease. An estimated 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection in the world and there are approximately 50 million dengue infections and an estimated 500,000 individuals are hospitalized with dengue haemorrhagic fever annually. The Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) is one of the vectors of dengue virus, and populations already exist on Jeju Island, South Korea. Currently, colder winter temperatures kill off Asian tiger mosquito populations and there is no evidence of the mosquitos being vectors for the dengue virus in this location. However, dengue virus-bearing mosquito vectors can inflow to Jeju Island from endemic area such as Vietnam by increased international travel, and this mosquito vector's survival during colder winter months will likely occur due to the effects of climate change. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this section, we show the geographical distribution of medically important mosquito vectors such as Ae. albopictus, a vector of both dengue and chikungunya viruses; Culex pipiens, a vector of West Nile virus; and Anopheles sinensis, a vector of Plasmodium vivax, within Jeju Island, South Korea. We found a significant association between the mean temperature, amount of precipitation, and density of mosquitoes. The phylogenetic analyses show that an Ae. albopictus, collected in southern area of Jeju Island, was identical to specimens found in Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, and not Nagasaki, Japan. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that mosquito vectors or virus-bearing vectors can transmit from epidemic regions of Southeast Asia to Jeju Island and can survive during colder winter months. Therefore, Jeju Island is no longer safe from vector borne diseases (VBDs) due to the effects of globalization and climate change, and we should immediately monitor regional climate change to identify newly emerging VBDs.

Lee SH; Nam KW; Jeong JY; Yoo SJ; Koh YS; Lee S; Heo ST; Seong SY; Lee KH

2013-01-01

157

The biology of malarial parasite in the mosquito: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to summarize the biology of Plasmodium in the mosquito including recent data to contribute to better understanding of the developmental interaction between mosquito and malarial parasite. The entire sporogonic cycle is discussed taking into consideration different parasite/vector interactions and factors affecting parasite development to the mosquito.

Amauri Braga Simonetti

1996-01-01

158

Wolbachia and arbovirus inhibition in mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wolbachia is a maternally inherited intracellular bacteria that can manipulate the reproduction of their insect hosts, and cytoplasmic incompatibility allows them to spread through mosquito populations. When particular strains of Wolbachia are transferred into certain Aedes mosquito species, the transmission capacity of important arthropod-borne viruses can be suppressed or abolished in laboratory challenges. Viral inhibition is associated with higher densities of transinfecting Wolbachia compared with wild-type strains of the bacterium. The upregulation of innate immune effectors can contribute to virus inhibition in Aedes aegypti, but does not seem to be required. Modulation of autophagy and lipid metabolism, and intracellular competition between viruses and bacteria for lipids, provide promising hypotheses for the mechanism of inhibition. Transinfecting virus-inhibiting strains can produce higher fitness costs than wild-type mosquito Wolbachia; however, this is not always the case, and the wMel strain has already been introduced to high frequency in wild Ae. aegypti populations. PMID:24059916

Sinkins, Steven P

2013-10-01

159

Molecular Perspectives on the Genetics of Mosquitoes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mosquitoes have been a focus of scientific study since the turn of the century, when they were first linked with human diseases. This review concentrates on the three most intensely studied genera, Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes. These genera include the principal vectors of three major groups of human pathogens: malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium, filarial worms of the genera Wuchereria and Brugia, and numerous arboviruses. Anophelines are the only mosquitoes known to transmit human malaria parasites, a group of organisms that may be responsible for more morbidity and mortality worldwide than any other human pathogen. Anophelines also transmit filarial worms, as do Culex and Aedes species. Among the 14 or more different mosquito genera known to harbor arboviruses (Mattingly, 1973), the most important are Culex and Aedes, which include the principal vectors of yellow fever, dengue, and most encephalitis-causing arboviruses.

1993-01-01

160

Evaluation of botanicals as repellents against mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Repellent properties of three plant extracts--essential oil (steam distillate) of Zanthoxylum limonella (fruits), Citrus aurantifolia (leaf) and petroleum ether extract of Z. limonella (fruits) were evaluated as repellent against Aedes (S.) albopictus mosquitoes in mustard (Dhara) and coconut (Parachute) oil base under laboratory conditions. Three concentrations--10, 20 and 30% of the repellents were evaluated. Repellents in mustard oil afforded longer protection time against the bites of Aedes (S.) albopictus mosquitoes than those in coconut oil. At 30% concentration, 296-304 min protection time was achieved by the test repellents in mustard oil base while repellents in coconut oil exhibited 223.5-245 min protection time at the same concentration. Oil of Z. limonella gave the highest protection time against the bites of Aedes (S.) albopictus mosquitoes at all the concentrations than other herbal repellents tested both in mustard and coconut oil. PMID:15119071

Das, N G; Baruah, I; Talukdar, P K; Das, S C

 
 
 
 
161

Evaluation of botanicals as repellents against mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Repellent properties of three plant extracts--essential oil (steam distillate) of Zanthoxylum limonella (fruits), Citrus aurantifolia (leaf) and petroleum ether extract of Z. limonella (fruits) were evaluated as repellent against Aedes (S.) albopictus mosquitoes in mustard (Dhara) and coconut (Parachute) oil base under laboratory conditions. Three concentrations--10, 20 and 30% of the repellents were evaluated. Repellents in mustard oil afforded longer protection time against the bites of Aedes (S.) albopictus mosquitoes than those in coconut oil. At 30% concentration, 296-304 min protection time was achieved by the test repellents in mustard oil base while repellents in coconut oil exhibited 223.5-245 min protection time at the same concentration. Oil of Z. limonella gave the highest protection time against the bites of Aedes (S.) albopictus mosquitoes at all the concentrations than other herbal repellents tested both in mustard and coconut oil.

Das NG; Baruah I; Talukdar PK; Das SC

2003-03-01

162

Indoor resting density pattern of mosquito species in Fingeswar block of Raipur district in Chhattisgarh, central India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Anopheline mosquitoes are vectors of human malaria and hence they are of greatest concern. Around 40% of the world's population resides in malaria affected areas. Malaria affects poor communities and causes enormous economic losses. The deadly disease annually causes clinical illness in 400-600 million people and kills 2-3 millions annually (WHO 2008). Faunistic survey was conducted in Fingeswar block in Raipur district of Chhattisgarh state of India during January 2003 to March 2004 to asses the prevalence of different species of mosquitoes and their seasonal variations.Indoor resting mosquitoes were collected from selected houses in 5 villages using aspirator tube and torch light in the morning between 06:00-08:00. Adult mosquitoes were identified using standard morphological and pictorial keys following Rao (1984), Das et al. (1991) and Reuben et al. (1994) and assessed as person hour density.A total of 13,248 mosquitoes were collected during the study period. Nine species of mosquitoes comprising of 4 genera with 5 Anopheles, two Culex and one each Armigeres and Aedes were recorded. The malaria vectors constituted 14.09% of the total mosquito collections. Anopheles subpictus (25.81%) showed the dominance followed by A. annularis (8.68%), A. barbirostris (6.76%), A. culicifacies (5.41%) and A. pallidus (4.11%). The other genus recorded included Culex quinquefasciatus (38.38%), C. vishnui (3.32%), Armigeres subalbatus (6.92%) and Aedes albopictus (0.29%). The density of all the species were high in months of August, September and October, decreased in month of May and June 2003. There was a significant (p < 0.01) positive correlation between temperature and density of A. culicifacies and A. annularis. The seasonal distribution pattern of A. culicifacies (primary) and A. annularis (secondary) malaria vectors along with other mosquito species was studied which is an important component of epidemiological study of malaria. This information will help in formulating a baseline structure for control program in the study region.

Baghel P; Naik K; Dixit V; Gupta AK; Bisen PS; Prasad GB

2009-12-01

163

Filarial worms reduce Plasmodium infectivity in mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Co-occurrence of malaria and filarial worm parasites has been reported, but little is known about the interaction between filarial worm and malaria parasites with the same Anopheles vector. Herein, we present data evaluating the interaction between Wuchereria bancrofti and Anopheles punctulatus in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Our field studies in PNG demonstrated that An. punctulatus utilizes the melanization immune response as a natural mechanism of filarial worm resistance against invading W. bancrofti microfilariae. We then conducted laboratory studies utilizing the mosquitoes Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes aegypti and the parasites Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria immitis, and Plasmodium gallinaceum to evaluate the hypothesis that immune activation and/or development by filarial worms negatively impact Plasmodium development in co-infected mosquitoes. Ar. subalbatus used in this study are natural vectors of P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi and they are naturally refractory to B. malayi (melanization-based refractoriness). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mosquitoes were dissected and Plasmodium development was analyzed six days after blood feeding on either P. gallinaceum alone or after taking a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. malayi or a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence and mean intensity of Plasmodium infections in two species of mosquito that had dual infections as compared to those mosquitoes that were infected with Plasmodium alone, and was independent of whether the mosquito had a melanization immune response to the filarial worm or not. However, there was no reduction in Plasmodium development when filarial worms were present in the bloodmeal (D. immitis) but midgut penetration was absent, suggesting that factors associated with penetration of the midgut by filarial worms likely are responsible for the observed reduction in malaria parasite infections. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results could have an impact on vector infection and transmission dynamics in areas where Anopheles transmit both parasites, i.e., the elimination of filarial worms in a co-endemic locale could enhance malaria transmission.

Aliota MT; Chen CC; Dagoro H; Fuchs JF; Christensen BM

2011-01-01

164

The Geometry of D=11 Killing Spinors  

CERN Multimedia

We propose a way to classify all supersymmetric configurations of D=11 supergravity using the G-structures defined by the Killing spinors. We show that the most general bosonic geometries admitting a Killing spinor have at least an SU(5) or an (Spin(7)\\ltimes R^8)x R structure, depending on whether the Killing vector constructed from the Killing spinor is timelike or null, respectively. In the former case we determine what kind of SU(5) structure is present and show that almost all of the form of the geometry is determined by the structure. We also deduce what further conditions must be imposed in order that the equations of motion are satisfied. We illustrate the formalism with some known solutions and also present some new solutions including a rotating generalisation of the resolved membrane solutions and generalisations of the recently constructed D=11 Godel solution.

Gauntlett, J P; Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Pakis, Stathis

2003-01-01

165

Cell killing by antibody-drug conjugates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are designed to specifically bind to and kill cells expressing their target antigens. In addition to the obvious requirement of the presence of the target antigen on the cell surface, several other factors contribute to the sensitivity of target cells to the action of ADCs. These include (i) the rate of internalization of the ADC, (ii) its proteolytic degradation in late endosomes and lysosomes and the subsequent release of cytotoxic drug, and (iii) the intracellular concentration of the released drug. In addition to killing antigen-expressing cells, some ADCs were found to kill bystander cells irrespective of their antigen expression. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the mechanisms of killing of antigen-expressing and bystander cells by antibody-drug conjugates. PMID:17553616

Kovtun, Yelena V; Goldmacher, Victor S

2007-06-05

166

Quantum integrability of quandratic Killing tensors  

CERN Multimedia

Quantum integrability of classical integrable systems given by quadratic Killing tensors on curved configuration spaces is investigated. It is proven that, using a "minimal" quantization scheme, quantum integrability is insured for a large class of classic examples.

Duval, C; Duval, Christian; Valent, Galliano

2004-01-01

167

Honor Killing in Pakistan: An Islamic Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Islamic Republic of Pakistan is considered as one of the most dangerous and unsafe country for women in the world, because of the increasing rate of crimes against women in the shape of honor killing and honor related violence. Which are known as assaults committed against women for what is considered immoral behavior. Some researchers and Islamic scholars links act of honor killing with Islam, they tried to justify this crime with some general sayings of Prophet Peace be upon him. In this paper the issue of honor killing has examined in the light of fundamental resources of Islam i.e Quran (the Saying of Allah) and Hadees (The Saying of Prophet Muhammad SAH) to clarify the true guidance of Islam in such cases. The claim of some researchers that honor killing get encouragement from Islamic Guidance has also been examined through Primary and Secondary Sources of Islam. Effort is made to bring forth the correct Islamic teachings.

Niaz Muhammad; Mufti. Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmed; Abdullah Abdullah; Fazle Omer; Naqeeb Hussain Shah

2012-01-01

168

The survival probability of diffusion with killing  

CERN Document Server

We present a general framework to study the effect of killing sources on moving particles, trafficking inside biological cells. We are merely concerned with the case of spine-dendrite communication, where the number of calcium ions, modeled as random particles is regulated across the spine microstructure by pumps, which play the killing role. In particular, we study here the survival probability of ions in such environment and we present a general theory to compute the ratio of the number of absorbed particles at specific location to the number of killed particles during their sojourn inside a domain. In the case of a dendritic spine, the ratio is computed in terms of the survival probability of a stochastic trajectory in a one dimensional approximation. We show that the ratio depends on the distribution of killing sources. The biological conclusion follows: changing the position of the pumps is enough to regulate the calcium ions and thus the spine-dendrite communication.

Holcman, D; Schuss, Z

2005-01-01

169

Male-killing in African butterflies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Female-biased sex ratios occur in many insect species as a consequence of infection by maternally-inherited male-killing bacterial endosymbionts. In this paper, we revise the research conducted on the phenomenon of male-killing in African nymphalid butterflies, with special focus on the cases of Danaus chrysippus, Acraea encedon and Acraea encedana. The evolution of male-killing in each case was addressed, together with the phylogeny of male-killers that were identified from this group. Moreover, the potential impacts that male-killers might impose on the evolution of their butterfly hosts were thoroughly investigated. In the end of this review, we present a number of unanswered questions to be targeted by future research work on the male-killing in these butterflies.

Sami Saeed M. Hassan; Eihab Idris

2013-01-01

170

Killing Forms of Isotropic Lie Algebras  

CERN Multimedia

This paper presents a method for computing the Killing form of an isotropic Lie algebra defined over an arbitrary field based on the Killing form of a subalgebra containing its anisotropic kernel. This approach allows for streamlined formulas for many Lie algebras of types E6 and E7 and yields a unified formula for all Lie algebras of inner type E6, including the anisotropic ones.

Malagon, Audrey

2010-01-01

171

Mechanisms of microbial escape from phagocyte killing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phagocytosis and phagosome maturation are crucial processes in biology. Phagocytosis and the subsequent digestion of phagocytosed particles occur across a huge diversity of eukaryotes and can be achieved by many different cells within one organism. In parallel, diverse groups of pathogens have evolved mechanisms to avoid killing by phagocytic cells. The present review discusses a key innate immune cell, the macrophage, and highlights the myriad mechanisms microbes have established to escape phagocytic killing.

Smith LM; May RC

2013-04-01

172

APPARATUS FOR KILLING AND REMOVING TICKS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An apparatus for killing and removing ticks from the skin of mammals which includes an aerosol canister. An environmentally safe refrigerant HFO-1234yf is carried within the aerosol canister. A mechanism is for dispensing the environmentally safe refrigerant from the aerosol canister directly onto a tick to immobilize and kill the tick. Another mechanism is for safely removing the dead tick from the skin of a mammal.

LUONGO JOSEPH

173

Hazardous materials in Fresh Kills landfill  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

No environmental monitoring and corrective action programs can pinpoint multiple locations of hazardous materials the total amount of them in a large landfill. Yet the consequences of hazardous materials in MSW landfills are considerable, in terms of public health concerns, environmental damage, and cleanup costs. In this paper a rough estimation is made of how much hazardous material may have been disposed in Fresh Kills landfill in Staten Island, New York. The logic and methods could be used for other MSW landfills. Fresh Kills has frequently been described as the world`s largest MSW landfill. While records of hazardous waste disposal at Fresh Kills over nearly 50 years of operation certainly do not exist, no reasonable person would argue with the conclusion that large quantities of hazardous waste surely have been disposed at Fresh Kills, both legally and illegally. This study found that at least 2 million tons of hazardous wastes and substances have been disposed at Fresh Kills since 1948. Major sources are: household hazardous waste, commercial RCRA hazardous waste, incinerator ash, and commercial non-RCRA hazardous waste, governmental RCRA hazardous waste. Illegal disposal of hazardous waste surely has contributed even more. This is a sufficient amount to cause serious environmental contamination and releases, especially from such a landfill without an engineered liner system, for example. This figure is roughly 1% of the total amount of waste disposed in Fresh Kills since 1948, probably at least 200 million tons.

Hirschhorn, J.S. [Hirschhorn and Associates, Wheaton, MD (United States)

1997-12-31

174

Killing-Yano tensors, rank-2 Killing tensors, and conserved quantities in higher dimensions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the metric and one Killing-Yano tensor of rank D-2 in any D-dimensional spacetime with such a principal Killing-Yano tensor, we show how to generate k = [(D+1)/2] Killing-Yano tensors, of rank D-2j for all 0 ? j ? k-1, and k rank-2 Killing tensors, giving k constants of geodesic motion that are in involution. For the example of the Kerr-NUT-AdS spacetime (hep-th/0604125) with its principal Killing-Yano tensor (gr-qc/0610144), these constants and the constants from the k Killing vectors give D independent constants in involution, making the geodesic motion completely integrable (hep-th/0611083). The constants of motion are also related to the constants recently obtained in the separation of the Hamilton-Jacobi and Klein-Gordon equations (hep-th/0611245).

2007-01-01

175

Mosquito larvicidal activity of thymol from essential oil of Coleus aromaticus Benth. against Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles subpictus (Diptera: Culicidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Diseases transmitted by blood-feeding mosquitoes, such as dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, Japanese encephalitis, malaria, and filariasis, are increasing in prevalence, particularly in tropical and subtropical zones. To control mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases, which have a worldwide health and economic impacts, synthetic insecticide-based interventions are still necessary, particularly in situations of epidemic outbreak and sudden increases of adult mosquitoes. However, the indiscriminate use of conventional insecticides is fostering multifarious problems like widespread development of insecticide resistance, toxic hazards to mammals, undesirable effects on nontarget organisms, and environmental pollution. The aim of this research was to evaluate the toxicity of mosquito larvicidal activity of essential oil from Coleus aromaticus and its pure isolated constituent thymol against larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus, and Anopheles subpictus. The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. A total of 14 components of the essential oil of C. aromaticus were identified. The major chemical components identified were thymol (82.68 %), terpinen-4-ol (3.2 %), and trans-Caryophyllene (3.18 %). Twenty-five early third instar larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus, A. albopictus, and A. subpictus were exposed and assayed in the laboratory. Thymol and essential oil were tested in concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 and 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 ppm, respectively. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of treatment. The thymol had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of C. tritaeniorhynchus, A. albopictus, and A. subpictus with an LC50 values of 28.19, 24.83, and 22.06 ?g/mL respectively, whereas the essential oil of C. aromaticus had an LC50 values of 72.70, 67.98, and 60.31 ?g/mL, respectively. No mortality was observed in controls. The Chi-square values were significant at p?

Govindarajan M; Sivakumar R; Rajeswary M; Veerakumar K

2013-08-01

176

Diversity and function of bacterial microbiota in the mosquito holobiont.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) have been shown to host diverse bacterial communities that vary depending on the sex of the mosquito, the developmental stage, and ecological factors. Some studies have suggested a potential role of microbiota in the nutritional, developmental and reproductive biology of mosquitoes. Here, we present a review of the diversity and functions of mosquito-associated bacteria across multiple variation factors, emphasizing recent findings. Mosquito microbiota is considered in the context of possible extended phenotypes conferred on the insect hosts that allow niche diversification and rapid adaptive evolution in other insects. These kinds of observations have prompted the recent development of new mosquito control methods based on the use of symbiotically-modified mosquitoes to interfere with pathogen transmission or reduce the host life span and reproduction. New opportunities for exploiting bacterial function for vector control are highlighted.

Minard G; Mavingui P; Moro CV

2013-01-01

177

West Nile virus in mosquitoes in Greece.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Epidemics of West Nile virus (WNV) occurred for two consecutive years in Greece (in 2010 and 2011). A total of 16,116 adult Culex pipiens mosquitoes collected in two peripheries, Central Macedonia and Thessaly, were tested for WNV infection. WNV lineage 2 was detected in 6/296 mosquito pools, three in each year. The H249P substitution in the NS3 protein, previously associated with increased pathogenicity and thermotolerance, was detected in all six WNV-positive mosquito pools. When 21 individual C. pipiens mosquitoes were tested for the locus CQ11 to distinguish between the two C. pipiens forms, pipiens and molestus, 71.4% were identified as pipiens, 4.7% as molestus, and 19% as hybrid pipiens/molestus, giving the first evidence that both C. pipiens biotypes are present in Greece, with a significant proportion being hybrids. The exact role of the C. pipiens forms and hybrids in the WNV epidemiology, in combination or not with the H249P substitution in the virus genome, remains to be elucidated.

Papa A; Xanthopoulou K; Tsioka A; Kalaitzopoulou S; Mourelatos S

2013-04-01

178

MICROBIAL CONTROL OF MOSQUITOES AND BLACK FLIES  

Science.gov (United States)

The bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis serovariety israelensis (Bti) and mosquitocidal isolates of Bacillus sphaericus have become the predominant non-chemical means employed for control of mosquito larvae at several locations in the United States and other countries. An overview of developments in the...

179

AN IMPROVED APPARATUS FOR ATTRACTING, TRAPPING, DAMAGING INSTANTLY AND KILLING OF INSECTS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Multipurpose apparatus capable of attracting, trapping, damaging instantly and subsequent killing of insects including mosquitoes which comprises of a supporting cylindrical body (3) with open ends, the body provided with a removable cover (1) on open top end (2) fixed with supporting legs (12) leaving sufficient gap between cover and body, having a UV lamp (6) with a protective safety cover (4) fitted internally below top open end and a removable insect collecting part (8) installed at other end, UV lamp is closely enclosed with a heat conducting wire mesh (5) which further extends horizontally to entire diameter of axial fan's opening, an axial fan (7) is fitted above the protective wire mesh guard (17) and beneath UV lamp and heat conducting wire mesh (5).

NORONHA IGNATIUS ORWIN

180

AN IMPROVED APPATRATUS FOR ATTRACTING, TRAPPING,DAMAGING INSTANTLY AND KILLING OF INSECTS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Multipurpose apparatus capable of attracting, trapping, damaging instantly and subsequent killing of insects including mosquitoes which comprises of a supporting cylindrical body (3) with open ends, the body provided with a removable cover (1) on open top end (2) fixed with supporting legs (12) leaving sufficient gap between cover and body, having a UV lamp (6) with a protective safety cover (4) fitted internally below top open end and a removable insect collecting part (8) installed at other end, UV lamp is closely enclosed with a heat conducting wire mesh (5) which further extends horizontally to entire diameter of axial fan's opening, an axial fan (7) is fitted above the protective wire mesh guard (17) and beneath UV lamp and heat conducting wire mesh (5).

NORONHA IGNATIUS ORWIN

 
 
 
 
181

Lack of insecticidal effect of mosquito coils containing either metofluthrin or esbiothrin on Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Use of mosquito coils for personal protection against malaria and mosquito nuisance is advocated under mosquito and malaria control programmes. We performed field studies of mosquito coils containing either metofluthrin or esbiothrin in experimental huts situated in Kamhororo village, Gokwe district, Zimbabwe. All tests were performed on 3-5 day old reared female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes. The burning times were 9hr 20min for mosquito coils containing metofluthrin and 8 hr for those containing esbiothrin and the results were significantly different (p = <0.001). The mean knock down rate for mosquito coils containing metofluthrin was 90% and that for esbiothrin was 73.3% and the results were significantly different (p = 0.00). Mosquito coils containing metofluthrin had a mean repellence of 92.7% as compared to 85.4% for esbiothrin and the results were not significantly different (p=0.27). The protection time as required by EPA (1999) was 6 hr for mosquito coils containing metofluthrin and 5 hr for those containing esbiothrin. The mean insecticidal effect of mosquito coils containing metofluthrin was 84% as compared to 83% for those containing esbiothrin and the results were not significantly different (p = 0.56). Both mosquito formulations could not be classified as having insecticidal effect since none of them met the 95% mortality rate criteria.

Lukwa N; Chiwade T

2008-12-01

182

Female serial killing: review and case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Single homicide committed by women is rare. Serial killing is very infrequent, and the perpetrators are usually white, intelligent males with sadistic tendencies. Serial killing by women has, however, also been described. AIM: To conduct a review of published literature on female serial killers and consider its usefulness in assessing a presenting case. METHOD: A literature review was conducted, after searching EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. The presenting clinical case is described in detail in the context of the literature findings. Results The literature search revealed few relevant publications. Attempts to categorize the phenomenon of female serial killing according to patterns of and motives for the homicides have been made by some authors. The most common motive identified was material gain or similar extrinsic gratification while the 'hedonistic' sadistic or sexual serial killer seems to be extremely rare in women. There is no consistent theory of serial killing by women, but psychopathic personality traits and abusive childhood experiences have consistently been observed. The authors' case did not fit the description of a 'typical' female serial killer. DISCUSSION: In such unusual circumstances as serial killing by a woman, detailed individual case formulation is required to make sense of the psychopathology in each case. Publication of cases in scientific journals should be encouraged to advance our understanding of this phenomenon.

Frei A; Völlm B; Graf M; Dittmann V

2006-01-01

183

Mosquito population regulation and larval source management in heterogeneous environments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An important question for mosquito population dynamics, mosquito-borne pathogen transmission and vector control is how mosquito populations are regulated. Here we develop simple models with heterogeneity in egg laying patterns and in the responses of larval populations to crowding in aquatic habitats. We use the models to evaluate how such heterogeneity affects mosquito population regulation and the effects of larval source management (LSM). We revisit the notion of a carrying capacity and show how heterogeneity changes our understanding of density dependence and the outcome of LSM. Crowding in and productivity of aquatic habitats is highly uneven unless egg-laying distributions are fine-tuned to match the distribution of habitats' carrying capacities. LSM reduces mosquito population density linearly with coverage if adult mosquitoes avoid laying eggs in treated habitats, but quadratically if eggs are laid in treated habitats and the effort is therefore wasted (i.e., treating 50% of habitat reduces mosquito density by approximately 75%). Unsurprisingly, targeting (i.e. treating a subset of the most productive pools) gives much larger reductions for similar coverage, but with poor targeting, increasing coverage could increase adult mosquito population densities if eggs are laid in higher capacity habitats. Our analysis suggests that, in some contexts, LSM models that accounts for heterogeneity in production of adult mosquitoes provide theoretical support for pursuing mosquito-borne disease prevention through strategic and repeated application of modern larvicides.

Smith DL; Perkins TA; Tusting LS; Scott TW; Lindsay SW

2013-01-01

184

Super Killing equation and supersymmetry transformation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In super space (x,theta), as the metric tensor field G/sup A/B (x,theta) is given, we calculate the Riemann curvature tensor R/sup D//sub A/BC of the fourth rank and its generalized cyclicity. The equation that must be satisfied by isometry in the super space, i.e., super Killing equation: xi/sub A/;B+eta/sub a/bxi/sub B/;A = 0, is deduced. In flat super space with zero curvature tensor, we have obtained the general solutions of the super Killing equation and the commutation relations of the corresponding generators. In the case of constant curvature, we have obtained a special solution of the super Killing equation.

Zhang, L.

1982-04-01

185

Timelike Killing fields and relativistic statistical mechanics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For spacetimes with timelike Killing fields, we introduce a 'Fermi-Walker-Killing' coordinate system and use it to prove a Liouville theorem for an appropriate volume element of phase space for a statistical mechanical system of particles. We derive an exact relativistic formula for the Helmholtz free energy of an ideal gas and compare it, for a class of spacetimes, to its Newtonian analog, derived both independently and as the Newtonian limit of our formula. We also find the relativistic thermodynamic equation of state. Specific examples are given in Kerr spacetime.

Klein, David [Department of Mathematics, California State University, Northridge, Northridge, CA 91330-8313 (United States); Collas, Peter, E-mail: david.klein@csun.ed, E-mail: peter.collas@csun.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, Northridge, Northridge, CA 91330-8268 (United States)

2009-02-21

186

Killing spinors in supergravity with 4-fluxes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the spinorial Killing equation of supergravity involving a torsion 3-form T as well as a flux 4-form F. In dimension seven, we construct explicit families of compact solutions out of 3-Sasakian geometries, nearly parallel G2-geometries and on the homogeneous Aloff-Wallach space. The constraint F ? ? = 0 defines a non-empty subfamily of solutions. We investigate the constraint T ? ? = 0 , too, and show that it singles out a very special choice of numerical parameters in the Killing equation, which can also be justified geometrically.

2003-11-07

187

HIV transcription is induced with cell killing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this report, we demonstrate that this induction of HIV-LTR transcription occurs when stably transfected HeLa cells are exposed to agents which mediate cell killing, such as UV radiation, electroporation of sucrose buffer, prolonged heating, and low and high pH. Cells cultured following UV exposure demonstrated a peak in CAT expression that is evident in viable (but not necessarily cell division-competent) cells 24 h after exposure; this inductive response continued until at least 72 h after exposure. HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent, and the amount of CAT transcription induced was correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture.

Woloschak, G.E.; Schreck, S.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)

1993-11-01

188

Predictors of mosquito net use in Ghana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background During the past decade the malaria control community has been successful in dramatically increasing the number of households that own mosquito nets. However, as many as half of nets already in households go unused. This study examines the factors associated with use of nets owned in Ghana. Methods The data come from an August 2008 survey in Ghana of households with a pregnant woman or a guardian of a child under five, conducted during the rainy season. 1796 households were included in this analysis, which generated a sample of 1,852 mosquito nets. Using each net owned as the unit of analysis, multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship of net used last night with 23 potentially explanatory variables having to do with characteristics of the household, of the respondent, and of the net. Odds Ratios, p-values, and confidence intervals were calculated for each variable to develop an explanatory model. Results The final multivariate model consisted of 10 variables statistically associated with whether or not the net was used the prior night: rural location, lower SES, not using coils for mosquito control, fewer nets in the household, newer nets and those in better condition, light blue colour, higher level of education of the guardian of the child under five, knowing that mosquitoes transmit malaria, and paying for the net instead of obtaining it free of charge. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that net use would increase in Ghana if coloured nets were made available in mass distributions as well as in the commercial market; if programmes emphasize that malaria is caused only by night-biting mosquitoes, and that nets protect against mosquitoes better than coils and need to be used even if coils are burning; if donated nets are replaced more frequently so that households have nets that are in good condition; and if there were support for the commercial market so that those who can afford to purchase a net and want to choose their own nets can do so.

Baume Carol A; Franca-Koh Ana Cláudia

2011-01-01

189

Lack of insecticidal effect of mosquito coils containing either metofluthrin or esbiothrin on Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Use of mosquito coils for personal protection against malaria and mosquito nuisance is advocated under mosquito and malaria control programmes. We performed field studies of mosquito coils containing either metofluthrin or esbiothrin in experimental huts situated in Kamhororo village, Gokwe district, Zimbabwe. All tests were performed on 3-5 day old reared female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes. The burning times were 9hr 20min for mosquito coils containing metofluthrin and 8 hr for those containing esbiothrin and the results were significantly different (p = metofluthrin was 90% and that for esbiothrin was 73.3% and the results were significantly different (p = 0.00). Mosquito coils containing metofluthrin had a mean repellence of 92.7% as compared to 85.4% for esbiothrin and the results were not significantly different (p=0.27). The protection time as required by EPA (1999) was 6 hr for mosquito coils containing metofluthrin and 5 hr for those containing esbiothrin. The mean insecticidal effect of mosquito coils containing metofluthrin was 84% as compared to 83% for those containing esbiothrin and the results were not significantly different (p = 0.56). Both mosquito formulations could not be classified as having insecticidal effect since none of them met the 95% mortality rate criteria. PMID:19287356

Lukwa, Nzira; Chiwade, Tonderai

2008-12-01

190

Sampling of adult mosquito vectors with Mosquito Magnet Pro in Panaji, Goa, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

For mosquito vector population monitoring, a new commercial trap, Mosquito Magnet Pro (MM-PRO), was tested for its usefulness in Goa, India. Anopheles stephensi was tested for the presence of Plasmodium sporozoite infection in the salivary glands. Using the MM-PRO 24 h a day for 34 days, 2,329 mosquitoes belonging to 16 species were collected. These included 6 species each of the genera Anopheles and Culex, 2 species of Aedes, and 1 each of Mansonia and Armigeres. Most (91%) of the mosquitoes caught were females. Among these the number and percentage of each species were Anopheles stephensi 59 (2.78%), Culex quinquefasciatus 1013 (47.78%), Culex vishnui 551 (26.0%), Mansonia uniformis 216 (10.19%), and Aedes albopictus 1 (0.04%). Of the 54 An. stephensi females tested for the presence of circumsporozoite protein (CSP) by an ELISA technique, 1 was found to be Plasmodium falciparum CSP positive. The MM-PRO device was found useful for mosquito population sampling in the urban setting of Goa. PMID:19181075

Korgaonkar, Nandini S; Kumar, Ashwani; Yadav, Rajpal S; Kabadi, Dipak; Dash, Aditya P

2008-12-01

191

Isolation and characterization of larvicidal components against mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti Linn.) from calodendrum capense Thunb  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chromatographic analysis of air-dried root barks and seeds of Calodendrum capense Thunb led to the isolation of calodendrolide (1), limonin (2) and limonin diosphenol (3) whose structures were elucidated using physical and spectroscopic techniques. The compounds and the crude extract were then tested against mosquito 2nd instar larvae of the species Aedes aegypti Linn senso stricto, a yellow fever vector at concentrations of 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm. Calodendrolide (1) was the most toxic as it killed all the larvae even at the lower concentration of 25 ppm. In addition, concentrations of 15, 10, 5 and 1 ppm of this compound retained moderate efficacy. Calodendrolide (1), C. capense root bark crude, limonin (2), and limonin diosphenol (3) had LC50 values of 13.1, 29.2, 71.6 and 217.1 ppm, respectively.

A.K. Kiprop; M.S. Rajab; F.M.E. Wanjala

2005-01-01

192

Genetic approaches to interfere with malaria transmission by vector mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malaria remains one of the most devastating diseases worldwide, causing over 1 million deaths every year. The most vulnerable stages of Plasmodium development in the vector mosquito occur in the midgut lumen, making the midgut a prime target for intervention. Mosquito transgenesis and paratransgenesis are two novel strategies that aim at rendering the vector incapable of sustaining Plasmodium development. Mosquito transgenesis involves direct genetic engineering of the mosquito itself for delivery of anti-Plasmodium effector molecules. Conversely, paratransgenesis involves the genetic modification of mosquito symbionts for expression of anti-pathogen effector molecules. Here we consider both genetic manipulation strategies for rendering mosquitoes refractory to Plasmodium infection, and discuss challenges for the translation of laboratory findings to field applications.

Wang S; Jacobs-Lorena M

2013-03-01

193

Progress in mapping the yellow fever mosquito genome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquito-borne diseases cause significant problems for the human health. For this reason, the genomes of three most dangerous species of mosquitoes, including the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, were sequenced in last decade. The efficient vector of arboviruses. Ae. aegypti, is also a convenient model for laboratory research. The intensive genetic mapping of morphological and molecular markers conducted for this mosquito in the past was very successful. This mapping was also used as a tool to localize a number of quantitative trait loci related to the mosquito's ability to transmit various pathogens. However, physical mapping of the Ae. aegypti genome is difficult due to the lack of high-quality polytene chromosomes. Here, we review different mapping approaches that help improving genome sequence assembly and also integrate linkage, chromocome and genome maps the yellow fever mosquito.

Sharakhova MV; Sharakhov IV

2013-01-01

194

Small RNAs: a new frontier in mosquito biology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The discovery of small non-coding RNAs has revolutionized our understanding of regulatory networks governing multiple functions in animals and plants. However, our knowledge of mosquito small RNAs is limited. We discuss here the state of current knowledge regarding the roles of small RNAs and their targets in mosquitoes, and describe the ongoing efforts to understand the role of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in mosquito antiviral immunity and transposon silencing. Providing a clear picture into the role of small RNAs in mosquito vectors will pave the way to the utilization of these small molecules in developing novel control approaches that target mosquito immunity and/or reproductive events. Elucidation of the functions of small RNAs represents a new frontier in mosquito biology.

Lucas KJ; Myles KM; Raikhel AS

2013-06-01

195

ATon, abundant novel nonautonomous mobile genetic elements in yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Mosquitoes are important pathogen vectors affecting human and other animals. Studies on genetic control of mosquito mediated disease transmission gained traction recently due to mosquito transgenesis technology. Active transposons are considered valuable tools to...

Yang Guojun; Wong Amy; Rooke Rebecca

196

The cell biology of mosquito vitellogenesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Insect vitellogenesis involves coordinated activities of the fat body and oocytes. We have studied these activities at the cellular level in the mosquito. During each vitellogenic cycle, the fat body undergoes three successive stages: 1) proliferation of biosynthetic organelles, 2) vitellogenin synthesis, 3) termination of vitellogenin synthesis and degradation of biosynthetic organelles by lysosomes. Analysis with monoclonal antibodies and radiolabelling demonstrated that the mosquito yolk protein consists of two subunits (200-kDa and 65-kDa). Both subunits are glycosylated, their carbohydrate moieties are composed of high-mannose oligosaccharides. The yolk protein subunits are derived from a single 220 kDa precursor detected by an in vitro translation. Oocytes become competent to internalize proteins as a result of juvenile hormone-mediated biogenesis of endocytotic organelles. The yolk protein is then accumulated by receptor-mediated endocytosis. A pathway of the yold protein and factors determining its routing in the oocyte have been studied.

Alexander S. Raikhel

1987-01-01

197

Multifunctional mosquito fumigating incense coil box  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a multipurpose mosquito incense coil box, which comprises a box body, a box cover, and a coil bracket arranged in the box body, wherein air inlet holes are formed at the periphery of the box body air outlet holes are formed on the top of the box cover the box body has a columnar shape with an inner diameter adapting to the diameter of the built-in coil and a height of 2 to 10 cm the coil bracket is a detachable moving bracket formed by 2 to 4 metal sheets spliced with each other across and the box cover is clamped with the box body through a convex stage. The multipurpose mosquito incense coil box has the advantages of simple manufacture, low cost, and convenient and sanitary use, and can well prevent fire risk and achieve multiple purposes.

BINGWEN ZHANG

198

Classification of Spanish mosquitoes in functional groups.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present a classification of Spanish mosquitoes according to their different life cycles. The bio-ecological parameters analyzed in our study were oviposition sites, overwintering stages, preferred hosts, and number of generations per year for each species. The results revealed 13 different functional groups. To assess the validity and robustness of the classification system, we analyzed the data from an intensive sampling carried out over a period of 4 years (2005-08) in eastern Spain. In this area, 9 of the 13 functional groups were found. The Jaccard cluster and the principal components analysis (between-group analysis method) revealed 3 different mosquito groups: the tree hole species, the aedine species (except dendrolimnic ones), and the rest of the non-dendrolimnic culicid species. The importance of the different overwintering patterns in distinguishing these 3 classes is also discussed.

Bueno-Marí R; Jiménez-Peydró R

2011-03-01

199

Behaviour modifying compounds for malaria mosquitoes  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention comprises the use of (a) a culture of natural skin microbiota existing of at least Staphylococcus species, Corynebacteria and Micrococcus species or (b) a culture of Staphylococcus epidermidis as behaviour modifying agents for mosquitoes. More particularly, culture (a) may produce at least the volatile organic compounds 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone, benzeneethanol and/or furfural and culture (b) may produce at least furfural. Culture (a) may further produce one or more volatile organic compounds selected from the group consisting of 1-butanol, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanoic acid, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanoic acid, benzaldehyde and hexanal. Culture (b) may further produce 2-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanoic acid, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methylbutanal and 3-methylbutanoic acid and hexanal. Also part of the invention is the use of 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone, benzeneethanol or furfural as mosquito behaviour disrupting compounds.

200

BEHAVIOUR MODIFYING COMPOUNDS FOR MALARIA MOSQUITOES  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention comprises the use of (a) a culture of natural skin microbiota existing of at least Staphylococcus species, Corynebacteria and Micrococcus species or(b) a culture of Staphylococcus epidermidisas behaviour modifying agents for mosquitoes. More particularly, culture (a) may produce at least the volatile organic compounds 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone, benzeneethanol and/or furfural and culture (b) may produce at least furfural. Culture (a) may further produce one or more volatile organic compounds selected from the group consisting of 1-butanol, 2,3-butanedione, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanoicacid, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3- methylbutanal,3-methylbutanoic acid, benzaldehyde and hexanal. Culture (b) may further produce 2-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanoic acid, 3-methyl-1- butanol, 3-methylbutanal and 3-methylbutanoic acid and hexanal. Also part of the invention is the use of 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone, benzeneethanol or furfural as mosquito behaviour disrupting compounds.

VERHULST NIELS OLAF; BEIJLEVELD HANS; SMALLEGANG RENATE CORINNE; TAKKEN WILLEM; KNOLS BART GEERT JAN; QIU YU-TONG; SUER REMCO ALEXANDER

 
 
 
 
201

Bacterial Killing by Dry Metallic Copper Surfaces?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Metallic copper surfaces rapidly and efficiently kill bacteria. Cells exposed to copper surfaces accumulated large amounts of copper ions, and this copper uptake was faster from dry copper than from moist copper. Cells suffered extensive membrane damage within minutes of exposure to dry copper. Furt...

Santo, Christophe Espírito; Lam, Ee Wen; Elowsky, Christian G.; Quaranta, Davide; Domaille, Dylan W.; Chang, Christopher J.

202

Novel innate cancer killing activity in humans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background In this study, we pilot tested an in vitro assay of cancer killing activity (CKA) in circulating leukocytes of 22 cancer cases and 25 healthy controls. Methods Using a human cervical cancer cell line, HeLa, as target cells, we compared the CKA in ci...

Blanks Michael J; Stehle John R; Du Wei; Adams Jonathan M; Willingham Mark C; Allen Glenn O; Hu Jennifer J; Lovato James

203

Pest killing device for landscape lamp  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model relates to a pest killing device for a landscape lamp. The landscape lamp generates power by utilizing the wind power, comprises a wind power generation device formed by a fan and an electric generator and used for providing the power source and is provided with a lamp arm for power generation by utilizing the solar energy, an LED lamp is arranged at one end of the lamp arm, and the pest killing device is assembled at one end of the lamp arm, wraps the LED lamp and comprises a luring box and an electroshock net, wherein, the luring box can selectively send out inducing factors such as odor, sound wave, light wave, and the like to attract the winged insets to approach and be shot down by the electroshock net and on the aspect of application, the luring box and the electroshock net in the pest killing device wrap the LED lamp, therefore, the solar panel can absorb the energy to supply to the battery for storage in the daytime, the battery supplies power to the controller for running at night, the luring box is triggered to send out inducing factors of odor, sound wave or light wave as required, the electroshock net is electrified, and the effect of killing the attracted winged insects is effectively achieved so as to avoid the luminescence and the lighting effects of the landscape lamp from being affected.

XUANZHI LIN

204

Can Vet Schools Teach without Killing Animals?  

Science.gov (United States)

|Discusses a protest by students at the University of Illinois (Urbana) College of Veterinary Medicine over the killing of animals that led to temporary curtailing of lethal animal experiments. Examines the conflict between animal rights groups and some faculty who are openly skeptical about the effectiveness of alternatives to the hands-on…

Mangan, Katherine S.

2000-01-01

205

Species of mosquitoes causing papular urticaria in eastern Indai.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT: salivary gland antigens of laboratory bred common species of mosquitoes were tested subcutaneously on 212 patients in two districts of Eastern India of which 56.2 percent showed positive reaction, 50 percent of the patients found hypersensitivity to Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. 43.3 and 5.5 percent patients were showed hypersensitivity to culex qunqulfasciatus and armigeris obterbans mosquitoes.

Mukhopadhyay AK; Banerjee K; Banerjee R

1994-01-01

206

Chilodonella uncinata is not pathogenic to Culex pipiens mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chilodonella uncinata was previously reported to be pathogenic to Culex and other mosquitoes based on the observation of high densities of ciliates inside of dead mosquito larvae. Here, we tested whether co-culturing Cx. pipiens with Ch. uncinata resulted in decreased survival of the mosquito larvae. We find no evidence that Ch. uncinata is pathogenic to Cx. pipiens. We suggest that Ch. uncinata may instead feed on already deceased larvae.

Spring KJ; Zufall RA

2013-05-01

207

Screening of selected ethnomedicinal plants from South Africa for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Anopheles arabiensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was initiated to establish whether any South African ethnomedicinal plants (indigenous or exotic), that have been reported to be used traditionally to repel or kill mosquitoes, exhibit effective mosquito larvicidal properties. Methods Extracts of a selection of plant taxa sourced in South Africa were tested for larvicidal properties in an applicable assay. Thirty 3rd instar Anopheles arabiensis larvae were exposed to various extract types (dichloromethane, dichloromethane/methanol) (1:1), methanol and purified water) of each species investigated. Mortality was evaluated relative to the positive control Temephos (Mostop; Agrivo), an effective emulsifiable concentrate larvicide. Results Preliminary screening of crude extracts revealed substantial variation in toxicity with 24 of the 381 samples displaying 100% larval mortality within the seven day exposure period. Four of the high activity plants were selected and subjected to bioassay guided fractionation. The results of the testing of the fractions generated identified one fraction of the plant, Toddalia asiatica as being very potent against the An. arabiensis larvae. Conclusion The present study has successfully identified a plant with superior larvicidal activity at both the crude and semi pure fractions generated through bio-assay guided fractionation. These results have initiated further research into isolating the active compound and developing a malaria vector control tool.

Maharaj Rajendra; Maharaj Vinesh; Crouch Neil R; Bhagwandin Niresh; Folb Peter I; Pillay Pamisha; Gayaram Reshma

2012-01-01

208

Screening of selected ethnomedicinal plants from South Africa for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Anopheles arabiensis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This study was initiated to establish whether any South African ethnomedicinal plants (indigenous or exotic), that have been reported to be used traditionally to repel or kill mosquitoes, exhibit effective mosquito larvicidal properties. METHODS: Extracts of a selection of plant taxa sourced in South Africa were tested for larvicidal properties in an applicable assay. Thirty 3rd instar Anopheles arabiensis larvae were exposed to various extract types (dichloromethane, dichloromethane/methanol) (1:1), methanol and purified water) of each species investigated. Mortality was evaluated relative to the positive control Temephos (Mostop; Agrivo), an effective emulsifiable concentrate larvicide. RESULTS: Preliminary screening of crude extracts revealed substantial variation in toxicity with 24 of the 381 samples displaying 100% larval mortality within the seven day exposure period. Four of the high activity plants were selected and subjected to bioassay guided fractionation. The results of the testing of the fractions generated identified one fraction of the plant, Toddalia asiatica as being very potent against the An. arabiensis larvae. CONCLUSION: The present study has successfully identified a plant with superior larvicidal activity at both the crude and semi pure fractions generated through bio-assay guided fractionation. These results have initiated further research into isolating the active compound and developing a malaria vector control tool.

Maharaj R; Maharaj V; Crouch NR; Bhagwandin N; Folb PI; Pillay P; Gayaram R

2012-01-01

209

In vivo, in vitro, and in silico studies suggest a conserved immune module that regulates malaria parasite transmission from mammals to mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human malaria can be caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum that is transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes. "Immunological crosstalk" between the mammalian and anopheline hosts for Plasmodium functions to control parasite numbers. Key to this process is the mammalian cytokine transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1). In mammals, TGF-?1 regulates inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) both positively and negatively. In some settings, high levels of NO activate latent TGF-?1, which in turn suppresses iNOS expression. In the mosquito, ingested TGF-?1 induces A. stephensi NOS (AsNOS), which limits parasite development and which in turn is suppressed by activation of the mosquito homolog of the mitogen-activated protein kinases MEK and ERK. Computational models linking TGF-?1, AsNOS, and MEK/ERK were developed to provide insights into this complex biology. An initial Boolean model suggested that, as occurs in mammalian cells, MEK/ERK and AsNOS would oscillate upon ingestion of TGF-?1. An ordinary differential equation (ODE) model further supported the hypothesis of TGF-?1-induced multiphasic behavior of MEK/ERK and AsNOS. To achieve this multiphasic behavior, the ODE model was predicated on the presence of constant levels of TGF-?1 in the mosquito midgut. Ingested TGF-?1, however, did not exhibit this behavior. Accordingly, we hypothesized and experimentally verified that ingested TGF-?1 induces the expression of the endogenous mosquito TGF-? superfamily ligand As60A. Computational simulation of these complex, cross-species interactions suggested that TGF-?1 and NO-mediated induction of As60A expression together may act to maintain multiphasic AsNOS expression via MEK/ERK-dependent signaling. We hypothesize that multiphasic behavior as represented in this model allows the mosquito to balance the conflicting demands of parasite killing and metabolic homeostasis in the face of damaging inflammation. PMID:23764028

Price, Ian; Ermentrout, Bard; Zamora, Ruben; Wang, Bo; Azhar, Nabil; Mi, Qi; Constantine, Gregory; Faeder, James R; Luckhart, Shirley; Vodovotz, Yoram

2013-06-11

210

Sensory aspects of host location in mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Visual, thermal and olfactory stimuli all contribute to blood meal host location in mosquitoes but olfaction is probably the dominant sensory modality used for this purpose. Much attention has been devoted to the L-lactic acid receptor because it is well characterized and because its sensitivity is a major determinant of host responsiveness in the anautogenous species Aedes aegypti. Studies employing statistical analysis of close to 500 single unit recordings and the scanning electron microscope have demonstrate that L-lactic acid-excited neurons are associated with the shortest sensilla basiconica (grooved pegs) in Ae. aegypti, Culex pipiens, Aedes atropalpus and Aedes epactius. L-Lactic acid-inhibited neurons are found in either short or long grooved pegs, depending on mosquito species. Video recording analysis, a vertical dual-chamber olfactometer and a horizontal dual-port wind tunnel olfactometer have been used to study host location behaviour and nutritional preferences in the obligately autogenous Ae. atropalpus, the facultatively autogenous Aedes bahamensis and the adult diapausing species Cx. pipiens. These behavioural studies, in conjunction with electrophysiological analysis, illustrate the ways in which the interactions between reproductive condition, developmental stage and L-lactic acid receptor sensitivity determine the nutritional choice made between blood and sugar by mosquitoes and demonstrate the role that olfactory sensitivity plays in this process.

Bowen MF

1996-01-01

211

Lista dos mosquitos da Bolívia: (Diptera, Culicidae)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Em quinze gêneros, cento e vinte e seis espécies de mosquitos foram constatadas no material capturado pelo Servicio de Fiebre Amarilla desde 1933 até 1942. Êste número, três vezes mais elevado do que o existente na literatura para o país, seria ainda maior se possível fôsse identificar sem o auxílio de machos inúmeras fêmeas das espécies de Culex. Tôdas as espécies estudadas apresentavam suas distribuições geográficas nos departamentos e províncias onde casos de Febre Amarela foram observados. Algumas cosiderações foram feitas em torno de espécies que não correspondiam exatamente com as descrições existentes, assim como descrições de outras foram dadas, cujos sexos opostos apenas eram conhecidos.One hundred and twenty-six species of mosquitoes, corresponding fifteen genera, have been found in material collected by the Bolivian Yellow Fever Service between 1933 and 1942. This number is three times that given for the country in existing literature and would be even largar if it were possible to identify a consierable group of Culex mosquitoes composed principally of female specimens. All species studied come from Departmetns and Provinces where cases of yellow fever have been found. Consideration has been given to certain species which do not agree exactly with existing descriptions, and supplementary descriptions have been made for the male or female of two additional species for which only description of the opposite sex had existed.

N. L. Cerqueira

1943-01-01

212

DsRed2 transient expression in Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes have been successfully genetically modified only once, despite the efforts of several laboratories to transform and establish a stable strain. We have developed a transient gene expression method, in Culex, that delivers plasmid DNA directly to the mosquito haemolymph and additional tissues. We were able to express DsRed2 fluorescent protein in adult Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes by injecting plasmids directly into their thorax. T (more) he expression of DsRed2 in adult Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes is an important stepping stone to genetic transformation and the potential use of new control strategies and genetic interactions.

Wilke, Andre Barretto Bruno; Scaife, Sarah; Alphey, Luke; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

2013-06-01

213

Mathematical modelling of mosquito dispersal in a heterogeneous environment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquito dispersal is a key behavioural factor that affects the persistence and resurgence of several vector-borne diseases. Spatial heterogeneity of mosquito resources, such as hosts and breeding sites, affects mosquito dispersal behaviour and consequently affects mosquito population structures, human exposure to vectors, and the ability to control disease transmission. In this paper, we develop and simulate a discrete-space continuous-time mathematical model to investigate the impact of dispersal and heterogeneous distribution of resources on the distribution and dynamics of mosquito populations. We build an ordinary differential equation model of the mosquito life cycle and replicate it across a hexagonal grid (multi-patch system) that represents two-dimensional space. We use the model to estimate mosquito dispersal distances and to evaluate the effect of spatial repellents as a vector control strategy. We find evidence of association between heterogeneity, dispersal, spatial distribution of resources, and mosquito population dynamics. Random distribution of repellents reduces the distance moved by mosquitoes, offering a promising strategy for disease control.

Lutambi AM; Penny MA; Smith T; Chitnis N

2013-02-01

214

Packing box for disc type mosquito-repellent incense  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses a coil-type mosquito incense packaging box, and aims to provide a coil-type mosquito incense packaging box which is used as a coil for burning the mosquito incense, and has the advantages of simple structure, convenient use and low cost. The coil-type mosquito incense packaging box comprises an open-ended square box body, wherein aluminum-foil paper, of which the thickness is larger than 0.1 mm, is arranged on the inner surface of the open-ended square box body a square sheet body is arranged at the top of the open-ended square box body the open-ended square box body is made of common paper or aluminum-foil composite paper and the square sheet body is made of common paper, metal sheets or aluminum-foil composite paper. The coil-type mosquito incense packaging box is suitable for packaging the coil-type mosquito incense and used as the coil for burning the mosquito incense as well the coil-type mosquito incense packaging box is safe and secure when in use and the coil-type mosquito incense packaging box has the advantages of simple structure, convenient use, low cost and easy manufacture.

JIEHUI ZHENG

215

DsRed2 transient expression in Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes have been successfully genetically modified only once, despite the efforts of several laboratories to transform and establish a stable strain. We have developed a transient gene expression method, in Culex, that delivers plasmid DNA directly to the mosquito haemolymph and additional tissues. We were able to express DsRed2 fluorescent protein in adult Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes by injecting plasmids directly into their thorax. The expression of DsRed2 in adult Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes is an important stepping stone to genetic transformation and the potential use of new control strategies and genetic interactions.

Wilke AB; Scaife S; Alphey L; Marrelli MT

2013-06-01

216

Method and device for killing animals, in particular for killing rats  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Device for killing of pests such as rats uses spring loaded guillotine blade The rat killing device is installed around such as an open water channel and consists of a guillotine blade (21) at the end of a pivot mounted arm (2). The arm is retained against the force provided by a torsion spring (3). When the rat trips the device the spring force is released.

Otto Stephan

217

Laboratory Efficacy Tests of Pyrethroid-Treated Bed Nets on the Malaria Vector Mosquito, Anopheles stephensi, in a Baited Excito-Repellency Chamber  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Insecticide-treated net is currently the best available method to control malaria. The extensive use of pyrethroid insecticides and the challenges of mosquito resistance to these chemical compounds are the main reasons for undertaking this study. The excito-repellency impacts of three different concentrations of three synthetic pyrethroid insecticide (lambdacyhalothrin, deltamethrin and cyfluthrin) impregnated bednets were evaluated against the susceptible and endophilic primary malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae) India susceptible strain under laboratory conditions. Young unfed female adult mosquitoes were exposed to animal bait covered with net in a dark exposure chamber. For each test, the results of mosquitoes` behavior were recorded after half an hour as dead, survived, blood-fed, recovered and retrieved in the exit trap. These studies clearly showed that populations of malaria vectors can be effectively controlled by the use of pyrethroid-treated bednets. The results inferred that deltamethrin was partially superior to other insecticides in terms of toxicity and revealed that cyfluthrin was clearly least effective and deltamethrin was most effective. The latter was 1.6 and 2.0 times more effective than lambdacyhalothrin and cyfluthrin, respectively, in killing An. stephensi mosquitoes. In addition, the mean recovery rate due to deltamethrin was 3.8 and 2.4 times less effective than cyfluthrin and lambdacyhalothrin, respectively. In conclusion, these data ranked the relative potency of the three pyrethroids in the order deltamethrin > lambdacyhalothrin > cyfluthrin.

H. Alipour; H. Ladonni; M.R. Abaie; M.D. Moemenbellah-Fard; M.R. Fakoorziba

2006-01-01

218

Genetic Control of Mosquitoes: population suppression strategies/ Controle genético de mosquitos: estratégias de supressão de populações  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Ao longo das duas últimas décadas, morbidade e mortalidade da malária e dengue e outros patógenos tem se tornado cada vez mais um problema de Saúde Pública. O aumento na distribuição geográfica de seus respectivos vetores é acompanhada pela emergência de doenças em novas áreas. Não estão disponíveis drogas específicas suficientes e não há vacinas específicas para imunizar as populações alvo. As medidas de controle de mosquitos atuais falharam em atin (more) gir os objetivos propostos, principalmente devido à grande capacidade reprodutiva dos mosquitos e alta flexibilidade genômica. O controle químico se torna cada vez mais restrito devido a sua potencial toxicidade aos seres humanos, mortalidade de organismos não alvos, resistência a inseticida além de outros impactos ambientais. Novas estratégias de controle são necessárias. A técnica do inseto estéril (SIT) é um método de supressão populacional espécie específico e ambientalmente amigável, baseia-se na criação em massa, esterilização mediante irradiação e liberação de um grande número de insetos machos. Liberar insetos carregando um gene letal dominante (RIDL) oferece uma solução a muitas limitações impostas pela técnica do inseto estéril (SIT) que limitaram sua aplicação em mosquitos e ainda assim mantém suas características de ambientalmente amigável e espécie específica. A natureza auto-limitante de mosquitos estéreis tende a deixar alguns empecilhos para uso no campo, de certa forma, menos desafiadores quando comparados a sistemas auto-propagação, característicos de estratégias de substituição de população. Sistemas auto-limitantes estão mais próximos para uso no campo, portanto pode ser apropriado considerá-lo primeiro. A perspectiva de métodos de controle genéticos contra mosquitos vetores de doenças que acometem humanos está rapidamente se tornando uma realidade, muitas decisões terão de ser tomadas em âmbito nacional, regional e internacional com relação a aspectos étnicos, sociais, culturais e de biossegurança para o uso e liberação destes métodos de controle de vetores. Abstract in english Over the last two decades, morbidity and mortality from malaria and dengue fever among other pathogens are an increasing Public Health problem. The increase in the geographic distribution of vectors is accompanied by the emergence of viruses and diseases in new areas. There are insufficient specific therapeutic drugs available and there are no reliable vaccines for malaria or dengue, although some progress has been achieved, there is still a long way between its developme (more) nt and actual field use. Most mosquito control measures have failed to achieve their goals, mostly because of the mosquito's great reproductive capacity and genomic flexibility. Chemical control is increasingly restricted due to potential human toxicity, mortality in no target organisms, insecticide resistance, and other environmental impacts. Other strategies for mosquito control are desperately needed. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is a species-specific and environmentally benign method for insect population suppression, it is based on mass rearing, radiation mediated sterilization, and release of a large number of male insects. Releasing of Insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL) offers a solution to many of the drawbacks of traditional SIT that have limited its application in mosquitoes while maintaining its environmentally friendly and species-specific utility. The self-limiting nature of sterile mosquitoes tends to make the issues related to field use of these somewhat less challenging than for self-spreading systems characteristic of population replacement strategies. They also are closer to field use, so might be appropriate to consider first. The prospect of genetic control methods against mosquito vectored human diseases is rapidly becoming a reality, many decisions will need to be made on a national, regional and international level regarding the bi

Wilke, André Barretto Bruno; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo

2012-10-01

219

Genetic Control of Mosquitoes: population suppression strategies Controle genético de mosquitos: estratégias de supressão de populações  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the last two decades, morbidity and mortality from malaria and dengue fever among other pathogens are an increasing Public Health problem. The increase in the geographic distribution of vectors is accompanied by the emergence of viruses and diseases in new areas. There are insufficient specific therapeutic drugs available and there are no reliable vaccines for malaria or dengue, although some progress has been achieved, there is still a long way between its development and actual field use. Most mosquito control measures have failed to achieve their goals, mostly because of the mosquito's great reproductive capacity and genomic flexibility. Chemical control is increasingly restricted due to potential human toxicity, mortality in no target organisms, insecticide resistance, and other environmental impacts. Other strategies for mosquito control are desperately needed. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is a species-specific and environmentally benign method for insect population suppression, it is based on mass rearing, radiation mediated sterilization, and release of a large number of male insects. Releasing of Insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL) offers a solution to many of the drawbacks of traditional SIT that have limited its application in mosquitoes while maintaining its environmentally friendly and species-specific utility. The self-limiting nature of sterile mosquitoes tends to make the issues related to field use of these somewhat less challenging than for self-spreading systems characteristic of population replacement strategies. They also are closer to field use, so might be appropriate to consider first. The prospect of genetic control methods against mosquito vectored human diseases is rapidly becoming a reality, many decisions will need to be made on a national, regional and international level regarding the biosafety, social, cultural and ethical aspects of the use and deployment of these vector control methods.Ao longo das duas últimas décadas, morbidade e mortalidade da malária e dengue e outros patógenos tem se tornado cada vez mais um problema de Saúde Pública. O aumento na distribuição geográfica de seus respectivos vetores é acompanhada pela emergência de doenças em novas áreas. Não estão disponíveis drogas específicas suficientes e não há vacinas específicas para imunizar as populações alvo. As medidas de controle de mosquitos atuais falharam em atingir os objetivos propostos, principalmente devido à grande capacidade reprodutiva dos mosquitos e alta flexibilidade genômica. O controle químico se torna cada vez mais restrito devido a sua potencial toxicidade aos seres humanos, mortalidade de organismos não alvos, resistência a inseticida além de outros impactos ambientais. Novas estratégias de controle são necessárias. A técnica do inseto estéril (SIT) é um método de supressão populacional espécie específico e ambientalmente amigável, baseia-se na criação em massa, esterilização mediante irradiação e liberação de um grande número de insetos machos. Liberar insetos carregando um gene letal dominante (RIDL) oferece uma solução a muitas limitações impostas pela técnica do inseto estéril (SIT) que limitaram sua aplicação em mosquitos e ainda assim mantém suas características de ambientalmente amigável e espécie específica. A natureza auto-limitante de mosquitos estéreis tende a deixar alguns empecilhos para uso no campo, de certa forma, menos desafiadores quando comparados a sistemas auto-propagação, característicos de estratégias de substituição de população. Sistemas auto-limitantes estão mais próximos para uso no campo, portanto pode ser apropriado considerá-lo primeiro. A perspectiva de métodos de controle genéticos contra mosquitos vetores de doenças que acometem humanos está rapidamente se tornando uma realidade, muitas decisões terão de ser tomadas em âmbito nacional, regional e internacional com relação a aspectos étnicos, sociais, culturais e de biossegurança para o uso e libera

André Barretto Bruno Wilke; Mauro Toledo Marrelli

2012-01-01

220

Hot water/steam weed killing system  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A weed killing system utilizes hot water or steam, alone, or in combination with an herbicide to kill weeds. Cart, backpack, and vehicle mounted versions are disclosed in propane and electrically powered embodiments. A cart mounted version includes a detachable wheel assembly to allow selective conversion into a manually manipulable wand, and may be provided with an angularly adjustable bifurcated distribution nozzle. In electrically heated embodiments, Salt may be added to the heated water in order to increase the boiling point to enable higher effective application temperatures. A gas powered version includes a microprocessor control system for regulating water level in a tank portion of a heater, gas supply to a burner assembly, electric spark ignition of the burner assembly, and hot water or steam outlet dependent upon temperature and pressure levels in the tank portion.

LANGSHAW ERIC

 
 
 
 
221

Underground blowout killed with quick snubbing operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A shallow underground blowout off the island of Trinidad required quick action and the importing of snubbing equipment to kill the well and avert cratering the sea floor beneath the platform. The blowout was controlled in 16 days. The blowout at Trintomar's Pelican platform on the east coast of Trinidad posed a most challenging well control problem. Most of the service companies with equipment to control the well were not available in this relatively remote area. Because of the high gas and condensate flow rates and high pressure, the blowout at the Pelican platform had the potential to destroy the entire platform, endanger the lives of many crew members, result in the loss of natural resources, and interrupt the supply of natural gas to the island of Trinidad. The paper discusses the Pelican platform, the underground blowout, temperature survey, the kill plan, and snubbing operations.

Grace, R. (Grace, Shursen, Moore and Associates Inc., Amarillo, TX (United States)); Stanislaus, G. (Trinmar Ltd., Point Fortin (Trinidad and Tobago)); Cudd, B. (Cudd Pressure Control, Woodward, OK (United States))

1993-10-18

222

Heterotic supergravity on manifolds with Killing spinors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work deals with the construction of heterotic string backgrounds on manifolds with real Killing spinors. The latter have played an important role in string theory for a long time, mainly due to Baer's correspondence between Killing spinors on a manifold M and parallel spinors on the cone over M. Given the fact that parallel spinors always lead to exact supergravity BPS backgrounds, it implies that the cone admits a solution of the BPS equations. Furthermore, in type II string theory and in M-theory it is possible to place a brane at the tip of the cone, in appropriate dimensions, and the resulting supergravity solutions are exactly known. In the limit far away from the brane they converge to the empty space solution, whereas in the near horizon limit one obtains a so-called Freund-Rubin solutions, consisting of an anti-de Sitter space times our base manifold M. In heterotic supergravity on the other hand two types of brane-like solutions are known; the NS5-brane, consisting of an R4-factor with fluxes and a transverse 6-dimensional Minkowski space, and what is sometimes called the gauge solitonic branes. These come equipped with an instanton gauge field on some Euclidean space Rp, which carries further non-vanishing fluxes, and again a transverse (10-p)-dimensional Minkowski space. The possible values for p that appeared in the literature so far are p=4, 7 and 8, and the corresponding instantons are the famous BPST and octonionic instantons. Manifolds with real Killing spinors have been classified: besides the round spheres they are either 6-dimensional nearly Kaehler, 7-dimensional nearly parallel G2, Sasaki-Einstein, or 3-Sasakian. I present a generalization of the gauge solitonic branes to the cone over any real Killing spinor manifold, based upon this classification. In particular, this involves the construction of instantons on the cone. Additionally, I show that for homogeneous manifolds with real Killing spinors there is a solution similar to the near horizon limit of the NS5-brane. Finally, the instanton equation on the cylinder over the cone over a 6-dimensional nearly Kaehler manifold is investigated. Several instanton solutions exist, and to embed these into heterotic supergravity is an interesting problem for future work. Besides the cone, the so-called sine-cone over a Killing spinor manifold is important. For instance, it is known that the sine-cone over a 5-dimensional Sasaki-Einstein manifold is nearly Kaehler, and the one over a nearly Kaehler manifold is nearly parallel G2. I generalize these results by proving that the sine-cone over an arbitrary real Killing spinor manifold has a real Killing spinor again. It is shown in particular, that the iterated sine-cone over a Sasaki-Einstein manifold also carries a Sasaki-Einstein-structure.

2012-01-01

223

Inflatable packers kill Algerian gas blowout  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SONATRACH killed an 18-month underground blowout at its No. 1 Jebel Bessi gas well, a wildcat about 30 miles (50 km) southeast of Algeria's giant Hassi R'Mel field, by isolating the casing ruptures with three pairs of inflatable external casing packers set on a 5-in. drill-pipe/casing production string. About 180 million CF/day of gas had been leaking around the surface casing shoe and escaping near the rig, and the kill efforts were complicated by two fish in the hole (various pieces of pipe and equipment lost downhole previously) and by several windows that were accidentally cut into the upper part of the casing during fishing operations (attempts to retrieve the lost items). To isolate the high-pressure gas, the operators set the packers between the windows and the fish.

Moore, W.D. III

1980-09-15

224

Emotion, gender and genre : Investigating The Killing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Traditionally, Scandinavian TV crime fiction has been regarded as a public arena for critical exhibition of and debate about salient features in contemporary social development. To explain the acknowledged impact of this kind of crime fiction, it is necessary to involve the notions of emotion and gender in combination with the mixing of genres, as especially the thriller and the melodrama have invaded the police procedural. This is demonstrated in an analysis of The Killing.

Agger, Gunhild

2011-01-01

225

Zeroth law for Killing horizons in Lanczos-Lovelock gravity  

CERN Multimedia

We study the zeroth law for Killing horizons in Lanczos-Lovelock gravity. We prove that the surface gravity of a general Killing horizon in Lanczos-Lovelock gravity is constant provided the matter source satisfies dominant energy condition.

Sarkar, Sudipta

2012-01-01

226

HIV transcription is induced with cell killing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Previous work has shown that HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct are induced to express chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) following exposure to DNA-damaging agents such as ultraviolet radiation, {gamma} rays, neutrons, and others. In this report, the authors demonstrate that this induction of HIV-LTR transcription occurs when stably transfected HeLa cells are exposed to agents which mediate cell killing, such as UV radiation, electroporation of sucrose buffer, prolonged heating, and low and high pH. Cells cultured following UV exposure demonstrated a peak in CAT expression that is evidence in viable (but not necessarily cell division-competent) cells 24 h after exposure; this inductive response continued until at least 72 h after exposure. HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent, and the amount of CAT transcription induced was correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture. Other agents which caused no cell killing (such as heat-shock for up to 2 h, treatment with metronidazole, exposure to sunlight, vitamin C treatment, and others) had no effect on HIV-LTR induction. These results suggest that HIV transcription is induced as a consequence of the turn on of a cellular death or apoptotic pathway.

Woloschak, G.E.; Schreck, S.; Chang-Liu, Chin Mei [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Panozzo, J. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States). Dept. of Pathology; Libertin, C.R. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)

1994-01-01

227

Device for luring and killing cockroach  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A blackbeetle trap is provided, which belongs to the technical field of pest killing device, and is characterized in that: an intake passage 2 is positioned at the circumference of the box body 1 a grid door 3 is positioned inside the intake passage the upper section of the grid door 3 is hinged to the upper section on the internal wall of the intake passage 2 the lower section of the grid door 3 is joined at the bottom of the box body 1 in inclination an electric grid room 4 and a bait room5 are positioned in sequence in correspondence to the grid door 3 inside the box body 1, so as to electric kill the blackbeetle. The utility model complies with the habit of blackbeetle, has excellent blackbeetle effect, sensitive action of grid door, outstanding unilateralism, automatic resetting and high trapping efficiency. With simple structure, small size and convenient application, the utility model can also be applied for trapping and killing harmful animals such as mouse, etc.

HOU CHONG

228

MOSQUITO MAGNETS AS BARRIER TREATMENTS AGAINST SALT MARSH MOSQUITOES AROUND RESIDENTIAL HOUSES IN MARSH AREA  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, more residential homes have been built around the marsh areas located on the Intra-Coastal Waterway (ICW) and brought more complaints about marsh mosquitoes. Many homeowner associations have created policies and regulations that forbid the spraying of pesticides. The new challenge h...

229

Method for Dispensing Planaria (Dugesia dorotocephala) for Mosquito Control,  

Science.gov (United States)

Predation studies of mosquitoes by the planarian dugesia dorotocephala have since shown that D. dorotocephala is an effective predator on all larval stages of mosquitoes. Densities of 25 planaria/m2 have been cited as sufficient to effect significant cont...

W. M. Darby L. R. Boobar M. R. Sardelis

1988-01-01

230

Field studies on the mosquito repellent action of neem oil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Repellent action of neem oil was evaluated against different mosquito species. 2% neem oil mixed in coconut oil provided 96-100% protection from anophelines, 85% from Aedes, 37.5% from Armigeres whereas it showed wide range of efficacy from 61-94% against Culex spp. Therefore, neem oil can be applied as a personal protection measure against mosquito bites.

Sharma SK; Dua VK; Sharma VP

1995-03-01

231

The Knowledge and Experience of Dengue Mosquitoes among Housewives.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) prevention programs in Semarang, were focused through controlling mosquito breeding sites (PSN), but the implementation of PSN was not become a habit in every household. The objective of this study was to explore knowledge and experience of dengue mosquitoes among housewives in the endemic villages.The research was using qualitative methods. Subjects of the study were 17 housewives which selected by purposive sampling. The data collection was carried in Sendangmulyo village, Semarang, through observation, focus groups discussions, and indepth interviews. The techniques used to test data validity were triangulation and member checking method. Data were analyzed using content analysis approached. The results showed that housewives classifying mosquito based on time occurrence whether the presence of mosquito in environment was perceived naturally. Unoptimalized PSN behavior was based on the lack of housewives knowledge on larvae development stages. Mosquito was not considered as a threatening because night mosquito biting was directly more disturbing rather than day mosquitoes’. Health promotion program could increase dasa wisma cadres knowledge and skill, particularly on mosquito life cycle and the correct stages of PSN behavior. This study did not distinguish the demographic characteristics of informants. Further reserch could explore it or develop media based on local knowledge and experience.

Aryani Pujiyanti; Atik Triratnawati

2011-01-01

232

Mosquito transmission of wild turkey malaria, Plasmodium hermani.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Culex nigripalpus experimentally transmitted Plasmodium hermani, a plasmodium of wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in Florida. The mosquitoes were infected by feeding upon blood induced parasitemias in domestic turkey poults. The resulting sporozoites, transmitted by either mosquito bites or injection, produced malaria infections in domestic poults.

Young MD; Nayar JK; Forrester DJ

1977-04-01

233

Landing response of Aedes (Stegomyia) polynesiensis mosquitoes to coloured targets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aedes polynesiensis Marks (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in the island countries and territories of the South Pacific. In the development of a novel control tool, the response of Ae. polynesiensis to six different colours (three solid fabrics, two patterned fabrics and a plastic tarp) was measured using a digital photographic system. Adult mosquitoes were placed into an environmental chamber and allowed to choose between a white target and one of six experimental targets. Mosquito landing frequency and landing duration were calculated. Adult female Ae. polynesiensis preferred all of the experimental targets to the white control target. Mosquito landing frequency was highest for the solid targets (black, navy blue and red) followed in turn by the two colour pattern targets and the polyethylene target. Mosquito landing duration was greater for experimental targets when compared with white control targets. Mosquito landing frequencies did not change over time during the course of the assay. The response of male Ae. polynesiensis was also measured when exposed to a 100% cotton black target. Male mosquitoes preferred the black target to the white control target, although at levels lower than that observed in female mosquitoes. The results suggest that future investigations evaluating the visual responses of Ae. polynesiensis mosquitoes are warranted, with a special emphasis on semi-field and field-based experiments.

Chambers EW; Bossin HC; Ritchie SA; Russell RC; Dobson SL

2013-09-01

234

Failure of rubella virus to replicate in mosquitos.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rubella virus failed to replicate in mosquitoes (Aedes albopictus and Culex fatigans) following parenteral inoculation. The virus demonstrated in mosquitoes tested immediately after inoculation but was not detected in insects sampled 7, 14 and 21 days postinoculation. This experiment provides further evidence that rubella is not an arbovirus, but does not invalidate its classification as a togavirus.

Tesh RB; Rosen L

1975-01-01

235

Wolbachia and the biological control of mosquito-borne disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue fever and filariasis cause an enormous health burden to people living in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Despite years of intense effort to control them, many of these diseases are increasing in prevalence, geographical distribution and severity, and options to control them are limited. The transinfection of mosquitos with the maternally inherited, endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia is a promising new biocontrol approach. Fruit fly Wolbachia strains can invade and sustain themselves in mosquito populations, reduce adult lifespan, affect mosquito reproduction and interfere with pathogen replication. Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes have been released in areas of Australia in which outbreaks of dengue fever occur, as a prelude to the application of this technology in dengue-endemic areas of south-east Asia. PMID:21546911

Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Iñaki; Walker, Thomas; O' Neill, Scott L

2011-05-06

236

EFFECTIVENESS OF MOSQUITO REPELLENT BAR CONTAINING DEET AND PERMETHRIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The mosquito repellent Bar containing 20% by wt. Deet and 0.5% by wt. Med permethrin wasapplied to exposed parts of the body i.e. hands, forearms, neck and face of 6 volunteers as personalprotection against outdoor human mosquitoes in two locations, National Ayub Park Rawalpindiand CDA Nursery Islamabad, Pakistan on two consecutive days. The predominant mosquito generacollected from these locations were culex and Aedes. Volunteers applied mosquito repellent bar at 1315hours (6 hours earlier) and tests were initiated at 1915 hours (15 minutes before sunset). 100% protectionprovided by the Repellent in treated group against biting mosquitoes and residual effect upto 8 hoursindicated good protection against these species. None of the individuals subjected to the test showed anydiscomfort attributable to the repellent.

Muhammad Ashraf Chaudhry

2001-01-01

237

Toxicity of aqueous crude neem leaf extract against culex mosquitoes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prevention of mosquitoes from biting is one of the major problems in the world. Mosquitoes transmitting serious human diseases and causing millions of death every year. The repeated use of synthetic insecticides to control mosquitoes has created resistance to vectors and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Many natural products have been reported as insect antifeedants or repellents. Azadirachta indica contains several active ingredients that are toxic to insects and are safety to the environment. The safety evaluation of different parts of neem preparations were made and used as an alternative insecticide in many parts of the world. In the present study aqueous crude neem leaf extract shows 30% and 70% mortality rate of mosquitoes for 6 h and 12 h, respectively. The present study was carried out to determine the efficacy of neem extract against culex mosquitoes in laboratory studies and field evaluation.

G. Arunpandiyan

2011-01-01

238

7-dimensional compact Riemannian manifolds with Killing spinors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using a link between Einstein-Sasakian structures and Killing spinors we prove a general construction principle of odd-dimensional Riemannian manifolds with real Killing spinors. In dimension n=7 we classify all compact Riemannian manifolds with two or three Killing spinors. Finally we classify non-flat 7-dimensional Riemannian manifolds with parallel spinor fields. (orig.).

Friedrich, T.; Kath, I. (Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Mathematik)

1990-11-01

239

Lemon peel oil extract as mosquito larvicide.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tests on lemon peel oil extract as a mosquito larvicide were carried out. The oil was found to be toxic on larvae, pupae and eggs of Culex quinquefasciatus. The oil also fulfilled other required specifications like suitable specific gravity, spreading pressure and viscosity. It was also toxic at a wide pH range, stable to heat and light in terms of chemical change which could alter larvicidal action. However, it was volatile and did not form a permanent film on water surfaces for long periods. This affected the larvicidal action.

Mwaiko GL; Savaeli ZX

1994-12-01

240

Method for body protection against mosquitos  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention describes a method and a device for body protection against mosquitoes, in which, depending upon the fluid used, the insects deterred by that fluid are driven off. This is achieved by a method whereby a container (1), which is worn on the body, for example as an amulet or the like, is filled with a specific fluid for the insect which it is desired to repel, and is released to the environment as a protective vapour via slots (2) and holes provided in the container. The distribution of the vapour which deters the insect is then further reinforced by the wearer's body temperature.

Kolbatz Klaus-Peter

 
 
 
 
241

New records of mosquitoes from northwestern Argentina.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eleven mosquito species, namely Aedes hastatus, Ae. fulvus, Coquillettidia albicosta, Cq. juxtamansonia, Culex aliciae, Cx. delpontei, Cx. oedipus, Cx. pedroi, Mansonia flaveola, Uranotaenia leucoptera, and Wyeomyia oblita, are recorded for the first time from northwestern Argentina. In addition, 3 species, Cx. brethesi, Limatus durhami, and Ur. nataliae, are reported for the first time from Salta Province. These records extend the geographical distribution of these 3 species to Salta Province. This study also extends the geographical distributions of Cq. nigricans, Cx. chidesteri, and Ma. humeralis to Jujuy Province and of Ae. meprai, Ae. milleri, Ae. oligopistus, Cx. brethesi, Cx. fernandezi, and Cx. tatoi to Tucumán Province. PMID:22894121

Dantur Juri, María J; Stein, Marina; Rossi, Gustavo C; Navarro, Juan Carlos; Zaidenberg, Mario; Sallum, María A Mureb

2012-06-01

242

Climate change and mosquito-borne disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Global atmospheric temperatures are presently in a warming phase that began 250--300 years ago. Speculations on the potential impact of continued warming on human health often focus on mosquito-borne diseases. Elementary models suggest that higher global temperatures will enhance their transmission rates and extend their geographic ranges. However, the histories of three such diseases--malaria, yellow fever, and dengue--reveal that climate has rarely been the principal determinant of their prevalence or range; human activities and their impact on local ecology have generally been much more significant. It is therefore inappropriate to use climate-based models to predict future prevalence.

Reiter P

2001-03-01

243

Advances in methods for colour marking of mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Different techniques are available for colour marking insects and each technique may be suitable for different insect species. Mosquitoes can be marked to determine population size, distribution and flight distance or distinguish closely related species. In this study, two methods of colour marking mosquitoes were described in detail and the impact of both methods on the survival and host-seeking behaviour of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto was investigated. METHODS: Mosquitoes were marked in groups with fluorescent powder or fluorescent dye. The powder was applied by creating a cloud of powder in a paper cup and the dye was applied with an airbrush. The effect of marking on the survival of mosquitoes of different age groups was tested under controlled conditions. The effect of marking on the host seeking response of the mosquitoes was tested in an olfactometer with human and cow odour as baits. RESULTS: No effect of either of the marking methods was found on the survival of mosquitoes that were treated 1 or 3 days after emergence, however, the survival of mosquitoes treated 5 or 9 days after emergence was significantly reduced. The host-seeking response of mosquitoes to human or cow odour was tested in a dual-port olfactometer and was not found to be affected by treatment with fluorescent powder or dye. CONCLUSIONS: Both methods are suitable for colour marking large groups of mosquitoes. Marking with fluorescent powder, however, is preferred because the method is simpler, visible without a UV light and no specific materials are required.

Verhulst NO; Loonen JA; Takken W

2013-01-01

244

Production of wetland Chironmidae (Diptera) and the effects of using Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis for mosquito control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Massive mosquito nuisance problems, caused by the flood-water mosquito Aedes sticticus, occur after floods in the flood plains of the River Dalälven, central Sweden. Since 2002, the biological mosquito larvicide Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) has been used to control these mosquitoes....

Lundström, J.O.; Schäfer, M.L.; Petersson, E.; Persson Vinnersten, T.Z.; Landin, Jan; Brodin, Y.

245

Mosquito-borne viruses in Finland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Inkoo virus, the Finnish representative of the California group, was isolated from a pool of Aedes communis/punctor. It is distinguishable from Tahyna, California encephalitis, Trivittatus and Melao viruses, but seems to be antigenically related to the Jamestown Canyon virus. The prevalence of Inkoo antibodies increases towards the north in both human beings (16% to 69%) and cows (37% to 88%). Inkoo antibodies are common also in other mammals of large size (reindeer, moose, foxes), less frequent in snow hares, rare in hazel grouse and not detected in other birds and small mammals. Some show hare serum samples react with Inkoo virus only in the hemmaglutination inhibition test suggesting the existence of another California group virus in Finland. In addition, antibodies against some other mosquito-borne viruses have been found in Finland. A Batai virus epizootic among cows may have occured in the early 1960's in southern coastal Finland, and some serological data point to the existence of alphaviruses in Finland. The overwintering mechanism of the Finnish mosquito-borne viruses is still unsolved.

Brummer-Korvenkontio M; Saikku P

1975-10-01

246

Tree-hole breeding mosquitoes in Israel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A survey was conducted to evaluate the number of tree-hole breeding mosquito species and their distribution in the six principal woodland types in Israel. Out of approximately 3,000 mature trees examined, only 38 contained holes that retained water for extended periods of time, and breeding mosquitoes were observed in 27 of them. Two specialized tree-hole breeders, Aedes pulchritarsis Rondani and Aedes geniculatus Oliver, were found breeding at several sites in northern Israel, always at locations 500 m above sea level (a.s.l) and with high annual precipitation. Aedes albopictus Skuse which, in Israel, is known as an opportunistic container breeder, was found in this study to have adapted remarkably well to breeding in tree holes and was found in most forest types investigated and in most tree species which had adequate tree holes. Two other species, Culiseta annulata Schrank and Culex pipiens Linnaeus instars, were found in one of the tree holes, but did not survive to reach maturity.

Müller GC; Kravchenko VD; Junnila A; Schlein Y

2012-06-01

247

Myeloperoxidase selectively binds and selectively kills microbes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is reported to selectively bind to bacteria. The present study provides direct evidence of MPO binding selectivity and tests the relationship of selective binding to selective killing. The microbicidal effectiveness of H(2)O(2) and of OCl(-) was compared to that of MPO plus H(2)O(2). Synergistic microbicidal action was investigated by combining Streptococcus sanguinis, a H(2)O(2)-producing microbe showing low MPO binding, with high-MPO-binding Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa without exogenous H(2)O(2), with and without MPO, and with and without erythrocytes (red blood cells [RBCs]). Selectivity of MPO microbicidal action was conventionally measured as the MPO MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) for 82 bacteria including E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, and viridans streptococci. Both H(2)O(2) and OCl(-) destroyed RBCs at submicrobicidal concentrations. Nanomolar concentrations of MPO increased H(2)O(2) microbicidal action 1,000-fold. Streptococci plus MPO produced potent synergistic microbicidal action against all microbes tested, and RBCs caused only a small decrease in potency without erythrocyte damage. MPO directly killed H(2)O(2)-producing S. pyogenes but was ineffective against non-H(2)O(2)-producing E. faecalis. The MPO MICs and MBCs for E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus were significantly lower than those for E. faecalis. The streptococcal studies showed much higher MIC/MBC results, but such testing required lysed horse blood-supplemented medium, thus preventing valid comparison of these results to those for the other microbes. E. faecalis MPO binding is reportedly weak compared to binding of E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus but strong compared to binding of streptococci. Selective MPO binding results in selective killing.

Allen RC; Stephens JT Jr

2011-01-01

248

Surface gravities for non-Killing horizons  

CERN Multimedia

There are many logically and computationally distinct characterizations of the surface gravity of a horizon, just as there are many logically rather distinct notions of horizon. Fortunately, in standard general relativity, for stationary horizons, most of these characterizations are degenerate. However, in modified gravity, or in analogue spacetimes, horizons may be non-Killing or even non-null, and hence these degeneracies can be lifted. We present a brief overview of the key issues, specifically focusing on horizons in analogue spacetimes and universal horizons in modified gravity.

Cropp, Bethan; Visser, Matt

2013-01-01

249

Bacterial Killing by Dry Metallic Copper Surfaces?  

Science.gov (United States)

Metallic copper surfaces rapidly and efficiently kill bacteria. Cells exposed to copper surfaces accumulated large amounts of copper ions, and this copper uptake was faster from dry copper than from moist copper. Cells suffered extensive membrane damage within minutes of exposure to dry copper. Further, cells removed from copper showed loss of cell integrity. Acute contact with metallic copper surfaces did not result in increased mutation rates or DNA lesions. These findings are important first steps for revealing the molecular sensitive targets in cells lethally challenged by exposure to copper surfaces and provide a scientific explanation for the use of copper surfaces as antimicrobial agents for supporting public hygiene.

Santo, Christophe Espirito; Lam, Ee Wen; Elowsky, Christian G.; Quaranta, Davide; Domaille, Dylan W.; Chang, Christopher J.; Grass, Gregor

2011-01-01

250

Identification of mosquito repellent odours from Ocimum forskolei.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Native mosquito repellent plants have a good potential for integrated mosquito control in local settings. Ocimum forskolei, Lamiaceae, is used in Eritrea as a spatial mosquito repellent inside houses, either through crushing fresh plants or burning dry plants. We verified whether active repellent compounds could be identified using gas-chromatography coupled electroantennogram recordings (GC-EAD) with headspace extracts of crushed plants. RESULTS: EAD active compounds included (R)-(-)-linalool, (S)-(+)-1-octen-3-ol, trans-caryophyllene, naphthalene, methyl salicylate, (R)-(-)-?-copaene, methyl cinnamate and (E)-ocimene. Of these compounds (R)-(-)-linalool, methyl cinnamate and methyl salicylate reduced landing of female Aedes aegypti on human skin-odor baited tubes. The latter two are novel mosquito repellent compounds. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of mosquito repellent compounds contributes to deciphering the mechanisms underlying repulsion, supporting the rational design of novel repellents. The three mosquito repellent compounds identified in this study are structurally dissimilar, which may indicate involvement of different sensory neurons in repulsion. Repulsion may well be enhanced through combining different repellent plants (or their synthetic mimics), and can be a locally sustainable part in mosquito control efforts.

Dekker T; Ignell R; Ghebru M; Glinwood R; Hopkins R

2011-01-01

251

Identification of mosquito repellent odours from Ocimum forskolei  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Native mosquito repellent plants have a good potential for integrated mosquito control in local settings. Ocimum forskolei, Lamiaceae, is used in Eritrea as a spatial mosquito repellent inside houses, either through crushing fresh plants or burning dry plants. We verified whether active repellent compounds could be identified using gas-chromatography coupled electroantennogram recordings (GC-EAD) with headspace extracts of crushed plants. Results EAD active compounds included (R)-(-)-linalool, (S)-(+)-1-octen-3-ol, trans-caryophyllene, naphthalene, methyl salicylate, (R)-(-)-?-copaene, methyl cinnamate and (E)-ocimene. Of these compounds (R)-(-)-linalool, methyl cinnamate and methyl salicylate reduced landing of female Aedes aegypti on human skin-odor baited tubes. The latter two are novel mosquito repellent compounds. Conclusions The identification of mosquito repellent compounds contributes to deciphering the mechanisms underlying repulsion, supporting the rational design of novel repellents. The three mosquito repellent compounds identified in this study are structurally dissimilar, which may indicate involvement of different sensory neurons in repulsion. Repulsion may well be enhanced through combining different repellent plants (or their synthetic mimics), and can be a locally sustainable part in mosquito control efforts.

Dekker Teun; Ignell Rickard; Ghebru Maedot; Glinwood Robert; Hopkins Richard

2011-01-01

252

Nesting bird "host funnel" increases mosquito-bird contact rate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Increases in vector-host contact rates can enhance arbovirus transmission intensity. We investigated weekly fluctuations in contact rates between mosquitoes and nesting birds using the recently described Nest Mosquito Trap (NMT). The number of mosquitoes per nestling increased from < 1 mosquito per trap night to 36.2 in the final 2 wk of the nesting season. Our evidence suggests the coincidence of the end of the avian nesting season and increasing mosquito abundances may have caused a "host funnel," concentrating host-seeking mosquitoes to the few remaining nestlings. The relative abundance of mosquitoes collected by the NMT suggests that significantly more Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex pipiens (L.) /restuans (Theobald) sought nesting bird bloodmeals than were predicted by their relative abundances in CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light and gravid traps. Culex salinarius (Coquillett) and Culex erraticus Dyar and Knab were collected in NMTs in proportion to their relative abundances in the generic traps. Temporal host funnels and nesting bird host specificity may enhance arbovirus amplification and explain observed West Nile virus and St. Louis encephalitis virus amplification periods.

Caillouët KA; Riggan AE; Bulluck LP; Carlson JC; Sabo RT

2013-03-01

253

Towards the genetic manipulation of mosquito disease vectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our research is aimed at developing the technologies necessary to undertake the genetic manipulation of insect vector genomes. In the longer term, we wish to explore the potential that this technology may have for developing novel strategies for the control of vector-borne diseases. The focus of our current research has been to: i) identify and characterise endogenous transposable elements in the genomes of mosquito vectors -research has focussed on identifying both Class I and Class 11 elements and determining their structure and distribution within mosquito genomes; ii) develop and use transfection systems for mosquito cells in culture as a test bed for transformation vectors and promoters - transfection techniques, vector constructs and different promoters driving reporter genes have been utilised to optimise the transformation of both Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae cells in culture; iii) identify putative promoter sequences which are induced in the female mosquito midgut when it takes a blood meal - the Anopheles gambiae trypsin gene locus has been cloned and sequenced and the intergenic regions assessed for their ability to induce reporter gene expression in mosquito gut cells. The progress we have made in each of these areas will be described and discussed in the context of our longer term aim which is to introduce genes coding for antiparasitic agents into mosquito genomes in such a way that they are expressed in the mosquito midgut and disrupt transmission of the malaria parasite. (author).

1998-01-01

254

Predicting the age of mosquitoes using transcriptional profiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of transcriptional profiles for predicting mosquito age is a novel solution for the longstanding problem of determining the age of field-caught mosquitoes. Female mosquito age is of central importance to the transmission of a range of human pathogens. The transcriptional age-grading protocol we present here was developed in Aedes aegypti, principally as a research tool. Age predictions are made on the basis of transcriptional data collected from mosquitoes of known age. The abundance of eight candidate gene transcripts is quantified relative to a reference gene using quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR). Normalized gene expression (GE) measures are analyzed using canonical redundancy analysis to obtain a multivariate predictor of mosquito age. The relationship between the first redundancy variate and known age is used as the calibration model. Normalized GE measures are quantified for wild-caught mosquitoes, and ages are then predicted using this calibration model. Rearing of mosquitoes to specific ages for calibration data can take up to 40 d. Molecular analysis of transcript abundance, and subsequent age predictions, should take approximately 3-5 d for 100 individuals. PMID:18007615

Cook, Peter E; Hugo, Leon E; Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Iñaki; Williams, Craig R; Chenoweth, Stephen F; Ritchie, Scott A; Ryan, Peter A; Kay, Brian H; Blows, Mark W; O'Neill, Scott L

2007-01-01

255

Dirofilaria repens microfilariae in Aedes vexans mosquitoes in Slovakia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, we screened field-caught mosquitoes for presence of Dirofilaria spp. by using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Potential occurrence of Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae was examined in 3,600 mosquitoes of eight species (Aedes vexans, Aedes cinereus, Aedes rossicus, Culex pipiens, Culiseta annulata, Ochlerotatus sticticus, Ochlerotatus cantans and Ochlerotatus caspius) collected from five locations in two districts (Kosice and Trebisov) of Eastern Slovakia, endemic region of canine dirofilariasis. Collection of mosquitoes was performed between May and August 2012 in premises known to be inhabited by Dirofilaria-infected dogs. PCR assays were performed on 72 pools, each pool containing 50 mosquitoes of the same species, collected on the same location. Each pool was examined separately for the presence of D. immitis and D. repens, respectively. A positive finding of D. repens was recorded in one pool of A. vexans mosquitoes collected in Košické Olšany village. Minimum infection rate in A. vexans was 1:1,750, i.e. 0.57 per 1,000 mosquitoes. The identity of D. repens was confirmed by direct sequencing of PCR product which has shown 100 % homology with sequence attributed to D. repens (GenBank accession number AJ271614). This study represents the first molecular evidence of D. repens microfilariae in mosquitoes in Slovakia and highlights a need for better surveillance of zoonotic dirofilariasis in central Europe.

Bocková E; Rudolf I; Ko?išová A; Betášová L; Venclíková K; Mendel J; Hubálek Z

2013-10-01

256

Plasmodium infection decreases fecundity and increases survival of mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-lived mosquitoes maximize the chances of Plasmodium transmission. Yet, in spite of decades of research, the effect of Plasmodium parasites on mosquito longevity remains highly controversial. On the one hand, many studies report shorter lifespans in infected mosquitoes. On the other hand, parallel (but separate) studies show that Plasmodium reduces fecundity and imply that this is an adaptive strategy of the parasite aimed at redirecting resources towards longevity. No study till date has, however, investigated fecundity and longevity in the same individuals to see whether this prediction holds. In this study, we follow for both fecundity and longevity in Plasmodium-infected and uninfected mosquitoes using a novel, albeit natural, experimental system. We also explore whether the genetic variations that arise through the evolution of insecticide resistance modulate the effect of Plasmodium on these two life-history traits. We show that (i) a reduction in fecundity in Plasmodium-infected mosquitoes is accompanied by an increase in longevity; (ii) this increase in longevity arises through a trade-off between reproduction and survival; and (iii) in insecticide-resistant mosquitoes, the slope of this trade-off is steeper when the mosquito is infected by Plasmodium (cost of insecticide resistance). PMID:22859589

Vézilier, J; Nicot, A; Gandon, S; Rivero, A

2012-08-01

257

Plasmodium infection decreases fecundity and increases survival of mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Long-lived mosquitoes maximize the chances of Plasmodium transmission. Yet, in spite of decades of research, the effect of Plasmodium parasites on mosquito longevity remains highly controversial. On the one hand, many studies report shorter lifespans in infected mosquitoes. On the other hand, parallel (but separate) studies show that Plasmodium reduces fecundity and imply that this is an adaptive strategy of the parasite aimed at redirecting resources towards longevity. No study till date has, however, investigated fecundity and longevity in the same individuals to see whether this prediction holds. In this study, we follow for both fecundity and longevity in Plasmodium-infected and uninfected mosquitoes using a novel, albeit natural, experimental system. We also explore whether the genetic variations that arise through the evolution of insecticide resistance modulate the effect of Plasmodium on these two life-history traits. We show that (i) a reduction in fecundity in Plasmodium-infected mosquitoes is accompanied by an increase in longevity; (ii) this increase in longevity arises through a trade-off between reproduction and survival; and (iii) in insecticide-resistant mosquitoes, the slope of this trade-off is steeper when the mosquito is infected by Plasmodium (cost of insecticide resistance).

Vézilier J; Nicot A; Gandon S; Rivero A

2012-10-01

258

Aedes mosquito saliva modulates Rift Valley fever virus pathogenicity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease affecting humans and domestic ruminants. Mosquito saliva contains compounds that counteract the hemostatic, inflammatory, and immune responses of the host. Modulation of these defensive responses may facilitate virus infection. Indeed, Aedes mosquito saliva played a crucial role in the vector's capacity to effectively transfer arboviruses such as the Cache Valley and West Nile viruses. The role of mosquito saliva in the transmission of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) has not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: Using a murine model, we explored the potential for mosquitoes to impact the course of RVF disease by determining whether differences in pathogenesis occurred in the presence or absence of mosquito saliva and salivary gland extract. METHODS: C57BL/6NRJ male mice were infected with the ZH548 strain of RVFV via intraperitoneal or intradermal route, or via bites from RVFV-exposed mosquitoes. The virus titers in mosquitoes and mouse organs were determined by plaque assays. FINDINGS: After intraperitoneal injection, RVFV infection primarily resulted in liver damage. In contrast, RVFV infection via intradermal injection caused both liver and neurological symptoms and this route best mimicked the natural infection by mosquitoes. Co-injections of RVFV with salivary gland extract or saliva via intradermal route increased the mortality rates of mice, as well as the virus titers measured in several organs and in the blood. Furthermore, the blood cell counts of infected mice were altered compared to those of uninfected mice. INTERPRETATION: Different routes of infection determine the pattern in which the virus spreads and the organs it targets. Aedes saliva significantly increases the pathogenicity of RVFV.

Le Coupanec A; Babin D; Fiette L; Jouvion G; Ave P; Misse D; Bouloy M; Choumet V

2013-06-01

259

New brane solutions from Killing spinor equations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a recent paper, we have pointed out a relation between the Killing spinor and Einstein equations. Using this relation, new brane solutions of D=11 and D=10 type IIB supergravity theories are constructed. It is shown that in a brane solution, the flat world-volume directions, the smeared transverse directions and the sphere located at a fixed radial distance can be replaced with any Lorentzian Ricci flat, Euclidean Ricci flat and Einstein manifolds, respectively. The solution obtained in this fashion is supersymmetric when the Ricci flat and Einstein manifolds have Killing spinors. We generalize intersecting brane solutions, in which M5-, M2- and D3-branes also wrap over the cycles determined by the Kaehler forms of Ricci flat Kaehler manifolds. New, singular, Ricci flat manifolds as (generalized) cones over the U(1) bundles over Ricci flat Kaehler spaces are constructed. These manifolds have covariantly constant spinors and give rise to new, supersymmetric, Ricci flat compactifications of non-gauged supergravity theories. We find M2- and D3-brane solutions, which asymptotically approach these singular vacua.

2000-09-04

260

Monoterpenes from thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as potential mosquito repellents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Five monoterpenes (carvacrol, p-cymene, linalool, alpha-terpinene, and thymol) derived from the essential oil of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) were examined for their repellency against the mosquito Culex pipiens pallens. All 5 monoterpenes effectively repelled mosquitoes based on a human forearm bioassay. Alpha-terpinene and carvacrol showed significantly greater repellency than a commercial formulation, N,N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide (deet), whereas thymol showed similar repellency to that of deet. The duration of repellency after application for all these monoterpenes was equal to or higher than that of deet. These findings indicate that a spray-type solution containing 2% alpha-terpinene may serve as an alternative mosquito repellent.

Park BS; Choi WS; Kim JH; Kim KH; Lee SE

2005-03-01

 
 
 
 
261

Annotated checklist of the mosquitoes of the Republic of Moldova.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mosquito fauna of the Republic of Moldova is poorly known. In an effort to understand the Culicidae fauna better, mosquito collections have been conducted between early April and middle November from 2008 to 2012. A total of 10,923 larval specimens and 8,246 adults were collected from 20 regions of Moldova. Altogether 36 species have been recorded during the recent study, bringing the total Moldovan mosquito fauna to 40 species in 9 genera and 11 subgenera. New state records include the following 7 species: Anopheles pseudopictus, An. melanoon, Aedes geminus, Culex torrentium, Culiseta longiareolata, Coquillettidia buxtoni, and Uranotaenia unguiculata. PMID:23923323

Sulesco, Tatiana M; Toderas, Ion K; Toderas, Lidia G

2013-06-01

262

Annotated checklist of the mosquitoes of the Republic of Moldova.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mosquito fauna of the Republic of Moldova is poorly known. In an effort to understand the Culicidae fauna better, mosquito collections have been conducted between early April and middle November from 2008 to 2012. A total of 10,923 larval specimens and 8,246 adults were collected from 20 regions of Moldova. Altogether 36 species have been recorded during the recent study, bringing the total Moldovan mosquito fauna to 40 species in 9 genera and 11 subgenera. New state records include the following 7 species: Anopheles pseudopictus, An. melanoon, Aedes geminus, Culex torrentium, Culiseta longiareolata, Coquillettidia buxtoni, and Uranotaenia unguiculata.

Sulesco TM; Toderas IK; Toderas LG

2013-06-01

263

MULTIPLICATION OF DENGUE AND CHIKUNGUNYA VIRUSES IN AEDES MOSQUITOES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Colonies of Aedes aegypti (Surabaya strain) and Aedes albopictus (Malang strain) were studied to compare their susceptibility to oral infection with dengue type 3 and Chikungunya viruses. Growth curves of dengue type 3 and Chikungunya viruses in these mosquitoes indicated that both mosquito species were susceptible to oral infection with these viruses. Electron microscopic observation of the salivary glands of A. aegypti and A. albopictus infected with Chikungunya virus showed that this organ plays an important role in producing and maintaining high virus titers in these mosquitoes. The results suggest that both Aedes species are potentially important vectors on the transmission of dengue and Chikungunya infection in Indonesia.

Soedarto Soekiman

2012-01-01

264

The ability of insect-killing fungi to kill pecan aphids under laboratory conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

There is need for efficacious biocontrol agents for pecan aphids in commercial orchards. We determined the virulence (killing power) of several beneficial fungi to pecan aphids. We tested three species (kinds) of fungi: 1) Isaria fumosorosea (two strains of this species were tested: ARSEF 3581 a...

265

Barkedji virus, a novel mosquito-borne flavivirus identified in Culex perexiguus mosquitoes, Israel, 2011.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Barkedji virus, named after the area of its first identification in Senegal, is a newly discovered flavivirus (FV), for which we propose the abbreviation BJV. In the present study, we report the first-time detection of BJV in Culex perexiguus mosquitoes in Israel in 2011 and determination of its almost complete polyprotein gene sequence. We characterized the BJV genome and defined putative mature proteins, conserved structural elements and potential enzyme motifs along the polyprotein precursor. By comparing polyproteins and individual proteins of BJV with several other FVs, a distant relationship of BJV to Nounane virus (NOUV), a recently described African FV, is demonstrated. Phylogenetic analysis of 55 selected flaviviral polyprotein gene sequences exhibits two major clusters, one made up of the classical three clades of FVs: mosquito-borne, tick-borne and those without known vectors. The other cluster exclusively contains so-called 'insect-specific' FVs, which do not replicate in vertebrate cells. Based on our phylogenetic analysis, BJV is related to other members of the mosquito-borne clade with yet unknown vertebrate hosts, such as NOUV, Donggang virus, Chaoyang virus and Lammi virus. However, with a maximum identity of only 54?% to NOUV, BJV represents a distinct new virus species.

Kolodziejek J; Pachler K; Bin H; Mendelson E; Shulman L; Orshan L; Nowotny N

2013-11-01

266

Barkedji virus, a novel mosquito-borne flavivirus identified in Culex perexiguus mosquitoes, Israel, 2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

Barkedji virus, named after the area of its first identification in Senegal, is a newly discovered flavivirus (FV), for which we propose the abbreviation BJV. In the present study, we report the first-time detection of BJV in Culex perexiguus mosquitoes in Israel in 2011 and determination of its almost complete polyprotein gene sequence. We characterized the BJV genome and defined putative mature proteins, conserved structural elements and potential enzyme motifs along the polyprotein precursor. By comparing polyproteins and individual proteins of BJV with several other FVs, a distant relationship of BJV to Nounane virus (NOUV), a recently described African FV, is demonstrated. Phylogenetic analysis of 55 selected flaviviral polyprotein gene sequences exhibits two major clusters, one made up of the classical three clades of FVs: mosquito-borne, tick-borne and those without known vectors. The other cluster exclusively contains so-called 'insect-specific' FVs, which do not replicate in vertebrate cells. Based on our phylogenetic analysis, BJV is related to other members of the mosquito-borne clade with yet unknown vertebrate hosts, such as NOUV, Donggang virus, Chaoyang virus and Lammi virus. However, with a maximum identity of only 54?% to NOUV, BJV represents a distinct new virus species. PMID:23939978

Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Pachler, Karin; Bin, Hanna; Mendelson, Ella; Shulman, Lester; Orshan, Laor; Nowotny, Norbert

2013-08-12

267

Maxillae and mandibles of male mosquitoes and female autogenous mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maxillae and mandibles of males of 44 species of 12 mosquito genera and females of three autogenous genera and two partially autogenous species were examined under light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The maxillae and mandibles of male mosquitoes are delicate, tape-like structures with lengths characterizing genera or higher level classification units. Five patterns are recognized: (A) long maxillae and mandibles with mandibles longer than maxillae in Anopheles; (B) long maxillae and mandibles with maxillae longer than mandibles in Toxorhynchites; (C) short or intermediate lengths of maxillae with short mandibles in Aedes, Armigeres, Culex, Ochlerotatus, Orthopodomyia, and Uranotaenia; (D) short or intermediate length of maxillae with no mandibles in Mimomyia and Tripteroides; and (E) no maxillae and mandibles in Malaya and Topomyia. Maxillary and mandibular lengths of male mosquitoes show a positive correlation. Length of maxillae and mandibles of autogenous females are reduced to the same level as conspecific males. In contrast, females of partially autogenous species have complete maxillae and mandibles as in females of anautogenous species.

Wahid I; Sunahara T; Mogi M

2003-03-01

268

A list of the mosquitoes housed in the mosquito museum at the Vector Control Research Centre, Pondicherry, India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The establishment of a mosquito museum at the Vector Control Research Centre, Pondicherry, India, is reported. The collection at present contains more than 14,800 adult mosquitoes, including 8,426 that are individually pinned. The collection also includes some 1,048 male and female genitalia preparations, and 815 larval and 444 pupal exuviae on microscope slides. Mosquitoes of 19 genera, 37 subgenera, and 181 species are housed in the museum, representing about 50% of the known species from India. A list of the species is provided.

Rajavel AR; Natarajan R; Vaidyanathan K; Soniya VP

2005-09-01

269

A list of the mosquitoes housed in the mosquito museum at the Vector Control Research Centre, Pondicherry, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The establishment of a mosquito museum at the Vector Control Research Centre, Pondicherry, India, is reported. The collection at present contains more than 14,800 adult mosquitoes, including 8,426 that are individually pinned. The collection also includes some 1,048 male and female genitalia preparations, and 815 larval and 444 pupal exuviae on microscope slides. Mosquitoes of 19 genera, 37 subgenera, and 181 species are housed in the museum, representing about 50% of the known species from India. A list of the species is provided. PMID:16252513

Rajavel, A R; Natarajan, R; Vaidyanathan, K; Soniya, V P

2005-09-01

270

Some naturally occurring phytophototoxins for mosquito control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Alpha-terthiophene (alpha-T) and erythrosin-B, the naturally occurring plant secondary metabolites, were tried for their phototoxic properties against Anopheles and Culex larvae under dark, ordinary tube light (1.9-2.4 w/m2) and sun light (680-840 w/m2). LC50 values of alpha-T for Anopheles larvae (4th instar) were found to be 154, 92 and 11 ppb under dark, tube light and sunlight, respectively. For Culex larvae corresponding LC50 values under different light conditions were 129, 97 and 22 ppb. Erythrosin-B under all photoregimens was found to be less toxic to larvae of both Anopheles and Culex sps. Also, the susceptibility of the mosquito species decreased with age, towards alpha-T and erythrosin-B. Cumulative effects in terms of delay in metamorphosis were also observed among survivors of such exposures. The effects of these compounds were also seen on the adults and developing unhatched embryos of a common aquatic snail (Lymnaea sps). The LC50 values of alpha-T for adults were found to be 39, 23 ppm and 77 ppb under dark, tube light and sunlight and for developing unhatched embryos the corresponding values were 620, 41 and 13 ppb. Erythrosin-B was found to be much less toxic under sunlight and dark, to both adults and embryos as compared to the toxicity of alpha-T. Potential use of such biodegradable and eco-friendly compounds of natural origin in mosquito control is discussed.

Sharma A; Goel HC

1994-10-01

271

Public health significance of invasive mosquitoes in Europe.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are currently five invasive Aedes mosquito species known to be established in Europe, namely Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, Aedes japonicus, Aedes atropalpus and Aedes koreicus. Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti are the incriminated vectors in the recent outbreaks of chikungunya and dengue fever in Europe. However, both laboratory experiments and field observations indicate that these invasive mosquitoes have a potential to also transmit other pathogens of public health importance. Increasing travel and pathogen introduction, expansion of vector distribution, and both environmental and climatic changes are likely to raise the risk of pathogen transmission by these invasive Aedes mosquitoes. Their vector status and their involvement in pathogen transmission are dynamic processes that shape the future of mosquito-borne disease epidemiology in Europe. Beside vector surveillance, enhanced disease surveillance will enable the early detection of cases and the prompt implementation of control measures. PMID:23574618

Schaffner, F; Medlock, J M; Van Bortel, W

2013-04-10

272

Public health significance of invasive mosquitoes in Europe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There are currently five invasive Aedes mosquito species known to be established in Europe, namely Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, Aedes japonicus, Aedes atropalpus and Aedes koreicus. Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti are the incriminated vectors in the recent outbreaks of chikungunya and dengue fever in Europe. However, both laboratory experiments and field observations indicate that these invasive mosquitoes have a potential to also transmit other pathogens of public health importance. Increasing travel and pathogen introduction, expansion of vector distribution, and both environmental and climatic changes are likely to raise the risk of pathogen transmission by these invasive Aedes mosquitoes. Their vector status and their involvement in pathogen transmission are dynamic processes that shape the future of mosquito-borne disease epidemiology in Europe. Beside vector surveillance, enhanced disease surveillance will enable the early detection of cases and the prompt implementation of control measures.

Schaffner F; Medlock JM; Van Bortel W

2013-08-01

273

Mosquito-borne viral infections and the traveller.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article reviews the mosquito-borne infections yellow fever, Chikungunya virus, West Nile virus, dengue fever and eastern equine encephalitis. It provides advice on symptoms, diagnosis and preventive strategies to inform nursing practice during pre-travel consultations.

Chiodini J

2008-05-01

274

Geographic distribution of wolbachial infections in mosquitoes from Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Members of the genus Wolbachia are inherited intracellular bacterial endosymbionts that infect a diverse range of arthropods. Here I report the results of a survey of these endosymbionts in different mosquito species from six geographic regions of Northern, Northeastern, Western, Central, Eastern and Southern Thailand. Using gene amplification assays with wsp and groE gene primers, wolbachiae were detected in 999 mosquitoes representing 28 species of 1622 specimens collected representing 74 species of wild-caught mosquitoes from all regions of Thailand. Results using wsp primers were similar to those using groE primers in all cases. Wolbachiae had not been reported previously from five of the species tested, namely, Aedes lineatopennis, Aedes vexans, Aedes vittatus, Culex pallidothorax and Culex whitmorei. Infections were found in all major disease vector genera except Anopheles. These results indicate that wolbachial infections are distributed throughout many mosquito species in Thailand.

Wiwatanaratanabutr I

2013-05-01

275

AROMATIC PAPER MOSQUITO REPELLANT AND METHOD OF PREPARING IT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to an improved aromatic paper mosquito repellant which does not catch fire but smolders and burns uniformly and constantly, repels mosquitoes retaining the aroma for a longer period of time. The improved aromatic paper mosquito repellant which comprises a paper stick / straw/coil and any other desired shape having a coating of a composition comprising of an aqueous solution of potassium nitrate (salitre) chromium nitrate, lead nitrate, ammonium ceric nitrate, copper nitrate, sodium nitrate iron nitrate, the nitrates being present alone or in their combination thereof, desired water soluble perfumery compound/water insoluble perfumery compound, an anti fungus agent and allithrin. The invention also provides a method of making the aromatic paper mosquito repellant.

RAMACHANDRA RAO A G N V S A

276

Malaria infection increases bird attractiveness to uninfected mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The epidemiology of vector-borne pathogens is largely determined by the host-choice behaviour of their vectors. Here, we investigate whether a Plasmodium infection renders the host more attractive to host-seeking mosquitoes. For this purpose, we work on a novel experimental system: the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium relictum, and its natural vector, the mosquito Culex pipiens. We provide uninfected mosquitoes with a choice between an uninfected bird and a bird undergoing either an acute or a chronic Plasmodium infection. Mosquito choice is assessed by microsatellite typing of the ingested blood. We show that chronically infected birds attract significantly more vectors than either uninfected or acutely infected birds. Our results suggest that malaria parasites manipulate the behaviour of uninfected vectors to increase their transmission. We discuss the underlying mechanisms driving this behavioural manipulation, as well as the broader implications of these effects for the epidemiology of malaria.

Cornet S; Nicot A; Rivero A; Gandon S

2013-03-01

277

Self-forces from generalized Killing fields  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A non-perturbative formalism is developed that simplifies the understanding of self-forces and self-torques acting on extended scalar charges in curved spacetimes. Laws of motion are locally derived using momenta generated by a set of generalized Killing fields. Self-interactions that may be interpreted as arising from the details of a body's internal structure are shown to have very simple geometric and physical interpretations. Certain modifications to the usual definition for a center-of-mass are identified that significantly simplify the motions of charges with strong self-fields. A derivation is also provided for a generalized form of the Detweiler-Whiting axiom that pointlike charges should react only to the so-called regular component of their self-field. Standard results are shown to be recovered for sufficiently small charge distributions.

Harte, Abraham I [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)], E-mail: harte@uchicago.edu

2008-12-07

278

Type-IIB Killing spinors and calibrations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we derive the full set of differential equations and some algebraic relations for p-forms constructed from type IIB Killing spinors. These equations are valid for the most general type IIB supersymmetric backgrounds which have a non-zero NS-NS 3-form field strength, H, and non-zero R-R field strengths, G(1), G(3) and G(5). Our motivation is to use these equations to obtain generalised calibrations for branes in supersymmetric backgrounds. In particular, we consider giant gravitons in AdS5xS5. These non-static branes have an interesting construction via holomorphic surfaces in C1,2xC3. We construct the p-forms corresponding to these branes and show that they satisfy the correct differential equations. Moreover, we interpret the equations as calibration conditions and derive the calibration bound. We find that giant gravitons minimise 'energy minus momentum'. (author)

2004-01-01

279

Organophosphorous insecticide susceptibility of mosquitoes in Maryland, 1985-89.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

From 1985 to 1989, the susceptibility of the 9 major culicine mosquito species in Maryland to the larvicide temephos or the adulticide malathion was studied. The susceptibility of Culex spp. to temephos has declined in most areas of Maryland since 1967; however, only one strain of Culex pipiens was found to be temephos resistant in this study. Aedes sollicitans, Ae. albopictus and Ae. taeniorhynchus were temephos susceptible. All mosquitoes tested in the adult stage were susceptible to malathion.

Sweeney KJ

1993-03-01

280

Malaria infected mosquitoes express enhanced attraction to human odor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is much evidence that some pathogens manipulate the behaviour of their mosquito hosts to enhance pathogen transmission. However, it is unknown whether this phenomenon exists in the interaction of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto with the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum--one of the most important interactions in the context of humanity, with malaria causing over 200 million human cases and over 770 thousand deaths each year. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, that infection with P. falciparum causes alterations in behavioural responses to host-derived olfactory stimuli in host-seeking female An. gambiae s.s. mosquitoes. In behavioural experiments we showed that P. falciparum-infected An. gambiae mosquitoes were significantly more attracted to human odors than uninfected mosquitoes. Both P. falciparum-infected and uninfected mosquitoes landed significantly more on a substrate emanating human skin odor compared to a clean substrate. However, significantly more infected mosquitoes landed and probed on a substrate emanating human skin odor than uninfected mosquitoes. This is the first demonstration of a change of An. gambiae behaviour in response to olfactory stimuli caused by infection with P. falciparum. The results of our study provide vital information that could be used to provide better predictions of how malaria is transmitted from human being to human being by An. gambiae s.s. females. Additionally, it highlights the urgent need to investigate this interaction further to determine the olfactory mechanisms that underlie the differential behavioural responses. In doing so, new attractive compounds could be identified which could be used to develop improved mosquito traps for surveillance or trapping programmes that may even specifically target P. falciparum-infected An. gambiae s.s. females.

Smallegange RC; van Gemert GJ; van de Vegte-Bolmer M; Gezan S; Takken W; Sauerwein RW; Logan JG

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Transovarial transmission of yellow fever virus by mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected with yellow fever virus by intrathoracic inoculation transmitted the virus to a small percentage of their F1 progeny. Infected offspring were obtained from surface-sterilized as well as from untreated eggs, indicating that the virus was transovarially transmitted. Vertical transmission of yellow fever virus in mosquitoes may be an alternative mechanism for biological survival of the virus during adverse periods or in the absence of susceptible vertebrate hosts.

Aitken TH; Tesh RB; Beaty BJ; Rosen L

1979-01-01

282

The Geometry of D=11 Null Killing Spinors  

CERN Document Server

We determine the necessary and sufficient conditions on the metric and the four-form for the most general bosonic supersymmetric configurations of D=11 supergravity which admit a null Killing spinor i.e. a Killing spinor which can be used to construct a null Killing vector. This class covers all supersymmetric time-dependent configurations and completes the classification of the most general supersymmetric configurations initiated in hep-th/0212008.

Gauntlett, J P; Pakis, S

2003-01-01

283

Quasilimiting behavior for one-dimensional diffusions with killing  

CERN Multimedia

This paper extends and clarifies results of Steinsaltz and Evans, which described conditions for convergence of a killed one-dimensional diffusion conditioned on survival, to a quasistationary distribution whose density is given by the top eigenfunction of the generator. Convergence occurs when the limit of the killing at infinity differs from the negative top of the spectrum of the generator. When the killing at infinity is larger than the negative top of the spectrum, then the eigenfunction is integrable. When the killing at infinity is smaller, the eigenfunction is integrable only when the unkilled process is recurrent; otherwise, the process conditioned on survival converges to 0 density on any bounded interval.

Kolb, Martin

2010-01-01

284

Species Composition and Relative Abundance of Mosquitoes in Swat, Pakistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A comprehensive survey of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) was conducted in Swat Pakistan, from April to September during 2000. The survey involved the sampling of both, adult and immature stages of mosquitoes, and recovered a total of 21 species in five genera. Sampling of adult mosquitoes involved Pyrethrum spray collections, Man-biting collections, and Animal-biting collection. Immature stages of mosquitoes were collected from variety of habitats including springs, irrigation channels, rice fields, marshes, temporary pools, construction pools, agriculture pools, river margins, ditches, waste water drains, wells and tree holes. During the study most of the species built up their populations in June, July and August, while a few increased their populations in September. During the survey of immature stages, from a total of 138 samples taken, Cx. quinquefasciatus showed maximum frequency of occurrence (recovered from 48 samples) followed by An. maculatus (17 samples), Cx. pseudovishnui (14 samples), An. annularis and An. stephensi (13 samples each), Cx. bitaeniorhynchus (11 samples), An. splendidus (5 samples) and Cx. theileri (4 samples). The rest of the species occurred infrequently. The observations on habitat specificity of different species of mosquitoes showed the rice fields as the most favorable site for mosquito breeding (harboring 12 species) followed by river margins (five species) and temporary pools and springs (four species each). During this study Ae. aegypti was recovered from tyres in Mingora; it was not reported earlier from Swat.

Ikram Ilahi; Muhammad Suleman

2013-01-01

285

Non-genetic determinants of mosquito competence for malaria parasites.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Understanding how mosquito vectors and malaria parasites interact is of fundamental interest, and it also offers novel perspectives for disease control. Both the genetic and environmental contexts are known to affect the ability of mosquitoes to support malaria development and transmission, i.e., vector competence. Although the role of environment has long been recognized, much work has focused on host and parasite genetic effects. However, the last few years have seen a surge of studies revealing a great diversity of ways in which non-genetic factors can interfere with mosquito-Plasmodium interactions. Here, we review the current evidence for such environmentally mediated effects, including ambient temperature, mosquito diet, microbial gut flora, and infection history, and we identify additional factors previously overlooked in mosquito-Plasmodium interactions. We also discuss epidemiological implications, and the evolutionary consequences for vector immunity and parasite transmission strategies. Finally, we propose directions for further research and argue that an improved knowledge of non-genetic influences on mosquito-Plasmodium interactions could aid in implementing conventional malaria control measures and contribute to the design of novel strategies.

Lefèvre T; Vantaux A; Dabiré KR; Mouline K; Cohuet A

2013-06-01

286

Comparison of different insecticides and fabrics for anti-mosquito bednets and curtains.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various formulations of six insecticides (a carbamate and five pyrethroids), were impregnated into bednets and curtains made from cotton, polyester, polyethylene or polypropylene fabric. For bioassays of insecticidal efficacy, female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes were made to walk on the fabrics for 3 min and mortality was scored after 24 h. The main concentrations tested were: bendiocarb 400 mg/m2, cyfluthrin 30-50 mg/m2, deltamethrin 15-25 mg/m2, etofenprox 200 mg/m2, lambda-cyhalothrin 5-15 mg/m2 and permethrin 200-500 mg/m2. Field trials in Tanzania used experimental huts (fitted with verandah traps) entered by wild free-flying Anopheles gambiae, An.funestus and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Results of testing the impregnated fabrics in experimental huts showed better personal protection provided by bednets than by curtains. Permethrin cis:trans isomer ratios 25:75 and 40:60 were equally effective, and the permethrin rate of 200 mg/m2 performed as well as 500 mg/m2. Bioassay data emphasized the prolonged insecticidal efficacy of lambda-cyhalothrin deposits, except on polyethylene netting. Most of the impregnated nets (including the 'Olyset' net with permethrin incorporated during manufacture of the polyethylene fibre) and an untreated intact net performed well in preventing both Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes from feeding on people using them overnight in the experimental huts. Anopheles showed high mortality rates in response to pyrethroid-treated nets, but only bendiocarb treated curtains killed many Culex. Holed nets treated with either cyfluthrin (5 EW formulation applied at the rate of 50 mg a.i./m2) or lambda-cyhalothrin (2.5 CS formulation at 10 mg a.i./m2) performed well after 15 months of domestic use. Treatment with deltamethrin SC or lambda-cyhalothrin CS at the very low rate of 3 mg/m2 gave good results, including after washing and re-treatment. PMID:8834736

Curtis, C F; Myamba, J; Wilkes, T J

1996-01-01

287

Comparison of different insecticides and fabrics for anti-mosquito bednets and curtains.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Various formulations of six insecticides (a carbamate and five pyrethroids), were impregnated into bednets and curtains made from cotton, polyester, polyethylene or polypropylene fabric. For bioassays of insecticidal efficacy, female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes were made to walk on the fabrics for 3 min and mortality was scored after 24 h. The main concentrations tested were: bendiocarb 400 mg/m2, cyfluthrin 30-50 mg/m2, deltamethrin 15-25 mg/m2, etofenprox 200 mg/m2, lambda-cyhalothrin 5-15 mg/m2 and permethrin 200-500 mg/m2. Field trials in Tanzania used experimental huts (fitted with verandah traps) entered by wild free-flying Anopheles gambiae, An.funestus and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Results of testing the impregnated fabrics in experimental huts showed better personal protection provided by bednets than by curtains. Permethrin cis:trans isomer ratios 25:75 and 40:60 were equally effective, and the permethrin rate of 200 mg/m2 performed as well as 500 mg/m2. Bioassay data emphasized the prolonged insecticidal efficacy of lambda-cyhalothrin deposits, except on polyethylene netting. Most of the impregnated nets (including the 'Olyset' net with permethrin incorporated during manufacture of the polyethylene fibre) and an untreated intact net performed well in preventing both Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes from feeding on people using them overnight in the experimental huts. Anopheles showed high mortality rates in response to pyrethroid-treated nets, but only bendiocarb treated curtains killed many Culex. Holed nets treated with either cyfluthrin (5 EW formulation applied at the rate of 50 mg a.i./m2) or lambda-cyhalothrin (2.5 CS formulation at 10 mg a.i./m2) performed well after 15 months of domestic use. Treatment with deltamethrin SC or lambda-cyhalothrin CS at the very low rate of 3 mg/m2 gave good results, including after washing and re-treatment.

Curtis CF; Myamba J; Wilkes TJ

1996-01-01

288

An elaborated feeding cycle model for reductions in vectorial capacity of night-biting mosquitoes by insecticide-treated nets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) are an important tool for malaria control. ITNs are effective because they work on several parts of the mosquito feeding cycle, including both adult killing and repelling effects. Methods Using an elaborated description of the classic feeding cycle model, simple formulas have been derived to describe how ITNs change mosquito behaviour and the intensity of malaria transmission, as summarized by vectorial capacity and EIR. The predicted changes are illustrated as a function of the frequency of ITN use for four different vector populations using parameter estimates from the literature. Results The model demonstrates that ITNs simultaneously reduce mosquitoes' lifespans, lengthen the feeding cycle, and by discouraging human biting divert more bites onto non-human hosts. ITNs can substantially reduce vectorial capacity through small changes to all of these quantities. The total reductions in vectorial capacity differ, moreover, depending on baseline behavior in the absence of ITNs. Reductions in lifespan and vectorial capacity are strongest for vector species with high baseline survival. Anthropophilic and zoophilic species are affected differently by ITNs; the feeding cycle is lengthened more for anthrophilic species, and the proportion of bites that are diverted onto non-human hosts is higher for zoophilic species. Conclusion This model suggests that the efficacy of ITNs should be measured as a total reduction in transmission intensity, and that the quantitative effects will differ by species and by transmission intensity. At very high rates of ITN use, ITNs can generate large reductions in transmission intensity that could provide very large reductions in transmission intensity, and effective malaria control in some areas, especially when used in combination with other control measures. At high EIR, ITNs will probably not substantially reduce the parasite rate, but when transmission intensity is low, reductions in vectorial capacity combine with reductions in the parasite rate to generate very large reductions in EIR.

Le Menach Arnaud; Takala Shannon; McKenzie F Ellis; Perisse Andre; Harris Anthony; Flahault Antoine; Smith David L

2007-01-01

289

Classical taxonomy of mosquitoes--a memorial to John N. Belkin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The major contributions of John N. Belkin to the field of mosquito systematics are noted. Hallmarks of his publications are presented and his hypotheses about the evolution, speciation, competition, distribution and classification of mosquitoes are summarized. The current status of the field of mosquito systematics is examined. It is argued that mosquito systematics is still largely at the alpha taxonomy level, that at best only 25-50% of mosquito species are known, and that we have not even begun to develop a natural classification for the Culicidae. It is concluded that there will be little improvement in the status of mosquito taxonomy unless there is increased support for systematics.

Zavortink TJ

1990-12-01

290

Kinetics of killing Listeria monocytogenes by macrophages: rapid killing accompanying phagocytosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The kinetics of bactericidal activity of activated macrophages can be precisely described by a mathematical model in which phagocytosis, killing, digestion, and release of degraded bacterial material are considered to occur continuously. To gain a better understanding of these events, I have determined the period of time between first contact of bacteria with macrophages and the onset of killing. Activated rat peritoneal macrophages were incubated for various times up to 15 min with Listeria monocytogenes previously labeled with /sup 3/H-thymidine and the unassociated bacteria removed by two centrifugations through a density interface. Both cell-associated radioactivity and cell-associated viable bacteria, determined as colony forming units after sonication of the cell pellet, increased with time of incubation. However, the specific viability of these bacteria, expressed as the ratio of number of viable bacteria per unit radioactivity declined with time, as an approximate inverse exponential, after a lag period of 2.9 +/- 0.8 min. Evidence is given that other possible causes for this decline in specific viability, other than death of the bacteria, such as preferential ingestion of dead Listeria, clumping of bacteria, variations in autolytic activity, or release of Listericidins are unlikely. I conclude therefore that activated macrophages kill Listeria approximately 3 min after the cell and the bacterium first make contact.

Davies, W.A.

1983-08-01

291

Kinetics of killing Listeria monocytogenes by macrophages: rapid killing accompanying phagocytosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The kinetics of bactericidal activity of activated macrophages can be precisely described by a mathematical model in which phagocytosis, killing, digestion, and release of degraded bacterial material are considered to occur continuously. To gain a better understanding of these events, I have determined the period of time between first contact of bacteria with macrophages and the onset of killing. Activated rat peritoneal macrophages were incubated for various times up to 15 min with Listeria monocytogenes previously labeled with 3H-thymidine and the unassociated bacteria removed by two centrifugations through a density interface. Both cell-associated radioactivity and cell-associated viable bacteria, determined as colony forming units after sonication of the cell pellet, increased with time of incubation. However, the specific viability of these bacteria, expressed as the ratio of number of viable bacteria per unit radioactivity declined with time, as an approximate inverse exponential, after a lag period of 2.9 +/- 0.8 min. Evidence is given that other possible causes for this decline in specific viability, other than death of the bacteria, such as preferential ingestion of dead Listeria, clumping of bacteria, variations in autolytic activity, or release of Listericidins are unlikely. I conclude therefore that activated macrophages kill Listeria approximately 3 min after the cell and the bacterium first make contact

1983-01-01

292

Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal activity of puffer fish extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The extracts of liver (LE), ovary (OE), skin (SE) and muscle (ME) tissues of four species of puffer fishes viz., Arothron hispidus, Lagocephalus inermis, Lagocephalus scleratus and Chelonodon patoca were evaluated against larvae and eggs of three mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The LC50 values were 1194.26, 1382.73 (LE); 1421.42, 1982.73 (OE); 7116.86, 15038.98 (ME) and 10817.8 ppm (SE) for An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus respectively for A. hispidus. In the case of L. inermis, the LC50 values were 1163.83, 1556.1 and 2426.38 (LE); 1653.53, 2734.74 (OE); 6067.47 (ME) and 10283.04 ppm (SE) for An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti respectively. The LC50 values were 1509.98, 1608.69 (LE) and 1414.9, 2278.69 ppm (OE) for An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus respectively for the extracts of L. scleratus. In the case C. patoca extracts the LC50 values were 1182.29, 1543.00, 2441.03 (LE) and 1076.13, 2582.11 ppm (OE) for An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti respectively. OE and LE of all puffer fishes exhibited zero percent egg hatchability from 600 to 1000 ppm against eggs of An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. This study shows that puffer toxins are effective in killing the larvae and eggs of mosquitoes.

Samidurai K; Mathew N

2013-03-01

293

Mosquito larvicidal and ovicidal activity of puffer fish extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The extracts of liver (LE), ovary (OE), skin (SE) and muscle (ME) tissues of four species of puffer fishes viz., Arothron hispidus, Lagocephalus inermis, Lagocephalus scleratus and Chelonodon patoca were evaluated against larvae and eggs of three mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The LC50 values were 1194.26, 1382.73 (LE); 1421.42, 1982.73 (OE); 7116.86, 15038.98 (ME) and 10817.8 ppm (SE) for An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus respectively for A. hispidus. In the case of L. inermis, the LC50 values were 1163.83, 1556.1 and 2426.38 (LE); 1653.53, 2734.74 (OE); 6067.47 (ME) and 10283.04 ppm (SE) for An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti respectively. The LC50 values were 1509.98, 1608.69 (LE) and 1414.9, 2278.69 ppm (OE) for An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus respectively for the extracts of L. scleratus. In the case C. patoca extracts the LC50 values were 1182.29, 1543.00, 2441.03 (LE) and 1076.13, 2582.11 ppm (OE) for An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti respectively. OE and LE of all puffer fishes exhibited zero percent egg hatchability from 600 to 1000 ppm against eggs of An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. This study shows that puffer toxins are effective in killing the larvae and eggs of mosquitoes. PMID:23665705

Samidurai, Kaliyaperumal; Mathew, Nisha

2013-03-01

294

Experimental hut evaluation of bednets treated with an organophosphate (chlorpyrifos-methyl) or a pyrethroid (lambdacyhalothrin) alone and in combination against insecticide-resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes are becoming increasingly common in parts of Africa. It is important to identify alternative insecticides which, if necessary, could be used to replace or supplement the pyrethroids for use on treated nets. Certain compounds of an earlier generation of insecticides, the organophosphates may have potential as net treatments. Methods Comparative studies of chlorpyrifos-methyl (CM), an organophosphate with low mammalian toxicity, and lambdacyhalothrin (L), a pyrethroid, were conducted in experimental huts in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa. Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from the area are resistant to pyrethroids and organophosphates (kdr and insensitive acetylcholinesterase Ace.1R). Several treatments and application rates on intact or holed nets were evaluated, including single treatments, mixtures, and differential wall/ceiling treatments. Results and Conclusion All of the treatments were effective in reducing blood feeding from sleepers under the nets and in killing both species of mosquito, despite the presence of the kdr and Ace.1R genes at high frequency. In most cases, the effects of the various treatments did not differ significantly. Five washes of the nets in soap solution did not reduce the impact of the insecticides on A. gambiae mortality, but did lead to an increase in blood feeding. The three combinations performed no differently from the single insecticide treatments, but the low dose mixture performed encouragingly well indicating that such combinations might be used for controlling insecticide resistant mosquitoes. Mortality of mosquitoes that carried both Ace.1R and Ace.1S genes did not differ significantly from mosquitoes that carried only Ace.1S genes on any of the treated nets, indicating that the Ace.1R allele does not confer effective resistance to chlorpyrifos-methyl under the realistic conditions of an experimental hut.

Asidi Alex N; N' Guessan Raphael; Koffi Alphonsine A; Curtis Christopher F; Hougard Jean-Marc; Chandre Fabrice; Corbel Vincent; Darriet Frédéric; Zaim Morteza; Rowland Mark W

2005-01-01

295

Otters Lutra lutra killing Mountain Hares Lepus timidus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the winter, otter Lutra lutra were found to kill mountain hares Lepus timidus in the Scottish highlands. The possible method of killing is discussed. Hares and other mammals are an important part of otter' diet during winter.

Conroy J.; Calder J.

2000-01-01

296

Murine Macrophages Kill the Vegetative Form of Bacillus anthracis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anti-protective antigen antibody was reported to enhance macrophage killing of ingested Bacillus anthracis spores, but it was unclear whether the antibody-mediated macrophage killing mechanism was directed against the spore itself or the vegetative form emerging from the ingested and germinating spo...

Kang, Tae Jin; Fenton, Matthew J.; Weiner, Matthew A.; Hibbs, Stephen; Basu, Subhendu; Baillie, Les; Cross, Alan S.

297

Potency of killed plague vaccines prepared from avirulent Yersinia pestis*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Killed plague vaccines prepared from avirulent strains A1122 and EV76S of Yersinia pestis were more effective in mouse potency tests than samples of Plague Vaccine, USP, prepared from killed Y. pestis of the virulent strain 195/P. Manufacture of vaccine from avirulent Y. pestis would obviate require...

Williams, James E.; Altieri, Patricia L.; Berman, Sanford; Lowenthal, Joseph P.; Cavanaugh, Dan C.

298

A spatial model of mosquito host-seeking behavior.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mosquito host-seeking behavior and heterogeneity in host distribution are important factors in predicting the transmission dynamics of mosquito-borne infections such as dengue fever, malaria, chikungunya, and West Nile virus. We develop and analyze a new mathematical model to describe the effect of spatial heterogeneity on the contact rate between mosquito vectors and hosts. The model includes odor plumes generated by spatially distributed hosts, wind velocity, and mosquito behavior based on both the prevailing wind and the odor plume. On a spatial scale of meters and a time scale of minutes, we compare the effectiveness of different plume-finding and plume-tracking strategies that mosquitoes could use to locate a host. The results show that two different models of chemotaxis are capable of producing comparable results given appropriate parameter choices and that host finding is optimized by a strategy of flying across the wind until the odor plume is intercepted. We also assess the impact of changing the level of host aggregation on mosquito host-finding success near the end of the host-seeking flight. When clusters of hosts are more tightly associated on smaller patches, the odor plume is narrower and the biting rate per host is decreased. For two host groups of unequal number but equal spatial density, the biting rate per host is lower in the group with more individuals, indicative of an attack abatement effect of host aggregation. We discuss how this approach could assist parameter choices in compartmental models that do not explicitly model the spatial arrangement of individuals and how the model could address larger spatial scales and other probability models for mosquito behavior, such as Lévy distributions.

Cummins B; Cortez R; Foppa IM; Walbeck J; Hyman JM

2012-01-01

299

Mechanisms of Dendritic Cell Lysosomal Killing of Cryptococcus  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pulmonary fungal pathogen that disseminates to the CNS causing fatal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. Dendritic cells (DCs) phagocytose C. neoformans following inhalation. Following uptake, cryptococci translocate to the DC lysosomal compartment and are killed by oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms. DC lysosomal extracts kill cryptococci in vitro; however, the means of antifungal activity remain unknown. Our studies determined non-oxidative antifungal activity by DC lysosomal extract. We examined DC lysosomal killing of cryptococcal strains, anti-fungal activity of purified lysosomal enzymes, and mechanisms of killing against C. neoformans. Results confirmed DC lysosome fungicidal activity against all cryptococcal serotypes. Purified lysosomal enzymes, specifically cathepsin B, inhibited cryptococcal growth. Interestingly, cathepsin B combined with its enzymatic inhibitors led to enhanced cryptococcal killing. Electron microscopy revealed structural changes and ruptured cryptococcal cell walls following treatment. Finally, additional studies demonstrated that osmotic lysis was responsible for cryptococcal death.

Hole, Camaron R.; Bui, Hoang; Wormley, Floyd L.; Wozniak, Karen L.

2012-10-01

300

Checklist of Iranian mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mosquito fauna of Iran includes seven genera, 64 species, and three subspecies. The records of 12 other species should be verified. There are 24 species in the most recent checklist of Iranian Anopheles. Two species, An. peditaeniatus and An. fluviatilis species V, have been reported since. An. atroparvus, An. labranchiae, and An. martinius of the Maculipennis Group, and An. cinereus, An. nigerrimus, and An. rhodesiensis rupicola were recorded previously but are not included in the checklist. The checklist of Iranian Culicinae includes ten species of the tribe Aedini, but there are some records of four other species: Aedes aegypti, Ochlerotatus berlandi, Oc. chelli, and Oc. dorsalis. The genus Culex includes 19 species, excluding Cx. impudicus, which has not been collected recently, and some doubtful records of Cx. univittatus, Cx. vishnui, and Cx. vagans. The genus Culiseta includes five species and the genera Coquillettidia and Uranotaenia each include one species in Iran. No information is available for the An. subpictus, Oc. caspius, Oc. detritus, and Oc. pulcritaris species complexes in Iran. The An. claviger and Cx. pipiens complexes and the An. hyrcanus group require review.

Azari-Hamidian S

2007-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Biological Activity of alpha-Mangostin, a Larvicidal Botanic Mosquito Sterol Carrier Protein-2 Inhibitor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mangostin derived from mangosteen was identified as a mosquito sterol carrier protein-2 inhibitor via high throughput insecticide screening. - Mangostin was tested for its larvicidal activity against third instar larvae of six mosquito species, and the me...

G. G. Clark J. J. Becnel J. M. Lorch J. W. Pridgeon R. T. Larson

2010-01-01

302

Biosynthesis of 130-kilodalton mosquito larvicide in the cyanobacterium Agmenellum quadruplicatum PR-6.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The 130-kilodalton mosquito larvicidal gene, cloned from Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, was introduced into the cyanobacterium Agmenellum quadruplicatum PR-6 by plasmid transformation. Transformed cells synthesized 130-kilodalton delta-endotoxin protein and showed mosquito larvicidal activ...

Angsuthanasombat, C; Panyim, S

303

Effect of Wolbachia on replication of West Nile virus in a mosquito cell line and adult mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wolbachia as an endosymbiont is widespread in insects and other arthropods and is best known for reproductive manipulations of the host. Recently, it has been shown that wMelpop and wMel strains of Wolbachia inhibit the replication of several RNA viruses, including dengue virus, and other vector-borne pathogens (e.g., Plasmodium and filarial nematodes) in mosquitoes, providing an alternative approach to limit the transmission of vector-borne pathogens. In this study, we tested the effect of Wolbachia on the replication of West Nile Virus (WNV). Surprisingly, accumulation of the genomic RNA of WNV for all three strains of WNV tested (New York 99, Kunjin, and New South Wales) was enhanced in Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti cells (Aag2). However, the amount of secreted virus was significantly reduced in the presence of Wolbachia. Intrathoracic injections showed that replication of WNV in A. aegypti mosquitoes infected with wMel strain of Wolbachia was not inhibited, whereas wMelPop strain of Wolbachia significantly reduced the replication of WNV in mosquitoes. Further, when wMelPop mosquitoes were orally fed with WNV, virus infection, transmission, and dissemination rates were very low in Wolbachia-free mosquitoes and were completely inhibited in the presence of Wolbachia. The results suggest that (i) despite the enhancement of viral genomic RNA replication in the Wolbachia-infected cell line the production of secreted virus was significantly inhibited, (ii) the antiviral effect in intrathoracically infected mosquitoes depends on the strain of Wolbachia, and (iii) replication of the virus in orally fed mosquitoes was completely inhibited in wMelPop strain of Wolbachia.

Hussain M; Lu G; Torres S; Edmonds JH; Kay BH; Khromykh AA; Asgari S

2013-01-01

304

DNA barcodes can distinguish species of Indian mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Species identification of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) based on morphological characteristics remains often difficult in field-collected mosquito specimens in vector-borne disease surveillance programs. The use of DNA barcodes has been proposed recently as a tool for identification of the species in many diverse groups of animals. However, the efficacy of this tool for mosquitoes remains unexplored. Hence, a study was undertaken to construct DNA barcodes for several species of mosquitoes prevalent in India, which included major vector species. In total, 111 specimens of mosquitoes belonging to 15 genera, morphologically identified to be 63 species, were used. This number also included multiple specimens for 22 species. DNA barcode approach based on DNA sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene sequences could identify 62 species among these, in confirmation with the conventional taxonomy. However, two closely related species, Ochlerotatus portonovoensis (Tiwari & Hiriyan) and Ochlerotatus wardi (Reinert) could not be identified as separate species based on DNA barcode approach, their lineages indicating negligible genetic divergence (Kimura two-parameter genetic distance = 0.0043).

Kumar NP; Rajavel AR; Natarajan R; Jambulingam P

2007-01-01

305

DNA barcodes can distinguish species of Indian mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Species identification of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) based on morphological characteristics remains often difficult in field-collected mosquito specimens in vector-borne disease surveillance programs. The use of DNA barcodes has been proposed recently as a tool for identification of the species in many diverse groups of animals. However, the efficacy of this tool for mosquitoes remains unexplored. Hence, a study was undertaken to construct DNA barcodes for several species of mosquitoes prevalent in India, which included major vector species. In total, 111 specimens of mosquitoes belonging to 15 genera, morphologically identified to be 63 species, were used. This number also included multiple specimens for 22 species. DNA barcode approach based on DNA sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene sequences could identify 62 species among these, in confirmation with the conventional taxonomy. However, two closely related species, Ochlerotatus portonovoensis (Tiwari & Hiriyan) and Ochlerotatus wardi (Reinert) could not be identified as separate species based on DNA barcode approach, their lineages indicating negligible genetic divergence (Kimura two-parameter genetic distance = 0.0043). PMID:17294914

Kumar, N Pradeep; Rajavel, A R; Natarajan, R; Jambulingam, P

2007-01-01

306

Mosquito attractant blends to trap host seeking Aedes aegypti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aedes aegypti is the key vector of three important arboviral diseases -dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya. To identify volatile chemicals which could be used in odour based traps for Aedes mosquito surveillance, a few synthetic compounds and compound blends have been evaluated in an indigenously designed olfactometer. A total of 24 compounds and seven compound blends were screened against unfed adult female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes for attraction and compared with control group. The attractancy or repellency index of the test material to mosquitoes was calculated and rated them as class-1, class-2 and class-3 with rating values ranging 1-15, 16-33 and 34-100 respectively. Out of the 24 compounds tested, six were showing significant attractancy (P?mosquito attractancy (P?mosquito attractancy.

Mathew N; Ayyanar E; Shanmugavelu S; Muthuswamy K

2013-03-01

307

Silica nanoparticle: a potential new insecticide for mosquito vector control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Presently, there is a need for increased efforts to develop newer and effective methods to control mosquito vectors as the existing chemical and biological methods are not as effective as in earlier period owing to different technical and operational reasons. The use of nanomaterial products in various sectors of science including health increased during the last decade. We tested three types of nanosilica, namely lipophilic, hydrophilic and hydrophobic, to assess their larvicidal, pupicidal and growth inhibitor properties and also their influence on oviposition behaviour (attraction/deterrence) of mosquito species that transmit human diseases, namely malaria (Anopheles), yellow fever, chickungunya and dengue (Aedes), lymphatic filariasis and encephalitis (Culex and Aedes). Application of hydrophobic nanosilica at 112.5 ppm was found effective against mosquito species tested. The larvicidal effect of hydrophobic nanosilica on mosquito species tested was in the order of Anopheles stephensi > Aedes aegypti > Culex quinquefasciatus, and the pupicidal effect was in the order of A. stephensi > C. quinquefasciatus > Ae. aegypti. Results of combined treatment of hydrophobic nanosilica with temephos in larvicidal test indicated independent toxic action without any additive effect. This is probably the first report that demonstrated that nanoparticles particularly nanosilica could be used in mosquito vector control.

Barik TK; Kamaraju R; Gowswami A

2012-09-01

308

Fighting malaria with engineered symbiotic bacteria from vector mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most vulnerable stages of Plasmodium development occur in the lumen of the mosquito midgut, a compartment shared with symbiotic bacteria. Here, we describe a strategy that uses symbiotic bacteria to deliver antimalaria effector molecules to the midgut lumen, thus rendering host mosquitoes refractory to malaria infection. The Escherichia coli hemolysin A secretion system was used to promote the secretion of a variety of anti-Plasmodium effector proteins by Pantoea agglomerans, a common mosquito symbiotic bacterium. These engineered P. agglomerans strains inhibited development of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei by up to 98%. Significantly, the proportion of mosquitoes carrying parasites (prevalence) decreased by up to 84% for two of the effector molecules, scorpine, a potent antiplasmodial peptide and (EPIP)(4), four copies of Plasmodium enolase-plasminogen interaction peptide that prevents plasminogen binding to the ookinete surface. We demonstrate the use of an engineered symbiotic bacterium to interfere with the development of P. falciparum in the mosquito. These findings provide the foundation for the use of genetically modified symbiotic bacteria as a powerful tool to combat malaria. PMID:22802646

Wang, Sibao; Ghosh, Anil K; Bongio, Nicholas; Stebbings, Kevin A; Lampe, David J; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

2012-07-16

309

Toxicity of a plant based mosquito repellent/killer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mission to make humans less attractive to mosquitoes has fuelled decades of scientific research on mosquito behaviour and control. The search for the perfect topical insect repellent/killer continues. This analysis was conducted to review and explore the scientific information on toxicity produced by the ingredients/contents of a herbal product. In this process of systemic review the following methodology was applied. By doing a MEDLINE search with key words of selected plants, plant based insect repellents/killers pertinent articles published in journals and authentic books were reviewed. The World Wide Web and the Extension Toxicity Network database (IPCS-ITOX) were also searched for toxicology data and other pertinent information. Repellents do not all share a single mode of action and surprisingly little is known about how repellents act on their target insects. Moreover, different mosquito species may react differently to the same repellent. After analysis of available data and information on the ingredient, of the product in relation to medicinal uses, acute and chronic toxicity of the selected medicinal plants, it can be concluded that the ingredients included in the herbal product can be used as active agents against mosquitoes. If the product which contains the powder of the above said plants is applied with care and safety, it is suitable fo use as a mosquito repellent/killer.

Singh B; Singh PR; Mohanty MK

2012-12-01

310

Using a bug-killing paradigm to understand how social validation and invalidation affect the distress of killing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Clinical evidence demonstrates that killing among soldiers at war predicts their experience of long-lasting trauma/distress. Killing leads to distress, in part, due to guilt experienced from violating moral standards. Because social consensus shapes what actions are perceived as moral and just, we hypothesized that social validation for killing would reduce guilt, whereas social invalidation would exacerbate it. To examine this possibility in a laboratory setting, participants were led to kill bugs in an "extermination task." Perceptions of social validation/invalidation were manipulated through the supposed actions of a confederate (Study 1) or numerous previous participants (Study 2) that agreed or refused to kill bugs. Distress measures focused on trauma-related guilt. Higher levels of distress were observed when individuals perceived their actions as invalidated as opposed to when they perceived their actions as socially validated. Implications for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experienced by soldiers and the paradoxical nature of publicly expressing antiwar sentiments are discussed.

Webber D; Schimel J; Martens A; Hayes J; Faucher EH

2013-04-01

311

A refined aquatic ecological risk assessment for a pyrethroid insecticide used for adult mosquito management.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of pyrethroid insecticides has increased substantially throughout the world over the past few decades as the use of organophorous, carbamate, and organochlorine insecticides is being phased out. Pyrethroids are the most common class of insecticides for ultralow-volume (ULV) aerosol applications used to manage high densities of adult mosquitoes. Pyrethroids are highly toxic to nontarget organisms such as certain aquatic organisms, and there have been concerns about the effect of applications of ULV insecticides on these organisms. To address the uncertainties associated with the risks of ULV applications and the contradictory findings of other ecological risk assessments, the authors performed a probabilistic aquatic ecological risk assessment for permethrin using actual environmental deposition on surfaces to estimate permethrin concentrations in water. The present study is the first ecological risk assessment for pyrethroids to quantitatively integrate the reduction in bioavailability resulting from the presence of dissolved organic matter. As part of the risk assessment, the authors incorporated a species sensitivity distribution to take into account the differences in toxicity for different species. The 95th percentile estimated concentration would result in less than 0.0001% of the potentially affected fraction of species reaching the lethal concentration that kills 50% of a population. The results of the present study are supported by the weight of evidence that pyrethroids applied by ground-based ULV equipment will not result in deleterious effects on aquatic organisms. PMID:23341175

Schleier, Jerome J; Peterson, Robert K D

2013-02-22

312

A refined aquatic ecological risk assessment for a pyrethroid insecticide used for adult mosquito management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of pyrethroid insecticides has increased substantially throughout the world over the past few decades as the use of organophorous, carbamate, and organochlorine insecticides is being phased out. Pyrethroids are the most common class of insecticides for ultralow-volume (ULV) aerosol applications used to manage high densities of adult mosquitoes. Pyrethroids are highly toxic to nontarget organisms such as certain aquatic organisms, and there have been concerns about the effect of applications of ULV insecticides on these organisms. To address the uncertainties associated with the risks of ULV applications and the contradictory findings of other ecological risk assessments, the authors performed a probabilistic aquatic ecological risk assessment for permethrin using actual environmental deposition on surfaces to estimate permethrin concentrations in water. The present study is the first ecological risk assessment for pyrethroids to quantitatively integrate the reduction in bioavailability resulting from the presence of dissolved organic matter. As part of the risk assessment, the authors incorporated a species sensitivity distribution to take into account the differences in toxicity for different species. The 95th percentile estimated concentration would result in less than 0.0001% of the potentially affected fraction of species reaching the lethal concentration that kills 50% of a population. The results of the present study are supported by the weight of evidence that pyrethroids applied by ground-based ULV equipment will not result in deleterious effects on aquatic organisms.

Schleier JJ 3rd; Peterson RK

2013-04-01

313

A NEW FIXING TECHNIQUE USING RICE VINEGAR PRIOR TO MOSQUITO DISSECTION.  

Science.gov (United States)

We found a new fixative, rice vinegar, that allowed us to more effectively dissect mosquitoes to determine parity. We found that rice vinegar preserved, relaxed, and replaced the often high water/nectar content of mosquito guts. Our technique was to stun the newly-trapped live mosquitoes with CO2, p...

314

Environmental Factors Affecting Efficacy of Bifenthrin-Treated Vegetation for Mosquito Control.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of pesticide-treated vegetation as a barrier for control of nuisance and disease-bearing mosquitoes has become an option for mosquito management for home owners and public health and mosquito control professionals. Potted wax myrtle and azalea pla...

D. L. Kline S. A. Allan T. Walker

2009-01-01

315

Tentative checklist of the mosquitoes of Vietnam employing new classification for tribe Aedini (Diptera, Culicidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The new classification of tribe Aedini is used in a tentative checklist of the mosquitoes found in Vietnam, which contains 34 genera, 28 subgenera, and 191 species and subspecies. Mosquito-borne diseases in Vietnam are mentioned. Mosquito records from U.S. military sources during the Vietnam War are also considered.

Bui P; Darsie RF Jr

2008-06-01

316

Protocol for Dengue Infections in Mosquitoes (A. aegypti) and Infection Phenotype Determination  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this procedure is to infect the Aedes mosquito with dengue virus in a laboratory condition and examine the infection level and dynamic of the virus in the mosquito tissues. This protocol is routinely used for studying mosquito-virus interactions, especially for identification of novel...

Das, Suchismita; Garver, Lindsey; Ramirez, Jose Ruiz; Xi, Zhiyong; Dimopoulos, George

317

Potassium channels mediate killing by human natural killer cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human natural killer (NK) cells in peripheral blood spontaneously recognize and kill a wide variety of target cells. It has been suggested that ion channels are involved in the killing process because there is a Ca-dependent stage and because killing by presensitized cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which in many respects resembles NK killing, is associated with changes in K and Na transport in the target cell. Using the whole-cell variation of the patch-clamp technique, the authors found a voltage-dependent potassium (K+) current in NK cells. The K+ current was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the K-channel blockers 4-aminopyridine and quinidine and by the traditional Ca-channel blockers verapamil and Cd2+. They tested the effects of ion-channel blockers on killing of two commonly used target cell lines: K562, which is derived from a human myeloid leukemia, and U937, which is derived from a human histiocytic leukemia. Killing of K562 target cells, determined in a standard 51Cr-release assay, was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by verapamil, quinidine, Cd2+, and 4-aminopyridine at concentrations comparable to those that blocked the K+ current in NK cells. In K562 target cells only a voltage-dependent Na= current was found and it was blocked by concentrations of tetrodotoxin that had no effect on killing. Killing of U937 target cells was also inhibited by the two ion-channel blockers tested, quinidine and verapamil. In this cell line only a small K+ current was found that was similar to the one in NK cells. The findings show that there are K channels in NK cells and that these channels play a necessary role in the killing process

1986-01-01

318

Potassium channels mediate killing by human natural killer cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Human natural killer (NK) cells in peripheral blood spontaneously recognize and kill a wide variety of target cells. It has been suggested that ion channels are involved in the killing process because there is a Ca-dependent stage and because killing by presensitized cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which in many respects resembles NK killing, is associated with changes in K and Na transport in the target cell. Using the whole-cell variation of the patch-clamp technique, the authors found a voltage-dependent potassium (K/sup +/) current in NK cells. The K/sup +/ current was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the K-channel blockers 4-aminopyridine and quinidine and by the traditional Ca-channel blockers verapamil and Cd/sup 2 +/. They tested the effects of ion-channel blockers on killing of two commonly used target cell lines: K562, which is derived from a human myeloid leukemia, and U937, which is derived from a human histiocytic leukemia. Killing of K562 target cells, determined in a standard /sup 51/Cr-release assay, was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by verapamil, quinidine, Cd/sup 2 +/, and 4-aminopyridine at concentrations comparable to those that blocked the K/sup +/ current in NK cells. In K562 target cells only a voltage-dependent Na= current was found and it was blocked by concentrations of tetrodotoxin that had no effect on killing. Killing of U937 target cells was also inhibited by the two ion-channel blockers tested, quinidine and verapamil. In this cell line only a small K/sup +/ current was found that was similar to the one in NK cells. The findings show that there are K channels in NK cells and that these channels play a necessary role in the killing process.

Schlichter, L.; Sidell N.; Hagiwara, S.

1986-01-01

319

Identification of Wolbachia strains in mosquito disease vectors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Wolbachia bacteria are common endosymbionts of insects, and some strains are known to protect their hosts against RNA viruses and other parasites. This has led to the suggestion that releasing Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes could prevent the transmission of arboviruses and other human parasites. We have identified Wolbachia in Kenyan populations of the yellow fever vector Aedes bromeliae and its relative Aedes metallicus, and in Mansonia uniformis and Mansonia africana, which are vectors of lymphatic filariasis. These Wolbachia strains cluster together on the bacterial phylogeny, and belong to bacterial clades that have recombined with other unrelated strains. These new Wolbachia strains may be affecting disease transmission rates of infected mosquito species, and could be transferred into other mosquito vectors as part of control programs.

Osei-Poku J; Han C; Mbogo CM; Jiggins FM

2012-01-01

320

Mosquito-repellent incense capable of rapidly being lighted  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses mosquito incense which can be lighted very quickly, and aims to provide the mosquito incense which has the characteristics of simple structure, convenient use and low cost, and can be lighted easily and quickly. The mosquito incense comprises a coil body a longitudinal opening smaller than two millimeters is formed on the ignition head of the coil body a flammable chip is arranged in the opening and a paper chip or a wood chip can be taken as the flammable chip. The utility mode is suitable for residence purpose in indoor or outdoor sheds and the like, is rapid and timesaving, and has the advantages of easy ignition, simple structure, convenient use, low cost and easy processing and manufacture.

JIEHUI ZHENG

 
 
 
 
321

Conjugation by Mosquito Pathogenic Strains of Bacillus sphaericus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A mosquito pathogenic strain of Bacillus sphaericus carried out the conjugal transfer of plasmid pAMß1 to other strains of its own and two other serotypes. However, it was unable to conjugate with mosquito pathogens from three other serotypes, with B. sphaericus of other DNA homology groups or with three other species of Bacillus. Conjugation frequency was highest with a strain having an altered surface layer (S layer). Conjugal transfer of pAMß1 was not detected in mosquito larval cadavers. B. sphaericus 2362 was unable to mobilize pUB110 for transfer to strains that had served as recipients of pAMß1. These observations suggest that it is unlikely that genetically engineered B. sphaericus carrying a recombinant plasmid could pass that plasmid to other bacteria

Correa Margarita; Yousten Allan A

1997-01-01

322

Identification of Wolbachia strains in mosquito disease vectors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wolbachia bacteria are common endosymbionts of insects, and some strains are known to protect their hosts against RNA viruses and other parasites. This has led to the suggestion that releasing Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes could prevent the transmission of arboviruses and other human parasites. We have identified Wolbachia in Kenyan populations of the yellow fever vector Aedes bromeliae and its relative Aedes metallicus, and in Mansonia uniformis and Mansonia africana, which are vectors of lymphatic filariasis. These Wolbachia strains cluster together on the bacterial phylogeny, and belong to bacterial clades that have recombined with other unrelated strains. These new Wolbachia strains may be affecting disease transmission rates of infected mosquito species, and could be transferred into other mosquito vectors as part of control programs. PMID:23185484

Osei-Poku, Jewelna; Han, Calvin; Mbogo, Charles M; Jiggins, Francis M

2012-11-21

323

Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

Daniel P. Molloy

2004-02-24

324

Killing spinors and supersymmetry on AdS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we construct several supersymmetric theories on AdS{sub 5} background. We discuss the proper definition of the Killing equation for the symplectic Majorana spinors required in AdS{sub 5} supersymmetric theories. We find that the symplectic Killing spinor equation involves a matrix M in the USp(2N) indices whose role was not recognized previously. Using the correct Killing spinors we explicitly confirm that the particle masses in the constructed theories agree with the predictions of the AdS/CFT correspondence. Finally, we establish correct O(d - 1,2) isometry transformations required to keep the Lagrangian invariant on AdS{sub d}.

Shuster, Eugene E-mail: eugeneus@mit.edu

1999-08-09

325

Killing spinors and supersymmetry on AdS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we construct several supersymmetric theories on AdS5 background. We discuss the proper definition of the Killing equation for the symplectic Majorana spinors required in AdS5 supersymmetric theories. We find that the symplectic Killing spinor equation involves a matrix M in the USp(2N) indices whose role was not recognized previously. Using the correct Killing spinors we explicitly confirm that the particle masses in the constructed theories agree with the predictions of the AdS/CFT correspondence. Finally, we establish correct O(d - 1,2) isometry transformations required to keep the Lagrangian invariant on AdSd.

1999-08-09

326

HIV transcription is induced with some forms of cell killing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct', we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. ? rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that ?-ray-induced apoptotic death requires function p53, which is missing in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture

1996-01-01

327

HIV transcription is induced with some forms of cell killing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct`, we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. {Gamma} rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that {gamma}-ray-induced apoptotic death requires function p53, which is missing in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture.

Woloschak, G.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Schreck, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)][South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Panozzo, J. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States); Chang-Liu, C.-M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Libertin, C.R. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)

1996-11-01

328

Killing by neutrophil extracellular traps: fact or folklore?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are DNA structures released by dying neutrophils and claimed to constitute a new microbicidal mechanism. Killing by NET-forming cells is ascribed to these structures because it is prevented by preincubation with DNase, which has been shown to dismantle NETs, before addition of the target microorganisms. Curiously, the possibility that the microorganisms ensnared in NETs are alive has not been considered. Using Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans blastospores, we demonstrate that the microorganisms captured by NETs and thought to be killed are alive because they are released and recovered in cell medium by incubation with DNase. It is concluded that NETs entrap but do not kill microbes.

Menegazzi R; Decleva E; Dri P

2012-02-01

329

Evaluation of commercial products for personal protection against mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Human landing catch studies were conducted in a semi-field setting to determine the efficacy of seven commercial products used for personal protection against mosquitoes. Experiments were conducted in two empty, insecticide free, mesh-enclosed greenhouses, in Israel, with either 1500 Aedes albopictus or 1500 Culex pipiens released on consecutive study nights. The products tested in this study were the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ Mosquito Repellent (Metofluthrin 31.2%) and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick Mosquito Repeller (Cinnamon oil 10.5%; Eugenol 13%; Geranium oil 21%; Peppermint 5.3%; Lemongrass oil 2.6%), which are personal diffusers; Super Band™ Wristband (22% Citronella oil) and the PIC(®) Citronella Plus Wristband (Geraniol 15%; Lemongrass oil 5%, Citronella oil 1%); the Sonic Insect Repeller Keychain; the Mosquito Guard Patch (Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus 80mg), an adhesive-backed sticker for use on textiles; and the Mosquito Patch (vitamin B1 300mg), a transdermal patch. It was determined that the sticker, transdermal patch, wristbands and sonic device did not provide significant protection to volunteers compared with the mosquito attack rate on control volunteers who were not wearing a repellent device. The personal diffusers: - OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick - provided superior protection compared with all other devices in this study. These diffusers reduced biting on the arms of volunteers by 96.28% and 95.26% respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 94.94% and 92.15% respectively, for Cx. pipiens. In a second trial conducted to compare these devices directly, biting was reduced by the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) by 87.55% and 92.83%, respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 97.22% and 94.14%, respectively, for Cx. pipiens. There was no significant difference between the performances of the two diffusers for each species.

Revay EE; Junnila A; Xue RD; Kline DL; Bernier UR; Kravchenko VD; Qualls WA; Ghattas N; Müller GC

2013-02-01

330

Evaluation of commercial products for personal protection against mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human landing catch studies were conducted in a semi-field setting to determine the efficacy of seven commercial products used for personal protection against mosquitoes. Experiments were conducted in two empty, insecticide free, mesh-enclosed greenhouses, in Israel, with either 1500 Aedes albopictus or 1500 Culex pipiens released on consecutive study nights. The products tested in this study were the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ Mosquito Repellent (Metofluthrin 31.2%) and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick Mosquito Repeller (Cinnamon oil 10.5%; Eugenol 13%; Geranium oil 21%; Peppermint 5.3%; Lemongrass oil 2.6%), which are personal diffusers; Super Band™ Wristband (22% Citronella oil) and the PIC(®) Citronella Plus Wristband (Geraniol 15%; Lemongrass oil 5%, Citronella oil 1%); the Sonic Insect Repeller Keychain; the Mosquito Guard Patch (Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus 80mg), an adhesive-backed sticker for use on textiles; and the Mosquito Patch (vitamin B1 300mg), a transdermal patch. It was determined that the sticker, transdermal patch, wristbands and sonic device did not provide significant protection to volunteers compared with the mosquito attack rate on control volunteers who were not wearing a repellent device. The personal diffusers: - OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) Sidekick - provided superior protection compared with all other devices in this study. These diffusers reduced biting on the arms of volunteers by 96.28% and 95.26% respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 94.94% and 92.15% respectively, for Cx. pipiens. In a second trial conducted to compare these devices directly, biting was reduced by the OFF!(®) Clip-On™ and the Terminix(®) ALLCLEAR(®) by 87.55% and 92.83%, respectively, for Ae. albopictus, and by 97.22% and 94.14%, respectively, for Cx. pipiens. There was no significant difference between the performances of the two diffusers for each species. PMID:23092689

Revay, Edita E; Junnila, Amy; Xue, Rui-De; Kline, Daniel L; Bernier, Ulrich R; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Qualls, Whitney A; Ghattas, Nina; Müller, Günter C

2012-10-22

331

Adult mosquitoes parasitized by larval water mites in Pennsylvania.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A survey of water mite larvae parasitizing adult mosquitoes was conducted throughout Pennsylvania. In total, 929,873 individuals and 46 species of mosquitoes were collected from 6,499 sites, and mites were examined from a subset of the parasitized mosquitoes. From 282 of the sites, 1,836 mosquitoes were parasitized by 4,769 mites, with a mean intensity of 2.6, ranging from 1 to 31. Twenty-one species of mosquitoes representing Aedes, Anopheles, Coquillettidia, Culex, Ochlerotatus, Orthopodomyia, and Psorophora were parasitized by 1 Parathyas sp., 7 Arrenurus spp., and 7 Arrenurus morphotypes. All mite species are documented from Pennsylvania for the first time. The largest numbers of hosts were Coquillettidia perturbans and Ochlerotatus trivittatus, and of parasites were Arrenurus danbyensis and Parathyas barbigera. Aedes spp., Ochlerotatus spp., and Psorophora ferox were mostly parasitized by P. barbigera, Anopheles spp. and Cq. perturbans mostly by Arrenurus spp., and Culex spp. by both P. barbigera and Arrenurus spp. Thirty-three different associations were observed, and 17 of these are new records. Parasitism of individual mosquitoes by more than 1 mite species was rare. Most P. barbigera individuals were attached on the pre-abdominal region of their hosts, and, when not in this position, they were attached anterior on the thorax, and less commonly on the cervix or abdomen. Most A. danbyensis and Arrenurus delawarensis individuals were attached to the cervix of Cq. perturbans. Arrenurus danbyensis on Cq. perturbans had mean and maximum intensities of 2.8 and 31, and showed a clear trend in attachment site distribution, with sequential progression from head to abdomen.

Kirkhoff CJ; Simmons TW; Hutchinson M

2013-02-01

332

Plasmodium knowlesi in humans, macaques and mosquitoes in peninsular Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Since a large focus of human infection with Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria parasite naturally found in long-tailed and pig tailed macaques, was reported in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, it was pertinent to study the situation in peninsular Malaysia. A study was thus initiated to screen human cases of Plasmodium malariae using molecular techniques, to determine the presence of P. knowlesi in non- human primates and to elucidate its vectors. Methods Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify all Plasmodium species present in the human blood samples sent to the Parasitology laboratory of Institute for Medical Research. At the same time, non-human primates were also screened for malaria parasites and nested PCR was carried out to determine the presence of P. knowlesi. Mosquitoes were collected from Pahang by human landing collection and monkey-baited-traps situated on three different levels. All mosquitoes were identified and salivary glands and midguts of anopheline mosquitoes were dissected to determine the presence of malaria parasites and nested PCR was carried out on positive glands. Sequencing of the csp genes were carried on P. knowlesi samples from humans, monkeys and mosquitoes, positive by PCR. Results and Discussion Plasmodium knowlesi was detected in 77 (69.37%) of the 111 human samples, 10 (6.90%) of the 145 monkey blood and in 2 (1.7%) Anopheles cracens. Sequence of the csp gene clustered with other P. knowlesi isolates. Conclusion Human infection with Plasmodium knowlesi is occurring in most states of peninsular Malaysia. An. cracens is the main vector. Economic exploitation of the forest is perhaps bringing monkeys, mosquitoes and humans into increased contact. A single bite from a mosquito infected with P. knowlesi is sufficient to introduce the parasite to humans. Thus, this zoonotic transmission has to be considered in the future planning of malaria control.

Vythilingam Indra; NoorAzian Yusuf M; Huat Tan; Jiram Adela; Yusri Yusof M; Azahari Abdul H; NorParina Ismail; NoorRain Abdullah; LokmanHakim Sulaiman

2008-01-01

333

Efficacy of neem oil-water emulsion against mosquito immatures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neem oil-water emulsion was used in mosquito breeding habitats to find out its larvicidal effect on immatures of different mosquito species. Application of 5% neem oil-water emulsion @ 50 ml/sq m in pools and @ 100 ml/sq m in tanks resulted in 100% reduction of III and IV instar larvae of An. stephensi after 24 h while, against Cx. quinquefasciatus it was 51.6 and 91.2% reduction in the larval density after Day 1 and 14 respectively. Similarly, application of 10% emulsion in desert coolers against Aedes aegypti @ 40 to 80 ml per cooler resulted in complete inhibition of pupal production.

Batra CP; Mittal PK; Adak T; Sharma VP

1998-03-01

334

Mosquito fauna of "Toh Daeng" swamp forest, Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Entomological surveys (2001-2005) were carried out in Narathiwat Province to determine mosquito fauna of the peat swamp forest. Fifty-four species belonging to 13 genera were identified from 837 larval specimens and 3,982 adult mosquitoes. These included the major vectors for Brugian fillariasis: Mansonia annulata, Ma. bonneae, Ma. dives, Ma. uniformis and Ma. indiana. Ma. annulata and An. letifer were reported for the first time in Thailand as lymphatic filariasis vectors. Three species inhabiting Nepenthes pitchers (N. mirabilis): Tripteroides tenax, Toxorhynchites manopi and Uranotaenia edwardsi, were recorded for the first time in Thailand; Zeugnomyia gracilis was also found common in the peat swamp forest. PMID:19842404

Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn; Samung, Yudthana; Prummongkol, Samrerng; Panasoponkul, Chotechuang; Loymek, Sumat

2009-07-01

335

Mosquito fauna of "Toh Daeng" swamp forest, Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Entomological surveys (2001-2005) were carried out in Narathiwat Province to determine mosquito fauna of the peat swamp forest. Fifty-four species belonging to 13 genera were identified from 837 larval specimens and 3,982 adult mosquitoes. These included the major vectors for Brugian fillariasis: Mansonia annulata, Ma. bonneae, Ma. dives, Ma. uniformis and Ma. indiana. Ma. annulata and An. letifer were reported for the first time in Thailand as lymphatic filariasis vectors. Three species inhabiting Nepenthes pitchers (N. mirabilis): Tripteroides tenax, Toxorhynchites manopi and Uranotaenia edwardsi, were recorded for the first time in Thailand; Zeugnomyia gracilis was also found common in the peat swamp forest.

Apiwathnasorn C; Samung Y; Prummongkol S; Panasoponkul C; Loymek S

2009-07-01

336

Spatial inhibitors, deterrents and repellents for mosquitoes and midges  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Certain components of citrus fruits and oxidation products of limonene are effective deterrents, repellents and/or spatial inhibitors for mosquitoes and biting midges. The compounds that have been found to be deterrents, repellents and infibitors for mosquitoes and biting midges are neryl acetate, citronellyl acetate, geranyl acetate, hydroxy-p-cymene, citral, a-terpineol, citronellal, linaloyl acetate, citronellol, terpen-4-ol, tetrahydrocarvone, products of oxidized oxidized limonene inclusive of d- and l-carvone, (+) limonene oxide, (-) limonene oxide, cis and tran carveoi, a diol and an aldehyde, and mixtures thereof.

337

9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus...202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

2010-01-01

338

A classification system for mosquito life cycles: life cycle types for mosquitoes of the northeastern United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A system for the classification of mosquito life cycle types is presented for mosquito species found in the northeastern United States. Primary subdivisions include Univoltine Aedine, Multivoltine Aedine, Multivoltine Culex/Anopheles, and Unique Life Cycle Types. A montotypic subdivision groups life cycle types restricted to single species. The classification system recognizes 11 shared life cycle types and three that are limited to single species. Criteria for assignments include: 1) where the eggs are laid, 2) typical larval habitat, 3) number of generations per year, and 4) stage of the life cycle that overwinters. The 14 types in the northeast have been named for common model species. A list of species for each life cycle type is provided to serve as a teaching aid for students of mosquito biology.

Crans WJ

2004-06-01

339

A live attenuated recombinant dengue-4 virus vaccine candidate with restricted capacity for dissemination in mosquitoes and lack of transmission from vaccinees to mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

2Adelta30 is a live dengue-4 virus vaccine candidate with a 30-nucleotide deletion in its 3'-untranslated region. To assess the transmissibility of 2Adelta30 by mosquitoes, we compared its in vivo replication in mosquitoes with that of its wild type DEN-4 parent. Both the vaccine candidate and wild type virus were equally able to infect the mosquito Toxorhynchites splendens after intrathoracic inoculation. Relative to its wild type parent, 2Adelta30 was slightly restricted in its ability to infect the midgut of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes fed on an artificial blood meal and was even more restricted in its ability to disseminate from the midgut to the salivary glands. Thus, the 30-nucleotide deletion rendered the vaccine candidate more sensitive than its wild type parent to the mosquito midgut escape barrier. Most significantly, 2Adelta30 was not transmitted to 352 Ae. albopictus mosquitoes fed on 10 vaccinees, all of whom were infected with the vaccine candidate.

Troyer JM; Hanley KA; Whitehead SS; Strickman D; Karron RA; Durbin AP; Murphy BR

2001-11-01

340

Controle de vetores utilizando mosquitos geneticamente modificados Control de vectores utilizando mosquitos genéticamente modificados Control of vector populations using genetically modified mosquitoes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Formas químicas de controle de mosquitos vetores são ineficazes, levando ao desenvolvimento de novas estratégias. Assim, foi realizada revisão das estratégias de controle genético de populações de mosquitos vetores baseada na técnica do inseto estéril. Uma delas consiste na liberação de machos esterilizados por radiação, a outra, na integração de um gene letal dominante associado a um promotor específico de fêmeas imaturas. Entre as vantagens sobre outras técnicas biológicas e químicas de controle de vetores estão: alta especificidade, não prejudicial ao meio ambiente, baixo custo de produção e alta eficácia. O uso desta técnica de modificação genética pode vir a ser uma importante ferramenta do manejo integrado de vetores.Formas químicas de control de mosquitos vectores son ineficaces, llevando al desarrollo de nuevas estrategias. Así, fue realizada revisión de las estrategias de control genético de poblaciones de mosquitos vectores basada en la técnica del insecto estéril. Una de ellas consiste en la liberación de machos esterilizados por radiación, la otra, en la integración de un gen letal dominante asociado a un promotor específico de hembras inmaduras. Entre las ventajas sobre otras técnicas biológicas y químicas de control de vectores están: la alta especificidad, no prejudicial al ambiente, bajo costo de producción y alta eficiencia. El uso de esta técnica de modificación genética puede ser una importante herramienta del manejo integrado de vectores.The ineffectiveness of current strategies for chemical control of mosquito vectors raises the need for developing novel approaches. Thus, we carried out a literature review of strategies for genetic control of mosquito populations based on the sterile insect technique. One of these strategies consists of releasing radiation-sterilized males into the population; another, of integrating a dominant lethal gene under the control of a specific promoter into immature females. Advantages of these approaches over other biological and chemical control strategies include: highly species-specific, environmentally safety, low production cost, and high efficacy. The use of this genetic modification technique will constitute an important tool for integrated vector management.

André Barreto Bruno Wilke; Almério de Castro Gomes; Delsio Natal; Mauro Toledo Marrelli

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Killing superalgebra deformations of ten-dimensional supergravity backgrounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We explore Lie superalgebra deformations of the Killing superalgebras of some ten-dimensional supergravity backgrounds. We prove the rigidity of the Poincare superalgebras in types I, IIA and IIB, as well as of the Killing superalgebra of the Freund-Rubin vacuum of type IIB supergravity. We also prove rigidity of the Killing superalgebras of the NS5-, D0-, D3-, D4- and D5-branes, whereas we exhibit the possible deformations of the D1-, D2-, D6- and D7-brane Killing superalgebras, as well as of that of the type II fundamental string solutions. We relate the superalgebra deformations of the D2- and D6-branes to those of the (delocalized) M2-brane and the Kaluza-Klein monopole, respectively. The good behaviour under Kaluza-Klein reduction suggests that the deformed superalgebras ought to have a geometric interpretation

2007-12-07

342

A BASIC PROTEIN COMPOSITION FOR KILLING OR INHIBITING MICROBIAL CELLS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A composition consisting essentially of a basic protein or peptide capable of killing microbial cell, e.g. a protamine or protamine sulphate, in combination with a cell-wall degrading enzyme and/or an oxidoreductase, e.g. an endoglycosidase Type II, a lysozyme, chitinase, peroxidase enzyme system (EC 1.11.1.7) or laccase enzyme (EC 1.10.3.2), has bactericidal, bacteriostatic, fungicidal and/or fungistatic properties and is useful in detergent and hard surface cleaning compositions and in methods for killing microbial cells present on a hard surface, for killing microbial cells or inhibiting growing microbial cells present on laundry, for killing microbial cells present on humain or animal skin, mucous membranes, wounds, bruises or in the eye; and in preservation of food, beverages, cosmetics, contact lens products, food ingredients or enzyme compositions.

JOHANSEN Charlotte

343

Scientists Report New Lead in How Anthrax Kills Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

For years scientists have known that anthrax bacillus produces a toxin containing a deadly protein called lethal factor. However, researchers have never been able to identify how lethal factor kills cells.

344

Components derived from Pelargonium stimulate macrophage killing of Mycobacterium species.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To determine the capacity of extracts of Pelargonium reniforme and Pelargonium sidoides, plants of the Geraniaceae family, to stimulate the uptake and killing of mycobacteria by murine macrophages and to identify the constituents that are responsible.

Kim, CE; Griffiths, WJ; Taylor, PW

345

PFIESTERIA SHUMWAYAE KILLS FISH BY MICROPREDATION NOT ECOTOXIN SECRETION  

Science.gov (United States)

Massive fish kills in mid-Atlantic USA estuaries involving several million Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus,have been attributed to dinoflagellates of the toxic Pfiesteria complex (TPC). Potent ichthyotoxins secreted during Pfiesteria blooms are thought to be responsible fo...

346

Laser-diffraction characterization of flat-fan nozzles used to develop aerosol clouds of aerially applied mosquito adulticides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The importance of appropriate drop size and density for successful mosquito adulticide applications mandates the necessity for accurate determination of drop spectra of a particular nozzle. There is considerable disparity between mass median diameter (MMD) determinations for flat-fan nozzles relative to the horizontal or vertical orientation of the microscope slide used to collect the drops. To remove this ambiguity, the definitive MMDs of flat-fan nozzles used in aerially applied mosquito control adulticides were determined by laser-diffraction-based characterization and analysis. These data were compared with previous data, and the impact of these data on aerial adult mosquito control was discussed. At The Florida Wind Tunnel for Mosquito Control, the Malvern Spraytec Spray Particle Analysis System was used to characterize the entire aerosol plume of the nozzles. Nozzle characterizations were carried out at aircraft operational wind speeds and pressures with nozzles mounted at 135 degrees relative to the direction of air flow. The mean drop-diameter volumes (Dv) Dv(0.1), Dv(0.5), and Dv(0.9) with 95% confidence intervals for each scenario were determined. Characterizations of flat-fan nozzles of 80005 to 8005 for Orchex 796, Dibrom and a Permanone:Orchex 796 mix (1:1) resulted in no Dv(0.5) less than 50 microm and a maximum of 133 microm. The Dv(0.1) was greater than 25 min for 52% of the nozzles and ranged from 14 to 42 microm. The Dv(0.9) ranged from 130 to 296 microm. There was a decrease in drop-diameter values (Dv(0.1), Dv(0.5), Dv(0.9)) relative to increased wind speed and/or pressure for any particular nozzle. Relative to characterizations with Orchex 796, drop-diameter values for Dibrom varied from the same to slightly larger, whereas the Permanone:Orchex 796 mix values were larger except for 2. Relative to the goal of creating an aerosol cloud efficient in controlling adult mosquitoes, none of the nozzles were capable of producing a Dv(0.5) of less than 50 microm. Fifty percent of the spray was capable of causing visible damage to a car's finish. The concept that droplets larger than 25 microm are wasteful because they contain more malathion than required for kill suggests that for 52% of the nozzle configurations, those with Dv(0.1) greater than 25 microm, 90% of the spray is of little use in controlling mosquitoes. None of the flat-fan nozzle regimes tested will satisfy new label requirements of a Dv(0.5) and Dv(0.9) of around 50 and 100 microm, respectively, because of their high Dv(0.9).

Hornby JA; Robinson J; Opp W; Sterling M

2006-12-01

347

Locally convex surfaces immersed in a Killing submersion  

CERN Multimedia

We generalize Hadamard-Stoker-Currier Theorems for surfaces immersed in a Killing submersion over a strictly Hadamard surface whose fibers are the trajectories of a unit Killing field. We prove that every complete surface whose principal curvatures are greater than a certain function (depending on the ambient manifold) at each point, must be properly embedded, homeomorphic to the sphere or to the plane and, in the latter case, we study the behavior of the end.

Espinar, Jose M

2010-01-01

348

Flat deformation of a spacetime with two Killing fields  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is shown that, given an analytic Lorentzian metric on a 4-manifold, g{sub ab}, which admits two Killing vector fields, it exists a local deformation law {eta}{sub ab} = ag{sub ab} + b H{sub ab}, where H{sub ab} is a 2-dimensional projector, such that {eta}{sub ab} is flat and admits the same Killing vectors.

Llosa, Josep [Departament de Fisica Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain); Carot, Jaume, E-mail: pitu.llosa@ub.ed, E-mail: jcarot@uib.ca [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears (Spain)

2010-05-01

349

Detecção do vírus da dengue em populações naturais de mosquitos/ Detection of dengue virus in natural populations of mosquitoes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A dengue é causada por um Flavivirus que apresenta elevada diversidade genética, com quatro sorotipos e vários genótipos. A enfermidade é endêmica na maioria dos países das Américas, e as fêmeas de Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) são as únicas transmissoras, com importância epidemiológica. Um único mosquito infectado permanece assim pelo resto de sua vida, podendo infectar múltiplos hospedeiros humanos. Com a detecção do vírus da dengue em mos (more) quitos, podemos revelar o sorotipo circulante ou a entrada de um novo sorotipo em uma determinada região, sem quaisquer implicações éticas, além de apresentar reprodutibilidade dos resultados. Esta revisão aborda as técnicas para detecção viral em mosquitos, suas vantagens e limitações, bem como as pesquisas já realizadas com populações naturais de Aedes aegypti. Abstract in spanish El dengue es causado por un Flavivirus que presenta una alta diversidad genética, cuatro serotipos y varios genotipos. Esta enfermedad es endémica en la mayoría de los países del continente Americano y sólo las hembras de Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) son las transmisoras de esta enfermedad de importancia epidemiológica. Un único mosquito infectado permanece así por el resto de su vida pudiendo infectar múltiples hospederos humanos. El detectar el se (more) rotipo de virus de dengue presente en los mosquitos permite conocer, ya sea, el serotipo circulante o el ingreso de un nuevo serotipo a una determinada región sin ningún tipo de implicaciones éticas presentando así resultados reproducibles. Ésta revisión aborda las técnicas de detección viral en mosquitos, sus ventajas y limitaciones, así como estudios previos con poblaciones naturales de Aedes aegypti. Abstract in english Dengue is caused by Flavivirus which exhibits high genetic diversity, with four serotypes and various genotypes. The disease is endemic in most countries in the Americas, and the female Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) are the only transmitters of epidemiological importance. A single infected mosquito remains so for the rest of his life and can infect multiple human hosts. For dengue virus detection in mosquitoes, the circulating serotype can be revealed or dete (more) ct an entry of a new serotype in the region, without any ethical implications, and reproducible results. This review covers the techniques for detecting virus in mosquitoes, their advantages and limitations, as well as previous studies with natural populations of Aedes aegypti.

Bona, Ana Caroline Dalla; Twerdochlib, Adriana Lacerda; Navarro-Silva, Mário Antônio

2011-12-01

350

On conformal Killing symmetric tensor fields on Riemannian manifolds  

CERN Document Server

A vector field on a Riemannian manifold is called conformal Killing if it generates one-parameter group of conformal transformations. The class of conformal Killing symmetric tensor fields of an arbitrary rank is a natural generalization of the class of conformal Killing vector fields, and appears in different geometric and physical problems. A symmetric tensor field is a trace-free field if the contraction of the field with the metric tensor is identically equal to zero. On a Riemannian manifold of dimension at least three, the space of trace-free conformal Killing symmetric tensor fields of arbitrary rank is of a finite dimension. On a two-dimensional manifold, the space can be of infinite dimension. Nevertheless, on a connected manifold of any dimension, a trace-free conformal Killing tensor field is uniquely determined by its $C^\\infty$-jet at any point. We prove the statement: On a connected manifold, a trace-free conformal Killing tensor field is identically equal to zero if it vanishes on some hypersur...

Dairbekov, Nurlan S

2011-01-01

351

Role of nitric oxide and superoxide in Giardia lamblia killing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Giardia lamblia trophozoites were incubated for 2 h with activated murine macrophages, nitric oxide (NO) donors or a superoxide anion generator (20 mU/ml xanthine oxidase plus 1 mM xanthine). Activated macrophages were cytotoxic to Giardia trophozoites (~60% dead trophozoites). This effect was inhibited (>90%) by an NO synthase inhibitor (200 µM) and unaffected by superoxide dismutase (SOD, 300 U/ml). Giardia trophozoites were killed by the NO donors, S-nitroso-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in a dose-dependent manner (LD50 300 and 50 µM, respectively). A dual NO-superoxide anion donor, 3-morpholino-sydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1), did not have a killing effect in concentrations up to 1 mM. However, when SOD (300 U/ml) was added simultaneously with SIN-1 to Giardia, a significant trophozoite-killing effect was observed (~35% dead trophozoites at 1 mM). The mixture of SNAP or SNP with superoxide anion, which yields peroxynitrite, abolished the trophozoite killing induced by NO donors. Authentic peroxynitrite only killed trophozoites at very high concentrations (3 mM). These results indicate that NO accounts for Giardia trophozoite killing and this effect is not mediated by peroxynitrite

P.D. Fernandes; J. Assreuy

1997-01-01

352

Dengue-2 vaccine: infection of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes by feeding on viremic recipients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Colonized Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were fed on voluntary recipients of an experimental, live, attenuated, dengue type 2 (PR 159/S-1) vaccine to estimate the frequency of vector infection and the stability of the virus in mosquitoes. Two volunteers were viremic at the time of mosquito feeding, but only two of 114 mosquitoes that took a viremic blood meal became infected with the vaccine virus. Strains of virus recovered from the bodies of the mosquitoes and the volunteer's blood retained the temperature sensitivity and small plaque growth characteristics of the vaccine virus. Dengue viral antigen was not detectable in any of the mosquito heads by direct immunofluorescence and in vitro virus transmission by droplet feeding was not observed. This experiment showed that vector mosquitoes can be infected with vaccine virus by feeding on viremic vaccinees. Furthermore, the virus is sufficiently stable to retain the in vitro growth characteristics associated with the vaccine virus.

Bancroft WH; Scott RM; Brandt WE; McCown JM; Eckels KH; Hayes DE; Gould DJ; Russell PK

1982-11-01

353

Cultured skin microbiota attracts malaria mosquitoes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human body odours. It is hypothesized that host attractiveness and selection of An. gambiae is affected by the species composition, density, and metabolic activity of the skin microbiota. A study is presented in which the production and constituency of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by human skin microbiota is examined and the behavioural responses of An. gambiae to VOCs from skin microbiota are investigated. Methods Blood agar plates incubated with skin microbiota from human feet or with a reference strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis were tested for their attractiveness to An. gambiae in olfactometer bioassays and indoor trapping experiments. Entrained air collected from blood agar plates incubated with natural skin microbiota or with S. epidermidis were analysed using GC-MS. A synthetic blend of the compounds identified was tested for its attractiveness to An. gambiae. Behavioural data were analysed by a ?2-test and GLM. GC-MS results were analysed by fitting an exponential regression line to test the effect of the concentration of bacteria. Results More An. gambiae were caught with blood agar plates incubated with skin bacteria than with sterile blood agar plates, with a significant effect of incubation time and dilution of the skin microbiota. When bacteria from the feet of four other volunteers were tested, similar effects were found. Fourteen putative attractants were found in the headspace of the skin bacteria. A synthetic blend of 10 of these was attractive to An. gambiae. Conclusions The discovery that volatiles produced by human skin microorganisms in vitro mediate An. gambiae host-seeking behaviour creates new opportunities for the development of odour-baited trapping systems. Additionally, identification of bacterial volatiles provides a new method to develop synthetic blends, attractive to An. gambiae and possibly other anthropophilic disease vectors.

Verhulst Niels O; Beijleveld Hans; Knols Bart GJ; Takken Willem; Schraa Gosse; Bouwmeester Harro J; Smallegange Renate C

2009-01-01

354

Formulas of components of citronella oil against mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mosquito Aedes aegypti is an epidemic vector of several diseases such as dengue fever and yellow fever. Several pesticides are used to control the mosquito population. Because of their frequent use, some mosquitoes have developed resistance. In this study, we used the Y-tube olfactometer to test essential oils of Cymbopogon species and screened specific formulas of components as repellents against Ae. aegypti. At 400 ?L, the extracted oil of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) and myrcene produced a low-active response by inhibiting mosquito host-seeking activity. Citronella grass, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), citral and myrcene also produced a low-treatment response to repellents, for more potential to affect host-seeking behavior. Furthermore, the mixture of citral, myrcene, and citronellal oil (C:M:Ci = 6:4:1) greatly affected and inhibited host-seeking behavior (76% active response; 26% treatment response with 40 ?L; 42.5%, 18% with 400 ?L; and 19%, 23% with 1000 ?L). As compared with the result for N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET; 44%, 22% with 400 ?L), adjusting the composition formulas of citronella oil had a synergistic effect, for more effective repellent against Ae. aegypti.

Hsu WS; Yen JH; Wang YS

2013-01-01

355

UV Irradiation-induced Silver Nanoparticles as Mosquito Larvicides  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Silver nanoparticles have a great potential for use in biological control including antimicrobial activity. The pest control of mosquito Aedes aegypti by means of larvicidal is still necessity in order to diminish the vector of some life-threaten diseases. In this study, polymethacrylate (PMA...

N. Sap-Iam; C. Homklinchan; R. Larpudomlert; W. Warisnoicharoen; A. Sereemaspun; S.T. Dubas

356

Filarial susceptibility and effects of Wolbachia in Aedes pseudoscutellaris mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mosquito Aedes pseudoscutellaris (Theobald), a member of the Aedes (Stegomyia) scutellaris complex (Diptera: Culicidae), is an important vector of subperiodic Wuchereria bancrofti (Cobbold) (Spirurida: Onchocercidae), causing human lymphatic filariasis, on South Pacific islands. Maternal inheritance of filarial susceptibility in the complex has previously been asserted, and larval tetracycline treatment reduced susceptibility; the maternally inherited Wolbachia in these mosquitoes were suggested to be responsible. To investigate the relationship of these two factors, we eliminated Wolbachia from a strain of Ae. pseudoscutellaris by tetracycline treatment, and tested filarial susceptibility of the adult female mosquitoes using Brugia pahangi (Edeson & Buckley). Filarial susceptibility was not significantly different in Wolbachia-free and infected lines of Ae. pseudoscutellaris, suggesting that the Wolbachia in these mosquitoes do not influence vector competence. Crosses between Wolbachia-infected males and uninfected females of Ae. pseudoscutellaris showed cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), i.e. no eggs hatched, unaffected by larval crowding or restricted nutrient availability, whereas these factors are known to affect CI in Drosophila simulans. Reciprocal crosses between Ae. pseudoscutellaris and Ae. katherinensis Woodhill produced no progeny, even when both parents were Wolbachia-free, suggesting that nuclear factors are responsible for this interspecific sterility. PMID:15752178

Dutton, T J; Sinkins, S P

2005-03-01

357

Viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected in Sri Lanka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Attempts to isolate viruses from 178,181 unengorged female mosquitoes collected from different ecologic areas of Sri Lanka yielded 31 isolates: 17 of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus, nine of Getah virus, three of a Batai- related bunyavirus, and two of Arkonam virus. Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Man...

Peiris, JSM; Amerasinghe, PH; Amerasinghe, FP; Calisher, CH; Perera, LP; Arunagiri, CK; Munasingha, NB; Karunaratne, SHPP

358

Plasmodium activates the innate immune response of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Innate immune-related gene expression in the major disease vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae has been analyzed following infection by the malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei. Substantially increased levels of mRNAs encoding the antibacterial peptide defensin and a putative Gram-negative bacteria-bi...

Richman, A M; Dimopoulos, G; Seeley, D; Kafatos, F C

359

DEVICE FOR FISH ADDITIONAL FEEDING ON MOSQUITO LARVAE ?????????? ??? ????????? ???? ????????? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The electro optical transducer with changeable emission color depending on air temperature, which is destined for fish additional feeding with mosquito larvae, has been designed. It is the effective device of electrotechnics of ecological fish additional feeding with live feed

Gazalov V. S.; Shabaev E. A.

2013-01-01

360

Malaria infection increases attractiveness of humans to mosquitoes.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Do malaria parasites enhance the attractiveness of humans to the parasite's vector? As such manipulation would have important implications for the epidemiology of the disease, the question has been debated for many years. To investigate the issue in a semi-natural situation, we assayed the attractiveness of 12 groups of three western Kenyan children to the main African malaria vector, the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. In each group, one child was uninfected, one was naturally infected with the asexual (non-infective) stage of Plasmodium falciparum, and one harboured the parasite's gametocytes (the stage transmissible to mosquitoes). The children harbouring gametocytes attracted about twice as many mosquitoes as the two other classes of children. In a second assay of the same children, when the parasites had been cleared with anti-malarial treatment, the attractiveness was similar between the three classes of children. In particular, the children who had previously harboured gametocytes, but had now cleared the parasite, were not more attractive than other children. This ruled out the possibility of a bias due to differential intrinsic attractiveness of the children to mosquitoes and strongly suggests that gametocytes increase the attractiveness of the children.

Lacroix Renaud; Mukabana Wolfgang R; Gouagna Louis Clement; Koella Jacob C

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Predicting human west nile virus infections with mosquito surveillance data.  

Science.gov (United States)

West Nile virus (WNV) has become established across the Americas with recent heightened activity causing significant human illness. Surveillance methods to predict the risk of human infection are urgently needed to initiate timely preventative measures and justify the expense of implementing costly or unpopular control measures, such as aerial spraying or curfews. We quantified the links between mosquito surveillance data and the spatiotemporal patterns of 3,827 human WNV cases reported over 5 years in Colorado from 2003 to 2007. Mosquito data were strongly predictive of variation in the number of human WNV infections several weeks in advance in both a spatiotemporal statewide analysis and temporal variation within counties with substantial numbers of human cases. We outline several ways to further improve the predictive power of these data and we quantify the loss of information if no funds are available for testing mosquitoes for WNV. These results demonstrate that mosquito surveillance provides a valuable public health tool for assessing the risk of human arboviral infections, allocating limited public health resources, and justifying emergency control actions. PMID:23825164

Kilpatrick, A Marm; Pape, W John

2013-07-03

362

Predicting human west nile virus infections with mosquito surveillance data.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

West Nile virus (WNV) has become established across the Americas with recent heightened activity causing significant human illness. Surveillance methods to predict the risk of human infection are urgently needed to initiate timely preventative measures and justify the expense of implementing costly or unpopular control measures, such as aerial spraying or curfews. We quantified the links between mosquito surveillance data and the spatiotemporal patterns of 3,827 human WNV cases reported over 5 years in Colorado from 2003 to 2007. Mosquito data were strongly predictive of variation in the number of human WNV infections several weeks in advance in both a spatiotemporal statewide analysis and temporal variation within counties with substantial numbers of human cases. We outline several ways to further improve the predictive power of these data and we quantify the loss of information if no funds are available for testing mosquitoes for WNV. These results demonstrate that mosquito surveillance provides a valuable public health tool for assessing the risk of human arboviral infections, allocating limited public health resources, and justifying emergency control actions.

Kilpatrick AM; Pape WJ

2013-09-01

363

BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS SEROVARIETY ISRAELENSIS AND BACILLUS SPHAERICUS FOR MOSQUITO CONTROL  

Science.gov (United States)

The bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis serovariety israelensis (Bti) and mosquitocidal isolates of Bacillus sphaericus have become the predominant non-chemical means employed for control of mosquito larvae at several locations in the United States and other countries. An overview of developments in the...

364

Larval habitats of mosquito fauna in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the larval habitats of mosquito fauna and possible impact of land use/ land cover changes on the epidemiology of mosquito-borne diseases in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern, Nigeria. METHODS: All accessible larval habitats were surveyed between May and September, 2011 in Osogbo metropolis while Land Use/ Land cover of the city was analyzed using 2 Lansat Multispectral Scanner satellite imagery of SPOT 1986 and LANDSAT TM 2009. RESULTS: A total of six species namely, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Aedes vittatus, Anopheles gambiae complex, Culex quinquefasciatus and Eretmapodite chrysogaster were encountered during the study. The occurrence and contribution of disused tyres was significantly higher (P<0.05) than the other habitats encountered, while there were no significant differences in the contribution of gutters/run-offs, septic tanks/ drums, ground pools/open drains and discarded containers to the breeding of mosquitoes (P>0.05). The accessible land use/ land covered of the study area between 1986 and 2009 showed that the wet land coverage and settlement area increased from 0.19 to 9.09 hectare and 1.00 to 2.01 hectare respectively while the forest area decreased from 60.18 to 50.14 hectare. CONCLUSION: The contribution of the habitats coupled with the increasing rate of flooded environment which could provide ample breeding sites for mosquitoes call for sustained environmental sanitation and management in Osogbo metropolis.

Adeleke MA; Adebimpe WO; Hassan AO; Oladejo SO; Olaoye I; Olatunde GO; Adewole T; Sam-Wobo SO

2013-09-01

365

The molecular basis of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Insecticide resistance is an inherited characteristic involving changes in one or more insect gene. The molecular basis of these changes are only now being fully determined, aided by the availability of the Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae genome sequences. This paper reviews what is currently known about insecticide resistance conferred by metabolic or target site changes in mosquitoes.

Hemingway J; Hawkes NJ; McCarroll L; Ranson H

2004-07-01

366

Vertical transmission of dengue 1 virus by Haemagogus equinus mosquitoes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vertical transmission of dengue type 1 virus was demonstrated by a strain of Haemagogus equinus mosquitoes from Panama. Parental females were infected by intrathoracic inoculation and egg production was stimulated by feeding on mice. Dengue 1 virus was detected in fourth instar larval progeny obtained from two installment hatches of eggs. Minimum filial infection rates ranged up to 1:495. PMID:1675252

de Souza, M; Freier, J E

1991-03-01

367

Vertical transmission of dengue 1 virus by Haemagogus equinus mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vertical transmission of dengue type 1 virus was demonstrated by a strain of Haemagogus equinus mosquitoes from Panama. Parental females were infected by intrathoracic inoculation and egg production was stimulated by feeding on mice. Dengue 1 virus was detected in fourth instar larval progeny obtained from two installment hatches of eggs. Minimum filial infection rates ranged up to 1:495.

de Souza M; Freier JE

1991-03-01

368

Transovarial transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus by mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Female Aedes albopictus and Aedes togoi mosquitoes infected with Japanese encephalitis virus either by intrathoracic inoculation or by ingestion of a virus-sucrose-erythrocyte mixture transmitted the virus to a small percentage of their F1 progeny. Adult F1 female Aedes albopictus thus infected transmitted the virus in turn to newly hatched chickens by feeding on them.

Rosen L; Tesh RB; Lien JC; Cross JH

1978-02-01

369

Risk factors for mosquito house entry in the Lao PDR.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Construction of the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project and flooding of a 450 km(2) area of mountain plateau in south-central Lao PDR resulted in the resettlement of 6,300 people to newly built homes. We examined whether new houses would have altered risk of house entry by mosquitoes compared with traditional homes built from poorer construction materials. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Surveys were carried out in the Nam Theun 2 resettlement area and a nearby traditional rice farming area in 2010. Mosquitoes were sampled in bedrooms using CDC light traps in 96 resettlement houses and 96 traditional houses and potential risk factors for mosquito house entry were recorded. Risk of mosquito house entry was more than twice as high in traditional bamboo houses compared with those newly constructed from wood (Putative Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vector incidence rate ratio (IRR)?=?2.26, 95% CI 1.38-3.70, P?=?0.001; Anopheline IRR?=?2.35, 95% CI: 1.30-4.23, P?=?0.005). Anophelines were more common in homes with cattle compared against those without (IRR?=?2.32, 95% CI: 1.29-4.17, P?=?0.005).Wood smoke from cooking fires located under the house or indoors was found to be protective against house entry by both groups of mosquito, compared with cooking in a separate room beside the house (Putative JE vector IRR?=?0.43, 95% CI: 0.26-0.73, P?=?0.002; Anopheline IRR?=?0.22, 95% CI: 0.10-0.51, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Construction of modern wooden homes should help reduce human-mosquito contact in the Lao PDR. Reduced mosquito contact rates could lead to reduced transmission of diseases such as JE and malaria. Cattle ownership was associated with increased anopheline house entry, so zooprophylaxis for malaria control is not recommended in this area. Whilst wood smoke was protective against putative JE vector and anopheline house entry we do not recommend indoor cooking since smoke inhalation can enhance respiratory disease.

Hiscox A; Khammanithong P; Kaul S; Sananikhom P; Luthi R; Hill N; Brey PT; Lindsay SW

2013-01-01

370

Genetic methods for control of mosquitoes and biting flies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The earliest research efforts on using genetic methods for the control of mosquitoes and biting flies concentrated on the evaluation of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Several successful, but generally small scale, research efforts with mosquitoes clearly documented that either chemosterilized or radiation sterilized males were effective in causing a level of genetic load that would be sufficient for the reduction or eradication of natural populations of several species. Genetic sexing strains of several species of mosquitoes have been assembled, and this aspect of breeding specialty strains is not a limiting factor in the implementation of SIT. In the largest field experiment, conducted with Anopheles albimanus in El Salvador during the 1970s, a genetic sexing strain was used operationally in a factory that produced one million sterile males per day over a one year period. Technical problems that would require extensive research of a practical nature before the implementation of SIT for mosquito control involve primarily better means for the rearing, sterilization and distribution of the insects. A successful experiment was conducted to eliminate the stable fly on the island of St. Croix, the United States Virgin Islands, and since this work in the 1970s, genetic sexing strains have been developed. A considerable amount of effort was expended on the synthesis of chromosome aberrations for the control of mosquitoes. Although the results of experimental trials indicated that aberration bearing insects could effectively inject a genetic load into the natural population, no large scale tests have ever been conducted to evaluate fully the real effectiveness of induced chromosomal aberrations. More recently, most of the research work in genetic control has been aimed at the use of recombinant DNA techniques for the development of new technology. All of these topics and an assessment of their value are discussed. (author). 30 refs

1988-01-01

371

Efficacy of an insecticide paint against insecticide-susceptible and resistant mosquitoes - Part 1: Laboratory evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The main malaria vector Anopheles gambiae and the urban pest nuisance Culex quinquefasciatus are increasingly resistant to pyrethroids in many African countries. There is a need for new products and strategies. Insecticide paint Inesfly 5A IGR™, containing two organophosphates (OPs), chlorpyrifos and diazinon, and insect growth regulator (IGR), pyriproxyfen, was tested under laboratory conditions for 12 months following WHOPES Phase I procedures. Methods Mosquitoes used were laboratory strains of Cx. quinquefasciatus susceptible and resistant to OPs. The paint was applied at two different doses (1 kg/6 m2 and 1 kg/12 m2) on different commonly used surfaces: porous (cement and stucco) and non-porous (softwood and hard plastic). Insecticide efficacy was studied in terms of delayed mortality using 30-minute WHO bioassay cones. IGR efficacy on fecundity, fertility and larval development was studied on OP-resistant females exposed for 30 minutes to cement treated and control surfaces. Results After treatment, delayed mortality was high (87-100%) even against OP-resistant females on all surfaces except cement treated at 1 kg/12 m2. Remarkably, one year after treatment delayed mortality was 93-100% against OP-resistant females on non-porous surfaces at both doses. On cement, death rates were low 12 months after treatment regardless of the dose and the resistance status. Fecundity, fertility and adult emergence were reduced after treatment even at the lower dose (p -3). A reduction in fecundity was still observed nine months after treatment at both doses (p -3) and adult emergence was reduced at the higher dose (p -3). Conclusions High mortality rates were observed against laboratory strains of the pest mosquito Cx. quinquefasciatus susceptible and resistant to insecticides. Long-term killing remained equally important on non-porous surfaces regardless the resistance status for over 12 months. The paint's effect on fecundity, fertility and adult emergence may continue to provide an additional angle of attack in reducing overall population densities when the lethal effect of OPs diminishes over time. Some options on how to deal with porous materials are given. Implications in vector control are discussed.

Mosqueira Beatriz; Duchon Stéphane; Chandre Fabrice; Hougard Jean-Marc; Carnevale Pierre; Mas-Coma Santiago

2010-01-01

372

Improved bait for luring and killing red fire ants  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a medicament for killing ants, in particular to an improved bait for luring and killing red fire ants, which is characterized by comprising the following components in percentage by weight: 0.01 to 0.04 percent of fipronil, 89.96 to 89.99 percent of a mixture of bean flour and cookie dry powder, 2 percent of sodium benzoate, and 8 percent of attractant which can also be one of pumpkin seeds, soybean oil or pig blood. The improved bait for luring and killing the red fire ants according to the proposal of the invention adopts a low-dosage pesticide and the attractant which is not easy to cause environmental pollution and has high safety, thereby not only improving the killing efficiency due to the improved luring effect, but also obtaining high safety and environmental protection effect due to the application of the low-dosage pesticide. The killing bait has the advantages of low toxicity, high efficiency, stable drug property, safety to people and animals, small influence on natural enemies of the red fire ants, and certain application prospect.

WEICHUAN LU

373

Honor killing attitudes amongst adolescents in Amman, Jordan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study examines attitudes towards honor crimes amongst a sample of 856 ninth grade students (mean age?=?14.6, SD?=?0.56) from 14 schools in Amman, Jordan. Descriptive findings suggest that about 40% of boys and 20% of girls believe that killing a daughter, sister, or wife who has dishonored the family can be justified. A number of theoretically meaningful predictors were examined: Findings suggest that attitudes in support of honor killings are more likely amongst adolescents who have collectivist and patriarchal world views, believe in the importance of female chastity amongst adolescents, and morally neutralize aggressive behavior in general. Findings for parental harsh discipline are mixed: While the father's harsh discipline is predictive of honor killing attitudes, the mother's behavior is not. Furthermore, support for honor killing is stronger amongst male adolescents and adolescents for low education backgrounds. After controlling for other factors religion and the intensity of religious beliefs are not associated with support for honor killings. Models were tested separately for male and female respondents and suggested no systematic differences in predictors. Limitations and implications are discussed.

Eisner M; Ghuneim L

2013-09-01

374

On the Infinitesimal Isometries of Manifolds with Killing Spinors  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We study the Lie algebra of infinitesimal isometries of 7--dimensional simply connectedmanifolds with Killing spinors. We obtain some splitting theorems for the action of thisalgebra on the space of Killing spinors, and as a corollary we prove that there are no infinitesimalisometry of constant length on a 7--dimensional 3--Sasakian manifold (not isometric to aspace form) except the linear combinations of the Sasakian vector fields.1 IntroductionLet Mnbe a spin manifold and SigmaM the fibre bundle of real spinors. A realKilling spinor on Mnis a section / of SigmaM satisfyingrX/ = X Delta /; 8X 2 TM;for some real number 6= 0. The existence of such a spinor implies that M isan Einstein manifold with Einstein constant 42(n Gamma 1). By rescaling the metricwe can always suppose that = Sigma12, and we denote by N Sigma the dimension of the(real) vector space of Killing spinors with Killing constant Sigma12 .Definition 1.1 A compact spin manifold...

Andrei Moroianu

375

Mosquitoes and other aquatic insects in fallow field biotopes and rice paddy fields.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fallow field biotopes that develop from abandoned rice fields are man-made wetlands that provide new habitats for various aquatic animals. Although consideration of such biotopes generally focuses on their positive aspects, this study evaluated the negative aspects of establishing fallow field biotopes with regard to mosquito breeding sites. To determine whether fallow field biotopes become breeding habitats for vector mosquitoes, we evaluated mosquito fauna in fallow field biotopes and adjacent rice fields. We found larvae of Anopheles lesteri, Anopheles sinensis and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (all: Diptera: Culicidae) in the biotopes. Although abundances of mosquito larvae in the biotopes and rice fields were statistically similar, mosquito abundances in rice fields increased dramatically in August when the water level reduced after the rainy season. The abundance and variety of the mosquitoes' natural predators were greater in biotopes than in rice fields because the former are a permanent and stable aquatic environment. A generalized linear mixed model showed a negative effect of predator diversity on mosquito larvae abundance in both habitats. Although fallow field biotopes become breeding habitats for vector mosquitoes, establishing biotopes from fallow fields in order to protect various aquatic animals, including mosquito insect predators, may help to control mosquito breeding.

Ohba SY; Matsuo T; Takagi M

2013-03-01

376

The Risk of a Mosquito-Borne Infectionin a Heterogeneous Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A common assumption about malaria, dengue, and other mosquito-borne infections is that the two main components of the risk of human infection-the rate at which people are bitten (human biting rate) and the proportion of mosquitoes that are infectious-are positively correlated. In fact, these two risk factors are generated by different processes and may be negatively correlated across space and time in heterogeneous environments. Uneven distribution of blood-meal hosts and larval habitat creates a spatial mosaic of demograPhic sources and sinks. Moreover, mosquito populations fluctuate temporally, forced by environmental variables such as rainfall, temperature, and humidity. These sources of spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the distribution of mosquito populations generate variability in the human biting rate, in the proportion of mosquitoes that are infectious, and in the risk of human infection. To understand how heterogeneity affects the epidemiology of mosquito-borne infections, we developed a set of simple models that incorporate heterogeneity in a stepwise fashion. These models predict that the human biting rate is highest shortly after the mosquito densities peak, near breeding sites where adult mosquitoes emerge, and around the edges of areas where humans are aggregated. In contrast, the proportion of mosquitoes that are infectious reflects the age structure of mosquito populations; it peaks where old mosquitoes are found, far from mosquito breeding habitat, and when mosquito population density is declining. Finally, we show that estimates for the average risk of infection that are based on the average entomological inoculation rate are strongly biased in heterogeneous environments.

Smith David L; Dushoff Jonathan; McKenzie F. Ellis

2004-01-01

377

Metformin kills and radiosensitizes cancer cells and preferentially kills cancer stem cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: The anti-cancer effects of metformin, the most widely used drug for type 2 diabetes, alone or in combination with ionizing radiation were studied with MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and FSaII mouse fibrosarcoma cells. Clinically achievable concentrations of metformin caused significant clonogenic death in cancer cells. Importantly, metformin was preferentially cytotoxic to cancer stem cells relative to non-cancer stem cells. Metformin increased the radiosensitivity of cancer cells in vitro, and significantly enhanced the radiation-induced growth delay of FSaII tumors (s.c.) in the legs of C3H mice. Both metformin and ionizing radiation activated AMPK leading to inactivation of mTOR and suppression of its downstream effectors such as S6K1 and 4EBP1, a crucial signaling pathway for proliferation and survival of cancer cells, in vitro as well as in the in vivo tumors. CONCLUSION: Metformin kills and radiosensitizes cancer cells and eradicates radioresistant cancer stem cells by activating AMPK and suppressing mTOR.

Song CW; Lee H; Dings RP; Williams B; Powers J; Santos TD; Choi BH; Park HJ

2012-01-01

378

Olfactory search-image use by a mosquito-eating predator.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

By choosing blood-carrying mosquitoes as prey, Evarcha culicivora, an East African salticid spider, specializes at feeding indirectly on vertebrate blood. It also has an exceptionally complex mate-choice system. An earlier study revealed that search-image use assists E. culicivora in finding prey and mates when restricted to using vision alone. Here we show that search-image use assists E. culicivora in finding prey and mates when restricted to using olfaction alone. After being primed with prey odour or mate odour (control: not primed with odour), spiders were transferred to an olfactometer designed to test ability to find a prey-odour or mate-odour source that was either 'cryptic' (i.e. accompanied by a masking odour source, Lantana camara) or 'conspicuous' (no L. camara odour). When tested with conspicuous odour, the identity of the priming odour had no significant effect on how many spiders found the odour source. However, when tested with cryptic odour, significantly more spiders found the odour source when primed with congruent odour and significantly fewer spiders found the odour source when primed with incongruent odour.

Cross FR; Jackson RR

2010-10-01

379

Registros de mayor altitud para mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) en Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Los mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) son insectos holometábolos con estadios inmaduros acuáticos que utilizan una amplia variedad de hábitats larvales, desde cuerpos de agua en el suelo hasta Fitotelmata (depósitos de agua en las plantas) y depósitos artificiales. La disponibilidad de sitios de reproducción a menudo determina el límite superior del ámbito de los mosquitos. Nosotros construimos una base de datos de 9 607 registros, 432 localidades, 19 géneros y 254 (more) especies. La coordillera Andina posee el 77% de los registros con mayor altitud incluyendo Aedes euris con un registro a 3 300 m, seguido por tres especies de Anopheles -subgénero Kerteszia- con una altitud máxima de 2 680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis y Culex daumastocampa a 2 550 m fueron los registros de mayor altitud en la cordillera Costera- Central, mientras que el record más alto en Pantepui fue Wyeomyia zinzala a 2 252 m. El 60% de los registros de máxima altitud están representados por especies asociadas con fitotelmata (Bromeliaceae y Sarraceniaceae). Los límites superiores de Culex quinquefasciatus y Anopheles (Kerteszia) podría representar el límite teórico para la transmisión de filariasis o arbovirus, por Culex y malaria por Anopheles (Kerteszia) en Venezuela. Del mismo modo, un vector del dengue, Aedes aegypti, no ha sido registrado por encima de 2 000 m. Abstract in english Highest mosquito records (Diptera: Culicidae) in Venezuela. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants) and artificial deposits. The availability of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9 607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean (more) mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3 133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles -subgenera Kerteszia- with the upper limit of 2 680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis and Culex daumastocampa at 2 550 m were the highest records in the Central- Coastal cordillera, while the highest record in Pantepui was Wyeomyia zinzala at 2 252 m. The species associated with phytothelmata (Bromeliaceae and Sarraceniaceae) represent 60% of the records. The upper limits of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles (Kerteszia) species could represent the theoretical limit for transmission of filariasis or arboviruses, by Culex, and malaria by Anopheles (Kerteszia) in Venezuela. Similarly, a vector of Dengue, Aedes aegypti, has not been not recorded above 2 000 m. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (1): 245-254. Epub 2010 March 01.

Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Del Ventura, Fabiola; Zorrilla, Adriana; Liria, Jonathan

2010-03-01

380

Registros de mayor altitud para mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) en Venezuela  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) son insectos holometábolos con estadios inmaduros acuáticos que utilizan una amplia variedad de hábitats larvales, desde cuerpos de agua en el suelo hasta Fitotelmata (depósitos de agua en las plantas) y depósitos artificiales. La disponibilidad de sitios de reproducción a menudo determina el límite superior del ámbito de los mosquitos. Nosotros construimos una base de datos de 9 607 registros, 432 localidades, 19 géneros y 254 especies. La coordillera Andina posee el 77% de los registros con mayor altitud incluyendo Aedes euris con un registro a 3 300 m, seguido por tres especies de Anopheles -subgénero Kerteszia- con una altitud máxima de 2 680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis y Culex daumastocampa a 2 550 m fueron los registros de mayor altitud en la cordillera Costera- Central, mientras que el record más alto en Pantepui fue Wyeomyia zinzala a 2 252 m. El 60% de los registros de máxima altitud están representados por especies asociadas con fitotelmata (Bromeliaceae y Sarraceniaceae). Los límites superiores de Culex quinquefasciatus y Anopheles (Kerteszia) podría representar el límite teórico para la transmisión de filariasis o arbovirus, por Culex y malaria por Anopheles (Kerteszia) en Venezuela. Del mismo modo, un vector del dengue, Aedes aegypti, no ha sido registrado por encima de 2 000 m.Highest mosquito records (Diptera: Culicidae) in Venezuela. Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants) and artificial deposits. The availability of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9 607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3 133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles -subgenera Kerteszia- with the upper limit of 2 680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis and Culex daumastocampa at 2 550 m were the highest records in the Central- Coastal cordillera, while the highest record in Pantepui was Wyeomyia zinzala at 2 252 m. The species associated with phytothelmata (Bromeliaceae and Sarraceniaceae) represent 60% of the records. The upper limits of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles (Kerteszia) species could represent the theoretical limit for transmission of filariasis or arboviruses, by Culex, and malaria by Anopheles (Kerteszia) in Venezuela. Similarly, a vector of Dengue, Aedes aegypti, has not been not recorded above 2 000 m. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (1): 245-254. Epub 2010 March 01.

Juan-Carlos Navarro; Fabiola Del Ventura; Adriana Zorrilla; Jonathan Liria

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Generalized killing equations and symmetries of spinning space  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors derive a set of general conditions for the isometrics of d-dimensional spinning space. These equations constitute a Grassmann-valued extension of the Killing equations for ordinary space. They are realized as invariances of spinning-particle actions. Some general solutions for the extended Killing equations in arbitrary curved space are presented. Thus the spinning particle in d-dimensions can be shown to possess new types of (super-)symmetries, which transform the commuting and anti-commuting co-ordinates (X?, ?a) not only linearly, but also non-linearly. The authors present the algebra of these non-linear transformations. They give a complete solution of the generalized Killing-equations for flat spinning space and construct an infinite set of conserved charges. (author). 11 refs

1989-01-01

382

[Effect of niclosamide spreading oil on killing schistosome cercariae].  

Science.gov (United States)

Dechlorinated water (100 ml, 30 degrees C) was put into a plate (diameter 15 cm), and 1% niclosamide spreading oil 5 microl was added, then a ring of Schistosoma japonicum cercariae were picked up to the plate. The time of killing all the cercariae was observed at three time points (immediately, 24, 48 h), and the dechlorinated water was used as control. The results showed that schistosome cercariae were all killed in three minutes by 1% niclosamide spreading oil at the three time points. The cercaria-killing effects of each time point were not significantly different (F = 0.062, P > 0.05). The cercariae were alive in the control in 48 h. PMID:23012973

Peng, Guo-Hua; Hu, Zhu-Hua; Bao, Zi-Ping; Zhou, Yi-Sheng; Xiong, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Hai-Ying'; Guo, Jia-Gang

2012-06-01

383

[Effect of niclosamide spreading oil on killing schistosome cercariae].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dechlorinated water (100 ml, 30 degrees C) was put into a plate (diameter 15 cm), and 1% niclosamide spreading oil 5 microl was added, then a ring of Schistosoma japonicum cercariae were picked up to the plate. The time of killing all the cercariae was observed at three time points (immediately, 24, 48 h), and the dechlorinated water was used as control. The results showed that schistosome cercariae were all killed in three minutes by 1% niclosamide spreading oil at the three time points. The cercaria-killing effects of each time point were not significantly different (F = 0.062, P > 0.05). The cercariae were alive in the control in 48 h.

Peng GH; Hu ZH; Bao ZP; Zhou YS; Xiong ZW; Chen HY; Guo JG

2012-06-01

384

Utilization of aspen fire kill for pulp quality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pulp mills are reluctant to use wood from the many stands of fire-killed aspen in Alberta because of concerns with contamination of bleached pulp from carbon originating from the burnt tree. The project described in this report had the objective of determining the amount of carbon in a representative sampling of some burnt aspen logs and to determine whether the logs could be used to make bleached kraft pulp. Eight logs of fire-killed aspen were processed and pulped, and carbon determinations were performed on prepared pulp samples using a stereo microscope. Results are also included with regard to pulp yield and strength. Recommendations are made on the utilisation of fire-killed wood for pulping.

Lowe, R.W.

1996-12-31

385

From conformal Killing vector fields to boost-rotational symmetry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se discute la conexión entre variedades Riemannianas (?,) de dimension tres que admiten un campo vectorial de Killing conforme ? y espacios- tiempo estáticos asociados a sistemas en el vacío o no-vacío. Cualquiera de estas variedades (?,) generan un espacio-tiempo (M, g) e igual generan un espacio-tiempo (M, g,?), do (more) nde (g, ?) satisfacen las ecuaciones para el campo escalar asociadas a los sistemas de Einstein-Klein-Gordon con acoplamiento mínimo o conforme. Los espacios-tiempo asociados resultantes admiten cuatro campos vectoriales de Killing o una simetría de "boost" y rotacional. Se argumenta como esta conexión va mas allá de los sistemas en el vacío o de los sistemas de campos escalares y esto puede ser visto como un mecanismo para generar soluciones de las ecuaciones de Einstein, que admitan un campo vectorial de Killing ortogonal a una hipersuperficie. Abstract in english We discuss a connection between three-dimensional Riemannian manifolds (?,) admitting a special conformal Killing vector field ? and static vacuum or non-vacuum spacetimes. Any such (?,) generates a vacuum spacetime (M,g) but it also generates a spacetime (M, g, ?), where (g, ?) satisfies the Einstein-Klein-Gordon m (more) assless minimally coupled gravity equations, or the Einstein-Conformal scalar field equations. The resulting spacetimes either admit four Killing vector fields or possess boost and rotational symmetry. We argue that this connection goes beyond the vacuum or Einstein-scalar field system and it should be viewed as a mechanism of generating solutions for the Einstein equations, admitting a hypersurface orthogonal Killing vector field.

Estevez-Delgado, J; Zannias, T

2007-02-01

386

Adenosine Receptor Antagonists Effect on Plasma Enhanced Killing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous studies demonstrated that naïve plasma has inherent capabilities to enhance bacterial opsonization and phagocyte killing but not all plasma is equally effective. This raised the question of whether plasma constituents other than opsonins may play a role. Adenosine receptor antagonists have been shown to modulate cytokine response and survival in mice after a bacterial challenge. We investigated whether selective adenosine receptor blockade would influence the ability of naïve plasma to effectively control bacterial growth. Colonic bacteria, and thioglycollate elicited peritoneal macrophages and neutrophils were obtained from naïve mice. Stock murine plasma from naïve was purchased and categorized as having high plasma enhanced bacterial killing capacity using our previously described methods. Bacteria and plasma were incubated in order to allow for opsonization and then added to macrophages previously exposed to selected adenosine receptor antagonists; ZM 241385: A2A, MRS1754: A2B, DPCPX: A1, and MRS1220: A3. The final mixture was plated on blood agar plates in aerobic and anaerobic conditions and bacterial colony forming units quantified after 24 hours. This study demonstrated that exogenous adenosine was able to significantly decrease phagocyte killing of cecal bacteria. Blocking adenosine receptors with selective antagonists altered the bacterial killing capacity of plasma. Selectively blocking the A1,A2A, or A2B receptors proved most beneficial at reversing the effect of adenosine. Consistent with previous work, only macrophage killing of bacteria could be modulated by adenosine receptor blockade since neutrophils were unaffected. These data demonstrate that adenosine decreases macrophage killing of enteric bacteria and that this effect is mediated through the adenosine receptors.

Bauzá G; Moitra R; Remick D

2013-10-01

387

Azithromycin Kills Invasive Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Gingival Epithelial Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans invades periodontal pocket epithelium and is therefore difficult to eliminate by periodontal scaling and root planing. It is susceptible to azithromycin, which is taken up by many types of mammalian cells. This led us to hypothesize that azithromycin accumulation by gingival epithelium could enhance the killing of intraepithelial A. actinomycetemcomitans. [3H]azithromycin transport by Smulow-Glickman gingival epithelial cells and SCC-25 oral epithelial cells was characterized. To test our hypothesis, we infected cultured Smulow-Glickman cell monolayers with A. actinomycetemcomitans (Y4 or SUNY 465 strain) for 2 h, treated them with gentamicin to eliminate extracellular bacteria, and then incubated them with azithromycin for 1 to 4 h. Viable intracellular bacteria were released, plated, and enumerated. Azithromycin transport by both cell lines exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics and was competitively inhibited by l-carnitine and several other organic cations. Cell incubation in medium containing 5 ?g/ml azithromycin yielded steady-state intracellular concentrations of 144 ?g/ml in SCC-25 cells and 118 ?g/ml in Smulow-Glickman cells. Azithromycin induced dose- and time-dependent intraepithelial killing of both A. actinomycetemcomitans strains. Treatment of infected Smulow-Glickman cells with 0.125 ?g/ml azithromycin killed approximately 29% of the intraepithelial CFU of both strains within 4 h, while treatment with 8 ?g/ml azithromycin killed ?82% of the CFU of both strains (P < 0.05). Addition of carnitine inhibited the killing of intracellular bacteria by azithromycin (P < 0.05). Thus, human gingival epithelial cells actively accumulate azithromycin through a transport system that facilitates the killing of intraepithelial A. actinomycetemcomitans and is shared with organic cations.

Lai, Pin-Chuang

2013-01-01

388

A radiolabel release microassay for phagocytic killing of Candida albicans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The chromium-51 release technique for quantifying intracellular killing of radiolabelled Candida albicans particles was exploited in a microassay in which murine and human phagocytes acted as effectors under peculiarly simple conditions. At appropriate effector: target ratios and with a 4 h incubation, up to 50% specific chromium release could be detected in the supernatant with no need for opsonization or lysis of phagocytes. This simple microassay permits easy-to-perform, simultaneous testing of a variety of different phagocytes even if only available in limited amounts, and provides an objective measurement of intracellular killing of Candida albicans. (Auth.)

1982-08-13

389

Radiolabel release microassay for phagocytic killing of Candida albicans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The chromium-51 release technique for quantifying intracellular killing of radiolabelled Candida albicans particles was exploited in a microassay in which murine and human phagocytes acted as effectors under peculiarly simple conditions. At appropriate effector: target ratios and with a 4 h incubation, up to 50% specific chromium release could be detected in the supernatant with no need for opsonization or lysis of phagocytes. This simple microassay permits easy-to-perform, simultaneous testing of a variety of different phagocytes even if only available in limited amounts, and provides an objective measurement of intracellular killing of Candida albicans.

Bistoni, F.; Baccarini, M.; Blasi, E.; Marconi, P. (Perugia Univ. (Italy). Inst. of Microbiology); Puccetti, P. (Perugia Univ. (Italy). Inst. of Pharmacology)

1982-08-13

390

Flat deformation of a spacetime admitting two commuting Killing fields  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is shown that, given an analytic Lorentzian metric on a 4-manifold, g{sub ab}, which admits two Killing vector fields, there exists a local deformation law {eta}{sub ab} = a g{sub ab} + b H{sub ab}, where H{sub ab} is a two-dimensional projector, such that {eta}{sub ab} is flat and admits the same Killing vectors. We also characterize the particular case when the projector H{sub ab} coincides with the quotient metric. We apply some of our results to general stationary axisymmetric spacetimes.

Llosa, Josep [Departament de Fisica Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Carot, Jaume, E-mail: pitu.llosa@ub.ed [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca, Illes Balears (Spain)

2010-12-21

391

Reciprocal Trophic Interactions and Transmission of Blood Parasites between Mosquitoes and Frogs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The relationship between mosquitoes and their amphibian hosts is a unique, reciprocal trophic interaction. Instead of a one-way, predator-prey relationship, there is a cyclical dance of avoidance and attraction. This has prompted spatial and temporal synchrony between organisms, reflected in emergence time of mosquitoes in the spring and choice of habitat for oviposition. Frog-feeding mosquitoes also possess different sensory apparatuses than do their mammal-feeding counterparts. The reciprocal nature of this relationship is exploited by various blood parasites that use mechanical, salivary or trophic transmission to pass from mosquitoes to frogs. It is important to investigate the involvement of mosquitoes, frogs and parasites in this interaction in order to understand the consequences of anthropogenic actions, such as implementing biocontrol efforts against mosquitoes, and to determine potential causes of the global decline of amphibian species.

Laura V. Ferguson; Todd G. Smith

2012-01-01

392

[The spread and epidemiological value of mosquitoes (Diptera, Psichodidae, Phlebotominae) of the Caucasus].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Caucasus mosquito fauna was studied on the basis of the papers published in the 20th century. Due to the new classification developed by M.M. Artemyeva, the presence of 17 mosquito species: P.papatasi, P.sergenti, P.caucasicus, P.alexandri, P.jacusieli, P.kandelakii, P.neglectus, P.per-filiewi, P.tobbi, P.transcaucasicus, P.wenyoni, P.balcanicus, P.brevis, P.halepensis, S.dentate dentate, S.palestinensis, and S.hodsoni pawlowskyi should be considered most significant. The ecology of the mosquito species that are of medical importance is described. Maps of the spread of the mosquitoes that are of epidemiological importance have been complied on the basis of the materials by different authors on the registration of specific mosquito species in the human settlements of the Transcaucasia and North Caucasus. The spread of mosquitoes in the North Caucasus remains inadequately studied today.

Baranets MS; Darchenkova NN; Ponirovski? EN; Zhirenkina EN

2011-04-01

393

Anopheles gambiae Circumsporozoite Protein-Binding Protein Facilitates Plasmodium Infection of Mosquito Salivary Glands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malaria, a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium species, causes substantial morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Plasmodium sporozoites mature in oocysts formed in the mosquito gut wall and then invade the salivary glands, where they remain until transmitted to the vertebrate host during a mosquito bite. The Plasmodium circumsporozoite protein (CSP) binds to salivary glands and plays a role in the invasion of this organ by sporozoites. We identified an Anopheles salivary gland protein, named CSP-binding protein (CSPBP), that interacts with CSP. Downregulation of CSPBP in mosquito salivary glands inhibited invasion by Plasmodium organisms. In vivo bioassays showed that mosquitoes that were fed blood with CSPBP antibody displayed a 25% and 90% reduction in the parasite load in infected salivary glands 14 and 18 days after the blood meal, respectively. These results suggest that CSPBP is important for the infection of the mosquito salivary gland by Plasmodium organisms and that blocking CSPBP can interfere with the Plasmodium life cycle.

Wang J; Zhang Y; Zhao YO; Li MW; Zhang L; Dragovic S; Abraham NM; Fikrig E

2013-10-01

394

Larvicidal activity of neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation against mosquitoes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of botanical origin have been reported as useful for control of mosquitoes. Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) and its derived products have shown a variety of insecticidal properties. The present paper discusses the larvicidal activity of neem-based biopesticide for the control of mosquitoes. Methods Larvicidal efficacy of an emulsified concentrate of neem oil formulation (neem oil with polyoxyethylene ether, sorbitan dioleate and epichlorohydrin) developed by BMR & Company, Pune, India, was evaluated against late 3rd and early 4th instar larvae of different genera of mosquitoes. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations (0.5–5.0 ppm) of the formulation along with untreated control. Larvicidal activity of the formulation was also evaluated in field against Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes mosquitoes. The formulation was diluted with equal volumes of water and applied @ 140 mg a.i./m2 to different mosquito breeding sites with the help of pre calibrated knapsack sprayer. Larval density was determined at pre and post application of the formulation using a standard dipper. Results Median lethal concentration (LC50) of the formulation against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was found to be 1.6, 1.8 and 1.7 ppm respectively. LC50 values of the formulation stored at 26°C, 40°C and 45°C for 48 hours against Ae. aegypti were 1.7, 1.7, 1.8 ppm while LC90 values were 3.7, 3.7 and 3.8 ppm respectively. Further no significant difference in LC50 and LC90 values of the formulation was observed against Ae. aegypti during 18 months storage period at room temperature. An application of the formulation at the rate of 140 mg a.i./m2 in different breeding sites under natural field conditions provided 98.1% reduction of Anopheles larvae on day 1; thereafter 100% reduction was recorded up to week 1 and more than 80% reduction up to week 3, while percent reduction against Culex larvae was 95.5% on day 1, and thereafter 80% reduction was achieved up to week 3. The formulation also showed 95.1% and, 99.7% reduction of Aedes larvae on day 1 and day 2 respectively; thereafter 100% larval control was observed up to day 7. Conclusion The neem oil formulation was found effective in controlling mosquito larvae in different breeding sites under natural field conditions. As neem trees are widely distributed in India, their formulations may prove to be an effective and eco-friendly larvicide, which could be used as an alternative for malaria control.

Dua Virendra K; Pandey Akhilesh C; Raghavendra Kamaraju; Gupta Ashish; Sharma Trilochan; Dash Aditya P

2009-01-01

395

Larvicidal activity of neem oil (Azadirachta indica) formulation against mosquitoes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of botanical origin have been reported as useful for control of mosquitoes. Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) and its derived products have shown a variety of insecticidal properties. The present paper discusses the larvicidal activity of neem-based biopesticide for the control of mosquitoes. METHODS: Larvicidal efficacy of an emulsified concentrate of neem oil formulation (neem oil with polyoxyethylene ether, sorbitan dioleate and epichlorohydrin) developed by BMR & Company, Pune, India, was evaluated against late 3rd and early 4th instar larvae of different genera of mosquitoes. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations (0.5-5.0 ppm) of the formulation along with untreated control. Larvicidal activity of the formulation was also evaluated in field against Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes mosquitoes. The formulation was diluted with equal volumes of water and applied @ 140 mg a.i./m(2) to different mosquito breeding sites with the help of pre calibrated knapsack sprayer. Larval density was determined at pre and post application of the formulation using a standard dipper. RESULTS: Median lethal concentration (LC(50)) of the formulation against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was found to be 1.6, 1.8 and 1.7 ppm respectively. LC(50) values of the formulation stored at 26 degrees C, 40 degrees C and 45 degrees C for 48 hours against Ae. aegypti were 1.7, 1.7, 1.8 ppm while LC(90) values were 3.7, 3.7 and 3.8 ppm respectively. Further no significant difference in LC(50) and LC(90) values of the formulation was observed against Ae. aegypti during 18 months storage period at room temperature. An application of the formulation at the rate of 140 mg a.i./m(2) in different breeding sites under natural field conditions provided 98.1% reduction of Anopheles larvae on day 1; thereafter 100% reduction was recorded up to week 1 and more than 80% reduction up to week 3, while percent reduction against Culex larvae was 95.5% on day 1, and thereafter 80% reduction was achieved up to week 3. The formulation also showed 95.1% and, 99.7% reduction of Aedes larvae on day 1 and day 2 respectively; thereafter 100% larval control was observed up to day 7. CONCLUSION: The neem oil formulation was found effective in controlling mosquito larvae in different breeding sites under natural field conditions. As neem trees are widely distributed in India, their formulations may prove to be an effective and eco-friendly larvicide, which could be used as an alternative for malaria control.

Dua VK; Pandey AC; Raghavendra K; Gupta A; Sharma T; Dash AP

2009-01-01

396

BIOACTIVIDAD DE ACEITES ESENCIALES DE Minthostachys mollis CONTRA MOSQUITOS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El control químico de vectores es una herramienta principal de prevención de enfermedades transmitidas por mosquitos. Los aceites esenciales (AE) de plantas pueden ser una alternativa a los compuestos sintéticos. Se extrajeron por arrastre con vapor AE de Minthostachys mollis y se evaluó su actividad insecticida contra larvas, pupas y adultos de mosquitos, según protocolos estándar de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Se evaluaron concentraciones entre 10 y 160 ppm del AE y se registró la mortalidad a las 1, 2, 3 y 24 h de exposición. La dosis de 160 ppm m