Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.; Enemark, Heidi L.; Nchito, M.; Olsen, A.
Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most widespread of human infections in developing countries, and children are the most vulnerable. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia, as well as prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths in children attending pre-school or day-care centres in Kafue District, Zambia. Single stool samples were collected from 403 children from 10 pre-schools and Were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz ...
Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.; Enemark, Heidi L.; Nchito, M.; Olsen, A.
within rural/semiurban communities in Kafue district in Zambia. A single faecal sample per animal was collected from pigs, goats, dogs, ducks, chickens and pigeons and analysed by Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia immunofluorescence antibody assay for the simultaneous detection of these parasites. The...
Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.
Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most widespread of human infections in developing countries, and children are the most vulnerable. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia, as well as prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths in children attending pre-school or day-care centres in Kafue District, Zambia. Single stool samples were collected from 403 children from 10 pre-schools and Were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears to identify and quantify helminths. A commercial immunofluorescence kit was used to identify Cryptosporidium- and Giardia-positive samples. The overall prevalence of helminth infection was 17.9%. Ascaris lumbricoides was found in 12.0%, hookworm in 8.3%, Taenia spp. in 0.9%, Hymenolepis nano in 0.6% and Schistosoma mansoni in 0.3%. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia was 28.0 and 29.0%, respectively, with more girls infected with Giardia (33.8%) than boys (22.7%) (P = 0.02). Significant differences in infections with A. lumbricoides and Cryptosporidium were observed between the various pre-schools (P <0.001). These findings indicate that intestinal parasites are prevalent in children enrolled in pre-schools in Zambia. Future studies should explore local factors associated with transmission of these infections, and consequently provide the necessary health education to parents and teachers. Crown Copyright (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved.
Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.
Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important parasites infecting a wide range of domestic animals worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites in different domestic animals living in close contact with humans within rural/semiurban communities in Kafue district in Zambia. A single faecal sample per animal was collected from pigs, goats, dogs, ducks, chickens and pigeons and analysed by Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia immunofluorescence antibody assay for the simultaneous detection of these parasites. The faecal consistency was noted and scored as non-diarrhoeic or diarrhoeic. A total of 236 samples were collected. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in pigs (11.5%, 17/148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), ducks (10.0%; 3/30) and chickens (14.3%; 2/14) while Giardia cysts were detected in pigs (8.1%; 12/148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), dogs (25.0%; 5/20) and ducks (6.7%; 2/30). Diarrhoea was not associated with either infection. Age was also not associated with either infection except in dogs where Giardia infection was only detected in animals aged less than six months (p=0.009). It is concluded from this study that Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites are prevalent among domestic animals reared within communities in Kafue district thereby constituting a potential source for zoonotic infections.
This paper presents the first documentation of the history of Zambia's oldest and largest national park: Kafue National Park. The movement of people out of the park is systematically presented. Furthermore, access and resource use and exploitation rights granted to people who lived inside the park are summarised. The paper looks at park administration, wildlife management, tourism and briefly presents areas for future studies.
Meier, Philipp; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang
The Kafue Flats is one of the most important wetlands in Zambia. In the early 70's the Kafue Gorge reservoir was built mainly for hydropower production not far downstream the outlet of the Kafue Flats. Only a few years later a dam was constructed upstream the Flats to extend the limited storage of Kafue Gorge. Besides its ecological value the Kafue Flats are also important economically. Around 700 000 people are dependent mainly on fisheries and flood recession agriculture. An increasing number of large irrigation schemes are drawing water from the Kafue river along the wetland. Floodplains in semi-arid and arid areas are often the only source of water supply available throughout the year. They provide numerous economical and ecological services of tremendous value. The ecological uniqueness of many wetlands results largely from a strong seasonality of flooding. As the pressure on water resources grows these natural seasonal patterns are often altered due to water abstractions or the construction of dams. Many efforts have been taken to restore more natural flooding patterns. To assess both, the effects of altered flow regimes and of restoration efforts, a hydrological model reproducing the dynamics of the flooding is required. However, in many cases hydrological modeling of these floodplains is often hampered by the poor availability of data. Data gathering is also limited by the large extent and the limited accessibility of the wetlands. Therefore the application of remote sensing techniques is an attractive approach. The model presented in this study is based on a relatively simple approach which was initially designed for the Okavango Delta. The model is based on the widely used software MODFLOW. However, due to a different environment and technical advances of the software there are some significant differences between the Okavango Delta model and the model presented hereafter. The model is based on MODFLOW 2005 and basically consists of two layers: a subsurface layer, representing the saturated flow in the groundwater, and a surface water layer, representing the flow on the flooded surface. In between these two layers the unsaturated zone is modeled using the kinematic wave approach of the MODFLOW UZF package. To couple the surface water layer and the UZF module, an additional module was developed in order to route excess infiltration water to either the surface layer or a river. Flow in the main river channel of the Kafue is implemented using the stream flow package. Model outputs are calculated on a daily basis. Input data for the model are derived mostly from globally available datasets. Since the purpose of the model is to predict the flooding patterns as accurate as possible, model parameters have to be calibrated against the measured extent of flooding. Images from the ENVISAT ASAR instrument are used to detect flooding patterns. These data provide a good compromise between spatial resolution, spatial coverage and temporal coverage. As additional calibration data measured water levels are available. The calibration is carried out using PEST. This model predictions can serve as a base to provide information on future effects of a changing inflow regime on the ecology as well as on the socio-economic system of the Kafue Flats.
Evaristo Mwaba Kapungwe
Although research on peri urban arable farming had been conducted in Zambia, the concerns related to heavy metal contaminated wastewater use in crop farming in peri urban areas were inadequately tackled. The study investigated heavy metal contamination of water, soils and crops at two study sites in Zambia. The two study sites were New Farm Extension in Mufulira and Chilumba Gardens in Kafue. Heavy metals comprising chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) were inves...
M. Mwase; Almli, B.; Sivertsen, T.; Musonda, M.M.; A. Flaoyen
Hepatic and renal concentrations of the elements arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium and zinc were studied in samples collected from hippopotami from the Kafue River in the Kafue National Park and the Luangwa River in the Southern Luangwa National Park in Zambia. There were no significant differences between trace element concentrations in the tissues of the hippopotami taken in the Kafue River and the Luangwa River. The concentrations of copper an...
Mischler, J. A.; Abdalati, W.; Hussein, K.; Townsend, A. R.
The Kafue River is the longest river in Zambia and is a major tributary of the Zambezi River. It is a vital source of fish, transportation, drinking water, and hydropower for much of Zambia's population, over half of whom live in the Kafue River basin. Like many important water bodies in developing countries the Kafue and its ecosystems face pollution from industrial, mining, agricultural, and domestic/sewage discharge. The Kafue River forms a wide and shallow wetland (the Kafue Flats) during the rainy season (Nov. - Apr.) which serves as habitat for diverse groups of birds and mammals. In recent years the unprecedented emergence of invasive aquatic vegetation such as the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and Salvinia molesta have choked the river, degrading its ability to provide adequate habitat to promote biodiversity, ecosystem services, and hydropower. In addition, these plants provide additional habitat for mosquitoes (vectors for malaria) and aquatic snails (vectors of schistosomiasis). Nutrient-rich effluents are widely believed to contribute to the proliferation and explosive growth of this floating aquatic vegetation. The general methods for managing these aquatic weeds have included mechanical and physical removal, herbicides, and bio-control agents which have had very little impact. However, as in neighboring Lake Victoria, total weed coverage has fluctuated dramatically from year to year making evaluation of the efficacy of management programs difficult. The objectives of this study were to (1) generate the first record of aquatic plant coverage for a section of the Kafue River which is immediately downstream of a sugar plantation (a major source of nitrogen and phosphorus to the river) and (2) determine if plant coverage is correlated with any major climatic (ENSO, temperature, rainfall) or management (introduction of bio-control agents) indices. We utilized remote sensing techniques in conjunction with Landsat 4-5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM imagery for the time range 1990 to 2013 to identify the extent of aquatic vegetation in the dry season for all years available within the time range using spectral data. We derived rainfall for the time period from TRMM data and temperature from MODIS LST data. Overall weed coverage tended to increase from 1990 to 2013. There was no significant correlation between rainfall (as measured by TRMM) and water hyacinth coverage. However there was a significant positive correlation between minimum October temperatures (the warmest month of the year) and weed coverage (exponential fit, R2 = 0.81). There was no indication that the release of bio-control agents reduced weed coverage. Water hyacinth is known to be sensitive to temperature, with cooler temperatures retarding growth. In the Kafue River, aquatic plant coverage varies mainly with October low temperatures indicating an overall control of temperature on weed coverage. Increasing low temperatures in the region would be expected to exacerbate problems associated with aquatic weeds.
Hepatic and renal concentrations of the elements arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium and zinc were determined in samples collected from four crocodiles from the Kafue River, Kafue National Park and five crocodiles from the Luangwa River, Luangwa National Park, Zambia. The concentrations of the essential elements were similar to those reported in other vertebrates. Arsenic and cadmium concentrations were low (medians below 0.05 ?g As/g and below 0.16 ?g Cd/g, wet wt.). Mercury and lead concentrations were several orders of magnitude higher (medians up to 3.7 ?g Hg/g, and up to 8.7 ?g Pb/g, all wet wt.) than in hippopotami from the same rivers, probably as a result of food-chain biomagnification. Judging by the results obtained in this study, pollution from the mining activity around the Kafue River drainage area in the Copperbelt region has not significantly influenced the trace element concentrations in tissues of the crocodiles in the Kafue National Park. The trace element concentrations measured may serve as reference values in future studies on crocodilians
Harry Nixon Chabwela; Tobias Haller
ABSTRACT Fisheries, wildlife and pastures are under massive pressure in the Kafue Flats, a wetland, which is one of the largest floodplains in Southern and Central Africa. This ecosystem which once harboured abundant common-pool resources and which was managed by local common property regimes is now being threatened with overexploitation. The last 30 years however, have witnessed severe pressure and overuse of these commons. A historical and institutional analysis of the situation of common-p...
Harry Nixon Chabwela
Full Text Available Fisheries, wildlife and pastures are under massive pressure in the Kafue Flats, a wetland, which is one of the largest floodplains in Southern and Central Africa. This ecosystem which once harboured abundant common-pool resources and which was managed by local common property regimes is now being threatened with overexploitation. The last 30 years however, have witnessed severe pressure and overuse of these commons. A historical and institutional analysis of the situation of common-pool resources indicates that overuse of fisheries and the mismanagement of wildlife goes back to the erosion of traditional institutions by state governance. Institutional weakness resulting from economic decline in the country is of major concern as the institutions can no longer effectively enforce regulations in the area, a situation which has led to a de facto open access constellation for common-pool resources. The paper discusses three cases. The first is the WWF-Wetland Project and the Administrative Management Design (ADMADE initiative which was designed to deal with management of Lochinvar and Blue Lagoon National Parks and the adjacent Game Management Area through the involvement of local chiefs and local communities. The second case refers to the Partners for Wetlands Project, which included local people via their chiefs as well as the public and private sectors from large agricultural enterprises to the eastern side of the Kafue Flats (Mwanachinwala Conservation Area project in Mazabuka. However, both attempts yielded poor results due to misconceptions of traditional representation of local communities and misinterpretation of local economic and political incentives. Although the ADMADE programme appears to be a scaling up case, its implementation continues to receive considerable resistance from opposition leaders of chiefs and later by the chiefs themselves. In the third case, the paper examines the fishery constitutional process which had started in 2004 for creating by-laws based on initiatives of local staff of the Department of Fisheries, local interest groups and researchers. A broad local debate on how to manage the fisheries in a sustainable way and develop locally based by-laws for joint management of fisheries gives good potential for success and appears promising for the future of fisheries in Kafue Flats. Despite many difficulties it is an example of local collective action in order to scale up governance of common-pool resources.
Sinkala, Thomson; Mwase, Enala T.; Mwala, Mick
The aquatic weed situation in the Kafue River in Zambia continues to be a major challenge to the sustainable utilization of the water resources of the river. The general methods for managing the weeds, especially the water hyacinth, include use of bio-agents, chemicals, mechanical and physical approaches. These have had very little impact. This paper reports on a project that is investigating weed management strategies which involve use of cleaner production (CP) approach and the utilization of the weed for economic purposes. In addition, the ecological implications of these methods are being assessed. Effluent assessments indicated that apart from nitrates and phosphates, other effluent parameters met the Environmental Council of Zambia standards. Results further show that all the 24 areas surveyed for CP have uncontrolled socio-economic activities which generate both point and non-point sources of pollution that enter the water bodies. To minimize pollution, efforts include devising policy and technical strategies with the involvement of the affected riparian community. Production of mushroom by the communities using the water hyacinth substrate has been demonstrated. Up to 2.1 kg of mushroom was harvested from a single flush over a period of 4-5 weeks. Vegetables grown on soils treated with water hyacinth manure performed better than those grown using commercial fertiliser. The economics of the production are however, yet to be confirmed. If weed usage is proven economically and ecologically viable, the riverine community is envisaged to play a big role in aquatic weed management. High numbers of invertebrates known to be sensitive to pollution have been recorded in the weed-infested Kafue River implying that the water is of good quality for these aquatic invertebrates. This observed quality of water may be due to water hyacinth playing a role by sieving pollutants from the river.
Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Matandiko, Wigganson; Nambota, Andrew; Muma, John Bwalya; Mweene, Aaron Simanyengwe; Munyeme, Musso
Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in some National Parks in Southern Africa, whilst no studies have been conducted on BTB on buffalo populations in Zambia. The increased demand for ecotourism and conservation of the African buffalo on private owned game ranches has prompted the Zambian Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) and private sector in Zambia to generate a herd of "BTB-free buffaloes" for ex situ conservation. In the present study, 86 African buffaloes from four different herds comprising a total of 530 animals were investigated for the presence of BTB for the purpose of generating "BTB free" buffalo for ex-situ conservation. Using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) the BTB status at both individual animal and herd level was estimated to be 0.0% by the CIDT technique. Compared to Avian reactors only, a prevalence of 5.8% was determined whilst for Bovine-only reactors a prevalence of 0.0% was determined. These results suggest the likelihood of buffalo herds in the Kafue National Park being free of BTB. PMID:21776347
Siwila, J.; Phiri, I.G.K.
Prevalence, incidence and seasonal variation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis were studied over a 12-month period in 100 children from four pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia. Questionnaire data and a single stool sample were collected monthly from each child. Samples were processed using a commercial kit (Meridian Diagnostics Inc., USA) and oo(cysts) visualised by immunofluorescence microscopy. Cryptosporidium was detected in 30.7% (241/786; 95% CI = 27.5-33.9) while G. duodenalis was detected in 29.0% (228/786; 95% CI = 25.8-32.2). A total of 86% experienced one or more episodes of cryptosporidiosis while 75% had giardiasis. Cumulative incidence per 100 children was 75.4 for Cryptosporidium and 49.0 for G. duodenalis. Both infections were significantly more common in the wet compared to the dry season (34.8%, 162/466 vs. 24.7%, 79/320, P = 0.003 and 35.2%, 164/466 vs. 20.0%, 64/320, P <0.001, respectively). Thus, risk ratios (RR) were 1.41 (95% CI = 1.13-1.77) and 1.76 (95% CI = 1.38-2.27) for Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively. Diarrhoea was significantly associated with cryptosporidiosis (RR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.03-1.47; P = 0.029) but not with giardiasis (RR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.91-1.53; P = 0.26). We conclude that gastro-intestinal protozoal infections are highly prevalent among children attending pre-school in peri-urban Zambia highlighting the need for further studies of risk factors.
Kambole, Michael Sankwe
Most vital surface water bodies in developing countries are under serious threat of degradation resulting from constant discharge of polluted effluents stemming from industrial, agricultural, mining and domestic/sewage activities. The most affected river systems are those traversing cities and towns in urban areas. The Kafue River in Zambia is one such river system that is threatened with serious degradation and probable loss of biodiversity. Kafue River cuts across the country in a North-South direction, stretches for about 1576 km before draining into the Zambezi River. It covers an area of 152,000 km 2 and generates a mean annual runoff of 350 m 3/s which represents about 12% of the Zambezis mean annual runoff at the confluence [Water Resources Development and Vector-borne Diseases in Zambia: Report of a National Seminar held at Kafue Gorge, Zambia, WHO, Geneva, 1995]. The area coverage of the Kafue River Basin (KRB) is approximately 20% of Zambias land area (743,000 km 2) and approximately 17% of the Zambezi Basin [Water Resources Use in the Zambezi Basin: Proceedings of a Workshop held at Kasane, Botswana, IUCN, 1993]. More than half of Zambias population live in the KRB, of which about 65% are in urban while 35% are in rural areas. Over the years, however, the Kafue River has been receiving all sorts of pollutant and effluents from all sectors of economical development in Zambia that include mining, industrial and agricultural. The continuous discharge of pollutants into the Kafue river has led to the deterioration of the river water quality. The consequences have been heightened eutrophic conditions, increased heavy metal concentration in the river sediments and aquatic life, increased suspended solids, etc. leading to proliferation of Salvinia molesta in some sections of the river, decreased fish catch and fish size and objectionable taste of the Kafue River water. Fishermen along the Chanyanya-Kafue Gorge stretch of the Kafue River have complained about the alleged loss of taste and the decrease in both the fish catch and size in these areas of the Kafue River. The communities along the same stretch have also complained about the objectionable taste of the river water [Report of the Proceedings of the First Multi-sectoral Workshop on the Effects of Environmental Pollution and Degradation on the Kafue River Basin (KRB) on the Community in the Kafue Town Area, AREZ, 2001]. This paper reviews the water quality of the Kafue River resulting from anthropogenic activities and proposes the framework for the sustainable management of river water quality.
Thomson Haamutete Kalinda
The objective of this study was to document the kinds of shocks or set-backs and events that commonly cause households to become poorer or destitute and the kinds of risk management strategies they utilize in order to prevent, mitigate or cope with the shocks. The study was conducted in Magobbo area which is located in Mazabuka District in Zambias Southern Province using qualitative research methods and techniques. The results show that the majority Magobbo households face multiple covariant...
Shawa, Sheila Tamara; Mwase, Enala T.; Pedersen, Erling Møller; Simonsen, Paul Erik
Background: Past case reports and recent data from LF mapping surveys indicate that LF occurs in Zambia, but no studies have been carried out to document its epidemiology and health implications. The present study assessed infection, disease, transmission and human perception aspects of LF in an endemic area of Luangwa District, South-East Zambia, as a background for planning and implementation of control. Methods. Two neighbouring rural communities were registered and a questionnaire survey und...
Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.; Enemark, Heidi L.; Nchito, M.; Olsen, A.
identify Cryptosporidium- and Giardia-positive samples. The overall prevalence of helminth infection was 17.9%. Ascaris lumbricoides was found in 12.0%, hookworm in 8.3%, Taenia spp. in 0.9%, Hymenolepis nano in 0.6% and Schistosoma mansoni in 0.3%. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia was...
Nambota Andrew M
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche Kafuensis, a medium-sized semi-aquatic antelope, is endemic to the Kafue basin of Zambia. The population of the Kafue lechwe has significantly dropped in the last decades leading to its subsequent inclusion on the red list of endangered species. In order to save the remaining population from extinction, it has become increasingly important that the impact of parasite infection and infestation on the Kafue lechwe is investigated. Findings Endoparasites accounted for the majority of parasites observed from a study of 40 Kafue lechwe occurring in the the Kafue basin. Amphistoma spp. were present in all animals examined, while Fasciola gigantica had a prevalence rate of 0.525 (95% CI: 0.36 to 0.69 and species of Schistosoma 0.3 (95% CI: 0.15 to 0.45. Among the ectoparasites, Strobiloestrous vanzyli, had a prevalence rate of 0.15 (95% CI: 0.03 to 0.27, while Rhipicephalus appendiculatus had a prevalence of 0.075 (3/40. Our findings indicate that body condition was not influenced by the parasitic infestation in Kafue lechwe. There was no association between sex and parasitic burden (odds ratio = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.8-1.3. However, an association between age and parasitic burden was observed as older animals above 15 years were more likely to get parasite infections than those aged between 1-5 years (odds ratio = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4. Conclusion Overall, there was no evidence that parasitic infections and infestations adversely affected the lechwe population on the Kafue basin. These findings indicate that ecto- and endo-parasite infestation might not play a significant role in reducing the Kafue lechwe population on the Kafue basin.
Montgomery Rice V; Maimbolwa MC; Nkandu EM; Fleming Hampton J; Lee JE; Hildreth JEK
Valerie Montgomery Rice,1 Margaret C Maimbolwa,2 Esther Munalula Nkandu,2 Jacqueline Fleming Hampton,3,* Jae-Eun Lee,4 James EK Hildreth51Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2School of Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia; 3Meharry Medical College, Center for AIDS Health Disparities Research, Nashville, TN, USA; 4RCMI Translational Research Network Data and Technology Coordinating Center, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS, USA; 5Dean, College of Biological Sciences, ...
Shawa, Sheila Tamara; Mwase, Enala T.
Background: Past case reports and recent data from LF mapping surveys indicate that LF occurs in Zambia, but no studies have been carried out to document its epidemiology and health implications. The present study assessed infection, disease, transmission and human perception aspects of LF in an endemic area of Luangwa District, South-East Zambia, as a background for planning and implementation of control. Methods. Two neighbouring rural communities were registered and a questionnaire survey undertaken. Clinical examination, and sampling of blood for circulating filarial antigens (CFA; marker of adult worm infection) and antibodies to Bm14 antigen (marker of exposure to transmission), were carried out during the daytime. Blood from CFA positive individuals was examined for microfilariae (mf) at night. Vector surveys were carried out in selected households, using light traps. Results: 985 individuals aged ? 1 year were registered. The CFA prevalence increased with age from 1.2% in age group 1-14 years to 20.6% in age group 50+ years (overall 8.6%). Wuchereria bancrofti mf were identified in 10.9% of CFA positive individuals (corresponding to a community prevalence of 0.9%). Prevalence and intensity of Bm14 antibodies were much higher in individuals ? 30 years than in younger individuals (57.2 vs. 19.3%; 0.594 vs. 0.241 OD-values). Elephantiasis and hydrocele were well known clinical manifestations in the area, but only one case of hydrocele was detected in the study population. Identified potential vectors were Anopheles funestus and An. gambiae. Conclusion: The study confirmed that LF was endemic in the study communities, but infection and disease prevalence was low. Several indications, including a marked recent decline in CFA prevalence, suggest that transmission in the area is on the decrease, perhaps because of intensive application of malaria control measures targeting the Anopheles vectors. It is recommended that mass drug administration is initiated to accelerate this positive trend of decline in LF transmission in the area. © 2013 Shawa et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Phiri, Selia Ng'anjo; Kiserud, Torvid; Kvåle, Gunnar; Byskov, Jens; Evjen-Olsen, Bjørg; Michelo, Charles; Echoka, Elizabeth; Fylkesnes, Knut
areas of three districts in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia. METHODS: A population-based survey was conducted in 2007 as part of the 'REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems' (REACT) project. Stratified random cluster sampling was used and the data included information on place...
Frank, Banda; Christopher J, Kasanga; Raphael, Sallu; Yona, Sinkala; Tingiya W, Sinkombe; Misheck, Mulumba; Mark M, Rweyemamu; Philemon N, Wambura.
Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute, highly contagious viral infection of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. It is known to be endemic in Zambia, with periodic outbreaks occurring in different geographical areas of the country. This study was conducted to investigate the presence of FMD v [...] irus (FMDV) in reported FMD-suspected cases in cattle from the Kazungula and Mbala districts of Zambia. Sixty epithelial tissues or oesophageal- pharyngeal (OP) scrapings (probang samples) were collected from Mbala (n = 51) and Kazungula (n = 9) and examined for FMDV. The FMDV viral RNA and serotypes were examined by realtime reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and antigen Enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Twenty-two samples (36.7%) were positive for the FMDV genome by qRT-PCR with Cycle threshold (Ct) values ranging from 13 to 31. The FMDV-positive samples from epithelial tissues showed relatively higher Ct values compared to those obtained from OP scrapings, irrespective of geographical location. Forty percent (40%; n = 4) of epithelial tissues from Mbala were serotyped into SAT 2 serotype by antigen ELISA. Kazungula samples were serotyped into SAT 1. These findings indicated that Mbala and Kazungula districts had FMD outbreaks in 2012 that were ascribed to at least FMDV serotype SAT 2 and SAT 1 field strains. Furthermore, regular interaction between buffalos from the Mosi-o Tunya Park and domestic animals from surrounding areas could contribute to the occurrence of regular FMD outbreaks in Kazungula, whilst the uncontrolled animal movements across borders between Mbala and Nsumbawanga could be responsible for disease outbreaks in Mbala. In-depth molecular biological studies, including sequencing and phylogeny of the viruses, should be conducted to elucidate the complex epidemiology of FMD in Zambia, thereby providing valuable information needed for the rational control strategy of FMD in Zambia and neighbouring countries.
Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is an acute, highly contagious viral infection of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. It is known to be endemic in Zambia, with periodic outbreaks occurring in different geographical areas of the country. This study was conducted to investigate the presence of FMD virus (FMDV in reported FMD-suspected cases in cattle from the Kazungula and Mbala districts of Zambia. Sixty epithelial tissues or oesophageal-pharyngeal (OP scrapings (probang samples were collected from Mbala (n = 51 and Kazungula (n = 9 and examined for FMDV. The FMDV viral RNA and serotypes were examined by realtime reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and antigen Enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, respectively. Twenty-two samples (36.7% were positive for the FMDV genome by qRT-PCR with Cycle threshold (Ct values ranging from 13 to 31. The FMDV-positive samples from epithelial tissues showed relatively higher Ct values compared to those obtained from OP scrapings, irrespective of geographical location. Forty percent (40%; n = 4 of epithelial tissues from Mbala were serotyped into SAT 2 serotype by antigen ELISA. Kazungula samples were serotyped into SAT 1. These findings indicated that Mbala and Kazungula districts had FMD outbreaks in 2012 that were ascribed to at least FMDV serotype SAT 2 and SAT 1 field strains. Furthermore, regular interaction between buffalos from the Mosi-o Tunya Park and domestic animals from surrounding areas could contribute to the occurrence of regular FMD outbreaks in Kazungula, whilst the uncontrolled animal movements across borders between Mbala and Nsumbawanga could be responsible for disease outbreaks in Mbala. In-depth molecular biological studies, including sequencing and phylogeny of the viruses, should be conducted to elucidate the complex epidemiology of FMD in Zambia, thereby providing valuable information needed for the rational control strategy of FMD in Zambia and neighbouring countries.
Full Text Available This paper encapsulates the outputs of a Swiss Agency for Development Cooperation (SDC funded project that aimed to improve the levels of HIV governance at the district level in Malawi and Zambia by encouraging public participation in an effort to more effective use of local resources. The methodology for this project, developed by the Institute for Democracy in Africa (Idasa and SDC, included a barometer which assessed perceptions of district HIV governance among key stakeholders. Perceptions were gathered on governance principles of effectiveness, efficiency, rule of law, accountability, participation and equity. The stakeholders ranged from administrators, political representatives, community-based organisations and the private sector on the supply side and citizens on the demand or beneficiary side. The findings of the research indicate specific sector governance issues that may be generalised to governance. Communication and transparency appear to be major issues underpinning the bottlenecks and shortcomings in the HIV sector governance at the district level. Information gaps have given rise to accountability deficits and coordination deficiencies. Addressing these matters would make more effective use of resources and lessen dependence on external funding sources.
Colson, Katherine Ellicott; Dwyer-Lindgren, Laura; Achoki, Tom; Fullman, Nancy; Schneider, Matthew; Mulenga, Peter; Hangoma, Peter; Ng, Marie; Masiye, Felix; Gakidou, Emmanuela
Background Achieving universal health coverage and reducing health inequalities are primary goals for an increasing number of health systems worldwide. Timely and accurate measurements of levels and trends in key health indicators at local levels are crucial to assess progress and identify drivers of success and areas that may be lagging behind. Methods We generated estimates of 17 key maternal and child health indicators for Zambias 72 districts from 1990 to 2010 using surveys, cen...
Kakandelwa, Cliff; Siwila, Joyce; Nalubamba, King S; Muma, John B; Phiri, Isaac G K
Giardia is an intestinal protozoan parasite of mammals including humans. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate prevalence of Giardia infections in smallholder and commercial dairy herds in Chilanga and Lusaka districts of Zambia. A total of 377 calves aged from 1 to 365 days were sampled on 34 farms. All faecal samples were analyzed for Giardia antigen using a commercially available ELISA kit. Overall prevalence of Giardia was 34.5% (95% CI=29.7-39.3). Among smallholder farms, animal level prevalence ranged from 0 to 100% (mean=44.6±36.9 standard deviations) and 12.5 to 60.9% (mean=33.5±16.7 standard deviations) within commercial herds. Prevalence was highest in calves less than three months old (p=0.010), and there was no significant difference in the prevalence between smallholder and commercial farms (p=0.300). Giardia prevalence was not associated with occurrence of diarrhoea in the calves (p=0.205). The study demonstrates that Giardia infections are common in dairy herds in the study areas, especially in calves less than three months of age. PMID:26790746
Muyobela, Jackson; Nkunika, Philip Obed Yobe; Mwase, Enala Tembo
This study was designed to obtain data on the farmer's approach to tick control and to determine whether Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neuman, Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius), and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) were resistant to amitraz and cypermethrin acaricides, in Isoka District, Zambia. Prevailing tick control practices were documented by administering a semi-structured questionnaire to 80 randomly selected smallholder livestock farmers from four agricultural camps (Longwe, Kantenshya, Kapililonga, and Ndeke) in Isoka District. Modified larval packet test (LPT) bioassay experiments were used to determine the resistance status of the common tick species against amitraz and cypermethrin acaricides. Fifty percent of respondents practiced chemical tick control with amitraz (27 %) and cypermethrin (23 %) being the acaricides in use, and were applied with knapsack sprayers. Less than 3 l of spray wash per animal was used which was considerably lower than the recommended delivery rate of 10 l of spray wash per animal. No significant susceptibility change to amitraz at 95 % confidence level was observed in R. appendiculatus and A. variegatum against amitraz. However, a significant change in the susceptibility of R. (Bo.) microplus tested with amitraz was detected at 95 % confidence. The test population had a lower susceptibility (LD50 0.014 %; LD90 0.023 %) than the reference population (LD50 0.013 %; LD90 0.020 %). The results indicated that resistance to amitraz was developing in R. (Bo.) microplus. For cypermethrin, no significant susceptibility change at 95 % confidence was observed in any of the three species and thus resistance to this chemical was not observed. PMID:26310511
Full Text Available A phytosociological analysis of the physical environment and the natural plant communities of Mtendere Game Ranch in the Chibombo District of the Central Province of Zambia is presented. A TWINSPAN classification and DECORANA ordination based upon 69 releves revealed three vegetation types, grassland, woodland and thicket, that are subdivided into the following plant communities: Dambo, Munga Woodland, Miombo Woodland, Termitaria and Deciduous Thicket. The natural vegetation of Mtendere Game Ranch is separated into fire management units on the basis of the vegetation types.
Full Text Available PROBLEM: Despite the Government's effort to expand services to district level, it is still hard for people living with HIV to access antiretroviral treatment (ART in rural Zambia. Strong demands for expanding ART services at the rural health centre level face challenges of resource shortages. APPROACH: The Mumbwa district health management team introduced mobile ART services using human resources and technical support from district hospitals, and community involvement at four rural health centres in the first quarter of 2007. This paper discusses the uptake of the mobile ART services in rural Mumbwa. LOCAL SETTING: Mumbwa is a rural district with an area of 23 000 km² and a population of 167 000. Before the introduction of mobile services, ART services were provided only at Mumbwa District Hospital. RELEVANT CHANGES: The mobile services improved accessibility to ART, especially for clients in better functional status, i.e. still able to work. In addition, these mobile services may reduce the number of cases "lost to follow-up". This might be due to the closer involvement of the community and the better support offered by these services to rural clients. LESSONS LEARNT: These mobile ART services helped expand services to rural health facilities where resources are limited, bringing them as close as possible to where clients live.
Zulu, Joseph M.; Michelo, Charles
BACKGROUND: The challenge of priority setting (PS) in health care within contexts of severe resource limitations has continued to receive attention. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) has emerged as a useful framework to guide the implementation of PS processes. In 2006, the AFR approach to enhance legitimate and fair PS was introduced by researchers and decision makers within the health sector in the EU funded research project entitled 'Response to Accountable priority setting for Trust in health systems' (REACT). The project aimed to strengthen fairness and accountability in the PS processes of health systems at district level in Zambia, Tanzania and Kenya. This paper focuses on local perceptions and practices of fair PS (baseline study) as well as at the evolution of such perceptions and practices in PS following an AFR based intervention (evaluation study), carried out at district level in Kapiri-Mposhi District in Zambia. METHODS: Data was collected using in depth interviews (IDIs), focus group discussions (FGDs) and review of documents from national to district level. The study population for this paper consisted of health related stakeholders employed in the district administration, in non-governmental organizations (NGO) and in health facilities. RESULTS: During the baseline study, concepts of legitimacy and fairness in PS processes were found to be grounded in local values of equity and impartiality. Government and other organizational strategies strongly supported devolution of PS and decision making procedures. However, important gaps were identified in terms of experiences of stakeholder involvement and fairness in PS processes in practice. The evaluation study revealed that a transformation of the views and methods regarding fairness in PS processes was ongoing in the study district, which was partly attributed to the AFR based intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings suggest that increased attention was given to fairness in PS processes at district level. The changes were linked to a number of simultaneous factors among them the concepts introduced by the present project with its emphasis on fairness and enhanced participation. A responsive leadership that was increasingly accountable to its operational staff and communities emerged as one of the key elements in driving the processes forward.
Mutemwa, Richard I
At the onset of health system decentralization as a primary health care strategy, which constituted a key feature of health sector reforms across the developing world, efficient and effective health management information systems (HMIS) were widely acknowledged and adopted as a critical element of district health management strengthening programmes. The focal concern was about the performance and long-term sustainability of decentralized district health systems. The underlying logic was that effective and efficient HMIS would provide district health managers with the information required to make effective strategic decisions that are the vehicle for district performance and sustainability in these decentralized health systems. However, this argument is rooted in normative management and decision theory without significant unequivocal empirical corroboration. Indeed, extensive empirical evidence continues to indicate that managers' decision-making behaviour and the existence of other forms of information outside the HMIS, within the organizational environment, suggest a far more tenuous relationship between the presence of organizational management information systems (such as HMIS) and effective strategic decision-making. This qualitative comparative case-study conducted in two districts of Zambia focused on investigating the presence and behaviour of five formally identified, different information forms, including that from HMIS, in the strategic decision-making process. The aim was to determine the validity of current arguments for HMIS, and establish implications for current HMIS policies. Evidence from the eight strategic decision-making processes traced in the study confirmed the existence of different forms of information in the organizational environment, including that provided by the conventional HMIS. These information forms attach themselves to various organizational management processes and key aspects of organizational routine. The study results point to the need for a radical re-think of district health management information solutions in ways that account for the existence of other information forms outside the formal HMIS in the district health system. PMID:16319088
Evaristo Mwaba Kapungwe
Studies on peri urban farming in Zambia have not adequately tackled the issues pertaining to heavy metal contaminated wastewater irrigation farming. The study investigated heavy metal contamination of water, soils and crops at two peri urban areas in Zambia. Two study sites were New Farm Extension in Mufulira Town in the Copperbelt Province and Chilumba Gardens in Kafue Town in Lusaka Province. The heavy metals investigated were lead, copper, cobalt, nickel and chromium. These heavy metals we...
Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Munyeme, Musso; Nambota, Andrew; Mutoloki, Stephen; Matandiko, Wigganson
Trypomastogotes of Trypanosoma brucei were detected from 4 asymptomatic kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch located approximately 45 km north east of Lusaka, Zambia. Blood smears examined from 14 wildlife species comprising of the impala (Aepyceros melampus), Kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis), sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), tsessebe (Damaliscus lunatus), warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), puku (Kobus vardoni), zebra (Equus burchelli), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), bu...
C. S. Sikasunge; Phiri, I. K.; A.M. Phiri; Dorny, P.; Siziya, S; A. L. Willingham
To determine the risk factors associated with Taenia solium transmission in humans and pigs in the rural areas of Eastern and Southern provinces of Zambia, a questionnaire was administered in 788 households from 155 villages. Pigs were examined from 800 households. Tongue examination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA) for the detection of circulating antigens of T. solium cysticerci were used to measure infection in pigs. A snowballing technique was utilised to select households...
Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies from countries with severe HIV epidemics have found gaps in condom availability, even in places where there is a substantial potential for HIV transmission. Although reported condom use has increased in many African countries, there are often big differences by socioeconomic background. The aim of this study was to assess equity aspects of condom availability and uptake in three African districts to evaluate whether condom programmes are given sufficient priority. Methods Data on condom availability and use was examined in one district in Kenya, one in Tanzania and one in Zambia. The study was based on a triangulation of data collection methods in the three study districts: surveys in venues where people meet new sexual partners, population-based surveys and focus group discussions. The data was collected within an overall study on priority setting in health systems. Results At the time of the survey, condoms were observed in less than half of the high risk venues in two of the three districts and in 60% in the third district. Rural respondents in the population-based surveys perceived condoms to be less available and tended to be less likely to report condom use than urban respondents. Although focus group participants reported that condoms were largely available in their district, they expressed concerns related to the accessibility of free condoms. Conclusion As late as thirty years into the HIV epidemic there are still important gaps in the availability of condoms in places where people meet new sexual partners in these three African districts. Considering that previous studies have found that improved condom availability and accessibility in high risk places have a potential to increase condom use among people with multiple partners, the present study findings indicate that substantial further efforts should be made to secure that condoms are easily accessible in places where sexual relationships are initiated. Although condom distribution in drinking places has been pinpointed in the HIV/AIDS prevention strategies of all the three countries, its priority relative to other HIV/AIDS measures must be reassessed locally, nationally and regionally. In practical terms very clear supply chains of condoms to both formal and informal drinking places could make condom provision better and more reliable.
Phiri, Selia Ng'anjo; Kiserud, Torvid
BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality continues to be a heavy burden in low and middle income countries where half of all deliveries take place in homes without skilled attendance. The study aimed to investigate the underlying and proximate determinants of health facility childbirth in rural and urban areas of three districts in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia. METHODS: A population-based survey was conducted in 2007 as part of the 'REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems' (REACT) project. Stratified random cluster sampling was used and the data included information on place of delivery and factors that might influence health care seeking behaviour. A total of 1800 women who had childbirth in the previous five years were analysed. The distal and proximate conceptual framework for analysing determinants of maternal mortality was modified for studying factors associated with place of delivery. Socioeconomic position was measured by employing a construct of educational attainment and wealth index. All analyses were stratified by district and urban-rural residence. RESULTS: There were substantial inter-district differences in proportion of health facility childbirth. Facility childbirth was 15, 70 and 37% in the rural areas of Malindi, Mbarali and Kapiri Mposhi respectively, and 57, 75 and 77% in the urban areas of the districts respectively. However, striking socio-economic inequities were revealed regardless of district. Furthermore, there were indications that repeated exposure to ANC services and HIV related counselling and testing were positively associated with health facility deliveries. Perceived distance was negatively associated with facility childbirth in rural areas of Malindi and urban areas of Kapiri Mposhi. CONCLUSION: Strong socio-economic inequities in the likelihood of facility childbirths were revealed in all the districts added to geographic inequities in two of the three districts. This strongly suggests an urgent need to strengthen services targeting disadvantaged and remote populations. The finding of a positive association between HIV counselling/testing and odds in favor of giving birth at a health facility suggests potential positive effects can be achieved by strengthening integrated approaches in maternal health service delivery.
Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Chanda, Emmanuel; Masaninga, Freddie; Habluetzel, Annette; Masiye, Felix; Fall, Ibrahima Soce
Objective To establish the appropriateness of malaria case management at health facility level in four districts in Zambia. Methods This study was a retrospective evaluation of the quality of malaria case management at health facilities in four districts conveniently sampled to represent both urban and rural settings in different epidemiological zones and health facility coverage. The review period was from January to December 2008. The sample included twelve lower level health facilities from four districts. The Pearson Chi-square test was used to identify characteristics which affected the quality of case management. Results Out of 4?891 suspected malaria cases recorded at the 12 health facilities, more than 80% of the patients had a temperature taken to establish their fever status. About 67% (CI95 66.1-68.7) were tested for parasitemia by either rapid diagnostic test or microscopy, whereas the remaining 22.5% (CI95 21.3.1-23.7) were not subjected to any malaria test. Of the 2?247 malaria cases reported (complicated and uncomplicated), 71% were parasitologically confirmed while 29% were clinically diagnosed (unconfirmed). About 56% (CI95 53.9-58.1) of the malaria cases reported were treated with artemether-lumefantrine (AL), 35% (CI95 33.1-37.0) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, 8% (CI95 6.9-9.2) with quinine and 1% did not receive any anti-malarial. Approximately 30% of patients WHO were found negative for malaria parasites were still prescribed an anti-malarial, contrary to the guidelines. There were marked inter-district variations in the proportion of patients in WHOm a diagnostic tool was used, and in the choice of anti-malarials for the treatment of malaria confirmed cases. Association between health worker characteristics and quality of case malaria management showed that nurses performed better than environmental health technicians and clinical officers on the decision whether to use the rapid diagnostic test or not. Gender, in service training on malaria, years of residence in the district and length of service of the health worker at the facility were not associated with diagnostic and treatment choices. Conclusions Malaria case management was characterised by poor adherence to treatment guidelines. The non-adherence was mainly in terms of: inconsistent use of confirmatory tests (rapid diagnostic test or microscopy) for malaria; prescribing anti-malarials which are not recommended (e.g. sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine) and prescribing anti-malarials to cases testing negative. Innovative approaches are required to improve health worker adherence to diagnosis and treatment guidelines. PMID:25182953
Pinchoff, Jessie; Chaponda, Mike; Shields, Timothy; Lupiya, James; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Mulenga, Modest; Moss, William J; Curriero, Frank C
Malaria risk maps may be used to guide policy decisions on whether vector control interventions should be targeted and, if so, where. Active surveillance for malaria was conducted through household surveys in Nchelenge District, Zambia from April 2012 through December 2014. Households were enumerated based on satellite imagery and randomly selected for study enrollment. At each visit, participants were administered a questionnaire and a malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Logistic regression models were used to construct spatial prediction risk maps and maps of risk uncertainty. A total of 461 households were visited, comprising 1,725 participants, of whom 48% were RDT positive. Several environmental features were associated with increased household malaria risk in a multivariable logistic regression model adjusting for seasonal variation. The model was validated using both internal and external evaluation measures to generate and assess root mean square error, as well as sensitivity and specificity for predicted risk. The final, validated model was used to predict and map malaria risk including a measure of risk uncertainty. Malaria risk in a high, perennial transmission setting is widespread but heterogeneous at a local scale, with seasonal variation. Targeting malaria control interventions may not be appropriate in this epidemiological setting. PMID:26416106
A case application of data-driven estimation of evidential belief functions (EBFs) is demonstrated to prospectivity mapping in Lundazi district (eastern Zambia). Spatial data used to represent recognition criteria of prospectivity for aquamarine-bearing pegmatites include mapped granites, mapped faults/fractures, mapped shear zones, and radioelement concentration ratios derived from gridded airborne radiometric data. Data-driven estimates EBFs take into account not only (a) spatial association between an evidential map layer and target deposits but also (b) spatial relationships between classes of evidences in an evidential map layer. Data-driven estimates of EBFs can indicate which spatial data provide positive or negative evidence of prospectivity. Data-driven estimates of EBFs of only spatial data providing positive evidence of prospectivity were integrated according to Dempster's rule of combination. Map of integrated degrees of belief was used to delineate zones of relative degress of prospectivity for aquamarine-bearing pegmatites. The predictive map has at least 85% prediction rate and at least 79% success rate of delineating training and validation deposits, respectively. The results illustrate usefulness of data-driven estimation of EBFs in GIS-based predictive mapping of mineral prospectivity. The results also show usefulness of EBFs in managing uncertainties associated with evidential maps
Eisele, Thomas P.; Miller, John M.; Moonga, Hawela B.; Hamainza, Busiku; Hutchinson, Paul; Keating, Joseph
We examined the relationship between insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs), malaria parasite infection, and severe anemia prevalence in children in Luangwa District, Zambia, an area with near-universal ITN coverage, at the end of the 2008 and 2010 malaria transmission seasons. Malaria parasite infection prevalence among children < 5 years old was 9.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.0â11.4%) over both survey years. Prevalence of severe anemia among children 6â59 months old was 6.9% (95% ...
Bulaya, Carol; Mwape, Kabemba E; Michelo, Charles; Sikasunge, Chummy S; Makungu, Chitwambi; Gabriel, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Phiri, Isaac K
Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. It is associated with poor sanitary practices, free-range pig husbandry and lack of disease awareness in endemic communities. A comparative research was conducted with pre and post-intervention assessments in nine villages to evaluate Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) as an intervention measure for the control of porcine cysticercosis in Katete District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. Blood samples were collected from pigs for circulating antigen detection and a questionnaire focused on the household was administered to a total of 153 respondents whose pigs were examined (64 pre-intervention, 89 post-intervention), in order to obtain information on general demographic characteristics, pig husbandry practices, sanitation practices and associated knowledge and awareness of T. solium infections. The first sampling was conducted prior to the implementation of the CLTS and second sampling eight months after triggering of CLTS in the selected villages. A total of 379 pig serum samples were examined using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA to detect T. solium cysticercosis, 104 pre-intervention and 275 post-intervention, of which 14 (13.5%) and 45 (16.4%) were positive, respectively. Wald test p-values were computed to assess significant differences in the variables of interest mentioned above for the pre and post CLTS. The research revealed that CLTS as a control measure did not significantly improve T. solium infections in pigs. The research also revealed that the sanitation practices and awareness of cysticercosis did not change. It is recommended that a longer term evaluation be undertaken when the villages have been declared open defaecation free. In addition, the research recommends that health education, mass drug treatment and pig vaccination be incorporated, as an essential component of prevention and control programmes for T. solium infections. PMID:25591408
Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Chembensofu, Mweelwa; Victor M. Siamudaala; Munyeme, Musso; Matandiko, Wigganson
We report 2 cases of Thelazia rhodesii infection in the African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, in Zambia. African buffalo calves were captured from the livestock and wildlife interface area of the Kafue basin in the dry season of August 2005 for the purpose to translocate to game ranches. At capture, calves (n=48) were examined for the presence of eye infections by gently manipulating the orbital membranes to check for eye-worms in the conjunctival sacs and corneal surfaces. Two (4.3%) were infe...
Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Chembensofu, Mweelwa; Siamudaala, Victor M; Munyeme, Musso; Matandiko, Wigganson
We report 2 cases of Thelazia rhodesii infection in the African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, in Zambia. African buffalo calves were captured from the livestock and wildlife interface area of the Kafue basin in the dry season of August 2005 for the purpose to translocate to game ranches. At capture, calves (n=48) were examined for the presence of eye infections by gently manipulating the orbital membranes to check for eye-worms in the conjunctival sacs and corneal surfaces. Two (4.3%) were infected and the mean infection burden per infected eye was 5.3 worms (n=3). The mean length of the worms was 16.4 mm (95% CI; 14.7-18.2 mm) and the diameter 0.41 mm (95% CI; 0.38-0.45 mm). The surface cuticle was made of transverse striations which gave the worms a characteristic serrated appearance. Although the calves showed signs of kerato-conjunctivitis, the major pathological change observed was corneal opacity. The calves were kept in quarantine and were examined thrice at 30 days interval. At each interval, they were treated with 200 Âµg/kg ivermectin, and then translocated to game ranches. Given that the disease has been reported in cattle and Kafue lechwe (Kobus lechwe kafuensis) in the area, there is a need for a comprehensive study which aims at determining the disease dynamics and transmission patterns of thelaziasis between wildlife and livestock in the Kafue basin. PMID:21461276
Evaristo Mwaba Kapungwe
Studies conducted on peri urban wastewater irrigation agriculture in Zambia have not adequately tackled issues pertaining to farmer managed irrigation systems in heavy metal contaminated wastewater irrigation farming.The study focused on characteristics of farmer managed irrigation systems in wastewater irrigation farming contaminated with heavy metals at New Farm in Mufulira and Chilumba Gardens in Kafue. The study objectives were to ascertain the nature of irrigation practices and types of ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the impact of malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT use on management of acute febrile disease at a community level, and on the consumption of anti-malarial medicines, is critical to the planning and success of scale-up to universal parasite-based diagnosis by health systems in malaria-endemic countries. Methods A retrospective study of district-wide community-level RDT introduction was conducted in Livingstone District, Zambia, to assess the impact of this programmed on malaria reporting, incidence of mortality and on district anti-malarial consumption. Results Reported malaria declined from 12,186 cases in the quarter prior to RDT introduction in 2007 to an average of 12.25 confirmed and 294 unconfirmed malaria cases per quarter over the year to September 2009. Reported malaria-like fever also declined, with only 4,381 RDTs being consumed per quarter over the same year. Reported malaria mortality declined to zero in the year to September 2009, and all-cause mortality declined. Consumption of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT dropped dramatically, but remained above reported malaria, declining from 12,550 courses dispensed by the district office in the quarter prior to RDT implementation to an average of 822 per quarter over the last year. Quinine consumption in health centres also declined, with the district office ceasing to supply due to low usage, but requests for sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP rose to well above previous levels, suggesting substitution of ACT with this drug in RDT-negative cases. Conclusions RDT introduction led to a large decline in reported malaria cases and in ACT consumption in Livingstone district. Reported malaria mortality declined to zero, indicating safety of the new diagnostic regime, although adherence and/or use of RDTs was still incomplete. However, a deficiency is apparent in management of non-malarial fever, with inappropriate use of a low-cost single dose drug, SP, replacing ACT. While large gains have been achieved, the full potential of RDTs will only be realized when strategies can be put in place to better manage RDT-negative cases.
Full Text Available Effective animal disease control and prevention should be based on accurate information from the field. Part of this field information can be obtained from the cattle owners. In order to assess their disease knowledge, a survey focusing on East Coast Fever (ECF and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD was organised among 302 cattle owners from the Kazungula and Livingstone Districts of the Southern Province of Zambia. The cattle owners' level of knowledge of ECF was low (34% with most of those able to describe the disease belonging to the endemic zone where ECF caused high death rates in cattle. A larger proportion of the cattle owners (46% were able to give an adequate description of FMD symptoms. It reached up to 61% in the FMD high-risk zone. Reporting to the animal health service providers appeared to be low. The results of the survey showed that attempts should be made to improve the cattle owners' knowledge and response to important diseases by carrying out more extension and sensitization activities. This is especially so in areas of low infection or where the disease was experienced long time ago.
Byskov, Jens; Marchal, Bruno
BACKGROUND: Priority-setting decisions are based on an important, but not sufficient set of values and thus lead to disagreement on priorities. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) is an ethics-based approach to a legitimate and fair priority-setting process that builds upon four conditions: relevance, publicity, appeals, and enforcement, which facilitate agreement on priority-setting decisions and gain support for their implementation. This paper focuses on the assessment of AFR within the project REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT). METHODS: This intervention study applied an action research methodology to assess implementation of AFR in one district in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia, respectively. The assessments focused on selected disease, program, and managerial areas. An implementing action research team of core health team members and supporting researchers was formed to implement, and continually assess and improve the application of the four conditions. Researchers evaluated the intervention using qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods. RESULTS: The values underlying the AFR approach were in all three districts well-aligned with general values expressed by both service providers and community representatives. There was some variation in the interpretations and actual use of the AFR in the decision-making processes in the three districts, and its effect ranged from an increase in awareness of the importance of fairness to a broadened engagement of health team members and other stakeholders in priority setting and other decision-making processes. CONCLUSIONS: District stakeholders were able to take greater charge of closing the gap between nationally set planning on one hand and the local realities and demands of the served communities on the other within the limited resources at hand. This study thus indicates that the operationalization of the four broadly defined and linked conditions is both possible and seems to be responding to an actual demand. This provides arguments for the continued application and further assessment of the potential of AFR in supporting priority-setting and other decision-making processes in health systems to achieve better agreed and more sustainable health improvements linked to a mutual democratic learning with potential wider implications.
Sandøy Ingvild; Blystad Astrid; Shayo Elizabeth H; Makundi Emmanuel; Michelo Charles; Zulu Joseph; Byskov Jens
Background A number of studies from countries with severe HIV epidemics have found gaps in condom availability, even in places where there is a substantial potential for HIV transmission. Although reported condom use has increased in many African countries, there are often big differences by socioeconomic background. The aim of this study was to assess equity aspects of condom availability and uptake in three African districts to evaluate whether condom programmes are given sufficient priorit...
These MISR images of Zambia and Botswana, Africa were acquired on August 25, 2000 during Terra orbit 3655. The left image is a 'true' color view from the vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. True color means that the images acquired through MISR's red, green, and blue filters, respectively, are displayed as red, green, and blue when creating the digital image. The middle image combines data from the green, red, and near-infrared bands. The right image contains red band data only, but is a composite of imagery from the nadir (An), 70.5-degrees forward (Df), and 70.5-degrees aftward (Da) cameras. The color variations in the multi-angle composite arise not from how the different parts of the scene reflect light at different wavelengths, but rather, at different angles.The distinctive fan-like feature on the left of each image is the highly vegetated Okavango Delta, a mosaiced network of grasslands and water channels, observed here during the dry season. The town of Maunis at its southeastern edge. Note how the plant life, which is highly reflective in the near-infrared, shows up as bright red in the middle image. Vegetation also preferentially reflects light back toward the source of illumination, so in the right image, the Df camera image, which is displayed in green, is brighter in this region.The body of water in the upper right is the Itezhi-Tezhi Dam, fed by the Kafue River in Zambia. At the lower left, south of the Okavango Delta, is Lake Ngami. A smoke plume is present at the southern edge of the lake. This plume and others show up in shades of blue and purple in the multi-angle composite as a result of the manner in which the smoke particles scatter sunlight.Other landmarks include the Ntwetwe Pan, whose western edge is visible as the bright area in the lower right. The Zambezi River enters from the upper left and wends its way southeast, passing the Caprivi Strip, a narrow panhandle in northeast Namibia. The greater abundance of vegetation here testifies to the high rainfall that occurs during the wet season. Near the right-hand edge of the images is the location where the Zambezi plunges into Victoria Falls, considered to be among the most spectacular waterfalls in the world.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.
Full Text Available Abstract Mining in Chingola Zambia started underground in 1931 and was catastrophically flooded and closed. The present Nchanga Underground Mine NUG started in 1937. The Nchanga Open Pit NOP mine started in 1955 situated to the west of NUG and partially overlying it. Open pit water control safety operations in the Nchanga-Chingola area have successfully enabled the safe extraction of millions of tonnes of copper ore annually over the past 60 years from NUG mining as well as the NOP. At the start Nchanga mining license surface already had NUG and many watershed divides with the Nchanga and Chingola streams being the main streams feeding into Zambias second largest river Kafue river and 42 of the year was characterised by heavy rains ranging between 800mm to 1300mm per annum. In this paper the presence of very significant amounts of seasonal rain and subsurface water in the mining area was identified as both a curse and a blessing. An excess in seasonal rain and subsurface water would disrupt both open pit and underground mining operations. In order for NOP to be operated successfully stable and free from flooding coping water management tactics were adopted from 1955 to 2015 including 1. Underground mine pump chamber pumping system 2. Piezometer instrumented boreholes 3. Underground mine 1500-ft sub-haulage east borehole dewatering beneath the open pit 4. Nchanga and Chingola stream diversionary tunnel and open drains 5. Nchanga stream causeway and embankment dam in the Matero School Golf Club area 6. Pit perimeter borehole pumping 7. Outer and inner pit perimeter drains and bund walls 8. In-pit ramp side drains 9. In-pit sub-horizontal borehole geo-drains and water and 10. Pit bottom sump pumps. Application of grout curtains along the Vistula River Poland was noted as a possibility in the right circumstances although it had never been used at Nchanga Open Pit. An additional conclusion was that forward health safety and environmental end-of-life planning was required for the extensive district-wide infrastructure of the open pit water control system for public safety after life of mine.
In rural Zambia refugees and host communities are working together to move from relief dependence to self reliance. Could UNHCRs Zambia Initiative (ZI) be a model for other countries struggling to cope with the protracted presence of refugees?
Coast, Ernestina; Freeman, Emily
The poster, based on 112 in-depth interviews conducted in 2014 with women in Zambia who had recently had an abortion, shows the complex pathways that some women take despite safe abortion being legal under a wide range of circumstances in Zambia.
Full Text Available In rural Zambia refugees and host communities are working together to move from relief dependence to self reliance. Could UNHCRs Zambia Initiative (ZI be a model for other countries struggling to cope with the protracted presence of refugees?
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Zambia, translocation of wildlife from National Parks to private owned game ranches demands that only animals free of infectious diseases that could adversely affect the expansion of the wildlife industry should be translocated to game ranches. Sarcoptes mange (Sarcoptes scarbiei has been involved in the reduction of wildlife populations in some species. Results Sarcoptes mange (Sarcoptes scarbiei was detected and eradicated from two herds of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer calves captured in the Kafue GMA in July 2004 and August 2005. The overall prevalence was estimated at 89.5% (77/86. Sex had no influence on the occurrence and severity of the disease. Of the 86 calves used in the study, 72.1% had good body condition scores, 20.9% were fair and 7.0% were poor. Of the 77 infected calves, 53.2% were mildly infected, 28.6% were moderately and 18.2% were severely infected. Body condition score was correlated to the severity of the infection (r = 0.72, p n = 86 at capture. Eradication of Sarcoptes mites from the entire herd using ivermetcin was dependant on the severity of the infection. The overall ability of ivermectin to clear the infection after the first treatment was estimated at 81.8% (n = 77. It increased to 94.8% and 100% after the second and third treatments respectively. Conclusion This is the first report on the epidemiology and treatment of Sarcoptes mange in African buffaloes in Zambia. This study improves our understanding about Sarcoptes scabiei epidemiology and treatment which will have further applications for the safe animal translocation.
Cancel, Robert; Turin, Mark
Storytelling plays an important part in the vibrant cultural life of Zambia and in many other communities across Africa. This innovative book provides a collection and analysis of oral narrative traditions as practiced by five Bembaspeaking ethnic groups in Zambia. The integration of newly digitalised audio and video recordings into the text enables the reader to encounter the storytellers themselves and hear their narratives. Robert Cancel's thorough critical interpretation, combined with t...
The Zambia Country Study, which was part of the Danida-funded project Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa: Phase 2, aimed at methodological development, national mitigation analysis and institutional capacity building in Zambia. The study comprised the following five elements: Comprehensive evaluation of national social and economic development framework for climate change; Baseline scenario(s) projection(s); Mitigation scenario(s) projection(s); Macro-economic assessment; Implementation Issues. (au) 17 refs.
Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, Søren; Kragelund, Peter
This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub?sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change).......This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub?sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change)....
The paper deals with the development of nuclear science and techniques in Zambia. The program was initiated by the University of Zambia after its establishment in 1966. At present, investigations using radioisotopes are under way in medicine, crop production and veterinary sciences. Technical assistance from IAEA will greatly expand such activities. It is hoped to start a personal radiation monitoring service in the country. The problems of professional and technical personnel are discussed and their solution outlined. (author)
Expansion of antiretroviral treatment to rural health centre level by a mobile service in Mumbwa district, Zambia / Élargissement de l'accès au traitement antirétroviral au niveau des centres de santé ruraux grâce à un service mobile dans le district de Mumbwa, Zambie / Expansión del tratamiento antirretroviral a nivel de los centros de salud rurales mediante un servicio móvil en el distrito de Mumbwa, Zambia
Christopher, Dube; Ikuma, Nozaki; Tadao, Hayakawa; Kazuhiro, Kakimoto; Norio, Yamada; James B, Simpungwe.
Full Text Available SITUACIÓN: A pesar de los esfuerzos del Gobierno por extender los servicios hasta el nivel de distrito, sigue resultando difícil que las personas con VIH accedan al tratamiento antirretroviral (TAR) en la Zambia rural. Las enérgicas súplicas para ampliar los servicios relacionados con el TAR a los c [...] entros de salud rurales se enfrentan a las dificultades derivadas de la escasez de recursos. ENFOQUE: El equipo de gestión sanitaria en el distrito de Mumbwa introdujo servicios móviles de TAR que hacían uso de recursos humanos y asesoramiento técnico de hospitales de distrito, así como la participación de la comunidad en cuatro centros de salud rurales en el primer trimestre de 2007. Este trabajo aborda el uso de los servicios móviles de TAR en el distrito rural de Mumbwa. MARCO REGIONAL: Mumbwa es un distrito rural con un área de 23 000 km2 y una población de 167 000 habitantes. Antes de la introducción de los servicios móviles, los servicios de TAR se proporcionaban sólo en el Hospital de Distrito de Mumbwa. CAMBIOS IMPORTANTES: Los servicios móviles mejoraron la accesibilidad al TAR, especialmente para usuarios con un mejor estado funcional, es decir, aún capaces de trabajar. Además, estos servicios móviles pueden reducir el número de casos de «pérdidas durante el seguimiento». Esto podría deberse a la mayor implicación de la comunidad y al mejor apoyo ofrecido por estos servicios a los usuarios en las áreas rurales. LECCIONES APRENDIDAS: Estos servicios móviles para el TAR ayudaron a extender los servicios a los centros de salud rurales cuando los recursos fueron limitados, acercándolos lo máximo posible a los lugares donde viven los usuarios. Abstract in english PROBLEM: Despite the Government's effort to expand services to district level, it is still hard for people living with HIV to access antiretroviral treatment (ART) in rural Zambia. Strong demands for expanding ART services at the rural health centre level face challenges of resource shortages. APPRO [...] ACH: The Mumbwa district health management team introduced mobile ART services using human resources and technical support from district hospitals, and community involvement at four rural health centres in the first quarter of 2007. This paper discusses the uptake of the mobile ART services in rural Mumbwa. LOCAL SETTING: Mumbwa is a rural district with an area of 23 000 km² and a population of 167 000. Before the introduction of mobile services, ART services were provided only at Mumbwa District Hospital. RELEVANT CHANGES: The mobile services improved accessibility to ART, especially for clients in better functional status, i.e. still able to work. In addition, these mobile services may reduce the number of cases "lost to follow-up". This might be due to the closer involvement of the community and the better support offered by these services to rural clients. LESSONS LEARNT: These mobile ART services helped expand services to rural health facilities where resources are limited, bringing them as close as possible to where clients live.
Muuka, Geoffrey Munkombwe; Songolo, Nadi; Kabilika, Swithine; Fandamu, Paul; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Scacchia, Massimo
Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a disease of economic importance that is widely distributed in sub-Saharan African and contributes significantly to cattle morbidity and mortality. Lack of resources to implement eradication measures has led to the disease becoming endemic in most areas in sub-Saharan Africa where governments have little resources and the majority of the people are poor. Usually, control and eradication of such diseases as CBPP is treated as a public good by governments and to achieve this, governments are usually assisted by nongovernment organisations, bilateral government programmes and international donors. The private sector, which usually is companies that run businesses to make profit, although not very well established in sub-Saharan Africa could play a big role in the eradication of CBPP in the region. This could play a dual role of promoting investment and also eradicate livestock diseases which have proved a menace in the livestock sector. This paper highlights the role played by the private sector in the control of CBPP in Zambia. PMID:23334379
Yona, Sinkala; Martin, Simuunza; John B., Muma; Dirk U., Pfeiffe; Christopher J., Kasanga; Aaron, Mweene.
Full Text Available Zambia has been experiencing low livestock productivity as well as trade restrictions owing to the occurrence of foot and mouth disease (FMD), but little is known about the epidemiology of the disease in these endemic settings. The fundamental questions relate to the spatio-temporal distribution of [...] FMD cases and what determines their occurrence. A retrospective review of FMD cases in Zambia from 1981 to 2012 was conducted using geographical information systems and the SaTScan software package. Information was collected from peer-reviewed journal articles, conference proceedings, laboratory reports, unpublished scientific reports and grey literature. A space-time permutation probability model using a varying time window of one year was used to scan for areas with high infection rates. The spatial scan statistic detected a significant purely spatial cluster around the Mbala-Isoka area between 2009 and 2012, with secondary clusters in Sesheke-Kazungula in 2007 and 2008, the Kafue flats in 2004 and 2005 and Livingstone in 2012. This study provides evidence of the existence of statistically significant FMD clusters and an increase in occurrence in Zambia between 2004 and 2012. The identified clusters agree with areas known to be at high risk of FMD. The FMD virus transmission dynamics and the heterogeneous variability in risk within these locations may need further investigation.
Full Text Available Zambia has been experiencing low livestock productivity as well as trade restrictions owing to the occurrence of foot and mouth disease (FMD, but little is known about the epidemiology of the disease in these endemic settings. The fundamental questions relate to the spatio-temporal distribution of FMD cases and what determines their occurrence. A retrospective review of FMD cases in Zambia from 1981 to 2012 was conducted using geographical information systems and the SaTScan software package. Information was collected from peer-reviewed journal articles, conference proceedings, laboratory reports, unpublished scientific reports and grey literature. A spacetime permutation probability model using a varying time window of one year was used to scan for areas with high infection rates. The spatial scan statistic detected a significant purely spatial cluster around the MbalaIsoka area between 2009 and 2012, with secondary clusters in SeshekeKazungula in 2007 and 2008, the Kafue flats in 2004 and 2005 and Livingstone in 2012. This study provides evidence of the existence of statistically significant FMD clusters and an increase in occurrence in Zambia between 2004 and 2012. The identified clusters agree with areas known to be at high risk of FMD. The FMD virus transmission dynamics and the heterogeneous variability in risk within these locations may need further investigation.
Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF in Zambia was first reported in 1974 during an epizootic of cattle and sheep that occurred in parts of Central, Southern and Copperbelt Provinces. In 1990, the disease was documented in nine districts of the provinces of Zambia. In the last two decades, there have been no reports of RVF. This long period without reported clinical disease raises questions as to whether RVF is a current or just a perceived threat. To address this question, World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE disease occurrence data on RVF for the period 2005?2010 in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC was analysed. From the analysis, it was evident that most countries that share a common border with Zambia had reported at least one occurrence of the disease during the period under review. Due to the absence of natural physical barriers between Zambia and most of her neighbours, informal livestock trade and movements is a ubiquitous reality. Analysis of the rainfall patterns also showed that Zambia received rains sufficient to support a mosquito population large enough for high risk of RVF transmission. The evidence of disease occurrence in nearby countries coupled with animal movement, and environmental risk suggests that RVF is a serious threat to Zambia. In conclusion, the current occurrence of RVF in Zambia is unclear, but there are sufficient indications that the magnitude of the circulating infection is such that capacity building in disease surveillance and courses on recognition of the disease for field staff is recommended. Given the zoonotic potential of RVF, these measures are also a prerequisite for accurate assessment of the disease burden in humans.
George, Dautu; Calvin, Sindato; Aaron S., Mweene; Kenny L., Samui; Polly, Roy; Robert, Noad; Janusz, Paweska; Phelix A.O., Majiwa; Antony J., Musoke.
Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Zambia was first reported in 1974 during an epizootic of cattle and sheep that occurred in parts of Central, Southern and Copperbelt Provinces. In 1990, the disease was documented in nine districts of the provinces of Zambia. In the last two decades, there have been no rep [...] orts of RVF. This long period without reported clinical disease raises questions as to whether RVF is a current or just a perceived threat. To address this question, World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) disease occurrence data on RVF for the period 2005-2010 in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) was analysed. From the analysis, it was evident that most countries that share a common border with Zambia had reported at least one occurrence of the disease during the period under review. Due to the absence of natural physical barriers between Zambia and most of her neighbours, informal livestock trade and movements is a ubiquitous reality. Analysis of the rainfall patterns also showed that Zambia received rains sufficient to support a mosquito population large enough for high risk of RVF transmission. The evidence of disease occurrence in nearby countries coupled with animal movement, and environmental risk suggests that RVF is a serious threat to Zambia. In conclusion, the current occurrence of RVF in Zambia is unclear, but there are sufficient indications that the magnitude of the circulating infection is such that capacity building in disease surveillance and courses on recognition of the disease for field staff is recommended. Given the zoonotic potential of RVF, these measures are also a prerequisite for accurate assessment of the disease burden in humans.
Zambia has for many years been heavily dependent upon the mining of copper which, combined with cobalt production, represents over 98% of mineral sales and 75% of export earnings (1997 figures). The industrial minerals industry within Zambia has therefore been inevitably tied to the fortunes of these two metals. The recent privatization, and break up, of ZCCM (Zambia Consolidated Copper Mines) has led to a resurgence in investment in the mining sector. Many analysts have predicted that there ...
The paper discusses uranium in drinking water in three towns located in the uraniferous Copperbelt region of Zambia. The mining towns of Kitwe, Chambeshi and Chingola in the Copperbelt region have two main sources of drinking water: underground mine water and surface water from the Kafue River system. Chambeshi abstracts its water from underground while Chingola abstracts water from both underground and surface water sources. Kitwe abstracts water from the Kafue River which drains the entire Copperbelt region. In Zambia, World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for drinking water are followed, although routine monitoring for radioactivity is not mandatory. The overall objective of this study was to gather baseline data on uranium contamination in drinking water and compare with the WHO guidelines and also to establish the source with the highest levels of uranium. An alpha spectrometer was used to analyse the samples and the results from this survey indicate that the average total uranium activity concentrations were in the range of 78.50 mBq/L in Kitwe to 600.78 mBq/L in Chambeshi. The committed effective doses for adults were in the range of 3.58 ?Sv/a in Kitwe to 20.28 ?Sv/a in Chambeshi. From both water sources, the committed effective doses were below the WHO guideline reference dose level of 100 ?Sv/a. The uranium activity concentration for Chambeshi was above the recommended screening level for alpha emitters in drinking water of 500 mBq/L. The average 235U:238U ratio was 0.046, the natural abundance ratio for uranium. (author)
Zambia has experienced considerable economic decline over the past few decades. This decline has led to considerable hardship in both urban and rural areas. Zambian youth and women are particularly at risk from the consequent high crime rate, rape, teenage pregnancy, prostitution, abortion, and HIV/STDs. Moreover, the health of these individuals is heavily influenced by the prevalence of unprotected casual sex and the use of alcohol, cigarettes, and other drugs. Their rights to education, social support, health information, and legal protection therefore need to be emphasized, especially within the context of HIV/AIDS programs. Early marriage, female subservience to men, polygamy, obstacles to wife inheritance, and the ritual sexual cleansing of widows makes young women especially vulnerable to HIV/STDs. The Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) of Zambia addresses many of the critical needs of young people and women through a series of programs and activities. Some of these programs and activities are described. PMID:12347177
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a serious illness among children aged 5 years and below in Zambia, which carries with it many adverse effects including anemia and high parasites exposure that lead to infant and childhood mortality. Due to poor accessibility to modern health facilities, malaria is normally managed at home using indigenous and cosmopolitan medicines. In view of problems and implications associated with management of severe malaria at home, rectal artesunate is being proposed as a first aid drug to slow down multiplication of parasites in children before accessing appropriate treatment. Methods A qualitative study using standardised in-depth and Focuss Group Discussions (FGDs guides to collect information from four (4 villages in Nakonde district, was conducted between February and March 2004. The guides were administered on 29 key informants living in the community and those whose children were admitted in the health facility. Participants in the 12 FGDs came from the 4 participating villages. Participants and key informants were fathers, younger and older mothers including grandmothers and other influential people at household level. Others were traditional healers, headmen, village secretaries, tradtional birth attendants, church leaders and black smiths. FGDs and interview transcriptions were coded to identify common themes that were related to recognition, classification and naming of malaria illness, care-seeking behaviour and community treatment practices for severe malaria. Results Parental prior knowledge of the disease was important as the majority of informants (23 out of 29 and participants (69 out of 97 mentioned four combined symptoms that were used to recognise severe malaria. The symptoms were excessive body hotness, convulsions, vomiting yellow things and bulging of the fontanelle. On the other hand, all informants mentioned two or more of symptoms associated with severe malaria. In all 12 FGDs, participants reported that treatment of severe malaria commenced with the family and moved into the community as the illness progressed. Although treatment of severe diarrheal effects, were common among the winamwanga, no rectal medicines to treat severe malaria were identified. Apart from the anti-malarial fansidar, which was mentioned by 23 in IDIs and 40 in FGDs, participants and informants also frequently mentioned indigenous medicines provided by healers and other respectable herbalists for repelling evil spirits, once a child had severe malaria. Mothers were the important arms for administration of ant-malarial drugs in the villages. Referrals began with healers to CHWs, where no CHWs existed healers directly referred sick children to the health facility. Conclusion Our findings showed that there is a precedent for rectal application of traditional medicine for childhood illness. Therefore rectal artesunate may be a well-received intervention in Nakonde District, provided effective sensitisation, to mothers and CHWs is given which will strengthen the health care delivery system at community level.
Mustarde Paul; Mupela Evans N; Jones Huw LC
Abstract This paper is a commentary on a project application of telemedicine to alleviate primary health care problems in Lundazi district in the Eastern province of Zambia. The project dubbed 'The Virtual Doctor Project' will use hard body vehicles fitted with satellite communication devices and modern medical equipment to deliver primary health care services to some of the neediest areas of the country. The relevance and importance of the project lies in the fact that these areas are hard-t...
Sebastiaan, Rothmann; Lukondo, Hamukang' andu.
Full Text Available Our aim in this study was to investigate the relationships among a calling orientation, work role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement of teachers in Zambia. A quantitative approach was followed and a cross-sectional survey was used. The sample (n = 150) included 75 basic and 75 sec [...] ondary school teachers in the Choma district of Zambia. The Work Role Fit Scale, Work-Life Questionnaire, Psychological Meaningfulness Scale, and Work Engagement Scale were administered. Structural equation modelling confirmed a model in which a calling orientation impacted psychological meaningfulness and work engagement significantly. A calling orientation impacted work engagement directly, while such work orientation impacted psychological meaningfulness indirectly via work role fit. The results suggest that it is necessary to address the work orientation and work role fit of teachers in Zambia as pathways to psychological meaningfulness and work engagement.These results have implications for the recruitment, selection, training, and development of teachers in Zambia.
Tuba Mary; Kaona Frederick AD
Abstract Background Malaria is a serious illness among children aged 5 years and below in Zambia, which carries with it many adverse effects including anemia and high parasites exposure that lead to infant and childhood mortality. Due to poor accessibility to modern health facilities, malaria is normally managed at home using indigenous and cosmopolitan medicines. In view of problems and implications associated with management of severe malaria at home, rectal artesunate is being proposed as ...
Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Buehring, W.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences
The objective of this study is to analyze possible long-term development options of the Zambian electric power system in the period up to 2015. The analysis involved the hydro operations studies of the Zambezi river basin and the systems planning studies for the least-cost generation expansion planning. Two well-known and widely accepted computer models were used in the analysis: PC-VALORAGUA model for the hydro operations and optimization studies and the WASP-III Plus model for the optimization of long-term system development. The WASP-III Plus model is a part of the Argonne National Laboratory's Energy and Power Evaluation Model (ENPEP). The analysis was conducted in close collaboration with the Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO). On the initiative from The World Bank, the sponsor of the study, ZESCO formed a team of experts that participated in the analysis and were trained in the use of computer models. Both models were transferred to ZESCO free of charge and installed on several computers in the ZESCO corporate offices in Lusaka. In September-October 1995, two members of the ZESCO National Team participated in a 4-week training course at Argonne National Laboratory near Chicago, U.S.A., focusing on the long-term system expansion planning using the WASP and VALORAGUA models. The hydropower operations studies were performed for the whole Zambezi river basin, including the full installation of the Kariba power station, and the Cahora Bassa hydro power station in Mozambique. The analysis also included possible future projects such as Itezhi-Tezhi, Kafue Gorge Lower, and Batoka Gorge power stations. As hydropower operations studies served to determine the operational characteristics of the existing and future hydro power plants, it was necessary to simulate the whole Zambezi river basin in order to take into account all interactions and mutual influences between the hydro power plants. In addition, it allowed for the optimization of reservoir management and optimization of hydro cascades, resulting in the better utilization of available hydro potential. Numerous analyses were performed for different stages of system development. These include system configurations that correspond to years 1997, 2001, 2015 and 2020. Additional simulations were performed in order to determine the operational parameters of the three existing hydro power stations Victoria Falls, Kariba, and Kafue Gorge Upper, that correspond to the situation before and after their rehabilitation. The rehabilitation works for these three major power stations, that would bring their operational parameters and availability back to the design level, are planned to be carried out in the period until 2000. The main results of the hydro operations studies are presented in Table ES-1. These results correspond to VALORAGUA simulations of system configurations in the years 2001 and 2015. The minimum, average, and maximum electricity generation is based on the simulation of monthly water inflows that correspond to the chronological series of unregulated water inflows at each hydro profile in the period from April 1961 to March 1990. The recommended hydrology dataset provided in the Hydrology Report of the SADC Energy Project AAA 3.8 was used for this study.
Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Gebreselassie, Hailemichael; Awah, Paschal; Pearson, Erin
Despite Zambia's relatively progressive abortion law, women continue to seek unsafe, illegal abortions. Four domains of abortion attitudes - support for legalization, immorality, rights, and access to services - were measured in 4 communities. A total of 668 people were interviewed. Associations among the 4 domains were inconsistent with expectations. The belief that abortion is immoral was widespread, but was not associated with lack of support for legalization. Instead, it was associated with belief that women need access to safe services. These findings suggest that increasing awareness about abortion law in Zambia may be important for encouraging more favorable attitudes. PMID:22920619
Mayeya, John; Chazulwa, Roy; Mayeya, Petronella Ntambo; Mbewe, Edward; Magolo, Lonia Mwape; Kasisi, Friday; Bowa, Annel Chishimba
This country profile for Zambia was compiled between 1998 and 2002. The objectives of the exercise were to first of all avail policymakers, other key decision makers and leaders in Zambia, information about mental health in Zambia in order to assist policy and services development. Secondly, to facilitate comparative analyses of mental health services between countries. The work involved formation of a core group of experts who coordinated the collection of information from the various organizations in Zambia. The information was later shared to a broad spectrum of stakeholders for consensus. A series of focus group discussions (FGDs) supplemented the information collected. There are various factors that contribute to mental health in Zambia. It is clear from the Zambian perspective that social, demographic, economic, political, environmental, cultural and religious influences affect the mental health of the people. With a population of 10.3 million and annual growth rate of 2.9%, Zambia is one of the most urbanized countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Poverty levels stood at 72.9% in 1998. In terms of unemployment, the most urbanized provinces, Lusaka (the capital city), and the copper-belt are the most affected. The gross domestic product (GDP) is US$3.09 billion dollars while per capita income is US$300. The total budget allocation for health in the year 2002 was 15% while the proportion of the GDP per capita expenditure for health was 5.6%. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rates stand at 20% among the reproductive age group 15-49 years. Political instability and wars in neighbouring states has resulted in an influx of refugees. Environmental factors affecting the country include natural and man-made disasters such as floods and drought, mine accidents, and deforestation. To a large extent in Zambia, people who are mentally ill are stigmatized, feared, scorned at, humiliated and condemned. However, caring for mental ill health in old age is positively perceived. It is traditionally the duty and responsibility of the extended family to look after the aged. Gender based violence (GBV) is another issue. Women, who are totally dependent on their spouses economically, are forced by circumstances to continue living in abusive relationships to the detriment of their mental well-being. In Zambia, the family is considered sacrosanct and the affairs of the family members, private. It is within this context that GBV is regarded as a family affair and therefore a private affair, yet spouse beating has led to depression and in some cases death. In terms of psychiatric services, there are close to 560 beds for psychiatric patients across the country. Common mental disorders found in Zambia are acute psychotic episodes, schizophrenia, affective disorders, alcohol related problems and organic brain syndromes. About 70-80% of people with mental health problems consult traditional health practitioners before they seek help from conventional health practitioners. Over time the number of frontline mental health workers and professional staff has been declining. This is due to the 'brain drain', retirement, death and low output from training institutions. For practicing psychiatrists, only one is available for the whole country. Other key mental health workers such as psychologists, social workers and occupational therapists are also in short supply. All in all, the mental health services situation in Zambia could be described as critical, requiring urgent attention. PMID:15276939
Full Text Available Zambia has been experiencing low livestock productivity as well as trade restrictions owing to the occurrence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD and contagious bovine pleura pneumonia (CBPP. Foot-and-mouth disease was first recorded in Zambia in 1933 in the Western Province and since then the country has experienced repeated outbreaks. Bearing in mind the pressure that may be existing on the many risk factors for FMD including climate change, there is need to review our knowledge on FMD control. We present the spatial distribution of the FMD outbreaks that have been recorded in Zambia in the last twenty years, and the effect of the vaccinations and movement control that have been applied. We propose further strain characterisation of previous FMD outbreaks, including full sequence of VP1 gene and the 5UTR site. The data will be geo-coded and populated with risk factor attributes. We also present preliminary findings of the buffalo and cattle probang sampling that was conducted in Lochnivar and Kafue National Park. We further probang sampled 25 buffalo at each interface area in Sioma Ngwezi, Lukusuzi and Lower Zambezi national parks. Villages in close proximity to the buffalo populations as well as those not in close proximity will be multistage cluster sampled for comparison. The data will be geo-coded and populated with risk factor and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV characterisation attributes. Data collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire will be geo-coded and populated with identified risk factors and stored in a database and will be spatially modelled to determine their effect on FMD occurrence and control measures. New outbreaks of FMD that may occur will be investigated to find out if there are new strains involved, species affected and predisposing risk factors.The authors conclude that impacts of FMD on livelihoods if appropriate control measures are not put in place are far more devastating especially at community level. Presented with the current poverty levels failure to institute result oriented control measures will exacerbate the already life-threatening situation.
Muleya Walter; Namangala Boniface; Simuunza Martin; Nakao Ryo; Inoue Noboru; Kimura Takashi; Ito Kimihito; Sugimoto Chihiro; Sawa Hirofumi
Abstract Background Theileriosis, caused by Theileria parva, is an economically important disease in Africa. It is a major constraint to the development of the livestock industry in some parts of eastern, central and southern Africa. In Zambia, theileriosis causes losses of up to 10,000 cattle annually. Methods Cattle blood samples were collected for genetic analysis of Theileria parva from Isoka and Petauke districts in Zambia. Microsatellite analysis was then performed on all Theileria parv...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Shortages of health workers are obstacles to utilising global health initiative (GHI funds effectively in Africa. This paper reports and analyses two countries' health workforce responses during a period of large increases in GHI funds. Methods Health facility record reviews were conducted in 52 facilities in Malawi and 39 facilities in Zambia in 2006/07 and 2008; quarterly totals from the last quarter of 2005 to the first quarter of 2008 inclusive in Malawi; and annual totals for 2004 to 2007 inclusive in Zambia. Topic-guided interviews were conducted with facility and district managers in both countries, and with health workers in Malawi. Results Facility data confirm significant scale-up in HIV/AIDS service delivery in both countries. In Malawi, this was supported by a large increase in lower trained cadres and only a modest increase in clinical staff numbers. Routine outpatient workload fell in urban facilities, in rural health centres and in facilities not providing antiretroviral treatment (ART, while it increased at district hospitals and in facilities providing ART. In Zambia, total staff and clinical staff numbers stagnated between 2004 and 2007. In rural areas, outpatient workload, which was higher than at urban facilities, increased further. Key informants described the effects of increased workloads in both countries and attributed staff migration from public health facilities to non-government facilities in Zambia to PEPFAR. Conclusions Malawi, which received large levels of GHI funding from only the Global Fund, managed to increase facility staff across all levels of the health system: urban, district and rural health facilities, supported by task-shifting to lower trained staff. The more complex GHI arena in Zambia, where both Global Fund and PEPFAR provided large levels of support, may have undermined a coordinated national workforce response to addressing health worker shortages, leading to a less effective response in rural areas.
Coast, Ernestina; Murray, Susan
Unsafe abortion is a significant, but preventable cause of maternal mortality in Zambia. We compared the trajectories of women seeking safe abortion with those receiving care following unsafe abortion. We interviewed women (n=112) accessing care in a large government hospital about their experiences. The study captured a third termination trajectory in which women received medical abortion outside the study hospital from qualified (legal) and unqualified providers. The advice ...
Coast, Ernestina; Murray, Susan
Unsafe abortion is a significant, but preventable cause of maternal mortality in Zambia. We compared the trajectories of women seeking safe abortion with those receiving care following unsafe abortion. We interviewed women (n=112) accessing care in a large government hospital about their experiences. The study captured a third termination trajectory in which women received medical abortion outside the study hospital from qualified (legal) and unqualified providers. The advice of others, perce...
Participants at a 2-day workshop on AIDS in Zambia concluded that women must openly discuss high-risk sexual behavior with their partners, if they are to protect themselves and their children. Entitled "Basic facts about AIDS," the workshop identified marital infidelity as the greatest source of risk. Last year, a study revealed that, on average, men and women in Zambia had 2-3 sexual partners outside marriage. Demographic and cultural factors also contribute to the spread of AIDS. Zambia's sexually active population is large, since people marry at a very young age. The traditional practice of "dry sex" -- intercourse that involves male penetration of a tight, dry vagina -- causes internal abrasions, thereby facilitating the transmission of HIV. Even traditional sex education undermines efforts to control the spread of AIDS, since "bamachimbusas" (traditional sex educators) counsel girls to be subservient to their husbands and "never say no." Boys receive no sex education at all. Meanwhile, Zambia faces an alarming HIV and AIDS trend, according to statistics collected by the Society for Women and AIDS (SWAAZ): in 1991, 12.5% of blood donors in Lusaka and 7.5% of donors nationwide were infected with HIV; infection among pregnant urban women ranged from 25-29%; 21% of malnourished children and 32% of children with tuberculosis are infected. Furthermore, it is estimated that by 1990, the AIDS epidemic had already orphaned 80,000 children. By the year 2000, it is believed that 1/2 million children will have lost at least one parent to the disease. PMID:12317434
Sacks, Emma; Moss, William J; Winch, Peter J.; Thuma, Philip; van Dijk, Janneke H; MULLANY, LUKE C.
Background In Choma District, southern Zambia, the neonatal mortality rate is approximately 40 per 1000 live births and, although the rate is decreasing, many deliveries take place outside of formal facilities. Understanding local practices during the postnatal period is essential for optimizing newborn care programs. Methods We conducted 36 in-depth interviews, five focus groups and eight observational sessions with recently-delivered women, traditional birth attendants, and clinic and hospi...
Mupela, Evans N; Mustarde, Paul; Jones, Huw L C
This paper is a commentary on a project application of telemedicine to alleviate primary health care problems in Lundazi district in the Eastern province of Zambia. The project dubbed 'The Virtual Doctor Project' will use hard body vehicles fitted with satellite communication devices and modern medical equipment to deliver primary health care services to some of the neediest areas of the country. The relevance and importance of the project lies in the fact that these areas are hard-to-reach due to rugged natural terrain and have very limited telecommunications infrastructure. The lack of these and other basic services makes it difficult for medical personnel to settle in these areas, which leads to an acute shortage of medical personnel. We comment on this problem and how it is addressed by 'The Virtual Doctor Project', emphasizing that while the telemedicine concept is not new in sub-Saharan Africa, the combination of mobility and connectivity to service a number of villages 'on the go' is an important variation in the shift back to the 1978 Alma Ata principles of the United Nations World Health Organization [WHO]. This overview of the Virtual Doctor Project in Zambia provides insight into both the potential for ICT, and the problems and limitations that any "real-world" articulation of this technology must confront. PMID:21569490
Full Text Available Abstract This paper is a commentary on a project application of telemedicine to alleviate primary health care problems in Lundazi district in the Eastern province of Zambia. The project dubbed 'The Virtual Doctor Project' will use hard body vehicles fitted with satellite communication devices and modern medical equipment to deliver primary health care services to some of the neediest areas of the country. The relevance and importance of the project lies in the fact that these areas are hard-to-reach due to rugged natural terrain and have very limited telecommunications infrastructure. The lack of these and other basic services makes it difficult for medical personnel to settle in these areas, which leads to an acute shortage of medical personnel. We comment on this problem and how it is addressed by 'The Virtual Doctor Project', emphasizing that while the telemedicine concept is not new in sub-Saharan Africa, the combination of mobility and connectivity to service a number of villages 'on the go' is an important variation in the shift back to the 1978 Alma Ata principles of the United Nations World Health Organization [WHO]. This overview of the Virtual Doctor Project in Zambia provides insight into both the potential for ICT, and the problems and limitations that any "real-world" articulation of this technology must confront.
Abstract Background: Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is important for effective treatment. Little is known about barriers and facilitators to ART in Zambia. The aim of the study was to gain knowledge about adherence to antiretroviral treatment among patients and health care professionals in Zambia, in order to identify interventions that may be efficient in increasing patients? adherence to antiretroviral treatment. Methods: I conducted a qualitative study in Kitwe and Masaiti d...
The following report gives the proceedings of the final workshop for the SINPA-Zambia Project held at The Ibis Gardens on the 8-9th April 2002. Four key objectives were expected to be met at the end of SINPA Zambia Project. These are: Improved capacity of the Kitwe City Council staff in strategic areas; Capacity building institutions (CBIs) specifically, CBU start running activities relevant to local government and its partners; Improvement of linkages between demand...
Zambia shares its robust economic growth and capital inflows in the past few years with other Sub-Saharan countries, growth supported by high commodity prices that while declining are still at historical high levels. High commodity prices have induced large foreign direct investment (FDI) flows, mainly in extractive industries but also in services sector, supporting growth. Zambia's mining...
Rao, Gargi P
Despite tall claims of GDP growth, Zambian Poverty remained un addressed. Zambia has drafted its first Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) in 2002-2005 and mainstreamed the successive poverty reduction strategies into the National Development Plans beginning with the Fifth National Development Plan (FNDP) 2006-2010. Zambia after independence has progressively moved southwards in terms of GDP growth and achieved the status of Highly Indebted Poor Country (HIPC). Nevertheless, Zambias prog...
Kragelund, Peter; Hampwaye, Godfrey
, and what the implications of these differences are for the chances of producing locally relevant knowledge in Africa. This is done through a case study of the newly established Confucius Institute at the University of Zambia in Lusaka, Zambia. This case enables us to further our understanding of how...... the Confucius Institute operates, how it is governed and, more importantly, how it affects the University of Zambias room for manoeuvre in determining (and funding) its own vision and strategy....
Full text: Trypanosomosis is one of the major constraints to sustainable agricultural development particularly in the traditional sector, which accounts for about 80% of the national livestock (cattle) in Zambia. The remaining 20% commercially managed herds are located in tsetse free areas. More than five-eighths of Zambia is tsetse infested, and the boundaries of tsetse infestation are not constantly monitored, indicated boundaries are only estimates. In the late 1980's it was reported by Chizyuka and colleagues, that two thirds of the country was infested with tsetse flies and 25% of the traditional herd was at risk of trypanosomosis. Currently Zambia accounts some 2.8 million cattle, a million goats, a marginal number of sheep and 0.5 million pigs. The 1999-2003 Health Statistics Report by the Ministry of Health indicated 83 cases of reported human trypanosomosis, of which 31 were children under five years and 52 were above five years of age. Between January 2003 and 25th August 2003, seven cases of human trypanosomosis have been documented from Nyimba, Luangwa, Mpika, Serenje and Mambwe districts. During the last 15 years Zambia had achieved a lot in terms of tsetse control in the country. Tsetse densities and the disease prevalence were brought down from fly densities as high as 7 fly/trap/day to as low as 0.05 fly/trap/day and trypanosomosis prevalence from as high as 20% to as low as 0% in the tsetse controlled areas. Tsetse have been controlled in approximately 50,000 km2 under projects funded by different donors in separate areas in Western, Southern, Lusaka and Eastern provinces. In recent years the country has been experiencing re-invasion of the areas that where once cleared. The main specific problems experienced from past control operations under the support of donors (EU, Belgium, the Netherlands) include among others: - Re-invasion of tsetse flies in controlled areas when maintenance activities were relaxed due to insufficient funding and inconsistent release of funds. - High costs of keeping controlled areas free of tsetse indefinitely. Small areas are difficulty to maintain free of tsetse. Management of trypanosomosis in the past decade or so has mainly been by tsetse control using bait technology (targets and treated cattle) and chemotherapy at the farmer level. These activities have been restricted to portions of the western and eastern fly belts and were under the support of donor contributions to improved livestock production in the country. Despite the considerable achievements realised from these vector control interventions, the areas of concern got re-infested with flies from neighboring areas that are not under control. Repeated control of tsetse flies in the same areas has cost Zambia huge amount of money. For example in Western Province the Government is spending about USD175,306 per year over the last 7 years to service a target barrier of 200 km in length (with approximately 6,000 targets), USD13,000 on monitoring and regulation, USD20,000 on tsetse and trypanosomosis surveys and USD 55,466 on salaries and other allowances. Local farmers are using approximately USD20,000 on trypanocides in Senanga and Shangombo districts. Altogether the total expenses per year comes up to approximately USD283,772. - Minimal regional cooperation and collaboration due to varying priorities along border areas Other problems include: - Shortage of trained and specialized manpower after donor withdraws. - Loss of manpower to HIV/AIDS. - Unclearly defined objectives of projects (objectives subject to change). It is against this background that Zambia is advocating for area-wide control of tsetse flies in the country and the region. One of the areas where this concept is being applied is the Kwando-Zambezi region where Namibia, Botswana, Angola and Zambia have common boundaries. All the four countries have agreed to eradicate tsetse in this region starting from May 2005 integrating methods (e.g. odoured baited targets, aerial spray, and SIT). The Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC)
Carasso Barbara S
Full Text Available Abstract Background User fees for primary care services were removed in rural districts in Zambia in 2006. Experience from other countries has suggested that health workers play a key role in determining the success of a fee removal policy, but also find the implementation of such a policy challenging. The policy was introduced against a backdrop of a major shortage in qualified health staff. Methods As part of a larger study on the experience and effect of user fee removal in Zambia, a number of case studies at the facility level were conducted. As part of these, quantitative and qualitative data were collected to evaluate health workers satisfaction and experiences in charging and non-charging facilities. Results Our findings show that health-care workers have mixed feelings about the policy change and its consequences. We found some evidence that personnel motivation was higher in non-charging facilities compared to facilities still charging. Yet it is unclear whether this effect was due to differences in the user fee policy or to the fact that a lot of staff interviewed in non-charging facilities were working in mission facilities, where we found a significantly higher motivation. Health workers expressed satisfaction with an apparent increase in the number of patients visiting the facilities and the removal of a deterring factor for many needy patients, but also complained about an increased workload. Furthermore, working conditions were said to have worsened, which staff felt was linked to the absence of additional resources to deal with the increased demand or replace the loss of revenue generated by fees. Conclusion These findings highlight the need to pay attention to supply-side measures when removing demand-side barriers such as user fees and in particular to be concerned about the burden that increased demand can place on already over-stretched health workers.
Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to assess the major opportunities and constraints in Zambias cotton industry. The study found that the cotton sector has considerable potential to contribute to growth and employment in Zambia as it currently accounts for direct and indirect employment of approximately 21% of the population and about 19% of agricultural Gross Domestic Product. The prominence of smallholder farmers in the sector is indicative of the income equity promotion potential of the cotton sector. However, the highly concentrated structure of the sector, with two key players currently accounting for about 80% of the total market share in ginning; the absence of regulatory mechanisms for setting of prices; the openness of the local market to global price fluctuations and the lack of support programmes as compared to competing crops like maize are major impediments to equity promotion in the sector. Overall growth of the cotton sector is also constrained by low productivity arising mostly from poor farming practices. Furthermore, increased production in major world markets due to subsidies and use of bio-technology in cotton production undermine the competitiveness of Zambias cotton in international markets. For Zambia to realize the potential of the cotton sector, interventions need to be targeted at raising farm level productivity. The government should also facilitate informed policy debate and development on critical issues such as biotechnology adoption as well as facilitating consensus between cotton buyers and farmers on price setting mechanisms.
Full Text Available High oil prices, recent commitments by industrialized countries to enhance the use of renewable energy, and efforts by developing countries to stimulate foreign investment as a pathway to development have fueled high levels of interest in the biofuel sector throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa. Zambia is no exception. A large, land-locked country with high pump prices and vast tracts of land considered by many to be degraded or underutilized, investor interest in the sector has remained high despite uncertainties associated with unproven feedstocks and market fluctuations. While investment in multiple feedstock and production models may be observed, one of the primary investments has been in jatropha outgrower schemes in which small-scale farmers grow feedstock on contract with domestic and foreign investors. We assess the history and evolution of the largest such scheme in Zambia, as well as the social and environmental impacts in two districts with large numbers of outgrowers. Findings suggest that, although such a production model may hold promise for enhancing rural livelihood benefits from the emerging biofuel sector, to date, small-scale farmers have borne the brunt of the risk and uncertainty that are the trademarks of this emerging industry. We conclude with a discussion of options to minimize forest conversion and protect farmers against high-risk investments, while harnessing the potential of this business model for enhancing rural livelihoods in Zambia and elsewhere.
Instances of economic benefits which are likely to be considered when introducing food irradiation as an industrial and commercial food processing method in Zambia are discussed from a point of view of increasing both the local and external marketing potential of various local food commodities. The present status of the food irradiation programme is also briefly discussed. (author)
The study education and training of accountants in Anglophone Africa examines the problems facing the accounting profession and identifies examples of best practice. One such example is the Zambia Centre for Accountancy Studies (ZCAS). The objective of this study is to address the problem of an acute shortage of qualified accountants. ZCAS was established in 1988 with support from the Euro...
Zambia is endowed with a vast feed resource base for animal production purposes. However, the feed resource base is not fully utilised and this is manifested by low livestock productivity. The quality and production levels of animal products depend largely on the quality and quantity of feed, which is fed to the livestock. Among the constraints limiting livestock productivity in Zambia, insufficient and low quality of veld grass, particularly during the long dry season (March-November) is responsible for low production levels and poor reproductive performance in ruminants. The problem of inadequate veld grass can be overcome by feeding crop residues which are in abundance during the dry season. Zambia produces large quantities of sugarcane tops, bagasse and straws from maize, sorghum, wheat, millet and rice. These could sustain livestock productivity if supplemented with protein sources or treated with urea. Despite the production of large quantities of crop residues, these are wasted by burning or get destroyed by termites. There is a need, therefore, to develop feeding systems based on crop residues which are compatible with the farming systems in Zambia and to promote such feeding systems. (author)
Chongo, Mkhuzo; A. Nyambe, Imasiku; Larsen, Flemming
water lens overlying the saline aquifer at Kasaya in Kazungula District, Zambia. The freshwater lens appeared to be in hydraulic contact with the Zambezi River where it was thickest (60 m) and had the highest electrical resistivity values (about 200 â¦m) which steadily declined to about 30 â¦m whereas the...... interact with the saline aquifers in places to create freshwater lenses that are an important source of clean drinking water. Therefore, the findings of this thesis will need to be augmented with data and further research from other geoscience disciplines such as surface water hydrology, geochemistry...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and the second leading cause of mortality in Zambia. Perceptions of fairness and legitimacy of decisions relating to treatment of malaria cases within public health facilities and distribution of ITNs were assessed in a district in Zambia. The study was conducted within the framework of REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT, a north-south collaborative action research study, which evaluates the Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR approach to priority setting in Zambia, Tanzania and Kenya. Methods This paper is based on baseline in-depth interviews (IDIs conducted with 38 decision-makers, who were involved in prioritization of malaria services and ITN distribution at district, facility and community levels in Zambia, one Focus Group Discussion (FGD with District Health Management Team managers and eight FGDs with outpatients' attendees. Perceptions and attitudes of providers and users and practices of providers were systematized according to the four AFR conditions relevance, publicity, appeals and leadership. Results Conflicting criteria for judging fairness were used by decision-makers and patients. Decision-makers argued that there was fairness in delivery of malaria treatment and distribution of ITNs based on alleged excessive supply of free malaria medicines, subsidized ITNs, and presence of a qualified health-provider in every facility. Patients argued that there was unfairness due to differences in waiting time, distances to health facilities, erratic supply of ITNs, no responsive appeal mechanisms, inadequate access to malaria medicines, ITNs and health providers, and uncaring providers. Decision-makers only perceived government bodies and donors/NGOs to be legitimate stakeholders to involve during delivery. Patients found government bodies, patients, indigenous healers, chiefs and politicians to be legitimate stakeholders during both planning and delivery. Conclusion Poor status of the AFR conditions of relevance, publicity, appeals and leadership corresponds well to the differing perceptions of fairness and unfairness among outpatient attendees and decision-makers. This may have been re-enforced by existing disagreements between the two groups regarding who the legitimate stakeholders to involve during service delivery were. Conflicts identified in this study could be resolved by promoting application of approaches such as AFR during priority setting in the district.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria in Zambia accounts for about 4 million clinical cases and 8 000 deaths annually. Artemether-lumefantrine (ACT, a relatively expensive drug, is being used as first line treatment of uncomplicated malaria. However, diagnostic capacity in Zambia is low, leading to potentially avoidable wastage of drugs due to unnecessary anti malarial treatment. Methods A cost-effectiveness evaluation of the three current alternatives to malaria diagnosis (clinical, microscopy and Rapid Diagnostic Tests- RDT was conducted in 12 facilities from 4 districts in Zambia. The analysis was conducted along an observational study, thus reflecting practice in health facilities under routine conditions. Average and incremental cost effectiveness ratios were estimated from the providers' perspective. Effectiveness was measured in relation to malaria cases correctly diagnosed by each strategy. Results Average cost-effectiveness ratios show that RDTs were more efficient (US$ 6.5 than either microscopy (US$ 11.9 or clinical diagnosis (US$ 17.1 for malaria case correctly diagnosed. In relation to clinical diagnoses the incremental cost per case correctly diagnosed and treated was US$ 2.6 and US$ 9.6 for RDT and microscopy respectively. RDTs would be much cheaper to scale up than microscopy. The findings were robust to changes in assumptions and various parameters. Conclusion RDTs were the most cost effective method at correctly diagnosing malaria in primary health facilities in Zambia when compared to clinical and microscopy strategies. However, the treatment prescription practices of the health workers can impact on the potential that a diagnostic test has to lead to savings on antimalarials. The results of this study will serve to inform policy makers on which alternatives will be most efficient in reducing malaria misdiagnosis by taking into account both the costs and effects of each strategy.
Shawa, Sheila Tamara; Mwase, Enala T.; Pedersen, Erling MÃ¸ller; Simonsen, Paul Erik
individuals aged â¥ 1 year were registered. The CFA prevalence increased with age from 1.2% in age group 1-14 years to 20.6% in age group 50+ years (overall 8.6%). Wuchereria bancrofti mf were identified in 10.9% of CFA positive individuals (corresponding to a community prevalence of 0.9%). Prevalence and...... intensity of Bm14 antibodies were much higher in individuals â¥ 30 years than in younger individuals (57.2 vs. 19.3%; 0.594 vs. 0.241 OD-values). Elephantiasis and hydrocele were well known clinical manifestations in the area, but only one case of hydrocele was detected in the study population. Identified...... adult worm infection) and antibodies to Bm14 antigen (marker of exposure to transmission), were carried out during the daytime. Blood from CFA positive individuals was examined for microfilariae (mf) at night. Vector surveys were carried out in selected households, using light traps. Results: 985...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration In conjunction with the AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) participation in SAFARI 2000, the USDA Forest Service deployed handheld hazemeters in western Zambia from...
Abstract Background Considerable attention has been given by policy makers and researchers to the human resources for health crisis in Africa. However, little attention has been paid to quantifying health facility-level trends in health worker numbers, distribution and workload, despite growing demands on health workers due to the availability of new funds for HIV\\/AIDS control scale-up. This study analyses and reports trends in HIV and non-HIV ambulatory service workloads on clinical staff in urban and rural district level facilities. Methods Structured surveys of health facility managers, and health services covering 2005-07 were conducted in three districts of Zambia in 2008 (two urban and one rural), to fill this evidence gap. Intra-facility analyses were conducted, comparing trends in HIV and non-HIV service utilisation with staff trends. Results Clinical staff (doctors, nurses and nurse-midwives, and clinical officers) numbers and staff population densities fell slightly, with lower ratios of staff to population in the rural district. The ratios of antenatal care and family planning registrants to nurses\\/nurse-midwives were highest at baseline and increased further at the rural facilities over the three years, while daily outpatient department (OPD) workload in urban facilities fell below that in rural facilities. HIV workload, as measured by numbers of clients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) per facility staff member, was highest in the capital city, but increased rapidly in all three districts. The analysis suggests evidence of task sharing, in that staff designated by managers as ART and PMTCT workers made up a higher proportion of frontline service providers by 2007. Conclusions This analysis of workforce patterns across 30 facilities in three districts of Zambia illustrates that the remarkable achievements in scaling-up HIV\\/AIDS service delivery has been on the back of sustained non-HIV workload levels, increasing HIV workload and stagnant health worker numbers. The findings are based on an analysis of routine data that are available to district and national managers. Mixed methods research is needed, combining quantitative analyses of routine health information with follow-up qualitative interviews, to explore and explain workload changes, and to identify and measure where problems are most acute, so that decision makers can respond appropriately. This study provides quantitative evidence of a human resource crisis in health facilities in Zambia, which may be more acute in rural areas.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable attention has been given by policy makers and researchers to the human resources for health crisis in Africa. However, little attention has been paid to quantifying health facility-level trends in health worker numbers, distribution and workload, despite growing demands on health workers due to the availability of new funds for HIV/AIDS control scale-up. This study analyses and reports trends in HIV and non-HIV ambulatory service workloads on clinical staff in urban and rural district level facilities. Methods Structured surveys of health facility managers, and health services covering 2005-07 were conducted in three districts of Zambia in 2008 (two urban and one rural, to fill this evidence gap. Intra-facility analyses were conducted, comparing trends in HIV and non-HIV service utilisation with staff trends. Results Clinical staff (doctors, nurses and nurse-midwives, and clinical officers numbers and staff population densities fell slightly, with lower ratios of staff to population in the rural district. The ratios of antenatal care and family planning registrants to nurses/nurse-midwives were highest at baseline and increased further at the rural facilities over the three years, while daily outpatient department (OPD workload in urban facilities fell below that in rural facilities. HIV workload, as measured by numbers of clients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT per facility staff member, was highest in the capital city, but increased rapidly in all three districts. The analysis suggests evidence of task sharing, in that staff designated by managers as ART and PMTCT workers made up a higher proportion of frontline service providers by 2007. Conclusions This analysis of workforce patterns across 30 facilities in three districts of Zambia illustrates that the remarkable achievements in scaling-up HIV/AIDS service delivery has been on the back of sustained non-HIV workload levels, increasing HIV workload and stagnant health worker numbers. The findings are based on an analysis of routine data that are available to district and national managers. Mixed methods research is needed, combining quantitative analyses of routine health information with follow-up qualitative interviews, to explore and explain workload changes, and to identify and measure where problems are most acute, so that decision makers can respond appropriately. This study provides quantitative evidence of a human resource crisis in health facilities in Zambia, which may be more acute in rural areas.
Descriptive models, grade-tonnage relations, and databases for the assessment of sediment-hosted copper deposits: with emphasis on deposits in the Central Africa Copperbelt, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia: Chapter J in Global mineral resource assessment
Taylor, Cliff D.; Causey, J. Douglas; Denning, Paul D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Horton, John D.; Kirschbaum, Michael J.; Parks, Heather L.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Zientek, Michael L.
The Central African Copperbelt (CACB) is one of the most important copper-producing regions of the world. The majority of copper produced in Africa comes from this region defined by the Neoproterozoic Katanga sedimentary basin of the southern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and northern Zambia. Copper in the CACB is mined from sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits associated with red beds and includes the giant deposits in the Kolwezi and Tenge-Fungurume districts in the DRC and the Konkola-Musoshi and Nchanga-Chingola districts in Zambia. In recent years, sediment-hosted structurally controlled replacement and vein (SCRV) copper deposits, such as the giant Kansanshi deposit in Zambia have become important exploration targets in the CACB region.
Mweene, A S; Pandey, G S; Sinyangwe, P; Nambota, A; Samui, K; Kida, H
This review is to provide information on viral diseases of livestock in Zambia. The distribution of the diseases as well as the control measures and limited research that has been done, are described. Foot and mouth disease (FMD) causes serious economic losses in the cattle industry. So far five serotypes (SAT1, SAT2, SAT3, O and At of FMD virus have been isolated in Zambia. Other notifiable viral diseases are rabies, Rift Valley fever, Lumpy skin disease, African horse sickness, bluetongue, African swine fever, Newcastle disease, Marek's disease, fowlpox and infectious bursal disease. Based on the reports of clinical and/or serological diagnoses, these are widespread in the country, although their precise incidence rates are not known. With the establishment of a veterinary school equipped with modern diagnostic facilities and the increasing number of qualified veterinary personnel, this review would stimulate surveillance study on the viral diseases for the ultimate goal of achieving effective disease control measures. PMID:8870389
Ratnam, A V; Din, S N; Hira, S. K.; Bhat, G. J.; Wacha, D S; Rukmini, A; Mulenga, R C
Because of the high incidence of congenital syphilis at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia, the potential risks of congenital infection and fetal loss due to syphilis were assessed by screening 202 antenatal patients, 340 pregnant women admitted to the hospital whose pregnancies ended in either spontaneous abortion or stillbirth, and 469 consecutive babies delivered at the hospital. Primary serological screening was performed with the rapid plasma reagin test, and reactive sera ...
This reports details the technical evaluation of ceramic clays collected during visits to Zambia in 1990 and 1991 by the author (Clive Mitchell). The clay samples included: Choma kaolin (Southern Province), Twapia kaolin (Copperbelt Province), Kapiri Mposhi kaolin (Central Province), Masenche clay (Northern Province), Leula clay, Misenga clay and Chikankata clay (Southern Province). The Choma kaolin was asessed to be an excellent source of ceramic-grade kaolin. The Twapia and Kapiri Mposhi ka...
Kandala, Ngianga-bakwin; Ji, Chen; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Stones, William
Abstract Population surveys of health and fertility are an important source of information about demographic trends and their likely impact on the HIV/AIDS epidemic. In contrast to groups sampled at health facilities they can provide nationally and regionally representative estimates of a range of variables. Data on HIV sero-status were collected in the 2001-2 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS) and made available in a separate data file in which HIV status was linked to a ...
Zambia being part of the world community clearly understands that careless handling of radioactive waste would cause problems - worldwide - for human health, for the environment and natural resources management. It is for this reason that the Radiation Protection Board has initiated a Radioactive Waste Management Programme covering the following areas: (i) Legislation of Radioactive Waste Management; (ii) Immobilization of spent sealed radioactive sources; and (iii) Siting and construction of an interim storage facility. (author)
The paper discusses the results of Uranium content analyses of samples collected on a country wide survey using fluorimetry.The analysis of the survey samples and based on the threshold of 3.0 ppm U established three possible Uranium provinces in Zambia,namely: the Bangweulu; the Kabwe-Mkushi; and in scattered pockets in the Petauke,Chipata,Lundazi,Kasempa,Mwinilunga,Mumbwa and Mpika areas.13 refs.,fig.,3 maps
Mapoma, Christopher C.; Masaiti, Gift
This paper reflects part of the wider outlook on ageing in general in Zambia and was intended to investigate perceptions of and attitudes towards the aged and ageing in Zambia by members of the community who, by definition and chronologically are not classified as aged i.e. not yet 60 years and over. Focus Group Discussions (FGD) were used to
Lindsey, Peter A.; Nyirenda, Vincent R.; Barnes, Jonathan I.; Becker, Matthew S.; McRobb, Rachel; Tambling, Craig J.; Taylor, W. Andrew; Watson, Frederick G.; tSas-Rolfes, Michael
Many African protected areas (PAs) are not functioning effectively. We reviewed the performance of Zambias PA network and provide insights into how their effectiveness might be improved. Zambias PAs are under-performing in ecological, economic and social terms. Reasons include: a) rapidly expanding human populations, poverty and open-access systems in Game Management Areas (GMAs) resulting in widespread bushmeat poaching and habitat encroachment; b) underfunding of the Zambia Wildlife Autho...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Theileriosis, caused by Theileria parva, is an economically important disease in Africa. It is a major constraint to the development of the livestock industry in some parts of eastern, central and southern Africa. In Zambia, theileriosis causes losses of up to 10,000 cattle annually. Methods Cattle blood samples were collected for genetic analysis of Theileria parva from Isoka and Petauke districts in Zambia. Microsatellite analysis was then performed on all Theileria parva positive samples for PCR using a panel of 9 microsatellite markers. Microsatellite data was analyzed using microsatellite toolkit, GenAlEx ver. 6, Fstat ver. 18.104.22.168, and LIAN computer softwares. Results The combined percentage of positive samples in both districts determined by PCR using the p104 gene primers was 54.9% (95% CI: 46.7 63.1%, 78/142, while in each district, it was 44.8% (95% CI: 34.8 54.8% and 76.1% (95% CI = 63.9 88.4% for Isoka and Petauke districts, respectively. We analyzed the population genetic structure of Theileria parva from a total of 61 samples (33 from Isoka and 28 from Petauke using a panel of 9 microsatellite markers encompassing the 4 chromosomes of Theileria parva. Wrights F index (FST = 0.178 showed significant differentiation between the Isoka and Petauke populations. Linkage disequilibrium was observed when populations from both districts were treated as a single population. When analyzed separately, linkage disequilibrium was observed in Kanyelele and Kalembe areas in Isoka district, Isoka district overall and in Petauke district. Petauke district had a higher multiplicity of infection than Isoka district. Conclusion Population genetic analyses of Theileria parva from Isoka and Petauke districts showed a low level of genotype exchange between the districts, but a high level of genetic diversity within each district population, implying genetic and geographic sub-structuring between the districts. The sub-structuring observed, along with the lack of panmixia in the populations, could have been due to low transmission levels at the time of sampling. However, the Isoka population was less diverse than the Petauke population.
Full Text Available Filoviral haemorrhagic fevers (FVHF are caused by agents belonging to Filoviridae family, Ebola and Marburg viruses. They are amongst the most lethal pathogens known to infect humans. Incidence of FVHF outbreaks are increasing, with affected number of patients on the rise. Whilst there has been no report yet of FVHF in Zambia, its proximity to Angola and Democratic Republic of Congo, which have recorded major outbreaks, as well as the open borders, increased trade and annual migration of bats between these countries, puts Zambia at present and increased risk. Previous studies have indicated bats as potential reservoir hosts for filoviruses. An increasing population with an increasing demand for resources has forced incursion into previously uninhabited land, potentially bringing them into contact with unknown pathogens, reservoir hosts and/or amplifying hosts. The recent discovery of a novel arenavirus, Lujo, highlights the potential that every region, including Zambia, has for being the epicentre or primary focus for emerging and re-emerging infections. It is therefore imperative that surveillance for potential emerging infections, such as viral haemorrhagic fevers be instituted. In order to accomplish this surveillance, rapid detection, identification and monitoring of agents in patients and potential reservoirs is needed. International co-operation is the strategy of choice for the surveillance and fight against emerging infections. Due to the extensive area in which filoviral infections can occur, a regional approach to surveillance activities is required, with regional referral centres. There is a need to adopt shared policies for the prevention and control of infectious diseases. There is also need for optimisation of currently available tests and development of new diagnostic tests, in order to have robust, highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tests that can be used even where there are inadequate laboratories and diagnostic services.
Somwe Wa Somwe
Full Text Available Abstract Problem In 2008, the prevalence of paediatric asthma in Zambia was unknown and the national treatment guideline was outdated. Approach We created an international partnership between Zambian clinicians, the Zambian Government and a pharmaceutical company to address shortcomings in asthma treatment. We did two studies, one to estimate prevalence in the capital of Lusaka and one to assess attitudes and practices of patients. Based on the information obtained, we educated health workers and the public. The information from the studies was also used to modernize government policy for paediatric asthma management. Local setting The health-care system in Zambia is primarily focused on acute care delivery with a focus on infectious diseases. Comprehensive services for noncommunicable diseases are lacking. Asthma management relies on treatment of acute exacerbations instead of disease control. Relevant changes Seven percent of children surveyed had asthma (255/3911. Of the 120 patients interviewed, most (82/120, 68% used oral short-acting ?2-agonists for symptom control; almost half (59/120, 49% did not think the symptoms were preventable and 43% (52/120 thought inhalers were addictive. These misconceptions informed broad-based educational programmes. We used a train-the-trainer model to educate health-care workers and ran public awareness campaigns. Access to inhalers was increased and the Zambian standard treatment guideline for paediatric asthma was revised to include steroid inhalers as a control treatment. Lessons learnt Joint activities were required to change paediatric asthma care in Zambia. Success will depend on local sustainability, and it may be necessary to shift resources to mirror the disease burden.
Jumbe-Marsden, Emilia; Mateyo, Kondwelani; Senkwe, Mutale Nsakashalo; Sotomayor-Ruiz, Maria; Musuku, John; Soriano, Joan B; Ancochea, Julio; Fishman, Mark C
Abstract Problem In 2008, the prevalence of paediatric asthma in Zambia was unknown and the national treatment guideline was outdated. Approach We created an international partnership between Zambian clinicians, the Zambian Government and a pharmaceutical company to address shortcomings in asthma treatment. We did two studies, one to estimate prevalence in the capital of Lusaka and one to assess attitudes and practices of patients. Based on the information obtained, we educated health workers and the public. The information from the studies was also used to modernize government policy for paediatric asthma management. Local setting The health-care system in Zambia is primarily focused on acute care delivery with a focus on infectious diseases. Comprehensive services for noncommunicable diseases are lacking. Asthma management relies on treatment of acute exacerbations instead of disease control. Relevant changes Seven percent of children surveyed had asthma (255/3911). Of the 120 patients interviewed, most (82/120, 68%) used oral short-acting ?2-agonists for symptom control; almost half (59/120, 49%) did not think the symptoms were preventable and 43% (52/120) thought inhalers were addictive. These misconceptions informed broad-based educational programmes. We used a train-the-trainer model to educate health-care workers and ran public awareness campaigns. Access to inhalers was increased and the Zambian standard treatment guideline for paediatric asthma was revised to include steroid inhalers as a control treatment. Lessons learnt Joint activities were required to change paediatric asthma care in Zambia. Success will depend on local sustainability, and it may be necessary to shift resources to mirror the disease burden.
Radioactive materials have been in use in Zambia for a long time and its applications are non-military and mostly are used in medicine, research, teaching and industry. Radioactive waste management practices have been confined mainly to collection and storage of radioactive wastes in temporal storage facilities or strong rooms. With the proposed establishment of the Radiotherapy Centre, the increase of radioactive materials in the country's hospitals, research centres and industries, the volume and types of radioactive wastes on the whole is expected to increase requiring a well defined radiation infrastructure. (author)
Rasmussen, Jon B; Thomsen, Jakúp A; Rossing, Peter; Parkinson, Shelagh; Christensen, Dirk Lund; Bygbjerg, Ib C
OBJECTIVE: To assess albuminuria in rural Zambia among patients with diabetes mellitus only (DM group), hypertension only (HTN group) and patients with combined DM and HTN (DM/HTN group). METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at St. Francis Hospital in the Eastern province of Zambia.......0006) differed between the three groups. CONCLUSION: This hospital-based survey in rural Zambia found a lower frequency of albuminuria among the participants than in previous studies of patients with DM or HTN in urban sub-Saharan Africa....
Sacks, Emma; Vail, Daniel; Austin-Evelyn, Katherine; Greeson, Dana; Atuyambe, Lynn M; Macwan'gi, Mubiana; Kruk, Margaret E; GrÃ©pin, Karen A
Transportation is an important barrier to accessing obstetric care for many pregnant and postpartum women in low-resource settings, particularly in rural areas. However, little is known about how pregnant women travel to health facilities in these settings. We conducted 1633 exit surveys with women who had a recent facility delivery and 48 focus group discussions with women who had either a home or a facility birth in the past year in eight districts in Uganda and Zambia. Quantitative data were analysed using univariate statistics, and qualitative data were analysed using thematic content analysis techniques. On average, women spent 62-68âmin travelling to a clinic for delivery. Very different patterns in modes of transport were observed in the two countries: 91% of Ugandan women employed motorized forms of transportation, while only 57% of women in Zambia did. Motorcycle taxis were the most commonly used in Uganda, while cars, trucks and taxis were the most commonly used mode of transportation in Zambia. Lower-income women were less likely to use motorized modes of transportation: in Zambia, women in the poorest quintile took 94âmin to travel to a health facility, compared with 34 for the wealthiest quintile; this difference between quintiles was â¼50âmin in Uganda. Focus group discussions confirmed that transport is a major challenge due to a number of factors we categorized as the 'three A's:' affordability, accessibility and adequacy of transport options. Women reported that all of these factors had influenced their decision not to deliver in a health facility. The two countries had markedly different patterns of transportation for obstetric care, and modes of transport and travel times varied dramatically by wealth quintile, which policymakers need to take into account when designing obstetric transport interventions. PMID:26135364
Mwase, Enala T; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Nsakashalo-Senkwe, Mutale; Mubila, Likezo; Mwansa, James; Songolo, Peter; Shawa, Sheila T.; Simonsen, Paul Erik
BACKGROUND: Past case reports have indicated that lymphatic filariasis (LF) occurs in Zambia, but knowledge about its geographical distribution and prevalence pattern, and the underlying potential environmental drivers, has been limited. As a background for planning and implementation of control,...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration This data set contains tree ring data from three sites located about 25 km of the meteorological station at Mongu, Zambia. Data from about 50 individual trees are...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration ABSTRACT: This data set contains tree ring data from three sites located about 25 km of the meteorological station at Mongu, Zambia. Data from about 50 individual...
Chama-Chiliba, Chitalu Miriam
This thesis investigates the utilisation of maternal health care in Zambia, where despite being a signatory to the Safe Motherhood Initiative and Millennium Development Goals, which are aimed at improving maternal health, indicators of maternal health continue to perform poorly. The need to understand crucial factors in improving maternal health motivated the current research, especially since there is a dearth of literature in this area in Zambia. The thesis focuses on two aspects of materna...
Maimbo, Samuel Munzele; Mavrotas, George
The paper explores the relationship between financial sector reforms and savings mobilization in Zambia. Although there exists an extensive literature on financial sector development and savings levels in developing countries, there does not seem to exist satisfactory work on the above nexus for sub-Saharan African countries, particularly Zambia. Along these lines, the paper examines the linkages between the financial reforms of the early 1990s and savings mobilization. It considers the chara...
Ludi, Kirsten L.
In order to be able to suggest viable solutions to the overwhelming problem of poverty on the African continent, it is first necessary to know exactly what is causing that poverty. It is the intention of this paper to measure welfare in Zambia, via an estimated consumption function, and then to compare this estimated consumption to the levels of poverty, or subsistence level consumption expenditure, in Zambia. The objective is to understand the underlying determinants and depth...
The papers presented at this meeting dealt with an international comparison of district heating, the Swiss district heating network, political aspects of nuclear district heating, nuclear and non-nuclear sources for district heating. 17 figs., 6 tabs
Chibamba Mwansakilwa; Gelson Tembo; Johnny Mugisha
This study investigates the determinants of growth and competitiveness of Zambias flower exports to three main export destinationsthe Netherlands, the UK and Germanyusing annual time series data from 1990 to 2010. Acknowledging that time series data are often nonstationary, leading to misleading economic analyses, the study employs cointegration and error correction models to establish factors of conditions growth and competitiveness of Zambias flower exports. The results...
Binsbergen, van, PRM
Aim of this volume, which brings together seven studies of religious change in Zambia, is to describe the processes of religious change in this country during the last few centuries. These studies are: 1) Towards a theory of religious change in Central Africa. 2) Possession and mediumship in Zambia: towards a comparative approach. 3) Explorations in the history and sociology of territorial cults in Zambia. 4) Religious change and the problem of evil in Western Zambia. 5) Regional and non-regi...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria vector control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and indoor residual spraying (IRS, with pyrethroids and DDT, to reduce malaria transmission has been expansively implemented in Zambia. The impact of these interventions on malaria morbidity and mortality has not previously been formally assessed at the population level in Zambia. Methods The impact of IRS (15 urban districts and LLINs (15 rural districts implementation on severe malaria cases, deaths and case fatality rates in children below the age of five years were compared. Zambian national Health Management Information System data from 2007 to 2008 were retrospectively analysed to assess the epidemiological impact of the two interventions using odds ratios to compare the pre-scaling up year 2007 with the scaling-up year 2008. Results Overall there were marked reductions in morbidity and mortality, with cases, deaths and case fatality rates (CFR of severe malaria decreasing by 31%, 63% and 62%, respectively between 2007 and 2008. In urban districts with IRS introduction there was a significant reduction in mortality (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.31-0.43, P = 0.015, while the reduction in mortality in rural districts with LLINs implementation was not significant (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.67-1.04, P = 0.666. A similar pattern was observed for case fatality rates with a significant reduction in urban districts implementing IRS (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.33-0.36, P = 0.005, but not in rural districts implementing LLINs (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.91-1.00, P = 0.913. No substantial difference was detected in overall reduction of malaria cases between districts implementing IRS and LLINs (P = 0.933. Conclusion Routine surveillance data proved valuable for determining the temporal effects of malaria control with two strategies, IRS and LLINs on severe malaria disease in different types of Zambian districts. However, this analysis did not take into account the effect of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT, which were being scaled up countrywide in both rural and urban districts.
Kiru Sichoongwe; Lawrence Mapemba; Gelson Tembo; Davies Ngongola
Agriculture is vital to Zambias economic development and is a mainstay for the livelihoods of a large proportion of the population. Agricultural production is mainly dependent on rain-fed hoe cultivation with maize as the principal staple food crop. About 18 percent of national maize production comes from Zambias Southern province. In order to improve food security and minimize risks associated with heavy dependence on maize, the government of Zambia has been promoting crop diversification....
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) This layer represents the Arkansas State House of Representatives district boundaries adopted by the Arkansas Board of Apportionment on July 29, 2011. The Board of...
Kandala, N-B; Ji, C; Cappuccio, P F; Stones, R W
Population surveys of health and fertility are an important source of information about demographic trends and their likely impact on the HIV/AIDS epidemic. In contrast to groups sampled at health facilities they can provide nationally and regionally representative estimates of a range of variables. Data on HIV-sero-status were collected in the 2001 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS) and made available in a separate data file in which HIV status was linked to a very limited set of demographic variables. We utilized this data set to examine associations between HIV prevalence, gender, age and geographical location. We applied the generalized geo-additive semi-parametric model as an alternative to the common linear model, in the context of analyzing the prevalence of HIV infection. This model enabled us to account for spatial auto-correlation, non-linear, location effects on the prevalence of HIV infection at the disaggregated provincial level (nine provinces) and assess temporal and geographical variation in the prevalence of HIV infection, while simultaneously controlling for important risk factors. Of the overall sample of 3950, 54% was female. The overall HIV-positivity rate was 565 (14.3%). The mean age at HIV diagnosis for male was 30.3 (SD=11.2) and 27.7 (SD=9.3) for female respectively. Lusaka and Copperbelt have the first and second highest prevalence of AIDS/HIV (marginal odds ratios of 3.24 and 2.88, respectively) but when the younger age of the urban population and the spatial auto-correlation was taken into account, Lusaka and Copperbelt were no longer among the areas with the highest prevalence. Non-linear effects of age at HIV diagnosis are also discussed and the importance of spatial residual effects and control of confounders on the prevalence of HIV infection. The study was conducted to assess the spatial pattern and the effect of confounding risk factors on AIDS/HIV prevalence and to develop a means of adjusting estimates of AIDS/HIV prevalence on the important risk factors. Controlling for important risk factors, such as geographical location (spatial auto-correlation), age structure of the population and gender, gave estimates of prevalence that are statistically robust. Researchers should be encouraged to use all available information in the data to account for important risk factors when reporting AIDS/HIV prevalence. Where this is not possible, correction factors should be applied, particularly where estimates of AIDS/HIV prevalence are pooled in systematic reviews. Our maps can be used for policy planning and management of AIDS/HIV in Zambia. PMID:18608086
Shitima, Mwepya Ephraim
Forest Conservation and Peoples Livelihoods: Explaining Encroachment on Zambias Protected Forest Landscapes - The Case Of Mwekera National Forest, Kitwe, Copperbelt Abstract The conflicts between conservation objectives and the livelihood needs of local communities are intricate and difficult to resolve and yet the success of any conservation effort hinges on their solution. This is particularly true in forest conservation in Third World countries like Zambia, where rural populations depend...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Zambia adopted integrated management of Childhood illnesses (IMCI in 1995 and a number of adaptations have been made to the generic WHO/UNICEF IMCI guidelines to better conform to Zambia's health service needs. One significant adaptation is the incorporation of HIV guidelines into the IMCI algorithm. Since 2004, health workers that have undergone IMCI case management training have also received training in HIV assessment. During initial follow-up visits in 11 districts 90 health workers were assessed in 2007 to determine their adherence to the IMCI algorithm. The assessment showed that 97% of the health workers assessed did not review or mention the HIV guidelines even though they had received HIV training as part of IMCI. This study aimed to explore reasons for non-adherence to HIV guidelines in the IMCI algorithm and make recommendations on how this can be improved. Methods Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to collect information from eligible health workers. Forty (40 health workers were randomly selected from among those who received initial follow-up visits between March 2007 and January 2008. The health workers were selected from eight districts in four provinces of Zambia. Qualitative data was collected using Focus group discussion and key informant interviews Results 83% of the respondents said they had no difficulties in following the HIV adapted IMCI guidelines. 17% said they had difficulties. Of those who admitted having difficulties (60% had difficulties in HIV assessment. Interesting, prompting and focus group discussions revealed that most respondents actually had difficulties in HIV assessment but could not admit it readily. Some barriers that contributed to non-adherence to the guidelines included lack of time due to inadequate staffing, lack of privacy in the health facilities and HIV related stigma from both caregivers and health workers. Frequent use of guidelines and supervision appeared to re-enforce adherence to the guidelines. Conclusion The findings in this study suggest that training in HIV adapted IMCI guidelines is not sufficient to enable health workers to actually use their knowledge in their daily practice. Barriers may exist which prevent them from adhering to the guidelines. Addressing these barriers is critical in increasing the uptake of paediatric ART in Zambia
Hang'ombe, B M; Isogai, E; Lungu, J; Mubita, C; Nambota, A; Kirisawa, R; Kimura, K; Isogai, H
In the retrospective study of soil-borne diseases of cattle in Zambia, malignant edema and blackquarter were widespread. One hundred and sixty-five cases with malignant edema and 103 cases with blackquarter were reported between 1985 and 1997. It was found that specific soil-conditions associate the emergence of the soil-borne diseases. Soil samples from five areas in Zambia were examined for the presence of genus Clostridium. Direct immunofluorescent assay (IFA) examination showed that C. septicum, C. novyi and C. chauvoei were detected in the soil of specific areas in Zambia, respectively. Causal organisms such as C. perfringens were isolated from the soil samples. The information of area-specific distribution of Clositridium species may give an efficient program in protecting cattle and man. PMID:11038129
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity, mortality and non-fatal disability in Zambia, especially among children, pregnant women and the poor. Data gathered by the National Malaria Control Centre has shown that recently observed widespread treatment failure of SP and chloroquine precipitated a surge in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. As a result, the Government has recently replaced chloroquine and SP with combination therapy as first-line treatment for malaria. Despite the acclaimed therapeutic advantages of ACTs over monotherapies with SP and CQ, the cost of ACTs is much greater, raising concerns about affordability in many poor countries such as Zambia. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness analysis of artemether-lumefantrine, a version of ACTs adopted in Zambia in mid 2004. Methods Using data gathered from patients presenting at public health facilities with suspected malaria, the costs and effects of using ACTs versus SP as first-line treatment for malaria were estimated. The study was conducted in six district sites. Treatment success and reduction in demand for second line treatment constituted the main effectiveness outcomes. The study gathered data on the efficacy of, and compliance to, AL and SP treatment from a random sample of patients. Costs are based on estimated drug, labour, operational and capital inputs. Drug costs were based on dosages and unit prices provided by the Ministry of Health and the manufacturer (Norvatis. Findings The results suggest that AL produces successful treatment at less cost than SP, implying that AL is more cost-effective. While it is acknowledged that implementing national ACT program will require considerable resources, the study demonstrates that the health gains (treatment success from every dollar spent are significantly greater if AL is used rather than SP. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is estimated to be US$4.10. When the costs of second line treatment are considered the ICER of AL becomes negative, indicating that there are greater resource savings associated with AL in terms of reduction of costs of complicated malaria treatment. Conclusion This study suggests the decision to adopt AL is justifiable on both economic and public health grounds.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the task-shifting taking place in health centres and district hospitals in Mozambique and Zambia. The objectives of this study were to identify the perceived causes and factors facilitating or impeding task-shifting, and to determine both the positive and negative consequences of task-shifting for the service users, for the services and for health workers. Methods Data collection involved individual and group interviews and focus group discussions with health workers from the civil service. Results In both the Republic of Mozambique and the Republic of Zambia, health workers have to practice beyond the traditional scope of their professional practice to cope with their daily tasks. They do so to ensure that their patients receive the level of care that they, the health workers, deem due to them, even in the absence of written instructions. The out of professional scope activities consume a significant amount of working time. On occasions, health workers are given on-the-job training to assume new roles, but job titles and rewards do not change, and career progression is unheard of. Ancillary staff and nurses are the two cadres assuming a greater diversity of functions as a result of improvised task-shifting. Conclusions Our observations show that the consequences of staff deficits and poor conditions of work include heavier workloads for those on duty, the closure of some services, the inability to release staff for continuing education, loss of quality, conflicts with patients, risks for patients, unsatisfied staff (with the exception of ancillary staff and hazards for health workers and managers. Task-shifting is openly acknowledged and widespread, informal and carries risks for patients, staff and management.
Hanjra, Munir A; Culas, Richard J
Poverty and food security are endemic issues in much of sub-Saharan Africa. To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger in the region remains a key Millennium Development Goal. Many African governments have pursued economic reforms and agricultural policy interventions in order to accelerate economic growth that reduces poverty faster. Agricultural policy regimes in Zambia in the last 50 years (19642008) are examined here to better understand their likely impact on food security and poverty, with an emphasis on the political economy of maize subsidy policies. The empirical work draws on secondary sources and an evaluation of farm household data from three villages in the Kasama District of Zambia from 1986/87 and 1992/93 to estimate a two-period econometric model to examine the impact on household welfare in a pre- and post-reform period. The analysis shows that past interventions had mixed effects on enhancing the production of food crops such as maize. While such reforms were politically popular, it did not necessarily translate into household-level productivity or welfare gains in the short term. The political economy of reforms needs to respond to the inherent diversity among the poor rural and urban households. The potential of agriculture to generate a more pro-poor growth process depends on the creation of new market opportunities that most benefit the rural poor. The state should encourage private sector investments for addressing infrastructure constraints to improve market access and accelerate more pro-poor growth through renewed investments in agriculture, rural infrastructure, gender inclusion, smarter subsidies and regional food trade. However, the financing of such investments poses significant challenges. There is a need to address impediments to the effective participation of public private investors to generate more effective poverty reduction and hunger eradication programmes. This article also explores the opportunities for new publicprivate investments through SouthSouth cooperation and Asia-driven growth for reducing poverty in Zambia. PMID:22213879
Full Text Available Abstract Background Zambia is facing a double crisis of increasing malaria burden and dwindling capacity to deal with the endemic malaria burden. The pursuit of sustainable but equity mechanisms for financing malaria programmes is a subject of crucial policy discussion. This requires that comprehensive accounting of the economic impact of the various malaria programmes. Information on the economic value of programmes is essential in soliciting appropriate funding allocations for malaria control. Aims and objectives This paper specifically seeks to elicit a measure of the economic benefits of an improved malaria treatment programme in Zambia. The paper also studies the equity implications in malaria treatment given that demand or malaria treatment is determined by household socio-economic status. Methods A contingent valuation survey of about 300 Zambian households was conducted in four districts. Willingness-to-pay (WTP was elicited for an improved treatment programme for malaria in order to generate a measure of the economic benefits of the programme. The payment card method was used in eliciting WTP bids. Findings The study reports that malaria treatment has significant economic benefits to society. The total economic benefits of an improved treatment programme were estimated at an equivalent of US$ 77 million per annum, representing about 1.8% of Zambia's GDP. The study also reports the theoretically anticipated association between WTP and several socio-economic factors. Our income elasticity of demand is positive and similar in magnitude to estimates reported in similar studies. Finally, from an equity standpoint, the constraints imposed by income and socio-economic status are discussed.
Snow Robert W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the recognition that morbidity and mortality due to malaria had dramatically increased in the last three decades, in 2002 the government of Zambia reviewed its efforts to prevent and treat malaria. Convincing evidence of the failing efficacy of chloroquine resulted in the initiation of a process that eventually led to the development and implementation of a new national drug policy based on artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT. Methods All published and unpublished documented evidence dealing with the antimalarial drug policy change was reviewed. These data were supplemented by the authors' observations of the policy change process. The information has been structured to capture the timing of events, the challenges encountered, and the resolutions reached in order to achieve implementation of the new treatment policy. Results A decision was made to change national drug policy to artemether-lumefantrine (AL in the first quarter of 2002, with a formal announcement made in October 2002. During this period, efforts were undertaken to identify funding for the procurement of AL and to develop new malaria treatment guidelines, training materials, and plans for implementation of the policy. In order to avoid a delay in implementation, the policy change decision required a formal adoption within existing legislation. Starting with donated drug, a phased deployment of AL began in January 2003 with initial use in seven districts followed by scaling up to 28 districts in the second half of 2003 and then to all 72 districts countrywide in early 2004. Conclusion Drug policy changes are not without difficulties and demand a sustained international financing strategy for them to succeed. The Zambian experience demonstrates the need for a harmonized national consensus among many stakeholders and a political commitment to ensure that new policies are translated into practice quickly. To guarantee effective policies requires more effort and recognition that this becomes a health system and not a drug issue. This case study attempts to document the successful experience of change to ACT in Zambia and provides a realistic overview of some of the painful experiences and important lessons learnt.
Namafe, Charles M.
By acting within a comfort zone formed by, first, its own institutional location and, second, the subsector of teacher education, the University of Zambia can be said to be succeeding in mainstreaming Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) and Environmental Education (EE). This article provides outline activities and lessons learnt along the
Siwila, Joyce; Mwase, Enala T.; Nejsum, Peter; Simonsen, Paul Erik
Filariae are common parasites of dogs in many parts of the world, but little is known about the status of these infections in sub-Saharan Africa. A study was carried out to determine the occurrence and species of filariae among 272 dogs in Lusaka, Zambia. Giemsa stained blood smear and Knott...
Mwase, Enala T; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie
BACKGROUND: Past case reports have indicated that lymphatic filariasis (LF) occurs in Zambia, but knowledge about its geographical distribution and prevalence pattern, and the underlying potential environmental drivers, has been limited. As a background for planning and implementation of control, a country-wide mapping survey was undertaken between 2003 and 2011. Here the mapping activities are outlined, the findings across the numerous survey sites are presented, and the ecological requirements of the LF distribution are explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Approximately 10,000 adult volunteers from 108 geo-referenced survey sites across Zambia were examined for circulating filarial antigens (CFA) with rapid format ICT cards, and a map indicating the distribution of CFA prevalences in Zambia was prepared. 78% of survey sites had CFA positive cases, with prevalences ranging between 1% and 54%. Most positive survey sites had low prevalence, but six foci with more than 15% prevalence were identified. The observed geographical variation in prevalence pattern was examined in more detail using a species distribution modeling approach to explore environmental requirements for parasite presence, and to predict potential suitable habitats over unsurveyed areas. Of note, areas associated with human modification of the landscape appeared to play an important role for the general presence of LF, whereas temperature (measured as averaged seasonal land surface temperature) seemed to be an important determinant of medium-high prevalence levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: LF was found to be surprisingly widespread in Zambia, although in most places with low prevalence. The produced maps and the identified environmental correlates of LF infection will provide useful guidance for planning and start-up of geographically targeted and cost-effective LF control in Zambia.
Hill Suzanne R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are serious complications of pregnancy and major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. According to systematic reviews and WHO guidelines magnesium sulphate injection (MgSO4 should be the first -line treatment for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Studies have shown that this safe and effective medicine is unavailable and underutilized in many resource poor countries. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to the availability and use of MgSO4 in the Zambian Public Health System. Methods A 'fishbone' (Ishikawa diagram listing probable facilitators to the availability and use of MgSO4 identified from the literature was used to develop an assessment tool. Barriers to availability and use of MgSO4 were assessed at the regulatory/government, supply, procurement, distribution, health facility and health professional levels. The assessment was completed during August 2008 using archival data, and observations at a pragmatic sample of health facilities providing obstetric services in Lusaka District, Zambia. Results The major barrier to the availability of MgSO4 within the public health system in Zambia was lack of procurement by the Ministry of Health. Other barriers identified included a lack of demand by health professionals at the health centre level and a lack of in-service training in the use of MgSO4. Where there was demand by obstetricians, magnesium sulphate injection was being procured from the private sector by the hospital pharmacy despite not being registered and licensed for use for the treatment of severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia by the national Pharmaceutical Regulatory Authority. Conclusions The case study in Zambia highlights the complexities that underlie making essential medicines available and used appropriately. The fishbone diagram is a useful theoretical framework for illustrating the complexity of translating research findings into clinical practice. A better understanding of the supply system and of the pattern of demand for MgSO4 in Zambia should enable policy makers and stakeholders to develop and implement appropriate interventions to improve the availability and use of MgSO4.
Copper Mining in Zambia since its establishment in 1930 has remained central to Zambias economical, social and political development, providing about 50-80% of annual export income. However, mining is considered the largest source of environmental pollution. Due to the dramatic fall in copper prices from the early 1980?, Zambia was forced to borrow money from the International Monetary fund (IMF) and the European investment Bank (EIB). Unable to pay the IMF and the EIB under developmental...
White, Paula A.; Belant, Jerrold L.
Sport hunting has reportedly multiple benefits to economies and local communities; however, few of these benefits have been quantified. As part of their lease agreements with the Zambia Wildlife Authority, sport hunting operators in Zambia are required to provide annually to local communities free of charge i.e., provision a percentage of the meat obtained through sport hunting. We characterized provisioning of game meat to rural communities by the sport hunting industry in Zambia for three g...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Much of the debate as to whether or not the scaling up of HIV service delivery in Africa benefits non-HIV priority services has focused on the use of nationally aggregated data. This paper analyses and presents routine health facility record data to show trend correlations across priority services. Methods Review of district office and health facility client records for 39 health facilities in three districts of Zambia, covering four consecutive years (2004-07. Intra-facility analyses were conducted, service and coverage trends assessed and rank correlations between services measured to compare service trends within facilities. Results VCT, ART and PMTCT client numbers and coverage levels increased rapidly. There were some strong positive correlations in trends within facilities between reproductive health services (family planning and antenatal care and ART and PMTCT, with Spearman rank correlations ranging from 0.33 to 0.83. Childhood immunisation coverage also increased. Stock-outs of important drugs for non-HIV priority services were significantly more frequent than were stock-outs of antiretroviral drugs. Conclusions The analysis shows scale-up in reproductive health service numbers in the same facilities where HIV services were scaling up. While district childhood immunisations increased overall, this did not necessarily occur in facility catchment areas where HIV service scale-up occurred. The paper demonstrates an approach for comparing correlation trends across different services, using routine health facility information. Larger samples and explanatory studies are needed to understand the client, facility and health systems factors that contribute to positive and negative synergies between priority services.
...false Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia. 319...56-48 Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia. Baby squash (Curcurbita maxima...
Lubaba, Caesar H.; Hidano, Arata; Welburn, Susan C.; Revie, Crawford W.; Eisler, Mark C.
Two-dimensional motion sensors use electronic accelerometers to record the lying, standing and walking activity of cattle. Movement behaviour data collected automatically using these sensors over prolonged periods of time could be of use to stakeholders making management and disease control decisions in rural sub-Saharan Africa leading to potential improvements in animal health and production. Motion sensors were used in this study with the aim of monitoring and quantifying the movement behaviour of traditionally managed Angoni cattle in Petauke District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. This study was designed to assess whether motion sensors were suitable for use on traditionally managed cattle in two veterinary camps in Petauke District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. In each veterinary camp, twenty cattle were selected for study. Each animal had a motion sensor placed on its hind leg to continuously measure and record its movement behaviour over a two week period. Analysing the sensor data using principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that the majority of variability in behaviour among studied cattle could be attributed to their behaviour at night and in the morning. The behaviour at night was markedly different between veterinary camps; while differences in the morning appeared to reflect varying behaviour across all animals. The study results validate the use of such motion sensors in the chosen setting and highlight the importance of appropriate data summarisation techniques to adequately describe and compare animal movement behaviours if association to other factors, such as location, breed or health status are to be assessed. PMID:26366728
Pagni, Fabio; Bono, Francesca; Di Bella, Camillo; Faravelli, Agostino; Cappellini, Anna
Only 1 surgical pathology laboratory is available in Zambia, a country with a population of 12 million people. Since 2004 the Italian association of pathologists Patologi Oltre Frontiera has been working to create a virtual laboratory through the use of telemedicine. The project has involved staining histologic preparations on site, with the interpretation of imaged slides performed abroad through telepathology. Starting in April 2007, all surgical specimens obtained in Mtendere Mission Hospital, Chirundu, Zambia, were submitted for microscopic examination through whole-slide scans. Two independent Italian pathologists evaluated the cases by means of satellite connection and the final diagnoses were sent to Zambian clinicians via the internet. This article describes the spectrum of diagnoses made via telepathology for the Zambian population. Also, we analyze the concordant and discordant data between this telepathology method and traditional microscopy in a developing country. Moreover, we provide possible solutions for providing pathology services in other underdeveloped countries. PMID:21284441
At the request of the Government of the Republic of Zambia, the International Atomic Energy Agency set up a technical assistance project to supply an expert plus some equipment, commencing 1 October 1971 and of one year's duration. The project was to expand Zambia's radiation protection service through monitoring of radiation doses, radiation sources, and premises, and provide advise related to the safe handling of sources of ionizing radiation. Upon arrival the expert found that some of these activities had been initiated. The key measures therefore were to establish channels of communication and authority, survey the state of radiation safety and protective measures, and coordination of protective and control measures. On these lines the Ionising Radiation Act is stated to show how its establishment and organizational structure could assist in the implementation of radiation protection measures. maps
During 1967-1976 five airborne geophysical surveys, covering almost the whole country, were carried out in Zambia. In every case magnetic total field and gamma-ray spectrometer measurements were made. In the Western Province the spectrometer measurements do not cover the Kalahari area. Four of these surveys have been made on behalf of the Government of Zambia. They were done in order to speed up mineral prospecting and also to diversify mining activities from the Copperbelt to other parts of the country. A summary of the airborne gamma-ray spectrometer surveys with short comments on the results and outlines of the analysis of survey data as well as the follow-up work are given. (author)
Lunze, Karsten; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Marsh, David R.; Kafwanda, Sarah Ngolofwana; Musso, Austen; Semrau, Katherine; Waltensperger, Karen Z; Hamer, Davidson H.
Background Neonatal hypothermia is increasingly recognized as a risk factor for newborn survival. The World Health Organization recommends maintaining a warm chain and skin-to-skin care for thermoprotection of newborn children. Since little is known about practices related to newborn hypothermia in rural Africa, this study's goal was to characterize relevant practices, attitudes, and beliefs in rural Zambia. Methods and Findings We conducted 14 focus group discussions with mothers and grandmo...
Abdel E Ghaly
Problem statement: The life cycle and culture structure of two commonly eaten worms in Zambia (Isoberlinia paniculata and Miombo/Mopani) were evaluated. The worms were grown on an artificial medium to evaluate the potential of producing them on a commercial scale. Approach: An interesting characteristic of the worms studied was that they reached their maximum weight and maximum length at the same time. Results: The larvae started to decrease in weight soon after reaching their maximum size su...
Bwalya, Edgar; Rakner, Lise; Svåsand, Lars; Tostensen, Arne; Tsoka, Maxton
Malawi and Zambia are poor and heavily indebted countries whose dependence on foreign aid is pronounced. They both qualify for debt relief in terms of the Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) initiative under the auspices of the Bretton Woods institutions, provided they formulate a Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) that satisfies the new process conditionality which emphasises broad participation. In grappling with the PRSP process the stakeholders (the state, non-state actors, and do...
Mburu, Gitau; Hodgson, Ian; Kalibala, Sam; Haamujompa, Choolwe; Cataldo, Fabian; Lowenthal, Elizabeth D.; Ross, David
Introduction: As adolescents living with HIV gain autonomy over their self-care and begin to engage in sexual relationships, their experiences of being informed about their HIV status and of telling others about their HIV status may affect their ability to cope with having the disease. Methods: In 2010, we conducted a qualitative study among adolescents aged 1019 living with HIV in Zambia, and with their parents and health care providers. Through interviews and focus group discussions, we ex...
Masaninga, Freddie; Chanda, Emmanuel; Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Hamainza, Busiku; Masendu, Hieronymo T; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Kapelwa, Wambinji; Chimumbwa, John; Govere, John; Otten, Mac; Fall, Ibrahima Soce; Babaniyi, Olusegun
A comprehensive desk review of malaria trends was conducted between 2000-2010 in Zambia to study malaria epidemiology and trends to guide strategies and approaches for effective malaria control. This review considered data from the National Health Information Management System, Malaria Surveys and Programme Review reports and analyzed malaria in-patient cases and deaths in relation to intervention coverage for all ages. Data showed three distinct epidemiological strata after a notable malaria...
Boccia, Delia; Hargreaves, James; Ayles, Helen; Fielding, Katherine; Simwinga, Musonda; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter
This study aimed to assess the association between household socioeconomic position and tuberculosis (TB) infection in two communities of Zambia. For this purpose we implemented a cross-sectional investigation, nested within a larger case control study. Infection was assessed using Quantiferon-TB Gold. A socioeconomic position index was constructed through principal component analysis combining data on human resources, food availability, housing quality, and access to services and infrastruct...
Musisi, F L; Jongejan, F; Pegram, R G
Theileria mutans (Chisamba) was isolated from a steer at Chisamba, Central Province, Zambia by inoculation of blood into a susceptible unsplenectomised calf. The parasite was then transmitted on three occasions by nymphs and once by adult Amblyomma variegatum ticks. Macroschizonts, typical for T mutans, were detected in two calves for short periods. The parasite caused varying degrees of anaemia in all experimental calves, whose sera showed high antibody titres to T mutans in the indirect fluorescent antibody test. PMID:6424195
Mbagaya, Catherine Vuhya
Child maltreatment is a global phenomenon affecting a significant number of the worldâs children. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported childhood maltreatment among university students in Kenya, Zambia, and The Netherlands. We also sought to compare the psychopathological sequelae of child maltreatment in the three samples. In addition, we sought to find out whether PTSS mediated the association between child maltreatment and the psychopathological symptoms....
The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore the experiences of clinical tutors that were involved with tutoring incoming international exchange students from Finland in Zambia, and to find out what their views are on the development of clinical tutoring in their own institutions by using the following research Questions: 1) What kind of experiences do the teachers/tutors have while tutoring foreign exchange students in the university teaching hospitals? 2) What issues are related to ...
MacCulloch, Neil; Baulch, Bob; Cherel-Robson, Milasoa
Zambia has undergone a dramatic transformation of economic policy during the 1990s. The election in 1991 of the Movement for Multi-party Democracy government saw the introduction of a series of major economic reforms designed to transform the Zambian economy from a relatively inward looking and state dominated economy to a outward oriented economy based upon private enterprise. A sharp stabilization early in the decade was followed by reforms to open the economy to the rest of the world inclu...
Maimbolwa, Margaret C
The Zambian woman starts childbearing early and gives birth to an average of 5.9 children during her reproductive period. The already high levels of maternal deaths are increasing in Zambia. Only 43 per cent of the women deliver with the assistance of a skilled attendant. Maternity care is in focus in this thesis because of the crucial impact it may have on childbearing women and their newborns' health. The aim of this thesis is to describe prevalent maternity care routines...
Chongo, Mkhuzo; Banda, Kawawa Eddy
Zambias rural water supply system depends on groundwater resources to a large extent. However, groundwater resources are variable in both quantity and quality across the country and a national groundwater resources assessment and mapping program is presently not in place. In the Machile area in South-Western Zambia, groundwater quality problems are particularly acute. Saline groundwater occurrence is widespread and affects rural water supply, which is mainly based on shallow groundwater abstraction using hand pumps. This study has mapped groundwater quality variations in the Machile area using both ground-based and airborne geophysical methods as well as extensive water quality sampling. The occurrence of saline groundwater follows a clear spatial pattern and appears to be related to the palaeo Lake Makgadikgadi, whose northernmost extension reached into the Machile area. Because the lake was a closed endorheic system over at least parts of its geologic history, evapo-concentration caused high lake water salinity and deposition of saline sediments. Those saline sediments are presently exposed at the land surface. Surface water groundwater interaction as well as local recharge from precipitation has formed limited freshwater reservoirs in a generally saline area, which need to be sustainably managed. We will present initial results from the geophysical and geochemical surveys conducted over the past few years. We will interpret these findings in terms of the geologic history of Southern Africa and link them to Lake Palaeo Makgadikgadi. Finally, we will discuss implications for sustainable groundwater resources management in the area.
Christopher J., Kasanga; Tsuyoshi, Yamaguchi; Hetron M., Munang' andu; Kenji, Ohya; Hideto, Fukushi.
Full Text Available Nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR) of 10 infectious bursal disease viruses detected in indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia from 2004 to 2005 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses diverged into two genotypes and belonged to the African very vi [...] rulent types (VV1 and VV2). In the phylogenetic tree, strains in one genotype clustered in a distinct group and were closely related to some strains isolated in western Africa (VV1), with nucleotide similarities of 95.7% - 96.5%. Strains in the other genotype were clustered within the eastern African VV type (VV2), with nucleotide similarities of 97.3% - 98.5%. Both genotypes were distributed in the southern parts of Zambia and had a unique conserved amino acid substitution at 300 (E?A) in addition to the putative virulence marker at positions 222(A), 242(1), 256(1), 294(1) and 299(S). These findings represent the first documentation of the existence of the African VV-IBDV variants in both indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia.
Christopher J. Kasanga
Full Text Available Nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR of 10 infectious bursal disease viruses detected in indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia from 2004 to 2005 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses diverged into two genotypes and belonged to the African very virulent types (VV1 and VV2. In the phylogenetic tree, strains in one genotype clustered in a distinct group and were closely related to some strains isolated in western Africa (VV1, with nucleotide similarities of 95.7% 96.5%. Strains in the other genotype were clustered within the eastern African VV type (VV2, with nucleotide similarities of 97.3% 98.5%. Both genotypes were distributed in the southern parts of Zambia and had a unique conserved amino acid substitution at 300 (E?A in addition to the putative virulence marker at positions 222(A, 242(I, 256(I, 294(I and 299(S. These findings represent the first documentation of the existence of the African VV-IBDV variants in both indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia.
Bernard, Tembo; Bruno, Merven.
Full Text Available This paper aims at understanding how Zambia's electricity system would be affected by droughts (due to a dry year) and how the system's adaptive capacity could be improved. Hydropower currently supplies 99% of the total electricity in Zambia, and concerns have been raised because many climate change [...] studies project increased occurrences of dry years in the Southern Africa region. Different economic and climatic scenarios were explored to understand their impact on the development of Zambia's power generation system, and what policies and strategies could be adopted to mitigate these impacts on security of supply and average generation costs, which directly affect the electricity price. The results show that a dry year has significant impact on the average generating cost since hydropower continues to dominate the system. Diversifying the system does not improve the adaptive capacity of the system but only increases the average cost of generating electricity in an average year. The most cost effective way of increasing the system's adaptive capacity is by importing electricity and gradually increasing share of renewable and coal technologies in the system. Further research on how electricity trade in Southern Africa could be enhanced, should be done.
...International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia...is amending notice for the Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia...associations to participate in the Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and...
...International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia...May 29, 2012, regarding the Executive- Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia...section of the Notice of the Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and...
...International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia...May 29, 2012, regarding the Executive- Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia...the mission statement for the Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked baby sweet corn (Zea mays L..., which is a field, where the corn has been grown must have been inspected at least once during...
Jones, Deborah; Zulu, Isaac; Mumbi, Miriam; Chitalu, Ndashi; Vamos, Szonja; Gomez, Jacqueline; Weiss, Stephen M.
This study sought to identify strategies for living with the challenges of HIV and antiretroviral (ARV) use among new medication users in urban Zambia. Participants (n = 160) were recruited from urban Lusaka, Zambia. Qualitative Data was drawn from monthly ARV treatment education intervention groups addressing HIV and antiretroviral use. Themes
... the Notice published at 77 FR 31574, May 29, 2012, regarding the Executive- Led Trade Mission to South... Sectors sections of the Notice of the Executive- Led Mission to Zambia and South Africa, 77 FR 31574, May... International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY:...
... published at 77 FR 31574, May 29, 2012, regarding the Executive- Led Trade Mission to South Africa and... International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International... Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia. Recruitment for this mission will conclude no...
Full Text Available Objective To determine whether a complex community intervention in rural Zambia improved understanding of maternal health and increased use of maternal health-care services. Methods The intervention took place in six rural districts selected by the Zambian Ministry of Health. It involved community discussions on safe pregnancy and delivery led by trained volunteers and the provision of emergency transport. Volunteers worked through existing government-established Safe Motherhood Action Groups. Maternal health indicators at baseline were obtained from women in intervention (n?=?1775 and control districts (n?=?1630. The intervention's effect on these indicators was assessed using a quasi-experimental difference-in-difference approach that involved propensity score matching and adjustment for confounders such as education, wealth, parity, age and distance to a health-care facility. Findings The difference-in-difference comparison showed the intervention to be associated with significant increases in maternal health indicators: 1416% in the number of women who knew when to seek antenatal care; 1015% in the number who knew three obstetric danger signs; 1219% in those who used emergency transport; 2224% in deliveries involving a skilled birth attendant; and 1621% in deliveries in a health-care facility. The volunteer drop-out rate was low. The estimated incremental cost per additional delivery involving a skilled birth attendant was around 54 United States dollars, comparable to that of other demand-side interventions in developing countries. Conclusion The community intervention was associated with significant improvements in women's knowledge of antenatal care and obstetric danger signs, use of emergency transport and deliveries involving skilled birth attendants.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Current health policy directions in Zambia are formulated in the National Health Strategic Plan. The Plan focuses on national health priorities, which include the human resources (HR crisis. In this paper we describe the way the HRH establishment is distributed in the different provinces of Zambia, with a view to assess the dimension of shortages and of imbalances in the distribution of health workers by province and by level of care. Population and methods We used secondary data from the "March 2008 payroll data base", which lists all the public servants on the payroll of the Ministry of Health and of the National Health Service facilities. We computed rates and ratios and compared them. Results The highest relative concentration of all categories of workers was observed in Northern, Eastern, Lusaka, Western and Luapula provinces (in decreasing order of number of health workers. The ratio of clinical officers (mid-level clinical practitioners to general medical officer (doctors with university training varied from 3.77 in the Lusaka to 19.33 in the Northwestern provinces. For registered nurses (3 to 4 years of mid-level training, the ratio went from 3.54 in the Western to 15.00 in Eastern provinces and for enrolled nurses (two years of basic training from 4.91 in the Luapula to 36.18 in the Southern provinces. This unequal distribution was reflected in the ratio of population per cadre. The provincial distribution of personnel showed a skewed staff distribution in favour of urbanized provinces, e.g. in Lusaka's doctor: population ratio was 1: 6,247 compared to Northern Province's ratio of 1: 65,763. In the whole country, the data set showed only 109 staff in health posts: 1 clinical officer, 3 environmental health technologists, 2 registered nurses, 12 enrolled midwives, 32 enrolled nurses, and 59 other. The vacancy rates for level 3 facilities(central hospitals, national level varied from 5% in Lusaka to 38% in Copperbelt Province; for level 2 facilities (provincial level hospitals, from 30% for Western to 70% for Copperbelt Province; for level 1 facilities (district level hospitals, from 54% for the Southern to 80% for the Western provinces; for rural health centres, vacancies varied from 15% to 63% (for Lusaka and Luapula provinces respectively; for urban health centres the observed vacancy rates varied from 13% for the Lusaka to 96% for the Western provinces. We observed significant shortages in most staff categories, except for support staff, which had a significant surplus. Discussion and Conclusions This case study documents how a peaceful, politically stable African country with a longstanding tradition of strategic management of the health sector and with a track record of innovative approaches dealt with its HRH problems, but still remains with a major absolute and relative shortage of health workers. The case of Zambia reinforces the idea that training more staff is necessary to address the human resources crisis, but it is not sufficient and has to be completed with measures to mitigate attrition and to increase productivity.
The importance of knowing the current state of groundwater resources cannot be over emphasized in rural areas in the developing countries with limited water resources. As such, innovative geophysical techniques are now part of the norm for quick and effective characterization of groundwater resources worldwide. This thesis presents the application of geo-electrical and electromagnetic methods for the investigation of groundwater salinity in the Machile-Zambezi Basin in south western Zambia, southern central Africa. Aerial and ground based transient electromagnetic measurenments were used to map the spatial distribution of apparent electrical resistivity on a regional scale in order to obtain a regional overview of groundwater salinization based on electrical resistivity correlation. Furthermore, ground based transient electromagnetic soundings and direct current and induced polarization measurements were used to investigate on a local scale, indications of surface water/ groundwater exchange from electrical resistivity anomalies coincident with alluvial fans and flood plains as deduced from the aerial electrical resistivity result. New and innovative geophysical data inversion schemes were also developed and used to gain a better explanation of the data collected. These include a new scheme for the joint inversion of direct current and induced polarization data, and transient electromagnetic data; and a new coupled hydrogeophysical inversion setup to allow for the first time the joint use of direct current and transient electromagnetic data in one optimization. The result from the regional mapping with transient electromagnetic measurenments showed a spatial distribution of electrical resistivity that indicated block faulting in the Machile-Zambezi Basin. Saline groundwater was found to occur predominantly in the low lying graben areas that are essentially an extension of the Palaeo Lake Makgadikgadi system into south western Zambia. In addition, surface water from the Zambezi River was found to interact withsaline aquifers to such an extent that the surficial physical form of alluvial fans and flood plains was visible in the spatial distribution of electrical resistivity from the aerial survey up to a depth of about 40 m. Interpretation of direct current and induced polarization, and transient electromagnetic data using the new joint inversion scheme revealed a fresh water lens overlying the saline aquifer at Kasaya in Kazungula District, Zambia. The freshwater lens appeared to be in hydraulic contact with the Zambezi River where it was thickest (60 m) and had the highest electrical resistivity values (about 200 ?m) which steadily declined to about 30 ?m whereas the thickness reduced to around 22 m at the end of the 6 600 m long transect line measured perpendicular to the Zambezi River towards the North. The distribution of chargeability along the Kasaya transect line was found to be correlated with the distribution of electrical resistivity thus giving a strong indication of the intrusion of fresh surfacewater into a pre-existing saline aquifer. It is postulated that the intrusion of fresh surface water in to the saline aquifer was driven by evapotranspiration. Finally, the new coupled hydrogeophysical inversion approach resulted in sharp estimates of hydrogeological model parameters. This was for a coupled flow and solute transport model setup for the Kasaya transect under the forcing of evapotranspiration. Performance of the coupled hydrogeophysical inversion was better with the inclusion of direct current data in comparison to the use of transient electromagnetic data alone. The broader implications of these findings is that groundwater salinization in the Machile Zambezi Basin is now known to be strongly influenced by the tectonism of the Palaeo Lake Makgadikgadi system and is therefore not expected to increase over time. Rather, surface water tends to interact with the saline aquifers in places to create freshwater lenses that are an important source of clean drinking water. Therefore, the findings of this the
Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt
In this paper, we investigate what affects school attendance and child labour in an LDC, using data for Zambia. Since the data come from a household survey with information on all household members, it allows us to take account of unobserved household effects by introducing household specific effects in a logit model. The empirical analysis suggests that both economic and sociological variables are important determinants for the choice between school attendance and child labour. In particular, we find some support for the hypothesis that poverty forces households to keep their children away from school.
Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt
effects in a logit model. The empirical analysis suggests that both economic and sociological variables are important determinants for the choice between school attendance and child labour. In particular, we find some support for the hypothesis that poverty forces households to keep their children away......In this paper, we investigate what affects school attendance and child labour in an LDC, using data for Zambia. Since the data come from a household survey with information on all household members, it allows us to take account of unobserved household effects by introducing household specific...
This brief presentation gives some of the highlights of the activities that the government of the Republic of Zambia undertook from 1972 to date in its effort to ensure the development of a national radiation protection infrastructure. The paper also discusses some of the challenges that have to be addressed. The final section discusses some of the policy options and recommendations that should be undertaken in order to ensure that the Zambian government has a clear direction for the development of radiation safety infrastructure. The issue of national emergency plan and response in the event of a radiological accident is also discussed. (author)
Munang'andu, H M; Muyoyeta, P M; Mweene, A S; Kida, H
Retrospective surveillance study of clostridial infections of cattle in Zambia, for the period 1985 to 1994, showed that out of the 318 cases observed, 62.8% and 24.2% were from Western and Southern provinces, respectively. Of the 6 clostridia species identified, Clostridium septicum (38.1%) followed by C. chauvoei (36.2%) and C. perfringens (13.2%) were dominant. Although the highest incidence for clostridial infections was in 1989 (75 cases) and 1990 (77 cases), the number of C. perfringens cases seemed to increase. More cases were found in the dry season until the onset of the rains, that is, the period August to December. PMID:8997878
Nachiyunde, Kabunga; Ikeda, Hideo; Tetsuji OKUDA; Wataru NISHIJIMA
Zambias economy is hinged on mining activities with Cu being the main metal. Zn and Pb were mined at one point in Kabwe town. There are also known deposits of Co and Mn. The study focused on comparing heavy metal pollution from different regions across Zambia with a view of determining the impact of the stage of social development and economic activities on the environment. The water analysed was obtained near dump sites,farmlands, pit latrines, water reservoirs or dams, major rivers and sma...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce This layer depicts the 114th Congressional Districts for the United States. Found within this layer is the listing of the 114th House of Representatives. Elected to...
Mavhungu Abel Mafukata
Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate the factors having the most influence on the alleviation of poverty amongst the households adopting microfinance in Zambia. Ninety nine (n=99 respondents were randomly and purposively selected from amongst 340 microfinance adopters of the so-called Micro Bankers Trust programme operating a microfinance business in the Makululu Compound of Kabwe, Zambia. Socio-demographic primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews based on a semi-structured questionnaire instrument. The data were entered into an excel spreadsheet for analysis. The descriptive data were thereafter exported and fitted to an empirical model. The descriptive results revealed that the majority of the respondents were married, unemployed, fairly educated younger women from larger-sized poor households who drew their household income mainly from microfinance activities. The majority of the respondents thought microfinance had improved their well-being in some crucial areas. The results of the empirical model found that some respondents were indeed alleviated from poverty through microfinance. Conclusion drawn in this paper is that microfinance does alleviate poverty of the poor.
Kutsch, W.; Merbold, L.; Scholes, B.; Mukelabai, M.
Miombo woodlands cover the transition zone between dry open savannas and moist forests in Southern Africa. They cover about 2.7 million km2 in southern Africa and provide many ecosystem services that support rural life, including medical products, wild foods, construction timber and fuel. In Zambia, as in many of its neighbouring countries, miombo woodlands are currently experiencing accelerating degradation and clearing, mostly with charcoal production as the initial driver. Domestic energy needs in the growing urban areas are largely satisfied by charcoal, which is less energy-efficient fuel on a tree-to-table basis than the firewood that is used in rural areas, but has a higher energy density and is thus cheaper to transport. This study uses data from inventories and from eddy covariance measurements of carbon exchange to characterize the impact of charcoal production on miombo woodlands. We address the following questions: (i) how much carbon is lost at local as well as at national scale and (ii) does forest degradation result in the loss of a carbon sink? On the basis of our data we (iii) estimate the per capita emissions through deforestation and forest degradation in Zambia and relate it to fossil fuel emissions. Furthermore, (iv) a rough estimate of the energy that is provided by charcoal production to private households at a national level is calculated and (v) options for alternative energy supply to private households are discussed.
Mavhungu Abel Mafukata
Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to explore the factors having the most significance on the probability of the adopters of microfinance moving out of poverty in Zambia. Ninety nine (n=99 respondents were randomly and purposively selected from amongst 340 microfinance adopters of the so-called Micro Bankers Trust programme operating a microfinance business in the Makululu Compound of Kabwe, Zambia. Primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews based on a semi-structured questionnaire. The data were entered into an excel spreadsheet for analysis. The descriptive data were thereafter exported and fitted to an empirical model. The descriptive results revealed that the majority of the respondents were married, unemployed, fairly educated younger women from larger-sized poor households who drew their household income mainly from microfinance activities. The majority of the respondents thought microfinance had improved their well-being in some crucial areas. The results of the empirical model found that some respondents indeed had improved their probabilities to move out of poverty. Conclusion drawn in this paper is that microfinance does alleviate poverty of the poor.
Joseph, Bwalya Kelvin
In most parts of the world, political systems which utilize authoritative rule and mostly employ top-down decision-making processes are slowly transcending towards democratic norms. Information Technology Systems have been identified and adopted as one of the most efficient vehicles for appropriate, transparent and inclusive / participatory decision making. Zambia has shown a higher propensity to indigenous knowledge systems which are full of inefficiencies, a lot of red tape in public service delivery, and prone to corrupt practices. Despite that being the case, it is slowly trying to implement e-government. The adoption of e-government promises a sharp paradigm shift where public institutions will be more responsive and transparent, promote efficient PPP (Public Private Partnerships), and empower citizens by making knowledge and other resources more directly accessible. This paper examines three cases from Zambia where ICT in support of e-government has been implemented for Development Information Exchange (DIE) - knowledge-based decision making. The paper also assesses the challenges, opportunities, and issues together with e-government adoption criteria regarding successful encapsulation of e-government into the Zambian contextual environment. I propose a conceptual model which offers balanced e-government adoption criteria involving a combination of electronic and participatory services. This conceptual e-government adoption model can later be replicated to be used at the Southern African Development Community (SADC) level given the similarity in the contextual environment.
Simuunza, Martin; Weir, William; Courcier, Emily; Tait, Andy; Shiels, Brian
Tick-borne diseases are a constraint to livestock production in many developing countries as they cause high morbidity and mortality, which results in decreased production of meat, milk and other livestock by-products. The most important tick-borne diseases of livestock in sub-Saharan Africa are East Coast fever (caused by Theileria parva), babesiosis (caused by Babesia bigemina and B. bovis), anaplasmosis (caused by Anaplasma marginale) and heartwater (caused by Ehrlichia ruminantium). Despite their economic importance, information on the epidemiology of these diseases in many countries, including Zambia, is often inadequate, making rational disease control strategies difficult to implement. In this study 18S and 16S rRNA gene PCR assays were used for a comprehensive epidemiological analysis of tick-borne disease of cattle in three provinces of Zambia (Lusaka, Central and Eastern). All the disease pathogens under study (T. parva, T. mutans, T. taurotragi, B. bovis, B. bigemina, Anaplasma spp and E. ruminantium) were prevalent in each of the provinces surveyed. However, variation was observed in prevalence between regions and seasons. There was no association between live vaccination against East Coast fever and being PCR positive for T. parva. A number of risk factors were shown to be associated with (a) the occurrence of tick-borne pathogens in cattle and (b) cattle tick burdens in the wet season. A negative association was observed between the number of co-infecting pathogens and the erythrocyte packed cell volume (PCV) of carrier cattle. PMID:21106294
The persistence of lindane and endosulfan was studied under field conditions in Zambia in 1992 to 1994. Both pesticides dissipated rapidly under field conditions. About 29% and 73% of initial concentration was lost during the first 30 and 60 days after treatment, respectively in 1992. After 180 days, about 11% of the initial concentration was recovered from the soil. In 1993, 40% of initial residues were lost during the first 30 days. At 180 days after spraying, slightly more residues (25% of the initial values) were recovered at this time than in 1992. This indicated a change in the longer term behaviour of lindane in the soil since the calculated half-lives of lindane, covering the shorter term behaviour, were 55-80 days in 1992 and ? 17 days in 1993. In 1994, losses of ?-Endosulfan and ?-Endosulfan were 40% and 37% respectively during the initial 30 days after treatment. A further 25% of ?-Endosulfan and 33% of ?-Endosulfan were lost during the following 30 days. These data allow estimates of the half-lives of ?- and ?-Endosulfan (40 and 38 days) under the field conditions pertaining in Zambia at the time of the trials showing that this compound has only moderate persistence and unlikely to cause long term environmental problems. (author). 7 refs, 8 tabs
Full text: The Barotse and Tonga are among the known indigenous cattle of Zambia they belong to the Sanga cattle. Barotse cattle are long horned found predominantly in Western Province while Tonga cattle are small framed, medium to short horns with a rudimentary hump found in Southern Province of Zambia. A total of 271 mature Barotse cattle and 268 mature Tonga cattle were included in the morphological characterization study. The aim of the study was to create an understanding of the physical characteristics of the two types of cattle. The comparisons of least - square means on the dimensional measurements between the male and female mature Barotse cattle revealed that males are bigger than females. There were very high significant differences (P < 0.001) in favour of males for withers height, body length, heart girth, head length, head width and horn circumference. In Tonga cattle wither height was highly correlated to rump height, body length, heart girth, and barrel size. Body length was highly correlated to heart girth and barrel size. Barrel size was also very highly correlated (0.834) to the heart girth. The phenotypic characterization of the two cattle groups shows variations in measurements. Preliminary findings on genetic characterization using RAPD markers showed remarkable differences in the two breeds of cattle. A more comprehensive study including the production parameters and genetic variation is ongoing. (author)
...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International...other appropriate sectors as space permits. This mission will be led by a senior Department of Commerce official and will...
...-Saharan Africa's GDP. ] South Africa is April 2011 joined Brazil, Russia, India and China as the only... arable land in Africa. Zambia exported approximately $500 million in agricultural products in 2010,...
The international development arena is currently subject to major changes in the geographies of power. In this article I analyse how and to what extent the (re)entry on the development scene of China, India and Brazil, together with increasing prices for primary commodities and improved access to international finance, has affected Zambias political leverage to set, implement and fund its own developmental policies. I argue that, while real changes in external financial flows comparable to aid from these non-traditional state actors are still small, these actors experience is providing Zambia with an alternative development model that combines purposive state intervention with market-based economic growth and integration into world markets. While Zambia may be taking the first steps in strengthening its sovereign frontier, the extent of this movement is still small and its development outcomes are far from assured.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration This data set contains daily rainfall totals (mm) from Mongu, in the Western Province of Zambia. The data were collected with a British standard 5 inch diameter...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration ABSTRACT: This data set contains daily rainfall totals (mm) from Mongu, in the Western Province of Zambia. The data were collected with a British standard 5 inch...
Jones, Deborah L; Olga Villar-Loubet; Chipepo Kankasa; et. al.
Deborah L Jones1, Olga Villar-Loubet1, Chipepo Kankasa2, Ndashi Chitalu2, Miriam Mumbi2, Stephen M Weiss11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Paediatrics, University of Zambia School of Medicine, Lusaka, ZambiaAbstract: With the advent of antiretroviral therapy, remarkable progress has been made in the reduction of morbidity and mortality associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). As a res...
The need to enhance environmental sustainability, sustainable development and growth that takes into account the well-being of the people and nature because of the increased production and consumption of goods and services is the major driver to the introduction of green economy in Zambia and countries in southern Africa. This article examines the extent to which local government in Zambia has embraced green growth and green economy and critically analyses the concept of green economy and gre...
Kasirye Rogers; Jeremiahs Twa-Twa; George Sikazwe; Nazarius Mbona Tumwesigye; Bina Ali; Jane Palmier; Monica H Swahn
Excessive alcohol use is a serious public health concern worldwide, but less attention has been given to the prevalence, risk and protective factors, and consequences of early alcohol use in low-income, developing countries. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between early alcohol use, before age 13, and problem drinking among adolescents in Uganda and Zambia. Data from students in Zambia (n=2257; 2004) and Uganda (n=3215; 2003) were obtained from the cross-sectional ...
Ferrinho Paulo; Siziya Seter; Goma Fastone; Dussault Gilles
Abstract Introduction Current health policy directions in Zambia are formulated in the National Health Strategic Plan. The Plan focuses on national health priorities, which include the human resources (HR) crisis. In this paper we describe the way the HRH establishment is distributed in the different provinces of Zambia, with a view to assess the dimension of shortages and of imbalances in the distribution of health workers by province and by level of care. Population and methods We used seco...
Briggs, D.A.; Mitchell, C.J.
In March 1990, a visit to Zambia was made by D A Briggs of the Mineralogy and Petrology Group on behalf of the British Geological Survey/Overseas Development Administration project "Minerals for Development". The visit, which was described in Technical Report No. WG/90/15R, aimed to establish contact with the Geological Survey Department and other organisations concerned with minerals in Zambia to offer assistance in the field of mineral resource development. This primarily involv...
Chizema-Kawesha, Elizabeth; Miller, John M.; Steketee, Richard W; Mukonka, Victor M.; Mukuka, Chilandu; Mohamed, Abdirahman D.; Miti, Simon K.; Campbell, Carlos C.
Zambia national survey, administrative, health facility, and special study data were used to assess progress and impact in national malaria control between 2000 and 2008. Zambia malaria financial support expanded from US$9 million in 2003 to US$ ~40 million in 2008. High malaria prevention coverage was achieved and extended to poor and rural areas. Increasing coverage was consistent in time and location with reductions in child (age 659 months) parasitemia and severe anemia (53% and 68% redu...
Kapanda Paul; Nyirenda Lameck; Kasonde Prisca; Simumba Caroline; Schwarzwalder Alison; Torpey Kwasi; Sanjana Parsa; Kakungu-Simpungwe Matilda; Kabaso Mushota; Thompson Catherine
Abstract Background The human resource shortage in Zambia is placing a heavy burden on the few health care workers available at health facilities. The Zambia Prevention, Care and Treatment Partnership began training and placing community volunteers as lay counsellors in order to complement the efforts of the health care workers in providing HIV counselling and testing services. These volunteers are trained using the standard national counselling and testing curriculum. This study was conducte...
Emmanuel Rudatsikira; Seter Siziya; Adamson Sinjani Muula
BACKGROUND: Among school- attending adolescents, victimization from bullying is associated with anxiety, depression and poor academic performance. There are limited reports on victimization from bullying in Zambia; we therefore conducted this study to determine the prevalence and correlates for victimization from bullying among adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in the country in order to add information on the body of knowledge on victimization from bullying. METHODS: The 2004 Zambia Global Scho...
Mwape, K. E.; Phiri, I. K.; Praet, N; Muma, J. B.; Zulu, G; Van den Bossche, P.; De Deken, R.; Speybroeck, N.; Dorny, P.; Gabriël, S.
Background: Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis is a parasitic infection occurring in many developing countries. Data on the status of human infections in Zambia is largely lacking. We conducted a community-based study in Eastern Zambia to determine the prevalence of human taeniosis and cysticercosis in a rural community. Methods and Findings: Stool and serum samples were collected from willing participants. Geographical references of the participants' households were determined and hous...
Meekers Dominique; Van Rossem Ronan
Abstract Background Like many sub-Saharan African countries, Zambia is dealing with major health issues, including HIV/AIDS, family planning, and reproductive health. To address reproductive health problems and the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Zambia, several social marketing and health communication programs focusing on reproductive and HIV/AIDS prevention programs are being implemented. This paper describes the reach of these programs and assesses their impact on condom use. Methods This paper asse...
Gabriel, S.; Phiri, I. K.; Dorny, P.; Vercruysse, J.
While surveys in Southern Africa indicate anthelmintic resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to be common in small ruminants in South Africa, Kenya and Zimbabwe there have been no reports of resistance in Zambia. The objective of this study was to determine whether anthelmintic resistance occurs in Zambia, and to obtain information on nematode control practices in the country. During the rainy season six commercial sheep farms were selected in and around Lusaka and Chisamba. Worm control p...
Gabriel, S.; Phiri, I. K.; Dorny, P.; Vercruysse, J.
While surveys in Southern Africa indicate anthelmintic resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to be common in small ruminants in South Africa, Kenya and Zimbabwe, there have been no reports of resistance in Zambia. The objective of this study was to determine whether anthelmintic resistance occurs in Zambia, and to obtain information on nematode control practices in the country. During the rainy season six commercial sheep farms were selected in and...
Simuyemba, Moses; Talib, Zohray; Michelo, Charles; Mutale, Wilbroad; Zulu, Joseph; Andrews, Ben; Katubulushi, Max; Njelesani, Evariste; Bowa, Kasonde; Maimbolwa, Margaret; Mudenda, John; Mulla, Yakub
Zambia is facing a crisis in its human resources for health (HRH), with deficits in the number and skill mix of health workers. The University of Zambia School of Medicine (UNZA SOM) was the only medical school in the country for decades, but recently it was joined by three new medical schoolstwo private and one public. In addition to expanding medical education, the government has also approved several allied health programs, including pharmacy, physiotherapy, biomedical sciences, and envir...
The southern African nation of Zambia is confronted by numerous environmental problems whilst constrained by limited fiscal resources. This study examines the current environmental and educational situation in Zambia and how the Ministry of Education through a revision of its curriculum might inculcate hands-on interactive solutions to local environmental problems and enhance student learning. The current Zambian educational curriculum has integrated environmental issues across grade levels a...
Chanda Pascalina; Castillo-Riquelme Marianela; Masiye Felix
Abstract Background Malaria in Zambia accounts for about 4 million clinical cases and 8 000 deaths annually. Artemether-lumefantrine (ACT), a relatively expensive drug, is being used as first line treatment of uncomplicated malaria. However, diagnostic capacity in Zambia is low, leading to potentially avoidable wastage of drugs due to unnecessary anti malarial treatment. Methods A cost-effectiveness evaluation of the three current alternatives to malaria diagnosis (clinical, microscopy and Ra...
Roma Chilengi; Cheryl Rudd; Carolyn Bolton; Bradford Guffey; Penelope Kalesha Masumbu; Jeffrey Stringer
Introduction: Under five mortality in Zambia is unacceptably high and diarrhoea is the third leading contributor. The Programme for Awareness and Elimination of Diarrhoea (PAED) sought to support the government to accelerate the introduction of new vaccines, including the pneumococcal, second dose measles and rotavirus vaccines in Zambia. Here we present our approach, progress and lessons learned in two years of the programme. Stakeholder Engagement: Definite commitment and buy-in and sign of...
Lilias Makashini; Austine Ng'ombe; Henry Abanda; Albert Malama; Priscilla Mudenda
Southern Africa is noted for not only constant power shortages but also poor access to electricity. In Zambia, for example, 75% of the population does not have access to electricity. This is partly because although Zambia has one of the lowest energy tariffs in Southern Africa, when compared with household monthly income, the resource is still reasonably unaffordable. Therefore, there is need to find innovative ways of reducing energy cost. Recent studies have indicated that there are pattern...
Our research project funded by the British Council on multigrade teaching capacity building in Uganda and Zambia found that Uganda does not have a single higher education institution training teachers in multigrade pedagogy and Zambia has only one located at Serenje village in rural Zambia. Yet the research found that in both countries many teachers actually teach multigraded classes in spite of never having been trained in multigrade pedagogy. Our literature searches also found that this sit...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Zambia continues to grapple with a high tuberculosis (TB burden despite a long running Directly Observed Treatment Short course programme. Understanding issues that affect patient adherence to treatment programme is an important component in implementation of a successful TB control programme. We set out to investigate pulmonary TB patient's attitudes to seek health care, assess the care received from government health care centres based on TB patients' reports, and to seek associations with patient adherence to TB treatment programme. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 105 respondents who had been registered as pulmonary TB patients (new and retreatment cases in Ndola District between January 2006 and July 2007. We administered a structured questionnaire, bearing questions to obtain individual data on socio-demographics, health seeking behaviour, knowledge on TB, reported adherence to TB treatment, and health centre care received during treatment to consenting respondents. Results We identified that respondents delayed to seek treatment (68% even when knowledge of TB symptoms was high (78% or when they suspected that they had TB (73%. Respondent adherence to taking medication was high (77% but low adherence to submitting follow-up sputum (47% was observed in this group. Similarly, caregivers educate their patients more often on the treatment of the disease (98% and drug taking (100%, than on submitting sputum during treatment (53% and its importance (54%. Respondent adherence to treatment was significantly associated with respondent's knowledge about the disease and its treatment (p Conclusions There is a need to emphasise the importance of submitting follow-up sputum during patient education and counselling in order to enhance patient adherence and ultimately treatment outcome.
Richard Siaciwena; Foster Lubinda
As a member of the United Nations, Zambia is committed to the observance of human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948. This is evidenced, among others, by the fact that Zambia is a signatory to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. Zambia has a permanent Human Rights Commission that includes a subcommittee on child rights whose focus is on child abuse and education. Zambia also has a National...
Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the establishment of an independent regulator so as to stimulate private sector participation and efficiency. In addition, a Rural Electrification Fund (REF) and associated administration mechanism was established in 1995. However, RE continued to experience many challenges. In 2003, the government enacted the Rural Electrification Act leading to the establishment of an agency dedicated to RE. This paper analyses the policy, legal and institutional measures implemented in Zambia and assesses their potential or effectiveness to tackle some of the challenges facing RE in the country so as to increase access and affordability. (author)
Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the establishment of an independent regulator so as to stimulate private sector participation and efficiency. In addition, a Rural Electrification Fund (REF) and associated administration mechanism was established in 1995. However, RE continued to experience many challenges. In 2003, the government enacted the Rural Electrification Act leading to the establishment of an agency dedicated to RE. This paper analyses the policy, legal and institutional measures implemented in Zambia and assesses their potential or effectiveness to tackle some of the challenges facing RE in the country so as to increase access and affordability
Uranium mineralization related to the fluviatile continental sandstone of the Escarpment Grit Formation of Upper Karroo System has been studied in detail in the Bungua area. Airborne and ground gamma-radiation surveys resulted in the discovery of mineralized bodies containing secondary minerals such as meta-autunite, phosphuranylite, uranocircite, abernythite, boltwoodite, etc. disseminated in various ways. Geological, radiometric, stratigraphic, sedimentological and petrological studies coupled with exploration pitting, trenching and drilling were employed to assess the nature, distribution and sub-surface continuation of mineralized bodies. Drilling, logging and XRF analysis revealed that the uranium mineralized bodies are mainly lenses at different levels, which may be concordant or discordant with bedding. The thickness and grade of ore horizons differ considerably. Mineral distribution and controls are complex and that the main deposit is controlled by reducing lithologies, organic matter, clay traps, micas, iron cementing and permeable channels. Although no definite mode of origin can be attributed to the presently seen uranium mineralized bodies, they appear to be from a pre-existing ore deposit which is mobilized and redistributed during oxidation by supergene processes. It is suggested that the original uranium was in solution as uranylion and came from the same source area as the host rocks and the uranium-bearing groundwater and streams moved in the same direction as the associated Escarpment Grit sediments. Uranium was precipitated wherever favourable conditions prevailed in the Escarpment Grit Formation. (author)
This study investigated the amount of and impact of fertiliser loading into the upper Kaleya river of Mazabuka district in Southern Province of Zambia. It provides an opportunity to evaluate water quality associated with nutrient and pesticide use, due to prominence of intensive agriculture in the area. Storm water runoff of fertilizers and pesticides applied on farmlands have appeared to be the predominant source of nutrients and contaminants affecting surface water quality in upper Kaleya River, a factor very much dependent on land use in the catchment.The study concluded that upper Kaleya River is polluted from the application of fertilizers and pesticides used by farmers and that more long term studies are required to evaluate environmental effects of fertilizers and pesticide use in order to provide assessments of pollution and and for developing cost effective pollution control and monitoring programmes
De Waele Jo
Full Text Available Lusaka, the capital of Zambia with over 2,000,000 inhabitants, is built on an extensive plateau composed mainly of schists and dolomitic marbles, constituting a very important aquifer that provides the city with almost half of its drinking water needs. Recent demographic growth, leading to uncontrolled urban expansion, and mismanagement of the water resource and of urban waste has lead, in the past 20 years, to an overexploitation of the aquifer and to a generalised water quality depletion, putting in serious danger the future social and economical development of the capital. This third world city has, for these reasons, become a terrifying example of human impact on a vulnerable karst environment, and if no measures will be taken in the very near future, quality of life in the city will be at serious risk.
In 1989 the first activities concerning wind energy started in Zambia, resulting in a wind energy project of the Department of Energy. The first phase of this project was the set up of an appropriate technology test site. It included the fabrication of a CWD 2740 wind pump, adapted to local circumstances. The total costs of the manufacture of the complete system was approximately US$ 8,000 (of which 60% are labor cost), while an imported system would cost between US$ 2,000 and US$ 4,000. The second phase will focus on possible commercialization of wind energy. The major constraints for implementation of wind energy are: 1. inadequate provision of funds, caused by short sighted policy makers having not a clear policy regarding the utilization of wind energy; 2. high costs of windmills, especially when these are manufactured locally; 3. lack of trained and skilled manpower to provide backup and effective maintenance service of windmills in the field
Vijayan K Pillai
Full Text Available Vijayan K Pillai1, Rashmi Gupta21School of Social Work, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, USA; 2Department of Social Work, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA, USAAbstract: For decades, family planning programs have targeted women in developing countries. These programs bestow a great deal of autonomy on women with respect to fertility decision making. It is well known that a number of close relatives in multigenerational and extended family systems influence womens fertility decisions with respect to child spacing and contraceptive use. One approach toward a systematic study of fertility decision making is to explicitly consider the husbands influences on fertility decision making. This study examines the effects of a selected number of factors on the desired birth interval lengths. We interviewed husbands and wives separately from 165 randomly selected households from two poor neighborhoods in the city of Kitwe, Zambia. Three ordinal birth interval groups were obtained for both husbands and wives separately. The effect of selected factors on the likelihood of influencing the three groups was examined using ordinal logistic regression methods. Data from husbands and wives were analyzed separately. Qualitative methods such as semistructured interviews were used to gather extensive information on the various factors that husbands and wives perceive to influence their child spacing decisions. We found differences in accounts with respect to child spacing between husbands and wives, likely due to a lack of communication. A gender-sensitive approach is necessary to promote spacing methods among poor couples in Zambia.Keywords: child spacing, contraceptive use, correspondence analysis, couple decision making
Brems, D.; Muchez, Ph.; Sikazwe, O.; Mukumba, W.
The Central African Copperbelt is one of the largest and richest metallogenic provinces in the world. Despite the many studies, the genesis of the stratiform Cu-Co-mineralization remains a subject of intense discussion. A diagenetic, pre-folding origin is proposed for most ore deposits both in Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, later mineralization and/or remobilization seem to be important in the enrichment of the ores. The geological mapping of the South Orebody mine at Nkana (Zambia) indicates a relation between the mineralization and the host rock but also with compressional deformation. The location of the rich ore bodies generally corresponds with the hinge zones of tight to isoclinal folds and with the contact between the sandstones and conglomerates of the Footwall Sandstone Formation and the overlying organic-rich shales of the Ore Formation. The circulation of the mineralizing/remobilizing fluids through the rocks was facilitated by fracturing, especially in the hinge zones of the folds resulting in a structural permeability. A petrographical study demonstrated that, in addition to disseminated sulphides, three successive vein generations occur at Nkana South Orebody, i.e. layer parallel veins, irregular, crosscutting veins and massive veins. These vein generations respectively formed during the initial phase of basin inversion, the main phase of deformation and a late phase of orogenesis or later extensional tensions. Early diagenetic disseminated framboidal pyrites were replaced by Cu-sulphides. The timing of this replacement could not be constrained. Silicification, K-feldspar alteration, albitization, carbonatization and replacement by anhydrite are the main alteration phases.
Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, SØren
In ensuring growth and development collaborative State-Business relations (SBRs) matters, and with economic growth comes increasing levels of employment, options for poverty reduction and hence more equitable development. Whereas it is known that SBR matters at a macro-economic level, the concept of SBR has also been employed in a more or less all-encompassing way in the literature. Accordingly, while it is clear that SBRs work, there is lack knowledge about which dimensions of SBRs are the most important. Due to the continued importance of agriculture in many developing countries, processing of the food produced in the sector is a key manufacturing activity of high economic importance to many economies. Ensuring collaborative SBRs in the food processing industry is therefore of interest to growth and development, particularly as it is a sector about which little is known about the role of SBRs. The paper attempts to examine how and why SBRs matter to and influence the growth and performance of local owned firms in the food processing sub-sector in Zambia. In particular, the paper analyses the roles and influence of government regulations and policies compared to those of business associations for the performance of the food processing sector in Zambia. The paper draws on primary data from a survey of firms in the food processing sector which was conducted between 2013 and 2014. It is shown that while the majority of the Zambian food processing firms experienced growth over the last five years, with increased employment and in a number of cases growing earnings, this seems to have happened in spite of a business environment which is not particularly supportive. The firms experience is that the SBRs mainly constitute institutional barriers to the performance of firms and highlight that formal government institutions and polices are incapable of assisting the firms and in most cases government institutions formulate and enact insufficient support schemes.
Full Text Available In ensuring growth and development collaborative State-Business relations (SBRs matters, and with economic growth comes increasing levels of employment, options for poverty reduction and hence more equitable development. Whereas it is known that SBR matters at a macro-economic level, the concept of SBR has also been employed in a more or less all-encompassing way in the literature. Accordingly, while it is clear that SBRs work, there is lack knowledge about which dimensions of SBRs are the most important. Due to the continued importance of agriculture in many developing countries, processing of the food produced in the sector is a key manufacturing activity of high economic importance to many economies. Ensuring collaborative SBRs in the food processing industry is therefore of interest to growth and development, particularly as it is a sector about which little is known about the role of SBRs. The paper attempts to examine how and why SBRs matter to and influence the growth and performance of local owned firms in the food processing sub-sector in Zambia. In particular, the paper analyses the roles and influence of government regulations and policies compared to those of business associations for the performance of the food processing sector in Zambia. The paper draws on primary data from a survey of firms in the food processing sector which was conducted between 2013 and 2014. It is shown that while the majority of the Zambian food processing firms experienced growth over the last five years, with increased employment and in a number of cases growing earnings, this seems to have happened in spite of a business environment which is not particularly supportive. The firms experience is that the SBRs mainly constitute institutional barriers to the performance of firms and highlight that formal government institutions and polices are incapable of assisting the firms and in most cases government institutions formulate and enact insufficient support schemes.
Akakandelwa, Akakandelwa; Munsanje, Joseph
The aim of this study was to determine the provision of learning and teaching materials for pupils with visual impairment in basic and high schools of Zambia. A survey approach utilizing a questionnaire, interviews and a review of the literature was adopted for the study. The findings demonstrated that most schools in Zambia did not provide
Simpemba, Prospery C.
Indigenous astronomy in the context of Zambia is the oral astronomy knowledge, culture and beliefs which relate to celestial bodies, astronomy events and related behaviour that are held by the elderly persons and passed on to younger generations. Much is not written down and with the passing away of the custodians, this knowledge is threatened to be extinct. A mini study of the astronomical beliefs and culture of the ancient Zambian community during the International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009 revealed that such knowledge existed. A comprehensive study assesses cultural and traditional knowledge on astronomy and to ascertain how much of this knowledge has been passed on to the younger generations. Open-ended interviews were conducted using questionnaires and focus group discussions. Respondents were identified by snowball sampling of the elderly people and random sampling of the middle aged and young. Nine randomly sampled districts of the Copperbelt Province were considered. The collected data has been analysed using MAXQDA software. Knowledge of traditional astronomy is high among the elderly people and declining with age hence the need for documenting and introducing it in the school curriculum and regular public discourse.
Lobo, Neil F.; Laurent, Brandyce St.; Sikaala, Chadwick H.; Hamainza, Busiku; Chanda, Javan; Chinula, Dingani; Krishnankutty, Sindhu M.; Mueller, Jonathan D.; Deason, Nicholas A.; Hoang, Quynh T.; Boldt, Heather L.; Thumloup, Julie; Stevenson, Jennifer; Seyoum, Aklilu; Collins, Frank H.
The understanding of malaria vector species in association with their bionomic traits is vital for targeting malaria interventions and measuring effectiveness. Many entomological studies rely on morphological identification of mosquitoes, limiting recognition to visually distinct species/species groups. Anopheles species assignments based on ribosomal DNA ITS2 and mitochondrial DNA COI were compared to morphological identifications from Luangwa and Nyimba districts in Zambia. The comparison of morphological and molecular identifications determined that interpretations of species compositions, insecticide resistance assays, host preference studies, trap efficacy, and Plasmodium infections were incorrect when using morphological identification alone. Morphological identifications recognized eight Anopheles species while 18 distinct sequence groups or species were identified from molecular analyses. Of these 18, seven could not be identified through comparison to published sequences. Twelve of 18 molecularly identified species (including unidentifiable species and species not thought to be vectors) were found by PCR to carry Plasmodium sporozoites - compared to four of eight morphological species. Up to 15% of morphologically identified Anopheles funestus mosquitoes in insecticide resistance tests were found to be other species molecularly. The comprehension of primary and secondary malaria vectors and bionomic characteristics that impact malaria transmission and intervention effectiveness are fundamental in achieving malaria elimination. PMID:26648001
Nalubamba, King S; Mudenda, Ntombi B
There has been an increase in the number of wild ungulates kept in captivity for ecotourism and conservation in Zambia and these animals are susceptible to a number of diseases including gastrointestinal helminth infections. Surveys to determine anthelmintic efficacy to gastrointestinal nematodes in captive-wildlife are not common and there have been no reports of anthelmintic resistance in captive-wildlife in Zambia. This study was carried out to determine the efficacy of the benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole in captive wild impala (Aepyceros melampus) in Zambia. During the month of April 2011, at the end of the rainy season, the faecal egg count reduction test was performed at a private game facility for assessing anthelmintic efficacy of oral fenbendazole and the anthelmintic treatment showed an efficacy of 90%. Haemonchus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. were the predominant genera present before treatment, but Haemonchus spp. larvae were the only genus recovered from the faecal cultures after anthelmintic treatment. This represents the first documentation of anthelmintic treatment failure in captive wild-antelopes in Zambia. It also demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the common traditional practice of deworming captive-wild antelopes at the end of the rainy season due to the rapid re-infection of impala that occurs due to high pasture infectivity. Suggestions on changes to current anthelmintic use/practices that will make them more efficacious and reduce the possibility of development of anthelmintic resistance in captive wild game in Zambia are also made. PMID:22115945
Declining HIV prevalence among young pregnant women in Lusaka, Zambia / Déclin de la prévalence du VIH chez les jeunes femmes enceintes de Lusaka en Zambie / Disminución de la prevalencia de VIH entre embarazadas jóvenes en Lusaka, Zambia
Elizabeth M, Stringer; Namwinga T, Chintu; Jens W, Levy; Moses, Sinkala; Benjamin H, Chi; Jubra, Muyanga; Marc, Bulterys; Maximilian, Bweupe; Karen, Megazzini; Jeffrey SA, Stringer.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Desde hace ya muchos años se aplican en Lusaka medidas de prevención de la infección por VIH. Algunos datos recientes parecen indicar que se ha producido una disminución de la seroincidencia de VIH en Zambia y en algunos países vecinos. El objetivo de este estudio fue examinar las tendenci [...] as de la seroprevalencia de VIH entre las mujeres embarazadas y parturientas entre 2002 y 2006. MÉTODOS: Analizamos las tendencias de la seroprevalencia de VIH en Lusaka a partir de dos fuentes: (i) datos prenatales de un programa de prevención de la transmisión del VIH de la madre al niño que abarcaba toda la ciudad, y (ii) datos sobre partos extraídos de dos sistemas anónimos independientes de vigilancia de la sangre de cordón umbilical aplicados en 2003 y de nuevo en 2005-2006, que permitieron obtener y analizar muestras en más del 97% de los nacimientos registrados en el sector público en cada periodo. RESULTADOS: Entre julio de 2002 y diciembre de 2006, el distrito de Lusaka analizó la serología VIH de 243 302 mujeres que recibieron atención prenatal; 54 853 (22,5%) estaban infectadas por el virus. A lo largo de ese periodo, la seroprevalencia de VIH entre las mujeres que recibieron atención prenatal y se sometieron a los análisis disminuyó de forma sostenida del 24,5% en el tercer trimestre de 2002 al 21,4% en el último trimestre de 2006 (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: HIV prevention has been ongoing in Lusaka for many years. Recent reports suggest a possible decline in HIV sero-incidence in Zambia and some neighbouring countries. This study aimed to examine trends in HIV seroprevalence among pregnant and parturient women between 2002 and 2006. METHODS: [...] We analysed HIV seroprevalence trends from two Lusaka sources: (i) antenatal data from a city-wide programme to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission, and (ii) delivery data from two anonymous unlinked cord-blood surveillances performed in 2003 and again in 2005-2006, where specimens from > 97% of public-sector births in each period were obtained and analysed. FINDINGS: Between July 2002 and December 2006, the Lusaka district tested 243 302 antenatal women for HIV; 54 853 (22.5%) were HIV infected. Over this period, the HIV seroprevalence among antenatal attendees who were tested declined steadily from 24.5% in the third quarter of 2002 to 21.4% in the last quarter of 2006 (P
Full text: Zambia is involved in the peaceful application in Nuclear Science and Technology which cover the agriculture, human health, industry, research and education sectors. In the execution of the projects various radioactive sources and radioisotopes are used. The data from the Radiation Protection Board show that there are 136 organizations and 971 Radiation workers benefit from the regulatory control and personnel Dosimetry service that is provided by the Board. The radiation user institutions are broken down as follows: medical (106), industrial (18), research (10) and (2) in teaching. The radioactive waste generated and spent sources are managed, in several ways depending on the type . In addition to radioactive waste generated by various application there are new developments concerning the management of spent sources mainly brought into control by the detection of illicit trade or trafficking activities by the Police, Drug Enforcement Commission, and the vigilant people of the community. The challenge for Zambia is to set-up a Radioactive Waste Management Facility preferably under the National Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research (NISIR). The RPB should legally designate NISIR for this function and assist to have the Government provide support that is required to have an operation and effective facility. One Radioactive Waste Interim Storage Shed at Kalulushi. This shed was put up by a copper mining conglomerate which now has been privatized. It is hoped that this facility can be licensed by Radiation Protection Board to be run by private enterprise for storage of prescribed spent radioactive sources and materials. This shed should be technically competent persons and should have good equipment for the purpose. The application in industry (NDT, mining, radiation sterilization, pipeline and construction, human health (nuclear medicine, radioimmunoassay and radiotherapy practices) and agriculture (use of P-32) required that a National Strategy for the management of the spent radioactive materials and the waste materials from the practices be developed with Radiation Protection Board playing a leading role. The International Atomic Energy Agency will continue to be a major cooperating partner in the development of this capacity through die technical expertise, equipment, technical literature and training fellowships that can be provided through the Technical Cooperation Programme. (author)
Mbewe, Njelembo J; Sitali, Lungowe; Namangala, Boniface; Michelo, Charles
Trypanocides will continue to play an important role in the control of tsetse fly transmitted trypanosomosis now and in the near future. The drugs are mostly administered by farmers without any veterinary supervision leading to misuse and under dosing of medication, and these could be factors that promote trypanocidal drug resistance (TDR) development. In order to delay or prevent TDR, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) recommended guidelines on trypanocide use. It is not known if these recommended guidelines are adhered to in Itezhi tezhi district of Zambia. A survey was undertaken to examine how socio-economic and environmental factors were associated with adherence to the recommended guidelines on trypanocide use in Itezhi tezhi, Central Zambia. Ninety farmers who use trypanocides were interviewed using a questionnaire to collect their socio-economic characteristics (age, education in years, cattle herd size, competence on trypanocide use and their access to extension on trypanocide use) and trypanocide usage practices while crush pens which they use were stratified according to location, whether in the Game Management Area (GMA) (Mutenda, Itumbi, Kapulwe and Banachoongo) or non-GMA (Iyanda, New Ngoma and Shinampamba) as an environmental factor. Associations and measures of associations to adherence of FAO guidelines were determined. The results showed that 25.6% of the farmers adhered to guidelines by FAO on trypanocide use and that none of the socio-economic factors under investigation were significantly associated with it. Further the farmers that used crush pens that were in the GMA had an 80% reduction in the likelihood of adhering to the FAO guidelines on trypanocide use than those that used crush pens in the non-GMA (AOR 0.20, 95% CI: 0.05-0.81, P=0.02). There was low adherence to the recommended FAO guidelines on trypanocide use and it was associated with the location of the crush pen whether in the GMA or not, as an environmental factor. With farmers in the GMA less likely to adhere to FAO guidelines than those in the non-GMA, we recommend an integrated approach of measures to control trypanosomosis in the GMA of Itezhi tezhi to lessen overuse of trypanocides by the farmers. PMID:25740569
Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to identify the major actors in Zambias sugar value chain and to assess the growth opportunities and constraints faced by the sub-sector. The study results show that the sugar sub-sector accounts for about 4% of the Gross Domestic Product and 6% of total national exports in Zambia. The sugar industry in Zambia is a monopolistic market structure dominated by one firm, Zambia Sugar Plc., which contributes over 90% of the total national sugar production. Zambia is one of the lowest cost producers of sugar globally. Growth in the sugar industry therefore holds great prospects for economic diversification and employment creation. Despite being a low cost sugar producer, growth of the sub-sector is constrained by high transaction costs. These include high fuel, electricity, transportation and distribution costs. Legislation on Vitamin A fortification of sugar also increases production costs and is a significant barrier to entry for potential entrants. Moreover, water rights and insecurity associated with customary land tenure have also emerged as major issues requiring attention to enhance investments into the sector. The situation is aggravated by lack of an articulate sugar sector policy to provide strategic guidance for sector development. In order to attract private sector investment and enhance growth; government policy should assure water rights and land tenure security for establishment of sugar plantations. There is also need to clarify government policy on bio-fuels as well as to review the export strategy to reduce dependence on EU markets and explore alternative regional markets.
The Katanga System, host to uranium and copper mineralisation, is several thousands of metres thick and rests unconformably on an older complex of crystalline rocks and metasediments and is locally covered by Karoo sandstones or Kalahari sands. The deposition of the Katanga System took place during the Late Proterozoic in a wide complex basin extending from Shaba province in Zaire through a large part of Zambia and into eastern Angola. The sediments were affected by different grades of metamorphism, tectonic events, and by thermal events associated with post-tectonic metamorphism. At the base of Katanga system there are 84 known copper deposits and 42 uranium occurrences. It is suggested that all the known uranium and copper occurrences are of an essentially syngenetic sedimentary origin. The mineralisation is found in the Lower Roan Formation near the base of the Katanga System occurring in rocks produced in similar environmental conditions and thus being stratigraphic controlled, however, their areal distribution is localised producing a regional metal zonation. Many of the uranium occurrences have a typical vein aspect. These transgressive relationships are not inconsistent with a syngenetic origin as evidenced by the vein morphology. (author)
Kenneth C Kapembwa
Full Text Available Objectives : Epidemiologic data of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfection are needed in sub-Saharan Africa to guide health policy for hepatitis screening and optimized antiretroviral therapy (ART. Materials and Methods: We screened 323 HIV-infected, ART-eligible adults for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis C antibody (HCV Ab at a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. We collected basic demographic, medical, and laboratory data to determine predictors for coinfection. Results: Of 323 enrolled patients, 32 (9.9%; 95% CI=6.7-13.2% were HBsAg positive, while 4 (1.2%; 95% CI=0.03-2.4% were HCV Ab positive. Patients with hepatitis B coinfection were more likely to be 200 IU/L was uncommon and did not differ between the two groups (3.4% vs. 2.3%; P=0.5. We were unable to determine predictors of hepatitis C infection due to the low prevalence of disease. Conclusions: HIV and hepatitis B coinfection was common among patients initiating ART at this tertiary care facility. Routine screening for hepatitis B should be considered for HIV-infected persons in southern Africa.
Full Text Available Maize is the principal agricultural crop produced by Zambian smallholder farmers for household consumption and sale. Their production strategy is therefore important in meeting food security and income needs. This study uses data collected from a survey of a random sample of farm households in southern Zambia to develop a Tobit regression model. The model identifies farm and farmer characteristics important for adoption of improved maize seed varieties as well as to determine the role of farmer perceptions of technology attributes in maize varietal adoption. The results indicate that expectations about output price and yield are important determinants of adoption. Other factors directly correlated with the probability of adoption include the status of being male-headed, farm size and membership to farmer organizations. Households with more wealth and educated heads were also significantly more likely to adopt improved varieties. Some of the policy implications of these findings are that intervention strategies should be designed and implemented to encourage poor households and those with low levels of formal education to participate in local farmer organizations. The positive interaction between membership to organizations and the adoption of technologies also suggests that group based extension approaches should be encouraged not only for their role in collective action but also for their positive impact on information diffusion and technology adoption.
The Karroo geology of Zambia with respect to uranium mineralization is outlined and compared with the sandstone deposits of western United States of America. Whereas numerous uranium anomalies are known in the Karroo System, those of the Escarpment Grit Formation in the mid-Zambezi Valley would appear to be significant. Airborne radiometric survey did not always reflect the mineralization recorded on the ground. Several other Karroo anomalies are still to be traversed. Porosity, permeability, clay traps, micas and reducing lithologies are the major factors controlling mineralization. The present loci of mineralization are a function of the remobilization brought about by fluctuating water table, dip of strata and structure. While most of the deposits contain secondary uranium minerals, pitchblende has been recorded in two areas, and probably reflects the 'primary' ore. The deposits are primarily sheet-like, concordant to discordant units. The source for uranium would appear to be the Katanga and basement rocks to the north-north east and north-west. The results of the last three years of investigation support further work and already a number of low to medium scale deposits have been outlined, thus warranting further intensive large-scale investigation. (author)
Increasing demand for coal in Asia is stimulating interest in the potentially large coal resources in Southern African countries such as Botswana, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Namibia. These countries have been slow to utilise their coal as local demand has been limited and the means to export coal has been inadequate. The governments in these regions are now recognising coal as a strategically important commodity, capable of earning foreign revenue but also adding value to the economy by generating much needed electricity. This report looks in turn at the role of coal in the energy economies of each of these countries. As in most emerging economies, the provision of a reliable and cost-effective supply of electricity to industries and people is essential for economic growth and the welfare of communities. Demand for Africa's mineral commodities such as diamonds and copper is driving a massive need for electricity and coal will play a major role. Not only does the mining industry need power, but with these growing industries come communities and commerce which are also in need of energy.
Olusegun A Babaniyi; Peter Mwaba; David Mulenga; Mwaka Monze; Peter Songolo; Mazaba-Liwewe, Mazyanga L.; Idah Mweene-Ndumba; Freddie Masaninga; Elizabeth Chizema; Messeret Eshetu-Shibeshi; Costantine Malama; Emmanuel Rudatsikira; Seter Siziya
Background: North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia were reclassified as low-risk areas for yellow fever (YF). However, the current potential for YF transmission in these areas is unclear. Aims: To determine the current potential risk of YF infection. Setting and Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia. Materials and Methods: Samples were tested for both YF virus-specific IgG and IgM antibodies by the ELISA and YF virus confirmation...
Leone, T; Coast, E.; Parmar, D.; Vwalika, B
Zambia has one of the most liberal abortion laws in sub-Saharan Africa. However, rates of unsafe abortion remain high with negative health and economic consequences. Little is known about the economic burden on women of abortion care-seeking in low income countries. The majority of studies focus on direct costs (e.g.: hospital fees). This paper estimates the individual-level economic burden of safe and unsafe abortion care-seeking in Zambia, incorporating all indirect and direct costs. It use...
From July 1995 to January 2005, five cases of attempted illicit trafficking of spent radioactive materials have been reported and investigated in Zambia. In all five cases, monetary gain was the motivation. The paper describes factors contributing to the vulnerability of Zambia to illicit trafficking of nuclear material, including the consequences of an unstable economy, the involvement of international institutions in Government funding policies, inadequate training or remuneration of personnel and inadequate equipment. To raise awareness among policy makers and the public, a six-pronged strategy is suggested. (author)
The environmental risks and uncertainties of a high-energy future are disturbing and give rise to several reservations concerning the use of fossil fuels. A number of technologies will help to reduce atmospheric pollution. In Denmark special importance is attached to the following: Energy conservation. Efficient energy conversion. Renewable energy sources. District heating, combined production of heat and power. Many agree that district heating (DH), produced by the traditional heat-only plant, and combined heat and power (CHP) have enormous potential when considering thermal efficiency and lowered environmental impacts: The basic technology of each is proven, it would be relatively simple to satisfy a substantial part of the energy demand, and their high efficiencies mean reduced pollution including greenhouse gas emissions. This is especially important in high population density areas - the obviously preferred sites for such energy generation. Compared with individual heating DH can provide a community with an operationally efficient and most often also an economically competitive heat supply. This is particularly true under the circumstances where the DH system is supplied from CHP plants. Their use results in very substantial improvements in overall efficiency. Further environmental improvements arise from the reduced air pollution obtainable in reasonably large CHP plants equipped with flue gas cleaning to remove particles, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen acids. As a consequence of these considerations, DH plays an important role in fulfilling the space and water heating demand in many countries. This is especially the case in Denmark where this technology is utilised to a very great extent. Indeed, DH is one of the reasons why Denmark has relatively good air quality in the cities. (au)
Chizema-Kawesha Elizabeth; Gosoniu Laura; Miller John M; Vounatsou Penelope; Riedel Nadine; Mukonka Victor; Steketee Rick W
Abstract Background The Zambia Malaria Indicator Survey (ZMIS) of 2006 was the first nation-wide malaria survey, which combined parasitological data with other malaria indicators such as net use, indoor residual spraying and household related aspects. The survey was carried out by the Zambian Ministry of Health and partners with the objective of estimating the coverage of interventions and malaria related burden in children less than five years. In this study, the ZMIS data were analysed in o...
Banda, Kawawa Eddy
An important environmental problem in arid to semi-arid regions of the world is salinisation of water resources. Moreover, most of these regions are inhabited by poor communities in developing countries, with limited or no financial resources to develop suitable alternatives to meet their basic water needs. With increasing world population and increasing effects of climate change, groundwater resources are seen as a suitable alternative. However, the exploitation of groundwater in these regions requires knowledge of aquifer structure and genesis, and mechanisms that control hydrochemistry. Water resources practioners in arid and semi-arid regions accept that future development of groundwater resources depends largely on the degree and rate of salinisation. This PhD study focuses on investigating the sedimentological and hydro-geochemical conditions that have shaped the groundwater environment in Western Zambia to the present hydrogeology, in particular the origin and dynamics of groundwater salinity. The casestudy is the Machile Basin of south-western Zambia, a semi-arid region on the northern extension of a desiccated lake system Palaeo-lake Makgadikgadi (PLM), southern Africa. PLM is a palaeo-mega endorheic lake system that was formed due to tectonic disruptions in the Early Pleistocene (speculated at c. 1.4 Ma). The lake has sustained several lake levels, with the highest level at ~995 m above mean sea level (amsl) and became largely desiccated in the Late Pleistocene (probably by c. 500 ka). Methods used in the field and laboratory included: deep borehole drilling, geophysical borehole logging, groundwater table measurements, sediment dating (with optically stimulated luminescence - OSL), mineralogical analysis (XRD and SEM), groundwater tracers (18O, 2H, 3H/3He, 14C), hydrochemistry (including pore-water), cation exchange capacity and sediment dilution experiments. Unconsolidated sediment samples at intermittent depths up to 50 m below ground level (bgl) were retrieved from a 100 m bgl research borehole.Sediment XRD analysis shows that the sediment has predominantly silicate minerals (quartz and feldspars) with whitish nodule like structures detected to be bassanite (dehydrated gypsum), whereas carbonates (calcite and dolomite) were below detection by XRD; a simple acid test, however, validated the presence of carbonates. OSL dating showed that the sediments are old (> 300 ka) and cannot be accurately constrained as the quartz mineral grains are fully or nearly saturated. The sediment pack shows conditions of palaeo-environmental changes of wet and dry conditions (based on microfossils and facies changes) depositing fluvio-lacustrine sediments (sand, silt and clay intercalations); geophysical logging delineated and resolved these sediments well, showing high salinity down to the basement rocks at 100 m bgl. Within the Machile Basin, the groundwater table has a low hydraulic gradient in the central palaeo-lake sediment region, characterized by brackish-saline water, and higher gradients in the fresh water fringe region. The fresh water is typically Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Na-HCO3 dominated due to silicate weathering, whereas, the saline groundwater is Na-SO4-Cl dominated, the result of sustained dedolomitization and ion exchange processes as modelled using the geochemical code PHREEQC. The groundwater ages along a flow line using 14C and 3H/3He are 300 ka), suggesting pluvial climatic recharge process during Late Pleistocene (> 30-20 ka) and Holocene (8-4.5 ka) that induced partial leaching of the sediments. Stable water isotopes (2H and 18O) data suggest that groundwater receives meteoric recharge; however most of this water is lost to evapo-transpiration rendering the saline environment a virtually stagnant groundwater zone without any through flow. Fresh groundwater is therefore hosted in the near-surface zone (such as river channels, palaeo drainages and alluvial deltaic features) within the PLM region. This study supports a tectonically controlled evolution of PLM in which hydrological feedbacks were secondary proces
Abdel E. Ghaly
Full Text Available Problem statement: The life cycle and culture structure of two commonly eaten worms in Zambia (Isoberlinia paniculata and Miombo/Mopani were evaluated. The worms were grown on an artificial medium to evaluate the potential of producing them on a commercial scale. Approach: An interesting characteristic of the worms studied was that they reached their maximum weight and maximum length at the same time. Results: The larvae started to decrease in weight soon after reaching their maximum size suggesting that they should be harvested shortly before reaching their maximum length (36 days old. Only 10% mortality was observed with the older larvae of the Miombo/Mopani worm. A system where eggs are separated from adults and hatched in separate chambers would alleviate the danger of losing the population due to microbial infection. The high moisture content of the live larvae (60.5-60.9% could cause handling and storage problems. Drying and grinding the larvae would reduce them to easily manageable forms and would improve their marketability as a novel food. The results obtained from this study showed the potential of using these insects as a protein source for human consumption. They had structured animal protein that contained the essential amino acids, lipids, vitamins, minerals and energy required for human growth and their nutrition contents are comparable to those of conventional foods. These worms are harvested from trees in Africa but the industry is facing droughts and overexploitation that has lead to local extinctions in several areas. Conclusion/Recommendations: Therefore, further research is required to evaluate their growth on low substrates and to assess the effects of environmental parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, CO2 and heat production on food consumption and protein yield and quality. This information will aid in the design of an optimal commercial insect production system. Appropriate processing and marketing procedures would also insure the sustainability of the industry.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is one of the major public health problems in Zambia. However, information about lineages of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC isolates useful for epidemiology investigations is unknown. In this study, we investigated the diversity of MTBC isolates from Ndola, a typical Zambian urbanized city with a documented high HIV prevalence. Methods This was part of a prospective cohort study in subjects with sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB. Spoligotyping was used to genotype the MTBC isolates and establish the circulating lineages. The 15-locus Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units - Variable Number Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR typing was used to study recent transmission. Results A total of 98 different spoligotypes were identified among 273 MTBC isolates. The majority (64.8% of the isolates belonged to 9 known families, while 96 (35.2% of the isolates were orphans. While LAM (41.8% was the largest spoligotype family observed, most of the isolates (87.7% belonging to the SAF1 family, with a significant portion coming from the T (13.6%, and X (5.9% families. A few isolates (3.6% belonged to the CAS, EAI, H, S, X1-LAM9 or U families. MIRU-VNTR typing was highly discriminatory (h = 0.988 among the 156 isolates tested in our sample, and increased the discrimination among 82 SAF1 isolates from 6 to 46 distinct patterns. In addition, 3.2% (5/156 of cases with available MIRU-VNTR results harbored more than one MTBC strain. Conclusions Our findings show a limited diversity of MTBC in Ndola with a high clustering rate (37.7%, which indicates that recent transmission plays an appreciable role in the dynamics of TB disease in this setting. This conclusion emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and timely treatment. The results also confirm that MIRU-VNTR typing is suitable for studying the molecular epidemiology of TB in Ndola.
Kanyengo, Brendah Kakulwa; Kanyengo, Christine Wamunyima
This article identifies information provision services in emergency settings using Zambia as a case study by identifying innovative ways of providing library and information services. The thrust of the article is to analyze information management practices of organizations that work within refugee camps and how they take specific cognizance of the
Babalola, Joel B.; Lungwangwa, Geoffrey; Adeyinka, Augustus A.
Investigates the effects of the Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) on the educational systems in Nigeria and Zambia. Reports that SAP impacted the public expenditure on education, the purchasing power of the incomes earned by both learning institutions and their staff, and on access, equity, and quality indicators in education at all levels. (CMK)
This article explores an attempt to disrupt gender inequality in a unique, low-cost private school in Ndola, Zambia. It examines deliberate school policies aimed at "undoing gender" or fostering greater gender equity. These include efforts to maintain gender parity at all levels of the school and the requirement that both young men and women carry
Seidenfeld, David; Prencipe, Leah; Handa, Sudhanshu; Hawkinson, Laura
Little research has been conducted on unconditional cash transfers (UCTs) despite their growing prevalence in Africa, including South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Malawi, Lesotho, and Uganda. In this study, researchers implemented a randomized control trial with over 2,500 households to investigate the impact of Africa's child grant program onâ¦
Mbulo, Lazarous; Newman, Ian M.; Shell, Duane F.
This study explored factors that may predict condom use among college and high school students in Zambia. Using the Social Cognitive Theory, this study examined the relationship of drinking behaviors, alcohol-sexual expectations, education level, and religion to condom use among 961 students. The results of the study show that condom use was low
Munang'andu, Hetron M; Munag'andu, Hetron M; Siamudaala, Victor M; Nambota, Andrew; Bwalya, John M; Munyeme, Musso; Mweene, Aaron S; Takada, Ayato; Kida, Hiroshi
Eco-tourism depending on wildlife is becoming increasingly profitable and landowners are beginning to favor game farming and ecotourism. In these areas, large-scale translocation of wildlife involves a diversity of species and large populations. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is one of the major tourist attractions in Zambia. It accounts for 8.7% and 12.4% of the total animal species hunted in the Game Management Areas and the total hunting revenue earned in Zambia, respectively. It is ecologically an important animal species essential for the purpose of habitat control and facilitating the provision of suitable grazing pastures. However, the rearing of the African buffalo on game ranches has been hampered by its carrier state of the Southern Africa Terroritory (SAT) serotypes of foot and mouth disease virus (FMD). The African buffalo is also known to be a carrier of Theileria parva lawrencei, the causative agent of corridor disease (CD) that continues to have devastating effects on the livestock industry in Zambia. In addition, the importation of buffaloes from countries with populations endemic to bovine tuberculosis is highly restricted. Veterinary regulations in Zambia, strongly advocate against the translocation of buffaloes from protected areas to private ranches for disease control purposes thereby mounting a considerable constraint on the economic and ecological viability of the industry. It is hoped that this review will motivate the relevant government authorities in exploiting ways in which this animal species play a central role in eco-tourism. PMID:16786973
This article discusses the impact of including gender in the analytical framework in a study of the management and provision of education in Zambia from 1900 to 1939. It shows that a focus on gender allows females to enter the historical narrative and the leadership of women such as Mabel Shaw, Hannah Frances Davidson and Julia Smith can be given
Chabalengula, Vivien M.; Mumba, Frackson
This paper is aimed at elucidating the current state of inquiry-based science education (IBSE) in Zambia's high school science curriculum. Therefore, we investigated Zambian teachers' conceptions of inquiry; determined inquiry levels in the national high school science curriculum materials, which include syllabi, textbooks and practical exams; andâ¦
In the Republic of Zambia, an estimated 256,000 persons have some form of disability, and of these, 5.4% have intellectual disabilities. Even now, traditional beliefs about the etiology of intellectual disabilities persist and considerable stigma is attached to the presence of persons with intellectual disabilities who are often excluded from
Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.
In our analysis of returns to schooling in Zambia, we look at the rural and urban population separately, and estimate the returns to schooling in each region based on a selection model in two stages. For urban areas we find that the returns to primary schooling are nil whereas the returns to...
Attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV) were compared between Zambian and Kenyan men on sociodemographic, attitudinal, and structural predictors of such attitudes. Data were retrieved from the latest Demographic and Health Surveys in each country. The results showed that many men in Zambia (71%) and Kenya (68%) justified IPV to punish a
Sherman, Jane; Muehlhoff, Ellen
School-based health and nutrition interventions in developing countries aim at improving children's nutrition and learning ability. In addition to the food and health inputs, children need access to education that is relevant to their lives, of good quality, and effective in its approach. Based on evidence from the Zambia Nutrition Education in
A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) mission to Zambia. The IUREP Orientation Phase mission to Zambia estimates that the Speculative Resources of that country fall within the range of 33 000 and 100 000 tonnes uranium. The majority of these resources are believed to exist in the Karoo sediments. Other potentially favourable geological environments are the Precambrian Katanga sediments, as well as intrusive rocks of different chemical compositions and surficial duricrusts. Previous unofficial estimates of Zambia's Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR) and Estimated Additional Resources (EAR) are considered to be still valid: the total RAR amount to 6 000 tonnes uranium, located in Karoo (4 000 tonnes) and Katanga (2 000 tonnes) sediments, while the EAR are believed to total 4 000 tonnes being found only in Karoo sediments. The mission recommends that approximately US$ 40 million be spent on uranium exploration in Zambia over 10 years. The largest part of this expenditure would be for drilling, while the remainder should be spent on airborne and ground surveys, as well as on interpretative work on previous airborne data, Landsat imageries, etc. (author)
Hendriksen, Rene S.; Joensen, Katrine Grimstrup; Lukwesa-Musyani, Chileshe; Kalondaa, Annie; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Nakazwe, Ruth; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hasman, Henrik; Mwansa, James C L
Two cases of extremely drug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg isolated from patients in Zambia were investigated by utilizing MIC determinations and whole-genome sequencing. The isolates were resistant to, and harbored genes toward, nine drug classes, including fluoroquinolones and...
This presentation gives an overview of the situation in Zambia with respect to the management of chemicals. A summary description of key pieces of legislation that deal with the protection of human beings and the environment and their objectives are discussed briefly. The paper gives also a summary description of key approaches and procedures for the management of chemicals. (author)
The National Radiation Infrastructure includes legislation, human resource, technical capacity to execute responsibilities of the regulatory (1). In cases of developing countries like Zambia, special challenges arise in view of the constraints both in terms of human resource and funding. This paper will highlight same measures that may be undertaken to improve the operations of nation radiation protection infrastructure. The measures include collaboration with Science and Technology organisations that have technical capacity, delegation of responsible to key institutions that may have competence and generation of funds through training and provision of reliable quality service. (2). In Zambia, some achievements in this line have been registered by Radiation Protection Board working with the University of Zambia and National Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research (3). Some measures of generation of funds have been done though utilization of the generated remains to be the limiting factor to exploit fully benefits that may arise from the use of the monies generated from services. Partnerships with private sector may be used as regulatory authorities for support to its programme in particular the public awareness campaign. Sponsorship by a Private Cellar Phone Company (Telecel Zambia) and Rotary Club of Lusaka for Radiation Week to Radiation Protection Service under Theme 'Safe Radiation Use' is one such an example. The other opportunity is the technical cooperation with regional and international organisations such as SADC, IAEA, WHO, Interpol, EU and WCO for technical capacity building, human resource development and information access. (author)
..., published at 77 FR 31574, May 29, 2012, to expand the eligibility to include U.S. trade associations and to... Africa and Zambia scheduled for November 26-30, 2012, announced in the Notice published at 77 FR 31574, May 29, 2012, as previously amended by notices at 77 FR 48498 (Aug. 14, 2012) adding the water...
... Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Like many sub-Saharan African countries, Zambia is dealing with major health issues, including HIV/AIDS, family planning, and reproductive health. To address reproductive health problems and the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Zambia, several social marketing and health communication programs focusing on reproductive and HIV/AIDS prevention programs are being implemented. This paper describes the reach of these programs and assesses their impact on condom use. Methods This paper assesses the reach of selected radio and television programs about family planning and HIV/AIDS and of communications about the socially marketed Maximum condoms in Zambia, as well as their impact on condom use, using data from the 20012002 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey. To control for self-selection and endogeneity, we use a two-stage regression model to estimate the effect of program exposure on the behavioural outcomes. Results Those who were exposed to radio and television programs about family planning and HIV/AIDS were more likely to have ever used a condom (OR = 1.16 for men and 1.06 for women. Men highly exposed to Maximum condoms social marketing communication were more likely than those with low exposure to the program to have ever used a condom (OR = 1.48, and to have used a condom at their last sexual intercourse (OR = 1.23. Conclusion Findings suggest that the reproductive health and social marketing campaigns in Zambia reached a large portion of the population and had a significant impact on condom use. The results suggest that future reproductive health communication campaigns that invest in radio programming may be more effective than those investing in television programming, and that future campaigns should seek to increase their impact among women, perhaps by focusing on the specific constrains that prevent females from using condoms.
Van Rossem, Ronan; Meekers, Dominique
Background Like many sub-Saharan African countries, Zambia is dealing with major health issues, including HIV/AIDS, family planning, and reproductive health. To address reproductive health problems and the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Zambia, several social marketing and health communication programs focusing on reproductive and HIV/AIDS prevention programs are being implemented. This paper describes the reach of these programs and assesses their impact on condom use. Methods This paper assesses the reach of selected radio and television programs about family planning and HIV/AIDS and of communications about the socially marketed Maximum condoms in Zambia, as well as their impact on condom use, using data from the 20012002 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey. To control for self-selection and endogeneity, we use a two-stage regression model to estimate the effect of program exposure on the behavioural outcomes. Results Those who were exposed to radio and television programs about family planning and HIV/AIDS were more likely to have ever used a condom (OR = 1.16 for men and 1.06 for women). Men highly exposed to Maximum condoms social marketing communication were more likely than those with low exposure to the program to have ever used a condom (OR = 1.48), and to have used a condom at their last sexual intercourse (OR = 1.23). Conclusion Findings suggest that the reproductive health and social marketing campaigns in Zambia reached a large portion of the population and had a significant impact on condom use. The results suggest that future reproductive health communication campaigns that invest in radio programming may be more effective than those investing in television programming, and that future campaigns should seek to increase their impact among women, perhaps by focusing on the specific constrains that prevent females from using condoms. PMID:18088437
Kragelund, Peter; Hampwaye, Godfrey
In the past decade, China has intensified its engagement in the internationalisation of higher education in Africa via the establishment of Confucius Institutes. The aim of this chapter is to shed light on the differences between Chinese support for higher education and traditional partnerships, and what the implications of these differences are for the chances of producing locally relevant knowledge in Africa. This is done through a case study of the newly established Confucius Institute at the University of Zambia in Lusaka, Zambia. This case enables us to further our understanding of how the Confucius Institute operates, how it is governed and, more importantly, how it affects the University of Zambias room for manoeuvre in determining (and funding) its own vision and strategy.
This presentation briefly describes the Zambian Seisimic Network (ZSN), Zambia's participation in past CTBTO activities and upgrading of AS119 and N192. It goes on to describe various experiences encountered and makes some suggestions for future considerations
Background: Unintended pregnancy, abortion and STI, including HIV are common sexual and reproductive health problems among young people in Kenya and Zambia. Yet, the reproductive health services are underutilised. Nurses and midwives are key providers in the promotion young people s sexual and reproductive health in Kenya and Zambia. Aim: The overall aim was to describe and explore young people s sexual and reproductive health needs and experiences and to describe health ...
Atadzhanov, Masharip; Haworth, Alan; Chomba, Elwyn N.; Mbewe, Edward K.; Birbeck, Gretchen Lano
Epilepsy-associated stigma in Africa has been largely described in terms of enacted stigma or discrimination. We conducted a study of 169 adults with epilepsy attending epilepsy clinics in Zambias Lusaka or Southern province using a 3-item instrument (maximum score 3). Potential determinants of felt stigma including age, gender, education, wealth, disclosure status (meaning whether or how their community members knew of their condition), seizure type (generalized vs. partial), seizure freque...
Tate, Jackie; Singh, Kavita; Ndubani, Phillimon; Kamwanga, Jolly; Buckner, Bates
Reaching populations at greatest risk for acquiring HIV is essential for efforts to combat the epidemic. This paper presents, the Priorities for Local AIDS Control Efforts (PLACE) method which focuses on understanding the venues where people are meeting new sexual partners and behaviors which put people at risk. A comparison of data from two PLACE studies in Zambia with a national household survey, the Zambia Sexual Behavior Survey (ZSBS) 2005, indicated that the PLACE population was at great...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Client-initiated HIV counselling and testing has been scaled up in many African countries, in the form of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT. Test rates have remained low, with HIV-related stigma being an important barrier to HIV testing. This study explored HIV testing decisions in one rural and one urban district in Zambia with high HIV prevalence and available antiretroviral treatment. Methods Data were collected through 17 in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions with individuals and 10 in-depth interviews with counsellors. Interpretive description methodology was employed to analyse the data. Results 'To know your status' was found to be a highly charged concept yielding strong barriers against HIV testing. VCT was perceived as a diagnostic device and a gateway to treatment for the severely ill. Known benefits of prevention and early treatment were outweighed by a perceived burden of knowing your HIV status related to stigma and fear. The manner in which the VCT services were organised added to this burden. Conclusions This study draws on social stigma theory to enhance the understanding of the continuity of HIV related stigma in the presence of ART, and argues that the burden of knowing an HIV status and the related reluctance to get HIV tested can be understood both as a form of label-avoidance and as strong expressions of the still powerful embodied memories of suffering and death among non-curable AIDS patients over the last decades. Hope lies in the emerging signs of a reduction in HIV related stigma experienced by those who had been tested for HIV. Further research into innovative HIV testing service designs that do not add to the burden of knowing is needed.
Full Text Available Introduction: As adolescents living with HIV gain autonomy over their self-care and begin to engage in sexual relationships, their experiences of being informed about their HIV status and of telling others about their HIV status may affect their ability to cope with having the disease. Methods: In 2010, we conducted a qualitative study among adolescents aged 1019 living with HIV in Zambia, and with their parents and health care providers. Through interviews and focus group discussions, we explored the disclosure of HIV status to adolescents living with HIV; adolescents disclosure of their status to others; and the impact of both forms of disclosure on adolescents. Results: Our study identified three main barriers to disclosure of HIV status: local norms that deter parents from communicating with their children about sexuality; fear of HIV stigma; and an underlying presumption that adolescents would not understand the consequences of a HIV diagnosis on their lives and relationships. With regard to adolescents disclosure of their HIV status to their sexual partners, our study identified fear of rejection as a common barrier. In rare cases, open family conversations about HIV helped adolescents come to terms with a HIV diagnosis. Findings indicated that disclosure had various outcomes at the individual and interpersonal levels. At the individual level, some adolescents described being anxious, depressed and blaming themselves after being told they had HIV. At the interpersonal level, disclosure created opportunities for adolescents to access adherence support and other forms of psychosocial support from family members and peers. At the same time, it occasionally strained adolescents sexual relationships, although it did not always lead to rejection. Conclusions: There is a need for public health interventions that guide adolescents living with HIV, their parents and families through the disclosure process. Such interventions should help parents to assess and understand the evolving cognitive capacity and maturity of their adolescents in order to determine the appropriate time to inform them of their HIV-positive status. Such interventions should also mitigate the risk of HIV stigma, as well as local norms that may prevent discussions of sexuality within families. Adolescents who have been informed of their HIV status should be provided with on-going support to prevent disclosure from negatively affecting their psychological and sexual wellbeing. Further research is needed to explore the potential role of trusted family members in contributing to the disclosure process.
Early in 1987, it became clear to this individual that children were a high priority group for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education. Preparation for providing AIDS education in Zambia included reading as much as possible about AIDS and AIDS education in schools, contacting the Health Education Unit at the Ministry of Health for their permission and advice, and making posters and preparing a list of 10 basic questions about AIDS. The 1st talks were at a boys' technical school and a large girls' day school. Following an introduction of the subject, the format included: a 10-minute quiz with students writing down their answers; a 35-40 minute talk, using posters as visual aids; a 20-30 minute open question time; and a repeat of the same quiz as a form of "posttest." The students responded positively, and there was a substantial increase in the percentage of correct answers after each talk. Subsequently, talks were given in other Lusaka secondary schools. After the 1st few talks, the pretest and posttest was discontinued as it was considered preferable to spend more time answering the students' questions. The talks varied depending on the audience, but posters were always included as visual aids. Initially, this AIDS education effort was voluntary and unfunded. Subsequently, and as the work grew, NORAD funded the project, paying for duplicating and printing as well as a salary on an hourly basis. A booklet on AIDS for secondary schools has been written and duplicated and accepted by the Intersectorial Committee on AIDS Health Education with minor changes. Late in 1987, the booklet was rewritten totally and expanded, with numerous illustrations. Throughout the booklet, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is carefully differentiated from AIDS disease. Talks also have been initiated at the Upper Primary School level. The format has been altered somewhat for these younger children as they tend to be noisy and excited. The primary project planned for 1988 is to talk to teachers and health educators, individually and in groups, informally and formally. Thus far, 58 talks have been given in 22 secondary schools and 11 primary schools along with 29 talks to nonschool groups. Culturally, it is much easier as a medically trained non-Zambian to talk about AIDS and AIDS-related concerns, but the message needs to be given more than once. It must be discussed both in the classroom and at home until it becomes a part of life. PMID:3169780
international finance, has affected Zambiaâs political leverage to set, implement and fund its own developmental policies. I argue that, while real changes in external financial flows comparable to aid from these non-traditional state actors are still small, these actorsâ experience is providing Zambia with an......The international development arena is currently subject to major changes in the geographies of power. In this article I analyse how and to what extent the (re)entry on the development scene of China, India and Brazil, together with increasing prices for primary commodities and improved access to...... alternative development model that combines purposive state intervention with market-based economic growth and integration into world markets. While Zambia may be taking the first steps in strengthening its âsovereign frontierâ, the extent of this movement is still small and its development outcomes are far...
Nolipher, Moyo; Julian C., M& #252; ller.
Full Text Available Culture plays a significant role in people's lives in Zambia and in Africa as a whole. Consequently, there is a need to take Zambian or African culture seriously in order to look at the salient elements of cultural practices in rites of passage that influence the spread of HIV and AIDS. This article [...] analyses four rites of passage associated with birth, puberty, marriage and death. There are numerous rites of passage in Zambian culture. Some of these rites help to curb the spread of HIV and AIDS, whilst others exacerbate the spread of the virus. Using the Reformed Church in Zambia Bible Study Method of Subgroups, discussions were held that allowed victims of cultural practices to tell their stories using the narrative model. This article sought to shed light on cultural practices that exacerbate HIV and AIDS and more importantly, provide culturally sensitive alternatives to these harmful practices.
Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic...
California Department of Resources â This is a series of district layers pertaining to California'spolitical districts, that are derived from the California State Senateand State Assembly information....
California Department of Resources â Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...
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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency A polygon shapefile of the 24 Disaster Districts in Texas. Disaster districts are emergency operation areas created by Executive Order from the Governor's Office....
District heating has been used in Switzerland for more than 50 years. Its share of the heat market is less than 3% today. An analysis of the use of district heating in various European countries shows that a high share of district heating in the heat market is always dependent on ideal conditions for its use. Market prospects and possible future developments in the use of district heating in Switzerland are described in this paper. The main Swiss producers and distributors of district heating are members of the Association of District Heating Producers and Distributors. This association supports the installation of district heating facilities where ecological, energetical and economic aspects indicate that district heating would be a good solution. (author) 2 tabs., 6 refs
Bagnol, Brigitte; Clarke, Elizabeth; Li, Mu; Maulaga, Wende; Lumbwe, Hilda; McConchie, Robyn; de Bruyn, Julia; Alders, Robyn Gwen
The project Strengthening food and nutrition security through family poultry and crop integration in Tanzania and Zambia brings together animal, crop, and human health specialists, economists, ecologists, social scientists, and practitioners to work with participating communities. It aims to increase poultry value chain, crop farming systems efficiency, and household food and nutrition security and thus requires understanding of, and ability to work effectively within, complex systems. In t...
Deborah L Jones
Full Text Available Deborah L Jones1, Olga Villar-Loubet1, Chipepo Kankasa2, Ndashi Chitalu2, Miriam Mumbi2, Stephen M Weiss11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Paediatrics, University of Zambia School of Medicine, Lusaka, ZambiaAbstract: With the advent of antiretroviral therapy, remarkable progress has been made in the reduction of morbidity and mortality associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. As a result, in both the developed and developing world, reproductive decision-making and family planning has re-emerged as an important health issue among HIV-seroconcordant and -serodiscordant couples. This study sought to explore contraceptive attitudes and practices among HIV-seropositive and -serodiscordant couples in the US and Zambia and to compare contraceptive decision-making between seroconcordant and discordant couples. Study results suggest that while most participants expressed a willingness to use protection to prevent pregnancy, the majority were not using protection consistently. Similarly, among seropositive younger men in both the US and Zambia, more men expressed a desire to have children than women of either serostatus group. Study outcomes also suggest that male and female condom use to reduce HIV transmission within couples is limited. Thus, as males are largely the sexual decision makers regarding condom use, womens attitudes or plans regarding child bearing may be eclipsed by those of their male partners, and recent reductions in provision of female condoms in the developing world may further reduce womens options to protect themselves and prevent pregnancy. Education and counseling on vertical and horizontal transmission of HIV among both seropositive and serodiscordant couples should be an element of family planning efforts. Conversely, family planning should be a critical element of HIV counseling and testing strategies to realistically respond to the desires of both members of the couple.Keywords: urban, decision-making, condom use, HIV transmission
146 species of pteridophytes occurring in Zambia were classified into Raunkiaer's life-form classes. The hemicryptophytes are dominant and include the most widely distributed species. The phanerophytes (tree-ferns and lianas) and the epiphytes are rather scarce and limited to or concentrated in the higher-rainfall areas in the northern part of the country. Simplified diagrams of periodicity were constructed for all Zambian pteridophyte species. Three major types of seasonal pattern of growth ...
Musangeya, Elaya E
This thesis reports on an investigation into the sport experiences and views of a sample of young women in two High Schools in Lusaka, Zambia. The purpose of the study was to gain an understanding of the sports played by young women, their reasons for playing the sports, the benefits they gained, and how they navigated and negotiated the barriers they faced. The study was framed by looking at the intersections and interactions of four key ideas sport, education, gender, and development. Sig...
Kigozi Fred; Flisher Alan J; Mirzoev Tolib; Bird Philippa K; Green Andrew T; Omar Maye A; Lund Crick; Mwanza Jason; Ofori-Atta Angela L
Abstract Background Mental illnesses are increasingly recognised as a leading cause of disability worldwide, yet many countries lack a mental health policy or have an outdated, inappropriate policy. This paper explores the development of appropriate mental health policies and their effective implementation. It reports comparative findings on the processes for developing and implementing mental health policies in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia as part of the Mental Health and Poverty P...
van Klink, E.G.M.
In sub-Saharan Africa, traditionally managed livestock is important because of the provision of draught power and manure, the provision of security and investment possibilities, for the provision of meat and milk, and for social purposes (eg. brideprice, gifts). In the Western Province of Zambia, cattle are the only livestock of significance. The soils of the province virtually entirely consist of Kalahari sands, that are not very suitable for crop production, but with a good suitability for ...
Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard; Birch-Thomsen, Torben
This paper discusses the employment strategies of young people in selected rural areas of Zambia and Uganda, with a focus on the opportunities and constraints that they face. It investigates mobility patterns to determine what motivates some youth to stay, while others choose to migrate to urban areas. Quantitative and qualitative data are drawn on to analyse the role of exogenous and endogenous support for young entrepreneurs. The findings indicate that agriculture plays a major role as a sourc...
Wold, Lisa Knatterud
The focus of this study is the livelihoods of men and women involved in fishery related activities in the Lake Kariba and in the Zambezi River, Southern Province of Zambia. The main questions concerns how norms and rules for gender roles and relations affect livelihood strategies and to which extent occupational diversification and geographical mobility is important as mechanisms to achieve livelihood security. It was found that the majority of the households both apply occupat...
Shamputa Isdore; Kapata Nathan; Khondowe Shepherd; Vereecken Kim; Mwakazanga David; Mulenga Chanda; Meulemans Herman; Rigouts Leen
Abstract Background Zambia continues to grapple with a high tuberculosis (TB) burden despite a long running Directly Observed Treatment Short course programme. Understanding issues that affect patient adherence to treatment programme is an important component in implementation of a successful TB control programme. We set out to investigate pulmonary TB patient's attitudes to seek health care, assess the care received from government health care centres based on TB patients' reports, and to se...
Mwinsa, Mapoma Grant
Just like other parts of the world, schools in Zambia are, by and large, expected to be spaces for children to socialize and acquire knowledge and skills. However, the school practices in most parts of the world suggest that school spaces are 'ideal spaces for children's training' and 'preparation for the future'. They are seen as places that keep children away from danger and misdemeanor. In view of the foregoing, the aim of this thesis was to explores children's lived school experiences and...
Mitchell, C J; Briggs, D.A.; Bloodworth, A.J.
Four samples of kaolinite from Central Zambia were collected in April 1990 by D.A. Briggs (Mineralogy and Petrology Report WG/90/15R) in order to characterise them mineralogically and assess their suitability as industrial raw materials, possibly in the manufacture of paper. Other applications such as use in ceramics, as fillers in paint, plastic and rubber, or in agriculture were also to be considered.
Issues of housing are becoming very important as the urban population grows at a very rapid rate, particularly in developing countries. The number of people who are homeless and those living in substandard housing in Zambia is enormous. A home ownership programme through the sale of public rental housing to sitting tenants was seen as one of the strategies under the 1996
National Housing Policy aimed at solving the housing crisis in the country especially among t...
Full Text Available Zambia, a former British colony, is a unitary state with a population of about 10 million inhabitants. Zambia has a political system that embraces both the presidential and parliamentary systems of government. A member of parliament, once elected as such, may be appointed to cabinet. The religious d [...] emography is mostly Christian, with the other religions existing side by side. Zambia has a Bill of Rights enshrined in the Constitution, and amongst the rights guaranteed is the right to religion. The right to religion is therefore justiciable. Apart from the constitutionbal gaurantee, the right to religion is also enforced by the Human Rights Commission, the Police Complaints Authority, the Anti-Corruption Commssion, to mention but a few, as well as other institutions put in place by government for the enforcement of human rights. Under the Constitution, African traditional and customary law practices are only recognised to the extent that they do not conflict with written law. Despite this recognition, women and children have remained marginalised. Socio-economic rights are only directives of state principals which are not justiciable. The right to religion is justiciable. The right to religion, coupled with religious scruples and the regulation of the internal affairs of churches, mosques, religious schools and such by the government leaves little to be desired. Christianity is favoured. Zambia was declared a Christian nation by the second republican President, Dr Frederick Chiluba. Practice has shown that, in as much as the Constitution guarantees freeedom of religion, Zambian leaders have more often than not favoured those with an inclination towards Christianity.
Kabemba E. Mwape; Phiri, Isaac K; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Muma, John B; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriel, Sarah
A community-based longitudinal study was performed in the Eastern Province of Zambia, in which repeated serological samplings were done to determine the incidence of human cysticercosis. Three sampling rounds were carried out at six months intervals. A total of 867 participants presented for all three samplings. All samples were tested for the presence of cysticercus antigens using a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sero-Ag-ELISA), while a randomly selected sub-sam...
Background Adolescence is a dynamic period in life with both opportunities and risks related to the culturally constructed gender norms. Many adolescents in sub-Saharan countries, Zambia included, lack control over their own sexual and reproductive lives, due to factors such as gender inequality, poverty, and sociocultural and religious norms. Aim The aim of this thesis was to explore, from a gender perspective, how sexuality and reproduction are conceptualised and communic...
Sikaala, Chadwick H; Killeen, Gerry F; Chanda, Javan; Chinula, Dingani; Miller, John M.; Russell, Tanya L.; Seyoum, Aklilu
Sampling malaria vectors and measuring their biting density is of paramount importance for entomological surveys of malaria transmission. Human landing catch (HLC) has been traditionally regarded as a gold standard method for surveying human exposure to mosquito bites. However, due to the risk of human participant exposure to mosquito-borne parasites and viruses, a variety of alternative, exposure-free trapping methods were compared in lowland, south-east Zambia. Centres for Disease Control a...
Anderson, Neil E; Mubanga, Joseph; Fevre, Eric M.; Picozzi, Kim; Eisler, Mark C.; Thomas, Robert; Susan C Welburn
Animal and human trypanosomiasis are constraints to both animal and human health in Sub-Saharan Africa, but there is little recent evidence as to how these parasites circulate in natural hosts in natural ecosystems. A cross-sectional survey of trypanosome prevalence in 418 wildlife hosts was conducted in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia, from 2005 to 2007. The overall prevalence in all species was 13.9%. Infection was significantly more likely to be detected in waterbuck, lion, greater kudu and bus...
As in many countries throughout Sub-Saharan Africa and around the developing world, poverty in Zambia is overwhelmingly a rural phenomenon. In 2010 the moderate poverty rate in rural areas was 74 percent, more than double the urban poverty rate of 35 percent. The economic growth continued throughout the decade, reaching an impressive annual average of 5.7 percent, and by 2011 the World Ban...
Chibamba, Robert T.
This project seeks to examine approaches to learning to read in a second language in Zambia where there is a rich variety of mother tongues, but English is chosen for instruction as one language which all pupils will have in common. The project will be particularly concerned with helping practicing and student teachers to apply ideas based on teaching reading in English as the mother tongue to the problem of teaching reading in English as a second language.
Tesliuc, Cornelia; Smith, W James; Sunkutu, Musonda Rosemary
Despite robust annual growth of 5.7 percent in the recent past, poverty in Zambia remains stubbornly high. The poverty headcount rate is 60 percent (as of 2010), and 39 percent of the population live in extreme poverty, with insufficient consumption to meet their daily minimum food requirements. Chronic malnutrition remains very high, with 47 percent of children under the age of 5 being st...
Funder, Mikkel; Mweemba, Carol Emma; Nyambe, Imasiku
In the past ten years a significant number of policies and projects have been implemented in African countries in order to address climate change. At the same time, African countries have become more vocal in the global climate change negotiations. And yet there has been little analysis of domestic climate change agendas in African countries. This working paper is a modest first step in understanding the climate change agenda in one particular country, namely Zambia. The paper focuses on thre...
This study explores eight young peoples perception of the gender roles in Zambia, Lusaka. In this study I have asked the informants to define the genders and the result were that the genders are defined based on the biological sexes. The genders therefore become homogenous based on the male and female sex. The regulations of the genders were traditionally also based on assumed biologically natural characteristics. As I argue in this study that gender roles are social constructed I also pre...
Alfred Obia; Jan Mulder; Sarah E. Hale; Breedveld, Gijs D.; David W. Rutherford; Magnus Sparrevik; Vanja Alling; Vegard Martinsen; Victor Shitumbanuma; Gerard Cornelissen
Biochar addition to agricultural soils can improve soil fertility, with the added bonus of climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. Conservation farming (CF) is precision farming, often combining minimum tillage, crop rotation and residue retention. In the present farmer-led field trials carried out in Zambia, the use of a low dosage biochar combined with CF minimum tillage was tested as a way to increase crop yields. Using CF minimum tillage allows the biochar to be applied to...
Rudatsikira Emmanuel; Muula Adamson S.; Siziya Seter
Abstract Background Dental health is a neglected aspect of adolescent health globally but more so in low-income countries. Secondary analysis using the 2004 Zambia Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS) was conducted in which we estimated frequencies of relevant socio-demographic variables and explored associations between selected explanatory variables and self-reported poor oral hygiene (not cleaning or brushing teeth) within the last 30 days of the completion of questionnaire. Findings M...
All African countries, where there are functioning states, express a strong desire to curb corruption. The African Union has a convention to prevent and combat corruption. Zambia, under President Levy Mwanawasa, has positioned itself as a leader in Africa's fight against corruption. Last year, former Zambian President Frederick Chiluba was found guilty of grand corruption by a London court in a case brought against him by the Zambian government. There is general agreement that the media plays...
Coast, Ernestina; Murray, Susan
Unsafe abortion is a significant but preventable cause of global maternal mortality and morbidity. Zambia has among the most liberal abortion laws in sub-Saharan Africa, however this alone does not guarantee access to safe abortion, and 30% of maternal mortality is attributable to unsafe procedures. Too little is known about the pathways women take to reach abortion services in such resource-poor settings, or what informs care-seeking behaviours, barriers and delays. In-depth qualitative inte...
Full Text Available Southern Africa is noted for not only constant power shortages but also poor access to electricity. In Zambia, for example, 75% of the population does not have access to electricity. This is partly because although Zambia has one of the lowest energy tariffs in Southern Africa, when compared with household monthly income, the resource is still reasonably unaffordable. Therefore, there is need to find innovative ways of reducing energy cost. Recent studies have indicated that there are patterns that show that there is a relationship between households' lifestyles and energy consumption. This means that understanding household lifestyles and how that impacts on energy use would be crucial in helping occupants to change their behaviours. This would result in the minimisation of energy consumption and thus a reduction in energy bills. However, there is a dearth of scholarly literature about households' lifestyles and their impacts on energy consumption in most developing countries including Zambia. This study investigates the perceptions of different lifestyles on household energy consumption and knowledge about energy efficiency in the city of Kitwe, the second largest city in Zambia. Motivation and barriers to energy efficiency have also been investigated. To achieve this, a mixed research approach was adopted. Firstly, a quantitative closed structured questionnaire instrument was used to collect data from 59 households in Kitwe. Secondly, mini-focus group discussions (average size of 5 â brought about by the curiosity of residents and hence the contribution as families per household â were undertaken in the informal settlement. The major findings are that households are generally motivated to implement energy saving strategies like covering pots when cooking, switching off lights in rooms that are not in use and that more information is needed as lack of knowledge and âlandlord control' were identified as some of the barriers to energy efficiency.
Hyvärinen, O.; L. Mtilatila; K. Pilli-Sihvola; A. Venäläinen; Gregow, H.
We assess the probabilistic seasonal precipitation forecasts issued by Regional Climate Outlook Forum (RCOF) for the area of two southern African countries, Malawi and Zambia from 2002 to 2013. The forecasts, issued in August, are of rainy season rainfall accumulations in three categories (above normal, normal, and below normal), for early season (OctoberDecember) and late season (JanuaryMarch). As observations we used in-situ observations and interpolated precipitation products...
Awad, Susanne F; Sgaier, Sema K; Tambatamba, Bushimbwa C.; Mohamoud, Yousra A; Lau, Fiona K.; Reed, Jason B.; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Laith J. Abu-Raddad
Background Countries in sub-Saharan Africa are scaling-up voluntary male medical circumcision (VMMC) as an HIV intervention. Emerging challenges in these programs call for increased focus on program efficiency (optimizing program impact while minimizing cost). A novel analytic approach was developed to determine how subpopulation prioritization can increase program efficiency using an illustrative application for Zambia. Methods and Findings A population-level mathematical model was construct...
Describes the use of data-driven decision-making in four school districts: Plainfield Public Schools, Plainfield, New Jersey; Palo Alto Unified School District, Palo Alto, California; Francis Howell School District in eastern Missouri, northwest of St. Louis; and Rio Rancho Public Schools, near Albuquerque, New Mexico. Includes interviews with the
The present study is the outcome of the Zambia Charcoal Utilization Programme, which is based on cooperation that started in 1989 between the Department of Energy, Ministry of Energy and Water Development (then Ministry of Power, Transport and Communications) and the Stockholm Environmental Institute (SEI). The programme, which is funded by the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA), consists of a number of studies focusing on different aspects of the wood and charcoal industry in Zambia. Selection of this energy system for detailed study was based on the fact that wood provides the largest contribution to total energy supply in Zambia, and the fact that wood is a renewable resource that could be exploited on a sustainable basis if properly managed. The studies therefore range from those that look at sustainability of the natural forests exploited for charcoal, to those that deal with transportation and health aspects of charcoal production and use. The present report focuses on the environmental and socio-economic effects of charcoal production and use. 72 refs., 20 figs., 38 tabs
Hang'ombe Bernard M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia pestis is a bacterium that causes plague which infects a variety of mammals throughout the world. The disease is usually transmitted among wild rodents through a flea vector. The sources and routes of transmission of plague are poorly researched in Africa, yet remains a concern in several sub-Saharan countries. In Zambia, the disease has been reported on annual basis with up to 20 cases per year, without investigating animal reservoirs or vectors that may be responsible in the maintenance and propagation of the bacterium. In this study, we undertook plague surveillance by using PCR amplification of the plasminogen activator gene in fleas. Findings Xenopsylla species of fleas were collected from 83 rodents trapped in a plague endemic area of Zambia. Of these rodents 5 had fleas positive (6.02% for Y. pestis plasminogen activator gene. All the Y. pestis positive rodents were gerbils. Conclusions We conclude that fleas may be responsible in the transmission of Y. pestis and that PCR may provide means of plague surveillance in the endemic areas of Zambia.
Siziya, Seter; Mazaba, Mazyanga Lucy
There is scanty information on correlates for psychosocial distress in Zambia. Secondary analysis was conducted using the data collected in 2004 in Zambia during the global school-based health survey to determine the prevalence and correlates for psychosocial distress. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate magnitudes of associations between exposure factors and the outcome, while the Yates corrected Chi-squared test was used to compare proportions at the 5% significance level. A total of 2257 students participated in the survey of which 54.2% were males. Males were generally older than females (p?bullied (p?=?0.036), involved in a fight (p?=?0.019), and consumed alcohol (p?=?0.012). Psychosocial distress was detected in 15.7% of the participants (14.4% of males and 16.8% of females). Age bullied, involvement in a fight, alcohol consumption, being physically active, and parental support. The prevalence of psychosocial distress among adolescents in Zambia appears to be common. There is a need to validate the psychosocial distress indicators that were used in the current study. PMID:26236704
Barbieri, Chiara; Butthof, Anne; Bostoen, Koen; Pakendorf, Brigitte
Some Bantu languages spoken in southwestern Zambia and neighboring regions of Botswana, Namibia, and Angola are characterized by the presence of click consonants, whereas their closest linguistic relatives lack such clicks. As clicks are a typical feature not of the Bantu language family, but of Khoisan languages, it is highly probable that the Bantu languages in question borrowed the clicks from Khoisan languages. In this paper, we combine complete mitochondrial genome sequences from a representative sample of populations from the Western Province of Zambia speaking Bantu languages with and without clicks, with fine-scaled analyses of Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms and short tandem repeats to investigate the prehistoric contact that led to this borrowing of click consonants. Our results reveal complex population-specific histories, with female-biased admixture from Khoisan-speaking groups associated with the incorporation of click sounds in one Bantu-speaking population, while concomitant levels of potential Khoisan admixture did not result in sound change in another. Furthermore, the lack of sequence sharing between the Bantu-speaking groups from southwestern Zambia investigated here and extant Khoisan populations provides an indication that there must have been genetic substructure in the Khoisan-speaking indigenous groups of southern Africa that did not survive until the present or has been substantially reduced. PMID:22929022
Pinchoff, Jessie; Hamapumbu, Harry; Kobayashi, Tamaki; Simubali, Limonty; Stevenson, Jennifer C; Norris, Douglas E; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Thuma, Philip E; Moss, William J
Understanding factors influencing sustained use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN) in areas of declining malaria transmission is critical to sustaining control and may facilitate elimination. From 2008 to 2013, 655 households in Choma District, Zambia, were randomly selected and residents were administered a questionnaire and malaria rapid diagnostic test. Mosquitoes were collected concurrently by light trap. In a multilevel model, children and adolescents of 5-17 years of age were 55% less likely to sleep under LLIN than adults (odds ratio [OR] = 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35, 0.58). LLIN use was 80% higher during the rainy season (OR = 1.8; CI = 1.5, 2.2) and residents of households with three or more nets were over twice as likely to use a LLIN (OR = 2.1; CI = 1.4, 3.1). For every increase in 0.5 km from the nearest health center, the odds of LLIN use decreased 9% (OR = 0.9; CI = 0.88, 0.98). In a second multilevel model, the odds of LLIN use were more than twice high if more than five mosquitoes (anopheline and culicine) were captured in the house compared with households with no mosquitoes captured (OR = 2.1; CI = 1.1, 3.9). LLIN use can be sustained in low-transmission settings with continued education and distributions, and may be partially driven by the presence of nuisance mosquitoes. PMID:26324729
Lindsey, Peter A.; Nyirenda, Vincent R.; Barnes, Jonathan I.; Becker, Matthew S.; McRobb, Rachel; Tambling, Craig J.; Taylor, W. Andrew; Watson, Frederick G.; tSas-Rolfes, Michael
Many African protected areas (PAs) are not functioning effectively. We reviewed the performance of Zambias PA network and provide insights into how their effectiveness might be improved. Zambias PAs are under-performing in ecological, economic and social terms. Reasons include: a) rapidly expanding human populations, poverty and open-access systems in Game Management Areas (GMAs) resulting in widespread bushmeat poaching and habitat encroachment; b) underfunding of the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) resulting in inadequate law enforcement; c) reliance of ZAWA on extracting revenues from GMAs to cover operational costs which has prevented proper devolution of user-rights over wildlife to communities; d) on-going marginalization of communities from legal benefits from wildlife; e) under-development of the photo-tourism industry with the effect that earnings are limited to a fraction of the PA network; f) unfavourable terms and corruption which discourage good practice and adequate investment by hunting operators in GMAs; g) blurred responsibilities regarding anti-poaching in GMAs resulting in under-investment by all stakeholders. The combined effect of these challenges has been a major reduction in wildlife densities in most PAs and the loss of habitat in GMAs. Wildlife fares better in areas with investment from the private and/or NGO sector and where human settlement is absent. There is a need for: elevated government funding for ZAWA; greater international donor investment in protected area management; a shift in the role of ZAWA such that they focus primarily on national parks while facilitating the development of wildlife-based land uses by other stakeholders elsewhere; and new models for the functioning of GMAs based on joint-ventures between communities and the private and/or NGO sector. Such joint-ventures should provide defined communities with ownership of land, user-rights over wildlife and aim to attract long-term private/donor investment. These recommendations are relevant for many of the under-funded PAs occurring in other African countries. PMID:24847712
Driven by across-the-board liberalizations and the commodity price boom, Zambia has recently experienced an upsurge in foreign ownership over key parts of its economy. Albeit investors from all over the world have sought to make the most of the current situation in Zambia, Chinese investors have been particularly present in all sectors of the Zambian economy. Foreign ownership, however, is not new to African societies and several African countries pursued indigenisation policies in the wake of independence to bring ownership back to their own citizens. Now indigenisation policies thrive again. This time disguised in terms like empowerment and unequal opportunities but just as politicised as in the 1970s. In light of the current anti-Chinese sentiments in Zambia, this paper seeks to further our understanding of private sector policy making in Zambia. It argues that populist politics, referring to traditional Copperbelt rhetoric, have enforced a role as minority middlemen upon the Chinese investors. This further segregates Chinese investors from other investors and has been a driving force in the anti-Chinese campaign in Zambia. To curb the critique of the growing foreign dominance over the economy, and in particular of the upsurge in Chinese investments, the ruling party has reverted to the use of nationalist policies.
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) This layer represents the Arkansas State House of Representatives district boundaries adopted by the Arkansas Board of Apportionment on July 29, 2011. The Board of...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Zambia Malaria Indicator Survey (ZMIS of 2006 was the first nation-wide malaria survey, which combined parasitological data with other malaria indicators such as net use, indoor residual spraying and household related aspects. The survey was carried out by the Zambian Ministry of Health and partners with the objective of estimating the coverage of interventions and malaria related burden in children less than five years. In this study, the ZMIS data were analysed in order (i to estimate an empirical high-resolution parasitological risk map in the country and (ii to assess the relation between malaria interventions and parasitaemia risk after adjusting for environmental and socio-economic confounders. Methods The parasitological risk was predicted from Bayesian geostatistical and spatially independent models relating parasitaemia risk and environmental/climatic predictors of malaria. A number of models were fitted to capture the (potential non-linearity in the malaria-environment relation and to identify the elapsing time between environmental effects and parasitaemia risk. These models included covariates (a in categorical scales and (b in penalized and basis splines terms. Different model validation methods were used to identify the best fitting model. Model-based risk predictions at unobserved locations were obtained via Bayesian predictive distributions for the best fitting model. Results Model validation indicated that linear environmental predictors were able to fit the data as well as or even better than more complex non-linear terms and that the data do not support spatial dependence. Overall the averaged population-adjusted parasitaemia risk was 20.0% in children less than five years with the highest risk predicted in the northern (38.3% province. The odds of parasitaemia in children living in a household with at least one bed net decreases by 40% (CI: 12%, 61% compared to those without bed nets. Conclusions The map of parasitaemia risk together with the prediction error and the population at risk give an important overview of the malaria situation in Zambia. These maps can assist to achieve better resource allocation, health management and to target additional interventions to reduce the burden of malaria in Zambia significantly. Repeated surveys will enable the evaluation of the effectiveness of on-going interventions.
Mobilizing communities to improve maternal health: results of an intervention in rural Zambia / : / Mobiliser les communautes pour ameliorer la sante maternelle: resultats d'une intervention dans les zones rurales de la Zambie / : / : / Movilizacion de las comunidades para mejorar la salud materna: resultados de una intervencion en las zonas rurales de Zambia
Tim, Ensor; Cathy, Green; Paula, Quigley; Abdul Razak, Badru; Dynes, Kaluba; Tendayi, Kureya.
Full Text Available Resumen Objetivo Verificar si una intervención comunitaria compleja en las zonas rurales de Zambia mejoró la comprensión sobre salud materna e incrementó el uso de los servicios de salud maternos. Métodos La intervención, dirigida por voluntarios capacitados y la provisión de transporte de emerge [...] ncia, tuvo lugar en seis distritos rurales seleccionados por el Ministerio de Salud de Zambia y consistió en debates comunitarios sobre un embarazo y parto seguros. Los voluntarios trabajaron a través de grupos de acción para una maternidad sin riesgo existentes establecidos por el gobierno. Los indicadores de salud materna en la base de referencia se obtuvieron de las mujeres de los distritos de intervención (n = 1775) y control (n = 1630). Se evaluó el efecto de la intervención en estos indicadores mediante un enfoque de diferencias en diferencias cuasi-experimental que incluyó un emparejamiento por puntaje de propensión y el ajuste por factores de confusión como la educación, la riqueza, la paridad, la edad y la distancia a un centro de atención de salud. Resultados La comparación de diferencias en diferencias mostró que la intervención se asocia a un aumento significativo en los indicadores de salud materna: 14-16 % en el número de mujeres que sabían cuándo debían buscar atención prenatal; 10-15 % en las mujeres que conocían tres señales de peligro obstétricas; 12-19 % en las que utilizaron el transporte de emergencia; 22-24 % en los partos que necesitaron un matrón capacitado, y 16-21 % en los partos en un centro de atención de salud. La tasa de abandono voluntario fue baja. El coste incremental estimado por parto adicional con un matrón capacitado fue de unos 54 dólares de los Estados Unidos, similar al de otras intervenciones relativas a la demanda en los países en desarrollo. Conclusión La intervención comunitaria se asocia con mejoras significativas en el conocimiento de las mujeres sobre la atención prenatal y las señales de peligro obstétricas, el uso del transporte de emergencia y los partos con matrones capacitados. Abstract in english Objective To determine whether a complex community intervention in rural Zambia improved understanding of maternal health and increased use of maternal health-care services. Methods The intervention took place in six rural districts selected by the Zambian Ministry of Health. It involved communit [...] y discussions on safe pregnancy and delivery led by trained volunteers and the provision of emergency transport. Volunteers worked through existing government-established Safe Motherhood Action Groups. Maternal health indicators at baseline were obtained from women in intervention (n?=?1775) and control districts (n?=?1630). The intervention's effect on these indicators was assessed using a quasi-experimental difference-in-difference approach that involved propensity score matching and adjustment for confounders such as education, wealth, parity, age and distance to a health-care facility. Findings The difference-in-difference comparison showed the intervention to be associated with significant increases in maternal health indicators: 1416% in the number of women who knew when to seek antenatal care; 1015% in the number who knew three obstetric danger signs; 1219% in those who used emergency transport; 2224% in deliveries involving a skilled birth attendant; and 1621% in deliveries in a health-care facility. The volunteer drop-out rate was low. The estimated incremental cost per additional delivery involving a skilled birth attendant was around 54 United States dollars, comparable to that of other demand-side interventions in developing countries. Conclusion The community intervention was associated with significant improvements in women's knowledge of antenatal care and obstetric danger signs, use of emergency transport and deliveries involving skilled birth attendants.
The legislative act establishing the electric monopoly virtually shut out the district heating associated with electricity cogeneration, while other laws, issued to counteract the effects of oil shocks, allowed municipal utilities to do so. Thus, district heating has experienced some development, though well below its possibilities. The article analyses the reasons for this lagging, reports district heating data and projects its forecasts against the Kyoto Protocol objectives
Nsakashalo-Senkwe Mutale; Siziya Seter; Goma Fastone M; Songolo Peter; Mukonka Victor; Babaniyi Olusegun
Abstract Background Developing countries are undergoing an epidemiological transition, from Communicable or Infectious to 'Non-Communicable' diseases (NCDs), such that cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory diseases, cancer, and diabetes were responsible for 60% of all deaths globally in 2005, with more than 75% of these deaths occurring in developing countries. A survey was conducted to determine among other objectives the prevalence of diabetes and its association with physical fitness...
Full Text Available Abstract Background While consensus on malaria vector control policy and strategy has stimulated unprecedented political-will, backed by international funding organizations and donors, vector control interventions are expansively being implemented based on assumptions with unequaled successes. This manuscript reports on the strategies, achievements and challenges of the past and contemporary malaria vector control efforts in Zambia. Case description All available information and accessible archived documentary records on malaria vector control in Zambia were reviewed. Retrospective analysis of routine surveillance data from the Health Management Information System (HMIS, data from population-based household surveys and various operations research reports was conducted to assess the status in implementing policies and strategies. Discussion and evaluation Empirical evidence is critical for informing policy decisions and tailoring interventions to local settings. Thus, the World Health Organization (WHO encourages the adoption of the integrated vector management (IVM strategy which is a rational decision making process for optimal use of available resources. One of the key features of IVM is capacity building at the operational level to plan, implement, monitor and evaluate vector control and its epidemiological and entomological impact. In Zambia, great progress has been made in implementing WHO-recommended vector control policies and strategies within the context of the IVM Global Strategic framework with strong adherence to its five key attributes. Conclusions The country has solid, consistent and coordinated policies, strategies and guidelines for malaria vector control. The Zambian experience demonstrates the significance of a coordinated multi-pronged IVM approach effectively operationalized within the context of a national health system.
Monica H. Swahn
Full Text Available Excessive alcohol use is a serious public health concern worldwide, but less attention has been given to the prevalence, risk and protective factors, and consequences of early alcohol use in low-income, developing countries. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between early alcohol use, before age 13, and problem drinking among adolescents in Uganda and Zambia. Data from students in Zambia (n=2257; 2004 and Uganda (n=3215; 2003 were obtained from the cross-sectional Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS. The self-administered questionnaires were completed by students primarily 13 to 16 years of age. Multiple statistical models were computed using logistic regression analyses to test the associations between early alcohol initiation and problem drinking, while controlling for possible confounding factors (e.g., current alcohol use, bullying victimization, sadness, lack of friends, missing school, lack of parental monitoring, and drug use. Results show that early alcohol initiation was associated with problem drinking in both Zambia (AOR=1.28; 95% CI:1.02-1.61 and Uganda (AOR=1.48; 95% CI: 1.11- 1.98 among youth after controlling for demographic characteristics, risky behaviors, and other possible confounders.The study shows that there is a significant association between alcohol initiation before 13 years of age and problem drinking among youth in these two countries. These findings underscore the need for interventions and strict alcohol controls as an important policy strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth.
Ndashe, Kunda; Simulundu, Edgar; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Moonga, Ladslav; Ogawa, Hirohito; Takada, Ayato; Mweene, Aaron S
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious, and immunosuppressive viral disease of young chickens and remains one of the economically most important diseases threatening the poultry industry worldwide. In this study, 16 and 11 nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR) and part of VP1, respectively, of IBD virus (IBDV) detected in vaccinated broiler chickens in Lusaka in 2012 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these Zambian IBDVs separated into three genotypes of very virulent (VV) IBDVs. Although the majority of these viruses belonged to the African VV type (VV1), which consisted of viruses from West Africa, South Africa and Zambia, one virus belonged to the East African VV type (VV2). Interestingly, a Zambian IBDV belonging to the VV3 genotype (composed of viruses from several continents) clustered with attenuated vaccine strains. Although sequence analysis of VP2-HVR showed that all detected Zambian IBDVs had conserved putative virulence marker amino acids (i.e., 222A, 242I, 256I, 294I and 299S), one virus had two unique amino acid substitutions, N280S and E300A. This study demonstrates the diversity of Zambian IBDVs and documents for the first time the possible involvement of attenuated vaccine strains in the epidemiology of IBD in Zambia. Strict biosecurity of poultry farms, monitoring of live vaccine use in the field, surveillance and characterization of IBDV in poultry and development of a vaccine from local or regional IBDV field strains are recommended for improved IBD control in Zambia. PMID:26597187
Coast, Ernestina; Murray, Susan F
Unsafe abortion is a significant but preventable cause of global maternal mortality and morbidity. Zambia has among the most liberal abortion laws in sub-Saharan Africa, however this alone does not guarantee access to safe abortion, and 30% of maternal mortality is attributable to unsafe procedures. Too little is known about the pathways women take to reach abortion services in such resource-poor settings, or what informs care-seeking behaviours, barriers and delays. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted in 2013 with 112 women who accessed abortion-related care in a Lusaka tertiary government hospital at some point in their pathway. The sample included women seeking safe abortion and also those receiving hospital care following unsafe abortion. We identified a typology of three care-seeking trajectories that ended in the use of hospital services: clinical abortion induced in hospital; clinical abortion initiated elsewhere, with post-abortion care in hospital; and non-clinical abortion initiated elsewhere, with post-abortion care in hospital. Framework analyses of 70 transcripts showed that trajectories to a termination of an unwanted pregnancy can be complex and iterative. Individuals may navigate private and public formal healthcare systems and consult unqualified providers, often trying multiple strategies. We found four major influences on which trajectory a woman followed, as well as the complexity and timing of her trajectory: i) the advice of trusted others ii) perceptions of risk iii) delays in care-seeking and receipt of services and iv) economic cost. Even though abortion is legal in Zambia, girls and women still take significant risks to terminate unwanted pregnancies. Levels of awareness about the legality of abortion and its provision remain low even in urban Zambia, especially among adolescents. Unofficial payments required by some providers can be a major barrier to safe care. Timely access to safe abortion services depends on chance rather than informed exercise of entitlement. PMID:26921835
Silwamba C; Chileshe P R K
Abstract Mining in Chingola Zambia started underground in 1931 and was catastrophically flooded and closed. The present Nchanga Underground Mine NUG started in 1937. The Nchanga Open Pit NOP mine started in 1955 situated to the west of NUG and partially overlying it. Open pit water control safety operations in the Nchanga-Chingola area have successfully enabled the safe extraction of millions of tonnes of copper ore annually over the past 60 years from NUG mining as well as the NOP. At the st...
Full Text Available Biochar addition to agricultural soils can improve soil fertility, with the added bonus of climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. Conservation farming (CF is precision farming, often combining minimum tillage, crop rotation and residue retention. In the present farmer-led field trials carried out in Zambia, the use of a low dosage biochar combined with CF minimum tillage was tested as a way to increase crop yields. Using CF minimum tillage allows the biochar to be applied to the area where most of the plant roots are present and mirrors the fertilizer application in CF practices. The CF practice used comprised manually hoe-dug planting 10-L sized basins, where 10%â12% of the land was tilled. Pilot trials were performed with maize cob biochar and wood biochar on five soils with variable physical/chemical characteristics. At a dosage as low as 4 tons/ha, both biochars had a strong positive effect on maize yields in the coarse white aeolian sand of Kaoma, West-Zambia, with yields of 444% Â± 114% (p = 0.06 and 352% Â± 139% (p = 0.1 of the fertilized reference plots for maize and wood biochar, respectively. Thus for sandy acidic soils, CF and biochar amendment can be a promising combination for increasing harvest yield. Moderate but non-significant effects on yields were observed for maize and wood biochar in a red sandy clay loam ultisol east of Lusaka, central Zambia (University of Zambia, UNZA, site with growth of 142% Â± 42% (p > 0.2 and 131% Â± 62% (p > 0.2 of fertilized reference plots, respectively. For three other soils (acidic and neutral clay loams and silty clay with variable cation exchange capacity, CEC, no significant effects on maize yields were observed (p > 0.2. In laboratory trials, 5% of the two biochars were added to the soil samples in order to study the effect of the biochar on physical and chemical soil characteristics. The large increase in crop yield in Kaoma soil was tentatively explained by a combination of an increased base saturation (from <50% to 60%â100% and cation exchange capacity (CEC; from 2â3 to 5â9 cmol/kg and increased plant-available water (from 17% to 21% as well as water vapor uptake (70 mg/g on maize cob biochar at 50% relative humidity.
This dissertation is informed by the need for adequate ethical consciousness in view of the perceived need for public responsibility, cooperation and participation in ensuring sound environmental management. It investigates and critiques the extent to which an adequate range of ethical principles has been incorporated in Zambia's attempts to address environmental issues.The investigation focused on the role of government policy, education system and the mass media in promoting responsible environmental management and practices by raising environmental ethical consciousness. The study confirmed the preponderance of economic utilitarianism with regard to environmental issues. (author)
Mwangala, Sheila Monde
Background Perception of risk of HIV infection has been suggested to be an important area of study as it can be an assumed to be an indicator of ones understanding of susceptibility to HIV infection and a precursor to behavioral change, which could determine future decision making regarding risk taking. Studies that have examined perception of HIV risk and its determinants still remain limited. Zambia is among the worst affected countries by the HIV pandemic in the sub-Sahara African regio...
The main source of geothermal energy is the heat flow from the mantle beneath the Earths surface, generated by the gradual decay of radioactive isotopes in the Earths crust. A hot spring is produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater flowing out to the Earths surface. The Chinyunyu hot spring is located about 90km east of Lusaka, Zambia. Water from the spring has been artificially channeled into a large excavated pool which is used as a bathing place. Since the undiluted s...
Lukas, Soko; H. Jurgens, Hendriks.
Full Text Available This article is descriptive in nature and a practical theological assessment of the schisms that took place in the Reformed Church in Zambia (RCZ) between 1996 and 2001. It analyses empirical evidence to find an answer to the question why it happened. Pentecostal or charismatic tendencies have chall [...] enged the long inherited tradition of mainline churches. Subsequently, Pentecostal or charismatic movements have caused intense conflict in the church between the pro-conservatives and pro-Pentecostals. In the RCZ this led to the formation of the Christian Reformed Church (CRC) in 1999 and the Bible Gospel Church in Africa (BIGOCA) in 2001.
C. Mubita-Ngoma; M. Chongo Kadantu
The main aim of the study was to determine knowledge and use of modem contractive methods among reproductive age group rural women in Zambia. The study is a descriptive cross-sectional study of 105 randomly selected rural women. Data was collected using semi-structured interview schedule and analyzed using EPI Info version 6 statistical packages. The findings revealed that 63% of the respondents were within the age group 21-35 years, 65% were married and 64% were peasant farmers. 90% of the r...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among school- attending adolescents, victimization from bullying is associated with anxiety, depression and poor academic performance. There are limited reports on victimization from bullying in Zambia; we therefore conducted this study to determine the prevalence and correlates for victimization from bullying among adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in the country in order to add information on the body of knowledge on victimization from bullying. METHODS: The 2004 Zambia Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS data among adolescents in grades 7 to 10 were obtained from the World Health Organization. We estimated the prevalence of victimization from bullying. We also conducted weighted multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine independent factors associated with victimization from bullying, and report adjusted odds ratios (AOR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI. RESULTS: Of 2136 students who participated in the 2004 Zambia GSHS, 1559 had information on whether they were bullied or not. Of these, 1559 students, 62.8% (60.0% of male and 65.0% of female participants reported having been bullied in the previous 30 days to the survey. We found that respondents of age less than 14 years were 7% (AOR=0.93; 95%CI [0.91, 0.95] less likely to have been bullied compared to those aged 16 years or older. Being a male (AOR=1.07; 95%CI [1.06, 1.09], lonely (AOR=1.24; 95%CI [1.22, 1.26], worried (AOR=1.12; 95%CI [1.11, 1.14], consuming alcohol (AOR=2.59; 95%CI [2.55, 2.64], missing classes (AOR=1.30; 95%CI [1.28, 1.32], and considering attempting suicide (AOR=1.20; 95%CI [1.18, 1.22] were significantly associated with bullying victimization. CONCLUSIONS: Victimization from bullying is prevalent among in-school adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in Zambia, and interventions to curtail it should consider the factors that have been identified in this study.
Kristensen, SÃ¸ren Bech Pilgaard; Birch-Thomsen, Torben
This paper discusses the employment strategies of young people in selected rural areas of Zambia and Uganda, with a focus on the opportunities and constraints that they face. It investigates mobility patterns to determine what motivates some youth to stay, while others choose to migrate to urban...... resilient livelihood than a single enterprise strategy. The importance of an enabling environment, personal skills and favourable market conditions are also highlighted. The question of whether young people remain in or leave rural areas is shown to vary between the Ugandan and Zambian contexts. In Uganda...
Funder, M.; Bustamante, R.; Cossio, V.; P.T.M. Huong; B. van Koppen; Mweemba, C; Nyambe, I.; Phuong, L.T.T.; Skielboe, T.
Media stories often speak of a future dominated by large-scale water wars. Rather less attention has been paid to the way water conflicts already play out at local levels and form part of peoples everyday lives. Based on case study studies from Vietnam, Bolivia and Zambia, this paper examines the strategies of poor households in local water conflicts. It is shown how such households may not only engage actively in collaborative water management but may also apply risk aversion strategies whe...
Generation of radioactive waste in Zambia is limited by application of radioisotopes in medicine and research, and by use of sealed radioactive sources in industry, agriculture and at health care facilities. Use of radioactive materials and management of associated wastes are governed by National Ionising Radiation Act. Totally more then 100 institutions in the country are using different radioactive materials and consequently are dealing with radioactive waste. Responsibility for managing these wastes rested with organisations and institutions producing radioactive waste, with the supervision of this activity by National Radiation Service (RPS). (author)
The effect of endosulfan on non-target fauna in a maize agro-ecosystem was studied in Zambia in 1994 and 1995. Endosulfan was well tolerated by a number of beneficial arthropods such as spiders, coccinelids, carabids and ants. Springtails were significantly reduced. However the effect was only transient and lasted for at most eight weeks. While endosulfan was effective against the target pest (stalk borers) it appeared to have no real effect on the soil inhabiting microorganisms. (author). 6 refs, 6 tabs
A survey of heavy element levels in top soils collected around four industrial plants and along four highway stretches demonstrated that there was significant pollution only around an abandoned Pb/Zn mine. Sample collection in a rectangular grid encompassing each source sought to depict the spatial extent of pollution. Ascertaining levels of heavy elements in potentially polluted soils in urban areas of Zambia and along major highways was deemed desirable because it is common practice to grow maize and vegetables in lots adjacent to accessible industrial sites and highways. Pb is a heavy element of interest for all sampled sites whose distribution at the abandoned mine ranged from 13 to 2028 ppm
Full Text Available This article is descriptive in nature and a practical theological assessment of the schisms that took place in the Reformed Church in Zambia (RCZ between 1996 and 2001. It analyses empirical evidence to find an answer to the question why it happened. Pentecostal or charismatic tendencies have challenged the long inherited tradition of mainline churches. Subsequently, Pentecostal or charismatic movements have caused intense conflict in the church between the pro-conservatives and pro-Pentecostals. In the RCZ this led to the formation of the Christian Reformed Church (CRC in 1999 and the Bible Gospel Church in Africa (BIGOCA in 2001.
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) Polygon feature class representing the 1992 Commission districts. Boundaries are changed whenever the commission district boundaries changes via the Redistricting...
van Breugel, Paulo; Kindt, Roeland; LillesÃ¸, Jens-Peter Barnekow; Bingham, Michael; Demissew, Sebsebe; Dudley, Cornell; Friis, Ib; Gachathi, Francis; Kalema, James; Mbago, Frank; Moshi, Heriel N.; Mulumba, John W.; Namaganda, Mary; Ndangalasi, Henry J.; Ruffo, C.K.; Minani, Vedaste; Jamnadass, Ramni; Graudal, Lars
The potential natural vegetation (PNV) map of eastern and southern Africa covers the countries Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia. The first version of the map was developed by various partners in East Africa and Europe in 2010 and has now reached version 2. The map is...
Mwanahamuntu, Mulindi H; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; Kapambwe, Sharon; Pfaendler, Krista S; Chibwesha, Carla; Mkumba, Gracilia; Mudenda, Victor; Hicks, Michael L; Vermund, Sten H; Stringer, Jeffrey S A; Parham, Groesbeck P
Groesbeck Parham and colleagues describe their Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Zambia, which has provided services to over 58,000 women over the past five years, and share lessons learned from the program's implementation and integration with existing HIV/AIDS programs. PMID:21610859
Mulindi H Mwanahamuntu; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; Kapambwe, Sharon; Pfaendler, Krista S.; Chibwesha, Carla; Mkumba, Gracilia; Mudenda, Victor; Hicks, Michael L.; VERMUND, STEN H.; STRINGER, Jeffrey S A; Parham, Groesbeck P.
Groesbeck Parham and colleagues describe their Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Zambia, which has provided services to over 58,000 women over the past five years, and share lessons learned from the program's implementation and integration with existing HIV/AIDS programs.
Crane, Thera Marie
This dissertation aims to characterize the relationship between the temporal and information-structuring functions of tense and aspect marking in Totela, an endangered Bantu language of Zambia and Namibia. To that end, I investigate and describe in detail the semantics and pragmatics of selected tense and aspect markers, showing for each that a
Shameenda, Kimbo Lemmy; Kanyengo, Christine Wamunyima
This article establishes the level of skills and experience in preservation and conservation management using a case study methodological approach conducted in the 3 university libraries at the University of Zambia. The findings revealed that 20 (57%) of the library staff had not received formal training in preservation and conservation of library
Banda-Chalwe, Martha; Nitz, Jennifer C.; de Jonge, Desleigh
This paper explores the accessibility situation in a developing country such as Zambia. The global view of accessibility for disabled people is provided to examine the accessibility situation in developed and developing countries, highlighting the role of the environment in achieving rights for disabled people. Recognition of disability rights
Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael
We investigate the determinants of wages in Zambia and based on the quantile regression approach, we analyze how their effects differ at different points in the wage distribution and over time. We use three cross-sections of Zambian household data from the early nineties, which was a period of...
Full Text Available This study uses the model of Patzelt and Shepherd (2011 to examine the factors influencing the identification of sustainable opportunities among SMEs in a developing country, Zambia. The factors under investigation include knowledge of the natural/social environment, perception of threats to the natural/social environment, altruism towards others and entrepreneurial knowledge. We interviewed 220 owner-managers in the trading and service sector who supply goods and services to the mining industry in Zambia. We found that altruism towards others was partially supported by our empirical results while the positive effects of knowledge of the natural/social environment and perception of threats to the natural/social environment on the identification of sustainable opportunities were not supported. Contrary to our expectations, entrepreneurial knowledge does not positively moderate the relationship between explanatory variables and the identification of sustainable opportunities. In sum, we found only limited empirical support for the model of Patzelt and Shepherd (2011 concerning the identification of sustainable opportunities. Our findings contribute to literature on entrepreneurship and sustainable opportunity identification by showing what factors influence the identification of sustainable opportunities. This can help us to create awareness among entrepreneurs regarding the effects of entrepreneurial activities on the environment and society; consequently, stimulating entrepreneurs to identify sustainable opportunities.
Guney, M. (Univ. of Tripoli, Libya); Bell, A.R.
This article is based on a detailed heat investigation conducted at the Rokana Division of Nchanga Consolidated Copper Mines Limited in Zambia. Mindola Mine is one of the three underground mines comprising the Rokana Division on the Copperbelt of Zambia, producing about 270,000 tons of ore per month at 1.9% Cu and 0.14% Co. The total volume of air being circulated by means of five primary fan installations slightly exceeds 1,000 m/sup 3//sec at standard density. Sectional bulk cooling is practised where air cooling coils are installed at primary splits some considerable distance from the stoping opeations. Total capacity of the refrigeration complex is 10,500 kw (3,500 R. tons), of which about 7,000 kw is available as effective cooling power after losses, but the heat removed from the coils is about 3,500 kw with 61% over-all plant performance. An extension program is planned for a further five production levels with the re-deepening of a sub-vertical shaft. Thermal heat will become a major problem at increased depth associated with higher rock temperature, higher thermal conductivity of the rock groups encountered and fissure water flowing into working areas through the strata with increased rock temperature.
In Zambia, which is current (1998) classified as a Least Developed Country has applications of nuclear science and technology that cover the medical, industrial, education and research. However, the application is mainly in medical and industry. Through the responsibility of radiation source is within the mandate of the Radiation Protection Board. The aspects involving security fall on different stake holders some that have no technical knowledge on what radiation is about. The stake holders in this category include customs clearing and forwarding agents, state security/defence agencies and the operators. Such a situation demands a national system that should be instituted to meet the safety and security requirements but takes into account the involvement of the diverse stake holders. In addition such system should avoid unnecessary exposure, ensure safety of radioactive materials and sources, detect illicit trade and maintain integrity of such materials or sources. This paper will provide the status on issue in Zambia and the challenges that exist to ensure further development in application of Nuclear Science and Technology (S and T) in the country takes into account the safety and security requirements that avoid deliberate and accidental loss of radiation sources and radioactive materials. The Government has a responsibility to ensure that effective system is established and operated to protect radiation sources and radioactive materials from theft, sabotage and ensure safety. (author)
Maria L Alcaide
Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs remain an important public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa. STIs in HIV-positive women are associated not only with gynecological complications but with increased risk of HIV transmission to HIV-negative partners and newborns. Aims: The aims of this study are to determine the prevalence of chlamydia (CT and gonorrhea (GC and examine the demographic characteristics and risk behaviors associated with these STIs in a group of HIV-positive women in Lusaka, Zambia. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study of a sample of HIV-infected women enrolled in two large studies conducted in urban Lusaka, Zambia. Materials and Methods: HIV-seropositive women (n = 292 were assessed for demographic and behavioral risk factors and tested for CT and GC. Univariate analysis was used to determine the demographic characteristics and risk behaviors associated with having CT or GC. Results: The identified prevalence of CT was 1% and of GC was 1.4%. There was an association of CT/GC with the use of alcohol before sex (OR = 9.I, CI = 0.59-0.15, P = 0.03. Conclusions: Rates of CT and GC are described in this sample of HIV-positive women. While being in HIV care may serve to increase medical care and condom use, alcohol use should be addressed in this population.
Kavanaugh, Megan L; Moore, Ann M; Akinyemi, Odunayo; Adewole, Isaac; Dzekedzeke, Kumbutso; Awolude, Olutosin; Arulogun, Oyedunni
Although stigma towards HIV-positive women for both continuing and terminating a pregnancy has been documented, to date few studies have examined relative stigma towards one outcome versus the other. This study seeks to describe community attitudes towards each of two possible elective outcomes of an HIV-positive woman's pregnancy - induced abortion or birth - to determine which garners more stigma and document characteristics of community members associated with stigmatising attitudes towards each outcome. Data come from community-based interviews with reproductive-aged men and women, 2401 in Zambia and 2452 in Nigeria. Bivariate and multivariate analyses revealed that respondents from both countries overwhelmingly favoured continued childbearing for HIV-positive pregnant women, but support for induced abortion was slightly higher in scenarios in which anti-retroviral therapy (ART) was unavailable. Zambian respondents held more stigmatising attitudes towards abortion for HIV-positive women than did Nigerian respondents. Women held more stigmatising attitudes towards abortion for HIV-positive women than men, particularly in Zambia. From a sexual and reproductive health and rights perspective, efforts to assist HIV-positive women in preventing unintended pregnancy and to support them in their pregnancy decisions when they do become pregnant should be encouraged in order to combat the social stigma documented in this paper. PMID:23173695
Kristensen, SØren Bech Pilgaard; Birch-Thomsen, Torben
This paper discusses the employment strategies of young people in selected rural areas of Zambia and Uganda, with a focus on the opportunities and constraints that they face. It investigates mobility patterns to determine what motivates some youth to stay, while others choose to migrate to urban areas. Quantitative and qualitative data are drawn on to analyse the role of exogenous and endogenous support for young entrepreneurs. The findings indicate that agriculture plays a major role as a source of livelihood for rural youth and, in combination with other economic activities, provides a more resilient livelihood than a single enterprise strategy. The importance of an enabling environment, personal skills and favourable market conditions are also highlighted. The question of whether young people remain in or leave rural areas is shown to vary between the Ugandan and Zambian contexts. In Uganda, a significant proportion of the youth, especially young men, migrate to urban areas, whereas in Zambia, almost all the young people have chosen to remain in the rural area, where they consider their prospects of success to be greater than if they were to migrate elsewhere.
Steketee, Richard W; Sipilanyambe, Naawa; Chimumbwa, John; Banda, James J; Mohamed, Abdirahman; Miller, John; Basu, Suprotik; Miti, Simon K; Campbell, Carlos C
With its 2006-2011 National Malaria Strategic Plan, Zambia committed to control malaria at a national scale. This scale-up for impact approach was facilitated by sound business planning and financing in 2006 of approximately US$35 million. Compared with surveys in 2001 and 2004, a 2006 national survey of 14,681 persons in 2,999 households at the end of the transmission season showed substantial coverage increases for preventive interventions. Ownership and use rates of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) among vulnerable groups doubled, with 44% of households owning ITNs and 23% of children less than five years of age and 24% of pregnant women using them. Roll Back Malaria Abuja targets for intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) were exceeded, with 62% of pregnant women receiving at least two doses of IPTp. As of 2006, Zambia is demonstrating substantial progress toward the national targets (80% population coverage rates for the interventions) and aspires to show that malaria need not be its leading health problem, and that malaria control is a sound national investment. PMID:18606763
Until recently occurrences of uranium in the Katanga System were known only in the Shaba Province of Zaire and on the Copperbelt, but a survey by AGIP has shown the existence of uranium mineralization in north-western Zambia. In each area, syngenetic copper and uranium mineralization are found near the base of the Katanga System. As a result of tectonism during the Lufilian orogeny and metamorphism related to and subsequent to the tectonism, epigenetic vein-type uranium deposits were formed by the repeated mobilization and depositing of the original mineralization. Supergene alteration and thermal events resulted in further redistribution and concentration. In the Domes area of north-western Zambia, the mineralization occurs mainly in mica schists underlying a quartzite horizon near the base of the Lower Roan Group at the margins of the Kabompo, Mwombezhi and Solwezi Domes. The mineralization occurs as thorium-free pitchblende, disseminated or in veins, and as secondary uranium minerals. Several occurrences have been investigated by drilling. (author)
Muula Adamson S; Rudatsikira Emmanuel; Babaniyi Olusegun; Songolo Peter; Siziya Seter
Abstract Background There are limited data on the prevalence and associated factors of truancy in southern Africa. Yet truancy should attract the attention of public health professionals, educators and policy makers as it may be associated with adolescent problem behaviours. The objectives of the study were to estimate the prevalence and determine correlates of school truancy among pupils in Zambia. Findings We used data collected in 2004 in the Zambia Global School-based Health Survey. Logis...
Musakula, Franklins Mwansa
Western music and African music as a form of indigenous knowledge constitute music education taught in colleges of education in Zambia. Nevertheless, soon after the countrys independence from British rule in 1964, Zambia embarked on curriculum reforms to ensure inclusion of the African indigenous cultures. This was in an effort to transform the colonial school curriculum which was dominated Eurocentric values, beliefs and practices in order to make the education relevant to the Zambian child...
Mine tailings in African countries Zambia and Namibia have been investigated with an objective to determine the role of secondary hematite in immobilization of contaminants. Two sites, Chambishi and Mindolo, are located in the Copperbelt in Zambia with relatively humid climates and two sites, Berg Aukas and Kombat, are in Namibia, where the climate is semiarid. At the Chambishi site which is about 40 years old, a hardpan composed of hematite and gypsum has formed at a depth of about 60 cm and...
Schöni-Affolter, F; Keiser, O; Mwango, A; Stringer, J; Ledergerber, B.; Mulenga, L; Bucher, H. C.; Westfall, A. O.; Calmy, A.; Boulle, A.; Chintu, N; Egger, M.; Chi, B H
BACKGROUND: Loss to follow-up (LTFU) is common in antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes. Mortality is a competing risk (CR) for LTFU; however, it is often overlooked in cohort analyses. We examined how the CR of death affected LTFU estimates in Zambia and Switzerland. METHODS AND FINDINGS: HIV-infected patients aged ?18 years who started ART 2004-2008 in observational cohorts in Zambia and Switzerland were included. We compared standard Kaplan-Meier curves with CR cumulative inci...
Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M; Phiri, Isaak K; Gabriël, Sarah
Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles) and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints).The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in order to be effective. PMID:25739017
Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E.; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M.; Phiri, Isaak K.; Gabriël, Sarah
Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles) and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints).The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of peoples approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in order to be effective. PMID:25739017
Kansas Data Access and Support Center This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...
In short-term and long-term considerations of economy planning of long-lived infrastructure investments, situations of conflict may occur which are illustrated by examples and whose causes are stated. The paper then deals with some points of emphasis in the findings of the 'District Heating', study. The approach from industry's point of view is mentioned. The topics discussed are a) the costs of economical district heat supply from combined heat and power generation under realistic conditions of energy economy, b) determination of the technically suitable and economically realistic district heat potential, and c) accompanying measures of regional authorities for a faster development of district heating. Finally, the productive lives of a number of energy carriers are compared. (GG)
Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico â The dataset represents the boundaries of all public school districts in the state of New Mexico. The source for the data layer is the New Mexico Public Education...
Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...
Lindsey, Peter A; Nyirenda, Vincent R; Barnes, Jonathan I; Becker, Matthew S; McRobb, Rachel; Tambling, Craig J; Taylor, W Andrew; Watson, Frederick G; t'Sas-Rolfes, Michael
Many African protected areas (PAs) are not functioning effectively. We reviewed the performance of Zambia's PA network and provide insights into how their effectiveness might be improved. Zambia's PAs are under-performing in ecological, economic and social terms. Reasons include: a) rapidly expanding human populations, poverty and open-access systems in Game Management Areas (GMAs) resulting in widespread bushmeat poaching and habitat encroachment; b) underfunding of the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) resulting in inadequate law enforcement; c) reliance of ZAWA on extracting revenues from GMAs to cover operational costs which has prevented proper devolution of user-rights over wildlife to communities; d) on-going marginalization of communities from legal benefits from wildlife; e) under-development of the photo-tourism industry with the effect that earnings are limited to a fraction of the PA network; f) unfavourable terms and corruption which discourage good practice and adequate investment by hunting operators in GMAs; g) blurred responsibilities regarding anti-poaching in GMAs resulting in under-investment by all stakeholders. The combined effect of these challenges has been a major reduction in wildlife densities in most PAs and the loss of habitat in GMAs. Wildlife fares better in areas with investment from the private and/or NGO sector and where human settlement is absent. There is a need for: elevated government funding for ZAWA; greater international donor investment in protected area management; a shift in the role of ZAWA such that they focus primarily on national parks while facilitating the development of wildlife-based land uses by other stakeholders elsewhere; and new models for the functioning of GMAs based on joint-ventures between communities and the private and/or NGO sector. Such joint-ventures should provide defined communities with ownership of land, user-rights over wildlife and aim to attract long-term private/donor investment. These recommendations are relevant for many of the under-funded PAs occurring in other African countries. PMID:24847712
Kamelarczyk, Kewin Bach Friis
In response to a history of contended and ineffective policy initiatives aimed at arresting environmental problems, scientific knowledge is increasingly called for to inform decision makers in their design of better policy solutions. Based on the rationale that scientific knowledge on the environment is indispensable in environmental policy making, significant human and financial resources are being allocated to activities that are able to generate the required scientific knowledge. However, for many involved in such activities, the question arises: when do policy makers actually listen to science? This PhD thesis contributes to answering this questions; however it does this by questioning the conceptions of science that contribute to political decision-making and by exploring the relationship between scientific knowledge, other types of knowledge and policy. This PhD study employs the REDD+ (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation and enhancement of forest carbon stocks) process and the phenomenon of deforestation in Zambia as research examples. The research was carried out from mid 2008 and to mid 2013 and applies a mixed methods research design. Fieldwork was carried out in Zambia during the period 2009 to 2011 at national policy level and in two field sites in the Copperbelt Province. The empirical substance consists of archival, interview, questionnaire and remote sensing data. The thesis is composed of an introductory chapter and three individual, but thematically and theoretically interlinked scientific papers. The first paper focuses on science-policy interactions seen broadly in the Zambian REDD+ process. The paper proposes five challenges, which should be addressed, among others a need for understanding the relationship between science and policy as a two-sided transaction of knowledge and for recognizing the importance of boundary work. The second paper further explores the conceptualization of science-policy interactions and the implications of boundary work as well as co-production to science-policy interaction. The paper specifically explores how knowledge related to deforestation gets translated across the social boundaries of science and policy through the interwoven processes of knowledge production, circulation, and application. It is demonstrated that production, circulation, and application of deforestation related knowledge is influenced by an epistemic community, which in a current situation of weak and contradictory empirical evidence is able to sustain a deforestation discourse centered on high forest loss and neo-Malthusian causal explanations. The third paper examines how knowing about deforestation is closely linked to issues of framing, discourse, scale, and context; and how it may be difficult to demark scientific knowledge from other types of knowledge. The paper provides suggestion on how national policy makers and policies should deal with the complex issues of knowledge and evidence in relation to deforestation and forest degradation in future REDD+ design and implementation. To curtail potential negative consequences of the identified mode of science-policy interaction in Zambia, the study concludes by making a number of proposals. The proposals are generic in nature and may be found relevant in environmental policy processes outside Zambia.
Cryptosporidiosis is a major infection of humans, leading to diarrhoea and growth failure in children, diarrhoea and malnutrition in immunocompromised adults, and is associated with increased mortality in all age groups. Using the country of Zambia as an example, I review the possible approaches to treatment and prevention in a tropical setting. The current optimal therapy for cryptosporidiosis is nitazoxanide which works well in HIV uninfected children, but treatment in patients with HIV infection remains remarkably difficult. No single drug has demonstrated efficacy in a randomised trial. No vaccine is available, so the best option for prevention for the moment is filtration and clean storage of drinking water. This would be expected to reduce cryptosporidiosis dramatically, but this needs to be demonstrated directly. Water filtration would have the added benefit of protection against many other pathogens, but the paucity of alternative approaches highlights the need for a better understanding of this important human pathogen. PMID:21320387
Pylypchuk, Yuriy; Norton, Samuel W
Malaria remains a devastating disease in Zambia, responsible for about 13% of deaths among children under age 5. Lack of malaria-specific knowledge has been commonly assumed to be an important barrier to engagement in behaviors that prevent malaria. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that accounts for the endogeneity of maternal knowledge in household's ownership of insecticide-treated nets (ITN), child's use of ITN, and household's protection against mosquitos (HSP). We account for the endogeneity of maternal knowledge through discrete factor and standard instrumental variable estimators. We find significant causal effects of maternal knowledge on the child's use of ITN and HSP but no significant effect on ownership of ITN. The causal effects of maternal knowledge on the use of ITN and HSP are strikingly larger in magnitude than the effects in the reduced form models. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25113076
The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With $5.5 million of Agency support received, Zambia ranks 33rd among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. More than half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (61%), followed by expert services (25%) and training (14%). Almost all of the resources made available came from the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (93%), with only very small shares provided through extrabudgetary contributions (4%) and assistance in kind (3%). With regard to project disbursements during the past ten years, by sector, the largest areas have been agriculture (33%) and general atomic energy development (23%), followed by industry and hydrology (19%), nuclear raw materials (13%) and nuclear safety (6%)
H. Jurgens Hendriks
Full Text Available This article is descriptive in nature and a practical theological assessment of the
schisms that took place in the Reformed Church in Zambia (RCZ between 1996 and
2001. It analyzes the available documents to find an answer to the question why it
happened. Pentecostal/charismatic tendencies have challenged the long inherited
tradition of mainline churches in general and the RCZ in particular. Subsequently,
Pentecostal/charismatic movements have caused intense conflict in the church
between the pro-conservatives and pro-Pentecostals. In the RCZ this led to the
formation of the Christian Reformed Church (CRC in 1999 and the Bible Gospel
Church in Africa (BIGOCA in 2001.
Olusegun A Babaniyi
Full Text Available Background: North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia were reclassified as low-risk areas for yellow fever (YF. However, the current potential for YF transmission in these areas is unclear. Aims: To determine the current potential risk of YF infection. Setting and Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia. Materials and Methods: Samples were tested for both YF virus-specific IgG and IgM antibodies by the ELISA and YF virus confirmation was done using Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. The samples were also tested for IgG and IgM antibodies against other flaviviruses. Results: Out of the 3625 respondents who participated in the survey, 46.7% were males and 9.4% were aged less than 5 years. Overall, 58.1% of the participants slept under an impregnated insecticide-treated net and 20.6% reported indoor residual spraying of insecticides. A total of 616 (17.0% samples were presumptive YF positive. The prevalence for YF was 0.3% for long-term infection and 0.2% for recent YF infection. None of the YF confirmed cases had received YF vaccine. Prevalence rates for other flaviviruses were 149 (4.1% for Dengue, 370 (10.2% for West Nile and 217 (6.0% for Zika. Conclusion: There is evidence of past and recent infection of YF in both provinces. Hence, they are at a low risk for YF infection. Yellow fever vaccination should be included in the EPI program in the two provinces and strengthen surveillance with laboratory confirmation.
Bernard M. Hangombe
Full Text Available Yersinia pestis, the bacterial agent of plague, is primarily a parasite of wild rodents that persists in permanent, discrete enzootic foci throughout the world. The disease is transmitted in humans by bites from fleas of wildlife rodent species. Therefore surveillance is the ultimate public health solution through plague detection in domestic dogs, other carnivores and wild rodents. The investigations of die-offs amongst plague-susceptible colonial rodents are also significant to determine the presence of Y. pestis in a susceptible population.This study details the identification of the plague reservoir in a suspected endemic area of Zambia. The study was undertaken through rodent investigation for the presence of Y. pestis. A total of 105 rodents were sampled routinely and during a suspected plague period. On dissection 4 (3.81%, 95% CI: 1.23?10.0 rodents sampled during an outbreak showed signs of spleen enlargement. The blood, liver, lymph nodes and spleen of each rodent were subjected to culture on 6% sheep blood agar and MaCconkey agar. Colonies obtained were identified as Y. pestis by colony morphologic features, biochemical profiles, mouse inoculation assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The PCR primers used targeted the Y. pestis plasminogen activator gene, chromosomal ferric iron uptake regulation gene and the outer membrane protein B gene.The isolates were also subjected to antibiotic sensitivity tests using the disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar with sensitivity being observed with ampicillin, amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The findings, identifies a natural reservoir of Y. pestis in Zambia providing the public health officials with a definite host for the control strategy.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To see if, in the diagnosis of infant infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in Zambia, turnaround times could be reduced by using an automated notification system based on mobile phone texting. METHODS: In Zambia's Southern province, dried samples of blood from infants are sent to regional laboratories to be tested for HIV with polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Turnaround times for the postal notification of the results of such tests to 10 health facilities over 19 months were evaluated by retrospective data collection. These baseline data were used to determine how turnaround times were affected by customized software built to deliver the test results automatically and directly from the processing laboratory to the health facility of sample origin via short message service (SMS texts. SMS system data were collected over a 7.5-month period for all infant dried blood samples used for HIV testing in the 10 study facilities. FINDINGS: Mean turnaround time for result notification to a health facility fell from 44.2 days pre-implementation to 26.7 days post-implementation. The reduction in turnaround time was statistically significant in nine (90% facilities. The mean time to notification of a caregiver also fell significantly, from 66.8 days pre-implementation to 35.0 days post-implementation. Only 0.5% of the texted reports investigated differed from the corresponding paper reports. CONCLUSION: The texting of the results of infant HIV tests significantly shortened the times between sample collection and results notification to the relevant health facilities and caregivers.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental illnesses are increasingly recognised as a leading cause of disability worldwide, yet many countries lack a mental health policy or have an outdated, inappropriate policy. This paper explores the development of appropriate mental health policies and their effective implementation. It reports comparative findings on the processes for developing and implementing mental health policies in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia as part of the Mental Health and Poverty Project. Methods The study countries and respondents were purposively selected to represent different levels of mental health policy and system development to allow comparative analysis of the factors underlying the different forms of mental health policy development and implementation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Data analysis was guided by conceptual framework that was developed for this purpose. A framework approach to analysis was used, incorporating themes that emerged from the data and from the conceptual framework. Results Mental health policies in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia are weak, in draft form or non-existent. Mental health remained low on the policy agenda due to stigma and a lack of information, as well as low prioritisation by donors, low political priority and grassroots demand. Progress with mental health policy development varied and respondents noted a lack of consultation and insufficient evidence to inform policy development. Furthermore, policies were poorly implemented, due to factors including insufficient dissemination and operationalisation of policies and a lack of resources. Conclusions Mental health policy processes in all four countries were inadequate, leading to either weak or non-existent policies, with an impact on mental health services. Recommendations are provided to strengthen mental health policy processes in these and other African countries.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the 1991 reforms of the health system in Zambia, mental health is still given low priority. This is evident from the fragmented manner in which mental health services are provided in the country and the limited budget allocations, with mental health services receiving 0.4% of the total health budget. Most of the mental health services provided are curative in nature and based in tertiary health institutions. At primary health care level, there is either absence of, or fragmented health services. Aims The aim of this paper was to explore health providers' views about mental health integration into primary health care. Methods A mixed methods, structured survey was conducted of 111 health service providers in primary health care centres, drawn from one urban setting (Lusaka and one rural setting (Mumbwa. Results There is strong support for integrating mental health into primary health care from care providers, as a way of facilitating early detection and intervention for mental health problems. Participants believed that this would contribute to the reduction of stigma and the promotion of human rights for people with mental health problems. However, health providers felt they require basic training in order to enhance their knowledge and skills in providing health care to people with mental health problems. Recommendations It is recommended that health care providers should be provided with basic training in mental health in order to enhance their knowledge and skills to enable them provide mental health care to patients seeking help at primary health care level. Conclusion Integrating mental health services into primary health care is critical to improving and promoting the mental health of the population in Zambia.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to appraise or assess the status of forests and woodland resources in Zambia based on an analysis of data from the Integrated Land Use Assessment (ILUA survey. An attempt was made to provide fresh estimates of the forest biomass and growing stock and other indicators which have the potential to inform policy and decision-making on forest resources and land use in Zambia. The findings show that approximately 49,968,170 ha or about 66% of the land is under forest cover. Over two thirds of the forests are located on customary land. The total above ground and below ground forest biomass over all land uses is estimated at 5.5 billion metric tonnes. The findings indicate that with the current wood stocking estimated at 2.95 billion cubic metres and with proper management, this is sufficient to meet the countrys current and future demand for forest products. The findings also indicate that most of the countrys forests are in good condition and the rates of deforestation are quite modest. Only 5% of the total forests are severely degraded and over 63% of the forests are in good condition. Given that more than two-thirds of all forests are located in customary land and are not formally managed, it is recommended that government should bring more forests under formal management and more importantly devolve and share some forest rights and responsibilities over public forests with local communities, user-groups and the private sector.
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) Community Development Districts (CDDs) are special taxing districts or local units of special-purpose government. A CDD may charge separate non-ad valorem special...
Nuclear district heating - a relatively new direction of nuclear power development is considered. Three methods how to organize the centralized district heating from nuclear power sources are discussed. The application of nuclear central heating- and-power plants (NCHPP), the combined generation of heat and electric power by reactors of condensation NPP and the application of nuclear boilers. The first method is the most economic but the most complicated, the third one - the creation of nuclear district heating plants (NDHP) without generation of electricity has a number of design advantages though it lends to a less economic utilization of primary energy. The second method occupies the intermediate position. Main requirements on NDHP (nuclear boiler) safety operation are stated, its flowsheet and a brief description of its reactor plant are given. It is emphasized that the combined generation of heat and electric power by NCHPP is less effective than by fossil fuel CHPP
Manyando Christine; Mkandawire Rhoda; Puma Lwipa; Sinkala Moses; Mpabalwani Evans; Njunju Eric; Gomes Melba; Ribeiro Isabela; Walter Verena; Virtanen Mailis; Schlienger Raymond; Cousin Marc; Chipimo Miriam; Sullivan Frank M
Abstract Background Safety data regarding exposure to artemisinin-based combination therapy in pregnancy are limited. This prospective cohort study conducted in Zambia evaluated the safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in pregnant women with malaria. Methods Pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were assigned to groups based on the drug used to treat their most recent malaria episode (AL vs. sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, SP). Safety was assessed using standard and pregnancy-specific para...
Sabine Gabrysch; McMahon, Shannon A.; Katja Siling; Kenward, Michael G.; Campbell, Oona M R
It is widely held that decisions whether or when to attend health facilities for childbirth are not only influenced by risk awareness and household wealth, but also by factors such as autonomy or a woman's ability to act upon her own preferences. How autonomy should be constructed and measured - namely, as an individual or cluster-level variable - has been less examined. We drew on household survey data from Zambia to study the effect of several autonomy dimensions (financial, relationship, f...
Deo Sarang; Topp Stephanie M; Westfall Andrew O; Chiko Matimbo M; Wamulume Chibesa S; Morris Mary; Reid Stewart
Abstract Background Previous operational research studies have demonstrated the feasibility of large-scale public sector ART programs in resource-limited settings. However, organizational and structural determinants of quality of care have not been studied. Methods We estimate multivariate regression models using data from 13 urban HIV treatment facilities in Zambia to assess the impact of structural determinants on health workers adherence to national guidelines for conducting laboratory te...
Nygren, David; Stoyanov, Cristina; Lewold, Clemens; Månsson, Fredrik; Miller, John; Kamanga, Aniset; Shiff, Clive J
Background: Plasmodium falciparum transmission has decreased significantly in Zambia in the last decade. The malaria transmission is influenced by environmental variables. Incorporation of environmental variables in models of malaria transmission likely improves model fit and predicts probable trends in malaria disease. This work is based on the hypothesis that remotely-sensed environmental factors, including nocturnal dew point, are associated with malaria transmission and sustain foci of tr...
Porter, Gina; Lyon, Fergus; Potts, Deborah; Bowyer-Bower, Tanya
This study examines the systems which govern the marketing opportunities for informal urban and peri-urban cultivators, and for rural producers, in our two study countries, Nigeria and Zambia and it explores the mechanisms of marketing food in urban areas. Our literature review illustrates how little is known about how these formal and informal regulatory systems currently operate. For example, the positive contribution of both urban-based and rural-based traders in providing an essential ser...
Haselip, James Arthur; Desgain, Denis DR; Mackenzie, Gordon A.
This report presents the findings of research into the main outcomes of government and donor-backed efforts to promote small and medium-sized energy businesses (energy SMEs) in sub-Saharan Africa. The research follows an outcome analysis methodology. The focus is on four countries: Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia and primarily on UNEPs AREED programme (2002-2012). This research focuses on the contributing factors a deliberately broader term that incorporates the internal success fac...
FORNADEL, CHRISTEN M.; Norris, Laura C; Franco, Veronica; Norris, Douglas E
Anopheles coustani s.l. and Anopheles squamosus are sub-Saharan mosquito species that have been implicated in malaria transmission. Although generally believed to be of negligible importance due to their overwhelmingly zoophilic behavior, An. coustani s.l. and An. squamosus made up a large proportion of the anophelines collected by human landing catches during the 20072008 and 20082009 rainy seasons in Macha, Zambia. Further, polymerase chain reaction-based blood meal identification showed ...
Schroder Kate; Libetwa Miriam; Kapihya Margaret; Tjoa Aaron; Scott Callie; Lee Joanne; McCarthy Elizabeth
Abstract Background The Ministry of Health (MOH) in Zambia is currently operating with fewer than half of the health workers required to deliver basic health services. The MOH has developed a human resources for health (HRH) strategic plan to address the crisis through improved training, hiring, and retention. However, the projected success of each strategy or combination of strategies is unclear. Methods We developed a model to forecast the size of the public sector health workforce in Zambi...
Kent, Rebekah J.; Mharakurwa, Sungano; Hamapumbu, Harry; Norris, Douglas E
Genetic mutations controlling eye color, fat body color, structural abnormalities, and insecticide resistance are common in mosquitoes. We have identified a novel color variant of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus characterized by a heavily pigmented integument in adult specimens circulating in field populations of this species in southern Zambia. Mosquitoes were collected monthly by pyrethrum spray catch between November and May 200405 and 200506, with between 25% and 80% of the total Cx. p. ...
Chipeta, James; Njobvu, Panganani; McGill, Paul E; Bucala, Richard
The burden of non-communicable diseases such as musculoskeletal diseases in the developing world is often overshadowed by the more prevalent infectious diseases. Generally, there is gross underestimation of the burden of rheumatologic disease in the backdrop of scanty or indeed non-existent rheumatology services in these countries. Local studies conducted in the last two decades in Zambia have documented the increasing burden of rheumatologic conditions in the country. There are unfortunately...
Rehnberg Clas; Masiye Felix
Abstract Background Zambia is facing a double crisis of increasing malaria burden and dwindling capacity to deal with the endemic malaria burden. The pursuit of sustainable but equity mechanisms for financing malaria programmes is a subject of crucial policy discussion. This requires that comprehensive accounting of the economic impact of the various malaria programmes. Information on the economic value of programmes is essential in soliciting appropriate funding allocations for malaria contr...
Mwambazi Mwate; Irena Abel H; Mulenga Veronica
Abstract Introduction Mortality of children with Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) in inpatient set-ups in sub-Saharan Africa still remains unacceptably high. We investigated the prevalence and effect of diarrhea and HIV infection on inpatient treatment outcome of children with complicated SAM receiving treatment in inpatient units. Method A cohort of 430 children aged 6-59 months old with complicated SAM admitted to Zambia University Teaching Hospital's stabilization centre from August to Dece...
Towela Sambo, Pamela
The Abstract of thesis submitted to the School of Law of The University of Manchester by Pamela Towela Sambo 7160514 for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in April 2012 is entitled âA Conceptual Analysis of Environmental Justice Approaches: Procedural Environmental Justice in the EIA Process in South Africa and Zambia.âThis study argues that the basis of all environmental justice variations is the consideration of fairness, equity and justice in the environmental processes that resol...
Turnbull, Eleanor R.; Kaunda, Kaunda; Harris, Jennifer B; Kapata, Nathan; Muvwimi, Mweemba W.; Kruuner, Annika; Henostroza, German; Stewart E. Reid
The World Health Organization recommends the roll-out of light-emitting diode (LED) fluorescent microscopes (FM) as an alternative to light microscopes in resource-limited settings. We evaluated the acceptability and performance of three LED FMs after a short orientation among laboratory technicians from government health centers in Zambia. Sixteen technicians with varied light microscopy experience were oriented to FMs and divided into groups; each group read a different set of 40 slides on ...
In view of the development in the market for crude energy, district heating has earnt a special position in the discussion of the fuel economy. Its wide extension requires decisions in a multi-dimensional area of basic community well-being. After the analysis of relevant partial factors and the solutions which are found, the question remains open of how the inherent economic efficiency of district heating, within the framework of the energy supply through lines, can be protected from the danger of dumping, which can be mobilised at any time, from crude oil producers. To close this gap must be treated as an urgent problem for today's energy policy. (orig.)
Metal (Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni) and metalloid (As) accumulation was studied in roadside soil and wild rat (Rattus sp.) samples from near a Pb-Zn mine (Kabwe, Zambia) and the capital city of Zambia (Lusaka). The concentrations of the seven metals and As in the soil samples and Pb in the rat tissue samples were quantified using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, and As in Kabwe soil were much higher than benchmark values. Geographic Information System analysis indicated the source of metal pollution was mining and smelting activity. Interestingly, the area south of the mine was more highly contaminated even though the prevailing wind flow was westward. Wild rats from Kabwe had much higher tissue concentrations of Pb than those from Lusaka. Their body weight and renal Pb levels were negatively correlated, which suggests that mining activity might affect terrestrial animals in Kabwe. - The area around Kabwe, Zambia is highly polluted with metals and As. Wild rats from this area had high tissue concentrations of Pb and decreased body weight.
Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico The New Mexico 2000 Unified School Districts layer was derived from the TIGER Line files from the US Census Bureau. The districts are clipped to the state...
School districts have resorted to hiring debt collectors, employing constables, and swapping out standard meals for scaled-back versions to try to coerce parents to pay off school lunch debt that, in recent years, appears to have surged as the result of a faltering economy and better record-keeping. While the average school lunch costs just about
Draconian cuts have become the order of business for many school districts since the economic recession hit in 2008. But for the coming school year, "draconian" has taken on an even harsher meaning, as states from California and Texas to Illinois and New York wrestle with deficits in the tens of billions of dollars and make multi-billion-dollar
District consolidation is a highly emotional process. One key to success is sticking to the facts. In Iowa, school districts facing financial difficulties or enrollment concerns do not have to move directly to consolidation. In many cases, districts begin by developing sharing agreements. These sharing agreements may start with simple sharing ofâ¦
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior â This Comprehensive Conservation Plan CCP was written to guide management on Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake...
The proceedings of the 7th International District Heating Conference contain the full texts of the 89 presented papers of which 11 fall under the INIS Subject Scope. The conference met in seven sessions and dealt with the following problem areas: design and optimization of systems of district heating, integration of the power system and the district heating systems, cooperation of nuclear and fossil burning sources in district heating systems, the use of specific nuclear power plants for heating purposes, questions of the control of systems of district heating, the development of components of heating networks, the reliability and design of heat supply pipes. (Z.M.)
Robinson, Peter B.
In southern Africa, gross disparities in access to water are symptomatic of the overall uneven pattern of development. Despite post-independence egalitarian rhetoric, in countries such as Zambia and Zimbabwe inappropriate models (piped house connections in the urban areas, high technology irrigation schemes in the agricultural sector), combined with weak macro-economies and poorly formulated sectoral policies have actually exacerbated the disparities. Zero or very low tariffs have played a major role in this. Although justified as being consistent with waterâs special status, inadequate tariffs in fact serve to undermine any programme of making water accessible to all. This has led to a narrowing of development options, resulting in exclusivist rather than inclusivist development, and stagnation rather than dynamism. A major part of the explanation for perpetuation of such unsatisfactory outcomes is the existence of political interest groups who benefit from the status quo. The first case study in the paper involves urban water consumers in Zambia, where those with piped water connections seek to continue the culture of low tariffs which is by now deeply embedded. The result is that the water supply authorities (in this case the newly formed, but still politically constrained âcommercialised utilitiesâ) are unable even to maintain adequate supplies to the piped customers, let alone extend service to the peri-urban dwellers, 56% of whom do not have access to safe water. The paper outlines some modest, workable principles to achieve universal, affordable access to water in the urban areas, albeit through a mix of service delivery mechanisms. In a second case study of rural productive water in Zimbabwe, the reasons for only 2% of the rural subsistence farming households being involved in formal small-scale irrigation schemes 20 years after independence are explored. Again, a major part of the explanation lies in government pursuing a water delivery model which is not affordable or sustainable on a wide scale. Its provision, via substantial capital and recurrent subsidies, for a small group has a large opportunity cost for society as a whole. The small-scale irrigators have a vested interest in ensuring that the subsidies are maintained, but in the process continue to absorb a disproportionate amount of resources which could be used for development elsewhere. By choosing simpler, cheaper water technologies, and assisting farmers with growing and marketing high value crops, the resources could instead be used to benefit a much larger proportion of households. With well designed programmes aimed at achieving equity, large numbers of subsistence farmers could improve their incomes and start working their way out of poverty.
Mbewe, Njelembo J; Mweempwa, Cornelius; Guya, Samuel; Wamwiri, Florence N
Tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae) are considered primary cyclical vectors that transmit pathogenic trypanosomes in Africa. They harbour a variety of microbes including Wolbachia, Sodalis and the salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV) which are all vertically transmitted. Knowledge on tsetse microbiome and their interactions may identify novel strategies for tsetse fly and trypanosomiasis control. Area-wide application of such strategies requires an understanding of the natural microbiome frequency in the different species and subspecies of Glossina in their geographical populations. Consequently, this study determined the prevalence of Sodalis, Wolbachia, SGHV and trypanosome infections in Glossina morsitanscentralis from two sites of Western Zambia. We also explored possible associations of the microbes with trypanosome infections. Male G. morsitanscentralis samples were collected from two sites (Lyoni and Lusinina) in Western Zambia. The age structure of the flies at each site was determined using the wing fray method. DNA was extracted from the samples and analyzed for Wolbachia, Sodalis, SGHV and trypanosome presence using PCR. Associations and measures of associations between trypanosome infection and microbes in the fly were determined. The flies from the two locations (Lusinina, n=45 and Lyoni, n=24) had a similar age structure with their median fray category not being significantly different (p=0.698). The overall prevalence of Wolbachia was 72.5% (95% CI: 61.6-83.3%), Sodalis was 15.9% (95% CI: 7.1-24.8%), SGHV was 31.9% (95% CI: 20.6-43.2%) and Trypanosoma species was 23.2% (95% CI: 13-33.4%). The prevalence of Wolbachia was significantly higher in Lusinina than Lyoni (p=0.000). However this was not the case for Sodalis, SGHV and Trypanosoma species. Despite the low number of flies that were positive for both trypanosome and Sodalis (6; 8.7%), a statistically significant association (p=0.013; AOR 6.2; 95% CI: 1.5-25.8) was observed in G. morsitanscentralis. The study showed that the prevalence of microbiota may vary within the same species of the tsetse depending on the geographical location as was the case of Wolbachia. Further it showed that infection with Sodalis could affect vector competence. The study concludes that Sodalis could be an ideal candidate for symbiont-mediated trypanosomiasis control interventions in G. morsitanscentralis. PMID:25983231
The model presented here analyzes solar district heating systems on the basis of the power supplied at the grid feeding point. Consumption patterns are taken into account only in the form of different preset load curves. Processes are selected in consideration of the following aspects: (1) The design of a solar district heating system (collector surface, storage volume) depends on the expected contribution of solar power to electricity supply. For each of the key years 1989, 2005 and 2020, a low, average and high contribution were investigated, from which design concepts for other supply rates can be derived. (2) Yields and economic efficiency of solar systems also depend on collector sites and consumption patterns. 10 variants each with low and very high contributions of solar power were calculated for the key year 2020. (orig.)
Namakau C. M'soka
Full Text Available Background: Health beliefs related to pregnancy and childbirth exist in various cultures globally. Healthcare practitioners need to be aware of these beliefs so as to contextualise theirpractice in their communities.Objectives: To explore the health beliefs regarding pregnancy and childbirth of womenattending the antenatal clinic at Chawama Health Center in Lusaka Zambia.Method: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional survey of women attending antenatal care(n = 294 who were selected by systematic sampling. A researcher-administered questionnairewas used for data collection.Results: Results indicated that women attending antenatal care at Chawama Clinic held certain beliefs relating to diet, behaviour and the use of medicinal herbs during pregnancy and post-delivery. The main beliefs on diet related to a balanced diet, eating of eggs, okra, bones, offal, sugar cane, alcohol consumption and salt intake. The main beliefs on behaviour related to commencement of antenatal care, daily activities, quarrels, bad rituals, infidelity and the use of condoms during pregnancy. The main beliefs on the use of medicinal herbs were on their use to expedite the delivery process, to assist in difficult deliveries and for body cleansing following a miscarriage.Conclusion: Women attending antenatal care at the Chawama Clinic hold a number of beliefs regarding pregnancy and childbirth. Those beliefs that are of benefit to the patients should be encouraged with scientific explanations, whilst those posing a health risk should be discouraged respectfully.
Full Text Available Zambia has been implementing water sector reforms for the past two decades. These reforms initiated major changes in the organisation and management of water supply services starting from the 1990s culminating in the full-scale commercialisation of water services in major cities and towns. This paper reviews the outcomes of implementing these reforms, focusing on the results of the commercialisation of water services in the last 10 years. Data presented in this paper show that there have been positive developments, but many serious challenges as well. Evidence from the review of the past 10 years suggests that much progress has been made in areas related to management and operation performance, while little success has been recorded in core areas such as expanding the network, service coverage, hours of service, and reducing the affordability burden, especially among lower-income households. The key challenge for the water services sector is to find a workable infrastructural development funding formula that will make it possible to sustain and build on the foundation laid over the past decade.
Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to determine knowledge and use of modem contractive methods among reproductive age group rural women in Zambia. The study is a descriptive cross-sectional study of 105 randomly selected rural women. Data was collected using semi-structured interview schedule and analyzed using EPI Info version 6 statistical packages. The findings revealed that 63% of the respondents were within the age group 21-35 years, 65% were married and 64% were peasant farmers. 90% of the respondents had heard about modem contraceptives and their main source of information was the Health worker (62%. 76% of the respondents stated that modem contraceptive methods could be obtained from public health facilities. 56% of the respondents were currently using modem contraceptive methods and 46% were not using modem contraceptive methods. Reasons for non use of contraceptive methods were religious beliefs (50%, partner disapproval (30% and side effects (20%. The results showed a relationship between educational level and use of contraceptives (Chi-square 7.83, df = 3, P < 0.05 and spouse approval or support of contractive methods and use of contraceptive (Chisquare 5.9, df = 2, P < 0.05. Therefore, efforts to promote modem contraceptive use among the rural women should be intensified to overcome barriers to contraceptive use and should involve men.
C, Mubita-Ngoma; M, Chongo Kadantu.
Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to determine knowledge and use of modern contractive methods among reproductive age group rural women in Zambia. The study is a descriptive cross-sectional study of 105 randomly selected rural women. Data was collected using semi-structured interview schedule and analyz [...] ed using EPI Info version 6 statistical packages. The findings revealed that 63% of the respondents were within the age group 21-35 years, 65% were married and 64% were peasant farmers. 90% of the respondents had heard about modern contraceptives and their main source of information was the Health worker (62%). 76% of the respondents stated that modern contraceptive methods could be obtained from public health facilities. 56% of the respondents were currently using modem contraceptive methods and 46% were not using modern contraceptive methods. Reasons for non use of contraceptive methods were religious beliefs (50%), partner disapproval (30%) and side effects (20%). The results showed a relationship between educational level and use of contraceptives (Chi-square 7.83, df = 3, P
Murray Susan F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the extent of postpartum maternal morbidity in developing countries is extremely limited. In many settings, data from hospital-based studies is hard to interpret because of the small proportion of women that have access to medical care. However, in those areas with good uptake of health care, the measurement of the type and incidence of complications severe enough to require hospitalisation may provide useful baseline information on the acute and severe morbidity that women experience in the early weeks following childbirth. An analysis of health services data from Lusaka, Zambia, is presented. Methods Six-month retrospective review of hospital registers and 4-week cross-sectional study with prospective identification of postpartum admissions. Results Both parts of the study identified puerperal sepsis and malaria as, respectively, the leading direct and indirect causes of postpartum morbidity requiring hospital admission. Puerperal sepsis accounted for 34.8% of 365 postpartum admissions in the 6-month period. Malaria and pneumonia together accounted for one-fifth of all postpartum admissions (14.5% & 6% respectively. At least 1.7% of the postpartum population in Lusaka will require hospital-level care for a maternal morbidity. Conclusions In developing country urban settings with high public health care usage, meticulous review of hospital registers can provide baseline information on the burden of moderate-to-severe postpartum morbidity.
Vallely, Lisa; Ahmed, Yusuf; Murray, Susan F
BACKGROUND: Information on the extent of postpartum maternal morbidity in developing countries is extremely limited. In many settings, data from hospital-based studies is hard to interpret because of the small proportion of women that have access to medical care. However, in those areas with good uptake of health care, the measurement of the type and incidence of complications severe enough to require hospitalisation may provide useful baseline information on the acute and severe morbidity that women experience in the early weeks following childbirth. An analysis of health services data from Lusaka, Zambia, is presented. METHODS: Six-month retrospective review of hospital registers and 4-week cross-sectional study with prospective identification of postpartum admissions. RESULTS: Both parts of the study identified puerperal sepsis and malaria as, respectively, the leading direct and indirect causes of postpartum morbidity requiring hospital admission. Puerperal sepsis accounted for 34.8% of 365 postpartum admissions in the 6-month period. Malaria and pneumonia together accounted for one-fifth of all postpartum admissions (14.5% & 6% respectively). At least 1.7% of the postpartum population in Lusaka will require hospital-level care for a maternal morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: In developing country urban settings with high public health care usage, meticulous review of hospital registers can provide baseline information on the burden of moderate-to-severe postpartum morbidity. PMID:15686592
Warenius, Linnéa U; Faxelid, Elisabeth A; Chishimba, Petronella N; Musandu, Joyce O; Ong'any, Antony A; Nissen, Eva B-M
Adolescent sexuality is a highly charged moral issue in Kenya and Zambia. Nurse-midwives are the core health care providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health services but public health facilities are under-utilised by adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate attitudes among Kenyan and Zambian nurse-midwives (n=820) toward adolescent sexual and reproductive health problems, in order to improve services for adolescents. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Findings revealed that nurse-midwives disapproved of adolescent sexual activity, including masturbation, contraceptive use and abortion, but also had a pragmatic attitude to handling these issues. Those with more education and those who had received continuing education on adolescent sexuality and reproduction showed a tendency towards more youth-friendly attitudes. We suggest that critical thinking around the cultural and moral dimensions of adolescent sexuality should be emphasised in undergraduate training and continuing education, to help nurse-midwives to deal more empathetically with the reality of adolescent sexuality. Those in nursing and other leadership positions could also play an important role in encouraging wider social discussion of these matters. This would create an environment that is more tolerant of adolescent sexuality and that recognises the beneficial public health effect for adolescents of greater access to youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services. PMID:16713886
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health beliefs related to pregnancy and childbirth exist in various cultures globally. Healthcare practitioners need to be aware of these beliefs so as to contextualise their practice in their communities OBJECTIVES: To explore the health beliefs regarding pregnancy and childbirth of wom [...] en attending the antenatal clinic at Chawama Health Center in Lusaka Zambia METHOD: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional survey of women attending antenatal care (n = 294) who were selected by systematic sampling. A researcher-administered questionnaire was used for data collection RESULTS: Results indicated that women attending antenatal care at Chawama Clinic held certain beliefs relating to diet, behaviour and the use of medicinal herbs during pregnancy and post-delivery. The main beliefs on diet related to a balanced diet, eating of eggs, okra, bones, offal, sugar cane, alcohol consumption and salt intake. The main beliefs on behaviour related to commencement of antenatal care, daily activities, quarrels, bad rituals, infidelity and the use of condoms during pregnancy. The main beliefs on the use of medicinal herbs were on their use to expedite the delivery process, to assist in difficult deliveries and for body cleansing following a miscarriage CONCLUSION: Women attending antenatal care at the Chawama Clinic hold a number of beliefs regarding pregnancy and childbirth. Those beliefs that are of benefit to the patients should be encouraged with scientific explanations, whilst those posing a health risk should be discouraged respectfully
Sikombe, T K W; Mweene, A S; Muma, John; Kasanga, C; Sinkala, Y; Banda, F; Mulumba, M; Fana, E M; Mundia, C; Simuunza, M
A study was conducted to determine the serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) circulating in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) from selected areas in Zambia. Sera and probang samples were collected between 2011 and 2012 and analysed for presence of antibodies against FMDV while probang samples were used to isolate the FMDV by observing cytopathic effect (CPE). Samples with CPE were further analysed using antigen ELISA. High FMD seroprevalence was observed and antibodies to all the three Southern African Territories (SAT) serotypes were detected in four study areas represented as follows: SAT2 was 72.7 percent; SAT1 was 62.6 percent; and SAT3 was 26.2 percent. Mixed infections accounted for 68.6 percent of those that were tested positive. For probang samples, CPE were observed in three of the samples, while the antigen ELISA results showed positivity and for SAT1 (n = 1) and SAT2 (n = 2). It is concluded that FMDV is highly prevalent in Zambian buffaloes which could play an important role in the epidemiology of the disease. Therefore livestock reared at interface with the game parks should be included in all routine FMDV vaccination programmes. PMID:26347208
Aletta H. Janse van Rensburg
Full Text Available For the first time since democracy in the classical Greek sense became practically impossible, the Internets networking possibilities are creating opportunities for all citizens to be active engaging participants in democracy. Open communication channels to government and fellow citizens can now be a reality that allows people at all levels of society to form part of a vibrant public sphere by exchanging ideas, sharing experiences, spreading ideologies and news, and comparing agendas. For African countries dealing with unique and increasingly complicated political and socio-economic issues, the Internet provides a platform from which citizens can now address these issues themselves and, in doing so, contribute to a public sphere that strengthens the democratic fibre of their countries. This research posits that the Internet has significant potential to stimulate democratic culture through public discourse and citizen participation. The focus of this study is on finding evidence-based information about the current influence of information and communication technology (ICT usage in South Africa, Kenya and Zambia as representatives of sub-Saharan Africa, and with specific focus on Internet usage through computers and mobile phones. The research also investigates the capacity and opportunity citizens have to successfully integrate ICTs into the accomplishment of self and mutually identified political goals in order to strengthen a broader democratic culture.
Hyvärinen, O.; Mtilatila, L.; Pilli-Sihvola, K.; Venäläinen, A.; Gregow, H.
We assess the probabilistic seasonal precipitation forecasts issued by Regional Climate Outlook Forum (RCOF) for the area of two southern African countries, Malawi and Zambia from 2002 to 2013. The forecasts, issued in August, are of rainy season rainfall accumulations in three categories (above normal, normal, and below normal), for early season (October-December) and late season (January-March). As observations we used in-situ observations and interpolated precipitation products from Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP), Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC), and Climate Prediction Centre (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP). Differences between results from different data products are smaller than confidence intervals calculated by bootstrap. We focus on below normal forecasts as they were deemed to be the most important for society. The well-known decomposition of Brier score into three terms (Reliability, Resolution, and Uncertainty) shows that the forecasts are rather reliable or well-calibrated, but have a very low resolution; that is, they are not able to discriminate different events. The forecasts also lack sharpness as forecasts for one category are rarely higher than 40 % or less than 25 %. However, these results might be unnecessarily pessimistic, because seasonal forecasts have gone through much development during the period when the forecasts verified in this paper were issued, and forecasts using current methodology might have performed better.
Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L is the most important food grain in sub-Saharan Africa and is mostly grown by small-scale farmers under rainfed conditions. Aluminum toxicity caused by low pH is one of the abiotic factors limiting maize production among smallholder farmers. Therefore, breeding maize hybrids that are tolerant to aluminum toxicity will sustain and increase maize production in these areas. Hence this study was undertaken to assess the genotypic variation for aluminum toxicity in maize inbred lines. Fourteen maize inbred lines of historical importance that are used in maize hybrid breeding in Zambia were studied for seedling root variation under different aluminum concentrations using hydroponic conditions. The aluminum tolerance membership index based on three traits (actual root length, relative root length and root length response classified genotypes L3233 and L1214 as highly tolerant, L5527 and ZM421 as tolerant, and L12, L3234, and ZM521 as intermediate. The high PCV, GCV, and heritability observed for the root traits indicate that opportunities for selection and breeding for aluminum tolerance among Zambian inbred lines exist. Furthermore, the study indicated that a higher genetic gain would be expected from net root growth followed by shoot length response as selection traits, thus supporting the use of root traits for aluminum tolerance screening.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental health is a neglected aspect of adolescent health globally but more so in low-income countries. Secondary analysis using the 2004 Zambia Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS was conducted in which we estimated frequencies of relevant socio-demographic variables and explored associations between selected explanatory variables and self-reported poor oral hygiene (not cleaning or brushing teeth within the last 30 days of the completion of questionnaire. Findings Most of the 2257 respondents were males (53.9% and went hungry (82.5%. More than 4 in 10 respondents drank alcohol (42.2% while 37.2% smoked cannabis. Overall 10.0% of the respondents reported to have poor oral hygiene. Male respondents were 7% less likely to report to have poor oral hygiene compared to females. Compared to respondents who never drank alcohol, those who drank alcohol were 27% more likely to report to have poor oral hygiene. Respondents who smoked cannabis were 4% more likely to report to have poor oral hygiene compared to those who did not smoke cannabis. Finally, respondents who went hungry were 35% more likely to report to have poor oral hygiene compared to those who did not go hungry. Conclusions Results from this study indicate that female gender, alcohol drinking, cannabis smoking, and going hungry were associated with self-reported poor oral hygiene. The identification of these factors should guide the design and implementation of programs aimed to improve oral health among adolescents.
Liver scanning using the radio-isotope indium-113m, can now be routinely perfomed at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia. The dose used is 1 - 4 mCi. Liver scans have been performed on 48 subjects, including 10 healthy individuals 16 patients with histologically proven hepatocellular carcinoma, 11 with clinical and laboratory evidence of portal hypertension and 11 with miscellaneous illnesses. Seven representative scans are illustrated. The procedure is easy, and gives a fairly accurate functional estimate of Kupffer cell mass. In hepatoma the scan may be either larger than or smaller than normal and reflects more accurately the residual function of the Kupffer cells. In cirrhosis of the liver with portal hypertention, residual Kupffer cell mass is small. Consequently, most of the indium-113m is taken up by the splenic reticulo-endothelial system, resulting in a large spleen scan. This technique, although fraught with major limitations, is a useful additional diagnostic tool in the management of chronic liver disease
Nyambe, Imasiku A.; Utting, John
The Karoo Supergroup outcropst in the mid-Zambezi Valley, southern Zambia. It is underlain by the Sinakumbe Group of Ordovician to Devonian age. The Lower Karoo Group (Late Carboniferous to Permian age) consists of the basal Siankondobo Sandstone Formation, which comprises three facies, overlain by the Gwembe Coal Formation with its economically important coal deposits, in turn overlain by the Madumabisa Mudstone Formation which consists of lacustrine mudstone, calcilutite, sandstone, and concretionary calcareous beds. The Upper Karoo Group (Triassic to Early Jurassic) is sub-divided into the coarsely arenaceous Escarpment Grit, overlain by the fining upwards Interbedded Sandstone and Mudstone, Red Sandstone; and Batoka Basalt Formations. Palynomorph assemblages suggest that the Siankondobo Sandstone Formation is Late Carboniferous (Gzhelian) to Early Permian (Asselian to Early Sakmarian) in age, the Gwembe Coal Formation Early Permian (Artinskian to Kungurian), the Madumabisa Mudstone Late Permian (Tatarian), and the Interbedded Sandstone and Mudstone Early or Middle Triassic (Late Scythian or Anisian). The marked quantitative variations in the assemblages are due partly to age differences, but they also reflect vegetational differences resulting from different paleoclimates and different facies. The low thermal maturity of the formations (Thermal Alteration Index 2) suggests that the rocks are oil prone. However, the general scarcity of amorphous kerogen, such as the alga Botryococcus sp., and the low proportion of exinous material, indicates a low potential for liquid hydrocarbons. Gas may have been generated, particularly in the coal seams of the Gwembe Coal Formation, that are more deeply buried.
The purpose of the thesis was to find out and analyse the key factors in Zambian culture and business culture that influence choice of business entry method for dry toilet market in Zambia. The other aim was to find the most suitable entry mode for a developing country, in this case Zambia. The thesis is a case study and it was commissioned by The Global Dry Toilet As-sociation of Finland who is seeking business possibilities with Biolan Group in the region. The research method appli...
Albert Malama; Priscilla Mudenda; Austine Ngombe; Lilias Makashini; Henry Abanda
This paper is based on research conducted in Kitwe, Zambia on the effects of the introduction of prepayment meters on the energy usage behaviour of domestic consumers in the Low, Medium and High Income categories. The research was motivated by the fact that there is very little information that exists on the subject not just in Zambia but world-wide. The paper has identified some key issue vis-a-viz: behavioral change as a result of the introduction of the prepayment meters, debt recovery and...
Robertson, Paul L.; Jacobson, David; Langlois, Richard N.
In this survey, we examine the operations of innovation processes within industrial districts by exploring the ways in which differentiation, specialization, and integration affect the generation, diffusion, and use of new knowledge in such districts. We begin with an analysis of the importance of the division of labour and then investigate the effects of social embeddedness on innovation. We also consider the effect of forms of organization within industrial districts at various stages of...
A. I. Khan; Bawane S. N.; Mhaslekar I.D
The tourism sector is increasing day to day and it has great potential of getting many, employments and also supporting for local merchants, therefore it is called as fourth dimension of modern economy. An impact of tourism has become is an important part of economy especially in India, here in the country number of natural tourist places as well as historical tourist places. Aurangabad district is leading district in Marathwada region in tourism it has 9 Tahsils and district ...
Livestock production activities among small-scale farmers of semi-arid (Agro-ecological zone 1) and sub-humid (Agro-ecological zone 2) areas of Zambia are integrated with crop production activities in what is termed as crop/livestock farming system. This is a closed system in which production of one enterprise depends on the other. In Zambia, crop production depends on draught animals for tillage of cropping area, animal manure for fertilisation of crops while livestock depend on crop residues for dry season feeding. Good quality grass is generally available in adequate amounts to support reasonable level of livestock productivity during the rainy season. But livestock rely on low quantity and poor quality, highly fibrous perennial grass from veld and fibrous crop residues during the dry season. These resources are inadequate to support optimum livestock productivity activities. Poor nutrition results in low rates of reproduction and production as well as increased susceptibility to diseases. With the increasing human population cropping land is expanding, leading to increased production of crop residues. This has however, reduced the grazing land available for ruminant production. In Zambia large quantities of crop residues (stovers, husks and straws, legume tops and hulls, sugar cane tops, cassava leaves, potato vines, etc.) are left in the field where they are wasted each year because small-scale farmers lack the knowledge on how best to use them. There is a need to find ways to reverse this situation by adapting known and workable technologies to local conditions and by introducing new approaches for improving the use of crop residues and poor quality fibrous feeds. Efforts should also be made to enlarge feed resource base. The technologies should be simple and effective. In the presence of a dynamic market system, livestock production in a crop/livestock system could be intensified and made profitable for small-scale farmers. (author)
...Commission [Project No. 12745-002] Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...16, 2010. On February 1, 2010, Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District...
The effect of lindane on non-target fauna in a maize agro-ecosystem was studied in Zambia in 1992 and 1993. While lindane was effective against the stalk borers, a target pest, it also affected other non-target fauna. Ants, spiders and springtails were significantly reduced. However the effect was only transient and lasted for approximately two months. Lindane appeared to have no real effect on aerial non-target fauna or on soil inhabiting microorganisms. (author). 8 refs, 6 tabs
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ministry of Health (MOH in Zambia is currently operating with fewer than half of the health workers required to deliver basic health services. The MOH has developed a human resources for health (HRH strategic plan to address the crisis through improved training, hiring, and retention. However, the projected success of each strategy or combination of strategies is unclear. Methods We developed a model to forecast the size of the public sector health workforce in Zambia over the next ten years to identify a combination of interventions that would expand the workforce to meet staffing targets. The key forecasting variables are training enrolment, graduation rates, public sector entry rates for graduates, and attrition of workforce staff. We model, using Excel (Office, Microsoft; 2007, the effects of changes in these variables on the projected number of doctors, clinical officers, nurses and midwives in the public sector workforce in 2018. Results With no changes to current training, hiring, and attrition conditions, the total number of doctors, clinical officers, nurses, and midwives will increase from 44% to 59% of the minimum necessary staff by 2018. No combination of changes in staff retention, graduation rates, and public sector entry rates of graduates by 2010, without including training expansion, is sufficient to meet staffing targets by 2018 for any cadre except midwives. Training enrolment needs to increase by a factor of between three and thirteen for doctors, three and four for clinical officers, two and three for nurses, and one and two for midwives by 2010 to reach staffing targets by 2018. Necessary enrolment increases can be held to a minimum if the rates of retention, graduation, and public sector entry increase to 100% by 2010, but will need to increase if these rates remain at 2008 levels. Conclusions Meeting the minimum need for health workers in Zambia this decade will require an increase in health training school enrolment. Supplemental interventions targeting attrition, graduation and public sector entry rates can help close the gap. HRH modelling can help MOH policy makers determine the relative priority and level of investment needed to expand Zambia's workforce to target staffing levels.
There are about one billion people living with a disability in the world today. In Zambia, this number might be closer to two million. People with disabilities in the global South are almost always less likely to be in school, less likely to be employed, and more likely to be subject to economic hardship. The standing national education policy has failed in its aim to secure education for all, especially for children and youths with disabilities. Disability scholars have argued for a more com...
Koethe John R; Blevins Meridith; Nyirenda Christopher; Kabagambe Edmond K; Shepherd Bryan E; Wester C William; Zulu Isaac; Chiasera Janelle M; Mulenga Lloyd B; Mwango Albert; Heimburger Douglas C
Abstract Background A low body mass index (BMI) at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation is a strong predictor of mortality among HIV-infected adults in resource-constrained settings. The relationship between nutrition and inflammation-related serum biomarkers and early treatment outcomes (e.g., less than 90 days) in this population is not well described. Methods An observational cohort of 142 HIV-infected adults in Lusaka, Zambia, with BMI under 16 kg/m2 or CD4+ lymphocyte counts of less t...
Full Text Available Development Reporting (DR has long been considered the cornerstone of journalistic practice in Africa. The high prevalence of Brown Envelope Journalism (BEJ - defined as a practice that involves news sources granting monetary incentives to journalists - is, however, posing a challenge to DR. BEJ has signaled a shift from a traditional model or DR, where journalists strived to report any legitimate development news to a public relations model where news is heavily influenced by source payments. Using Zambia and Ghana as case studies, this study provides insight into journalists' perspectives on DR and BEJ. Additionally, the study delves into the extenuating factors that perpetuate BEJ.
The energy requirement for heat generation by far exceeds the electricity requirement. For these reasons, and because of environmental pollution the possibility of supplying heat to households and to industry through a district heating network is now under intensive study. Preliminary results indicate that the central supply of heat from heating power plants is capable in the long run of greatly reducing the burden on our energy balance by utilizing the losses accompanying the generation of electricity. In addition, it would permit most of the energy requirement to be met from coal and, in particular, from nuclear power instead of oil. (orig./GG)
Nitrogen is the major nutrient limiting maize production in Zambia and Southern Africa. Removal of subsidies on manufactured fertilizers made them very expensive and most farmers cannot afford them. Short duration planted fallows using a wide range of leguminous trees have been found to replenish soil fertility and increase subsequent maize yields. Species such as Sesbania sesban, Tephrosia vogelii and Cajanus cajan have been found to be well suited for planted fallow technology. These improved fallow crop rotations are being adopted by small-scale farmers in Eastern Zambia. Since the seminal paper of Kwesiga and Coe, research has been carried out to understand how the planted tree fallows replenish soil fertility and improve maize yields. A wide range of species has been screened as alternatives to Sesbania fallows to overcome limitations of Sesbania such as susceptibility to nematodes and insect pests. Species such as Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala have maintained maize yields of 3 t ha1 over 10 years of cropping when Sesbania fallow yields declined to 1.1 t ha1 after 3 years of cropping. The selection criteria for good fallow species are high biomass production and litterfall. Maize yields after fallows were highly correlated to biomass and litterfall yields. High quality biomass, which is low in lignin and polyphenols and high in N, is needed for higher maize yields. Mixing of Gliricidia and Sesbania fallows resulted in higher maize yields compared with single species fallows (3.0 vs. 1.8 t ha1). Mechanisms contributing to the efficacy of mixed fallows will be discussed. Pre-season inorganic-N (NO3- + NH4+) was highly correlated with maize yield (r2 = 0.62) and this could be used to select fallow species and management practices. Nutrient budgets of N, P and K over 8 years showed that a positive balance of N and P was maintained for coppicing fallows, while a negative balance of K started from the fourth year onwards on fertilized maize, Gliricidia, Leucaena and Sesbania fallows, emphasising the need to use P and K fertilizers to supplement the N supply from leguminous fallows. Improved fallows increased infiltration, reduced runoff, increased water storage, and reduced soil loss. The biophysical limits of most fallow species and other emerging issues such as pests and diseases, the need to inoculate with rhizobium, the amount of N fixed by different species and provenances and soil acidification under improved fallows are the subjects of further research. Biomass transfer technology using biomass from leguminous trees was evaluated on maize and vegetable production in the dambos (wetlands). Maize and vegetable yields were significantly increased by application of high quality biomass from Gliricidia and Leucaena. However, financial analysis showed that it is not viable to apply biomass on a low value crop like maize, but biomass transfer was economically viable on high value crops such a vegetables. (author)
The Saar transport system for the utilization of waste heat from power stations and industrial processes for district heating is discussed. Construction of a regional compound system for district heating was demonstrated in the Voelkingen district.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Zambia the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria is artemisinin combination therapy (ACT, with artemether-lumefantrine currently being used. However, the antifolate regimen, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP, remains the treatment of choice in children weighing less than 5 kg and also in expectant mothers. SP is also the choice drug for intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy and serves as stand-by treatment during ACT stock outs. The current study assessed the status of Plasmodium falciparum point mutations associated with antifolate drug resistance in the area around Macha. Methods A representative sample of 2,780 residents from the vicinity of Macha was screened for malaria by microscopy. At the same time, blood was collected onto filter paper and dried for subsequent P. falciparum DNA analysis. From 188 (6.8% individuals that were thick film-positive, a simple random sub-set of 95 P. falciparum infections were genotyped for DHFR and DHPS antifolate resistance mutations, using nested PCR and allele-specific restriction enzyme digestion. Results Plasmodium falciparum field samples exhibited a high prevalence of antifolate resistance mutations, including the DHFR triple (Asn-108 + Arg-59 + Ile-51 mutant (41.3% and DHPS double (Gly-437 + Glu-540 mutant (16%. The quintuple (DHFR triple + DHPS double mutant was found in 4 (6.5% of the samples. Levels of mutated parasites showed a dramatic escalation, relative to previous surveys since 1988. However, neither of the Val-16 and Thr-108 mutations, which jointly confer resistance to cycloguanil, was detectable among the human infections. The Leu-164 mutation, associated with high grade resistance to both pyrimethamine and cycloguanil, as a multiple mutant with Asn-108, Arg-59 and (or Ile-51, was also absent. Conclusion This study points to escalating levels of P. falciparum antifolate resistance in the vicinity of Macha. Continued monitoring is recommended to ensure timely policy revisions before widespread resistance exacts a serious public health toll.
J.B., Muma; Martin, Simuunza; K., Mwachalimba; M., Munyeme; B., Namangala; C., Hankanga; G., Sijumbila; R. Likwa, Ndonyo; Yona, Sinkala; A., Mwanza; A. Simanyengwe, Mweene.
Full Text Available Recently, the world has witnessed emergence of novel diseases such as avian influenza, HIV and AIDS, West Nile Virus and Ebola. The evolution of these pathogens has been facilitated mainly by a constantly evolving animal-human interface. Whilst infectious disease control was previously conceptualise [...] d as either public health or animal health related issues, the distinction between disciplinary foci have been blurred by multiple causal factors that clearly traverse traditional disciplinary divides. These multiple evolutionary pressures have included changes in land use, ecosystems, human-livestock-wildlife interactions and antibiotic use, representing novel routes for pathogen emergence. With the growing realisation that pathogens do not respect traditional epistemological divides, the 'One Health' initiative has emerged to advocate for closer collaboration across the health disciplines and has provided a new agenda for health education. Against this background, the One Health Analytical Epidemiology course was developed under the auspices of the Southern African Centre for Infectious Diseases Surveillance by staff from the University of Zambia with collaborators from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and the Royal Veterinary College in London. The course is aimed at equipping scientists with multidisciplinary skill sets to match the contemporary challenges of human, animal and zoonotic disease prevention and control. Epidemiology is an important discipline for both public and animal health. Therefore, this two-year programme has been developed to generate a cadre of epidemiologists with a broad understanding of disease control and prevention and will be able to conceptualise and design holistic programs for informing health and disease control policy decisions.
Kasonde, Joseph M; Campbell, Sandy
The concept of the Knowledge Translation Platform (KTP) provides cohesion and leadership for national-level knowledge translation efforts. In this review, we discuss nine key lessons documenting the experience of the Zambia Forum for Health Research, primarily to inform and exchange experience with the growing community of African KTPs. Lessons from ZAMFOHR's organizational development include the necessity of selecting a multi-stakeholder and -sectoral Board of Directors; performing comprehensive situation analyses to understand not only the prevailing research-and-policy dynamics but a precise operational niche; and selecting a leader that bridges the worlds of research and policy. Programmatic lessons include focusing on building the capacity of both policy-makers and researchers; building a database of local evidence and national-level actors involved in research and policy; and catalyzing work in particular issue areas by identifying leaders from the research community, creating policy-maker demand for research evidence, and fostering the next generation by mentoring both up-and-coming researchers and policy-makers. Ultimately, ZAMFOHR's experience shows that an African KTP must pay significant attention to its organizational details. A KTP must also invest in the skill base of the wider community and, more importantly, of its own staff. Given the very real deficit of research-support skills in most low-income countries - in synthesis, in communications, in brokering, in training - a KTP must spend significant time and resources in building these types of in-house expertise. And lastly, the role of networking cannot be underestimated. As a fully-networked KTP, ZAMFOHR has benefited from the innovations of other KTPs, from funding opportunities and partnerships, and from invaluable technical support from both African and northern colleagues. PMID:23034056
Full Text Available Recently, the world has witnessed emergence of novel diseases such as avian influenza, HIV and AIDS, West Nile Virus and Ebola. The evolution of these pathogens has been facilitated mainly by a constantly evolving animal-human interface. Whilst infectious disease control was previously conceptualised as either public health or animal health related issues, the distinction between disciplinary foci have been blurred by multiple causal factors that clearly traverse traditional disciplinary divides. These multiple evolutionary pressures have included changes in land use, ecosystems, human-livestock-wildlife interactions and antibiotic use, representing novel routes for pathogen emergence. With the growing realisation that pathogens do not respect traditional epistemological divides, the âOne Healthâ initiative has emerged to advocate for closer collaboration across the health disciplines and has provided a new agenda for health education. Against this background, the One Health Analytical Epidemiology course was developed under the auspices of the Southern African Centre for Infectious Diseases Surveillance by staff from the University of Zambia with collaborators from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and the Royal Veterinary College in London. The course is aimed at equipping scientists with multidisciplinary skill sets to match the contemporary challenges of human, animal and zoonotic disease prevention and control. Epidemiology is an important discipline for both public and animal health. Therefore, this two-year programme has been developed to generate a cadre of epidemiologists with a broad understanding of disease control and prevention and will be able to conceptualise and design holistic programs for informing health and disease control policy decisions.
Mwape, Kabemba E; Blocher, Joachim; Wiefek, Jasmin; Schmidt, Kathie; Dorny, Pierre; Praet, Nicolas; Chiluba, Clarance; Schmidt, Holger; Phiri, Isaac K; Winkler, Andrea S; Gabriël, Sarah
Zambia is endemic for Taenia solium taeniosis and cysticercosis. In this single-centered, cross-sectional, community-based study, the role of neurocysticercosis (NCC) as a cause of epilepsy was examined. People with epilepsy (PWE, n = 56) were identified in an endemic area using a screening questionnaire followed by in-depth interviews and neurological examination. Computed tomography (CT) was performed on 49 people with active epilepsy (PWAE) and their sera (specific antibody and antigen detection, n = 56) and stools (copro-antigen detection, n = 54) were analyzed. The CT scan findings were compared to a group of 40 CT scan controls. Of the PWE, 39.3% and 23.2% were positive for cysticercal antibodies and antigens, respectively, and 14.8% for coproantigens (taeniosis). Lesions highly suggestive of NCC were detected in 24.5% and definite NCC lesions in 4.1% of CT scans of PWAE. This compares to 2.5% and 0%, respectively, in the control CT scans. Using the Del Brutto diagnostic criteria, 51.8% of the PWAE were diagnosed with probable or definitive NCC and this rose to 57.1% when the adapted criteria, as proposed by Gabriël et al. (adding the sero-antigen ELISA test as a major criterion), were used. There was no statistically significant relationship between NCC, current age, age at first seizure and gender. This study suggests that NCC is the single most important cause of epilepsy in the study area. Additional large-scale studies, combining a community based prevalence study for epilepsy with neuroimaging and serological analysis in different areas are needed to estimate the true impact of neurocysticercosis in endemic regions and efforts should be instituted to the control of T. solium. PMID:26285031
Barham, Lawrence; Phillips, William M.
Flake based assemblages (Mode 1) comprise the earliest stone technologies known, with well-dated Oldowan sites occurring in eastern Africa between 2.6-1.7 Ma, and in less securely dated contexts in central, southern and northern Africa. Our understanding of the spread and local development of this technology outside East Africa remains hampered by the lack of reliable numerical dating techniques applicable to non-volcanic deposits. This study applied the still relatively new technique of cosmogenic nuclide burial dating (10Be/26Al) to calculate burial ages for fluvial gravels containing Mode 1 artefacts in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. The Manzi River, a tributary of the Luangwa River, has exposed a 4.7 m deep section of fluvial sands with discontinuous but stratified gravel layers bearing Mode 1, possibly Oldowan, artefacts in the basal layers. An unconformity divides the Manzi section, separating Mode 1 deposits from overlying gravels containing Mode 3 (Middle Stone Age) artefacts. No diagnostic Mode 2 (Acheulean) artefacts were found. Cosmogenic nuclide burial dating was attempted for the basal gravels as well as exposure ages for the upper Mode 3 gravels, but was unsuccessful. The complex depositional history of the site prevented the calculation of reliable age models. A relative chronology for the full Manzi sequence was constructed, however, from the magnetostratigraphy of the deposit (N>R>N sequence). Isothermal thermoluminescence (ITL) dating of the upper Mode 3 layers also provided consistent results (78 ka). A coarse but chronologically coherent sequence now exists for the Manzi section with the unconformity separating probable mid- or early Pleistocene deposits below from late Pleistocene deposits above. The results suggest Mode 1 technology in the Luangwa Valley may post-date the Oldowan in eastern and southern Africa. The dating programme has contributed to a clearer understanding of the geomorphological processes that have shaped the valley and structured its archaeological record.
Full Text Available Recently, the world has witnessed emergence of novel diseases such as avian influenza, HIV and AIDS, West Nile Virus and Ebola. The evolution of these pathogens has been facilitated mainly by a constantly evolving animal-human interface. Whilst infectious disease control was previously conceptualised as either public health or animal health related issues, the distinction between disciplinary foci have been blurred by multiple causal factors that clearly traverse traditional disciplinary divides. These multiple evolutionary pressures have included changes in land use, ecosystems, human-livestock-wildlife interactions and antibiotic use, representing novel routes for pathogen emergence. With the growing realisation that pathogens do not respect traditional epistemological divides, the One Health initiative has emerged to advocate for closer collaboration across the health disciplines and has provided a new agenda for health education. Against this background, the One Health Analytical Epidemiology course was developed under the auspices of the Southern African Centre for Infectious Diseases Surveillance by staff from the University of Zambia with collaborators from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and the Royal Veterinary College in London. The course is aimed at equipping scientists with multidisciplinary skill sets to match the contemporary challenges of human, animal and zoonotic disease prevention and control. Epidemiology is an important discipline for both public and animal health. Therefore, this two-year programme has been developed to generate a cadre of epidemiologists with a broad understanding of disease control and prevention and will be able to conceptualise and design holistic programs for informing health and disease control policy decisions.
Duller, Geoff A T; Tooth, Stephen; Barham, Lawrence; Tsukamoto, Sumiko
Fluvial deposits can provide excellent archives of early hominin activity but may be complex to interpret, especially without extensive geochronology. The Stone Age site of Kalambo Falls, northern Zambia, has yielded a rich artefact record from dominantly fluvial deposits, but its significance has been restricted by uncertainties over site formation processes and a limited chronology. Our new investigations in the centre of the Kalambo Basin have used luminescence to provide a chronology and have provided key insights into the geomorphological and sedimentological processes involved in site formation. Excavations reveal a complex assemblage of channel and floodplain deposits. Single grain quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) measurements provide the most accurate age estimates for the youngest sediments, but in older deposits the OSL signal from some grains is saturated. A different luminescence signal from quartz, thermally transferred OSL (TT-OSL), can date these older deposits. OSL and TT-OSL results are combined to provide a chronology for the site. Ages indicate four phases of punctuated deposition by the dominantly laterally migrating and vertically aggrading Kalambo River (?500-300 ka, ?300-50 ka, ?50-30 ka, ?1.5-0.49 ka), followed by deep incision and renewed lateral migration at a lower topographic level. A conceptual model for site formation provides the basis for improved interpretation of the generation, preservation, and visibility of the Kalambo archaeological record. This model highlights the important role of intrinsic meander dynamics in site formation and does not necessarily require complex interpretations that invoke periodic blocking of the Kalambo River, as has previously been suggested. The oldest luminescence ages place the Mode 2/3 transition between ?500 and 300 ka, consistent with other African and Asian sites where a similar transition can be found. The study approach adopted here can potentially be applied to other fluvial Stone Age sites throughout Africa and beyond. PMID:26073072
Barham, Lawrence; Phillips, William M; Maher, Barbara A; Karloukovski, Vassil; Duller, Geoff A T; Jain, Mayank; Wintle, Ann G
Flake based assemblages (Mode 1) comprise the earliest stone technologies known, with well-dated Oldowan sites occurring in eastern Africa between ~2.6-1.7 Ma, and in less securely dated contexts in central, southern and northern Africa. Our understanding of the spread and local development of this technology outside East Africa remains hampered by the lack of reliable numerical dating techniques applicable to non-volcanic deposits. This study applied the still relatively new technique of cosmogenic nuclide burial dating ((10)Be/(26)Al) to calculate burial ages for fluvial gravels containing Mode 1 artefacts in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. The Manzi River, a tributary of the Luangwa River, has exposed a 4.7 m deep section of fluvial sands with discontinuous but stratified gravel layers bearing Mode 1, possibly Oldowan, artefacts in the basal layers. An unconformity divides the Manzi section, separating Mode 1 deposits from overlying gravels containing Mode 3 (Middle Stone Age) artefacts. No diagnostic Mode 2 (Acheulean) artefacts were found. Cosmogenic nuclide burial dating was attempted for the basal gravels as well as exposure ages for the upper Mode 3 gravels, but was unsuccessful. The complex depositional history of the site prevented the calculation of reliable age models. A relative chronology for the full Manzi sequence was constructed, however, from the magnetostratigraphy of the deposit (N>R>N sequence). Isothermal thermoluminescence (ITL) dating of the upper Mode 3 layers also provided consistent results (~78 ka). A coarse but chronologically coherent sequence now exists for the Manzi section with the unconformity separating probable mid- or early Pleistocene deposits below from late Pleistocene deposits above. The results suggest Mode 1 technology in the Luangwa Valley may post-date the Oldowan in eastern and southern Africa. The dating programme has contributed to a clearer understanding of the geomorphological processes that have shaped the valley and structured its archaeological record. PMID:21411121
Chishiba, G. M.; Mukuka, J.
Language interference is one of the factors that affect language learning by many learners of second and third languages. In Zambia, the impact of language interference on the learners of French requires closer attention. Our literature review shows that few studies have looked at the impact of interference from Zambian languages on the learners
Situation Reports--Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Botswana, Finland, German Federal Republic, Italy, Luxembourg, Mauritania, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Sweden, Tanzania, Yugoslavia, and Zambia.
International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).
Data pertaining to population and family planning in seventeen foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Botswana, Finland, German Federal Republic, Italy, Luxembourg, Mauritania, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Sweden, Tanzania, Yugoslavia, and Zambia. Information is
Haselip, James Arthur; Desgain, Denis DR; Mackenzie, Gordon A.
constraint to establishing and expanding local small and medium-sized energy businesses, a range of significant non-financial constraints were also identified. This article provides a critical evaluation of these non-financial constraints as they were encountered in Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia, based...
A few reports given on the occasion of the Unichal congress in Paris on the subject 'system problems' are evaluated which deal partly with the whole field of district heating, partly with particular problems of heat production, heat distribution and the application of district heating. (GG/LH)
Hennek, Jonathan W.; Mantina, Hamakwa; Lee, S. Y. Ryan; Patton, Matthew R.; Sambo, Pauline; Sinyangwe, Silvester; Kankasa, Chipepo; Chintu, Chifumbe; Brugnara, Carlo; Stossel, Thomas P.; Whitesides, George M.
Although simple and low-cost interventions for sickle cell disease (SCD) exist in many developing countries, child mortality associated with SCD remains high, in part, because of the lack of access to diagnostic tests for SCD. A density-based test using aqueous multiphase systems (SCD-AMPS) is a candidate for a low-cost, point-of-care diagnostic for SCD. In this paper, the field evaluation of SCD-AMPS in a large (n?=?505) case-control study in Zambia is described. Of the two variations of the SCD-AMPS used, the best system (SCD-AMPS-2) demonstrated a sensitivity of 86% (8290%) and a specificity of 60% (5367%). Subsequent analysis identified potential sources of false positives that include clotting, variation between batches of SCD-AMPS, and shipping conditions. Importantly, SCD-AMPS-2 was 84% (6294%) sensitive in detecting SCD in children between 6 months and 1 year old. In addition to an evaluation of performance, an assessment of end-user operability was done with health workers in rural clinics in Zambia. These health workers rated the SCD-AMPS tests to be as simple to use as lateral flow tests for malaria and HIV. PMID:25490722
Williams, Brianna M; Berentsen, Are; Shock, Barbara C; Teixiera, Maria; Dunbar, Michael R; Becker, Matthew S; Yabsley, Michael J
A molecular survey was conducted for several hemoparasites of domestic dogs and three species of wild carnivores from two sites in Zambia. Three Babesia spp. were detected including Babesia felis and Babesia leo in lions (Panthera leo) and a Babesia sp. (similar to Babesia lengau) in spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) and a single lion. All wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and domestic dogs were negative for Babesia. High prevalences for Hepatozoon were noted in all three wild carnivores (38-61%) and in domestic dogs (13%). Significantly higher prevalences were noted in hyenas and wild dogs compared with domestic dogs and lions. All carnivores were PCR negative for Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ewingii, and Bartonella spp. Overall, high prevalences and diversity of Babesia and Hepatozoon were noted in wild carnivores from Zambia. This study is the first molecular characterization of Babesia from any hyena species and is the first report of a Babesia sp. closely related to B. lengau, a parasite previously only reported from cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), in lions and hyenas. Although usually benign in wild carnivores, these hemoparasites can be pathogenic under certain circumstances. Importantly, data on vectors for these parasites are lacking, so studies are needed to identify vectors as well as determine transmission routes, infection dynamics, and host specificity of these hemoparasites in wildlife in Africa and also the risk of transmission between domestic animals and wildlife. PMID:24363181
Full Text Available This study evaluated the long-term implications of a Public-Private Partnership (PPP on livelihoods and natural resource (NR dynamics under a market-oriented approach to conservation. Drawing examples from the Luangwa Valley in eastern Zambia, the study sought to answer questions on two closely interrelated aspects. These included the contribution of PPP to sustainable livelihoods in and around Protected Areas (PAs and its impacts on natural resources in Game Management Areas (GMAs. Quantitative data were collected from PPP participating and non-PPP households using standardized structured interviews, while qualitative data were obtained from three chiefdoms using semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. Taking the case of Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO in eastern Zambia, results of this study showed that PPP contributed to sustainable livelihoods and overall natural resources management through varied ways. These include promotion of conservation farming, agroforestry, poacher transformation (individuals who have given up poaching due to PPP interventions and provision of markets for the produce of participating households. Further, impacts of PPP on soil fertility, crop, and honey yields were statistically significant (p ? 0.05. A combination of increased crop productivity and household incomes has seen a 40-fold increase in poacher transformation. The results of this study suggest that PPPs, if well-structured, have the potential to address both livelihoods and enterprise needs with an ultimate benefit of promoting both sustainable livelihoods and natural resources management around PAs in tropical Africa.
Mwacalimba, Kennedy Kapala; Green, Judith
'One World, One Health' has become a key rallying theme for the integration of public health and animal health priorities, particularly in the governance of pandemic-scale zoonotic infectious disease threats. However, the policy challenges of integrating public health and animal health priorities in the context of trade and development issues remain relatively unexamined, and few studies to date have explored the implications of global disease governance for resource-constrained countries outside the main centres of zoonotic outbreaks. This article draws on a policy study of national level avian and pandemic influenza preparedness between 2005 and 2009 across the sectors of trade, health and agriculture in Zambia. We highlight the challenges of integrating disease control interventions amidst trade and developmental realities in resource-poor environments. One Health prioritizes disease risk mitigation, sidelining those trade and development narratives which speak to broader public health concerns. We show how locally important trade and development imperatives were marginalized in Zambia, limiting the effectiveness of pandemic preparedness. Our findings are likely to be generalizable to other resource-constrained countries, and suggest that effective disease governance requires alignment with trade and development sectors, as well as integration of veterinary and public health sectors. PMID:24532120
Stephanie M Topp
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To increase case-finding of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in Zambia and their referral to HIV care and treatment by supplementing existing client-initiated voluntary counselling and testing (VCT, the dominant mode of HIV testing in the country. METHODS: Lay counsellors offered provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC to all outpatients who attended primary clinics and did not know their HIV serostatus. Data on counselling and testing were collected in registers. Outcomes of interest included HIV testing coverage, the acceptability of testing, the proportion testing HIV-positive (HIV+, the proportion enrolling in HIV care and treatment and the time between testing and enrolment. FINDINGS: After the addition of PITC to VCT, the number tested for HIV infection in the nine clinics was twice the number undergoing VCT alone. Over 30 months, 44 420 patients were counselled under PITC and 31 197 patients, 44% of them men, accepted testing. Of those tested, 21% (6572 were HIV+; 38% of these HIV+ patients (2515 enrolled in HIV care and treatment. The median time between testing and enrolment was 6 days. The acceptability of testing rose over time. CONCLUSION: The introduction of routine PITC using lay counsellors into health-care clinics in Lusaka, Zambia, dramatically increased the uptake and acceptability of HIV testing. Moreover, PITC was incorporated rapidly into primary care outpatient departments. Maximizing the number of patients who proceed to HIV care and treatment remains a challenge and warrants further research.
Mendenhall, E; Muzizi, L; Stephenson, R; Chomba, E; Ahmed, Y; Haworth, A; Allen, S
High rates of HIV and poverty place women in a precarious economic situation in Lusaka, Zambia. Mortality from HIV infection is high, leaving many households single headed and creating almost a half a million orphans. One of the most prevalent forms of gender violence that creates poverty in women is when the male's family claims the property of the deceased from the widow and the children. The Zambia-Emory HIV Research Project collected 184 wills from individuals in monogamous unions where one or both of the individuals were HIV-positive. Despite the fact that many wills specifically stated that their extended family was not allowed to tamper with their possessions in the event of death, property grabbing proved to be a prevalent and difficult issue in Lusaka. In order to improve the lives of widowed women in Lusaka, the government and other civic and non-governmental organisations must inform women of their rights to own and protect their land and other assets in the event of their husbands' death, an issue of increasing importance in the area of HIV/AIDS. PMID:17453571
Cailteux, J.; Binda, P. L.; Katekesha, W. M.; Kampunzu, A. B.; Intiomale, M. M.; Kapenda, D.; Kaunda, C.; Ngongo, K.; Tshiauka, T.; Wendorff, M.
New data on the lower Katangan sequences in Shaba (Zaire) and Zambia, collected during the 1989 and 1990 UNESCO-sponsored Geotraverses, reveal an important development on friction breccias throughout the Zambian Copperbelt, which still remains poorly documented, and shows that the Zairean and Zambian facies of the Roan Supergroup can be correlated in detail. As in Zaire, the deformation of Katangan terranes during the Lufilian orogeny produced important friction breccias in Zambia. Such breccias occur mostly between the upper part of the Lower Roan Supergroup and the Mwashya Group (R-4): above the shale with grit (RL3) at Konkola and Mindola, or within the Upper Roan Dolomite at Chambishi South, Muliashi and Nchanga. At Mufulira, a typical fragment of Shaba Mines Group was observed within a major heterogeneous tectonic breccia. This situation is similar to that reported at Kipapila (Kimpe) and Lubembe in Zaire, both located on the same tectonic trend as Mufulira. However, a continuous stratigraphical succession can be observed in Zambia from the basal unconformity to the Mwashya Group. Strong lithological similarities were found, formation by formation, between the Roan sequences of Zambia and Zaire. In particular, the complete Mines Group of Zaire (R-2) and the units from the RL6 to the RL4 in Zambia were deposited under comparable conditions of sedimentation and show a similar and correlatable evolution of lithologies. Furthermore, the overlying Dipeta Group (R-3) of Zaire and the RL3, RU2/RU1 of Zambia, are equally comparable. Above the Upper Roan Dolomite, Lower Mwashya dolomitic rocks, identical with the ones of Shaba, have been noted to occur in Zambia in stratigraphical continuity with the typical black shales of the Upper Mwashya. The correlation between the coarse clastics of the Zambian footwall (RL7) and the red dolomitic argillites and sandstones of the Zairean R.A.T. (Roches Argillo Talqueuses: R-1) remains uncertain. However these two sequences show some similarities suggesting a lateral facies change from high-energy siliciclastic sedimentation in Zambia, to quieter, less clastic and more carbonate rich sedimentation in Zaire. In agreement with the proposed lithostratigraphical correlation, volcanic and pyroclastic rocks, occurring both in Zaire and Zambia in the Lower Mwashya, testify to a major period of igneous activity in the region. Intrusive rocks found in the Zambian Roan Group and in the Zairean Dipeta Group can probably be attributed to the same episode of magmatism. Finally it can be shown that several copper-cobalt orebodies are found at the same lithostratigraphical position in Zambia and Zaire: the Zambian ore shale corresponds to the classical Shaba orebodies at the base of the Mines Group (R-2), the Nchanga upper orebody to the lower R-2.3 mineralization and the Zambian RL3 anomalous copper occurrences to those of the R-3.1.2 Dipeta unit.
Victor M., Siamudaala; Musso, Munyeme; Wigganson, Matandiko; John B, Muma; Hetron M, Munang& #8217; andu.
Full Text Available El lechwe negro (Kobus leche smithemani) es un antílope semi-acuático de tamaño medio que en la actualidad se encuentra en la lista roja de la UICN de especies en peligro de extinción y sólo es endémica de la cuenca del Bangweulu de Zambia. Su población ha disminuido considerablemente, de más de 250 [...] 000 a 15 000, debido a las inundaciones que se dieron durante el período 1930-1940, lo que llevó al gobierno de Zambia a declarar todos los hábitats del lechwe negro en áreas protegidas estatales, y a establecer estrategias de administración urgentes necesarias para salvar el resto de la población de la extinción. Utilizando los datos retrospectivos, nuestros resultados muestran que la población ha aumentado de 15 000 animales en 1954 a 55 632 en 2009. La población actual se estima en 34.77% (55 632/160 000) de la capacidad de carga de la cuenca del Bangweulu. Aunque el lechwe Negro es una de las 42 especies que se ofrecen para su utilización consuntiva por la Autoridad de Vida Silvestre de Zambia (ZAWA), sólo el 0.12% y 0.08% de la población actual se ha ofrecido para el safari y la caza residente anual para el período 2005-2009, respectivamente. La utilización de la cuota anual se estima en 67% (n=67) y 81% (n=37) para safari de caza y residente, respectivamente. Por lo tanto, los ingresos totales obtenidos de la utilización del lechwe negro son muy bajos contando sólo el 2.1% de los ingresos totales obtenidos de la utilización de la fauna silvestre. Aunque la tendencia actual de la población está mostrando un incremento unitario de 639 animales por año, está todavía muy por debajo de los niveles ideales para la utilización lucrativa. En este estudio, se demuestra que los cambios ecológicos perjudiciales sobre especies de fauna silvestre, puede conducir a su vulnerabilidad y peligro de extinción, y que la recuperación de su capacidad de carga completa puede exigir una cantidad considerable de tiempo. Abstract in english Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani) is a semi-aquatic medium sized antelope currently enlisted on the IUCN red list of endangered species and is only endemic to the Bangweulu basin of Zambia. Its population has significantly decreased due to floods that took place during the period 1930-1940 from [...] over 250 000-15 000 leading the Zambian government to gazette all habitats of Black lechwe into state protected areas, and to establish urgent management strategies needed to save the remaining population from extinction. Using retrospective data, our findings show that the population has increased from 15 000 animals in 1954 to 55 632 in 2009. The current population is estimated at 34.77% (55 632/160 000) of the carrying capacity of the Bangweulu basin. Although the Black lechwe is one of the 42 species offered for consumptive utilization by the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA), only 0.12% and 0.08% of the current stock was offered for safari and resident hunting annually for the period 2005-2009, respectively. Annual quota utilization were estimated at 67% (n=37) and 81% (n=37) for safari and resident hunting, respectively. Hence, overall income obtained from utilization of Black lechwe is very low accounting for only 2.1% of the total revenue earned from wildlife utilization. Although the current population trend is showing a unit increase of 639 animals per year, it is still far below levels ideal for the lucrative utilization. In this study, we demonstrate that adverse ecological changes on wildlife species, can lead to their vulnerability and danger of extinction, and that their recovery to full carrying capacity may demand a considerable amount of time
Bupe Bwalya Bwalya
Full Text Available Background: Although people of any age are susceptible to HIV, youths aged 15 24 face disproportionate risk of contracting it because of challenges that they face with regard to correct HIV and AIDS related knowledge, attitudes and practices. This study was aimed at determining whether HIV and AIDS can be fought by targeting interventions at youths aged 15 24 years by assessing their current knowledge, attitudes and sexual behaviours in Zambia. Methods: The study utilised secondary data from a self-weighting nationally representative sample of the 2009 Zambia Sexual Behaviour Survey. Results: Generally correct comprehensive knowledge is very low among youths (43 percent. This is in spite having good command of general and full general knowledge and the ABCs of HIV and AIDS prevention. Attitudes towards PLHIV, Condom use and HIV counselling and testing were negative. About one third (58 percent of youths in Zambia have a history of early sexual debut (sex before age 15 with more females (64 percent than males (51 percent having hard sex. Male youths were more likely to have used a condom with most recent sexual partner as compared to females (AOR=0.265, 95%CI: 0.160, 0.438; p<0.001. Youths in rural areas had reduced odds of using a condom during their first sexual intercourse compared with those in urban areas (AOR=0.530, 95%CI: 0.387, 0.726; p<0.001. Conclusions: Therefore, it can be seen lack of comprehensive correct knowledge, gender disparities, poor educational levels, youths age and place of residence are some of the contributing factors that may hinder the fight against HIV/AIDS among youths in Zambia.Key words: Youths; HIV/AIDS; Knowledge; Attitudes; Behaviour, Zambia
This survey describes the situation for district heating in Switzerland on the basis of national energy conception. The energy conception of the city of Berne is just being established and concrete proposals for optimal energy supply possibilities are worked out. The nuclear power plant of Muehleberg is proposed as an alternative to the traditional heat plants in the Bernese area. The cost calculations lead to the conclusions that the heat supply from the Muehleberg reactor is economically not attractive, but if the heat is supplied at a lower temperature from the reactor and then elevated to the requested temperature in a refuse incineration plant the nuclear heat supply by Muehleberg seems to become more economical. (M.S.)
This article reviews the papers presented at the first of a series of conferences on the topic of district heating that was held in Zurich, Switzerland at the beginning of 2002. The article summarises the contributions presented at the conference, which was dedicated to district heating strategies. The role of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy is discussed and the extent of district heating use in Switzerland is compared with the situation in other countries, e.g. Denmark. Sociological and economical aspects of district heating projects are discussed and the important role played by district heating in the reduction of CO2 emissions is looked at. The various district heating networks to be found in the city of Zurich are briefly described and future heat-generation options, including biomass and fuel-cell-based combined heat and power installations are discussed. A wood-fired system in Porrentruy, Switzerland, is presented as an example of a biomass-based district heating system
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce This data set is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the Southwest Florida Water Management District's FY2006 Digital Orthophoto (B089) and LiDAR...
Full Text Available The tourism sector is increasing day to day and it has great potential of getting many, employments and also supporting for local merchants, therefore it is called as fourth dimension of modern economy. An impact of tourism has become is an important part of economy especially in India, here in the country number of natural tourist places as well as historical tourist places. Aurangabad district is leading district in Marathwada region in tourism it has 9 Tahsils and district has great potential of tourism the study region have full of potentiality of natural as well as historical places but Government not taking authentic step of their conservation
Chipimo Peter J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Population level data on mental health from Africa are limited, but available data indicate mental problems to represent a substantial public health problem. The negative impact of HIV on mental health suggests that this could particularly be the case in high prevalence populations. We examined the prevalence of mental distress, distribution patterns and the ways HIV might influence mental health among men and women in a general population. Methods The relationship between HIV infection and mental distress was explored using a sample of 4466 participants in a population-based HIV survey conducted in selected rural and urban communities in Zambia in 2003. The Self-reporting questionnaire-10 (SRQ-10 was used to assess global mental distress. Weights were assigned to the SRQ-10 responses based on DSM IV criteria for depression and a cut off point set at 7/20 for probable cases of mental distress. A structural equation modeling (SEM was established to assess the structural relationship between HIV infection and mental distress in the model, with maximum likelihood ratio as the method of estimation. Results The HIV prevalence was 13.6% vs. 18% in the rural and urban populations, respectively. The prevalence of mental distress was substantially higher among women than men and among groups with low educational attainment vs. high. The results of the SEM showed a close fit with the data. The final model revealed that self-rated health and self perceived HIV risk and worry of being HIV infected were important mediators between underlying factors, HIV infection and mental distress. The effect of HIV infection on mental distress was both direct and indirect, but was particularly strong through the indirect effects of health ratings and self perceived risk and worry of HIV infection. Conclusion These findings suggest a strong effect of HIV infection on mental distress. In this population where few knew their HIV status, this effect was mediated through self-perceptions of health status, found to capture changes in health perceptions related to HIV, and self-perceived risk and worry of actually being HIV infected.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately half of the countries in the African Region had a mental health policy by 2005, but little is known about quality of mental health policies in Africa and globally. This paper reports the results of an assessment of the mental health policies of Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia. Methods The WHO Mental Health Policy Checklist was used to evaluate the most current mental health policy in each country. Assessments were completed and reviewed by a specially constituted national committee as well as an independent WHO team. Results of each country evaluation were discussed until consensus was reached. Results All four policies received a high level mandate. Each policy addressed community-based services, the integration of mental health into general health care, promotion of mental health and rehabilitation. Prevention was addressed in the South African and Ugandan policies only. Use of evidence for policy development varied considerably. Consultations were mainly held with the mental health sector. Only the Zambian policy presented a clear vision, while three of four countries spelt out values and principles, the need to establish a coordinating body for mental health, and to protect the human rights of people with mental health problems. None included all the basic elements of a policy, nor specified sources and levels of funding for implementation. Deinstitutionalisation and the provision of essential psychotropic medicines were insufficiently addressed. Advocacy, empowerment of users and families and intersectoral collaboration were inadequately addressed. Only Uganda sufficiently outlined a mental health information system, research and evaluation, while only Ghana comprehensively addressed human resources and training requirements. No country had an accompanying strategic mental health plan to allow the development and implementation of concrete strategies and activities. Conclusions Six gaps which could impact on the policies' effect on countries' mental health systems were: lack of internal consistency of structure and content of policies, superficiality of key international concepts, lack of evidence on which to base policy directions, inadequate political support, poor integration of mental health policies within the overall national policy and legislative framework, and lack of financial specificity. Three strategies to address these concerns emerged, namely strengthening capacity of key stakeholders in public (mental health and policy development, creation of a culture of inclusive and dynamic policy development, and coordinated action to optimize use of available resources.
Uranium is an incompatible and lithophile element, and thus more concentrated in silicate melt produced by the partial melting of the mantle related to continental crust formation. Uranium can be used as a geochemical tracer to discuss the generation and the evolution of continental crust. This thesis, focused on the Pan-African Lufilian belt in Zambia, combines structural geology, metamorphic petrology and thermos-barometry, fluid inclusions, geochemistry and geochronology in order to characterize the uranium cycle for this crustal segment. Silici-clastic and evaporitic sediments have been deposited within an intra-continental rift during the dislocation of the Rodinia super-continent during the early Neo-proterozoic. U-Pb ages on detrital zircon grains in these units indicate a dominant Paleo-proterozoic provenance. The same zircon grains show sub-chondritic ÎµHf (between 0 and -15) and yield Hf model ages between â¼2.9 and 2.5 Ga. These data suggest that the continental crust was generated before the end of the Archean (< 2.5 Ga) associated with uranium extraction from the mantle. This old crust has been reworked by deformation and metamorphism during the Proterozoic. Uranium has been re-mobilized and reconcentrated during several orogenic cycles until the Pan-African orogeny. During this Pan-African cycle, U-Pb and REY (REE and Yttrium) signatures of uranium oxides indicate a first mineralizing event at ca. 650 Ma during the continental rifting. This event is related to late diagenesis hydrothermal processes at the basement/cover interface with the circulation of basinal brines linked to evaporites of the Roan. The second stage, dated at 530 Ma, is connected to metamorphic highly saline fluid circulations, synchronous to the metamorphic peak of the Lufilian orogeny (P=9Â±3 kbar; T=610Â±30 deg. C). These fluids are derived from the Roan evaporite dissolution. Some late uranium re-mobilizations are described during exhumation of metamorphic rocks and their tectonic accretion in the internal zone of the Lufilian orogenic belt. During these syn-metamorphic fluid-rock interactions, uranium has been leached from U-bearing minerals such as allanite or monazite hosted by the reworked and partially molten gneissic basement. (author)
Cohen Judith A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual violence against children is a major global health and human rights problem. In order to address this issue there needs to be a better understanding of the issue and the consequences. One major challenge in accomplishing this goal has been a lack of validated child mental health assessments in low-resource countries where the prevalence of sexual violence is high. This paper presents results from a validation study of a trauma-focused mental health assessment tool - the UCLA Post-traumatic Stress Disorder - Reaction Index (PTSD-RI in Zambia. Methods The PTSD-RI was adapted through the addition of locally relevant items and validated using local responses to three cross-cultural criterion validity questions. Reliability of the symptoms scale was assessed using Cronbach alpha analyses. Discriminant validity was assessed comparing mean scale scores of cases and non-cases. Concurrent validity was assessed comparing mean scale scores to a traumatic experience index. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were run using receiver operating curves. Results Analysis of data from 352 youth attending a clinic specializing in sexual abuse showed that this adapted PTSD-RI demonstrated good reliability, with Cronbach alpha scores greater than .90 on all the evaluated scales. The symptom scales were able to statistically significantly discriminate between locally identified cases and non-cases, and higher symptom scale scores were associated with increased numbers of trauma exposures which is an indication of concurrent validity. Sensitivity and specificity analyses resulted in an adequate area under the curve, indicating that this tool was appropriate for case definition. Conclusions This study has shown that validating mental health assessment tools in a low-resource country is feasible, and that by taking the time to adapt a measure to the local context, a useful and valid Zambian version of the PTSD-RI was developed to detect traumatic stress among youth. This valid tool can now be used to appropriately measure treatment effectiveness, and more effectively and efficiently triage youth to appropriate services.
Awad, Susanne F.; Sgaier, Sema K.; Tambatamba, Bushimbwa C.; Mohamoud, Yousra A.; Lau, Fiona K.; Reed, Jason B.; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.
Background Countries in sub-Saharan Africa are scaling-up voluntary male medical circumcision (VMMC) as an HIV intervention. Emerging challenges in these programs call for increased focus on program efficiency (optimizing program impact while minimizing cost). A novel analytic approach was developed to determine how subpopulation prioritization can increase program efficiency using an illustrative application for Zambia. Methods and Findings A population-level mathematical model was constructed describing the heterosexual HIV epidemic and impact of VMMC programs (age-structured mathematical (ASM) model). The model stratified the population according to sex, circumcision status, age group, sexual-risk behavior, HIV status, and stage of infection. A three-level conceptual framework was also developed to determine maximum epidemic impact and program efficiency through subpopulation prioritization, based on age, geography, and risk profile. In the baseline scenario, achieving 80% VMMC coverage by 2017 among males 1549 year old, 12 VMMCs were needed per HIV infection averted (effectiveness). The cost per infection averted (cost-effectiveness) was USD $1,089 and 306,000 infections were averted. Through age-group prioritization, effectiveness ranged from 11 (2024 age-group) to 36 (4549 age-group); cost-effectiveness ranged from $888 (2024 age-group) to $3,300 (4549 age-group). Circumcising 1014, 1519, or 2024 year old achieved the largest incidence rate reduction; prioritizing 1524, 1529, or 1534 year old achieved the greatest program efficiency. Through geographic prioritization, effectiveness ranged from 912. Prioritizing Lusaka achieved the highest effectiveness. Through risk-group prioritization, prioritizing the highest risk group achieved the highest effectiveness, with only one VMMC needed per infection averted; the lowest risk group required 80 times more VMMCs. Conclusion Epidemic impact and efficiency of VMMC programs can be improved by prioritizing young males (sexually active or just before sexual debut), geographic areas with higher HIV prevalence than the national, and high sexual-risk groups. PMID:26716442
Many breeders have observed that induced mutation increases genetic variability, and the expose to mutagenic agents increases mutation frequency. Studies have indicated the effect in height reduction, increased yield components,disease resistance, in crop like rice and wheat. A study was conducted in finger millet in thr Northern part of Zambia (Region III), a high rainfall area, aiming at improving finger length, number of fingers till ring capacity in order to increase the yield. the seed of Nyika variety, popular to farmers due to its medium maturity, palm shaped fingers (six fingers on average), and light brown grain. Three quantities of seed were irradiated at 15Kr, 20Kr and 30Kr doses. A dose of 15Kr of gamma rays irradiation continued to create good genetic change in the exposed material. These observations clearly suggest that 15Kr dose of gamma rays is the optimum one to expose/irradiate finger millet to create desired genetic changes. The results of 2000/2001 were not significantly different. However, FMM 165 had better yields (3193 Kg) than FMM 175 in Misamfu, while FMM 175 yielded better (3272 Kg) in Chinsali. During 2001/2002 both FMMs performed well in the national finger number of 10 per head. There were also highly significant differences among finger lengths.FMM 165 had finger length of 10.3 cm. Concerning grain yield FMM 165 and FMM 175 had 3802 and 3864 Kg/ha, respectively, which were above the overall mean 3864 Kg/ha. Grain yield correlated positively with finger number with an r-value of 0.19 and finger length r-value of 0.22 although it was not significant at 1% or 5%. Meanwhile in the advance trial there were significant differences among genotypes in finger number. Both FMMs had 9 fingers above the overall mean of 8.8. In the finger length there were highly significant differences. FMM 175 had a length of 11.5 cm while FMM 165 had 10.4 cm. There were highly significant differences among the genotypes in yield. FMM 165 (4636 Kg) and FMM 175 (4104 Kg/ha) yielded more than the checks (Nyika and Local) 3104 Kg/ha and 2854 Kg/ha respectively. There was some correlation between finger length and finger number with r-value of 0.688, finger number and grain yield with an r-value of 0.187, and finger length and yield r-value of -ve 0.016 but there were not significant at 1% or 5%
Stephanie A Nixon
Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the emerging body of literature on increased vulnerability to HIV among people with disabilities (PWDs, there is a dearth of evidence related to experiences of PWDs who have become HIV-positive. This priority was identified by a disability advocacy organization in Lusaka, Zambia, where the prevalence of HIV and of disability is each approximately 15%. The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions and experiences of HIV-related health services for PWDs who are also living with HIV in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods: This qualitative, interpretive study involved in-depth, semi-structured, one-on-one interviews with two groups of participants in Lusaka, Zambia: 21 PWDs who had become HIV-positive, and 11 people working in HIV and/or disability. PWDs had physical, hearing, visual and/or intellectual impairments. Interviews were conducted in English, Nyanja, Bemba or Zambian sign language. Descriptive and thematic analyses were conducted by a multidisciplinary, international research team. Results: Participants described their experiences with HIV-related health services in terms of the challenges they faced. In particular, they encountered three main challenges while seeking care and treatment: (1 disability-related discrimination heightened when seeking HIV services, (2 communication barriers and related concerns with confidentiality, and (3 movement and mobility challenges related to seeking care and collecting antiretroviral therapy. These experiences were further shaped by participants profound concerns about poverty and unmet basic needs. Discussion: This study demonstrates how PWDs who are HIV-positive have the same HIV care, treatment and support needs as able-bodied counterparts, but face avoidable barriers to care. Many challenges mirror concerns identified with HIV prevention, suggesting that efforts to promote inclusion and reduce stigma could have widespread benefits. Conclusions: Despite the growing body of literature on increased risk of exposure to HIV among HIV-negative PWDs, this is the first published study to examine perceptions of testing, treatment and other HIV services for PWDs who have become HIV-positive. Findings reveal far-reaching opportunities for improving the quality of care for this population.
This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.
This report describes the District Gamma Survey carried out around the A.E.E., Winfrith since June, 1959. Its organisation, equipment and techniques are described, and the results obtained up to the 31st December, 1960 are given. (author)
Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...
This article reviews the District Heating Forum that was held on the 21st of January 2010 in Biel, Switzerland. Under the title 'From a Vision to Practice', the development of district heating systems for the period 2010 - 2030 was discussed. The conclusion reached at the conference is quoted as being that waste heat is a usable form of residual energy and that this energy should not simply be ejected into the environment. State promotion of renewable energy sources is discussed and, in particular, the high interest shown in projects for long and short-distance district heating systems. Developments in Europe and Switzerland and the political general frameworks for the realisation of district heating networks are discussed. Specific examples of such systems that have been implemented are examined. The use of waste heat from nuclear power stations is also discussed
Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease with a wide geographical distribution in a range of climate and with different epidemiological patterns. In Rajasthan a new endemic zone of the disease has been found at Jodhpur district. The clincial features of 21 smear positive cases of oriental sore from Jodhpur district studied during a period of 1 year have been described. Also the importance of intralesional berberine sulphate in the treatment of oriental sore has been highlighted.
Kalla Gyaneshwar; Singhi M
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease with a wide geographical distribution in a range of climate and with different epidemiological patterns. In Rajasthan a new endemic zone of the disease has been found at Jodhpur district. The clincial features of 21 smear positive cases of oriental sore from Jodhpur district studied during a period of 1 year have been described. Also the importance of intralesional berberine sulphate in the treatment of oriental sore has been highlighted.
Reza MOHAMMADY GARFAMY
This paper provides a comparison study of industrial districts in two European countries, Spain and Sweden, using the conceptual framework of corporation. The relevance of this approach is based on the specific qualities that the industrial districts have, including the preexisting conditions, local traditions, products and production characteristics, marketing strategies, local policies and present challenges. The findings indicate the ways in which different patterns of inter-firm relations...
Piccolo, Vincenzo; Baroni, Adone; Russo, Teresa; Schwartz, Robert A
The concept of 'locus minoris resistentiae' (lmr) is an old but still effective way of thinking in Medicine. In Dermatology, there are many reports of privileged localization of cutaneous diseases on injured skin, which therefore represents a typical condition of lmr. Lately the innovative concept of immunocompromised cutaneous district (ICD) has been introduced to explain why a previously injured cutaneous site may become in time a privileged location for the outbreak of opportunistic infections, tumors, and immune reactions. An ample documentation of multifarious disorders (infectious, neoplastic, immune) appearing in ICDs was delineated by Ruocco et al. in 2009. These cases were grouped according to the clinical settings responsible for the local immune imbalance: regional chronic lymphedema; herpes-infected sites, which feature the well-known Wolf's isotopic response; and otherwise damaged areas, comprising sites of vaccination, ionizing or UV radiation, thermal burns, and traumas. In the following five years, what was a "novel" pathogenic concept has been extended to an enlarging variety of clinical conditions. This paper focuses on ICD and the expanding spectrum of this now established pathogenic concept. PMID:26475059
Major trends in the development of nuclear district heating in the USSR are outlined. The nuclear power sources considered are as follows: nuclear thermoelectric plants (NTP), nuclear distric heating plants (NDH) and nuclear process heat plants (NPH). The NTP are designed for both electric and heat supply of large cities, the NPH-for industrial process heat supply, the steam pressure ranging from 0.12 to 10 MPa, and the NDH-for hot water supply. The NTP, NDH and NPH projects developed nowadays are based on the WWER-500 (1000) reac.tors. Some data on the reduced costs and overall efficiency of the plants in comparison with corresponding fossil-fueled plants are presented. In the European part of the USSR the NTP are economical when constructed in cities with the heat rates above 1700 MJ/s; the NDH and NPH can be competitive against fossil-fueled boilers at the heat rates of populated areas and industrial complexes of 900-1700 MJ/s. If the problems in the development of prestressed reinforced concrete reactor vessels are solved, the competitiveness of the NTP, NDH and NPH might be even higher
The actual growth of the district heating market is mainly due to new (smaller) networks and extension of existing older ones. A more dramatic increase could be achieved if the planned inter-regional networks (Transwaal, Warheno and Fola), fed with waste heat from the existing nuclear plants were taken into operation. These networks with a total installed power of over 1 GW are though contested as they would mean an increase of the dependency on nuclear energy. Additionally, fossil fuel prices are today so low, that the economic considerations are making district heating less appealing. However the criteria for district heating as defined in a special study of the Swiss Ministery of Energy. The role of nuclear energy in district heating could increase substantially from actually ca. 8% to an expected share of 30% of the total district heat market if the inter-regional networks already mentioned would go into operation. A more important increase would be possible if new nuclear power plants, nuclear co-generation plants and dedicated district heating reactors could be installed in Switzerland. In order to achieve this, governmental interventions are necessary. (orig./GL)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Papillomaviruses (HPV are double-stranded DNA viruses, considered to be the primary etiological agents in cervical intraepithelial neoplasias and cancers. Approximately 1520 of the 40 mucosal HPVs confer a high-risk of progression of lesions to invasive cancer. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of sexually transmitted HPVs in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive and negative patients in Zambia, Africa. The rate of high-risk HPV genotypes worldwide varies within each country. Thus, we sought to investigate the rates of HPV infection in sub-Saharan Africa and the potential role of HIV in affecting the HPV genotype distribution. Methods This retrospective cross-sectional study reports findings on the association and effects of HIV on HPV infections in an existing cohort of patients at University Teaching Hospital (UTH Lusaka, Zambia. The objective of this study was to assess HPV prevalence, genotype distribution and to identify co-factors that influence HPV infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR with two standard consensus primer sets (CpI/II and GP5+/6+ was used to test for the presence of HPV DNA. Primers specific for ?-actin were used to monitor DNA quality. Vaginal lavage samples, collected between 1998-1999 from a total of 70 women, were part of a larger cohort that was also analyzed for HIV and human herpesvirus infection. Seventy of the samples yielded usable DNA. HIV status was determined by two rapid assays, Capillus and Determine. The incidence of HIV and HPV infections and HPV genotype distributions were calculated and statistical significance was determined by Chi-Squared test. Results We determined that most common HPV genotypes detected among these Zambian patients were types 16 and 18 (21.6% each, which is approximately three-fold greater than the rates for HPV16, and ten-fold greater than the rates for HPV18 in the United States. The worldwide prevalence of HPV16 is approximately 14% and HPV18 is 5%. The overall ratio of high-risk (HR to low-risk (LR HPVs in the patient cohort was 69% and 31% respectively; essentially identical to that for the HR and LR distributions worldwide. However, we discovered that HIV positive patients were two-times as likely to have an HR HPV as HIV negative individuals, while the distribution of LR HPVs was unaffected by HIV status. Interestingly, we observed a nine-fold increase in HPV18 infection frequency in HIV positive versus HIV negative individuals. Conclusion The rate of oncogenic HPVs (type 16 and 18 in Zambia was much higher than in the U.S., potentially providing an explanation for the high-rates of cervical cancer in Zambia. Surprisingly, we discovered a strong association between positive HIV status and the prevalence of HR HPVs, and specifically HPV18.
van Breugel, Paulo; Kindt, Roeland
The potential natural vegetation (PNV) map of eastern and southern Africa covers the countries Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia. The first version of the map was developed by various partners in East Africa and Europe in 2010 and has now reached version 2. The map is available in different formats and is accompanied by an extensive documentation of the floristic, physiognomic and other characteristics of the different vegetation types and useful woody species in the 8 countries. It is complemented by a species selection tool, which can be used to 'find the right tree for the right place' and potential distribution maps of the useful woody species that occur in eastern Africa.
Simatele, Danny; Simatele, Munacinga
There is increasing consensus that the effects of extreme weather conditions in the form of drought, flooding and extreme temperature will have increasingly devastating impacts on those who depend on climate-sensitive resources and ecosystems for their livelihoods. The most affected will be the poor in developing countries who have a low adaptive capacity to climate change due to high poverty levels. Despite these projections, there are, to date, insufficient empirical studies linking the relationship between climate change and migration, particularly in the context of southern Africa. Using field-based data collected from two study locations in Zambia, this paper examines the complex relationship between extreme weather events and population movement. It is envisaged that the findings presented in this paper will contribute to current discussions on the complex relationship between extreme weather conditions and population movement specifically in the context of sub-Saharan Africa and other developing countries. PMID:25754466
Lisulo, Malimba; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Kajino, Kiichi; Hayashida, Kyouko; Mudenda, Macarthy; Moonga, Ladslav; Ndebe, Joseph; Nzala, Selestine; NAMANGALA, Boniface
Background Dogs have been implicated to serve as links for parasite exchange between livestock and humans and remain an important source of emerging and re-emerging diseases including trypanosome infections. Yet, canine African trypanosomosis (CAT), particularly in indigenous dogs (mongrel breed) remains under- reported in literature. This study evaluated the performance of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in detecting trypanosomes in blood from indigenous dogs of tsetse-infested...
Haselip, J.A.; Desgain, D.; Mackenzie, G.A.
This report presents the findings of research into the main outcomes of government and donor-backed efforts to promote small and medium-sized energy businesses (energy SMEs) in sub-Saharan Africa. The research follows an outcome analysis methodology. The focus is on four countries: Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia and primarily on UNEP's AREED programme (2002-2012). This research focuses on the 'contributing factors' - a deliberately broader term that incorporates the internal 'success factors' - for energy SMEs, about which much has already been written. Indeed, the research findings presented in this report reaffirm most of what has been concluded in previous studies. These studies identified the lack of access to affordable finance as being the predominant, persistent, barrier to establishing and scaling up a commercially viable energy SME sector, emphasising the lack of strong policy support from governments, poor business skills capacity and the high cost of many RETs as related cause-and-effect barriers. While these issues continue to characterise, to a greater or lesser extent, the energy SMEs sectors in the countries studied for this research, it is more relevant to revisit the main assumption behind AREED and other donor-backed programmes designed to promote energy SMEs. The assumption is that the solution to the aforementioned barriers would be overcome by a 'demonstration effect' whereby successful energy SMEs, supported by donor-backed programmes, influence the commercial financial sector to invest in energy SMEs, thus triggering a virtuous circle of growth and profitability. Experiences drawn from a decade of AREED support across four of the project countries reveal both the presence (Ghana, Senegal) and absence, or weak presence, of this demonstration effect (Tanzania, Zambia). This is a central question, and one which was not the focus of previous research, presumably because the answer was not fully apparent prior to 2006 when the last substantial work was conducted. (LN)
Cold-Ravnkilde, Signe Marie; Funder, Mikkel
Research on water scarcity in the South has often focused on the impacts of limited water resources for the rural poor, prompted most recently by the climate change debate. Less attention has been drawn to the social and institutional processes surrounding the emergence of new collective water resources, and how this affects authority, access rights and social exclusion in local water governance. The paper addresses this issue through a study of local competition over access to new common-pool water resources in isolated rural areas of Zambia and Mali. In Mali, climate change has led to the sporadic emergence of new natural lakes and ponds in some locations. In Zambia, the development of boreholes has provided access to water resources that were not previously available to local communities. The paper explores how local actors and organizations have sought to assert control over and rights of access to the new water resources. It shows the ways in which this has furthered both conflict and cooperation between the involved actors, and how new rules of access and associated institutional domains have developed. At the same time, however, it also shows how the struggles over access and authority have tended to marginalize the poorest and other user groups from access to the new water resources, by seeking either to monopolize access rights or developing explicit and implicit mechanisms of exclusion. The paper concludes by discussing the implications for water policy and research in terms of the way we understand the development of new water resources in the current context of inequality, water scarcity and climate change.
...Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland Management District for the next 15 years...the System, consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal...
...Commission [ Project No. 2299-075] Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...into any Order issuing a license. Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation...
...Commission [Project No. 14513-000] Idaho Irrigation District; New Sweden Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...April 19, 2013, the Idaho and New Sweden Irrigation Districts, filed a joint application for...
...Commission [Project No. 2299-075] Turlock Irrigation District, Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...into any Order issuing a license. Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation...
...Hydroelectric Project Project No. 2299-075] Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process...Hydroelectric Project No. 2299-075.\\1\\ Turlock Irrigation District and the Modesto Irrigation...
...No. UL11-1-000; Project No. 2299-078] Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status On January 9, 2013, the Modesto Irrigation District (Modesto) filed a motion for clarification...
...Commission [Project No. 2299-074] Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...Filed: May 24, 2010. d. Applicant: Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation...
...Commission [Project No. 2299-075] Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Intent To File License...February 10, 2011. d. Submitted By: Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation...
Boni, Maria; Terracciano, Rosario; Balassone, Giuseppina; Gleeson, Sarah A.; Matthews, Alexander
Zambian willemite (Zn2SiO4) deposits occur in the metasedimentary carbonate rocks of the Proterozoic Katangan Supergroup. The most important orebodies are located around Kabwe and contain both sulphides and willemite in dolomites of low metamorphic grade. The Star Zinc and Excelsior prospects (Lusaka area), discovered in the early 1920s, occur in the metamorphic lithotypes of the late Proterozoic Zambezi Supracrustal sequence, which were deposited in a transtensional basin formed during the oblique collision of the Kalahari and Congo cratons. The deposits are hosted by the limestone and dolomitic marbles of the Cheta and Lusaka Formations. Structural analysis indicates that several fracture sets host the deposits, which may be genetically related to the Pan-African Mwembeshi dislocation zone (a major geotectonic boundary between the Lufilian Arc and the Zambezi Belt). In both prospects, willemite replaces the marbles and is found along joints and fissures with open-space filling textures and locally may develop colloform and vuggy fabrics as well. Silver as well as traces of germanium and cadmium have been detected within the willemite ore, and lead or zinc sulphides are scarce or absent. Calcite locally replaces willemite. Willemite is associated with specular hematite and franklinite and post-dates the Zn-spinel gahnite in the paragenesis. Genthelvite [Zn4Be3(SiO4)3S] occurs as a minor phase in irregular aggregates. The willemites from the Lusaka area, though Mn-poor, show green cathodoluminescence colours and bright green fluorescence in short-wave UV (as the high-temperature willemites in USA). Thermometric analyses of primary fluid inclusions in willemite yield homogenization temperatures that range from 160°C to 240°C and salinities of 8-16 wt.% equiv. NaCl. The homogenization temperatures suggest a hypogene-hydrothermal origin for the willemite concentrations. The geochemistry of fluid inclusion leachates suggests that the hydrothermal fluids were brines derived from highly evaporated seawater. Precise age constraints are currently lacking for the Lusaka area deposits, though the deposits are not deformed, indicating that they post-date the Lufilian orogeny (~520 Ma). The possibility of precursor ores exists; the gahnite-franklinite-willemite deposits could have been derived from a metamorphosed primary sulphide (or even nonsulphide) concentration that has subsequently been completely destroyed. However, there is no real evidence of such a primary source for the willemite mineral association. The Lusaka zinc ores may have been produced by an extensive hydrothermal system, with fluids discharging along basinal fracture zones controlled by the pre-Pan-African rifting stage. A paragenesis similar to that of the Lusaka prospects has been proposed to be a vector towards massive sulphide ores in several parts of the world; therefore, it is possible that these small willemite showings in Zambia may be part of a much bigger, and still unexplored, zinc province.
King Shimumbo Nalubamba; Musso Munyeme; Hetron Mweemba Munang'andu; Siamudaala, Victor M
Ex-situ conservancies are expanding alternatives to livestock production in Zambia albeit the lack of information on circulating infectious parasites from wildlife. Therefore, 12 wildlife species were examined on a game ranch were all species were found to be infected by Rhipecephalus spp. Haemoparasite infections were estimated at 7.37% (n = 95) with Babesia spp. detected in bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus); Anaplasma marginale in impala (Aepyceros melampus) and puku (Kobus vardonii) for the ...
Kenneth K. Muzata; Annie Penda
This was a study of pedagogical experiences of students on school teaching practice conducted on two teacher training institutions on the Copper belt and Central provinces of Zambia. For ethical reasons, we gave the colleges pseudonyms. The Copper belt Based College of Education Copper belt Based College of Education (Pseudonym) (CBCE) trains teachers at Diploma level while the Central Province Based College of Education Kabwe Based College of Education (Pseudonym) (KBCE) trains teachers at ...
Full Text Available The concentration of organochlorines (OCs such as organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls were measured in adipose tissue collected from 14 male hippopotami at Mfuwe in the southern part of the Luangwa National Park, Zambia. The samples contained low levels of OCs, and the concentrations of OCs were comparable to or lower than reported for wild herbivores studied in other parts of the world.
Shelley, Katharine D.; Ansbro, Éimhín M.; Ncube, Alexander Tshaka; Sweeney, Sedona; Fleischer, Colette; Mumba, Grace Tembo; Gill, Michelle M.; Strasser, Susan; Peeling, Rosanna W; Terris-Prestholt, Fern
Maternal syphilis results in an estimated 500,000 stillbirths and neonatal deaths annually in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the existence of national guidelines for antenatal syphilis screening, syphilis testing is often limited by inadequate laboratory and staff services. Recent availability of inexpensive rapid point-of-care syphilis tests (RST) can improve access to antenatal syphilis screening. A 2010 pilot in Zambia explored the feasibility of integrating RST within prevention of mother-to...