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Sample records for kafue district zambia

  1. Intestinal helminths and protozoa in children in pre-schools in Kafue district, Zambia

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.; Enemark, Heidi L.;

    2010-01-01

    are prevalent in children enrolled in pre-schools in Zambia. Future studies should explore local factors associated with transmission of these infections, and consequently provide the necessary health education to parents and teachers. Crown Copyright (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Royal...... helminths in children attending pre-school or day-care centres in Kafue District, Zambia. Single stool samples were collected from 403 children from 10 pre-schools and Were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears to identify and quantify helminths. A commercial immunofluorescence kit was used...... was 28.0 and 29.0%, respectively, with more girls infected with Giardia (33.8%) than boys (22.7%) (P = 0.02). Significant differences in infections with A. lumbricoides and Cryptosporidium were observed between the various pre-schools (P

  2. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic animals in peri-urban communities of Kafue district, Zambia

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.; Enemark, Heidi L.;

    2013-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important parasites infecting a wide range of domestic animals worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites in different domestic animals living in close contact with humans...... within rural/semiurban communities in Kafue district in Zambia. A single faecal sample per animal was collected from pigs, goats, dogs, ducks, chickens and pigeons and analysed by Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia immunofluorescence antibody assay for the simultaneous detection of these parasites. The...... faecal consistency was noted and scored as non-diarrhoeic or diarrhoeic. A total of 236 samples were collected. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in pigs (11.5%, 17/148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), ducks (10.0%; 3/30) and chickens (14.3%; 2/14) while Giardia cysts were detected in pigs (8.1%; 12...

  3. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic animals in peri-urban communities of Kafue district, Zambia

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.; Enemark, Heidi L.; Nchito, M.; Olsen, A.

    within rural/semiurban communities in Kafue district in Zambia. A single faecal sample per animal was collected from pigs, goats, dogs, ducks, chickens and pigeons and analysed by Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia immunofluorescence antibody assay for the simultaneous detection of these parasites. The....../148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), dogs (25.0%; 5/20) and ducks (6.7%; 2/30). Diarrhoea was not associated with either infection. Age was also not associated with either infection except in dogs where Giardia infection was only detected in animals aged less than six months (p=0.009). It is concluded from this study......Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important parasites infecting a wide range of domestic animals worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites in different domestic animals living in close contact with humans...

  4. Remote Sensing of Aquatic Vegetation Coverage in the Kafue River, Zambia and Comparison to Climatic Variables

    Mischler, J. A.; Abdalati, W.; Hussein, K.; Townsend, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Kafue River is the longest river in Zambia and is a major tributary of the Zambezi River. It is a vital source of fish, transportation, drinking water, and hydropower for much of Zambia's population, over half of whom live in the Kafue River basin. Like many important water bodies in developing countries the Kafue and its ecosystems face pollution from industrial, mining, agricultural, and domestic/sewage discharge. The Kafue River forms a wide and shallow wetland (the Kafue Flats) during the rainy season (Nov. - Apr.) which serves as habitat for diverse groups of birds and mammals. In recent years the unprecedented emergence of invasive aquatic vegetation such as the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and Salvinia molesta have choked the river, degrading its ability to provide adequate habitat to promote biodiversity, ecosystem services, and hydropower. In addition, these plants provide additional habitat for mosquitoes (vectors for malaria) and aquatic snails (vectors of schistosomiasis). Nutrient-rich effluents are widely believed to contribute to the proliferation and explosive growth of this floating aquatic vegetation. The general methods for managing these aquatic weeds have included mechanical and physical removal, herbicides, and bio-control agents which have had very little impact. However, as in neighboring Lake Victoria, total weed coverage has fluctuated dramatically from year to year making evaluation of the efficacy of management programs difficult. The objectives of this study were to (1) generate the first record of aquatic plant coverage for a section of the Kafue River which is immediately downstream of a sugar plantation (a major source of nitrogen and phosphorus to the river) and (2) determine if plant coverage is correlated with any major climatic (ENSO, temperature, rainfall) or management (introduction of bio-control agents) indices. We utilized remote sensing techniques in conjunction with Landsat 4-5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM imagery for

  5. Environmental monitoring of the kafue river, located in the Copperbelt, Zambia.

    Norrgren, L; Pettersson, U; Orn, S; Bergqvist, P

    2000-04-01

    Zambia is a country with an extensive mining industry with the majority of mines located in the Copperbelt province. Through this region of the country, the Kafue River drains and receives effluent water from mining activities as well as from other industrial point sources. In addition, production of agricultural products and pest control requires use of different pesticides in the area. Information on industrial and agricultural pollution has not been clearly identified in Zambia, and little attention has been paid to pollution control and possible impact of metals, pesticides, and other persistent compounds in the environment. The objective of this study was to introduce and to evaluate a few methodologies based on in situ bioassays for environmental assessment to promote sustainable and environmentally sound water resource management of the Kafue River. The results show that caged threespot tilapia exposed downstream of industrial points sources rapidly bioaccumulate several trace elements, i.e., Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni. These elements also occurred in much higher concentrations in water samples downstream of the industrial area compared with a locality upstream. Furthermore, the use of a semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) for passive absorption of lipophilic pollutants in the water showed relatively high concentration of several pesticides, i.e., DDT with major metabolites, PCB, and dieldrin. The present study shows that only 2 weeks of in situ studies in waters contaminated by pollutants affects in situ exposed fish and that the correlation between water and tissue concentrations was relatively good. Both trace elements and persistent organic pollutants occurred in such high concentrations that they must be considered from ecotoxicological aspects and may affect aquatic animal health. PMID:10667931

  6. Modeling Artisanal Fisheries and Hydroelectricity in Relation to the Itezhi-tezhi Dam on the Kafue River, Zambia

    Richard Jensen

    2012-01-01

    Maximizing the production of ecosystem services is a necessity for resource management particularly when increasing the provision of one service decreases the provision of another. In these instances, it is important to estimate the value of ecosystem services to efficiently distribute resources. We estimate two major ecosystem services provided by the Kafue River, Zambia -hydroelectricity and fisheries- and discuss management implications of the relationship between hydropower controlled wat...

  7. Hepatic and renal concentrations of 10 trace elements in crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Kafue and Luangwa rivers in Zambia

    Hepatic and renal concentrations of the elements arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium and zinc were determined in samples collected from four crocodiles from the Kafue River, Kafue National Park and five crocodiles from the Luangwa River, Luangwa National Park, Zambia. The concentrations of the essential elements were similar to those reported in other vertebrates. Arsenic and cadmium concentrations were low (medians below 0.05 μg As/g and below 0.16 μg Cd/g, wet wt.). Mercury and lead concentrations were several orders of magnitude higher (medians up to 3.7 μg Hg/g, and up to 8.7 μg Pb/g, all wet wt.) than in hippopotami from the same rivers, probably as a result of food-chain biomagnification. Judging by the results obtained in this study, pollution from the mining activity around the Kafue River drainage area in the Copperbelt region has not significantly influenced the trace element concentrations in tissues of the crocodiles in the Kafue National Park. The trace element concentrations measured may serve as reference values in future studies on crocodilians

  8. Hepatic and renal concentrations of 10 trace elements in crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Kafue and Luangwa rivers in Zambia

    Almli, Bjorn [National Veterinary Institute, POB 8156 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: bjorn.almli@vetinst.no; Mwase, Maxwell [Samora Machel School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, POB 32379, Lusaka (Zambia); Sivertsen, Tore [Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, POB 8146 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Musonda, Mike [Samora Machel School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, POB 32379, Lusaka (Zambia); Flaoyen, Arne [National Veterinary Institute, POB 8156 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, POB 8146 Dep., N-0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2005-01-20

    Hepatic and renal concentrations of the elements arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium and zinc were determined in samples collected from four crocodiles from the Kafue River, Kafue National Park and five crocodiles from the Luangwa River, Luangwa National Park, Zambia. The concentrations of the essential elements were similar to those reported in other vertebrates. Arsenic and cadmium concentrations were low (medians below 0.05 {mu}g As/g and below 0.16 {mu}g Cd/g, wet wt.). Mercury and lead concentrations were several orders of magnitude higher (medians up to 3.7 {mu}g Hg/g, and up to 8.7 {mu}g Pb/g, all wet wt.) than in hippopotami from the same rivers, probably as a result of food-chain biomagnification. Judging by the results obtained in this study, pollution from the mining activity around the Kafue River drainage area in the Copperbelt region has not significantly influenced the trace element concentrations in tissues of the crocodiles in the Kafue National Park. The trace element concentrations measured may serve as reference values in future studies on crocodilians.

  9. Hepatic and renal concentrations of 10 trace elements in crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Kafue and Luangwa rivers in Zambia.

    Almli, Bjørn; Mwase, Maxwell; Sivertsen, Tore; Musonda, Mike M; Flåøyen, Arne

    2005-01-20

    Hepatic and renal concentrations of the elements arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium and zinc were determined in samples collected from four crocodiles from the Kafue River, Kafue National Park and five crocodiles from the Luangwa River, Luangwa National Park, Zambia. The concentrations of the essential elements were similar to those reported in other vertebrates. Arsenic and cadmium concentrations were low (medians below 0.05 microg As/g and below 0.16 microg Cd/g, wet wt.). Mercury and lead concentrations were several orders of magnitude higher (medians up to 3.7 microg Hg/g, and up to 8.7 microg Pb/g, all wet wt.) than in hippopotami from the same rivers, probably as a result of food-chain biomagnification. Judging by the results obtained in this study, pollution from the mining activity around the Kafue River drainage area in the Copperbelt region has not significantly influenced the trace element concentrations in tissues of the crocodiles in the Kafue National Park. The trace element concentrations measured may serve as reference values in future studies on crocodilians. PMID:15626380

  10. Seasonal prevalence and incidence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis and associated diarrhoea in children attending pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I.G.K.; Enemark, Heidi L.;

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence, incidence and seasonal variation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis were studied over a 12-month period in 100 children from four pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia. Questionnaire data and a single stool sample were collected monthly from each child. Samples were processed using...... = 0.26). We conclude that gastro-intestinal protozoal infections are highly prevalent among children attending pre-school in peri-urban Zambia highlighting the need for further studies of risk factors....

  11. Governance issues, potentials and failures of participative collective action in the Kafue Flats, Zambia

    Harry Nixon Chabwela

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries, wildlife and pastures are under massive pressure in the Kafue Flats, a wetland, which is one of the largest floodplains in Southern and Central Africa. This ecosystem which once harboured abundant common-pool resources and which was managed by local common property regimes is now being threatened with overexploitation. The last 30 years however, have witnessed severe pressure and overuse of these commons. A historical and institutional analysis of the situation of common-pool resources indicates that overuse of fisheries and the mismanagement of wildlife goes back to the erosion of traditional institutions by state governance. Institutional weakness resulting from economic decline in the country is of major concern as the institutions can no longer effectively enforce regulations in the area, a situation which has led to a de facto open access constellation for common-pool resources. The paper discusses three cases. The first is the WWF-Wetland Project and the Administrative Management Design (ADMADE initiative which was designed to deal with management of Lochinvar and Blue Lagoon National Parks and the adjacent Game Management Area through the involvement of local chiefs and local communities. The second case refers to the Partners for Wetlands Project, which included local people via their chiefs as well as the public and private sectors from large agricultural enterprises to the eastern side of the Kafue Flats (Mwanachinwala Conservation Area project in Mazabuka. However, both attempts yielded poor results due to misconceptions of traditional representation of local communities and misinterpretation of local economic and political incentives. Although the ADMADE programme appears to be a scaling up case, its implementation continues to receive considerable resistance from opposition leaders of chiefs and later by the chiefs themselves. In the third case, the paper examines the fishery constitutional process which had started in

  12. Control of aquatic weeds through pollutant reduction and weed utilization: a weed management approach in the lower Kafue River of Zambia

    Sinkala, Thomson; Mwase, Enala T.; Mwala, Mick

    The aquatic weed situation in the Kafue River in Zambia continues to be a major challenge to the sustainable utilization of the water resources of the river. The general methods for managing the weeds, especially the water hyacinth, include use of bio-agents, chemicals, mechanical and physical approaches. These have had very little impact. This paper reports on a project that is investigating weed management strategies which involve use of cleaner production (CP) approach and the utilization of the weed for economic purposes. In addition, the ecological implications of these methods are being assessed. Effluent assessments indicated that apart from nitrates and phosphates, other effluent parameters met the Environmental Council of Zambia standards. Results further show that all the 24 areas surveyed for CP have uncontrolled socio-economic activities which generate both point and non-point sources of pollution that enter the water bodies. To minimize pollution, efforts include devising policy and technical strategies with the involvement of the affected riparian community. Production of mushroom by the communities using the water hyacinth substrate has been demonstrated. Up to 2.1 kg of mushroom was harvested from a single flush over a period of 4-5 weeks. Vegetables grown on soils treated with water hyacinth manure performed better than those grown using commercial fertiliser. The economics of the production are however, yet to be confirmed. If weed usage is proven economically and ecologically viable, the riverine community is envisaged to play a big role in aquatic weed management. High numbers of invertebrates known to be sensitive to pollution have been recorded in the weed-infested Kafue River implying that the water is of “good” quality for these aquatic invertebrates. This observed quality of water may be due to water hyacinth playing a role by sieving pollutants from the river.

  13. Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Testing of Free-Ranging African Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer Captured for Ex Situ Conservation in the Kafue Basin Ecosystem in Zambia

    Hetron Mweemba Munang'andu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (BTB is endemic in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer in some National Parks in Southern Africa, whilst no studies have been conducted on BTB on buffalo populations in Zambia. The increased demand for ecotourism and conservation of the African buffalo on private owned game ranches has prompted the Zambian Wildlife Authority (ZAWA and private sector in Zambia to generate a herd of “BTB-free buffaloes” for ex situ conservation. In the present study, 86 African buffaloes from four different herds comprising a total of 530 animals were investigated for the presence of BTB for the purpose of generating “BTB free” buffalo for ex-situ conservation. Using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT the BTB status at both individual animal and herd level was estimated to be 0.0% by the CIDT technique. Compared to Avian reactors only, a prevalence of 5.8% was determined whilst for Bovine-only reactors a prevalence of 0.0% was determined. These results suggest the likelihood of buffalo herds in the Kafue National Park being free of BTB.

  14. “When am I going to stop taking the drug?” Enablers, barriers and processes of disclosure of HIV status by caregivers to adolescents in a rural district in Zambia

    Mweemba, Mable; Musheke, Maurice M.; Michelo, Charles; Halwiindi, Hikabasa; Mweemba, Oliver; Zulu, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Disclosure of adolescents’ own HIV status by caregivers is not only challenging but low. The reasons for this remain unclear despite efforts to examine and seek to understand disclosure patterns or factors that may either facilitate or inhibit this disclosure. This study explored the enablers, barriers and processes of disclosure of HIV status to adolescents by their caregivers in Kafue district of Zambia. Methods A case study method was used to understand factors that facilitate o...

  15. Lymphatic filariasis in Luangwa District, South-East Zambia

    Shawa, Sheila Tamara; Mwase, Enala T; Pedersen, Erling M; Paul E Simonsen

    2013-01-01

    Background Past case reports and recent data from LF mapping surveys indicate that LF occurs in Zambia, but no studies have been carried out to document its epidemiology and health implications. The present study assessed infection, disease, transmission and human perception aspects of LF in an endemic area of Luangwa District, South-East Zambia, as a background for planning and implementation of control. Methods Two neighbouring rural communities were registered and a questionnaire survey un...

  16. Habitat Partitioning of Malaria Vectors in Nchelenge District, Zambia.

    Das, Smita; Muleba, Mbanga; Stevenson, Jennifer C; Norris, Douglas E

    2016-06-01

    Nchelenge District in Luapula Province, northern Zambia, experiences holoendemic malaria despite implementation of vector control programs. The major Anopheles vectors that contribute to Plasmodium falciparum transmission in this area had not previously been well defined. Three collections performed during the 2012 wet and dry seasons and the 2013 wet season revealed Anopheles funestus sensu stricto and Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto as the main vectors, where 80-85% of each collection was composed of An. funestus Both vectors were found to be highly anthropophilic, and An. funestus has higher sporozoite infection rates (SIRs) and entomological inoculation rates (EIRs) year-round compared with An. gambiae: SIRs of 1.8-3.0% and 0-2.5%, respectively, and EIRs of 3.7-41.5 infectious bites per 6-month period (ib/p/6mo) and 0-5.9 ib/p/6mo, respectively. Spatial and temporal changes in each vector's dynamics and bionomics were also observed. Anopheles funestus was the predominant vector in the villages near Kenani Stream in both wet and dry seasons, whereas An. gambiae was found to be the main vector in areas near Lake Mweru during the wet season. The vector data illustrate the need for broader temporal and spatial sampling in Nchelenge and present unique opportunities to further our understanding of malarial transmission and implications for malarial control in high-risk areas. PMID:27001755

  17. Lymphatic filariasis in Luangwa District, South-East Zambia

    2013-01-01

    Background Past case reports and recent data from LF mapping surveys indicate that LF occurs in Zambia, but no studies have been carried out to document its epidemiology and health implications. The present study assessed infection, disease, transmission and human perception aspects of LF in an endemic area of Luangwa District, South-East Zambia, as a background for planning and implementation of control. Methods Two neighbouring rural communities were registered and a questionnaire survey undertaken. Clinical examination, and sampling of blood for circulating filarial antigens (CFA; marker of adult worm infection) and antibodies to Bm14 antigen (marker of exposure to transmission), were carried out during the daytime. Blood from CFA positive individuals was examined for microfilariae (mf) at night. Vector surveys were carried out in selected households, using light traps. Results 985 individuals aged ≥ 1 year were registered. The CFA prevalence increased with age from 1.2% in age group 1–14 years to 20.6% in age group 50+ years (overall 8.6%). Wuchereria bancrofti mf were identified in 10.9% of CFA positive individuals (corresponding to a community prevalence of 0.9%). Prevalence and intensity of Bm14 antibodies were much higher in individuals ≥ 30 years than in younger individuals (57.2 vs. 19.3%; 0.594 vs. 0.241 OD-values). Elephantiasis and hydrocele were well known clinical manifestations in the area, but only one case of hydrocele was detected in the study population. Identified potential vectors were Anopheles funestus and An. gambiae. Conclusion The study confirmed that LF was endemic in the study communities, but infection and disease prevalence was low. Several indications, including a marked recent decline in CFA prevalence, suggest that transmission in the area is on the decrease, perhaps because of intensive application of malaria control measures targeting the Anopheles vectors. It is recommended that mass drug administration is initiated to

  18. The state of HIV sector local governance in Malawi and Zambia: Evidence from five districts

    Justin Steyn

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper encapsulates the outputs of a Swiss Agency for Development Cooperation (SDC funded project that aimed to improve the levels of HIV governance at the district level in Malawi and Zambia by encouraging public participation in an effort to more effective use of local resources. The methodology for this project, developed by the Institute for Democracy in Africa (Idasa and SDC, included a barometer which assessed perceptions of district HIV governance among key stakeholders. Perceptions were gathered on governance principles of effectiveness, efficiency, rule of law, accountability, participation and equity. The stakeholders ranged from administrators, political representatives, community-based organisations and the private sector on the supply side and citizens on the demand or beneficiary side. The findings of the research indicate specific sector governance issues that may be generalised to governance. Communication and transparency appear to be major issues underpinning the bottlenecks and shortcomings in the HIV sector governance at the district level. Information gaps have given rise to accountability deficits and coordination deficiencies. Addressing these matters would make more effective use of resources and lessen dependence on external funding sources.

  19. Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis in Traditionally Managed Livestock in Selected Districts of Southern Province of Zambia

    J. B. Muma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was performed in 2008 to estimate the prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis in traditionally reared cattle of Southern Province in Zambia in four districts. The single comparative intradermal tuberculin test (SCITT was used to identify TB reactors, and the Rose Bengal test (RBT, followed by confirmation with competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA, was used to test for brucellosis. A total of 459 animals were tested for tuberculosis and 395 for brucellosis. The overall prevalence of BTB based on the 4 mm and 3 mm cutoff criteria was 4.8% (95% CI: 2.6–7.0% and 6.3% (95% CI: 3.8–8.8%, respectively. Change in skin thickness on SCITT was influenced by initial skin-fold thickness at the inoculation site, where animals with thinner skin had a tendency to give a larger tuberculin response. Brucellosis seroprevalence was estimated at 20.7% (95% CI: 17.0–24.4%. Comparison between results from RBT and c-ELISA showed good agreement (84.1% and revealed subjectivity in RBT test results. Differences in brucellosis and tuberculosis prevalence across districts were attributed to type of husbandry practices and ecological factors. High prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis suggests that control control programmes are necessary for improved cattle productivity and reduced public health risk.

  20. Prevalence of Giardia in dairy cattle in Lusaka and Chilanga districts, Zambia.

    Kakandelwa, Cliff; Siwila, Joyce; Nalubamba, King S; Muma, John B; Phiri, Isaac G K

    2016-01-15

    Giardia is an intestinal protozoan parasite of mammals including humans. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate prevalence of Giardia infections in smallholder and commercial dairy herds in Chilanga and Lusaka districts of Zambia. A total of 377 calves aged from 1 to 365 days were sampled on 34 farms. All faecal samples were analyzed for Giardia antigen using a commercially available ELISA kit. Overall prevalence of Giardia was 34.5% (95% CI=29.7-39.3). Among smallholder farms, animal level prevalence ranged from 0 to 100% (mean=44.6±36.9 standard deviations) and 12.5 to 60.9% (mean=33.5±16.7 standard deviations) within commercial herds. Prevalence was highest in calves less than three months old (p=0.010), and there was no significant difference in the prevalence between smallholder and commercial farms (p=0.300). Giardia prevalence was not associated with occurrence of diarrhoea in the calves (p=0.205). The study demonstrates that Giardia infections are common in dairy herds in the study areas, especially in calves less than three months of age. PMID:26790746

  1. The Paris Declaration in practice: challenges of health sector aid coordination at the district level in Zambia

    Sundewall Jesper

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing resources available for and number of partners providing health sector aid have stimulated innovations, notably, the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, which aim to improve aid coordination. In this, one of the first studies to analyse implementation of aid coordination below national level, the aim was to investigate the effect of the Paris Declaration on coordination of health sector aid at the district level in Zambia. Methods The study was carried out in three districts of Zambia. Data were collected via interviews with health centre staff, district managers and officials from the Ministry of Health, and from district action plans, financial reports and accounts, and health centre ledger cards. Four indicators of coordination related to external-partner activity, common arrangements used by external partners and predictability of funding were analysed and assessed in relation to the 2010 targets set by the Paris Declaration. Findings While the activity of external partners at the district level has increased, funding and activities provided by these partners are often not included in local plans. HIV/AIDS support show better integration in planning and implementation at the district level than other support. Regarding common arrangements used for fund disbursement, the share of resources provided as programme-based support is not increasing. The predictability of funds coming from outside the government financing mechanism is low. Conclusion Greater efforts to integrate partners in district level planning and implementation are needed. External partners must improve the predictability of their support and be more proactive in informing the districts about their intended contributions. With the deadline for achieving the targets set by the Paris Declaration fast approaching, it is time for the signatories to accelerate its implementation.

  2. Resistance status of ticks (Acari; Ixodidae) to amitraz and cypermethrin acaricides in Isoka District, Zambia.

    Muyobela, Jackson; Nkunika, Philip Obed Yobe; Mwase, Enala Tembo

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to obtain data on the farmer's approach to tick control and to determine whether Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neuman, Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius), and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) were resistant to amitraz and cypermethrin acaricides, in Isoka District, Zambia. Prevailing tick control practices were documented by administering a semi-structured questionnaire to 80 randomly selected smallholder livestock farmers from four agricultural camps (Longwe, Kantenshya, Kapililonga, and Ndeke) in Isoka District. Modified larval packet test (LPT) bioassay experiments were used to determine the resistance status of the common tick species against amitraz and cypermethrin acaricides. Fifty percent of respondents practiced chemical tick control with amitraz (27 %) and cypermethrin (23 %) being the acaricides in use, and were applied with knapsack sprayers. Less than 3 l of spray wash per animal was used which was considerably lower than the recommended delivery rate of 10 l of spray wash per animal. No significant susceptibility change to amitraz at 95 % confidence level was observed in R. appendiculatus and A. variegatum against amitraz. However, a significant change in the susceptibility of R. (Bo.) microplus tested with amitraz was detected at 95 % confidence. The test population had a lower susceptibility (LD50 0.014 %; LD90 0.023 %) than the reference population (LD50 0.013 %; LD90 0.020 %). The results indicated that resistance to amitraz was developing in R. (Bo.) microplus. For cypermethrin, no significant susceptibility change at 95 % confidence was observed in any of the three species and thus resistance to this chemical was not observed. PMID:26310511

  3. A Review of Bovine Tuberculosis in the Kafue Basin Ecosystem

    Musso Munyeme; Hetron Mweemba Munang'andu

    2011-01-01

    The Kafue basin ecosystem is the only remaining natural habitat for the endangered Kafue lechwe antelope (Kobus leche Kafuensis). However, hydroelectricity power production, large-scale sugar plantations, commercial fishing and increasing livestock production are threatening its natural existence and sustainability. Further, increasing human settlements within and around the Kafue basin have resulted in decreased grazing grounds for the Kafue lechwe antelopes despite a corresponding increase ...

  4. "Born before arrival": user and provider perspectives on health facility childbirths in Kapiri Mposhi district, Zambia

    Nganjo Phiri, Selia; Fylkesnes, Knut; Ruano, Ana Lorena; Moland, Karen Marie

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality remains high in sub-Saharan Africa. Health facility intra-partum strategies with skilled birth attendance have been shown to be most effective to address maternal mortality. In Zambia, the health policy for pregnant women is to have facility childbirth, but less than half of the women utilize the facilities for delivery. ‘Born before arrival’ (BBA) describes childbirth that occurs outside health facility. With the aim to increase our understanding of trust in fac...

  5. Impacts of Maize Policy Changes on Small Scale Farmers' Vulnerability to Exploitation in Nyimba District, Zambia

    Njobvu, Idah

    2011-01-01

    Taking cognisance of the fact that SSFs the major producers of maize in Zambia were most affected by the 1991 agricultural policy reforms, from 2005 onward, the state became very active in the maize market and production systems in order to mitigate their problems. The main objective of this study is to investigate to what extent the maize policy changes have contributed to the SSFs’ vulnerability to exploitation. This information will be of use in the policy formulation process to ensure tha...

  6. Knowledge and disease management skills of cattle owners on East Coast Fever and Foot and Mouth Disease in Kazungula and Livingstone Districts of Zambia

    C. Chisembele

    2005-01-01

    Effective animal disease control and prevention should be based on accurate information from the field. Part of this field information can be obtained from the cattle owners. In order to assess their disease knowledge, a survey focusing on East Coast Fever (ECF) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) was organised among 302 cattle owners from the Kazungula and Livingstone Districts of the Southern Province of Zambia. The cattle owners' level of knowledge of ECF was low (34%) with most of those able...

  7. Condom availability in high risk places and condom use: a study at district level in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia

    Sandøy Ingvild

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies from countries with severe HIV epidemics have found gaps in condom availability, even in places where there is a substantial potential for HIV transmission. Although reported condom use has increased in many African countries, there are often big differences by socioeconomic background. The aim of this study was to assess equity aspects of condom availability and uptake in three African districts to evaluate whether condom programmes are given sufficient priority. Methods Data on condom availability and use was examined in one district in Kenya, one in Tanzania and one in Zambia. The study was based on a triangulation of data collection methods in the three study districts: surveys in venues where people meet new sexual partners, population-based surveys and focus group discussions. The data was collected within an overall study on priority setting in health systems. Results At the time of the survey, condoms were observed in less than half of the high risk venues in two of the three districts and in 60% in the third district. Rural respondents in the population-based surveys perceived condoms to be less available and tended to be less likely to report condom use than urban respondents. Although focus group participants reported that condoms were largely available in their district, they expressed concerns related to the accessibility of free condoms. Conclusion As late as thirty years into the HIV epidemic there are still important gaps in the availability of condoms in places where people meet new sexual partners in these three African districts. Considering that previous studies have found that improved condom availability and accessibility in high risk places have a potential to increase condom use among people with multiple partners, the present study findings indicate that substantial further efforts should be made to secure that condoms are easily accessible in places where sexual relationships are

  8. A retrospective evaluation of the quality of malaria case management at twelve health facilities in four districts in Zambia

    Pascalina Chanda-Kapata; Emmanuel Chanda; Freddie Masaninga; Annette Habluetzel; Felix Masiye; Ibrahima Soce Fall

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To establish the appropriateness of malaria case management at health facility level in four districts in Zambia. Methods: This study was a retrospective evaluation of the quality of malaria case management at health facilities in four districts conveniently sampled to represent both urban and rural settings in different epidemiological zones and health facility coverage. The review period was from January to December 2008. The sample included twelve lower level health facilities from four districts. The Pearson Chi-square test was used to identify characteristics which affected the quality of case management.Results:Out of 4891 suspected malaria cases recorded at the 12 health facilities, more than 80% of the patients had a temperature taken to establish their fever status. About 67% (CI95 66.1-68.7) were tested for parasitemia by either rapid diagnostic test or microscopy, whereas the remaining 22.5% (CI95 21.3.1-23.7) were not subjected to any malaria test. Of the 2247 malaria cases reported (complicated and uncomplicated), 71% were parasitologically confirmed while 29% were clinically diagnosed (unconfirmed). About 56% (CI95 53.9-58.1) of the malaria cases reported were treated with artemether-lumefantrine (AL), 35% (CI95 33.1-37.0) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, 8% (CI95 6.9-9.2) with quinine and 1% did not receive any anti-malarial. Approximately 30% of patients WHO were found negative for malaria parasites were still prescribed an anti-malarial, contrary to the guidelines. There were marked inter-district variations in the proportion of patients in WHOm a diagnostic tool was used, and in the choice of anti-malarials for the treatment of malaria confirmed cases. Association between health worker characteristics and quality of case malaria management showed that nurses performed better than environmental health technicians and clinical officers on the decision whether to use the rapid diagnostic test or not. Gender, in service training on malaria

  9. Field observations of fish species susceptible to epizootic ulcerative syndrome in the Zambezi River basin in Sesheke District of Zambia.

    Songe, Mwansa M; Hang'ombe, Mudenda B; Phiri, Harris; Mwase, Maxwell; Choongo, Kennedy; Van der Waal, Ben; Kanchanakhan, Somkiat; Reantaso, Melba B; Subasinghe, Rohana P

    2012-01-01

    A field investigation was conducted in the Sesheke District of Zambia along the Zambezi River to determine the fish species susceptible to epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS), a newly confirmed disease in Southern Africa. A total of 2,132 fishes were inspected for gross EUS-like lesions, of which 188 (8.82%; 95% CI=7.67-10.1%) were found with typical characteristic lesions of EUS. Of these 188 samples, 156 were found to have mycotic granulomas on histopathological analysis, representing 83.0% (95% CI=76.7-87.9%) of the initially identified in the laboratory through gross examination. The following 16 species of fish were examined and found with EUS lesions; Clarias ngamensis, Clarias gariepinus, Barbus poechii, Tilapia sparrmanii, Serranochromis angusticeps, Brycinus lateralis, Micralestes acutidens, Sargochromis carlottae, Hydrocynus vittatus, Phryngochromis acuticeps, Schilbe intermedius, Hepsetus odoe, Labeo lunatus, Oreochromis andersonii, Barbus unitaeniatus, and Barbus paludinosus. T. sparrmanii did not show any lesions, while the Clarias species were found to be the most afflicted with EUS. These results could be useful to fish farmers and organizations interested in improving aquaculture in the area. PMID:21647772

  10. A review of bovine tuberculosis in the kafue basin ecosystem.

    Munyeme, Musso; Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba

    2011-01-01

    The Kafue basin ecosystem is the only remaining natural habitat for the endangered Kafue lechwe antelope (Kobus leche Kafuensis). However, hydroelectricity power production, large-scale sugar plantations, commercial fishing and increasing livestock production are threatening its natural existence and sustainability. Further, increasing human settlements within and around the Kafue basin have resulted in decreased grazing grounds for the Kafue lechwe antelopes despite a corresponding increase in cattle population sharing the same pasture. Baseline epidemiological data have persistently reported findings of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in both wild and domestic animals, although these have been deficient in terms of describing direct evidence in the role of either lechwe antelopes or cattle in the reported observations. Despite the current literature being deficient in establishing the casual role and transmission patterns of BTB, a bimodal route of infection at the livestock/wildlife interface has been postulated. Likewise, it is not known how much of (BTB) has the potential of causing disease in humans. This paper, seeks to underline those aspects that need further research and update available data on BTB in the Kafue basin with regards to the prevalence, distribution, risk factors, threats on wildlife conservation, livestock production, public health implications, and possible mitigatory measures. PMID:21547232

  11. “The problem is ours, it is not CRAIDS’ ”. Evaluating sustainability of Community Based Organisations for HIV/AIDS in a rural district in Zambia

    Walsh Aisling

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While sustainability of health programmes has been the subject of empirical studies, there is little evidence specifically on the sustainability of Community Based Organisations (CBOs for HIV/AIDS. Debates around optimal approaches in community health have centred on utilitarian versus empowerment approaches. This paper, using the World Bank Multi-Country AIDS Program (MAP in Zambia as a case study, seeks to evaluate whether or not this global programme contributed to the sustainability of CBOs working in the area of HIV/AIDS in Zambia. Lessons for optimising sustainability of CBOs in lower income countries are drawn. Methods In-depth interviews with representatives of all CBOs that received CRAIDS funding (n = 18 and district stakeholders (n= 10 in Mumbwa rural district in Zambia, in 2010; and national stakeholders (n=6 in 2011. Results Funding: All eighteen CBOs in Mumbwa that received MAP funding between 2003 and 2008 had existed prior to receiving MAP grants, some from as early as 1992. This was contrary to national level perceptions that CBOs were established to access funds rather than from the needs of communities. Funding opportunities for CBOs in Mumbwa in 2010 were scarce. Health services: While all CBOs were functioning in 2010, most reported reductions in service provision. Home visits had reduced due to a shortage of food to bring to people living with HIV/AIDS and scarcity of funding for transport, which reduced antiretroviral treatment adherence support and transport of patients to clinics. Organisational capacity and viability: Sustainability had been promoted during MAP through funding Income Generating Activities. However, there was a lack of infrastructure and training to make these sustainable. Links between health facilities and communities improved over time, however volunteers’ skills levels had reduced. Conclusions Whilst the World Bank espoused the idea of sustainability in their plans, it remained

  12. Innovation in health service delivery : integrating community health assistants into the health system at district level in Zambia

    Zulu, Joseph Mumba; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Kinsman, John; Michelo, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Background: To address the huge human resources for health gap in Zambia, the Ministry of Health launched the National Community Health Assistant Strategy in 2010. The strategy aims to integrate community-based health workers into the health system by creating a new group of workers, called community health assistants (CHAs). However, literature suggests that the integration process of national community-based health worker programmes into health systems has not been optimal. Conceptually inf...

  13. The Socio-economic Impact of Stroke on Households in Livingstone District, Zambia: A Cross-sectional Study

    Mapulanga, M; Nzala, S; Mweemba, C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability. Stroke, which affects mostly the productive age group, leaves about 65% of its victims disabled, leads to increased loss of manpower both at individual and national levels. Little is known about the socio-economic burden of the disease in terms of its impacts on the individual, family and community both directly and indirectly in Sub-Sahara Africa region and Zambia at large. Aim: The study was aimed at assessing the socio-economic i...

  14. Industrial Pollution Prevention Programme (IPPP) Progress report Visit to Environmental Council of Zambia (ECZ) 20.09.-01.10.98

    Aanes, K.

    1998-01-01

    A visit to ECZ was paid by Mr. Karl Jan Aanes, NIVA, with the intention to assess to capacity of the chosen laboratories in Zambia to analyse water samples in the Water Quality Survey Programme. Along with the visting of laboratories a field trip was carried out to collect water samples from the upper part of Kafue and the main tributaries from mine sites. Parallel samples were taken and analysed both at laboratories in Zambia and at NIVA to conduct a preliminary intercalibration between the ...

  15. Knowledge and disease management skills of cattle owners on East Coast Fever and Foot and Mouth Disease in Kazungula and Livingstone Districts of Zambia

    Chisembele, C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective animal disease control and prevention should be based on accurate information from the field. Part of this field information can be obtained from the cattle owners. In order to assess their disease knowledge, a survey focusing on East Coast Fever (ECF and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD was organised among 302 cattle owners from the Kazungula and Livingstone Districts of the Southern Province of Zambia. The cattle owners' level of knowledge of ECF was low (34% with most of those able to describe the disease belonging to the endemic zone where ECF caused high death rates in cattle. A larger proportion of the cattle owners (46% were able to give an adequate description of FMD symptoms. It reached up to 61% in the FMD high-risk zone. Reporting to the animal health service providers appeared to be low. The results of the survey showed that attempts should be made to improve the cattle owners' knowledge and response to important diseases by carrying out more extension and sensitization activities. This is especially so in areas of low infection or where the disease was experienced long time ago.

  16. Economic Impact and Challenges of Jatropha curcas L. Projects in North-Western Province, Zambia: A Case of Solwezi District

    Chester Kalinda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Forest products, wood and non-wood, remain vital among smallholder households in Zambia with charcoal being the most sought after product. This has led to increased exploitation of forest trees to meet the needs for fuel wood, among others. However, Jatropha curcas plant has been identified as a potential fuel source. In the early 2000s, profit-making organizations encouraged smallholder households to grow Jatropha for use as an alternative fuel source. This paper reports on a study conducted in Solwezi between 2011 and 2014 to evaluate the impact of Jatropha cultivation for biofuel production. A sample of 100 small-scale farmers involved in Jatropha cultivation and key informants were interviewed to evaluate the impact of growing Jatropha at the small-scale level. Results show that farmers lost out on time; income from sale of edible non-wood forest products; and experienced reduction in maize (Zea mays and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris production, worsening household economic conditions. Farmers attributed this loss to unclear policy alignment on biofuel production by government. We therefore recommend that project implementation should involve interactions of all legislative bodies and any other concerned stakeholders. There is also a need to promote the value chain, from production to marketing, which focuses on minimizing detrimental effects on the livelihood of small-scale farmers.

  17. The epidemiology and small-scale spatial heterogeneity of urinary schistosomiasis in Lusaka province, Zambia

    Christopher Simoonga

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In line with the aims of the “National Bilharzia Control Programme” and the “School Health and Nutrition Programme” in Zambia, a study on urinary schistosomiasis was conducted in 20 primary schools of Lusaka province to further our understanding of the epidemiology of the infection, and to enhance spatial targeting of control. We investigated risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis, and examined small-scale spatial heterogeneity in prevalence, using data collected from 1,912 schoolchildren, 6 to 15-year-old, recruited from 20 schools in Kafue and Luangwa districts. The risk factors identified included geographical location, altitude, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, maximum temperature, age, sex of the child and intermediate host snail abundance. Three logistic regression models were fitted assuming different random effects to allow for spatial structuring. The mean prevalence rate was 9.6%, with significance difference between young and older children (odds ratio (OR = 0.71; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.51-0.96. The risk of infection was related to intermediate host snail abundance (OR = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.00-1.05 and vegetation cover (OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.00-1.07. Schools located either on the plateau and the valley also differed in prevalence and intensity of infection for moderate infection to none (OR = 1.64; 95% CI = 1.36- 1.96. The overall predictive performance of the spatial random effects model was higher than the ordinary logistic regression. In addition, evidence of heterogeneity of the infection risk was found at the micro-geographical level. A sound understanding of small-scale heterogeneity, caused by spatial aggregation of schoolchildren, is important to inform health planners for implementing control schistosomiasis interventions.

  18. Open Pit Water Control Safety A Case Of Nchanga Open Pit Mine Zambia

    Silwamba C

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mining in Chingola Zambia started underground in 1931 and was catastrophically flooded and closed. The present Nchanga Underground Mine NUG started in 1937. The Nchanga Open Pit NOP mine started in 1955 situated to the west of NUG and partially overlying it. Open pit water control safety operations in the Nchanga-Chingola area have successfully enabled the safe extraction of millions of tonnes of copper ore annually over the past 60 years from NUG mining as well as the NOP. At the start Nchanga mining license surface already had NUG and many watershed divides with the Nchanga and Chingola streams being the main streams feeding into Zambias second largest river Kafue river and 42 of the year was characterised by heavy rains ranging between 800mm to 1300mm per annum. In this paper the presence of very significant amounts of seasonal rain and subsurface water in the mining area was identified as both a curse and a blessing. An excess in seasonal rain and subsurface water would disrupt both open pit and underground mining operations. In order for NOP to be operated successfully stable and free from flooding coping water management tactics were adopted from 1955 to 2015 including 1. Underground mine pump chamber pumping system 2. Piezometer instrumented boreholes 3. Underground mine 1500-ft sub-haulage east borehole dewatering beneath the open pit 4. Nchanga and Chingola stream diversionary tunnel and open drains 5. Nchanga stream causeway and embankment dam in the Matero School Golf Club area 6. Pit perimeter borehole pumping 7. Outer and inner pit perimeter drains and bund walls 8. In-pit ramp side drains 9. In-pit sub-horizontal borehole geo-drains and water and 10. Pit bottom sump pumps. Application of grout curtains along the Vistula River Poland was noted as a possibility in the right circumstances although it had never been used at Nchanga Open Pit. An additional conclusion was that forward health safety and environmental end

  19. Lessons Learnt from the Irrigation Perspective of the Sayama-ike Land Improvement District : Irrigation Development in Zambia (I)

    MULENGA, Barnabas; OGINO, Yoshihiko; NAKAGIRI, Takao; HORINO, Haruhiko

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a case study of the Sayama-ike LID and looks at the functions, roles and operation and management aspects of the scheme. Highlights of valuable lessons of irrigation practices that could be transferred and adopted are presented to enhance development of irrigated agriculture in Zambia. The Sayama-ike LID demonstrates successful features of participatory irrigation management as a non-profit making and privatized irrigation organization. The LID has remained viable and sust...

  20. Social factors affecting ART adherence in rural settings in Zambia

    Nozaki, Ikuma; Dube, Christopher; Kakimoto, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Norio; Simpungwe, James B.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the factors that influence ART adherence arising in rural settings in Zambia. A survey was conducted with face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire and written informed consent was obtained at ART sites in Mumbwa District in rural Zambia. The questionnaire included items such as the socio-demographic characteristics of respondents, support for adherence, ways to remember when to take ARVs at scheduled times, and the current status of...

  1. Abortion in Zambia

    Coast, Ernestina; Freeman, Emily

    2015-01-01

    The poster, based on 112 in-depth interviews conducted in 2014 with women in Zambia who had recently had an abortion, shows the complex pathways that some women take despite safe abortion being legal under a wide range of circumstances in Zambia.

  2. Sarcoptes mite epidemiology and treatment in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer calves captured for translocation from the Kafue game management area to game ranches

    Munyeme Musso

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Zambia, translocation of wildlife from National Parks to private owned game ranches demands that only animals free of infectious diseases that could adversely affect the expansion of the wildlife industry should be translocated to game ranches. Sarcoptes mange (Sarcoptes scarbiei has been involved in the reduction of wildlife populations in some species. Results Sarcoptes mange (Sarcoptes scarbiei was detected and eradicated from two herds of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer calves captured in the Kafue GMA in July 2004 and August 2005. The overall prevalence was estimated at 89.5% (77/86. Sex had no influence on the occurrence and severity of the disease. Of the 86 calves used in the study, 72.1% had good body condition scores, 20.9% were fair and 7.0% were poor. Of the 77 infected calves, 53.2% were mildly infected, 28.6% were moderately and 18.2% were severely infected. Body condition score was correlated to the severity of the infection (r = 0.72, p n = 86 at capture. Eradication of Sarcoptes mites from the entire herd using ivermetcin was dependant on the severity of the infection. The overall ability of ivermectin to clear the infection after the first treatment was estimated at 81.8% (n = 77. It increased to 94.8% and 100% after the second and third treatments respectively. Conclusion This is the first report on the epidemiology and treatment of Sarcoptes mange in African buffaloes in Zambia. This study improves our understanding about Sarcoptes scabiei epidemiology and treatment which will have further applications for the safe animal translocation.

  3. Zambia country study

    1999-09-01

    The Zambia Country Study, which was part of the Danida-funded project Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa: Phase 2, aimed at methodological development, national mitigation analysis and institutional capacity building in Zambia. The study comprised the following five elements: Comprehensive evaluation of national social and economic development framework for climate change; Baseline scenario(s) projection(s); Mitigation scenario(s) projection(s); Macro-economic assessment; Implementation Issues. (au) 17 refs.

  4. Zambia Country Background Report

    Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, Søren; Kragelund, Peter

    This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change).......This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change)....

  5. Trypanosoma brucei Infection in asymptomatic greater Kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch in Zambia.

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Munyeme, Musso; Nambota, Andrew; Mutoloki, Stephen; Matandiko, Wigganson

    2010-03-01

    Trypomastogotes of Trypanosoma brucei were detected from 4 asymptomatic kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch located approximately 45 km north east of Lusaka, Zambia. Blood smears examined from 14 wildlife species comprising of the impala (Aepyceros melampus), Kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis), sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), tsessebe (Damaliscus lunatus), warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), puku (Kobus vardoni), zebra (Equus burchelli), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), reedbuck (Redunca arundinum), wilderbeest (Connochaetes taurinus), hartebeest (Alcephelus lichtensteini), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) showed that only the kudu had T. brucei. Although game ranching has emerged to be a successful ex-situ conservation strategy aimed at saving the declining wildlife population in the National Parks, our findings suggest that it has the potential of aiding the re-distribution of animal diseases. Hence, there is a need for augmenting wildlife conservation with disease control strategies aimed at reducing the risk of disease transmission between wildlife and domestic animals. PMID:20333288

  6. Zambia : Smallholder Agricultural Commercialization Strategy

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report focuses on the potential and opportunities for smallholder commercialization in Zambia. The paper discusses the framework for Zambia's smallholder commercialization strategy, the current state of smallholder agriculture in Zambia, key issues, support from agribusiness to smallholders, and development of potential and opportunities for smallholder commercialization. The paper co...

  7. Zambia; Selected Issues

    International Monetary Fund

    2008-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper presents an analysis of change in Zambia’s mining fiscal regime. Foreign investment has revived Zambia’s mining sector. However, its mining sector’s direct contribution to government revenues has been low. Reflecting persistent concerns about the low contribution of the mining sector to budget revenues, the government has amended the fiscal regime many times over the last seven years. The 2015 budget introduced major changes to the mining fiscal regime. The au...

  8. Foot and mouth disease in Zambia: Spatial and temporal distributions of outbreaks, assessment of clusters and implications for control

    Yona Sinkala

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Zambia has been experiencing low livestock productivity as well as trade restrictions owing to the occurrence of foot and mouth disease (FMD, but little is known about the epidemiology of the disease in these endemic settings. The fundamental questions relate to the spatio-temporal distribution of FMD cases and what determines their occurrence. A retrospective review of FMD cases in Zambia from 1981 to 2012 was conducted using geographical information systems and the SaTScan software package. Information was collected from peer-reviewed journal articles, conference proceedings, laboratory reports, unpublished scientific reports and grey literature. A space–time permutation probability model using a varying time window of one year was used to scan for areas with high infection rates. The spatial scan statistic detected a significant purely spatial cluster around the Mbala–Isoka area between 2009 and 2012, with secondary clusters in Sesheke–Kazungula in 2007 and 2008, the Kafue flats in 2004 and 2005 and Livingstone in 2012. This study provides evidence of the existence of statistically significant FMD clusters and an increase in occurrence in Zambia between 2004 and 2012. The identified clusters agree with areas known to be at high risk of FMD. The FMD virus transmission dynamics and the heterogeneous variability in risk within these locations may need further investigation.

  9. Rift Valley fever: Real or perceived threat for Zambia?

    George Dautu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF in Zambia was first reported in 1974 during an epizootic of cattle and sheep that occurred in parts of Central, Southern and Copperbelt Provinces. In 1990, the disease was documented in nine districts of the provinces of Zambia. In the last two decades, there have been no reports of RVF. This long period without reported clinical disease raises questions as to whether RVF is a current or just a perceived threat. To address this question, World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE disease occurrence data on RVF for the period 2005−2010 in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC was analysed. From the analysis, it was evident that most countries that share a common border with Zambia had reported at least one occurrence of the disease during the period under review. Due to the absence of natural physical barriers between Zambia and most of her neighbours, informal livestock trade and movements is a ubiquitous reality. Analysis of the rainfall patterns also showed that Zambia received rains sufficient to support a mosquito population large enough for high risk of RVF transmission. The evidence of disease occurrence in nearby countries coupled with animal movement, and environmental risk suggests that RVF is a serious threat to Zambia. In conclusion, the current occurrence of RVF in Zambia is unclear, but there are sufficient indications that the magnitude of the circulating infection is such that capacity building in disease surveillance and courses on recognition of the disease for field staff is recommended. Given the zoonotic potential of RVF, these measures are also a prerequisite for accurate assessment of the disease burden in humans.

  10. Callings, work role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement among teachers in Zambia

    2013-01-01

    Our aim in this study was to investigate the relationships among a calling orientation, work role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement of teachers in Zambia. A quantitative approach was followed and a cross-sectional survey was used. The sample (n = 150) included 75 basic and 75 secondary school teachers in the Choma district of Zambia. The Work Role Fit Scale, Work-Life Questionnaire, Psychological Meaningfulness Scale, and Work Engagement Scale were administered. Structural...

  11. Assessment of Uranium in Drinking Water in Kitwe, Chambeshi and Chingola in the Copperbelt Region of Zambia

    The paper discusses uranium in drinking water in three towns located in the uraniferous Copperbelt region of Zambia. The mining towns of Kitwe, Chambeshi and Chingola in the Copperbelt region have two main sources of drinking water: underground mine water and surface water from the Kafue River system. Chambeshi abstracts its water from underground while Chingola abstracts water from both underground and surface water sources. Kitwe abstracts water from the Kafue River which drains the entire Copperbelt region. In Zambia, World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for drinking water are followed, although routine monitoring for radioactivity is not mandatory. The overall objective of this study was to gather baseline data on uranium contamination in drinking water and compare with the WHO guidelines and also to establish the source with the highest levels of uranium. An alpha spectrometer was used to analyse the samples and the results from this survey indicate that the average total uranium activity concentrations were in the range of 78.50 mBq/L in Kitwe to 600.78 mBq/L in Chambeshi. The committed effective doses for adults were in the range of 3.58 μSv/a in Kitwe to 20.28 μSv/a in Chambeshi. From both water sources, the committed effective doses were below the WHO guideline reference dose level of 100 μSv/a. The uranium activity concentration for Chambeshi was above the recommended screening level for alpha emitters in drinking water of 500 mBq/L. The average 235U:238U ratio was 0.046, the natural abundance ratio for uranium. (author)

  12. A qualitative study to identify community structures for management of severe malaria: a basis for introducing rectal artesunate in the under five years children in Nakonde District of Zambia

    Tuba Mary

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a serious illness among children aged 5 years and below in Zambia, which carries with it many adverse effects including anemia and high parasites exposure that lead to infant and childhood mortality. Due to poor accessibility to modern health facilities, malaria is normally managed at home using indigenous and cosmopolitan medicines. In view of problems and implications associated with management of severe malaria at home, rectal artesunate is being proposed as a first aid drug to slow down multiplication of parasites in children before accessing appropriate treatment. Methods A qualitative study using standardised in-depth and Focuss Group Discussions (FGDs guides to collect information from four (4 villages in Nakonde district, was conducted between February and March 2004. The guides were administered on 29 key informants living in the community and those whose children were admitted in the health facility. Participants in the 12 FGDs came from the 4 participating villages. Participants and key informants were fathers, younger and older mothers including grandmothers and other influential people at household level. Others were traditional healers, headmen, village secretaries, tradtional birth attendants, church leaders and black smiths. FGDs and interview transcriptions were coded to identify common themes that were related to recognition, classification and naming of malaria illness, care-seeking behaviour and community treatment practices for severe malaria. Results Parental prior knowledge of the disease was important as the majority of informants (23 out of 29 and participants (69 out of 97 mentioned four combined symptoms that were used to recognise severe malaria. The symptoms were excessive body hotness, convulsions, vomiting yellow things and bulging of the fontanelle. On the other hand, all informants mentioned two or more of symptoms associated with severe malaria. In all 12 FGDs, participants

  13. Teachers' Practices in the Teaching of Reading and Writing towards supporting learners with reading difficulties at Lower Primary : A Case Study of teachers for fourth-graders in Monze District-Zambia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract According to the Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Measuring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) report of 2010, Zambia is among the three SACMEQ countries with lower levels of reading. This is shown in two studies that were carried out in 2000 and 2007 among grade 6 pupils. For all stakeholders in the education sector, this should be of concern. Therefore, studies as this one are necessary as they may help to inform pedagogy and policy. This study therefore, is an inve...

  14. Strategic traditions. changing livelihoods, access to food and child malnutrition in the Zambian Kafue Flats

    Merten, Sonja

    2008-01-01

    Zambia has experienced a burst of industrial development which started already in the 1920s. Large-scale copper-mining made the country to one of the most rapidly ‘modernizing’ states, and during the 1960s and 1970s it was ranked as “middle-income country”. When the terms of trade for copper declined sharply after the oil-shock in the 1970s, the Zambian economy began to deteriorate. After the millenium turn, Zambia figured among the ten poorest countries of the world. The econo...

  15. Local problems; local solutions: an innovative approach to investigating and addressing causes of maternal deaths in Zambia's Copperbelt

    Hadley Mary B; Tuba Mary

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Maternal mortality in developing countries is high and international targets for reduction are unlikely to be met. Zambia's maternal mortality ratio was 591 per 100,000 live births according to survey data (2007) while routinely collected data captured only about 10% of these deaths. In one district in Zambia medical staff reviewed deaths occurring in the labour ward but no related recommendations were documented nor was there evidence of actions taken to avert further dea...

  16. Migration from Zambia : Ensuring Temporariness through Cooperation

    Amin, Mohammad; Mattoo, Aaditya

    2007-01-01

    The paper analyzes migration from Zambia in order to understand how migration policy can support development in the least developed countries. Overall emigration from Zambia is not high by regional standards, but the pattern of migration is skewed toward the skilled and away from the unskilled. A development-friendly approach to migration for Zambia would strive to ensure the temporariness...

  17. The fishery potential of the minor lake (Nabisojjo) - Luwero District

    Kamanyi, J.R.; Mbabazi, D.

    2000-01-01

    Luwero district before the creation of Nakasongola District had a share of south-western portion of Lake Kyoga. After loosing the portion of the lake, they want to resort the minor lake (Nabisojjo) for supply of fish at least to the population around this lake. The plans were to start commercial fishing. The lake is 45 km from Luwero town adjacent 10 the road going to Ngoma town. River Nabisojjo, a tribulary of river Mayanja flows through the lake on its way to river Kafu. The main objective ...

  18. Zambia : long-term generation expansion study - executive summary.

    Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Buehring, W.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-02-28

    The objective of this study is to analyze possible long-term development options of the Zambian electric power system in the period up to 2015. The analysis involved the hydro operations studies of the Zambezi river basin and the systems planning studies for the least-cost generation expansion planning. Two well-known and widely accepted computer models were used in the analysis: PC-VALORAGUA model for the hydro operations and optimization studies and the WASP-III Plus model for the optimization of long-term system development. The WASP-III Plus model is a part of the Argonne National Laboratory's Energy and Power Evaluation Model (ENPEP). The analysis was conducted in close collaboration with the Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO). On the initiative from The World Bank, the sponsor of the study, ZESCO formed a team of experts that participated in the analysis and were trained in the use of computer models. Both models were transferred to ZESCO free of charge and installed on several computers in the ZESCO corporate offices in Lusaka. In September-October 1995, two members of the ZESCO National Team participated in a 4-week training course at Argonne National Laboratory near Chicago, U.S.A., focusing on the long-term system expansion planning using the WASP and VALORAGUA models. The hydropower operations studies were performed for the whole Zambezi river basin, including the full installation of the Kariba power station, and the Cahora Bassa hydro power station in Mozambique. The analysis also included possible future projects such as Itezhi-Tezhi, Kafue Gorge Lower, and Batoka Gorge power stations. As hydropower operations studies served to determine the operational characteristics of the existing and future hydro power plants, it was necessary to simulate the whole Zambezi river basin in order to take into account all interactions and mutual influences between the hydro power plants. In addition, it allowed for the optimization of reservoir

  19. Towards a new understanding of the Neoproterozoic-early palæozoic Lufilian and northern Zambezi belts in Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Porada, Hubertus; Berhorst, Volker

    2000-04-01

    The Lufilian Belt is of geological significance and economic importance due to rich CuCo mineralisation in the Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Copperbelt of Zambia. Though thorough exploration has yielded much information on the mines districts, the understanding of the belt as a whole appears, to some extent, historically charged and confused. In the first part of this article, basic knowledge and assumptions are reviewed and existing models critically assessed. Results include recognition of standard lithostratigraphies of the Katanga Supergroup comprising the Roan, Mwashia, Lower and Upper Kudelungu Groups in the Copperbelt and Katanga, a lower limit for the onset of deposition at about 880 Ma, and a major orogenetic event involving northeast directed thrusting (Lufilian Orogeny) at 560-550 Ma. The depositional history of the Lufilian Belt was controlled by continental rifting leading to formation of a passive continental margin. Continental rifting related to the dispersal of Rodinia began ca 880 Ma ago and was accompanied by magmatism (Kafue rhyolites: 879 Ma; Nchanga Granite: 877 Ma; Lusaka Granite: 865 Ma). Differential subsidence of the northwestward propagating rift soon allowed invasion by the sea advancing from the southeast, and subsequent development of marine rift-basin and platform domains. The standard stratigraphies for the Roan Group are restricted to the platform domain that bordered the rift-basin on its northeastern side. This domain included the Domes region of the Lufilian Belt and extended southeastwards into the northern Zambezi Belt. The platform was differentiated into a carbonate platform (barrier) represented by the Bancroft Subgroup (previously 'Upper Roan') in Zambia and Kambove Dolomite Formation in Katanga and a lagoon-basin (lower Kitwe Subgroup/Zambia; Dolomitic Shale Formation/Katanga) with mudflats (R.A.T. Subgroup/Katanga) and a siliciclastic margin towards the hinterland. The mineralised

  20. Zambia measures the impact.

    1997-02-01

    The average life expectancy in Zambia will drop from 51 years to about 45 years by the year 2002 as a result of HIV/AIDS. The domestic gross product will also fall significantly because of the loss of skilled workers and health costs. These are the estimations of the Zambian Ministry of Health, which also estimates that between 300 and 400 people are newly infected with HIV every day in the country. Adults progressing to full-fledged AIDS are expected to increase from 10,000 in 1990 to over 75,000 by the year 2000. Women are 1.4 times more likely to become infected with HIV than men. Although sexual relations with female students by male teachers are prohibited by the professional code of conduct, some teachers have such relations. This is alarming in view of the findings of a study showing that 40% of teachers in the study group were infected with HIV. About 40% of girls are sexually active by the age of 15, therefore such young people are targets of AIDS-related educational services. Many older infected students will die before they can pay back their student loans. The impact of AIDS at the workplace is also distressing, as a unionized worker with AIDS could go on sick leave for half a year at the employer's expense. The cost of replacing sick workers is also high with additional delays in finding replacements. The loss of key individuals such as innovators may even seriously set back a firm by reducing sales, increasing the costs of operation, and forcing the restructuring of credit arrangements. PMID:12292056

  1. Zambia : The Enterprise Development Project

    P. C. Mohan

    2007-01-01

    The Enterprise Development Project (EDP) - 1998-2003 - was designed to support, with a credit of US$ 45 million, Zambia's Economic Reform Program that began in 1991. One of the key aspects of this reform program was to dismantle traditional state-supported enterprise development mechanisms and replace these with market-determined enterprise development structures. Three specific objectives...

  2. Zambia mental health country profile.

    Mayeya, John; Chazulwa, Roy; Mayeya, Petronella Ntambo; Mbewe, Edward; Magolo, Lonia Mwape; Kasisi, Friday; Bowa, Annel Chishimba

    2004-01-01

    This country profile for Zambia was compiled between 1998 and 2002. The objectives of the exercise were to first of all avail policymakers, other key decision makers and leaders in Zambia, information about mental health in Zambia in order to assist policy and services development. Secondly, to facilitate comparative analyses of mental health services between countries. The work involved formation of a core group of experts who coordinated the collection of information from the various organizations in Zambia. The information was later shared to a broad spectrum of stakeholders for consensus. A series of focus group discussions (FGDs) supplemented the information collected. There are various factors that contribute to mental health in Zambia. It is clear from the Zambian perspective that social, demographic, economic, political, environmental, cultural and religious influences affect the mental health of the people. With a population of 10.3 million and annual growth rate of 2.9%, Zambia is one of the most urbanized countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Poverty levels stood at 72.9% in 1998. In terms of unemployment, the most urbanized provinces, Lusaka (the capital city), and the copper-belt are the most affected. The gross domestic product (GDP) is US$3.09 billion dollars while per capita income is US$300. The total budget allocation for health in the year 2002 was 15% while the proportion of the GDP per capita expenditure for health was 5.6%. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rates stand at 20% among the reproductive age group 15-49 years. Political instability and wars in neighbouring states has resulted in an influx of refugees. Environmental factors affecting the country include natural and man-made disasters such as floods and drought, mine accidents, and deforestation. To a large extent in Zambia, people who are mentally ill are stigmatized, feared, scorned at, humiliated and condemned. However, caring for mental ill health in old age is positively perceived. It is

  3. Foot-and-mouth disease control in Zambia: A review of the current situation

    Yona Sinkala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Zambia has been experiencing low livestock productivity as well as trade restrictions owing to the occurrence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD and contagious bovine pleura pneumonia (CBPP. Foot-and-mouth disease was first recorded in Zambia in 1933 in the Western Province and since then the country has experienced repeated outbreaks. Bearing in mind the pressure that may be existing on the many risk factors for FMD including climate change, there is need to review our knowledge on FMD control. We present the spatial distribution of the FMD outbreaks that have been recorded in Zambia in the last twenty years, and the effect of the vaccinations and movement control that have been applied. We propose further strain characterisation of previous FMD outbreaks, including full sequence of VP1 gene and the 5’UTR site. The data will be geo-coded and populated with risk factor attributes. We also present preliminary findings of the buffalo and cattle probang sampling that was conducted in Lochnivar and Kafue National Park. We further probang sampled 25 buffalo at each interface area in Sioma Ngwezi, Lukusuzi and Lower Zambezi national parks. Villages in close proximity to the buffalo populations as well as those not in close proximity will be multistage cluster sampled for comparison. The data will be geo-coded and populated with risk factor and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV characterisation attributes. Data collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire will be geo-coded and populated with identified risk factors and stored in a database and will be spatially modelled to determine their effect on FMD occurrence and control measures. New outbreaks of FMD that may occur will be investigated to find out if there are new strains involved, species affected and predisposing risk factors.The authors conclude that impacts of FMD on livelihoods if appropriate control measures are not put in place are far more devastating especially at community level

  4. Estimating multidimensional poverty in Zambia

    Mahrt, Kristi; Masumbu, Gibson

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we apply the first-order dominance (FOD) approach to assessing multidimensional welfare to analyse multidimensional poverty in Zambia in 1996, 2006, and 2010. In addition to evaluating welfare across time and space, we extend the methodology to evaluate welfare by rural agricultural strata and urban housing cost areas. This modification allows a more detailed perspective on the evolution of rural poverty. Finally, we consider the sensitivity of FOD results to indicator definiti...

  5. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Zambia

    World Bank

    2006-01-01

    Good corporate governance ensures that companies use their resources more efficiently, protects minority shareholders, leads to better decision making, and improves relations with workers, creditors, and other stakeholders. It is an important prerequisite for attracting the patient capital needed for sustained long-term economic growth. This report provides an assessment of Zambia's corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, ma...

  6. African Independent Churches in Zambia (Lusaka)

    Mildnerová Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    The African Independent churches (AICs) in Zambia, as elsewhere in Africa, from their very beginning formed a protest movement against the cultural imperialism undertaken by the missionary representatives of the historic mission churches and also played an important role in the anti-colonial political struggles. In Zambia, the early AICs were closely related to witchcraft eradication movements such as the Mchape, or socially and politically oriented prophet-healing churches such as The Lumpa ...

  7. The University of Zambia School Teaching Experience: Is It Effective?

    Peter Chomba Manchishi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Teaching practice exercises serve the purpose of orienting the teacher into real classroom situations where the novice puts his or her skills into practice. Education students at the University of Zambia (UNZA go through the school teaching experience after their third year of study. This comes after they have arguably completed enough content and methodology courses to teach. The purpose of this study was to establish the effectiveness of the UNZA school teaching experience. The research instruments used were interview guides, observation checklists, and focus group discussions. The respondents included 80 serving teachers, 80 student teachers, and 10 head teachers drawn from 10 high schools in the Lusaka District. In addition, 10 lecturers from UNZA were also sampled. The findings revealed that the design and delivery of the UNZA student teaching experience was not effective.

  8. Advances in area-wide tsetse control in Zambia

    Full text: Trypanosomosis is one of the major constraints to sustainable agricultural development particularly in the traditional sector, which accounts for about 80% of the national livestock (cattle) in Zambia. The remaining 20% commercially managed herds are located in tsetse free areas. More than five-eighths of Zambia is tsetse infested, and the boundaries of tsetse infestation are not constantly monitored, indicated boundaries are only estimates. In the late 1980's it was reported by Chizyuka and colleagues, that two thirds of the country was infested with tsetse flies and 25% of the traditional herd was at risk of trypanosomosis. Currently Zambia accounts some 2.8 million cattle, a million goats, a marginal number of sheep and 0.5 million pigs. The 1999-2003 Health Statistics Report by the Ministry of Health indicated 83 cases of reported human trypanosomosis, of which 31 were children under five years and 52 were above five years of age. Between January 2003 and 25th August 2003, seven cases of human trypanosomosis have been documented from Nyimba, Luangwa, Mpika, Serenje and Mambwe districts. During the last 15 years Zambia had achieved a lot in terms of tsetse control in the country. Tsetse densities and the disease prevalence were brought down from fly densities as high as 7 fly/trap/day to as low as 0.05 fly/trap/day and trypanosomosis prevalence from as high as 20% to as low as 0% in the tsetse controlled areas. Tsetse have been controlled in approximately 50,000 km2 under projects funded by different donors in separate areas in Western, Southern, Lusaka and Eastern provinces. In recent years the country has been experiencing re-invasion of the areas that where once cleared. The main specific problems experienced from past control operations under the support of donors (EU, Belgium, the Netherlands) include among others: - Re-invasion of tsetse flies in controlled areas when maintenance activities were relaxed due to insufficient funding and

  9. The burden of knowing: balancing benefits and barriers in HIV testing decisions. a qualitative study from Zambia

    Jürgensen Marte; Tuba Mary; Fylkesnes Knut; Blystad Astrid

    2012-01-01

    Background Client-initiated HIV counselling and testing has been scaled up in many African countries, in the form of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT). Test rates have remained low, with HIV-related stigma being an important barrier to HIV testing. This study explored HIV testing decisions in one rural and one urban district in Zambia with high HIV prevalence and available antiretroviral treatment. Methods Data were collected through 17 in-depth interviews and two focus group...

  10. Coprological survey of alimentary tract parasites in dogs from Zambia and evaluation of a coproantigen assay for canine echinococcosis

    Nonaka, N; Nakamura, S.; Inoue, T.; Oku, Y; Katakura, K; J. Matsumoto; Mathis, A.; Chembesofu, M; Phiri, I G K

    2011-01-01

    Faecal samples were collected from the rectum of 540 domestic dogs from four districts (Lusaka, Katete, Petauke and Luangwa) in Zambia between 2005 and 2006 and prevalences of canine alimentary tract parasites were determined by coprological examination. Thirteen different ova and parasites including strongyle (43.3%), Spirocerca lupi (18.7%), taeniid (13.1%), Toxocara canis (7.6%), Sarcocystis sp.* (7.5%), Isospora sp.* (5.7%), Physaloptera sp.* (4.6%), Capillaria sp.* (2.8%), Dipylidium can...

  11. Characterization of Maize Producing Households in Southern Zambia

    Thomson Kalinda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is an important crop in the livelihood of Zambia’s most vulnerable populations. A huge challenge facing most of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA countries like Zambia is to increase maize productivity of smallholder farmers, which has remained very low over the past decades. Through various breeding programmes, more than 50 new maize hybrids and open-pollinated varieties have been developed and provided to the farmers through seed companies and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs. However, the extent to which such varieties have been adopted remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to characterize the maize producing households and to assess adoption of improved maize varieties. Data were collected from randomly selected households in the maize-producing areas of Monze and Kalomo Districts in southern Zambia. Principal Components Analysis (PCA on asset ownership was used to generate a wealth index used to rank the survey households. The results confirm that poorly endowed households, most of whom are female-headed, are far less likely to adopt improved varieties than their well-off counterparts. Important maize variety attributes sought by farmers include early maturity (85% of households, tolerance to water stress (83%, yield potential (79%, pest/disease resistance (56%, better processing quality (56% and cob/grain size (50%. A larger proportion of well endowed households planted improved varieties, compared with their poorly endowed counterparts. These findings suggest that moving the poor households and female-headed households up the wealth ladder poses a considerable challenge and calls for targeting the key factors that could potentially improve their welfare.

  12. Health worker perspectives on user fee removal in Zambia

    Carasso Barbara S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background User fees for primary care services were removed in rural districts in Zambia in 2006. Experience from other countries has suggested that health workers play a key role in determining the success of a fee removal policy, but also find the implementation of such a policy challenging. The policy was introduced against a backdrop of a major shortage in qualified health staff. Methods As part of a larger study on the experience and effect of user fee removal in Zambia, a number of case studies at the facility level were conducted. As part of these, quantitative and qualitative data were collected to evaluate health workers’ satisfaction and experiences in charging and non-charging facilities. Results Our findings show that health-care workers have mixed feelings about the policy change and its consequences. We found some evidence that personnel motivation was higher in non-charging facilities compared to facilities still charging. Yet it is unclear whether this effect was due to differences in the user fee policy or to the fact that a lot of staff interviewed in non-charging facilities were working in mission facilities, where we found a significantly higher motivation. Health workers expressed satisfaction with an apparent increase in the number of patients visiting the facilities and the removal of a deterring factor for many needy patients, but also complained about an increased workload. Furthermore, working conditions were said to have worsened, which staff felt was linked to the absence of additional resources to deal with the increased demand or replace the loss of revenue generated by fees. Conclusion These findings highlight the need to pay attention to supply-side measures when removing demand-side barriers such as user fees and in particular to be concerned about the burden that increased demand can place on already over-stretched health workers.

  13. Social factors affecting ART adherence in rural settings in Zambia.

    Nozaki, Ikuma; Dube, Christopher; Kakimoto, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Norio; Simpungwe, James B

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the factors that influence ART adherence arising in rural settings in Zambia. A survey was conducted with face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire and written informed consent was obtained at ART sites in Mumbwa District in rural Zambia. The questionnaire included items such as the socio-demographic characteristics of respondents, support for adherence, ways to remember when to take ARVs at scheduled times, and the current status of adherence. Valid responses were obtained from 518 research participants. The mean age of the respondents was 38.3 years and the average treatment period was 12.5 months. More than half of the respondents (51%) were farmers, about half (49%) did not own a watch, and 10% of them used the position of the sun to remember when to take ARVs. Sixteen percent of respondents experienced fear of stigma resulting from taking ARVs at work or home, and 10% felt pressured to share ARVs with someone. Eighty-eight percent of the participants reported that they had never missed ARVs in the past four days. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified age (38 years old or less, odds ratio (OR) = 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3-4.8, p=0.005), "remembering when to take ARVs based on the position of the sun" (OR = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.3-8.8, p=0.016), and "feeling pressured to share ARVs with someone" (OR = 4.4, 95% CI: 1.6-12.0, p=0.004) as independent factors for low adherence. As ART services expand to rural areas, program implementers should pay more attention to more specific factors arising in rural settings since they may differ from those in urban settings. PMID:21400314

  14. The Local Social and Environmental Impacts of Smallholder-Based Biofuel Investments in Zambia

    Davison Gumbo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available High oil prices, recent commitments by industrialized countries to enhance the use of renewable energy, and efforts by developing countries to stimulate foreign investment as a pathway to development have fueled high levels of interest in the biofuel sector throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa. Zambia is no exception. A large, land-locked country with high pump prices and vast tracts of land considered by many to be “degraded” or “underutilized,” investor interest in the sector has remained high despite uncertainties associated with unproven feedstocks and market fluctuations. While investment in multiple feedstock and production models may be observed, one of the primary investments has been in jatropha outgrower schemes in which small-scale farmers grow feedstock on contract with domestic and foreign investors. We assess the history and evolution of the largest such scheme in Zambia, as well as the social and environmental impacts in two districts with large numbers of outgrowers. Findings suggest that, although such a production model may hold promise for enhancing rural livelihood benefits from the emerging biofuel sector, to date, small-scale farmers have borne the brunt of the risk and uncertainty that are the trademarks of this emerging industry. We conclude with a discussion of options to minimize forest conversion and protect farmers against high-risk investments, while harnessing the potential of this business model for enhancing rural livelihoods in Zambia and elsewhere.

  15. Zambia : An Assessment of the Investment Climate

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This Zambia Investment Climate Assessment (ICA) forms part of World Bank Group global initiative to systematically analyze conditions for private investment and enterprise growth. Improving the investment climate is recognized as a key pillar of developing countries' path to promote economic growth and reduce poverty. The I C A compliments and amplifies a series of diagnostic work on this ...

  16. Economic prospects of food irradiation in Zambia

    Instances of economic benefits which are likely to be considered when introducing food irradiation as an industrial and commercial food processing method in Zambia are discussed from a point of view of increasing both the local and external marketing potential of various local food commodities. The present status of the food irradiation programme is also briefly discussed. (author)

  17. Zambia : The Challenge of Competitiveness and Diversification

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to go below the radar of Zambia's macroeconomic developments to examine trends, constraints, and opportunities in specific economic subsectors. It sought to build upon existing and planned analyses within the country in order to better understand: 1) the underlying bases for competitive advantage and disadvantage in the evolving Zambian economy; 2) the likely sustai...

  18. Livestock sector in Zambia: Opportunities and limitations

    Zambia is endowed with a vast feed resource base for animal production purposes. However, the feed resource base is not fully utilised and this is manifested by low livestock productivity. The quality and production levels of animal products depend largely on the quality and quantity of feed, which is fed to the livestock. Among the constraints limiting livestock productivity in Zambia, insufficient and low quality of veld grass, particularly during the long dry season (March-November) is responsible for low production levels and poor reproductive performance in ruminants. The problem of inadequate veld grass can be overcome by feeding crop residues which are in abundance during the dry season. Zambia produces large quantities of sugarcane tops, bagasse and straws from maize, sorghum, wheat, millet and rice. These could sustain livestock productivity if supplemented with protein sources or treated with urea. Despite the production of large quantities of crop residues, these are wasted by burning or get destroyed by termites. There is a need, therefore, to develop feeding systems based on crop residues which are compatible with the farming systems in Zambia and to promote such feeding systems. (author)

  19. Producing biodiesel from soybeans in Zambia

    Drabik, Dusan; Gorter, de Harry; Timilsina, Govinda R.

    2016-01-01

    Facing a huge fiscal burden due to imports of its entire petroleum demand in the face of ample supply of agricultural land to produce biofuels, Zambia has recently introduced a biofuel mandate. However, a number of questions, particularly those related to the economics of biofuels, have not been

  20. Zambia Mining Investment and Governance Review

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    The Zambia Mining Investment and Governance Review (MInGov) collects and shares information on mining sector governance, its attractiveness to investors and how its activities affect national development. It reviews sector performance from the perspective of three main stakeholder groups– government, investors in the mining value chain and civil society – and identifies gaps between declar...

  1. Fairness and legitimacy of decisions during delivery of malaria services and ITN interventions in zambia

    Bloch Paul

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and the second leading cause of mortality in Zambia. Perceptions of fairness and legitimacy of decisions relating to treatment of malaria cases within public health facilities and distribution of ITNs were assessed in a district in Zambia. The study was conducted within the framework of REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT, a north-south collaborative action research study, which evaluates the Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR approach to priority setting in Zambia, Tanzania and Kenya. Methods This paper is based on baseline in-depth interviews (IDIs conducted with 38 decision-makers, who were involved in prioritization of malaria services and ITN distribution at district, facility and community levels in Zambia, one Focus Group Discussion (FGD with District Health Management Team managers and eight FGDs with outpatients' attendees. Perceptions and attitudes of providers and users and practices of providers were systematized according to the four AFR conditions relevance, publicity, appeals and leadership. Results Conflicting criteria for judging fairness were used by decision-makers and patients. Decision-makers argued that there was fairness in delivery of malaria treatment and distribution of ITNs based on alleged excessive supply of free malaria medicines, subsidized ITNs, and presence of a qualified health-provider in every facility. Patients argued that there was unfairness due to differences in waiting time, distances to health facilities, erratic supply of ITNs, no responsive appeal mechanisms, inadequate access to malaria medicines, ITNs and health providers, and uncaring providers. Decision-makers only perceived government bodies and donors/NGOs to be legitimate stakeholders to involve during delivery. Patients found government bodies, patients, indigenous healers, chiefs and politicians to be legitimate stakeholders during both

  2. The road to pro-poor growth in Zambia

    Thurlow, James; Wobst, Peter

    2004-01-01

    "Zambia is one of the poorest countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Almost three-quarters of the population were considered poor at the start of the 1990s, with a vast majority of these people concentrated in rural and remote areas. This extreme poverty arose in spite of Zambia's seemingly promising prospects following independence. To better understand the failure of growth and poverty-reduction this paper first considers the relationship between the structure of growth and Zambia's evolving poli...

  3. Lymphatic filariasis in Luangwa District, South-East Zambia

    Shawa, Sheila Tamara; Mwase, Enala T.; Pedersen, Erling Møller;

    2013-01-01

    individuals aged ≥ 1 year were registered. The CFA prevalence increased with age from 1.2% in age group 1-14 years to 20.6% in age group 50+ years (overall 8.6%). Wuchereria bancrofti mf were identified in 10.9% of CFA positive individuals (corresponding to a community prevalence of 0.9%). Prevalence...

  4. Task sharing in Zambia: HIV service scale-up compounds the human resource crisis

    Walsh, Aisling

    2010-09-17

    Abstract Background Considerable attention has been given by policy makers and researchers to the human resources for health crisis in Africa. However, little attention has been paid to quantifying health facility-level trends in health worker numbers, distribution and workload, despite growing demands on health workers due to the availability of new funds for HIV\\/AIDS control scale-up. This study analyses and reports trends in HIV and non-HIV ambulatory service workloads on clinical staff in urban and rural district level facilities. Methods Structured surveys of health facility managers, and health services covering 2005-07 were conducted in three districts of Zambia in 2008 (two urban and one rural), to fill this evidence gap. Intra-facility analyses were conducted, comparing trends in HIV and non-HIV service utilisation with staff trends. Results Clinical staff (doctors, nurses and nurse-midwives, and clinical officers) numbers and staff population densities fell slightly, with lower ratios of staff to population in the rural district. The ratios of antenatal care and family planning registrants to nurses\\/nurse-midwives were highest at baseline and increased further at the rural facilities over the three years, while daily outpatient department (OPD) workload in urban facilities fell below that in rural facilities. HIV workload, as measured by numbers of clients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) per facility staff member, was highest in the capital city, but increased rapidly in all three districts. The analysis suggests evidence of task sharing, in that staff designated by managers as ART and PMTCT workers made up a higher proportion of frontline service providers by 2007. Conclusions This analysis of workforce patterns across 30 facilities in three districts of Zambia illustrates that the remarkable achievements in scaling-up HIV\\/AIDS service delivery has been on the back of sustained non

  5. Task sharing in Zambia: HIV service scale-up compounds the human resource crisis

    Simbaya Joseph

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable attention has been given by policy makers and researchers to the human resources for health crisis in Africa. However, little attention has been paid to quantifying health facility-level trends in health worker numbers, distribution and workload, despite growing demands on health workers due to the availability of new funds for HIV/AIDS control scale-up. This study analyses and reports trends in HIV and non-HIV ambulatory service workloads on clinical staff in urban and rural district level facilities. Methods Structured surveys of health facility managers, and health services covering 2005-07 were conducted in three districts of Zambia in 2008 (two urban and one rural, to fill this evidence gap. Intra-facility analyses were conducted, comparing trends in HIV and non-HIV service utilisation with staff trends. Results Clinical staff (doctors, nurses and nurse-midwives, and clinical officers numbers and staff population densities fell slightly, with lower ratios of staff to population in the rural district. The ratios of antenatal care and family planning registrants to nurses/nurse-midwives were highest at baseline and increased further at the rural facilities over the three years, while daily outpatient department (OPD workload in urban facilities fell below that in rural facilities. HIV workload, as measured by numbers of clients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT per facility staff member, was highest in the capital city, but increased rapidly in all three districts. The analysis suggests evidence of task sharing, in that staff designated by managers as ART and PMTCT workers made up a higher proportion of frontline service providers by 2007. Conclusions This analysis of workforce patterns across 30 facilities in three districts of Zambia illustrates that the remarkable achievements in scaling-up HIV/AIDS service delivery has been on the back of

  6. Descriptive models, grade-tonnage relations, and databases for the assessment of sediment-hosted copper deposits: with emphasis on deposits in the Central Africa Copperbelt, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia: Chapter J in Global mineral resource assessment

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Causey, J. Douglas; Denning, Paul D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Horton, John D.; Kirschbaum, Michael J.; Parks, Heather L.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The Central African Copperbelt (CACB) is one of the most important copper-producing regions of the world. The majority of copper produced in Africa comes from this region defined by the Neoproterozoic Katanga sedimentary basin of the southern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and northern Zambia. Copper in the CACB is mined from sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits associated with red beds and includes the giant deposits in the Kolwezi and Tenge-Fungurume districts in the DRC and the Konkola-Musoshi and Nchanga-Chingola districts in Zambia. In recent years, sediment-hosted structurally controlled replacement and vein (SCRV) copper deposits, such as the giant Kansanshi deposit in Zambia have become important exploration targets in the CACB region.

  7. Evaluation of some ceramic clays from Zambia

    Mitchell, C J

    1993-01-01

    This reports details the technical evaluation of ceramic clays collected during visits to Zambia in 1990 and 1991 by the author (Clive Mitchell). The clay samples included: Choma kaolin (Southern Province), Twapia kaolin (Copperbelt Province), Kapiri Mposhi kaolin (Central Province), Masenche clay (Northern Province), Leula clay, Misenga clay and Chikankata clay (Southern Province). The Choma kaolin was asessed to be an excellent source of ceramic-grade kaolin. The Twapia and Kapiri Mposhi ka...

  8. Status of radioactive waste management in Zambia

    Zambia being part of the world community clearly understands that careless handling of radioactive waste would cause problems - worldwide - for human health, for the environment and natural resources management. It is for this reason that the Radiation Protection Board has initiated a Radioactive Waste Management Programme covering the following areas: (i) Legislation of Radioactive Waste Management; (ii) Immobilization of spent sealed radioactive sources; and (iii) Siting and construction of an interim storage facility. (author)

  9. Bringing internet connectivity to rural Zambia using a collaborative approach

    Matthee, K.W.; Mweemba, G.; Pais, A.V.; Starn, G.V.; Rijken, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an initiative to bring connectivity to rural Zambia using a collaborative approach. In particular, it focuses on a proof-of-concept Internet service that has been implemented in rural Macha located in the Southern Province of Zambia. The service operates using satellite terminals

  10. Perceptions of and Attitudes towards Ageing in Zambia

    Mapoma, Christopher C.; Masaiti, Gift

    2012-01-01

    This paper reflects part of the wider outlook on ageing in general in Zambia and was intended to investigate perceptions of and attitudes towards the aged and ageing in Zambia by members of the community who, by definition and chronologically are not classified as aged i.e. not yet 60 years and over. Focus Group Discussions (FGD) were used to…

  11. Filoviral haemorrhagic fevers: A threat to Zambia?

    Katendi Changula

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Filoviral haemorrhagic fevers (FVHF are caused by agents belonging to Filoviridae family, Ebola and Marburg viruses. They are amongst the most lethal pathogens known to infect humans. Incidence of FVHF outbreaks are increasing, with affected number of patients on the rise. Whilst there has been no report yet of FVHF in Zambia, its proximity to Angola and Democratic Republic of Congo, which have recorded major outbreaks, as well as the open borders, increased trade and annual migration of bats between these countries, puts Zambia at present and increased risk. Previous studies have indicated bats as potential reservoir hosts for filoviruses. An increasing population with an increasing demand for resources has forced incursion into previously uninhabited land, potentially bringing them into contact with unknown pathogens, reservoir hosts and/or amplifying hosts. The recent discovery of a novel arenavirus, Lujo, highlights the potential that every region, including Zambia, has for being the epicentre or primary focus for emerging and re-emerging infections. It is therefore imperative that surveillance for potential emerging infections, such as viral haemorrhagic fevers be instituted. In order to accomplish this surveillance, rapid detection, identification and monitoring of agents in patients and potential reservoirs is needed. International co-operation is the strategy of choice for the surveillance and fight against emerging infections. Due to the extensive area in which filoviral infections can occur, a regional approach to surveillance activities is required, with regional referral centres. There is a need to adopt shared policies for the prevention and control of infectious diseases. There is also need for optimisation of currently available tests and development of new diagnostic tests, in order to have robust, highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tests that can be used even where there are inadequate laboratories and diagnostic services.

  12. African Independent Churches in Zambia (Lusaka

    Mildnerová Kateřina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The African Independent churches (AICs in Zambia, as elsewhere in Africa, from their very beginning formed a protest movement against the cultural imperialism undertaken by the missionary representatives of the historic mission churches and also played an important role in the anti-colonial political struggles. In Zambia, the early AICs were closely related to witchcraft eradication movements such as the Mchape, or socially and politically oriented prophet-healing churches such as The Lumpa church of Alice Lenshina. Since the 1970s and in particular in the 1990s the Christianity in Zambia has been significantly marked by the proliferation of the African Independent Churches - both of Pentecostal and prophet-healing type. These churches that started mushrooming particularly in urban settings became part of the strengthening charismatic movement, particularly within Protestantism. A typical feature of AICs is focus on spiritual healing and religious syncretism - the local traditional customs and beliefs in dangerous ghosts, ancestral spirits, or witches are placed within the biblical religious framework where the Holy Spirit (Muzimu Oyela is considered to be the only source of healing whereas other ‘inferior spirits’ are labelled as demons. The traditional methods of healing are creatively combined with Christian healing by means of prayers, spiritual blessings, laying on of hands on patients and demon exorcism - it is believed that only a body rid of bad spirits can receive the Holy Spirit, and thus be healed. The paper draws on both secondary literature concerning African Independent Churches and primary data issued from fieldwork in Lusaka (2008-2009.

  13. Premature adult mortality in urban Zambia: a repeated population-based cross-sectional study

    Timæus, Ian M; Banda, Richard; Thankian, Kusanthan; Banda, Andrew; Lemba, Musonda; Stringer, Jeffrey S A; Chi, Benjamin H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To measure the sex-specific and community-specific mortality rates for adults in Lusaka, Zambia, and to identify potential individual-level, household-level and community-level correlates of premature mortality. We conducted 12 survey rounds of a population-based cross-sectional study between 2004 and 2011, and collected data via a structured interview with a household head. Setting Households in Lusaka District, Zambia, 2004–2011. Participants 43 064 household heads (88% female) who enumerated 123 807 adult household members aged between 15 and 60 years. Primary outcome Premature adult mortality. Results The overall mortality rate was 16.2/1000 person-years for men and 12.3/1000 person-years for women. The conditional probability of dying between age 15 and 60 (45q15) was 0.626 for men and 0.537 for women. The top three causes of death for men and women were infectious in origin (ie, tuberculosis, HIV and malaria). We observed an over twofold variation of mortality rates between communities. The mortality rate was 1.98 times higher (95% CI 1.57 to 2.51) in households where a family member required nursing care, 1.44 times higher (95% CI 1.22 to 1.71) during the cool dry season, and 1.28 times higher (95% CI 1.06 to 1.54) in communities with low-cost housing. Conclusions To meet Zambia's development goals, further investigation is needed into the factors associated with adult mortality. Mortality can potentially be reduced through focus on high-need households and communities, and improved infectious disease prevention and treatment services. PMID:26940113

  14. Beliefs, Behaviors, and Perceptions of Community-Led Total Sanitation and Their Relation to Improved Sanitation in Rural Zambia.

    Lawrence, J Joseph; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Biemba, Godfrey; Ram, Pavani K; Osbert, Nicolas; Sabin, Lora L; Hamer, Davidson H

    2016-03-01

    Inadequate hygiene and sanitation remain leading global contributors to morbidity and mortality in children and adults. One strategy for improving sanitation access is community-led total sanitation (CLTS), in which participants are guided into self-realization of the importance of sanitation through activities called "triggering." This qualitative study explored community members' and stakeholders' sanitation, knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors during early CLTS implementation in Zambia. We conducted 67 in-depth interviews and 24 focus group discussions in six districts in Zambia 12-18 months after CLTS implementation. Triggering activities elicited strong emotions, including shame, disgust, and peer pressure, which persuaded individuals and families to build and use latrines and handwashing stations. New sanitation behaviors were also encouraged by the hierarchical influences of traditional leaders and sanitation action groups and by children's opinions. Poor soil conditions were identified as barriers to latrine construction. Taboos, including prohibition of different generations of family members, in-laws, and opposite genders from using the same toilet, were barriers for using sanitation facilities. CLTS, through community empowerment and ownership, produced powerful responses that encouraged construction and use of latrines and handwashing practices. These qualitative data suggest that CLTS is effective for improving sanitation beliefs and behaviors in Zambia. PMID:26787149

  15. Evaluation Of A Maternal Health Program In Uganda And Zambia Finds Mixed Results On Quality Of Care And Satisfaction.

    Kruk, Margaret E; Vail, Daniel; Austin-Evelyn, Katherine; Atuyambe, Lynn; Greeson, Dana; Grépin, Karen Ann; Kibira, Simon P S; Macwan'gi, Mubiana; Masvawure, Tsitsi B; Rabkin, Miriam; Sacks, Emma; Simbaya, Joseph; Galea, Sandro

    2016-03-01

    Saving Mothers, Giving Life is a multidonor program designed to reduce maternal mortality in Uganda and Zambia. We used a quasi-random research design to evaluate its effects on provider obstetric knowledge, clinical confidence, and job satisfaction, and on patients' receipt of services, perceived quality, and satisfaction. Study participants were 1,267 health workers and 2,488 female patients. Providers' knowledge was significantly higher in Ugandan and Zambian intervention districts than in comparison districts, and in Uganda there were similar positive differences for providers' clinical confidence and job satisfaction. Patients in Ugandan intervention facilities were more likely to give high ratings for equipment availability, providers' knowledge and communication skills, and care quality, among other factors, than patients in comparison facilities. There were fewer differences between Zambian intervention and comparison facilities. Country differences likely reflect differing intensity of program implementation and the more favorable geography of intervention districts in Uganda than in Zambia. National investments in the health system and provider training and the identification of intervention components most associated with improved performance will be required for scaling up and sustaining the program. PMID:26953307

  16. Factors influencing modes of transport and travel time for obstetric care: a mixed methods study in Zambia and Uganda.

    Sacks, Emma; Vail, Daniel; Austin-Evelyn, Katherine; Greeson, Dana; Atuyambe, Lynn M; Macwan'gi, Mubiana; Kruk, Margaret E; Grépin, Karen A

    2016-04-01

    Transportation is an important barrier to accessing obstetric care for many pregnant and postpartum women in low-resource settings, particularly in rural areas. However, little is known about how pregnant women travel to health facilities in these settings. We conducted 1633 exit surveys with women who had a recent facility delivery and 48 focus group discussions with women who had either a home or a facility birth in the past year in eight districts in Uganda and Zambia. Quantitative data were analysed using univariate statistics, and qualitative data were analysed using thematic content analysis techniques. On average, women spent 62-68 min travelling to a clinic for delivery. Very different patterns in modes of transport were observed in the two countries: 91% of Ugandan women employed motorized forms of transportation, while only 57% of women in Zambia did. Motorcycle taxis were the most commonly used in Uganda, while cars, trucks and taxis were the most commonly used mode of transportation in Zambia. Lower-income women were less likely to use motorized modes of transportation: in Zambia, women in the poorest quintile took 94 min to travel to a health facility, compared with 34 for the wealthiest quintile; this difference between quintiles was ∼50 min in Uganda. Focus group discussions confirmed that transport is a major challenge due to a number of factors we categorized as the 'three A's:' affordability, accessibility and adequacy of transport options. Women reported that all of these factors had influenced their decision not to deliver in a health facility. The two countries had markedly different patterns of transportation for obstetric care, and modes of transport and travel times varied dramatically by wealth quintile, which policymakers need to take into account when designing obstetric transport interventions. PMID:26135364

  17. Effectiveness of participatory breeding and variety selection for sorghum technology adoption in Zambia

    Lloyd Mbulwe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Participatory breeding and variety selection has been proposed as an effective way of disseminating improved technologies to farmers for social-economic benefits. As a result the Sorghum and Millets Improvement Programme (SMIP, of the Zambia Agriculture Research Institution (ZARI, in collaboration with the farming systems scientists at Mansa Research Station, in Luapula Province tested the effectiveness of this methodology. The effectiveness of this method was evaluated based on the number of farmers rating new improved agriculture technologies favourably and willing to adopt the improved technologies after being exposed to participatory breeding. An on-farm participatory sorghum variety demonstration trial was conducted during the 2011/2012 rainy season in Zambia, Milenge district, of the Luapula province. The trial consisted of 12 improved sorghum germplasm lines of which six were hybrids and six were varieties developed by SMIP. The germplasm was evaluated by the farmers, extension and research staff on farm. The germplasm was evaluated for its value for cultivation and use. The methodology that was used is called participatory breeding which is part of the broader concept of participatory rural extension and the Innovative Platform for Technology Adoption (IPTA advocated by the Forum for Agriculture Research in Africa. The results of the methodology indicated that this methodology is effective if farmers are committed and good agriculture policies are in place. When farmers feel part of the developmental process, it is easier for them to adopt improved technologies.

  18. The Application of Climate Risk Informed Decision Analysis to the Ioland Water Treatment Plant in Lusaka, Zambia

    Kucharski, John; Tkach, Mark; Olszewski, Jennifer; Chaudhry, Rabia; Mendoza, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    This presentation demonstrates the application of Climate Risk Informed Decision Analysis (CRIDA) at Zambia's principal water treatment facility, The Iolanda Water Treatment Plant. The water treatment plant is prone to unacceptable failures during periods of low hydropower production at the Kafue Gorge Dam Hydroelectric Power Plant. The case study explores approaches of increasing the water treatment plant's ability to deliver acceptable levels of service under the range of current and potential future climate states. The objective of the study is to investigate alternative investments to build system resilience that might have been informed by the CRIDA process, and to evaluate the extra resource requirements by a bilateral donor agency to implement the CRIDA process. The case study begins with an assessment of the water treatment plant's vulnerability to climate change. It does so by following general principals described in "Confronting Climate Uncertainty in Water Resource Planning and Project Design: the Decision Tree Framework". By utilizing relatively simple bootstrapping methods a range of possible future climate states is generated while avoiding the use of more complex and costly downscaling methodologies; that are beyond the budget and technical capacity of many teams. The resulting climate vulnerabilities and uncertainty in the climate states that produce them are analyzed as part of a "Level of Concern" analysis. CRIDA principals are then applied to this Level of Concern analysis in order to arrive at a set of actionable water management decisions. The principal goals of water resource management is to transform variable, uncertain hydrology into dependable services (e.g. water supply, flood risk reduction, ecosystem benefits, hydropower production, etc…). Traditional approaches to climate adaptation require the generation of predicted future climate states but do little guide decision makers how this information should impact decision making. In

  19. Performance Auditing in Zambia From a Policy Transfer Perspective

    Ek, Maiken Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The concerns of areas such as democracy, corruption, rule of law, and governance are common among most countries. Confronted with such common problems, policymakers can learn from how other nations have responded through a policy transfer process. The Office of Auditor General of Zambia (OAGZ) has the ambition to promote good governance, transparency, and accountability in Zambia, partly through performance auditing. OAGZ was inexperienced in the craft of performance auditing; theref...

  20. Registration and ranking of company charges in Zambia

    Ngenda, A

    2009-01-01

    Copyright @ School of Oriental and African Studies. This article discusses the effect of the registration requirements under the Zambian Companies Act on the rules for determining priority among company charges in Zambia. In light of the Supreme Court decision in Zambia National Commercial Bank Ltd v Mwila, the article also analyses the scope for applying common law rules on the ranking of charges, vis-à-vis section 101 of the Companies Act.

  1. Climate Trends and Farmers’ Perceptions of Climate Change in Zambia

    Brian P. Mulenga; Wineman, Ayala

    2014-01-01

    In Zambia like in many other developing countries, the agricultural sector is highly dependent on rain-fed production and therefore vulnerable to weather shocks. Maize is the primary staple crop in Zambia, and is widely grown by smallholder farmers throughout the country, with a dual cassava-maize regime found only in the northern region. Among the smallholder farmers almost all production is rain-fed with very few farmers using mechanized irrigation. Climate change therefore has the potentia...

  2. District heating

    The papers presented at this meeting dealt with an international comparison of district heating, the Swiss district heating network, political aspects of nuclear district heating, nuclear and non-nuclear sources for district heating. 17 figs., 6 tabs

  3. 77 FR 31574 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia

    2012-05-29

    ...-Saharan Africa's water resources pass through Zambia, creating significant untapped hydropower potential... International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International... Mission to South Africa and Zambia November 26--November 30, 2012, to help U.S. firms find...

  4. The role of nurses and midwives in polio eradication and measles control activities: a survey in Sudan and Zambia

    Haithami Salah

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurses and midwives are the key providers of nursing and midwifery services; in many countries, they form the major category of frontline workers who provide both preventive and curative services in the community. When the skills and experience of nursing and midwifery personnel are maximized, they can contribute significantly to positive health outcomes. We conducted a survey among nurses and midwives working at district level in Sudan and Zambia to determine their roles and functions in polio eradication and measles elimination programmes. Methods Nurses and midwives practising in four selected districts in Sudan and in Zambia completed a self-administered questionnaire on their roles and responsibilities, their routine activities and their functions during supplementary immunization campaigns for polio and measles. Results Nurses and midwives were found to play significant roles in implementing immunization programme activities. The level of responsibilities of nurses and midwives in their routine work related more to existing opportunities than to their job descriptions. In Zambia, where nurses reported constraints in performing their tasks, the reasons cited were an increase in the burden of disease and the shortage of health personnel. Factors identified as key to improving work performance included written job descriptions, opportunities for staff and career development and opportunities to earn extra income through activities associated with their jobs. Other non-monetary incentives mentioned included reliable transport, resources and logistics to support routine work in the district. However, in both countries, during supplementary immunization activities or mass campaigns for polio eradication and measles control, nurses and midwives took on more management responsibilities. Conclusion This study shows that nurses and midwives play an important role in implementing immunization activities at the district level and

  5. Legislative Districts - Senate Districts

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer represents the Arkansas State Senate district boundaries adopted by the Arkansas Board of Apportionment on July 29, 2011. The Board of Apportionment,...

  6. Legislative Districts - House Districts

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer represents the Arkansas State House of Representatives district boundaries adopted by the Arkansas Board of Apportionment on July 29, 2011. The Board of...

  7. The Confucius Institute at the University of Zambia

    Kragelund, Peter; Hampwaye, Godfrey

    In the past decade, China has intensified its engagement in the internationalisation of higher education in Africa via the establishment of Confucius Institutes. The aim of this chapter is to shed light on the differences between Chinese support for higher education and ‘traditional’ partnerships......, and what the implications of these differences are for the chances of producing locally relevant knowledge in Africa. This is done through a case study of the newly established Confucius Institute at the University of Zambia in Lusaka, Zambia. This case enables us to further our understanding of how...

  8. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and albuminuria in rural Zambia

    Rasmussen, Jon B; Thomsen, Jakúp A; Rossing, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess albuminuria in rural Zambia among patients with diabetes mellitus only (DM group), hypertension only (HTN group) and patients with combined DM and HTN (DM/HTN group). METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at St. Francis Hospital in the Eastern province of Zambia...... of DM or HTN. RESULTS: A total of 193 participants were included (DM group: n = 33; HTN group: n = 92; DM/HTN group: n = 68). The participants in the DM group used insulin more frequently as diabetes medication than the DM/HTN group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the DM group was younger and had lower BMI...

  9. A cost-effectiveness analysis of artemether lumefantrine for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Zambia

    Hawela Moonga

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity, mortality and non-fatal disability in Zambia, especially among children, pregnant women and the poor. Data gathered by the National Malaria Control Centre has shown that recently observed widespread treatment failure of SP and chloroquine precipitated a surge in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. As a result, the Government has recently replaced chloroquine and SP with combination therapy as first-line treatment for malaria. Despite the acclaimed therapeutic advantages of ACTs over monotherapies with SP and CQ, the cost of ACTs is much greater, raising concerns about affordability in many poor countries such as Zambia. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness analysis of artemether-lumefantrine, a version of ACTs adopted in Zambia in mid 2004. Methods Using data gathered from patients presenting at public health facilities with suspected malaria, the costs and effects of using ACTs versus SP as first-line treatment for malaria were estimated. The study was conducted in six district sites. Treatment success and reduction in demand for second line treatment constituted the main effectiveness outcomes. The study gathered data on the efficacy of, and compliance to, AL and SP treatment from a random sample of patients. Costs are based on estimated drug, labour, operational and capital inputs. Drug costs were based on dosages and unit prices provided by the Ministry of Health and the manufacturer (Norvatis. Findings The results suggest that AL produces successful treatment at less cost than SP, implying that AL is more cost-effective. While it is acknowledged that implementing national ACT program will require considerable resources, the study demonstrates that the health gains (treatment success from every dollar spent are significantly greater if AL is used rather than SP. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is estimated to be US$4.10. When the costs of second line

  10. Task-shifting: experiences and opinions of health workers in Mozambique and Zambia

    Ferrinho Paulo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the task-shifting taking place in health centres and district hospitals in Mozambique and Zambia. The objectives of this study were to identify the perceived causes and factors facilitating or impeding task-shifting, and to determine both the positive and negative consequences of task-shifting for the service users, for the services and for health workers. Methods Data collection involved individual and group interviews and focus group discussions with health workers from the civil service. Results In both the Republic of Mozambique and the Republic of Zambia, health workers have to practice beyond the traditional scope of their professional practice to cope with their daily tasks. They do so to ensure that their patients receive the level of care that they, the health workers, deem due to them, even in the absence of written instructions. The “out of professional scope” activities consume a significant amount of working time. On occasions, health workers are given on-the-job training to assume new roles, but job titles and rewards do not change, and career progression is unheard of. Ancillary staff and nurses are the two cadres assuming a greater diversity of functions as a result of improvised task-shifting. Conclusions Our observations show that the consequences of staff deficits and poor conditions of work include heavier workloads for those on duty, the closure of some services, the inability to release staff for continuing education, loss of quality, conflicts with patients, risks for patients, unsatisfied staff (with the exception of ancillary staff and hazards for health workers and managers. Task-shifting is openly acknowledged and widespread, informal and carries risks for patients, staff and management.

  11. From chloroquine to artemether-lumefantrine: the process of drug policy change in Zambia

    Snow Robert W

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the recognition that morbidity and mortality due to malaria had dramatically increased in the last three decades, in 2002 the government of Zambia reviewed its efforts to prevent and treat malaria. Convincing evidence of the failing efficacy of chloroquine resulted in the initiation of a process that eventually led to the development and implementation of a new national drug policy based on artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT. Methods All published and unpublished documented evidence dealing with the antimalarial drug policy change was reviewed. These data were supplemented by the authors' observations of the policy change process. The information has been structured to capture the timing of events, the challenges encountered, and the resolutions reached in order to achieve implementation of the new treatment policy. Results A decision was made to change national drug policy to artemether-lumefantrine (AL in the first quarter of 2002, with a formal announcement made in October 2002. During this period, efforts were undertaken to identify funding for the procurement of AL and to develop new malaria treatment guidelines, training materials, and plans for implementation of the policy. In order to avoid a delay in implementation, the policy change decision required a formal adoption within existing legislation. Starting with donated drug, a phased deployment of AL began in January 2003 with initial use in seven districts followed by scaling up to 28 districts in the second half of 2003 and then to all 72 districts countrywide in early 2004. Conclusion Drug policy changes are not without difficulties and demand a sustained international financing strategy for them to succeed. The Zambian experience demonstrates the need for a harmonized national consensus among many stakeholders and a political commitment to ensure that new policies are translated into practice quickly. To guarantee effective policies requires

  12. The economic value of an improved malaria treatment programme in Zambia: results from a contingent valuation survey

    Rehnberg Clas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zambia is facing a double crisis of increasing malaria burden and dwindling capacity to deal with the endemic malaria burden. The pursuit of sustainable but equity mechanisms for financing malaria programmes is a subject of crucial policy discussion. This requires that comprehensive accounting of the economic impact of the various malaria programmes. Information on the economic value of programmes is essential in soliciting appropriate funding allocations for malaria control. Aims and objectives This paper specifically seeks to elicit a measure of the economic benefits of an improved malaria treatment programme in Zambia. The paper also studies the equity implications in malaria treatment given that demand or malaria treatment is determined by household socio-economic status. Methods A contingent valuation survey of about 300 Zambian households was conducted in four districts. Willingness-to-pay (WTP was elicited for an improved treatment programme for malaria in order to generate a measure of the economic benefits of the programme. The payment card method was used in eliciting WTP bids. Findings The study reports that malaria treatment has significant economic benefits to society. The total economic benefits of an improved treatment programme were estimated at an equivalent of US$ 77 million per annum, representing about 1.8% of Zambia's GDP. The study also reports the theoretically anticipated association between WTP and several socio-economic factors. Our income elasticity of demand is positive and similar in magnitude to estimates reported in similar studies. Finally, from an equity standpoint, the constraints imposed by income and socio-economic status are discussed.

  13. Mapping the geographical distribution of lymphatic filariasis in Zambia

    Mwase, Enala T; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Nsakashalo-Senkwe, Mutale;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Past case reports have indicated that lymphatic filariasis (LF) occurs in Zambia, but knowledge about its geographical distribution and prevalence pattern, and the underlying potential environmental drivers, has been limited. As a background for planning and implementation of control, a...

  14. Environmental variables affecting the success of conservation farming in Zambia

    Gatere, Lydiah; Delve, R.; Hobbs, P; DeGloria, S.; Lehmann, J.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation discusses conservation farming methods in Zambia. The research highlights how conservation farming methods may help to negate environmental variables that hinder crop production, such as lack of rainfall and poor soil quality. The study compares conservation farming practices with variable amendments, including cow manure, gliricidia leaves, biochar, and fertilizer applications. LTRA-2 (An Agricultural Markets Model for Biodiversity Conservation)

  15. Cost Sharing in Zambia's Public Universities: Prospects and Challenges

    Masaiti, Gift; Shen, Hong

    2013-01-01

    This research paper explores the concept of "cost sharing" which became more prominent in Zambia education with the advent of democratic form of governance in 1991. As a way of responding to the ever diminishing tax revenues, government through the education policy of 1996, allowed higher education institutions including public…

  16. Social Isolation and Aging in Zambia: Examining the Possible Predictors

    Christopher Chabila Mapoma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper examined social isolation and aging in Zambia by examining possible predictors. The paper produces evidence on risk factors likely to engender social isolation among the elderly population of Zambia. Snowball sampling was undertaken to select 690 adults aged 60 and over in communities as well as those living in homes for the aged. A structured questionnaire was used to solicit information from respondents. Results show that old people in Zambia experience forms of social isolation which exhibit themselves (but not limited to through such factors as loss of appetite, stress, moody, hopeless, useless, unhappy, and lonely. On balance, however, the direction of association and the number of statistically significant findings suggest that associations between variables examined and risk factors associated with social isolation amongst older people in this analysis could explain the overall situation occuring currently in Zambia and probably other developing countries. In view of this, this study recommends that further work is needed to identify and explain details of factors of social isolation using techniques such as focus group discussions as well as in-depth interviews with key informants. Such approaches may even help to explain why, for example, sex seems not to be significant in determining indicators of social isolation.

  17. Mapping the Geographical Distribution of Lymphatic Filariasis in Zambia

    Mwase, Enala T.; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Nsakashalo-Senkwe, Mutale; Mubila, Likezo; Mwansa, James; Songolo, Peter; Shawa, Sheila T.; Simonsen, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Past case reports have indicated that lymphatic filariasis (LF) occurs in Zambia, but knowledge about its geographical distribution and prevalence pattern, and the underlying potential environmental drivers, has been limited. As a background for planning and implementation of control, a country-wide mapping survey was undertaken between 2003 and 2011. Here the mapping activities are outlined, the findings across the numerous survey sites are presented, and the ecological requirements of the LF distribution are explored. Methodology/Principal findings Approximately 10,000 adult volunteers from 108 geo-referenced survey sites across Zambia were examined for circulating filarial antigens (CFA) with rapid format ICT cards, and a map indicating the distribution of CFA prevalences in Zambia was prepared. 78% of survey sites had CFA positive cases, with prevalences ranging between 1% and 54%. Most positive survey sites had low prevalence, but six foci with more than 15% prevalence were identified. The observed geographical variation in prevalence pattern was examined in more detail using a species distribution modeling approach to explore environmental requirements for parasite presence, and to predict potential suitable habitats over unsurveyed areas. Of note, areas associated with human modification of the landscape appeared to play an important role for the general presence of LF, whereas temperature (measured as averaged seasonal land surface temperature) seemed to be an important determinant of medium-high prevalence levels. Conclusions/significance LF was found to be surprisingly widespread in Zambia, although in most places with low prevalence. The produced maps and the identified environmental correlates of LF infection will provide useful guidance for planning and start-up of geographically targeted and cost-effective LF control in Zambia. PMID:24587466

  18. Identifying barriers to the availability and use of Magnesium Sulphate Injection in resource poor countries: A case study in Zambia

    Hill Suzanne R

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are serious complications of pregnancy and major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. According to systematic reviews and WHO guidelines magnesium sulphate injection (MgSO4 should be the first -line treatment for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Studies have shown that this safe and effective medicine is unavailable and underutilized in many resource poor countries. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to the availability and use of MgSO4 in the Zambian Public Health System. Methods A 'fishbone' (Ishikawa diagram listing probable facilitators to the availability and use of MgSO4 identified from the literature was used to develop an assessment tool. Barriers to availability and use of MgSO4 were assessed at the regulatory/government, supply, procurement, distribution, health facility and health professional levels. The assessment was completed during August 2008 using archival data, and observations at a pragmatic sample of health facilities providing obstetric services in Lusaka District, Zambia. Results The major barrier to the availability of MgSO4 within the public health system in Zambia was lack of procurement by the Ministry of Health. Other barriers identified included a lack of demand by health professionals at the health centre level and a lack of in-service training in the use of MgSO4. Where there was demand by obstetricians, magnesium sulphate injection was being procured from the private sector by the hospital pharmacy despite not being registered and licensed for use for the treatment of severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia by the national Pharmaceutical Regulatory Authority. Conclusions The case study in Zambia highlights the complexities that underlie making essential medicines available and used appropriately. The fishbone diagram is a useful theoretical framework for illustrating the complexity of translating research findings into clinical

  19. Provisioning of Game Meat to Rural Communities as a Benefit of Sport Hunting in Zambia

    White, Paula A.; Belant, Jerrold L.

    2015-01-01

    Sport hunting has reportedly multiple benefits to economies and local communities; however, few of these benefits have been quantified. As part of their lease agreements with the Zambia Wildlife Authority, sport hunting operators in Zambia are required to provide annually to local communities free of charge i.e., provision a percentage of the meat obtained through sport hunting. We characterized provisioning of game meat to rural communities by the sport hunting industry in Zambia for three g...

  20. The Role of Open and Distance Learning in the Implementation of the Right to Education in Zambia

    Siaciwena, Richard; Lubinda, Foster

    2008-01-01

    As a member of the United Nations, Zambia is committed to the observance of human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948. This is evidenced, among others, by the fact that Zambia is a signatory to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. Zambia has a…

  1. Factors influencing adoption of agroforestry among smallholder farmers in Zambia

    Kabwe, Gillian; Bigsby, Hugh R.; Cullen, Ross

    2009-01-01

    Agroforestry technologies have been extensively researched and introduced to smallholder farmers in Zambia for over two decades. Despite the research and extension effort over this period, not many farmers have adopted these technologies. The purpose of this paper is to determine why agroforestry technologies are not being taken up by examining factors that influence the adoption of agroforestry practices. Based on data obtained from 388 farming households, statistical analysis show an associ...

  2. Programme development and employability in higher education institutions in Zambia

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain the role of employability in programme development in the technical education, vocational and entrepreneurship training (TEVET) sector, in Zambia. The study focus was on TEVET training authority (TEVETA) a quasi government organ mandated to develop curricula for the TEVET sector and on the ministry of science, technology and vocational training (MSTVT), the ministry responsible for TEVET. The study employed a case study design using the qualitative stra...

  3. Antiretroviral Therapy and Demand for HIV Testing: Evidence from Zambia

    Nicholas Wilson

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on demand for HIV testing and of ART-induced testing on demand for risky sexual behavior. I provide a model of sexual behavior decision-making under uncertainty and estimate the structural parameters of the model using nationally representative survey data from Zambia on HIV testing decisions before and after the introduction of ART. The empirical results indicate that although the introduction of ART increased demand for HIV tes...

  4. Adoption of Improved Maize Seed Varieties in Southern Zambia

    Thomson Kalinda; Gelson Tembo; Elias Kuntashula

    2014-01-01

    Maize is the principal agricultural crop produced by Zambian smallholder farmers for household consumption and sale. Their production strategy is therefore important in meeting food security and income needs. This study uses data collected from a survey of a random sample of farm households in southern Zambia to develop a Tobit regression model. The model identifies farm and farmer characteristics important for adoption of improved maize seed varieties as well as to determine the role of farm...

  5. Maternity care in Zambia : With special reference to social support

    Maimbolwa, Margaret C

    2004-01-01

    The Zambian woman starts childbearing early and gives birth to an average of 5.9 children during her reproductive period. The already high levels of maternal deaths are increasing in Zambia. Only 43 per cent of the women deliver with the assistance of a skilled attendant. Maternity care is in focus in this thesis because of the crucial impact it may have on childbearing women and their newborns' health. The aim of this thesis is to describe prevalent maternity care routines...

  6. The University of Zambia School Teaching Experience: Is It Effective?

    Peter Chomba Manchishi; David Sani Mwanza

    2014-01-01

    Teaching practice exercises serve the purpose of orienting the teacher into real classroom situations where the novice puts his or her skills into practice. Education students at the University of Zambia (UNZA) go through the school teaching experience after their third year of study. This comes after they have arguably completed enough content and methodology courses to teach. The purpose of this study was to establish the effectiveness of the UNZA school teaching experience. The research in...

  7. Mapping the geographical distribution of lymphatic filariasis in Zambia

    Mwase, Enala T; Anna-Sofie Stensgaard; Mutale Nsakashalo-Senkwe; Likezo Mubila; James Mwansa; Peter Songolo; Sheila T Shawa; Paul E Simonsen

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Past case reports have indicated that lymphatic filariasis (LF) occurs in Zambia, but knowledge about its geographical distribution and prevalence pattern, and the underlying potential environmental drivers, has been limited. As a background for planning and implementation of control, a country-wide mapping survey was undertaken between 2003 and 2011. Here the mapping activities are outlined, the findings across the numerous survey sites are presented, and the ecological requireme...

  8. Production and utilization of tilapia feed in Rural Zambia

    Hänninen, Antti

    2014-01-01

    The overall objective of the study was to promote aquaculture development in Luapula Province, in Zambia, by carrying out research activities regarding tilapia feeding in semi-intensive culture (SIC). The field work was conducted in the province in two periods (2013 and 2014). The research included mainly identification of locally available feed materials, development of performing feeding regime, nutrient-rich and affordable feed formulae and implementation of trials to assess feed performan...

  9. Technical Compendium: Descriptive Agricultural Statistics and Analysis for Zambia

    Tembo, Solomon; Sitko, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This technical compendium was developed to serve as a reference document for development organizations, researchers, government officials, and cooperating partners working in Zambia. It uses nationally representative survey data to provide descriptive trends and analysis relevant to the agricultural sector. It is also specifically targeted for organizations tasked with implementing programs associated with USAID’s Feed the Future (FtF) initiative. As such, a special section is dedicated to Ea...

  10. Investigating trends in HIV transmission and risk factors in Zambia

    Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard

    2008-01-01

    The objective of HIV surveillance is to document trends in HIV prevalence and transmission risk in order to make informed policies and to guide prevention and care/treatment programmes. Zambia established a comprehensive HIV surveillance system in 1994 that provides data on prevalence trends in both urban and rural areas based on over 20 sentinel sites using data from antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees. Furthermore, population-based HIV surveys have been conducted regularly since...

  11. Review of the malaria epidemiology and trends in Zambia

    Masaninga, Freddie; Chanda, Emmanuel; Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Hamainza, Busiku; Masendu, Hieronymo T; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Kapelwa, Wambinji; Chimumbwa, John; Govere, John; Otten, Mac; Fall, Ibrahima Soce; Babaniyi, Olusegun

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive desk review of malaria trends was conducted between 2000-2010 in Zambia to study malaria epidemiology and trends to guide strategies and approaches for effective malaria control. This review considered data from the National Health Information Management System, Malaria Surveys and Programme Review reports and analyzed malaria in-patient cases and deaths in relation to intervention coverage for all ages. Data showed three distinct epidemiological strata after a notable malaria...

  12. Land Market Integration, Structural Change, and Smallholder Farming in Zambia

    Larson, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    The bifurcation of Zambia's agricultural land markets prevents smallholder farmers from participating in modern food marketing channels. High transaction costs in terms of time and financial resources make conversion of customary land into commercial land title prohibitively expensive for smallholder farmers. The simulated conversion of land title, without changing ownership, instigates a reallocation of capital and labor resources in the modeled economy that benefits smallholders in their ro...

  13. Gender and Policy Effects on Technology Adoption in Zambia

    Saenz, Mariana

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses the Double-Hurdle model on panel household data for small scale farmers in Zambia to examine policy gender effects on technology adoption by farmers. Technology adoption in this paper is defined as fertilizer use by small-scale farm households. The paper uses the correlated random effects framework to account for unobserved heterogeneity between farmers and its correlation with explanatory variables used in the Double-Hurdle Model. A control function approach is used to accoun...

  14. Partnership Models for Climate Compatible Development: Experiences from Zambia

    Dyer, Jen; Leventon, Julia; Stringer, Lindsay; Dougill, Andrew; Syampungani, Stephen; Nshimbi, Muleba; Chama, Francis; Kafwifwi, Ackson

    2013-01-01

    Partnership working is necessary to allow nations to harness the evolving opportunities presented by climate finance and to progress towards climate compatible development (CCD). However, the new multi-stakeholder partnerships being formed and the factors affecting their outcomes remain poorly understood. This paper aims to identify the characteristics of partnership models that can lead to successful delivery of CCD projects by analyzing case study data from two projects in Zambia. The proje...

  15. Child labour or school attendance? Evidence from Zambia

    Peter Jensen; Helena Skyt Nielsen

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we investigate what affects school attendance and child labour in an LDC, using data for Zambia. Since the data comes from a household survey with information on all household members it allows us to take account of unobserved household effects by introducing household-specific effects in a logit model. The empirical analysis suggests that both economic and sociological variables are important determinants for the choice between school attendance and child labour. In particular,...

  16. Review of the malaria epidemiology and trends in Zambia

    Freddie Masaninga; Mac Otten; Ibrahima Soce Fall; Olusegun Babaniyi; Emmanuel Chanda; Pascalina Chanda-Kapata; Busiku Hamainza; Hieronymo T Masendu; Mulakwa Kamuliwo; Wambinji Kapelwa; John Chimumbwa; John Govere

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive desk review of malaria trends was conducted between 2000-2010 in Zambia to study malaria epidemiology and trends to guide strategies and approaches for effective malaria control. This review considered data from the National Health Information Management System, Malaria Surveys and Programme Review reports and analyzed malaria in-patient cases and deaths in relation to intervention coverage for all ages. Data showed three distinct epidemiological strata after a notable malaria reduction (66%) in in-patient cases and deaths, particularly between 2000-2008. These changes occurred following the (re-)introduction and expansion of indoor residual spraying up to 90%coverage, scale-up of coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets in household from 50%to 70%, and artemisin-based combination therapy nationwide. However, malaria cases and deaths re-surged, increasing in 2009-2010 in the northern-eastern parts of Zambia. Delays in the disbursement of funds affected the implementation of interventions, which resulted in resurgence of cases and deaths. In spite of a decline in malaria disease burden over the past decade in Zambia, a reversal in impact is notable in the year 2009-2010, signifying that control gains are fragile and must be sustained toeliminate malaria.

  17. Molecular epidemiology of infectious bursal disease virus in Zambia

    Christopher J. Kasanga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR of 10 infectious bursal disease viruses detected in indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia from 2004 to 2005 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses diverged into two genotypes and belonged to the African very virulent types (VV1 and VV2. In the phylogenetic tree, strains in one genotype clustered in a distinct group and were closely related to some strains isolated in western Africa (VV1, with nucleotide similarities of 95.7%– 96.5%. Strains in the other genotype were clustered within the eastern African VV type (VV2, with nucleotide similarities of 97.3%– 98.5%. Both genotypes were distributed in the southern parts of Zambia and had a unique conserved amino acid substitution at 300 (E→A in addition to the putative virulence marker at positions 222(A, 242(I, 256(I, 294(I and 299(S. These findings represent the first documentation of the existence of the African VV-IBDV variants in both indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia.

  18. In Search of the Lost Tongue: Prospects for Mother Tongue Education in Zambia.

    Banda, Felix

    1996-01-01

    Discusses problems associated with the implementation of mother tongue education in Zambia. Focus is on the sociolinguistic situation, language policy after independence, sociolinguistic implications, language use in different domains, language use and ethnic identity in Zambia, Kenya, and Tanzania, prospects for mother tongue education; bilingual…

  19. An empirical economic assessment of impacts of climate change on agriculture in Zambia

    Jain, Suman

    2007-01-01

    This report assesses the economic impacts of climate change on agriculture in Zambia, using the Ricardian method. A multiple linear regression model with net revenue per hectare as response variable has been fitted with climate, hydrological, soil, and socioeconomic variables as explanatory variables. There is one main cropping season in Zambia, lasting from November to April. Crop product...

  20. 77 FR 48498 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia

    2012-08-14

    ... the Notice published at 77 FR 31574, May 29, 2012, regarding the Executive- Led Trade Mission to South... Sectors sections of the Notice of the Executive- Led Mission to Zambia and South Africa, 77 FR 31574, May... International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY:...

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L... consignments only. (b) Immature “baby” carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus) for consumption measuring 10...

  2. Bismarck in the Bush: Year 12 Write Zambia's History for Zambian Students

    Gray, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Peter Gray explains how his Year 12 students came to research and write a resource on the history of Zambia, for history teachers "in" Zambia. The construction of the resource stretched the Year 12 students in new ways: the Internet was useless and there were no easy digests in A-Level textbooks to get them started. They would have to read whole…

  3. Managing Water for Sustainable Growth and Poverty Reduction : A Country Water Resources Assistance Strategy for Zambia

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The country water resources assistance strategy for Zambia provides an analysis of the role of water in the economy and identifies the specific challenges, development opportunities and policies which inform an agreed framework for priority areas of assistance. Zambia lies entirely within the catchments of the Zambezi and Congo rivers and all internal runoff is shared by downstream and par...

  4. The human resource for health situation in Zambia: deficit and maldistribution

    Ferrinho Paulo

    2011-12-01

    Province; for level 2 facilities (provincial level hospitals, from 30% for Western to 70% for Copperbelt Province; for level 1 facilities (district level hospitals, from 54% for the Southern to 80% for the Western provinces; for rural health centres, vacancies varied from 15% to 63% (for Lusaka and Luapula provinces respectively; for urban health centres the observed vacancy rates varied from 13% for the Lusaka to 96% for the Western provinces. We observed significant shortages in most staff categories, except for support staff, which had a significant surplus. Discussion and Conclusions This case study documents how a peaceful, politically stable African country with a longstanding tradition of strategic management of the health sector and with a track record of innovative approaches dealt with its HRH problems, but still remains with a major absolute and relative shortage of health workers. The case of Zambia reinforces the idea that training more staff is necessary to address the human resources crisis, but it is not sufficient and has to be completed with measures to mitigate attrition and to increase productivity.

  5. Burn injuries in eastern Zambia: impact of multidisciplinary teaching teams.

    Edwards, Dianna; Heard, Jason; Latenser, Barbara A; Quinn, Keely Y; van Bruggen, Jaap; Jovic, Goran

    2011-01-01

    The American Burn Association/Children's Burn Foundation (ABA/CBF) sponsors teams who offer burn education to healthcare providers in Zambia, a sub-Saharan country. The goals of this study are 1) to acquire burn-patient demographics for the Eastern Province, Zambia and 2) to assess the early impact of the ABA/CBF-sponsored burn teams. This is a retrospective chart review of burn patients admitted in one mission hospital in Katete, Zambia, July 2002 to June 2009. July 2002 to December 2006 = data before ABA/CBF burn teams and January 2007 to June 2009 = burn care data during/after burn outreach. There were 510 burn patients hospitalized, male:female ratio 1.2:1. Average age = 15.6 years, with 44% younger than 5 years. Average TBSA burned = 11% and mean fatal TBSA = 25%. Average hospital length of stay = 16.9 days survivors and 11.6 days nonsurvivors. Most common mechanisms of burn injuries: flame (52%) and scald (41%). Ninety-two patients (18%) died and 23 (4.5%) left against medical advice. There were 191 (37.4%) patients who underwent 410 surgical procedures (range 1-13/patient). There were 138 (33.7%) sloughectomies, 118 (28.7%) skin grafts, 39 (9.5%) amputations, and 115 (28.1%) other procedures. Changes noted in the 2007 to 2009 time period: more patients had burn diagrams (48.6 vs 27.6%, P set for a sub-Saharan region in Africa. There has been a statistically significant improvement in documentation of burn size as well as administration of analgesics, validating the efficacy of the ABA/CBF-sponsored burn teams. Continued contact with burn teams may lead to increased use of resuscitation fluids, topical antimicrobials, and more patients undergoing operative intervention, translating into improved burn patient outcomes. PMID:21131848

  6. Ecological aspects of cattle tick control in central Zambia.

    Pegram, R G; Lemche, J; Chizyuka, H G; Sutherst, R W; Floyd, R B; Kerr, J D; McCosker, P J

    1989-07-01

    In ecological studies in central Zambia, both climate and ecotype affected population dynamics of tick species. Below average rainfall for several years caused a suppression in numbers of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann adults. Reduction in rainfall leading to changes in grazing patterns is thought to have been responsible for an increase in numbers of Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius adults in a grassland habitat. There were reasonable correlations between numbers of each tick species on individual hosts over 1 year old. However, there were no relationships between numbers of ticks and bovine lymphocyte antigens (BoLA). PMID:2519677

  7. Background Paper: Politics and Interactive Media in Zambia

    Simutanyi, Neo; Fraser, Alastair; Milapo, Nalukui

    2015-01-01

    The PiMA Working Papers are a series of peer-reviewed working papers that present findings and insights from Centre of Governance and Human Rights? (CGHR) Politics and Interactive Media in Africa (PiMA) research project (2012-14). The project, jointly funded by the ESRC and DFID (ES/J018945/1), focuses on expressions of ?public opinion? in broadcast media via new information and communication technologies (ICT) such as mobile phones in Kenya and Zambia. PiMA examines the political implication...

  8. Knowledge, attitude and compliance with tuberculosis treatment, Lusaka, Zambia

    Mweemba, P.; Haruzivishe, C.; Siziya, Seter; Chipimo, Peter Jay; Cristenson, K.; Johansson, E

    2008-01-01

    More than 1.5 million TB cases occur in sub-Saharan Africa every year. Lack of compliance to TB treatment has contributed to the steady rise of TB incidence in Zambia. The prevalence of TB was 511 per 100,000 population in 2000. Much of the increase in incidence has been attributed to co-infection with HIV, there are HIV rates of 70-80% in TB patients Objectives: To determine knowledge, attitude and compliance with TB treatment by PTB patients attending chest clinic at a tertiary hospital....

  9. Declining economy in Zambia and its impact in food security

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2013-01-01

    Zambia is a landlocked country located in southern central Africa and it is one of the poorest countries in the world and is considered a least developed country. Malnutrition is a chronic and difficult problem in this country. Agriculture is the main occupation and maize is the staple food. About 90% farmers of the country are smallholders, dependent on rain fed agriculture. After independence it was rich in food and could export maize but since 2002 it has to import maize every year. Litera...

  10. Use of internet in rural areas of Zambia

    Hoorik, P. van; Mweetwa, F.

    2008-01-01

    Access to information and, more importantly, the internet is not evenly distributed in this world. But if they had it, would people in rural Africa want to use the internet? How would they use it and benefit from it? Will internet influence culture and how can communities prepare themselves when the internet comes in their village? To support the rollout of internet in more rural areas in Zambia and to improve the effectiveness of ICT in rural environments, a clear view on the adoption and us...

  11. Coprological survey of alimentary tract parasites in dogs from Zambia and evaluation of a coproantigen assay for canine echinococcosis.

    Nonaka, N; Nakamura, S; Inoue, T; Oku, Y; Katakura, K; Matsumoto, J; Mathis, A; Chembesofu, M; Phiri, I G K

    2011-10-01

    Faecal samples were collected from the rectum of 540 domestic dogs from four districts (Lusaka, Katete, Petauke and Luangwa) in Zambia between 2005 and 2006 and prevalences of canine alimentary tract parasites were determined by coprological examination. Thirteen different ova and parasites including strongyle (43.3%), Spirocerca lupi (18.7%), taeniid (13.1%), Toxocara canis (7.6%), Sarcocystis sp.* (7.5%), Isospora sp.* (5.7%), Physaloptera sp.* (4.6%), Capillaria sp.* (2.8%), Dipylidium caninum (2.2%), Mesocestoides sp.* (2.0%), Ascaris sp.* (1.7%), Trichuris vulpis* (0.4%) and Schistosoma mansoni* (0.4%) were detected, Ascaris and Schistosoma probably originating from coprophagy. The species with asterisks and later-described Taenia multiceps are for the first time reported from dogs in Zambia. A coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoproAg-ELISA) developed for Echinococcus spp. revealed 43 positive dogs and 37 of these harboured taeniid eggs. From 63 of the 71 taeniid egg-positive samples, eggs and DNA thereof were isolated and subjected to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for differentiating E. granulosus sensu lato, E. multilocularis and Taenia spp. Amplicons indicative for Taenia spp. were obtained from 60 samples. Sequencing of amplicons spanning part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, which was possible with 38 samples, revealed 35 infections with T. hydatigena and 3 with T. multiceps. Therefore, the CoproAg-ELISA showed some positives, but concrete evidence for the existence of canine E. granulosus infection could not be established. Comparison of the results of the CoproAg-ELISA and Taenia species identification indicated that the CoproAg-ELISA cross-reacts with patent infections of T. hydatigena (57%) and T. multiceps (33%). PMID:22185947

  12. The health status of rural primary schoolchildren in Central Zambia.

    Ng'andu, N H; Nkowane, B M; Watts, T E

    1991-06-01

    In a study of 528 rural primary schoolchildren in Central Zambia, it was found that the health status of the schoolchildren was not good as indicated by inadequate nutrition, a high prevalence of S. haematobium (18%), hookworm (33%), and malaria (43%) infections. There were no statistically significant differences in prevalence of undernutrition between girls and boys and there were no significant trends with age. The treatment and control of hookworm disease, urinary schistosomiasis and malaria deserve a high priority in this area. As for malaria, until an international programme on its control can be developed, the acquisition of protective immunity is of paramount importance. This study shows how the use of 'simple' screening procedures can provide information to direct health education and other disease control measures in school health programmes. As the economic situation in Zambia is not good, the best hope for improvement of the children's health lies with environmental improvement in sanitation, water supplies and provision of basic health education. PMID:1711129

  13. Persistence of lindane and endosulfan under field conditions in Zambia

    The persistence of lindane and endosulfan was studied under field conditions in Zambia in 1992 to 1994. Both pesticides dissipated rapidly under field conditions. About 29% and 73% of initial concentration was lost during the first 30 and 60 days after treatment, respectively in 1992. After 180 days, about 11% of the initial concentration was recovered from the soil. In 1993, 40% of initial residues were lost during the first 30 days. At 180 days after spraying, slightly more residues (25% of the initial values) were recovered at this time than in 1992. This indicated a change in the longer term behaviour of lindane in the soil since the calculated half-lives of lindane, covering the shorter term behaviour, were 55-80 days in 1992 and ∼ 17 days in 1993. In 1994, losses of α-Endosulfan and β-Endosulfan were 40% and 37% respectively during the initial 30 days after treatment. A further 25% of α-Endosulfan and 33% of β-Endosulfan were lost during the following 30 days. These data allow estimates of the half-lives of α- and β-Endosulfan (40 and 38 days) under the field conditions pertaining in Zambia at the time of the trials showing that this compound has only moderate persistence and unlikely to cause long term environmental problems. (author). 7 refs, 8 tabs

  14. Factors Influencing Poverty Alleviation amongst Microfinance Adopting Households in Zambia

    Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate the factors having the most influence on the alleviation of poverty amongst the households adopting microfinance in Zambia. Ninety nine (n=99 respondents were randomly and purposively selected from amongst 340 microfinance adopters of the so-called Micro Bankers Trust programme operating a microfinance business in the Makululu Compound of Kabwe, Zambia. Socio-demographic primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews based on a semi-structured questionnaire instrument. The data were entered into an excel spreadsheet for analysis. The descriptive data were thereafter exported and fitted to an empirical model. The descriptive results revealed that the majority of the respondents were married, unemployed, fairly educated younger women from larger-sized poor households who drew their household income mainly from microfinance activities. The majority of the respondents thought microfinance had improved their well-being in some crucial areas. The results of the empirical model found that some respondents were indeed alleviated from poverty through microfinance. Conclusion drawn in this paper is that microfinance does alleviate poverty of the poor.

  15. Congressional Districts

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer depicts the 114th Congressional Districts for the United States. Found within this layer is the listing of the 114th House of Representatives. Elected to...

  16. Victimization from bullying among school-attending adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in Zambia

    Emmanuel Rudatsikira; Seter Siziya; Adamson Sinjani Muula

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Among school- attending adolescents, victimization from bullying is associated with anxiety, depression and poor academic performance. There are limited reports on victimization from bullying in Zambia; we therefore conducted this study to determine the prevalence and correlates for victimization from bullying among adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in the country in order to add information on the body of knowledge on victimization from bullying. Methods: The 2004 Zambia Gl...

  17. Pattern of acute poisoning at two urban referral hospitals in Lusaka, Zambia

    Z’gambo, Jessy; Siulapwa, Yorum; Michelo, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Background Poisoning remains an important public health problem contributing significantly to the global burden of disease. Evidence on the exact burden and pattern of acute poisoning in Zambia is limited. We aimed to characterise acute poisoning with regard to demographic and epidemiologic factors of cases reported at the University Teaching Hospital and Levy Mwanawasa General Hospital; two large referral hospitals in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving retrosp...

  18. Is green economy achievable through championing green growth? A local government experience from Zambia

    Phiri Rodgers

    2016-01-01

    The need to enhance environmental sustainability, sustainable development and growth that takes into account the well-being of the people and nature because of the increased production and consumption of goods and services is the major driver to the introduction of green economy in Zambia and countries in southern Africa. This article examines the extent to which local government in Zambia has embraced green growth and green economy and critically analyses the concept of green economy and gre...

  19. Funding and scale-up of HIV / AIDS services in Zambia

    Global HIV/AIDS Initiatives Network,

    2009-01-01

    This policy brief describes the funding for HIV/AIDS in Zambia focusing on the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS relief (PEPFAR), the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) and the World Bank Multi Country AIDS program (MAP). It highlights the impact of this funding on scale-up of HIV/AIDS services and on non-HIV/AIDS services in Zambia.

  20. Preliminary Investigation of Trypanosomosis in Exotic Dog Breeds from Zambia's Luangwa and Zambezi Valleys Using LAMP

    Namangala, Boniface; Oparaocha, Elizabeth; Kajino, Kiichi; Hayashida, Kyoko; Moonga, Ladslav; Inoue, Noboru; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2013-01-01

    Canine African trypanosomosis (CAT) is rarely reported in the literature. In this preliminary study, we evaluated the performance of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) against microscopy to detect CAT in six exotic dog breeds naturally infected with trypanosomes from Zambia's South Luangwa National Park and Chiawa Game Management Area. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CAT in Zambia. The patients exhibited a variety of aspecific clinical signs. The LAMP did not only con...

  1. Strengthening Faculty Recruitment for Health Professions Training in Basic Sciences in Zambia

    Simuyemba, Moses; Talib, Zohray; Michelo, Charles; Mutale, Wilbroad; Zulu, Joseph; Andrews, Ben; Katubulushi, Max; Njelesani, Evariste; Bowa, Kasonde; Maimbolwa, Margaret; Mudenda, John; Mulla, Yakub

    2014-01-01

    Zambia is facing a crisis in its human resources for health (HRH), with deficits in the number and skill mix of health workers. The University of Zambia School of Medicine (UNZA SOM) was the only medical school in the country for decades, but recently it was joined by three new medical schools—two private and one public. In addition to expanding medical education, the government has also approved several allied health programs, including pharmacy, physiotherapy, biomedical sciences, and envir...

  2. Quality of care for patients with sexually transmitted diseases in Zambia

    Faxelid, Elisabeth

    1997-01-01

    QUALITY OF CARE FOR PATIENTS WITH SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASESIN ZAMBIA Elisabeth Faxelid Factors which have implications for STD care in Zambia have been described andanalysed in order to find strategies for quality improvements. A total of 684 patients with STD were interviewed about health seeking behaviour,sex partners, and satisfaction with quality of care. The male patients had had moresex partners than the female patients, but both groups knew the identity pa...

  3. Reforming pensions in Zambia : an analysis of existing schemes and options for reform

    Queisser, Monika; Bailey, Clive; Woodall, John

    1997-01-01

    All of Zambia's pension schemes are deficient in design, financing, and administration. This report urges that Zambia restructure its social protection system to complement its new economic strategy. That restructuring must address such basic problems as macroeconomic fluctuations and an unstable financial sector; high inflation rates and politically-motivated low-yield investments and loans; income ceilings irregularly adjusted for inflation; overgenerous public sector pension benefits; and ...

  4. From project aid to sustainable HIV services: a case study from Zambia

    Torpey Kwasi; Mwenda Lona; Thompson Catherine; Wamuwi Edgar; Van Damme Wim

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Sustainable service delivery is a major challenge in the HIV response that is often not adequately addressed in project implementation. Sustainable strategies must be built into project design and implementation to enable HIV efforts to continue long after donor-supported projects are completed. Case description This paper presents the experiences in operational sustainability of Family Health International's Zambia Prevention, Care and Treatment Partnership in Zambia, w...

  5. Peasant household modelling: Farming systems evolution and sustainability in northern Zambia

    Holden, Stein T.

    1993-01-01

    Chitemene slash-and-burn cultivation continues to be a dominating cropping system in northern Zambia even after the introduction of modern technologies such as hybrid maize and fertilizer. The rationale of farming systems evolution in northern Zambia where labour markets have been absent or highly imperfect, has been analyzed by goal programming based on the theories of Chayanov (1966) and Nakajima (1986). Carrying capacity estimation is incorporated in the models and discussed in relation to...

  6. Nature and Causes of Learning Difficulties in Genetics at High School Level in Zambia

    Haambokoma, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Genetics has been identified as one of the difficult topics in biology for high school students in Zambia. This paper reports a study conducted to determine the nature and causes of learning difficulties students encounter in genetics at high school level in Zambia. A survey design was used and data were obtained from students and teachers using interview schedules and self-completion questionnaires. Quota sampling procedure was used to select the sample from the target population. Data colle...

  7. Non-Sexual Transmission of Trichomonas vaginalis in Adolescent Girls Attending School in Ndola, Zambia

    Crucitti, T; Jespers, V.; Mulenga, C.; Khondowe, S.; Vandepitte, J.; Buvé, A

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for trichomoniasis among young women in Ndola, Zambia. METHOD: The study was a cross-sectional study among adolescent girls aged 13-16 years in Ndola, Zambia. Study participants were recruited from schools in selected administrative areas that represented the different socio-economic strata in town. Consenting participants were interviewed about their socio-demographic characteristics; sexual behaviour; and hygiene practices. Self-administered vaginal swab...

  8. Child Health Week in Zambia: costs, efficiency, coverage and a reassessment of need.

    Fiedler, John L; Mubanga, Freddie; Siamusantu, Ward; Musonda, Mofu; Kabwe, Kabaso F; Zulu, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Child Health Weeks (CHWs) are semi-annual, campaign-style, facility- and outreach-based events that provide a package of high-impact nutrition and health services to under-five children. Since 1999, 30% of the 85 countries that regularly implement campaign-style vitamin A supplementation programmes have transformed their programmes into CHW. Using data drawn from districts' budget, expenditures and salary documents, UNICEF's CHW planning and budgeting tool and a special purposive survey, an economic analysis of the June 2010 CHW's provision of measles, vitamin A and deworming was conducted using activity-based costing combined with an ingredients approach. Total CHW costs were estimated to be US$5.7 million per round. Measles accounted for 57%, deworming 22% and vitamin A 21% of total costs. The cost per child was US$0.46. The additional supplies and personnel required to include measles increased total costs by 42%, but reduced the average costs of providing vitamin A and deworming alone, manifesting economies of scope. The average costs of covering larger, more urban populations was less than the cost of covering smaller, more dispersed populations. Provincial-level costs per child served were determined primarily by the number of service sites, not the number of children treated. Reliance on volunteers to provide 60% of CHW manpower enables expanding coverage, shortening the duration of CHWs and reduces costs by one-third. With costs of $1093 per life saved and $45 per disability-adjusted life-year saved, WHO criteria classify Zambia's CHWs as 'very cost-effective'. The continued need for CHWs is discussed. PMID:23242696

  9. The Role of Open and Distance Learning in the Implementation of the Right to Education in Zambia

    Richard Siaciwena; Foster Lubinda

    2008-01-01

    As a member of the United Nations, Zambia is committed to the observance of human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948. This is evidenced, among others, by the fact that Zambia is a signatory to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. Zambia has a permanent Human Rights Commission that includes a subcommittee on child rights whose focus is on child abuse and education. Zambia also has a National...

  10. Rural electrification in Zambia: A policy and institutional analysis

    Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the

  11. Rural electrification in Zambia: A policy and institutional analysis

    Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the

  12. Geology of the uranium occurrence in the Bungua area, Siavonga District, Zambia

    Uranium mineralization related to the fluviatile continental sandstone of the Escarpment Grit Formation of Upper Karroo System has been studied in detail in the Bungua area. Airborne and ground gamma-radiation surveys resulted in the discovery of mineralized bodies containing secondary minerals such as meta-autunite, phosphuranylite, uranocircite, abernythite, boltwoodite, etc. disseminated in various ways. Geological, radiometric, stratigraphic, sedimentological and petrological studies coupled with exploration pitting, trenching and drilling were employed to assess the nature, distribution and sub-surface continuation of mineralized bodies. Drilling, logging and XRF analysis revealed that the uranium mineralized bodies are mainly lenses at different levels, which may be concordant or discordant with bedding. The thickness and grade of ore horizons differ considerably. Mineral distribution and controls are complex and that the main deposit is controlled by reducing lithologies, organic matter, clay traps, micas, iron cementing and permeable channels. Although no definite mode of origin can be attributed to the presently seen uranium mineralized bodies, they appear to be from a pre-existing ore deposit which is mobilized and redistributed during oxidation by supergene processes. It is suggested that the original uranium was in solution as uranylion and came from the same source area as the host rocks and the uranium-bearing groundwater and streams moved in the same direction as the associated Escarpment Grit sediments. Uranium was precipitated wherever favourable conditions prevailed in the Escarpment Grit Formation. (author)

  13. Factors associated with health facility childbirth in districts of Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia

    Phiri, Selia Ng'anjo; Kiserud, Torvid; Kvåle, Gunnar;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality continues to be a heavy burden in low and middle income countries where half of all deliveries take place in homes without skilled attendance. The study aimed to investigate the underlying and proximate determinants of health facility childbirth in rural and urban...... repeated exposure to ANC services and HIV related counselling and testing were positively associated with health facility deliveries. Perceived distance was negatively associated with facility childbirth in rural areas of Malindi and urban areas of Kapiri Mposhi. CONCLUSION: Strong socio...

  14. Antiretroviral therapy and demand for HIV testing: Evidence from Zambia.

    Wilson, Nicholas

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on demand for HIV testing and of ART-induced testing on demand for risky sexual behavior. I provide a model of sexual behavior decision-making under uncertainty and estimate the structural parameters of the model using nationally representative survey data from Zambia on HIV testing decisions before and after the introduction of ART. The empirical results indicate that although the introduction of ART appears to have increased HIV testing rates by upwards of 50 percent, the ART allocation process may have limited the prevention benefit of ART-induced testing. Simulation results show that eliminating this prevention inefficiency while holding the supply of ART constant would increase the prevention impact of ART-induced testing more than four-fold. More generally, the analysis indicates that existing studies which examine "universal" testing or quasi-experimental testing programs understate the efficacy of standard voluntary counseling and testing programs. PMID:26970992

  15. Geophysical and geochemical characterisation of groundwater resources in Western Zambia

    Chongo, Mkhuzo; Banda, Kawawa Eddy; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter;

    Zambia’s rural water supply system depends on groundwater resources to a large extent. However, groundwater resources are variable in both quantity and quality across the country and a national groundwater resources assessment and mapping program is presently not in place. In the Machile area in...... South-Western Zambia, groundwater quality problems are particularly acute. Saline groundwater occurrence is widespread and affects rural water supply, which is mainly based on shallow groundwater abstraction using hand pumps. This study has mapped groundwater quality variations in the Machile area using...... both ground-based and airborne geophysical methods as well as extensive water quality sampling. The occurrence of saline groundwater follows a clear spatial pattern and appears to be related to the palaeo Lake Makgadikgadi, whose northernmost extension reached into the Machile area. Because the lake...

  16. Refugee migration and local economic development in Eastern Zambia.

    Black, R

    1994-01-01

    "This article examines the local socio-economic impact of the arrival of Mozambican refugees in the Eastern Province of Zambia. Previous studies of forced migration elsewhere in Africa have suggested that not only stresses, but also positive gains for local development may be felt in areas hosting significant numbers of refugees. It is suggested here that an appropriate framework from which to analyze the impact of refugees is to focus separately on the effects of population increase on the one hand, and the specific characteristics of refugees on the other. Using this distinction, a model is developed of potential beneficial changes resulting from the arrival of refugees. Key assumptions of this model are then identified to be of relevance to policies designed to promote local economic development under conditions of refugee migration." PMID:12288062

  17. Human impact on Karst: the example of Lusaka (Zambia.

    De Waele Jo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Lusaka, the capital of Zambia with over 2,000,000 inhabitants, is built on an extensive plateau composed mainly of schists and dolomitic marbles, constituting a very important aquifer that provides the city with almost half of its drinking water needs. Recent demographic growth, leading to uncontrolled urban expansion, and mismanagement of the water resource and of urban waste has lead, in the past 20 years, to an overexploitation of the aquifer and to a generalised water quality depletion, putting in serious danger the future social and economical development of the capital. This third world city has, for these reasons, become a terrifying example of human impact on a vulnerable karst environment, and if no measures will be taken in the very near future, quality of life in the city will be at serious risk.

  18. Child spacing and contraception among the poor in Zambia

    Vijayan K Pillai

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vijayan K Pillai1, Rashmi Gupta21School of Social Work, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, USA; 2Department of Social Work, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA, USAAbstract: For decades, family planning programs have targeted women in developing countries. These programs bestow a great deal of autonomy on women with respect to fertility decision making. It is well known that a number of close relatives in multigenerational and extended family systems influence women’s fertility decisions with respect to child spacing and contraceptive use. One approach toward a systematic study of fertility decision making is to explicitly consider the husband’s influences on fertility decision making. This study examines the effects of a selected number of factors on the desired birth interval lengths. We interviewed husbands and wives separately from 165 randomly selected households from two poor neighborhoods in the city of Kitwe, Zambia. Three ordinal birth interval groups were obtained for both husbands and wives separately. The effect of selected factors on the likelihood of influencing the three groups was examined using ordinal logistic regression methods. Data from husbands and wives were analyzed separately. Qualitative methods such as semistructured interviews were used to gather extensive information on the various factors that husbands and wives perceive to influence their child spacing decisions. We found differences in accounts with respect to child spacing between husbands and wives, likely due to a lack of communication. A gender-sensitive approach is necessary to promote spacing methods among poor couples in Zambia.Keywords: child spacing, contraceptive use, correspondence analysis, couple decision making

  19. Zambia - More Jobs and Prosperity in Zambia : What Would it Take? Based on the Jobs and Prosperity : Building Zambia’s Competitiveness Program

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    While Zambia's economy performs well, in macroeconomic terms, low levels of productivity plague industry, and this constrains growth, diversification and prosperity. In recent years, economic growth has averaged 5-6 percent a year, business reforms are being implemented, and investment levels are at an all time high. However, according to the World Economic Forum's global competitiveness i...

  20. Inquiry into the Indigenous, Cultural and Traditional Astronomical Knowledge: A case of the Lamba land of Zambia

    Simpemba, Prospery C.

    2015-08-01

    Indigenous astronomy in the context of Zambia is the oral astronomy knowledge, culture and beliefs which relate to celestial bodies, astronomy events and related behaviour that are held by the elderly persons and passed on to younger generations. Much is not written down and with the passing away of the custodians, this knowledge is threatened to be extinct. A mini study of the astronomical beliefs and culture of the ancient Zambian community during the International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009 revealed that such knowledge existed. A comprehensive study assesses cultural and traditional knowledge on astronomy and to ascertain how much of this knowledge has been passed on to the younger generations. Open-ended interviews were conducted using questionnaires and focus group discussions. Respondents were identified by snowball sampling of the elderly people and random sampling of the middle aged and young. Nine randomly sampled districts of the Copperbelt Province were considered. The collected data has been analysed using MAXQDA software. Knowledge of traditional astronomy is high among the elderly people and declining with age hence the need for documenting and introducing it in the school curriculum and regular public discourse.

  1. Effects of Water Provision and Hydration on Cognitive Function among Primary-School Pupils in Zambia: A Randomized Trial

    Trinies, Victoria; Chard, Anna N.; Mateo, Tommy; Freeman, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    There is a well-established link between hydration and improved cognitive performance among adults, with evidence of similar findings among children. No trials have investigated the impact of water provision on cognitive performance among schoolchildren in hot and arid low-resource settings. We conducted a randomized-controlled trial in five schools with limited water access in Chipata district in Eastern province, Zambia, to assess the efficacy of water provision on cognition. Pupils in grades 3–6 were randomly assigned to either receive a bottle of drinking water that they could refill throughout the day (water group, n = 149) or only have access to drinking water that was normally available at the school (control group, n = 143). Hydration was assessed in the morning before provision of water and in the afternoon through urine specific gravity (Usg) measured with a portable refractometer. In the afternoon we administered six cognitive tests to assess short-term memory, concentration, visual attention, and visual motor skills. Morning prevalence of dehydration, defined as Usg≥1.020, was 42%. Afternoon dehydration increased to 67% among the control arm and dropped to 10% among the intervention arm. We did not find that provision of water or hydration impacted cognitive test scores, although there were suggestive relationships between both water provision and hydration and increased scores on tests measuring visual attention. We identified key improvements to the study design that are warranted to further investigate this relationship. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01924546 PMID:26950696

  2. Implementation of the Community Health Assistant (CHA) Cadre in Zambia: A Process Evaluation to Guide Future Scale-Up Decisions.

    Shelley, Katharine D; Belete, Yekoyesew W; Phiri, Sydney Chauwa; Musonda, Mutinta; Kawesha, Elizabeth Chizema; Muleya, Evelyn Mutinta; Chibawe, Caroline Phiri; van den Broek, Jan Willem; Vosburg, Kathryn Bradford

    2016-04-01

    Universal health coverage requires an adequate health workforce, including community health workers (CHWs) to reach rural communities. To improve healthcare access in rural areas, in 2010 the Government of Zambia implemented a national CHW strategy that introduced a new cadre of healthcare workers called community health assistants (CHAs). After 1 year of training the pilot class of 307 CHAs deployed in September 2012. This paper presents findings from a process evaluation of the barriers and facilitators of implementation of the CHA pilot, along with how evidence was used to guide ongoing implementation and scale-up decisions. Qualitative inquiry was used to assess implementation during the first 6 months of the program rollout, with 43 in-depth individual and 32 small group interviews across five respondent types: CHAs, supervisors, volunteer CHWs, community members, and district leadership. Potential 'implementation moderators' were explored using deductive coding and thematic analysis of participant perspectives on community acceptance of CHAs, supervision support mechanisms, and coordination with volunteer CHWs, and health system integration of a new cadre. Community acceptance of CHAs was generally high, but coordination between CHAs and existing volunteer CHWs presented some challenges. The supervision support system was found to be inconsistent, limiting assurance of consistent quality care delivered by CHAs. Underlying health system weaknesses regarding drug supply and salary payments furthermore hindered incorporation of a new cadre within the national health system. Recommendations for implementation and future scale based on the process evaluation findings are discussed. PMID:26547550

  3. Anthelmintic efficacy in captive wild impala antelope (Aepyceros melampus) in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Nalubamba, King S; Mudenda, Ntombi B

    2012-05-25

    There has been an increase in the number of wild ungulates kept in captivity for ecotourism and conservation in Zambia and these animals are susceptible to a number of diseases including gastrointestinal helminth infections. Surveys to determine anthelmintic efficacy to gastrointestinal nematodes in captive-wildlife are not common and there have been no reports of anthelmintic resistance in captive-wildlife in Zambia. This study was carried out to determine the efficacy of the benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole in captive wild impala (Aepyceros melampus) in Zambia. During the month of April 2011, at the end of the rainy season, the faecal egg count reduction test was performed at a private game facility for assessing anthelmintic efficacy of oral fenbendazole and the anthelmintic treatment showed an efficacy of 90%. Haemonchus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. were the predominant genera present before treatment, but Haemonchus spp. larvae were the only genus recovered from the faecal cultures after anthelmintic treatment. This represents the first documentation of anthelmintic treatment failure in captive wild-antelopes in Zambia. It also demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the common traditional practice of deworming captive-wild antelopes at the end of the rainy season due to the rapid re-infection of impala that occurs due to high pasture infectivity. Suggestions on changes to current anthelmintic use/practices that will make them more efficacious and reduce the possibility of development of anthelmintic resistance in captive wild game in Zambia are also made. PMID:22115945

  4. Regulatory framework, strategy and radioactive waste management in Zambia

    Full text: Zambia is involved in the peaceful application in Nuclear Science and Technology which cover the agriculture, human health, industry, research and education sectors. In the execution of the projects various radioactive sources and radioisotopes are used. The data from the Radiation Protection Board show that there are 136 organizations and 971 Radiation workers benefit from the regulatory control and personnel Dosimetry service that is provided by the Board. The radiation user institutions are broken down as follows: medical (106), industrial (18), research (10) and (2) in teaching. The radioactive waste generated and spent sources are managed, in several ways depending on the type . In addition to radioactive waste generated by various application there are new developments concerning the management of spent sources mainly brought into control by the detection of illicit trade or trafficking activities by the Police, Drug Enforcement Commission, and the vigilant people of the community. The challenge for Zambia is to set-up a Radioactive Waste Management Facility preferably under the National Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research (NISIR). The RPB should legally designate NISIR for this function and assist to have the Government provide support that is required to have an operation and effective facility. One Radioactive Waste Interim Storage Shed at Kalulushi. This shed was put up by a copper mining conglomerate which now has been privatized. It is hoped that this facility can be licensed by Radiation Protection Board to be run by private enterprise for storage of prescribed spent radioactive sources and materials. This shed should be technically competent persons and should have good equipment for the purpose. The application in industry (NDT, mining, radiation sterilization, pipeline and construction, human health (nuclear medicine, radioimmunoassay and radiotherapy practices) and agriculture (use of P-32) required that a National Strategy

  5. Adoption of Improved Maize Seed Varieties in Southern Zambia

    Thomson Kalinda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the principal agricultural crop produced by Zambian smallholder farmers for household consumption and sale. Their production strategy is therefore important in meeting food security and income needs. This study uses data collected from a survey of a random sample of farm households in southern Zambia to develop a Tobit regression model. The model identifies farm and farmer characteristics important for adoption of improved maize seed varieties as well as to determine the role of farmer perceptions of technology attributes in maize varietal adoption. The results indicate that expectations about output price and yield are important determinants of adoption. Other factors directly correlated with the probability of adoption include the status of being male-headed, farm size and membership to farmer organizations. Households with more wealth and educated heads were also significantly more likely to adopt improved varieties. Some of the policy implications of these findings are that intervention strategies should be designed and implemented to encourage poor households and those with low levels of formal education to participate in local farmer organizations. The positive interaction between membership to organizations and the adoption of technologies also suggests that group based extension approaches should be encouraged not only for their role in collective action but also for their positive impact on information diffusion and technology adoption.

  6. Proterozoic strata-bound uranium deposits of Zambia and Zaire

    The Katanga System, host to uranium and copper mineralisation, is several thousands of metres thick and rests unconformably on an older complex of crystalline rocks and metasediments and is locally covered by Karoo sandstones or Kalahari sands. The deposition of the Katanga System took place during the Late Proterozoic in a wide complex basin extending from Shaba province in Zaire through a large part of Zambia and into eastern Angola. The sediments were affected by different grades of metamorphism, tectonic events, and by thermal events associated with post-tectonic metamorphism. At the base of Katanga system there are 84 known copper deposits and 42 uranium occurrences. It is suggested that all the known uranium and copper occurrences are of an essentially syngenetic sedimentary origin. The mineralisation is found in the Lower Roan Formation near the base of the Katanga System occurring in rocks produced in similar environmental conditions and thus being stratigraphic controlled, however, their areal distribution is localised producing a regional metal zonation. Many of the uranium occurrences have a typical vein aspect. These transgressive relationships are not inconsistent with a syngenetic origin as evidenced by the vein morphology. (author)

  7. HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in Zambia

    Kenneth C Kapembwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Epidemiologic data of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfection are needed in sub-Saharan Africa to guide health policy for hepatitis screening and optimized antiretroviral therapy (ART. Materials and Methods: We screened 323 HIV-infected, ART-eligible adults for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis C antibody (HCV Ab at a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. We collected basic demographic, medical, and laboratory data to determine predictors for coinfection. Results: Of 323 enrolled patients, 32 (9.9%; 95% CI=6.7-13.2% were HBsAg positive, while 4 (1.2%; 95% CI=0.03-2.4% were HCV Ab positive. Patients with hepatitis B coinfection were more likely to be 200 IU/L was uncommon and did not differ between the two groups (3.4% vs. 2.3%; P=0.5. We were unable to determine predictors of hepatitis C infection due to the low prevalence of disease. Conclusions: HIV and hepatitis B coinfection was common among patients initiating ART at this tertiary care facility. Routine screening for hepatitis B should be considered for HIV-infected persons in southern Africa.

  8. Coal prospects in Botswana, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Namibia

    NONE

    2013-12-01

    Increasing demand for coal in Asia is stimulating interest in the potentially large coal resources in Southern African countries such as Botswana, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Namibia. These countries have been slow to utilise their coal as local demand has been limited and the means to export coal has been inadequate. The governments in these regions are now recognising coal as a strategically important commodity, capable of earning foreign revenue but also adding value to the economy by generating much needed electricity. This report looks in turn at the role of coal in the energy economies of each of these countries. As in most emerging economies, the provision of a reliable and cost-effective supply of electricity to industries and people is essential for economic growth and the welfare of communities. Demand for Africa's mineral commodities such as diamonds and copper is driving a massive need for electricity and coal will play a major role. Not only does the mining industry need power, but with these growing industries come communities and commerce which are also in need of energy.

  9. Risk Assessment for Yellow Fever in Western and North-Western Provinces of Zambia

    Babaniyi, Olusegun A; Peter Mwaba; David Mulenga; Mwaka Monze; Peter Songolo; Mazyanga L Mazaba-Liwewe; Idah Mweene-Ndumba; Freddie Masaninga; Elizabeth Chizema; Messeret Eshetu-Shibeshi; Costantine Malama; Emmanuel Rudatsikira; Seter Siziya

    2015-01-01

    Background: North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia were reclassified as low-risk areas for yellow fever (YF). However, the current potential for YF transmission in these areas is unclear. Aims: To determine the current potential risk of YF infection. Setting and Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia. Materials and Methods: Samples were tested for both YF virus-specific IgG and IgM antibodies by the ELISA and YF virus confirmation...

  10. A collaborative model for value added and safe food production in Zambia

    Seeley, C.; Chikahya, J.; Lewis, D; Travis, A.; Moraru, C.I.

    2010-01-01

    Zambia, a country of about 12 million people located in Sub-Saharan Africa, is currently affected by the “triple threat” of poor governance, high prevalence of HIV/AIDS, and chronic and acute food insecurity. Over 60 percent of the people in Zambia live in rural areas, with limited access to clean water, electricity, and quality education. Development of agriculture and food production could be key for the development of the country and for pulling the impoverished masses into a more healthy ...

  11. Introduction and development of competitive football in Zambia (1930-1969): a historical perspective

    Chipande, Hikabwa Decius

    2009-01-01

    This thesis will attempt to explore and analyse the diffusion and development of football in Zambia. It will look at how football, a game which was played by the colonialists was introduced and became a popular sport among the local people. The main focus in this study is on the important directions of football development in Zambia from 1930 to the late1960’s. There are periods in this study that will be covered less thoroughly, due to the scarcity of sources, however, I belie...

  12. The impact of climate variability and change on economic growth and poverty in Zambia:

    Thurlow, James; Zhu, Tingju; DIAO, Xinshen

    2009-01-01

    "We combined a hydro-crop model with a dynamic general equilibrium (DCGE) model to assess the impacts of climate variability and change on economic growth and poverty reduction in Zambia. The hydro-crop model is first used to estimate the impact of climate variability on crop yields over the past three decades and such analysis is done at the crop level for each of Zambia's five agroecological zones, supported by the identification of zonal-level extreme weather events using a drought index a...

  13. Women poverty in Zambia, incidences and causes : a case study of small-scale rural agricultural women of Kalomo district, Zambia

    2006-01-01

    Women poverty debate has been part of the global poverty debates since the 1970s. Many research reports and publication on poverty reveals that women are disproportionary poorer than men (Jazairy et al 1992, World Bank 2000c, Momsen 2004). The incidences of poverty are high among rural women farmers than in urban area. The women poverty differential between rural and urban areas is attributed to the economic activities the said poor are involved in. Women farmers are said to be poor because t...

  14. Why pigs are free-roaming: Communities' perceptions, knowledge and practices regarding pig management and taeniosis/cysticercosis in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Phiri, Andrew M; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Isaac K; Gabriël, Sarah

    2016-07-30

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis in many developing countries including Zambia. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. Socio-cultural determinants related to free range pig management and their implications for control of T. solium remain unclear. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, reported practices and knowledge regarding management of pigs and taeniosis/cysticercosis (including neurocysticercosis) in an endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia, and to identify possible barriers to pig related control measures such as pig confinement. A total of 21 focus group discussions on pig husbandry practices were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages from Petauke district. The findings reveal that the perception of pigs and their role in society (financial, agricultural and traditional), the distribution of the management tasks among the family members owning pigs (feeding, building kraal, seeking care) and environmental aspects (feed supply, presence of bush, wood use priorities, rainy season) prevailing in the study area affect pig confinement. People have a fragmented knowledge of the pork tapeworm and its transmission. Even if negative aspects/health risks of free-range pigs keeping are perceived, people are ready to take the risk for socio-economic reasons. Finally, gender plays an important role because women, and also children, seem to have a higher perception of the risks but lack power in terms of economic decision-making compared to men. Currently pig confinement is not seen as an acceptable method to control porcine cysticercosis by many farmers in Eastern Zambia, vaccination and treatment seemed to be more appropriate. Embedded in a One Health approach, disease control programs should therefore ensure a complementary appropriate set of control

  15. A Case for Regular Aflatoxin Monitoring in Peanut Butter in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from a 3-Year Survey in Zambia.

    Njoroge, Samuel M C; Matumba, Limbikani; Kanenga, Kennedy; Siambi, Moses; Waliyar, Farid; Maruwo, Joseph; Monyo, Emmanuel S

    2016-05-01

    A 3-year comprehensive analysis of aflatoxin contamination in peanut butter was conducted in Zambia, sub-Saharan Africa. The study analyzed 954 containers of 24 local and imported peanut butter brands collected from shops in Chipata, Mambwe, Petauke, Katete, and Nyimba districts and also in Lusaka from 2012 to 2014. For analysis, a sample included six containers of a single brand, from the same processing batch number and the same shop. Each container was quantitatively analyzed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in six replicates by using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; thus, aflatoxin contamination level of a given sample was derived from an average of 36 test values. Results showed that 73% of the brands tested in 2012 were contaminated with AFB1 levels >20 μg/kg and ranged up to 130 μg/kg. In 2013, 80% of the brands were contaminated with AFB1 levels >20 μg/kg and ranged up to 10,740 μg/kg. Compared with brand data from 2012 and 2013, fewer brands in 2014, i.e., 53%, had aflatoxin B1 levels >20 μg/kg and ranged up to 1,000 μg/kg. Of the eight brands tested repeatedly across the 3-year period, none consistently averaged ≤20 μg/kg. Our survey clearly demonstrates the regular occurrence of high levels of AF B1 in peanut butter in Zambia. Considering that some of the brands tested originated from neighboring countries such as Malawi, Zimbabwe, and South Africa, the current findings provide a sub-Saharan regional perspective regarding the safety of peanut butter. PMID:27296427

  16. The Impact of an Unconditional Cash Transfer on Early Child Development: The Zambia Child Grant Program

    Seidenfeld, David; Prencipe, Leah; Handa, Sudhanshu; Hawkinson, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Little research has been conducted on unconditional cash transfers (UCTs) despite their growing prevalence in Africa, including South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Malawi, Lesotho, and Uganda. In this study, researchers implemented a randomized control trial with over 2,500 households to investigate the impact of Africa's child grant program on…

  17. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Zambia

    A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) mission to Zambia. The IUREP Orientation Phase mission to Zambia estimates that the Speculative Resources of that country fall within the range of 33 000 and 100 000 tonnes uranium. The majority of these resources are believed to exist in the Karoo sediments. Other potentially favourable geological environments are the Precambrian Katanga sediments, as well as intrusive rocks of different chemical compositions and surficial duricrusts. Previous unofficial estimates of Zambia's Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR) and Estimated Additional Resources (EAR) are considered to be still valid: the total RAR amount to 6 000 tonnes uranium, located in Karoo (4 000 tonnes) and Katanga (2 000 tonnes) sediments, while the EAR are believed to total 4 000 tonnes being found only in Karoo sediments. The mission recommends that approximately US$ 40 million be spent on uranium exploration in Zambia over 10 years. The largest part of this expenditure would be for drilling, while the remainder should be spent on airborne and ground surveys, as well as on interpretative work on previous airborne data, Landsat imageries, etc. (author)

  18. Un/Doing Gender? A Case Study of School Policy and Practice in Zambia

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2009-01-01

    This article explores an attempt to disrupt gender inequality in a unique, low-cost private school in Ndola, Zambia. It examines deliberate school policies aimed at "undoing gender" or fostering greater gender equity. These include efforts to maintain gender parity at all levels of the school and the requirement that both young men and women carry…

  19. Smallholder dairy production and markets: a comparison of production systems in Zambia, Kenya and Sri Lanka

    Moll, H.A.J.; Staal, S.J.; Ibrahim, M.N.M.

    2007-01-01

    Three smallholder dairy production systems in Zambia, Sri Lanka and Kenya are analysed and compared. The focus is on the relationships between the animal production system, the farm household system, and the institutional environment. Attention is given to the valuation of marketed and non-marketed

  20. 77 FR 66797 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia

    2012-11-07

    ..., published at 77 FR 31574, May 29, 2012, to expand the eligibility to include U.S. trade associations and to... Africa and Zambia scheduled for November 26-30, 2012, announced in the Notice published at 77 FR 31574, May 29, 2012, as previously amended by notices at 77 FR 48498 (Aug. 14, 2012) adding the water...

  1. Extremely Drug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Senftenberg Infections in Patients in Zambia

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Joensen, Katrine Grimstrup; Lukwesa-Musyani, Chileshe;

    2013-01-01

    Two cases of extremely drug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg isolated from patients in Zambia were investigated by utilizing MIC determinations and whole-genome sequencing. The isolates were resistant to, and harbored genes toward, nine drug classes, including fluoroquinolones and...

  2. The emergence and evolution of HIV counselling in Zambia: a 25-year history

    J. Simbaya; E. Moyer

    2013-01-01

    HIV-related counselling practices have evolved since emerging in Zambia in 1987. Whereas, initially, the goal of HIV counselling was to provide psychological support to the dying and their families, as knowledge about HIV grew, counselling objectives expanded to include behavioural change, encouragi

  3. Role of partnership in enhancing the performance of radiation regulatory authority in Zambia

    The National Radiation Infrastructure includes legislation, human resource, technical capacity to execute responsibilities of the regulatory (1). In cases of developing countries like Zambia, special challenges arise in view of the constraints both in terms of human resource and funding. This paper will highlight same measures that may be undertaken to improve the operations of nation radiation protection infrastructure. The measures include collaboration with Science and Technology organisations that have technical capacity, delegation of responsible to key institutions that may have competence and generation of funds through training and provision of reliable quality service. (2). In Zambia, some achievements in this line have been registered by Radiation Protection Board working with the University of Zambia and National Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research (3). Some measures of generation of funds have been done though utilization of the generated remains to be the limiting factor to exploit fully benefits that may arise from the use of the monies generated from services. Partnerships with private sector may be used as regulatory authorities for support to its programme in particular the public awareness campaign. Sponsorship by a Private Cellar Phone Company (Telecel Zambia) and Rotary Club of Lusaka for Radiation Week to Radiation Protection Service under Theme 'Safe Radiation Use' is one such an example. The other opportunity is the technical cooperation with regional and international organisations such as SADC, IAEA, WHO, Interpol, EU and WCO for technical capacity building, human resource development and information access. (author)

  4. People know what they need. An interview with women activists in Zambia

    Uhde, Zuzana; Tožička, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2015), s. 53-59. ISSN 1213-0028 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : development * Zambia * gender equality Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography http://dx.doi.org/10.13060/12130028.2015.16.2.220

  5. HIV Testing among Adolescents in Ndola, Zambia: How Individual, Relational, and Environmental Factors Relate to Demand

    Denison, Julie A.; McCauley, Ann P.; Dunnett-Dagg, Wendy A.; Lungu, Nalakwanji; Sweat, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how individual, relational and environmental factors related to adolescent demand for HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). A cross-sectional survey among randomly selected 16-19-year-olds in Ndola, Zambia, covered individual (e.g., HIV knowledge), environmental (e.g., distance), and relational factors (e.g., discussed…

  6. Education and Zambia's Democratic Development: Reconstituting "Something" from the Predatory Project of Neoliberal Globalization

    Abdi, Ali A.; Ellis, Lee

    2007-01-01

    Zambia, a central African country of about 10 million people, is currently exposed to the nonsubjective forces of globalization, including institutional weaknesses such as high unemployment rated and chronic levels of poverty that ipso facto problematize its governance and social development priorities. The first part of the article focuses on an…

  7. Household welfare and natural resource management around national parks in Zambia

    Bandyopadhyay, Sushenjit; Tembo, Gelson

    2009-01-01

    Game management areas in Zambia aim to combine nature conservation with economic empowerment of rural households. By looking at households inside and outside game management areas, this study advances the knowledge of the impact of community based natural resource management on household welfare. The paper focuses on the economic welfare of households living inside game management areas. I...

  8. Information Provision in Emergency Settings: The Experience of Refugee Communities in Zambia

    Kanyengo, Brendah Kakulwa; Kanyengo, Christine Wamunyima

    2011-01-01

    This article identifies information provision services in emergency settings using Zambia as a case study by identifying innovative ways of providing library and information services. The thrust of the article is to analyze information management practices of organizations that work within refugee camps and how they take specific cognizance of the…

  9. 77 FR 29369 - Notice of Entering Into a Compact With the Republic of Zambia

    2012-05-17

    ..., works or services introduced into Zambia in connection with the Program; (ii) sales tax, value added tax... services in connection with the Program; (iii) taxes and other similar charges on ownership, possession or...) direct payment to the relevant provider of goods, works or services for the implementation of the...

  10. Aspects of productivity of traditionally managed Barotse cattle in the Western Province of Zambia.

    Klink, van E.G.M.

    1994-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, traditionally managed livestock is important because of the provision of draught power and manure, the provision of security and investment possibilities, for the provision of meat and milk, and for social purposes (eg. brideprice, gifts). In the Western Province of Zambia

  11. Early Childhood Care and Education in Zambia: An Integral Part of Educational Provision?

    Thomas, Carolyn M.; Thomas, Matthew A. M.

    2009-01-01

    The field of international development has recently been consumed by a shift in contemporary educational discourse, one that moves Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) closer to the forefront of what is considered progressive policy formation. In Zambia, the current educational environment seems to indicate that the creation and continued…

  12. Developing a Nutrition and Health Education Program for Primary Schools in Zambia

    Sherman, Jane; Muehlhoff, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    School-based health and nutrition interventions in developing countries aim at improving children's nutrition and learning ability. In addition to the food and health inputs, children need access to education that is relevant to their lives, of good quality, and effective in its approach. Based on evidence from the Zambia Nutrition Education in…

  13. Zambia's participation in past CTBTO activities and the upgrading of AS119 and N192: Experiences and the way forward

    This presentation briefly describes the Zambian Seisimic Network (ZSN), Zambia's participation in past CTBTO activities and upgrading of AS119 and N192. It goes on to describe various experiences encountered and makes some suggestions for future considerations

  14. 'Then give him to the crocodiles': violence, State formation, and cultural discontinuity in west central Zambia, 1600-2000

    Binsbergen, van, W.M.J.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to explore the extent to which violence can be said to underlie any form of Stae formation in precolonial Africa. This is done by examining the role of violence in State formation in west central Zambia from the 17th century onwards. The chapter shows that State formation in west central Zambia entailed the imposition upon local village communities of a more or less centralized sociopolitical structure, representing a departure from the social organization and i...

  15. Retention in care, resource utilization, and costs for adults receiving antiretroviral therapy in Zambia: a retrospective cohort study

    Scott, Callie A.; Iyer, Hari S.; McCoy, Kelly; Moyo, Crispin; Long, Lawrence; Bruce A. Larson; Rosen, Sydney

    2014-01-01

    Background Of the estimated 800,000 adults living with HIV in Zambia in 2011, roughly half were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). As treatment scale up continues, information on the care provided to patients after initiating ART can help guide decision-making. We estimated retention in care, the quantity of resources utilized, and costs for a retrospective cohort of adults initiating ART under routine clinical conditions in Zambia. Methods Data on resource utilization (antiretroviral [A...

  16. The burden of knowing: balancing benefits and barriers in HIV testing decisions. a qualitative study from Zambia

    Jürgensen Marte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Client-initiated HIV counselling and testing has been scaled up in many African countries, in the form of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT. Test rates have remained low, with HIV-related stigma being an important barrier to HIV testing. This study explored HIV testing decisions in one rural and one urban district in Zambia with high HIV prevalence and available antiretroviral treatment. Methods Data were collected through 17 in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions with individuals and 10 in-depth interviews with counsellors. Interpretive description methodology was employed to analyse the data. Results 'To know your status' was found to be a highly charged concept yielding strong barriers against HIV testing. VCT was perceived as a diagnostic device and a gateway to treatment for the severely ill. Known benefits of prevention and early treatment were outweighed by a perceived burden of knowing your HIV status related to stigma and fear. The manner in which the VCT services were organised added to this burden. Conclusions This study draws on social stigma theory to enhance the understanding of the continuity of HIV related stigma in the presence of ART, and argues that the burden of knowing an HIV status and the related reluctance to get HIV tested can be understood both as a form of label-avoidance and as strong expressions of the still powerful embodied memories of suffering and death among non-curable AIDS patients over the last decades. Hope lies in the emerging signs of a reduction in HIV related stigma experienced by those who had been tested for HIV. Further research into innovative HIV testing service designs that do not add to the burden of knowing is needed.

  17. Adolescent HIV disclosure in Zambia: barriers, facilitators and outcomes

    Gitau Mburu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As adolescents living with HIV gain autonomy over their self-care and begin to engage in sexual relationships, their experiences of being informed about their HIV status and of telling others about their HIV status may affect their ability to cope with having the disease. Methods: In 2010, we conducted a qualitative study among adolescents aged 10–19 living with HIV in Zambia, and with their parents and health care providers. Through interviews and focus group discussions, we explored the disclosure of HIV status to adolescents living with HIV; adolescents’ disclosure of their status to others; and the impact of both forms of disclosure on adolescents. Results: Our study identified three main barriers to disclosure of HIV status: local norms that deter parents from communicating with their children about sexuality; fear of HIV stigma; and an underlying presumption that adolescents would not understand the consequences of a HIV diagnosis on their lives and relationships. With regard to adolescents’ disclosure of their HIV status to their sexual partners, our study identified fear of rejection as a common barrier. In rare cases, open family conversations about HIV helped adolescents come to terms with a HIV diagnosis. Findings indicated that disclosure had various outcomes at the individual and interpersonal levels. At the individual level, some adolescents described being anxious, depressed and blaming themselves after being told they had HIV. At the interpersonal level, disclosure created opportunities for adolescents to access adherence support and other forms of psychosocial support from family members and peers. At the same time, it occasionally strained adolescents’ sexual relationships, although it did not always lead to rejection. Conclusions: There is a need for public health interventions that guide adolescents living with HIV, their parents and families through the disclosure process. Such interventions should help

  18. A quasi-experimental evaluation of an interpersonal communication intervention to increase insecticide-treated net use among children in Zambia

    Keating Joseph

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents results from an evaluation of the effect of a community health worker (CHW –based, interpersonal communication campaign (IPC for increasing insecticide-treated mosquito net (ITN use among children in Luangwa District, Zambia, an area with near universal coverage of ITNs and moderate to low malaria parasite prevalence. Methods A quasi-experimental community randomized control trial was conducted from 2008 to 2010. CHWs were the unit of randomization. Cross-sectional data were collected from houses in both 2008 and 2010 using simple random sampling of a complete household enumeration of the district. A difference-in -differences approach was used to analyse the data. Results ITN use among children χ2 = 96.3, p 0.05. ITN use also increased among children five to 14 years old from 37% in 2008 to 68% in 2010. There was no indication that the CHW-based intervention activities had a significant effect on increasing ITN use in this context, over and above what is already being done to disseminate information on the importance of using an ITN to prevent malaria infection. Discussion ITN use increased dramatically in the district between 2008 and 2010. It is likely that IPC activities in general may have contributed to the observed increase in ITN use, as the increased observed in this study was far higher than the increase observed between 2008 and 2010 malaria indicator survey (MIS estimates. Contamination across control communities, coupled with linear settlement patterns and subsequent behavioural norms related to communication in the area, likely contributed to the observed increase in net use and null effect in this study.

  19. The influence of cultural practices on the HIV and AIDS pandemic in Zambia

    Nolipher Moyo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Culture plays a significant role in people’s lives in Zambia and in Africa as a whole. Consequently, there is a need to take Zambian or African culture seriously in order to look at the salient elements of cultural practices in rites of passage that influence the spread of HIV and AIDS. This article analyses four rites of passage associated with birth, puberty, marriage and death. There are numerous rites of passage in Zambian culture. Some of these rites help to curb the spread of HIV and AIDS, whilst others exacerbate the spread of the virus. Using the Reformed Church in Zambia Bible Study Method of Subgroups, discussions were held that allowed victims of cultural practices to tell their stories using the narrative model. This article sought to shed light on cultural practices that exacerbate HIV and AIDS and more importantly, provide culturally sensitive alternatives to these harmful practices.

  20. Structural study and geochronology in the Hook Batholith, Central Zambia

    Naydenov, K.; Lehmann, J.; Saalmann, K.; Milani, L.; Kinnaird, J.; Charlesworth, G.; Frei, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Pan-African Hook batholith is emplaced N of the Mwembeshi dislocation, a regional scale structure at the contact between Zambezi Belt and Lufilian Arc in Central Zambia. Exposed over 12000 km2 the batholith is composed mainly of fine-grained and coarse-grained porphyritic granites and leucogranites affected by solid-state deformation along high-strain zones. Two main zones of deformation were investigated - the Itezhi-Tezhi Zone (ITZ) in the SW part of the batholith and the Nalusanga Zone (NZ) to the NE. The 2.5 km wide, N-S trending, subvertical ITZ is a medium-grade, pure shear dominated structure, reflecting probably regional scale E-W shortening. In the central part of the zone, augen-gneiss textures developed. Mineral lineations plunging ~40° S are recorded occasionally. The deformed feldspar porphyroclasts show symmetrical tails and rarely sinistral stair-stepping. In the SE part of the Hook batholith the continuation of the ITZ trends E-W. This orientation can be explained by rotation of the original ITZ trend by N-S shortening that also has been recorded in the siliciclastic metasediments S of the contact. S dipping, up to 15 cm wide thrust zones observed in the ITZ area were probably formed during this tectonic event. The 3 km wide NZ is a subvertical to steeply SSW dipping structure, parallel to the NE contact of the batholith, with well-developed foliation and mineral stretching lineations. Field and microstructural analyses defined the NZ as a medium-grade, non-coaxial, sinistral strike-slip shear zone. The transition from weak foliated granite to S-C mylonites and ultramylonites was observed. The sinistral shearing is consistent with E-W shortening in agreement with the tectonic framework of the ITZ. The low grade metasediments to the E of the granite are folded in N to NNW trending structures also implying E-W shortening. Temperature conditions during the deformation in ITZ and NZ inferred from microstructural analyses are about 500°-550°C. The

  1. Household lifestyle, energy related practices and perceptions of energy efficiency: Evidence from Kitwe, Zambia

    Lilias Makashini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa is noted for not only constant power shortages but also poor access to electricity. In Zambia, for example, 75% of the population does not have access to electricity. This is partly because although Zambia has one of the lowest energy tariffs in Southern Africa, when compared with household monthly income, the resource is still reasonably unaffordable. Therefore, there is need to find innovative ways of reducing energy cost. Recent studies have indicated that there are patterns that show that there is a relationship between households' lifestyles and energy consumption. This means that understanding household lifestyles and how that impacts on energy use would be crucial in helping occupants to change their behaviours. This would result in the minimisation of energy consumption and thus a reduction in energy bills. However, there is a dearth of scholarly literature about households' lifestyles and their impacts on energy consumption in most developing countries including Zambia. This study investigates the perceptions of different lifestyles on household energy consumption and knowledge about energy efficiency in the city of Kitwe, the second largest city in Zambia. Motivation and barriers to energy efficiency have also been investigated. To achieve this, a mixed research approach was adopted. Firstly, a quantitative closed structured questionnaire instrument was used to collect data from 59 households in Kitwe. Secondly, mini-focus group discussions (average size of 5 ― brought about by the curiosity of residents and hence the contribution as families per household ― were undertaken in the informal settlement. The major findings are that households are generally motivated to implement energy saving strategies like covering pots when cooking, switching off lights in rooms that are not in use and that more information is needed as lack of knowledge and ‘landlord control' were identified as some of the barriers to energy

  2. Prospects for growth and poverty reduction i n Zambia, 2001-2015

    Lofgren, Hans; Thurlow, James; Robinson, Sherman

    2004-01-01

    "Zambia is one of the poorest countries in Africa. Despite substantial reform during the 1990s, the economy has remained heavily dependent on urban-based mining. Copper's long-standing dominance led to a strong bias against agriculture, which undermined the sector's growth and export potential. Consequently poverty has remained concentrated within marginalized rural areas. Recent volatility in copper exports and growing foreign debt indicate the need for further economic diversification and p...

  3. Effectiveness of participatory breeding and variety selection for sorghum technology adoption in Zambia

    Lloyd Mbulwe; Mwila Lwaile; Medson Chisi

    2015-01-01

    Participatory breeding and variety selection has been proposed as an effective way of disseminating improved technologies to farmers for social-economic benefits. As a result the Sorghum and Millets Improvement Programme (SMIP), of the Zambia Agriculture Research Institution (ZARI), in collaboration with the farming systems scientists at Mansa Research Station, in Luapula Province tested the effectiveness of this methodology. The effectiveness of this method was evaluated based on the number ...

  4. WP 80 - An overview of women’s work and employment in Zambia

    Maarten Klaveren; Kea Tijdens; Melanie Hughie Williams; Nuria Ramos Martin

    2009-01-01

    *Management Summary* This report provides information on Zambia on behalf of the implementation of the DECISIONS FOR LIFE project in that country. The DECISIONS FOR LIFE project aims to raise awareness amongst young female workers about their employment opportunities and career possibilities, family building and the work-family balance. This report is part of the Inventories, to be made by the University of Amsterdam, for all 14 countries involved. It focuses on a gender analysis of work and ...

  5. Education Sector Public Expenditure Tracking and Service Delivery Survey in Zambia

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    The Public Expenditure Tracking Survey (PETS) and Quality Service Delivery Survey (QSDS) report is a product of a microscopic analysis of the performance of the Zambian Government in the education and skills sector. The report brings out independent viewpoints on the status of the education sector in Zambia; that is, it sheds light on the achievements that the sector has made in implementing the strategies and interventions intended to provide quality education serv...

  6. Aspects of productivity of traditionally managed Barotse cattle in the Western Province of Zambia.

    Klink, van der, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, traditionally managed livestock is important because of the provision of draught power and manure, the provision of security and investment possibilities, for the provision of meat and milk, and for social purposes (eg. brideprice, gifts). In the Western Province of Zambia, cattle are the only livestock of significance. The soils of the province virtually entirely consist of Kalahari sands, that are not very suitable for crop production, but with a good suitability for ...

  7. Condition and management of the rangelands in the Western Province of Zambia.

    Baars, R.M.T.

    1996-01-01

    A land evaluation for extensive grazing was conducted to determine the potential carrying capacity (CC) of the Western Province of Zambia. A hierarchical land classification resulted in Land Regions (9), Land Systems (32), Land Units (124) and Land Facets (415). The vegetation was surveyed, resulting in a 1: 500,000 map of landscapes and grasslands.Mid dry season grazing capacities were assessed for the delineated Land Units. Grazing management systems were surveyed. Two transhumance and two ...

  8. Modified Kigali Combined Staging Predicts Risk of Mortality in HIV-Infected Adults in Lusaka, Zambia

    Peters, Philip J.; Zulu, Isaac; Kancheya, Nzali G.; Lakhi, Shabir; Chomba, Elwyn; Vwalika, Cheswa; Kim, Dhong-Jin; Brill, Ilene; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the utility of the modified Kigali combined (MKC) staging system for predicting survival in HIV-infected Zambian adults in a prospective, longitudinal, open cohort. From 1995 to 2004, HIV-discordant couples (one HIV-infected partner and one HIV-negative partner) were recruited from couples' voluntary counseling and testing centers in Lusaka, Zambia and followed at 3-month intervals. MKC stage, which incorporates clinical stage with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), hematocrit,...

  9. Reasons for home delivery and use of traditional birth attendants in rural Zambia: a qualitative study

    Sialubanje, Cephas; Massar, Karlijn; Davidson H Hamer; Ruiter, Robert AC

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the policy change stopping traditional birth attendants (TBAs) from conducting deliveries at home and encouraging all women to give birth at the clinic under skilled care, many women still give birth at home and TBAs are essential providers of obstetric care in rural Zambia. The main reasons for pregnant women’s preference for TBAs are not well understood. This qualitative study aimed to identify reasons motivating women to giving birth at home and seek the help of TBAs. Th...

  10. Investigating groundwater salinity in the Machile-Zambezi Basin (Zambia) with hydrogeophysical methods

    Chongo, Mkhuzo; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Vest Christiansen, Anders; A. Nyambe, Imasiku; Larsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Vigtigheden af et kendskab forekomsten af grundvandsressourcens kan ikke overvurderes i landområder i den tredje verden med begrænset vandressourcer. I forbindelse med beskrivelse forekomsten af vandressourcer, er anvendelsen af nye, hurtige og effektive geofysiske metoder et vigtigt element. I denne PhD afhandling præsenteres anvendelse af geoelektriske og elektromagnetiske metoder til undersøgelse saltforekomster i grundvandet i Machile-Zambezi bassinet i Zambia, i det sydlige Afrika. Den r...

  11. Determination of dichlorvos residue levels in vegetables sold in Lusaka, Zambia

    Sinyangwe, Davies Mwazi; Mbewe, Boniface; Sijumbila, Gibson

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Small scale and large scale farmers around Lusaka, the capital city of Zambia grow vegetables using intensive agriculture methods to satisfy the ever increasing demand. To ensure maximum yield they apply various types of pesticides to control pests and diseases that attack these vegetables. Organophosphate pesticides are widely used in agriculture for the control of various insect pests mainly in developing countries. The purpose of the study was to determine the residual levels ...

  12. The climate change agenda in Zambia: National interests and the role of development cooperation

    Funder, Mikkel; Mweemba, Carol Emma; Nyambe, Imasiku

    2013-01-01

    In the past ten years a significant number of policies and projects have been implemented in African countries in order to address climate change. At the same time, African countries have become more vocal in the global climate change negotiations. And yet there has been little analysis of domestic climate change agendas in African countries. This working paper is a modest first step in understanding the climate change agenda in one particular country, namely Zambia. The paper focuses on thre...

  13. Active Management of Third Stage of Labour Saves Facility Costs in Guatemala and Zambia

    Judith T Fullerton; Frick, Kevin D.; Fogarty, Linda A.; Fishel, Joy D.; Vivio, Donna M.

    2006-01-01

    This study calculated the net benefit of using active management of the third stage of labour (AMTSL) rather than expectant management of the third stage of labour (EMTSL) for mothers in Guatemala and Zambia. Probabilities of events were derived from opinions of experts, publicly available data, and published literature. Costs of clinical events were calculated based on national price lists, observation of resources used in AMTSL and EMTSL, and expert estimates of resources used in managing p...

  14. Water Resources management in Zambia and Zimbabwe. Report from study trip 1992

    Sørensen, J; Ibrekk, H.O.

    1992-01-01

    Two researchers, Mr. Hans Olav Ibrekk and Mr. Jan Sørensen from Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), visited Zambia and Zimbabwe for two weeks in April/May 1992 to undertake a comparative study on water resources management. The study was financed by the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Norwegian Institute for Water Research as part of a program to improve Norwegian environmental scientist's competence with regard to development aid co-operation. The report is divided i...

  15. Role of the informal sector in coping with economic crisis in Thailand and Zambia

    Finnegan, Gerry; Singh, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Based on surveys of poor households in Thailand and Zambia carried out in 2000. Uses a sustainable livelihood approach to explore the livelihood problems experienced by these households during economic crisis and examines their survival strategies and coping mechanisms. Identifies types of capital available to them and investigates support available from inside and outside the community. Highlights the role of the informal sector employment and makes proposals for informal sector policies.

  16. Serological Survey of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in Zambia

    T. K. W. Sikombe; Mweene, A. S.; John Muma; Kasanga, C.; Y. Sinkala; Banda, F.; Mulumba, M.; Fana, E. M.; C. Mundia; Simuunza, M.

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) circulating in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) from selected areas in Zambia. Sera and probang samples were collected between 2011 and 2012 and analysed for presence of antibodies against FMDV while probang samples were used to isolate the FMDV by observing cytopathic effect (CPE). Samples with CPE were further analysed using antigen ELISA. High FMD seroprevalence was observed and antibodies to all t...

  17. Zambia's housing scheme of the mid 1990s: Have the poor really been empowered?

    Basila, Christcola

    2005-01-01

    Issues of housing are becoming very important as the urban population grows at a very rapid rate, particularly in developing countries. The number of people who are homeless and those living in substandard housing in Zambia is enormous. A home ownership programme through the sale of public rental housing to sitting tenants was seen as one of the strategies under the 1996National Housing Policy aimed at solving the housing crisis in the country especially among the low-income groups. There are...

  18. Disentangling HIV and AIDS Stigma in Ethiopia,Tanzania and Zambia

    Nyblade, Laura; Pande, Rohini; Mathur, Sanyukta; MacQuarrie, Kerry; Kidd, Ross; Banteyerga, Hailom; Kidanu, Aklilu; Kilonzo, Gad; Mbwambo, Jessie; Bond, Virginia

    2003-01-01

    The International Center for Research on Women (ICRW), in partnership with organizations in Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Zambia, led a study of HIV and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination in these three countries. This project, conducted from April 2001 to September 2003, unraveled the complexities around stigma by investigating the causes, manifestations and consequences of HIV and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination in sub-Saharan Africa. It then uses this analysis to suggest program inter...

  19. Maintaining a Life of Subsistence in the Bemba Village of Northeastern Zambia

    SUGIYAMA, Yuko

    1987-01-01

    The Bemba people, who are living in the woodland area of northeastern Zambia, have developed a unique slash-and-burn cultivation system, called citemene system. It is now censured as the cause of deforestation and the Bemba people are faced with agricultural modernization. There are some villages where people have been maintaining a life of subsistence based on citemene, while other villages have introduced modern agriculture. This paper aims to provide a clear picture of the "traditional" li...

  20. Outside Development Interventions: People's Daily Actions among the Plateau Tonga of Zambia

    ARAKI, Minako

    2001-01-01

    Outside of or without development initiatives, people make a living by using their complex web of relationships. As the matrilineal Tongas of Zambia have experienced external and internal changes since the beginning of the last century, the egalitarian society phrased as "economy of affection" has been transformed. This paper examines whether the Tonga "sharing ideology" still exists by looking at how people help each other in farming tasks such as ploughing, weeding, and harvesting. Througho...

  1. Self-reported poor oral hygiene among in-school adolescents in Zambia

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel; Muula Adamson S; Siziya Seter

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Dental health is a neglected aspect of adolescent health globally but more so in low-income countries. Secondary analysis using the 2004 Zambia Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS) was conducted in which we estimated frequencies of relevant socio-demographic variables and explored associations between selected explanatory variables and self-reported poor oral hygiene (not cleaning or brushing teeth) within the last 30 days of the completion of questionnaire. Findings M...

  2. Rural Small Scale Enterprises in Zambia: Results of a 1985 Country-Wide Survey

    Milimo, John T.; Fisseha, Yacob

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a nationwide survey of small scale enterprises in Zambia conducted during 1985. The survey was undertaken in the rural and semi-urban (population below 50,000) localities of the country except for those in the Copperbelt and Lusaka provinces. All small scale non-farm enterprises employing 50 people or less and operating from a fixed location in these areas were included.

  3. Can Increasing Smallholder Farm Size Broadly Reduce Rural Poverty in Zambia?

    Hichaambwa, Munguzwe; Jayne, T.S.

    2014-01-01

    Despite Zambia’s sustained and fairly robust agricultural growth since 2000, rural poverty levels have remained at about 80% over the past 15 years. Because over 70% of Zambia’s agricultural households are small-scale farmers cultivating less than two hectares of land, they must effectively contribute to agricultural growth if the process of growth is to be broadly based in Zambia.

  4. Smallholder Household Maize Production and Marketing Behavior in Zambia: Implications for Policy

    Zulu, Ballard; Jayne, Thomas S.; Beaver, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    CSO/MACO nationally-representative rural surveys provide important insights on smallholder crop marketing behavior from the 2001 and 2004 harvests. Only about 25 percent of smallholder farmers in Zambia sold maize in both seasons, and about 15-20 percent of smallholders sold fresh horticulture as well as groundnuts, with 11-13 percent selling cassava. From 6-10 percent of farmers produced and sold cotton. Overall, Zambian smallholder agriculture has become more diversified over the past decad...

  5. To examine approaches to learning to read in the second language in Zambia

    Chibamba, Robert T.

    1989-01-01

    This project seeks to examine approaches to learning to read in a second language in Zambia where there is a rich variety of mother tongues, but English is chosen for instruction as one language which all pupils will have in common. The project will be particularly concerned with helping practicing and student teachers to apply ideas based on teaching reading in English as the mother tongue to the problem of teaching reading in English as a second language.

  6. Bucking social norms: Examining anomalous fertility aspirations in the face of HIV in Lusaka, Zambia

    Moore, Ann M.; Keogh, Sarah; Kavanaugh, Megan; Bankole, Akinrinola; Mulambia, Chishimba; Mutombo, Namuunda

    2014-01-01

    In settings of high fertility and high HIV prevalence, individuals are making fertility decisions while simultaneously trying to avoid or manage HIV. We sought to increase our understanding of how individuals dually manage HIV risk while attempting to achieve their fertility goals as part of the project entitled HIV Status and Achieving Fertility Desires conducted in Zambia in 2011. Using multivariate regression to predict fertility patterns based on socio-demographic characteristics for resp...

  7. An Integrated Hydro-Economic Model for Economy-Wide Climate Change Impact Assessment for Zambia

    Zhu, T.; Thurlow, J.; Diao, X.

    2008-12-01

    Zambia is a landlocked country in Southern Africa, with a total population of about 11 million and a total area of about 752 thousand square kilometers. Agriculture in the country depends heavily on rainfall as the majority of cultivated land is rain-fed. Significant rainfall variability has been a huge challenge for the country to keep a sustainable agricultural growth, which is an important condition for the country to meet the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. The situation is expected to become even more complex as climate change would impose additional impacts on rainwater availability and crop water requirements, among other changes. To understand the impacts of climate variability and change on agricultural production and national economy, a soil hydrology model and a crop water production model are developed to simulate actual crop water uses and yield losses under water stress which provide annual shocks for a recursive dynamic computational general equilibrium (CGE) model developed for Zambia. Observed meteorological data of the past three decades are used in the integrated hydro-economic model for climate variability impact analysis, and as baseline climatology for climate change impact assessment together with several GCM-based climate change scenarios that cover a broad range of climate projections. We found that climate variability can explain a significant portion of the annual variations of agricultural production and GDP of Zambia in the past. Hidden beneath climate variability, climate change is found to have modest impacts on agriculture and national economy of Zambia around 2025 but the impacts would be pronounced in the far future if appropriate adaptations are not implemented. Policy recommendations are provided based on scenario analysis.

  8. Between Opportunities and Risks : Adolescent sexual and reproductive health in Zambia

    Dahlbäck, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a dynamic period in life with both opportunities and risks related to the culturally constructed gender norms. Many adolescents in sub-Saharan countries, Zambia included, lack control over their own sexual and reproductive lives, due to factors such as gender inequality, poverty, and sociocultural and religious norms. Aim The aim of this thesis was to explore, from a gender perspective, how sexuality and reproduction are conceptualised and communic...

  9. Provisioning of game meat to rural communities as a benefit of sport hunting in Zambia.

    Paula A White

    Full Text Available Sport hunting has reportedly multiple benefits to economies and local communities; however, few of these benefits have been quantified. As part of their lease agreements with the Zambia Wildlife Authority, sport hunting operators in Zambia are required to provide annually to local communities free of charge i.e., provision a percentage of the meat obtained through sport hunting. We characterized provisioning of game meat to rural communities by the sport hunting industry in Zambia for three game management areas (GMAs during 2004-2011. Rural communities located within GMAs where sport hunting occurred received on average > 6,000 kgs per GMA of fresh game meat annually from hunting operators. To assess hunting industry compliance, we also compared the amount of meat expected as per the lease agreements versus observed amounts of meat provisioned from three GMAs during 2007-2009. In seven of eight annual comparisons of these GMAs, provisioning of meat exceeded what was required in the lease agreements. Provisioning occurred throughout the hunting season and peaked during the end of the dry season (September-October coincident with when rural Zambians are most likely to encounter food shortages. We extrapolated our results across all GMAs and estimated 129,771 kgs of fresh game meat provisioned annually by the sport hunting industry to rural communities in Zambia at an approximate value for the meat alone of >US$600,000 exclusive of distribution costs. During the hunting moratorium (2013-2014, this supply of meat has halted, likely adversely affecting rural communities previously reliant on this food source. Proposed alternatives to sport hunting should consider protein provisioning in addition to other benefits (e.g., employment, community pledges, anti-poaching funds that rural Zambian communities receive from the sport hunting industry.

  10. Current climate variability and future climate change: Estimated growth and poverty impacts for Zambia

    Thurlow, James; Zhu, Tingju; Diao, Xinshen

    2011-01-01

    Economy-wide and hydrological-crop models are combined to estimate and compare the economic impacts of current climate variability and future anthropogenic climate change in Zambia. Accounting for uncertainty, simulation results indicate that, on average, current variability reduces gross domestic product by four percent over a ten-year period and pulls over two percent of the population below the poverty line. Socio-economic impacts are much larger during major drought years, thus underscori...

  11. R9 Air Districts

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  12. California Political Districts

    California Department of Resources — This is a series of district layers pertaining to California'spolitical districts, that are derived from the California State Senateand State Assembly information....

  13. State Water Districts

    California Department of Resources — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  14. Legislative Districts - 1990

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Each coverage contains a COVER-ID field that defines the House or Senate district number. Kansas House and Senate districts were created by the Legislative Research...

  15. Texas Disaster Districts

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A polygon shapefile of the 24 Disaster Districts in Texas. Disaster districts are emergency operation areas created by Executive Order from the Governor's Office....

  16. Private Water Districts

    California Department of Resources — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  17. National Register Historic Districts

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic...

  18. Diagnosis and genotyping of African swine fever viruses from 2015 outbreaks in Zambia.

    Thoromo, Jonas; Simulundu, Edgar; Chambaro, Herman M; Mataa, Liywalii; Lubaba, Caesar H; Pandey, Girja S; Takada, Ayato; Misinzo, Gerald; Mweene, Aaron S

    2016-01-01

    In early 2015, a highly fatal haemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs resembling African swine fever (ASF) occurred in North Western, Copperbelt, and Lusaka provinces of Zambia. Molecular diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction targeting specific amplification of p72 (B646L) gene of ASF virus (ASFV) was conducted. Fourteen out of 16 domestic pigs from the affected provinces were found to be positive for ASFV. Phylogenetic analyses based on part of the p72 and the complete p54 (E183L) genes revealed that all the ASFVs detected belonged to genotypes I and Id, respectively. Additionally, epidemiological data suggest that the same ASFV spread from Lusaka to other provinces possibly through uncontrolled and/or illegal pig movements. Although the origin of the ASFV that caused outbreaks in domestic pigs in Zambia could not be ascertained, it appears likely that the virus may have emerged from within the country or region, probably from a sylvatic cycle. It is recommended that surveillance of ASF, strict biosecurity, and quarantine measures be imposed in order to prevent further spread and emergence of new ASF outbreaks in Zambia. PMID:27247062

  19. Environmental impact assessment of the charcoal production and utilization system in central Zambia

    The present study is the outcome of the Zambia Charcoal Utilization Programme, which is based on cooperation that started in 1989 between the Department of Energy, Ministry of Energy and Water Development (then Ministry of Power, Transport and Communications) and the Stockholm Environmental Institute (SEI). The programme, which is funded by the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA), consists of a number of studies focusing on different aspects of the wood and charcoal industry in Zambia. Selection of this energy system for detailed study was based on the fact that wood provides the largest contribution to total energy supply in Zambia, and the fact that wood is a renewable resource that could be exploited on a sustainable basis if properly managed. The studies therefore range from those that look at sustainability of the natural forests exploited for charcoal, to those that deal with transportation and health aspects of charcoal production and use. The present report focuses on the environmental and socio-economic effects of charcoal production and use. 72 refs., 20 figs., 38 tabs

  20. Evidence of Yersinia pestis DNA from fleas in an endemic plague area of Zambia

    Hang'ombe Bernard M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia pestis is a bacterium that causes plague which infects a variety of mammals throughout the world. The disease is usually transmitted among wild rodents through a flea vector. The sources and routes of transmission of plague are poorly researched in Africa, yet remains a concern in several sub-Saharan countries. In Zambia, the disease has been reported on annual basis with up to 20 cases per year, without investigating animal reservoirs or vectors that may be responsible in the maintenance and propagation of the bacterium. In this study, we undertook plague surveillance by using PCR amplification of the plasminogen activator gene in fleas. Findings Xenopsylla species of fleas were collected from 83 rodents trapped in a plague endemic area of Zambia. Of these rodents 5 had fleas positive (6.02% for Y. pestis plasminogen activator gene. All the Y. pestis positive rodents were gerbils. Conclusions We conclude that fleas may be responsible in the transmission of Y. pestis and that PCR may provide means of plague surveillance in the endemic areas of Zambia.

  1. District nursing in Dominica

    Kolkman, PME; Luteijn, AJ; Nasiiro, RS; Bruney, [No Value; Smith, RJA; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    1998-01-01

    District nurses constitute the basis of the primary health care services in Dominica. All encounters of three district nurses were registered using the international classification of primary care. Information on other aspects of district nursing was collected by participating observation and the us

  2. District nurse training

    Elliott, Arnold; Freeling, Paul; Owen, John

    1980-01-01

    Training for district nursing is being reviewed. By 1981 district nurses will have a new administrative structure, a new curriculum, and a new examination. Training for nursing, like that for general practice, is to become mandatory. The history of the development of district nurse training is briefly described.

  3. What impact do Global Health Initiatives have on human resources for antiretroviral treatment roll-out? A qualitative policy analysis of implementation processes in Zambia

    Hanefeld Johanna

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the beginning of the 21st century, development assistance for HIV/AIDS has increasingly been provided through Global Health Initiatives, specifically the United States Presidential Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, the Global Fund to Fight HIV, TB and Malaria and the World Bank Multi-country AIDS Programme. Zambia, like many of the countries heavily affected by HIV/AIDS in southern Africa, also faces a shortage of human resources for health. The country receives significant amounts of funding from GHIs for the large-scale provision of antiretroviral treatment through the public and private sector. This paper examines the impact of GHIs on human resources for ART roll-out in Zambia, at national level, in one province and two districts. Methods It is a qualitative policy analysis relying on in-depth interviews with more than 90 policy-makers and implementers at all levels. Results Findings show that while GHIs do not provide significant funding for additional human resources, their interventions have significant impact on human resources for health at all levels. While GHIs successfully retrain a large number of health workers, evidence suggests that GHIs actively deplete the pool of skilled human resources for health by recruiting public sector staff to work for GHI-funded nongovernmental implementing agencies. The secondment of GHI staff into public sector facilities may help alleviate immediate staff shortages, but this practice risks undermining sustainability of programmes. GHI-supported programmes and initiatives add significantly to the workload of existing public sector staff at all levels, while incentives including salary top-ups and overtime payments mean that ART programmes are more popular among staff than services for non-focal diseases. Conclusion Research findings suggest that GHIs need to actively mediate against the potentially negative consequences of their funding on human resources for health. Evidence

  4. "These things are dangerous": Understanding induced abortion trajectories in urban Zambia.

    Coast, Ernestina; Murray, Susan F

    2016-03-01

    Unsafe abortion is a significant but preventable cause of global maternal mortality and morbidity. Zambia has among the most liberal abortion laws in sub-Saharan Africa, however this alone does not guarantee access to safe abortion, and 30% of maternal mortality is attributable to unsafe procedures. Too little is known about the pathways women take to reach abortion services in such resource-poor settings, or what informs care-seeking behaviours, barriers and delays. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted in 2013 with 112 women who accessed abortion-related care in a Lusaka tertiary government hospital at some point in their pathway. The sample included women seeking safe abortion and also those receiving hospital care following unsafe abortion. We identified a typology of three care-seeking trajectories that ended in the use of hospital services: clinical abortion induced in hospital; clinical abortion initiated elsewhere, with post-abortion care in hospital; and non-clinical abortion initiated elsewhere, with post-abortion care in hospital. Framework analyses of 70 transcripts showed that trajectories to a termination of an unwanted pregnancy can be complex and iterative. Individuals may navigate private and public formal healthcare systems and consult unqualified providers, often trying multiple strategies. We found four major influences on which trajectory a woman followed, as well as the complexity and timing of her trajectory: i) the advice of trusted others ii) perceptions of risk iii) delays in care-seeking and receipt of services and iv) economic cost. Even though abortion is legal in Zambia, girls and women still take significant risks to terminate unwanted pregnancies. Levels of awareness about the legality of abortion and its provision remain low even in urban Zambia, especially among adolescents. Unofficial payments required by some providers can be a major barrier to safe care. Timely access to safe abortion services depends on chance rather

  5. Impact of inaccessible spaces on community participation of people with mobility limitations in Zambia

    Martha Banda-Chalwe

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study investigated the perspective of people with mobility limitations (PWML in Zambia, firstly of their accessibility to public buildings and spaces, and secondly of how their capacity to participate in a preferred lifestyle has been affected.Objectives: Firstly to provide insight into the participation experiences of PWML in the social, cultural, economic, political and civic life areas and the relationship of these with disability in Zambia. Secondly to establish how the Zambian disability context shape the experiences of participation by PWML.Method: A qualitative design was used to gather data from 75 PWML in five of the nine provinces of Zambia. Focus group discussions and personal interviews were used to examine the accessibility of the built environment and how this impacted on the whole family’s participation experiences. The nominal group technique was utilised to rank inaccessible buildings and facilities which posed barriers to opportunities in life areas and how this interfered with the whole family’s lifestyle.Results: Inaccessibility of education institutions, workplaces and spaces have contributed to reduced participation with negative implications for personal, family, social and economic aspects of the lives of participants. Government buildings, service buildings, and transportation were universally identified as most important but least accessible.Conclusion: Zambians with mobility limitations have been disadvantaged in accessing services and facilities provided to the public, depriving them and their dependants of full and equitable life participation because of reduced economic capacity. This study will assist in informing government of the need to improve environmental access to enable equal rights for all citizens.

  6. The individual level cost of pregnancy termination in Zambia: a comparison of safe and unsafe abortion.

    Leone, Tiziana; Coast, Ernestina; Parmar, Divya; Vwalika, Bellington

    2016-09-01

    Zambia has one of the most liberal abortion laws in sub-Saharan Africa. However, rates of unsafe abortion remain high with negative health and economic consequences. Little is known about the economic burden on women of abortion care-seeking in low income countries. The majority of studies focus on direct costs (e.g. hospital fees). This article estimates the individual-level economic burden of safe and unsafe abortion care-seeking in Zambia, incorporating all indirect and direct costs. It uses data collected in 2013 from a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, (n = 112) with women who had an abortion. Three treatment routes are identified: (1) safe abortion at the hospital, (2) unsafe clandestine medical abortion initiated elsewhere with post-abortion care at the hospital and (3) unsafe abortion initiated elsewhere with post-abortion care at the hospital. Based on these three typologies, we use descriptive analysis and linear regression to estimate the costs for women of seeking safe and unsafe abortion and to establish whether the burden of abortion care-seeking costs is equally distributed across the sample. Around 39% of women had an unsafe abortion, incurring substantial economic costs before seeking post-abortion care. Adolescents and poorer women are more likely to use unsafe abortion. Unsafe abortion requiring post-abortion care costs women 27% more than a safe abortion. When accounting for uncertainty this figure increases dramatically. For safe and unsafe abortions, unofficial provider payments represent a major cost to women.This study demonstrates that despite a liberal legislation, Zambia still needs better dissemination of the law to women and providers and resources to ensure abortion service access. The policy implications of this study include: the role of pharmacists and mid-level providers in the provision of medical abortion services; increased access to contraception, especially for adolescents; and elimination of demands for unofficial provider

  7. Biochar Effect on Maize Yield and Soil Characteristics in Five Conservation Farming Sites in Zambia

    Alfred Obia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochar addition to agricultural soils can improve soil fertility, with the added bonus of climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. Conservation farming (CF is precision farming, often combining minimum tillage, crop rotation and residue retention. In the present farmer-led field trials carried out in Zambia, the use of a low dosage biochar combined with CF minimum tillage was tested as a way to increase crop yields. Using CF minimum tillage allows the biochar to be applied to the area where most of the plant roots are present and mirrors the fertilizer application in CF practices. The CF practice used comprised manually hoe-dug planting 10-L sized basins, where 10%–12% of the land was tilled. Pilot trials were performed with maize cob biochar and wood biochar on five soils with variable physical/chemical characteristics. At a dosage as low as 4 tons/ha, both biochars had a strong positive effect on maize yields in the coarse white aeolian sand of Kaoma, West-Zambia, with yields of 444% ± 114% (p = 0.06 and 352% ± 139% (p = 0.1 of the fertilized reference plots for maize and wood biochar, respectively. Thus for sandy acidic soils, CF and biochar amendment can be a promising combination for increasing harvest yield. Moderate but non-significant effects on yields were observed for maize and wood biochar in a red sandy clay loam ultisol east of Lusaka, central Zambia (University of Zambia, UNZA, site with growth of 142% ± 42% (p > 0.2 and 131% ± 62% (p > 0.2 of fertilized reference plots, respectively. For three other soils (acidic and neutral clay loams and silty clay with variable cation exchange capacity, CEC, no significant effects on maize yields were observed (p > 0.2. In laboratory trials, 5% of the two biochars were added to the soil samples in order to study the effect of the biochar on physical and chemical soil characteristics. The large increase in crop yield in Kaoma soil was tentatively explained by a combination

  8. Infrastructure and strategy for radioactive waste management for non-nuclear applications in Zambia

    Generation of radioactive waste in Zambia is limited by application of radioisotopes in medicine and research, and by use of sealed radioactive sources in industry, agriculture and at health care facilities. Use of radioactive materials and management of associated wastes are governed by National Ionising Radiation Act. Totally more then 100 institutions in the country are using different radioactive materials and consequently are dealing with radioactive waste. Responsibility for managing these wastes rested with organisations and institutions producing radioactive waste, with the supervision of this activity by National Radiation Service (RPS). (author)

  9. EDRXF measurements of heavy elements in soil samples from some potentially polluted sites in zambia

    A survey of heavy element levels in top soils collected around four industrial plants and along four highway stretches demonstrated that there was significant pollution only around an abandoned Pb/Zn mine. Sample collection in a rectangular grid encompassing each source sought to depict the spatial extent of pollution. Ascertaining levels of heavy elements in potentially polluted soils in urban areas of Zambia and along major highways was deemed desirable because it is common practice to grow maize and vegetables in lots adjacent to accessible industrial sites and highways. Pb is a heavy element of interest for all sampled sites whose distribution at the abandoned mine ranged from 13 to 2028 ppm

  10. Open Pit Water Control Safety A Case Of Nchanga Open Pit Mine Zambia

    Silwamba C; Chileshe P R K

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mining in Chingola Zambia started underground in 1931 and was catastrophically flooded and closed. The present Nchanga Underground Mine NUG started in 1937. The Nchanga Open Pit NOP mine started in 1955 situated to the west of NUG and partially overlying it. Open pit water control safety operations in the Nchanga-Chingola area have successfully enabled the safe extraction of millions of tonnes of copper ore annually over the past 60 years from NUG mining as well as the NOP. At the st...

  11. Limitations and Challenges of Building Democracy in the Conditions of Multiethnic Society in Zambia

    Lenč Jozef

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Some politicians in Europe ever more frequently claim that multiculturalism has failed. Others assert that it is primarily the current model of democracy which is in crisis. On the other hand Africa is generally perceived as a continent without experience with either democratic tradition or even liberal concept of multiculturalism. But is that really the case? What do we know about the diversity of the African continent in Central Europe? A potential positive example of successful democratisation and multiculturalism forming processes in Africa could be presented by Zambia. Where are then the limitations and challenges in the process of building a democratic system within the framework of African multiculturalism?

  12. Evaluation of Current and Feasible Future Use of Geothermal Energy at Chinyunyu Hot Spring, Zambia

    Kapasa, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The main source of geothermal energy is the heat flow from the mantle beneath the Earth’s surface, generated by the gradual decay of radioactive isotopes in the Earth‘s crust. A hot spring is produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater flowing out to the Earth’s surface. The Chinyunyu hot spring is located about 90km east of Lusaka, Zambia. Water from the spring has been artificially channeled into a large excavated pool which is used as a bathing place. Since the undiluted s...

  13. Should I stay or should I go? Rural youth employment in Uganda and Zambia

    Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard; Birch-Thomsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    resilient livelihood than a single enterprise strategy. The importance of an enabling environment, personal skills and favourable market conditions are also highlighted. The question of whether young people remain in or leave rural areas is shown to vary between the Ugandan and Zambian contexts. In Uganda......, a significant proportion of the youth, especially young men, migrate to urban areas, whereas in Zambia, almost all the young people have chosen to remain in the rural area, where they consider their prospects of success to be greater than if they were to migrate elsewhere....

  14. Doubling the number of health graduates in Zambia: estimating feasibility and costs

    Lee Joanne

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ministry of Health (MoH in Zambia is operating with fewer than half of the human resources for health (HRH necessary to meet basic population health needs. Responding urgently to address this HRH crisis, the MoH plans to double the annual number of health training graduates in the next five years to increase the supply of health workers. The feasibility and costs of achieving this initiative, however, are unclear. Methods We determined the feasibility and costs of doubling training institution output through an individual school assessment framework. Assessment teams, comprised of four staff from the MoH and Clinton Health Access Initiative, visited all of Zambia's 39 public and private health training institutions from 17 April to 19 June 2008. Teams consulted with faculty and managers at each training institution to determine if student enrollment could double within five years; an operational planning exercise carried out with school staff determined the investments and additional operating costs necessary to achieve expansion. Cost assumptions were developed using historical cost data. Results The individual school assessments affirmed the MoH's ability to double the graduate output of Zambia's public health training institutions. Lack of infrastructure was determined as a key bottleneck in achieving this increase while meeting national training quality standards. A total investment of US$ 58.8 million is required to meet expansion infrastructure needs, with US$ 35.0 million (59.5% allocated to expanding student accommodation and US$ 23.8 million (40.5% allocated to expanding teaching, studying, office, and dining space. The national number of teaching staff must increase by 363 (111% increase over the next five years. The additional recurring costs, which include salaries for additional teachers and operating expenses for new students, are estimated at US$ 58.0 million over the five-year scale-up period. Total cost

  15. Dialectal variation in Fwe, a Bantu language of Zambia and Namibia

    Gunnink, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    Fwe is a Bantu language classified as K.402 (Maho 2009) spoken in the Zambezi region (formerly known as the Caprivi strip) in Namibia and the Imusho and Sinjembela regions of the Western Province of Zambia. Although the language has only about 20.000 speakers (Sakuhuka et al. 2011), it exhibits a fair degree of dialectal variation. Speakers tend to distinguish between “Namibian Fwe” and “Zambian Fwe”, though empirical data show that the dialectal border is not identical to the national border...

  16. The relevance and impact of Ethical Consciousness on Environmental Management in Zambia: A philosophical critique

    This dissertation is informed by the need for adequate ethical consciousness in view of the perceived need for public responsibility, cooperation and participation in ensuring sound environmental management. It investigates and critiques the extent to which an adequate range of ethical principles has been incorporated in Zambia's attempts to address environmental issues.The investigation focused on the role of government policy, education system and the mass media in promoting responsible environmental management and practices by raising environmental ethical consciousness. The study confirmed the preponderance of economic utilitarianism with regard to environmental issues. (author)

  17. Victimization from bullying among school-attending adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in Zambia

    Emmanuel Rudatsikira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among school- attending adolescents, victimization from bullying is associated with anxiety, depression and poor academic performance. There are limited reports on victimization from bullying in Zambia; we therefore conducted this study to determine the prevalence and correlates for victimization from bullying among adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in the country in order to add information on the body of knowledge on victimization from bullying. METHODS: The 2004 Zambia Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS data among adolescents in grades 7 to 10 were obtained from the World Health Organization. We estimated the prevalence of victimization from bullying. We also conducted weighted multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine independent factors associated with victimization from bullying, and report adjusted odds ratios (AOR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI. RESULTS: Of 2136 students who participated in the 2004 Zambia GSHS, 1559 had information on whether they were bullied or not. Of these, 1559 students, 62.8% (60.0% of male and 65.0% of female participants reported having been bullied in the previous 30 days to the survey. We found that respondents of age less than 14 years were 7% (AOR=0.93; 95%CI [0.91, 0.95] less likely to have been bullied compared to those aged 16 years or older. Being a male (AOR=1.07; 95%CI [1.06, 1.09], lonely (AOR=1.24; 95%CI [1.22, 1.26], worried (AOR=1.12; 95%CI [1.11, 1.14], consuming alcohol (AOR=2.59; 95%CI [2.55, 2.64], missing classes (AOR=1.30; 95%CI [1.28, 1.32], and considering attempting suicide (AOR=1.20; 95%CI [1.18, 1.22] were significantly associated with bullying victimization. CONCLUSIONS: Victimization from bullying is prevalent among in-school adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in Zambia, and interventions to curtail it should consider the factors that have been identified in this study.

  18. Annulus formation and growth of tigerfish, Hydrocynus vittatus, in Lake Bangweulu, Zambia

    Griffith, J.S.

    1975-07-01

    The validity of scale analysis for aging tigerfish, Hydrocynus vittatus Castelnau, was assessed by examining the timing and cause of check formation on scales from fish collected in Lake Bangweulu, Zambia. Discontinuities in circuli that appeared to be valid annuli formed on all scales in September when water temperature was rising rapidly after dropping to 18 C. Spawning checks formed on scales of some fish in January. Male and female tigerfish grew at similar rates. Some females reached an age of 11 years but male tigerfish, which matured one and sometimes two years earlier, seldom lived longer than 4 years. (auth)

  19. HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations Are Present in Six Percent of Persons Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy in Lusaka, Zambia

    R.L. Hamers; M. Siwale; C.L. Wallis; M. Labib; R. van Hasselt; W.S. Stevens; R. Schuurman; A.M.J. Wensing; M. van Vugt; T.F. Rinke de Wit

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the mutational patterns and factors associated with baseline drug-resistant HIV-1 present at initiation of first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) at 3 sites in Lusaka, Zambia, in 2007-2008. Methods: Population sequencing of the HIV-1 pol gene was performed in the PharmAccess Af

  20. Prevalence and burden of gastrointestinal helminths in wild and domestic guineafowls (Numida meleagris) in the Southern Province of Zambia

    King Shimumbo Nalubamba; Eugene Chisela Bwalya; Ntombi Basimbi Mudenda; Hetron Mweemba Munangandu; Musso Munyeme; David Squarre

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the gastrointestinal tract helminthic fauna in domestic and wild guineafowl in Zambia. Methods: Post-mortem and laboratory parasitological examinations for helminth identification and enumeration were conducted on 198 guineafowls (148 domestic and 50 wild) from November 2010 to October 2011. Results: All guineafowls were infested with one or more helminths. Eleven helminth species, namely, Raillietina echinobothrida, Raillietina tetragona, Raillietina cesticillus...

  1. Prevalence and burden of gastrointestinal helminths in wild and domestic guineafowls (Numida meleagris in the Southern Province of Zambia

    King Shimumbo Nalubamba

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: Syngamus trachea, Streptocara pectinifera and Acuaria spiralis are reported for the first time in domestic poultry in Zambia. This study represents the first comparative study of helminths in domestic and wild guineafowls at an interface area and adds to the knowledge base in a discipline where a dearth currently exists.

  2. Globalising Accessibility: Drawing on the Experiences of Developed Countries to Enable the Participation of Disabled People in Zambia

    Banda-Chalwe, Martha; Nitz, Jennifer C.; de Jonge, Desleigh

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the accessibility situation in a developing country such as Zambia. The global view of accessibility for disabled people is provided to examine the accessibility situation in developed and developing countries, highlighting the role of the environment in achieving rights for disabled people. Recognition of disability rights…

  3. Beyond Time: Temporal and Extra-Temporal Functions of Tense and Aspect Marking in Totela, a Bantu Language of Zambia

    Crane, Thera Marie

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation aims to characterize the relationship between the temporal and information-structuring functions of tense and aspect marking in Totela, an endangered Bantu language of Zambia and Namibia. To that end, I investigate and describe in detail the semantics and pragmatics of selected tense and aspect markers, showing for each that a…

  4. Potential Natural Vegetation Map of Eastern Africa (Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia). Version 2.0

    van Breugel, Paulo; Kindt, Roeland; Lillesø, Jens-Peter Barnekow;

    2015-01-01

    The potential natural vegetation (PNV) map of eastern and southern Africa covers the countries Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia. The first version of the map was developed by various partners in East Africa and Europe in 2010 and has now reached version 2. The map is...

  5. A Library Response to the Massification of Higher Education: The Case of the University of Zambia Library

    Kanyengo, Christine Wamunyima

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks at the challenges that libraries in Africa face in responding to massification of higher education by discussing the University of Zambia library's response in library and information resources provision. As a result of massification of higher education, libraries have been forced not only to employ new and different strategies to…

  6. MBL2 genetic polymorphisms and HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission in Zambia.

    Zupin, Luisa; Polesello, Vania; Segat, Ludovica; Kuhn, Louise; Crovella, Sergio

    2016-06-01

    Since antiretroviral drugs have been introduced to prevent mother-to-child transmission, the risk of HIV-1 infection in infants has decreased considerably worldwide. Nevertheless, many factors are involved in viral transmission and host susceptibility to infection. The immune system and its components, including mannose binding protein C (encoding by MBL2 gene), are already known to play an important role in this scenario. In the present study, 313 children and 98 of their mothers from Zambia were genotyped for the MBL2 promoter HL (rs11003125) and XY (rs7096206) polymorphisms and exon 1 D (rs5030737, at codon 52) B (rs1800450, at codon 54) and C (rs1800451, at codon 57) polymorphisms in order to investigate the potential role of these genetic variants in HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission. No statistical significant association was observed comparing transmitter and non-transmitter mothers and also confronting HIV-positive and HIV-negative children. The findings of the current study obtained on mother and children from Zambia evidence lack of association between MBL2 functional polymorphisms and HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission. PMID:26740328

  7. Overburden, Stigma, and Perceived Agency: Teachers as HIV Prevention Educators in Urban Zambia

    Margaret Henning

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa is home to more than 70% of the global HIV-positive population. In Zambia, as well as in other parts of Africa, deaths from AIDS and associated infections have created a generation of households headed by children, a situation that negatively affects the chances for economic and health improvements in the region. In contemplating possible public health interventions around HIV prevention, we found that a growing body of research advocates for school-based HIV programs as an effective strategy to stop the spread of the disease. This work is critical because it explores schoolteachers’ perspectives on their potential roles as HIV prevention educators. Semi-structured interviews (n = 12 were conducted among schoolteachers in the Lusaka province of Zambia to collect qualitative data. Analysis of qualitative data revealed three broad and interconnected themes related to the roles and concerns of the participating teachers: 1 the role of overburden; 2 fear of stigma; and 3 perceived lack of agency. These themes are further discussed in the context of the results that focused on the teachers and the adoption of HIV education. Little is known about teachers’ perceptions of themselves as HIV educators. Our study suggests that understanding teachers’ perceptions and the contextual factors is crucial to the adoption of school-based HIV programs.

  8. The relation of HIV testing and treatment to identity formation in Zambia.

    Frank, Emily

    2009-12-01

    Why would many Zambians be reluctant to access lifesaving antiretroviral treatment? Does the process of accessing an HIV test in Zambia promote an identity that can change individuals' livelihood strategies? What happens to individuals when people access treatment? Voluntary testing and treatment centres and the HIV-prevention programmes that support them have come to embody explicit messages about 'health,' 'progress,' 'civilisation' and 'modernity,' and through this they compel individuals to take on a particular identity. In Zambia the pursuit of HIV testing and biomedical treatment forces individuals to locate themselves somewhat differently in relation to community support structures, placing their faith in the future on an uneasy foundation of a 'modern' identity. This is embodied in the deep-rooted suspicion that many Zambians have toward the international HIV/AIDS-response sector from which HIV and AIDS treatment programmes are derived. Drawing upon the notion of 'therapeutic citizenship' I examine why the 'AIDS industry' continues to symbolise such tension. I explore how individuals believe their identity will shift through participation in HIV testing and treatment options and how that might impact long-term and short-term livelihood strategies. PMID:25875714

  9. Safety and security of radiation sources and radioactive materials: A case of Zambia - least developed country

    In Zambia, which is current (1998) classified as a Least Developed Country has applications of nuclear science and technology that cover the medical, industrial, education and research. However, the application is mainly in medical and industry. Through the responsibility of radiation source is within the mandate of the Radiation Protection Board. The aspects involving security fall on different stake holders some that have no technical knowledge on what radiation is about. The stake holders in this category include customs clearing and forwarding agents, state security/defence agencies and the operators. Such a situation demands a national system that should be instituted to meet the safety and security requirements but takes into account the involvement of the diverse stake holders. In addition such system should avoid unnecessary exposure, ensure safety of radioactive materials and sources, detect illicit trade and maintain integrity of such materials or sources. This paper will provide the status on issue in Zambia and the challenges that exist to ensure further development in application of Nuclear Science and Technology (S and T) in the country takes into account the safety and security requirements that avoid deliberate and accidental loss of radiation sources and radioactive materials. The Government has a responsibility to ensure that effective system is established and operated to protect radiation sources and radioactive materials from theft, sabotage and ensure safety. (author)

  10. Is green economy achievable through championing green growth? A local government experience from Zambia

    Phiri Rodgers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The need to enhance environmental sustainability, sustainable development and growth that takes into account the well-being of the people and nature because of the increased production and consumption of goods and services is the major driver to the introduction of green economy in Zambia and countries in southern Africa. This article examines the extent to which local government in Zambia has embraced green growth and green economy and critically analyses the concept of green economy and green growth. This study is based on a review of planning and policy documents, a household questionnaire survey and interviews with various institutions, planners and rural development organisations. A number of policies implemented at the local government level were analysed and reflected upon irrespective of whether they contain the components of green growth and green economy and the extent to which they contribute to attaining green economy. The article argues that the need for economic diversification is important as far as green economy is concerned. The article recommends the need to invest in research and development in order to find more carbon-free economic activities. The conclusion is that local government is key to achieving green growth and green economy, because it is involved at all levels, from policy formulation to implementation.

  11. Strengthening faculty recruitment for health professions training in basic sciences in Zambia.

    Simuyemba, Moses; Talib, Zohray; Michelo, Charles; Mutale, Wilbroad; Zulu, Joseph; Andrews, Ben; Nzala, Selestine; Katubulushi, Max; Njelesani, Evariste; Bowa, Kasonde; Maimbolwa, Margaret; Mudenda, John; Mulla, Yakub

    2014-08-01

    Zambia is facing a crisis in its human resources for health, with deficits in the number and skill mix of health workers. The University of Zambia School of Medicine (UNZA SOM) was the only medical school in the country for decades, but recently it was joined by three new medical schools--two private and one public. In addition to expanding medical education, the government has also approved several allied health programs, including pharmacy, physiotherapy, biomedical sciences, and environmental health. This expansion has been constrained by insufficient numbers of faculty. Through a grant from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI), UNZA SOM has been investing in ways to address faculty recruitment, training, and retention. The MEPI-funded strategy involves directly sponsoring a cohort of faculty at UNZA SOM during the five-year grant, as well as establishing more than a dozen new master's programs, with the goal that all sponsored faculty are locally trained and retained. Because the issue of limited basic science faculty plagues medical schools throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, this strategy of using seed funding to build sustainable local capacity to recruit, train, and retain faculty could be a model for the region. PMID:25072591

  12. Harmful lifestyles' clustering among sexually active in-school adolescents in Zambia

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Zambia. Like many other African nations with high HIV burden, heterosexual intercourse is the commonest mode of HIV spread. The estimation of prevalence and factors associated with sexual intercourse among in-school adolescents has potential to inform public health interventions aimed at reducing the burden of sex-related diseases in Zambia. Methods We carried out secondary analysis of the Zambia Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS 2004; a cross sectional survey that aims to study health-related behaviors among in-school adolescents. We estimated frequencies of relevant socio-demographic variables. The associations between selected explanatory variables and self-reported history of sexual intercourse within the last 12 months were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results Data from 2136 in-school adolescents who participated in the Zambia Global School-Based Health Survey of 2004 were available for analysis. Out of these respondents, 13.4% reported that they had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months prior to the survey; 16.4% and 9.7% among males and females respectively. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, with age less than 15 years as the referent the adjusted odds ratio (AOR of having engaged in sexual intercourse in adolescents of age 15 years, and those aged 16 years or more were 1.06 (95% CI 1.03–1.10 and 1.74 (95% 1.70–1.79 respectively. Compared to adolescents who had no close friends, adolescents who had one close friend were more likely to have had sexual intercourse, AOR = 1.28 (95% CI 1.24–1.32. Compared to adolescents who were not supervised by their parents, adolescents who were rarely or sometimes supervised by their parents were likely to have had sexual intercourse, and adolescents who were most of the time/always supervised by their parents were less likely to have had sexual intercourse; AORs 1.26 (95% CI 1.23–1

  13. First sero-prevalence of dengue fever specific immunoglobulin G antibodies in Western and North-Western provinces of Zambia: a population based cross sectional study

    Mazaba-Liwewe, Mazyanga Lucy; Siziya, Seter; Monze, Mwaka; Mweene-Ndumba, Idah; Masaninga, Freddie; Songolo, Peter; Malama, Costantine; Chizema, Elizabeth; Mwaba, Peter; Babaniyi, Olusegun A

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue fever is a tropical infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV), a single positive-stranded RNA Flavivirus. There is no published evidence of dengue in Zambia. The objective of the study was to determine the sero-prevalence and correlates for dengue fever specific IgG antibodies in Western and North-Western provinces in Zambia. Methods A randomized cluster design was used to sample participants for yellow fever risk assessment. In order to rule out cross reactivity with...

  14. Scaling-Up Access to Antiretroviral Therapy for Children: A Cohort Study Evaluating Care and Treatment at Mobile and Hospital-Affiliated HIV Clinics in Rural Zambia

    van Dijk, Janneke H.; Moss, William J; Hamangaba, Francis; Munsanje, Bornface; Sutcliffe, Catherine G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Travel time and distance are barriers to care for HIV-infected children in rural sub-Saharan Africa. Decentralization of care is one strategy to scale-up access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), but few programs have been evaluated. We compared outcomes for children receiving care in mobile and hospital-affiliated HIV clinics in rural Zambia. Methods Outcomes were measured within an ongoing cohort study of HIV-infected children seeking care at Macha Hospital, Zambia from 2007 to 201...

  15. Formation of secondary hematite and its role in attenuation of contaminants at mine tailings: review and comparison of sites in Zambia and Namibia

    Sracek, Ondra

    2015-01-01

    Mine tailings in African countries Zambia and Namibia have been investigated with an objective to determine the role of secondary hematite in immobilization of contaminants. Two sites, Chambishi and Mindolo, are located in the Copperbelt in Zambia with relatively humid climates and two sites, Berg Aukas and Kombat, are in Namibia, where the climate is semiarid. At the Chambishi site which is about 40 years old, a hardpan composed of hematite and gypsum has formed at a depth of about 60 cm and...

  16. Why latrines are not used: communities' perceptions and practices regarding latrines in a Taenia solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia.

    Séverine Thys

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints.The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in

  17. Groundwater Managment Districts

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...

  18. NM School District Boundaries

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The dataset represents the boundaries of all public school districts in the state of New Mexico. The source for the data layer is the New Mexico Public Education...

  19. NM Property Tax Districts

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  20. Satisfaction of clients with disabilities with services offered at primary health care centres in Ndola, Zambia

    N. Mlenzana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To establish satisfaction level of persons with disabilitiesregarding health services at primary health care centres in Ndola, Zambia.Key stakeholders views on satisfaction of services is an important componentof service rendering thus obtaining information is important in assistingwith the evaluation of health care service delivery. This will assist in improvingeffectiveness and availability of health care services to persons with physicaldisabilities.All persons with disabilities attending both rehabilitation centres andprimary health care centres in Ndola, Zambia, were targeted for this study. Willing participants were convenientlyselected to take part in the study.A cross sectional, descriptive study design using quantitative methods of data collection was used. The GeneralPractice Assessment Questionnaire was adjusted, piloted for Ndola population and used in this study to establishsatisfaction of participants. The study was ethically cleared at the University of the Western Cape and Zambia.Information and consent forms were signed by participants.Quantitative data was analysed descriptively and was reported in percentages.In the current study there were 191 participants of whom 56% were male and 44% were female with age rangefrom 18-65 years. Fifty-two percent of the participants presented with learning disabilities and 38% of persons withphysical disabilities. Majority of clients (54% were dissatisfied with availability of services and health care servicesat the health care centres. Areas that clients were dissatisfied with were accessibility, consultation with health professionals,waiting times and opening hours of the health care centres.Clients with disabilities who accessed health care services from selected health centres in Ndola were dissatisfiedwith aspects of health services. Accessibility, consultation with health professionals, waiting times and opening hoursof the health care centres were the origin of client dissatisfaction

  1. Underperformance of African protected area networks and the case for new conservation models: insights from Zambia.

    Lindsey, Peter A; Nyirenda, Vincent R; Barnes, Jonathan I; Becker, Matthew S; McRobb, Rachel; Tambling, Craig J; Taylor, W Andrew; Watson, Frederick G; t'Sas-Rolfes, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Many African protected areas (PAs) are not functioning effectively. We reviewed the performance of Zambia's PA network and provide insights into how their effectiveness might be improved. Zambia's PAs are under-performing in ecological, economic and social terms. Reasons include: a) rapidly expanding human populations, poverty and open-access systems in Game Management Areas (GMAs) resulting in widespread bushmeat poaching and habitat encroachment; b) underfunding of the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) resulting in inadequate law enforcement; c) reliance of ZAWA on extracting revenues from GMAs to cover operational costs which has prevented proper devolution of user-rights over wildlife to communities; d) on-going marginalization of communities from legal benefits from wildlife; e) under-development of the photo-tourism industry with the effect that earnings are limited to a fraction of the PA network; f) unfavourable terms and corruption which discourage good practice and adequate investment by hunting operators in GMAs; g) blurred responsibilities regarding anti-poaching in GMAs resulting in under-investment by all stakeholders. The combined effect of these challenges has been a major reduction in wildlife densities in most PAs and the loss of habitat in GMAs. Wildlife fares better in areas with investment from the private and/or NGO sector and where human settlement is absent. There is a need for: elevated government funding for ZAWA; greater international donor investment in protected area management; a shift in the role of ZAWA such that they focus primarily on national parks while facilitating the development of wildlife-based land uses by other stakeholders elsewhere; and new models for the functioning of GMAs based on joint-ventures between communities and the private and/or NGO sector. Such joint-ventures should provide defined communities with ownership of land, user-rights over wildlife and aim to attract long-term private/donor investment. These

  2. Underperformance of African protected area networks and the case for new conservation models: insights from Zambia.

    Peter A Lindsey

    Full Text Available Many African protected areas (PAs are not functioning effectively. We reviewed the performance of Zambia's PA network and provide insights into how their effectiveness might be improved. Zambia's PAs are under-performing in ecological, economic and social terms. Reasons include: a rapidly expanding human populations, poverty and open-access systems in Game Management Areas (GMAs resulting in widespread bushmeat poaching and habitat encroachment; b underfunding of the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA resulting in inadequate law enforcement; c reliance of ZAWA on extracting revenues from GMAs to cover operational costs which has prevented proper devolution of user-rights over wildlife to communities; d on-going marginalization of communities from legal benefits from wildlife; e under-development of the photo-tourism industry with the effect that earnings are limited to a fraction of the PA network; f unfavourable terms and corruption which discourage good practice and adequate investment by hunting operators in GMAs; g blurred responsibilities regarding anti-poaching in GMAs resulting in under-investment by all stakeholders. The combined effect of these challenges has been a major reduction in wildlife densities in most PAs and the loss of habitat in GMAs. Wildlife fares better in areas with investment from the private and/or NGO sector and where human settlement is absent. There is a need for: elevated government funding for ZAWA; greater international donor investment in protected area management; a shift in the role of ZAWA such that they focus primarily on national parks while facilitating the development of wildlife-based land uses by other stakeholders elsewhere; and new models for the functioning of GMAs based on joint-ventures between communities and the private and/or NGO sector. Such joint-ventures should provide defined communities with ownership of land, user-rights over wildlife and aim to attract long-term private/donor investment

  3. The transfer of East Coast fever immunisation to veterinary paraprofessionals in Zambia.

    Marcotty, T; Chaka, G; Brandt, J; Berkvens, D; Thys, E; Mulumba, M; Mataa, L; Van den Bossche, P

    2008-12-01

    In eastern Zambia, immunisation by 'infection and treatment' is the main method used to control East Coast fever, an acute and lethal cattle disease. This service, which requires a stringent cold chain, used to be free of charge. When a minimal user fee was introduced, attendance dropped drastically. Consequently, this complex immunisation programme was transferred to veterinary paraprofessionals working on their own account, with the aim of boosting a more sustainable distribution of vaccine. Paraprofessionals were provided with a motorbike and the required specific equipment, but fuel and drugs were at their expenses. The paraprofessionals recovered their costs, with a profit margin, by charging the cattle owners for immunisation. The reasons for the successful transfer of immunisation to paraprofessionals (despite the maintenance of a fee) are attributed mainly to the absence of information asymmetry between the paraprofessional and the livestock owner, the appreciable level of effort of the paraprofessionals and the verifiable outcome of the service provided. PMID:19284042

  4. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Zambia, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries

    The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With $5.5 million of Agency support received, Zambia ranks 33rd among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. More than half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (61%), followed by expert services (25%) and training (14%). Almost all of the resources made available came from the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (93%), with only very small shares provided through extrabudgetary contributions (4%) and assistance in kind (3%). With regard to project disbursements during the past ten years, by sector, the largest areas have been agriculture (33%) and general atomic energy development (23%), followed by industry and hydrology (19%), nuclear raw materials (13%) and nuclear safety (6%)

  5. Translation and sustainability of an HIV prevention intervention in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Vamos, Szonja; Mumbi, Miriam; Cook, Ryan; Chitalu, Ndashi; Weiss, Stephen Marshall; Jones, Deborah Lynne

    2014-06-01

    The scale-up of HIV treatment programs in sub-Saharan Africa necessitates creative solutions that do not further burden the health system to meet global initiatives in prevention and care. This study assessed the work environment and impact of providing a behavioral risk reduction intervention in six community health centers (CHCs) in Lusaka, Zambia; opportunities and challenges to long-term program sustainability were identified. CHC staff participants (n = 82) were assessed on perceived clinic burden, job satisfaction, and burnout before and after implementation of the intervention. High levels of clinic burden were identified; however, no increase in perceived clinic burden or staff burnout was associated with providing the intervention. The intervention was sustained at the majority of CHCs and also adopted at additional clinics. Behavioral interventions can be successfully implemented and maintained in resource-poor settings. Creative strategies to overcome structural and economic challenges should be applied to enhance translation research. PMID:24904697

  6. Developing a nutrition and health education program for primary schools in Zambia.

    Sherman, Jane; Muehlhoff, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    School-based health and nutrition interventions in developing countries aim at improving children's nutrition and learning ability. In addition to the food and health inputs, children need access to education that is relevant to their lives, of good quality, and effective in its approach. Based on evidence from the Zambia Nutrition Education in Basic Schools (NEBS) project, this article examines whether and to what extent school-based health and nutrition education can contribute directly to improving the health and nutrition behaviors of school children. Initial results suggest that gains in awareness, knowledge and behavior can be achieved among children and their families with an actively implemented classroom program backed by teacher training and parent involvement, even in the absence of school-based nutrition and health services. PMID:17996629

  7. Risk assessment for yellow fever in western and North-Western provinces of Zambia

    Olusegun A Babaniyi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia were reclassified as low-risk areas for yellow fever (YF. However, the current potential for YF transmission in these areas is unclear. Aims: To determine the current potential risk of YF infection. Setting and Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia. Materials and Methods: Samples were tested for both YF virus-specific IgG and IgM antibodies by the ELISA and YF virus confirmation was done using Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. The samples were also tested for IgG and IgM antibodies against other flaviviruses. Results: Out of the 3625 respondents who participated in the survey, 46.7% were males and 9.4% were aged less than 5 years. Overall, 58.1% of the participants slept under an impregnated insecticide-treated net and 20.6% reported indoor residual spraying of insecticides. A total of 616 (17.0% samples were presumptive YF positive. The prevalence for YF was 0.3% for long-term infection and 0.2% for recent YF infection. None of the YF confirmed cases had received YF vaccine. Prevalence rates for other flaviviruses were 149 (4.1% for Dengue, 370 (10.2% for West Nile and 217 (6.0% for Zika. Conclusion: There is evidence of past and recent infection of YF in both provinces. Hence, they are at a low risk for YF infection. Yellow fever vaccination should be included in the EPI program in the two provinces and strengthen surveillance with laboratory confirmation.

  8. Hepatitis B Infection, Viral Load and Resistance in HIV-Infected Patients in Mozambique and Zambia.

    Gilles Wandeler

    Full Text Available Few data on the virological determinants of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection are available from southern Africa.We enrolled consecutive HIV-infected adult patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART at two urban clinics in Zambia and four rural clinics in Northern Mozambique between May 2013 and August 2014. HBsAg screening was performed using the Determine® rapid test. Quantitative real-time PCR and HBV sequencing were performed in HBsAg-positive patients. Risk factors for HBV infection were evaluated using Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests and associations between baseline characteristics and high level HBV replication explored in multivariable logistic regression.Seventy-eight of 1,032 participants in Mozambique (7.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.1-9.3 and 90 of 797 in Zambia (11.3%, 95% CI: 9.3-13.4 were HBsAg-positive. HBsAg-positive individuals were less likely to be female compared to HBsAg-negative ones (52.3% vs. 66.1%, p20,000 UI/mL. HBsAg-positive individuals had higher levels of ALT and AST compared to HBsAg-negative ones (both p<0.001. In multivariable analyses, male sex (adjusted odds ratio: 2.59, 95% CI: 1.22-5.53 and CD4 cell count below 200/μl (2.58, 1.20-5.54 were associated with high HBV DNA. HBV genotypes A1 (58.8% and E (38.2% were most prevalent. Four patients had probable resistance to lamivudine and/or entecavir.One half of HBsAg-positive patients demonstrated high HBV viremia, supporting the early initiation of tenofovir-containing ART in HIV/HBV-coinfected adults.

  9. Hepatitis B Infection, Viral Load and Resistance in HIV-Infected Patients in Mozambique and Zambia

    Wandeler, Gilles; Musukuma, Kalo; Zürcher, Samuel; Vinikoor, Michael J.; Llenas-García, Jara; Aly, Mussa M.; Mulenga, Lloyd; Chi, Benjamin H.; Ehmer, Jochen; Hobbins, Michael A.; Bolton-Moore, Carolyn; Hoffmann, Christopher J.; Egger, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Background Few data on the virological determinants of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are available from southern Africa. Methods We enrolled consecutive HIV-infected adult patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) at two urban clinics in Zambia and four rural clinics in Northern Mozambique between May 2013 and August 2014. HBsAg screening was performed using the Determine® rapid test. Quantitative real-time PCR and HBV sequencing were performed in HBsAg-positive patients. Risk factors for HBV infection were evaluated using Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests and associations between baseline characteristics and high level HBV replication explored in multivariable logistic regression. Results Seventy-eight of 1,032 participants in Mozambique (7.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.1–9.3) and 90 of 797 in Zambia (11.3%, 95% CI: 9.3–13.4) were HBsAg-positive. HBsAg-positive individuals were less likely to be female compared to HBsAg-negative ones (52.3% vs. 66.1%, p20,000 UI/mL). HBsAg-positive individuals had higher levels of ALT and AST compared to HBsAg-negative ones (both p<0.001). In multivariable analyses, male sex (adjusted odds ratio: 2.59, 95% CI: 1.22–5.53) and CD4 cell count below 200/μl (2.58, 1.20–5.54) were associated with high HBV DNA. HBV genotypes A1 (58.8%) and E (38.2%) were most prevalent. Four patients had probable resistance to lamivudine and/or entecavir. Conclusion One half of HBsAg-positive patients demonstrated high HBV viremia, supporting the early initiation of tenofovir-containing ART in HIV/HBV-coinfected adults. PMID:27032097

  10. Task-shifting HIV counselling and testing services in Zambia: the role of lay counsellors

    Kapanda Paul

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human resource shortage in Zambia is placing a heavy burden on the few health care workers available at health facilities. The Zambia Prevention, Care and Treatment Partnership began training and placing community volunteers as lay counsellors in order to complement the efforts of the health care workers in providing HIV counselling and testing services. These volunteers are trained using the standard national counselling and testing curriculum. This study was conducted to review the effectiveness of lay counsellors in addressing staff shortages and the provision of HIV counselling and testing services. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by means of semistructured interviews from all active lay counsellors in each of the facilities and a facility manager or counselling supervisor overseeing counseling and testing services and clients. At each of the 10 selected facilities, all counselling and testing record books for the month of May 2007 were examined and any recordkeeping errors were tallied by cadre. Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions with health care workers at each facility. Results Lay counsellors provide counselling and testing services of quality and relieve the workload of overstretched health care workers. Facility managers recognize and appreciate the services provided by lay counsellors. Lay counsellors provide up to 70% of counselling and testing services at health facilities. The data review revealed lower error rates for lay counsellors, compared to health care workers, in completing the counselling and testing registers. Conclusion Community volunteers, with approved training and ongoing supervision, can play a major role at health facilities to provide counselling and testing services of quality, and relieve the burden on already overstretched health care workers.

  11. Assessing Zambia's industrial fortification options: getting beyond changes in prevalence and cost-effectiveness.

    Fiedler, John L; Lividini, Keith; Kabaghe, Gladys; Zulu, Rodah; Tehinse, John; Bermudez, Odilia I; Jallier, Vincent; Guyondet, Christophe

    2013-12-01

    Background. Since fortification of sugar with vitamin A was mandated in 1998, Zambia's fortification program has not changed, while the country remains plagued by high rates ofmicronutrient deficiencies. Objective. To provide evidence-based fortification options with the hope of reinvigorating the Zambian fortification program. Methods. Zambia's 2006 Living Conditions Monitoring Survey is used to estimate the apparent intakes of vitamin A, iron, and zinc, as well as the apparent consumption levels and coverage of four fortification vehicles. Fourteen alternativefoodfortification portfolios are modeled, and their costs, impacts, average cost-effectiveness, and incremental cost-effectiveness are calculated using three alternative impact measures. Results. Alternative impact measures result in different rank orderings of the portfolios. The most cost-effective portfolio is vegetable oil, which has a cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) saved ranging from 12% to 25% of that of sugar, depending on the impact measure used. The public health impact of fortified vegetable oil, however, is relatively modest. Additional criteria beyond cost-effectiveness are introduced and used to rank order the portfolios. The size of the public health impact, the total cost, and the incremental cost-effectiveness of phasing in multiple vehicle portfolios over time are analyzed. Conclusions. Assessing fortification portfolios by measuring changes in the prevalence of inadequate intakes underestimates impact. A more sensitive measure, which also takes into account change in the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) gap, is provided by a dose-response-based approach to estimating the number ofDALYs saved. There exist highly cost-effective fortification intervention portfolios with substantial public health impacts and variable price tags that could help improve Zambians' nutrition status. PMID:24605698

  12. Identification of the plague reservoir in an endemic area of Zambia

    Bernard M. Hang’ombe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis, the bacterial agent of plague, is primarily a parasite of wild rodents that persists in permanent, discrete enzootic foci throughout the world. The disease is transmitted in humans by bites from fleas of wildlife rodent species. Therefore surveillance is the ultimate public health solution through plague detection in domestic dogs, other carnivores and wild rodents. The investigations of die-offs amongst plague-susceptible colonial rodents are also significant to determine the presence of Y. pestis in a susceptible population.This study details the identification of the plague reservoir in a suspected endemic area of Zambia. The study was undertaken through rodent investigation for the presence of Y. pestis. A total of 105 rodents were sampled routinely and during a suspected plague period. On dissection 4 (3.81%, 95% CI: 1.23−10.0 rodents sampled during an outbreak showed signs of spleen enlargement. The blood, liver, lymph nodes and spleen of each rodent were subjected to culture on 6% sheep blood agar and MaCconkey agar. Colonies obtained were identified as Y. pestis by colony morphologic features, biochemical profiles, mouse inoculation assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The PCR primers used targeted the Y. pestis plasminogen activator gene, chromosomal ferric iron uptake regulation gene and the outer membrane protein B gene.The isolates were also subjected to antibiotic sensitivity tests using the disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar with sensitivity being observed with ampicillin, amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The findings, identifies a natural reservoir of Y. pestis in Zambia providing the public health officials with a definite host for the control strategy.

  13. Turnaround time for early infant HIV diagnosis in rural Zambia: a chart review.

    Catherine G Sutcliffe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early infant HIV diagnosis is challenging in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in rural areas where laboratory capacity is limited. Specimens must be transported to central laboratories for testing, leading to delays in diagnosis and initiation of antiretroviral therapy. This study was undertaken in rural Zambia to measure the turnaround time for confirmation of HIV infection and identify delays in diagnosis. METHODS: Chart reviews were conducted from 2010-2012 for children undergoing early infant HIV diagnosis at Macha Hospital in Zambia. Relevant dates, receipt of drugs by mother and child for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT, and test results were abstracted. RESULTS: 403 infants provided 476 samples for early infant diagnosis. The median age at the "6-week" and "6-month" assessments was 8.1 weeks and 7.0 months, respectively. The majority of mothers (80% and infants (67% received PMTCT. The median time between sample collection and arrival at the central laboratory in Lusaka was 17 days (IQR: 10, 28; arrival at the central laboratory to testing was 6 days (IQR: 5, 11; testing to return of results to the clinic was 29 days (IQR: 17, 36; arrival of results at the clinic to return of results to the caregiver was 45 days (IQR: 24, 79. The total median time from sample collection to return of results to the caregiver was 92 days (IQR: 84, 145. The proportion of HIV PCR positive samples was 12%. The total median turnaround time was shorter for HIV PCR positive as compared to negative or invalid samples (85 vs. 92 days; p = 0.08. CONCLUSIONS: Delays in processing and communicating test results were identified, particularly in returning results from the central laboratory to the clinic and from the clinic to the caregiver. A more efficient process is needed so that caregivers can be provided test results more rapidly, potentially resulting in earlier treatment initiation and better outcomes for HIV

  14. Testing the validity and reliability of the shame questionnaire among sexually abused girls in Zambia.

    Lynn T M Michalopoulos

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study is to test the validity and reliability of the Shame Questionnaire among traumatized girls in Lusaka, Zambia.The Shame Questionnaire was validated through both classical test and item response theory methods. Internal reliability, criterion validity and construct validity were examined among a sample of 325 female children living in Zambia. Sub-analyses were conducted to examine differences in construct validity among girls who reported sexual abuse and girls who did not.All girls in the sample were sexually abused, but only 61.5% endorsed or reported that sexual abuse had occurred. Internal consistency was very good among the sample with alpha = .87. Criterion validity was demonstrated through a significant difference of mean Shame Questionnaire scores between girls who experienced 0-1 trauma events and more than one traumatic event, with higher mean Shame Questionnaire scores among girls who had more than one traumatic event (p = .004 for 0-1 compared to 2 and 3 events and p = .016 for 0-1 compared to 4+ events. Girls who reported a history of witnessing or experiencing physical abuse had a significantly higher mean Shame Questionnaire score than girls who did not report a history of witnessing or experiencing physical abuse (p<.0001. There was no significant difference in mean Shame Questionnaire score between girls who reported a sexual abuse history and girls who did not. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a two-factor model of the Shame Questionnaire, with an experience of shame dimension and an active outcomes of shame dimension. Item response theory analysis indicated adequate overall item fit. Results also indicate potential differences in construct validity between girls who did and did not endorse sexual abuse.This study suggests the general utility of the Shame Questionnaire among Zambian girls and demonstrates the need for more psychometric studies in low and middle income countries.

  15. Mental health policy process: a comparative study of Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia

    Kigozi Fred

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental illnesses are increasingly recognised as a leading cause of disability worldwide, yet many countries lack a mental health policy or have an outdated, inappropriate policy. This paper explores the development of appropriate mental health policies and their effective implementation. It reports comparative findings on the processes for developing and implementing mental health policies in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia as part of the Mental Health and Poverty Project. Methods The study countries and respondents were purposively selected to represent different levels of mental health policy and system development to allow comparative analysis of the factors underlying the different forms of mental health policy development and implementation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Data analysis was guided by conceptual framework that was developed for this purpose. A framework approach to analysis was used, incorporating themes that emerged from the data and from the conceptual framework. Results Mental health policies in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia are weak, in draft form or non-existent. Mental health remained low on the policy agenda due to stigma and a lack of information, as well as low prioritisation by donors, low political priority and grassroots demand. Progress with mental health policy development varied and respondents noted a lack of consultation and insufficient evidence to inform policy development. Furthermore, policies were poorly implemented, due to factors including insufficient dissemination and operationalisation of policies and a lack of resources. Conclusions Mental health policy processes in all four countries were inadequate, leading to either weak or non-existent policies, with an impact on mental health services. Recommendations are provided to strengthen mental health policy processes in these and other African countries.

  16. Erectile function in circumcised and uncircumcised men in Lusaka, Zambia: A cross-sectional study

    Evans Chinkoyo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence from three randomised control trials in South Africa, Uganda and Kenya showing that male circumcision can reduce heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection from infected females to their male partners by up to 60% has led to an increase in circumcisions in most African countries. This has created anxieties around possible deleterious effects of circumcision on erectile function (EF.Aim: To compare EF in circumcised and uncircumcised men aged 18 years and older.Setting: Four primary healthcare facilities in Lusaka, Zambia.Methods: Using a cross-sectional survey 478 participants (242 circumcised and 236 uncircumcised from four primary healthcare facilities in Lusaka, Zambia were asked to complete the IIEF-5 questionnaire. EF scores were calculated for the two groups, where normal EF constituted an IIEF-5 score ≥ 22 (out of 25.Results: Circumcised men had higher average EF scores compared to their uncircumcised counterparts, (p < 0.001. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction was lower in circumcisedmen (56% compared to uncircumcised men (68% (p < 0.05. EF scores were similar in thosecircumcised in childhood and those who had the procedure in adulthood, (p = 0.59. The groups did not differ significantly in terms of age, relationship status, smoking, alcohol and medication use. A statistically significant difference was observed in education levels, with the circumcision group having higher levels of education (p < 0.005.Conclusion: The higher EF scores in circumcised men show that circumcision does not confer adverse EF effects in men. These results suggest that circumcision can be considered safe interms of EF. A definitive prospective study is needed to confirm these findings.

  17. Urban waste landfill planning and karstic groundwater resources in developing countries: the example of Lusaka (Zambia)

    De Waele, J.; Nyambe, I. A.; Di Gregorio, A.; Di Gregorio, F.; Simasiku, S.; Follesa, R.; Nkemba, S.

    2004-06-01

    Lusaka, the capital city of Zambia with more than two million inhabitants, derives approximately 70% of its water requirements from groundwater sourced in the underlying karstic Lusaka aquifer. This water resource is, therefore, extremely important for the future of the population. The characteristics of the aquifer and the shallow water table make the resource vulnerable and in need of protection and monitoring. A joint project between the Geology Departments of the University of Cagliari and the School of Mines of the University of Zambia, to investigate the "Anthropogenic and natural processes in the Lusaka area leading to environmental degradation and their possible mitigation" was carried out in July 2001. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the extent of the present environmental degradation, assessing the vulnerability of the carbonatic aquifer and the degree of pollution of the groundwater and to make proposals to mitigate adverse environmental effects. Analyses of water samples collected during project indicate some areas of concern, particularly with respect to the levels of ammonia, nitrates and some heavy metals. As groundwater quality and quantity are prerogatives for a healthy and sustainable society, the study offers guidelines for consideration by the local and national authorities. Uptake of these guidelines should result in a number of initiatives being taken, including: (a) closure or reclamation of existing waste dumps; (b) upgrading of existing waste dumps to controlled landfills; (c) establishing new urban waste landfills and plants in geo-environmentally suitable sites; (d) local waste management projects in all compounds (residential areas) to prevent and reduce haphazard waste dumping; (e) enlarging sewerage drainage systems to all compounds; (f) enforcing control on groundwater abstraction and pollution, and demarcation of zones of control at existing drill holes; (g) providing the city with new water supplies from outside the

  18. Risk factors, healthcare-seeking and sexual behaviour among patients with genital ulcers in Zambia

    Makasa Mpundu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genital ulcers (GU are associated with an increased risk of HIV transmission. Understanding risk factors for genital ulcers and sexual behaviour patterns after onset of symptoms and health seeking behaviour among GU-patients can provide useful information to aid design effective prevention strategies for genital ulcers. We investigated risk factors of self-reported GUs and care-seeking in the general population, and assessed GU patients regarding past care-seeking, recent sexual behaviour and partner awareness of the disease. Methods We analysed national data on genital ulcers from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey, and data from a cross-sectional survey of genital ulcer patients from primary health care facilities in Lusaka, Zambia. Results The prevalence of GU in 2007 in the general population of Lusaka was 3.6%. Important predictors for genital ulcers were age 25–29 years, being widowed/separated/divorced and having a high number of life-time sexual partners. No differences in care-seeking were observed by residence, wealth and gender, and 60% of the respondents sought care from public health facilities. Among patients with GUs in Lusaka, 14% sought care >2 weeks after symptom onset. Forty-two percent were not aware of their HIV status, 57% reported sex after onset of symptoms and only 15% reported consistent condom use. Conclusions Low awareness of HIV status despite high probability of being infected and low condom use after onset of genital ulcer symptoms leads to a high potential for transmission to sexual partners. This, combined with the fact that many patients with GUs delayed seeking care, shows a need for awareness campaigns about GUs and the importance of abstinence or use of condoms when experiencing such symptoms.

  19. Improving community health worker use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in Zambia: package instructions, job aid and job aid-plus-training

    Mulholland Kurt

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Introduction of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT has boosted interest in parasite-based malaria diagnosis, leading to increased use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs, particularly in rural settings where microscopy is limited. With donor support, national malaria control programmes are now procuring large quantities of RDTs. The scarcity of health facilities and trained personnel in many sub-Saharan African countries means that limiting RDT use to such facilities would exclude a significant proportion of febrile cases. RDT use by volunteer community health workers (CHWs is one alternative, but most sub-Saharan African countries prohibit CHWs from handling blood, and little is known about CHW ability to use RDTs safely and effectively. This Zambia-based study was designed to determine: (i whether Zambian CHWs could prepare and interpret RDTs accurately and safely using manufacturer's instructions alone; (ii whether simple, mostly pictorial instructions (a "job aid" could raise performance to adequate levels; and (iii whether a brief training programme would produce further improvement. Methods The job aid and training programme were based on formative research with 32 CHWs in Luangwa District. The study team then recruited three groups of CHWs in Chongwe and Chibombo districts. All had experience treating malaria based on clinical diagnosis, but only six had prior RDT experience. Trained observers used structured observation checklists to score each participant's preparation of three RDTs. Each also read 10 photographs showing different test results. The first group (n = 32 was guided only by manufacturer's instructions. The second (n = 21 used only the job aid. The last (n = 26 used the job aid after receiving a three-hour training. Results Mean scores, adjusted for education, age, gender and experience, were 57% of 16 RDT steps correctly completed for group 1, 80% for group 2, and 92% for group 3. Mean percentage of test

  20. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_CommunityDevelopmentDistrict

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Community Development Districts (CDDs) are special taxing districts or local units of special-purpose government. A CDD may charge separate non-ad valorem special...

  1. Special Taxing Districts, TIF districts, Published in 2006, Freelance.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Special Taxing Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as 'TIF districts'. Data by...

  2. District heating in Flensburg

    Prinz, W.

    1981-01-01

    The majority of our population, but also of our authorities, are still skeptical or even disapproving towards district heating. The reasons of this negative attitude are partly psychological - e.g. the individualism of the Swiss and their dislike for too centralised structures and ''forced connections'' - but also the existence of finished gas supply networks and the fear of considerable pre-investments and torn streets over years. The following article - held as a speech on the information meeting ''District heating and the possible contribution of nuclear energy'' organised by the Swiss Association for Atomic Energy in Bern shows a practical problem solving at the example of the district heating in Flensburg and deals with these questions.

  3. Unintended Pregnancy among HIV Positive Couples Receiving Integrated HIV Counseling, Testing, and Family Planning Services in Zambia

    Wall, Kristin M.; Lisa Haddad; Bellington Vwalika; Naw Htee Khu; Ilene Brill; William Kilembe; Rob Stephenson; Elwyn Chomba; Cheswa Vwalika; Amanda Tichacek; Susan Allen

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We describe rates of unintended pregnancy among HIV positive couples in Lusaka, Zambia. We also identify factors associated with unintended pregnancy among oral contraceptive pill (OCP) using couples in this cohort. DESIGN: Data were analyzed from couples randomized in a factorial design to two family planning intervention videos. METHODS: Rates of unintended pregnancy were stratified by contraceptive method used at time of pregnancy. Predictors of time to unintended pregnancy amon...

  4. Taking off in Africa : a comparison of the development policies of China and the UK in Zambia

    2007-01-01

    China s engagement in Africa is increasing, and an important part of their engagement consists of development assistance. This has raised lively debate across the world, as critics claim that the Chinese engagement is not beneficial to Africa. My thesis thus seeks to identify what characterizes Chinese development policy in Africa and how this compares to that of the West. It is operationalized as an exploratory case study of the development policies of China and the UK in Zambia, in which th...

  5. Impact of HIV/AIDS-Related Deaths on Rural Farm Households' Welfare in Zambia: Implications for Poverty Reduction Strategies

    Chapoto, Antony; Jayne, Thomas S.

    2005-01-01

    Using comprehensive rural farm household longitudinal data from Zambia, this paper measures the impacts of prime-age (PA) adult morbidity and mortality on crop production and cropping patterns, household size, livestock and non-farm income. The paper adopts and extends the counterfactual (difference-in-difference) approach by controlling for initial (pre-death) household conditions that may influence the severity of the impacts of adult mortality. In particular, the study controls for initial...

  6. Detection of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Market-Ready Chickens in Zambia

    Chishimba, K.; B.M. Hang’ombe; Muzandu, K.; Mshana, S. E.; Matee, M. I.; Nakajima, C.; Suzuki, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The frequent administering of antibiotics in the treatment of poultry diseases may contribute to emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing Escherichia coli in poultry in Zambia. A total of 384 poultry samples were collected and analyzed for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The cultured E. coli isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests and the polymerase chain reac...

  7. Beyond Time: Temporal and Extra-temporal Functions of Tense and Aspect Marking in Totela, a Bantu Language of Zambia

    Crane, Thera Marie

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation aims to characterize the relationship between the temporal and information-structuring functions of tense and aspect marking in Totela, an endangered Bantu language of Zambia and Namibia. To that end, I investigate and describe in detail the semantics and pragmatics of selected tense and aspect markers, showing for each that a purely temporal description is inadequate to explain its range of interpretations and uses.Totela is a typical Bantu language in that it has a vast a...

  8. Towards 'good enough' climate and disaster risk governance: Emerging lessons from Zambia, Nepal, Viet Nam and Uganda

    Christoplos, Ian; Aben, Charles; Bashaasha, Bernard; Dhungana, Hari; Friis-Hansen, Esbern; Funder, Mikkel; Nguyen Thi Thanh Huong; Dil Bahadur Khatri; Lindegaard, Lily; Mweemba, Carol; Le Duc Ngoan; Nyambe, Imasiku; Pain, Adam; Le Thi Hoa Sen

    2014-01-01

    This report compares and contrasts how disaster risk management is being conceptualised in relation to emerging climate change adaptation efforts and how these two agendas are influenced by different governance systems, accountabilities and social contracts in Zambia, Uganda, Viet Nam and Nepal. Particular attention is paid to how this relates to different forms of state legitimacy and the changing role of local government in connection with a range of decentralisation processes, increasing p...

  9. The Impact of Public Education Expenditure on Human Capital, Growth, and Poverty in Tanzania and Zambia: A General Equilibrium Approach

    Erik Thorbecke; Hong-Sang Jung

    2001-01-01

    The impact of public education expenditure on human capital, the supply of different labor skills, and its macroeconomic and distributional consequences is appraised within a multisector CGE model. The model is applied to and calibrated for two Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPCs), Tanzania and Zambia. The simulation results suggest that education expenditure can raise economic growth. However, to maximize benefits from education expenditure, a sufficiently high level of physical investmen...

  10. A Conceptual Analysis of Environmental Justice Approaches: Procedural Environmental Justice in the EIA Process in South Africa and Zambia

    Towela Sambo, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    The Abstract of thesis submitted to the School of Law of The University of Manchester by Pamela Towela Sambo 7160514 for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in April 2012 is entitled “A Conceptual Analysis of Environmental Justice Approaches: Procedural Environmental Justice in the EIA Process in South Africa and Zambia.”This study argues that the basis of all environmental justice variations is the consideration of fairness, equity and justice in the environmental processes that resol...

  11. THE ROLE OF THE SWEET POTATO IN THE CROP DIVERSIFICATION OF SMALL-SCALE FARMERS IN SOUTHERN PROVINCE, ZAMBIA

    Miyazaki, Hidetoshi; ISHIMOTO, Yudai; Tanaka, Ueru; UMETSU, Chieko

    2013-01-01

    Stable maize production and increased productivity are important for improved food security in Zambia. Because most farmers cultivate maize under rain-fed agriculture, a maize monoculture is vulnerable to drought or excessive rainfall. Therefore, increasing the diversification of crops and crop varieties is important to achieve food security in the face of a changing climate. The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) has great potential as a crop for consumption and as a source of income. The aim of...

  12. Diarrhea is a Major killer of Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition Admitted to Inpatient Set-up in Lusaka, Zambia

    Mwambazi Mwate; Irena Abel H; Mulenga Veronica

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Mortality of children with Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) in inpatient set-ups in sub-Saharan Africa still remains unacceptably high. We investigated the prevalence and effect of diarrhea and HIV infection on inpatient treatment outcome of children with complicated SAM receiving treatment in inpatient units. Method A cohort of 430 children aged 6-59 months old with complicated SAM admitted to Zambia University Teaching Hospital's stabilization centre from August to Dece...

  13. Cost effectiveness of community-based therapeutic care for children with severe acute malnutrition in Zambia: decision tree model

    Bachmann Max O

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Children aged under five years with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in Africa and Asia have high mortality rates without effective treatment. Primary care-based treatment of SAM can have good outcomes but its cost effectiveness is largely unknown. Method This study estimated the cost effectiveness of community-based therapeutic care (CTC) for children with severe acute malnutrition in government primary health care centres in Lusaka, Zambia, compared to no care. A decision...

  14. Labour inputs and financial profitability of conventional and agroforestry-based soil fertility management practices in Zambia

    Ajayi, Olu Clifford; Akinnifesi, Festus K.; Sileshi, G.; Kanjipite, W.

    2009-01-01

    Several agro-ecological practices have been developed to increase the range of soil fertility management options available to farmers, but little information is available on their labour input requirement and profitability relative to conventional practices. This study used a multiple visit cost-route method to estimate labour inputs and financial profitability of agroforestry-based and conventional (with and without fertiliser) soil fertility management practices in eastern Zambia. Results s...

  15. Maize Yield Response to Fertilizer and Profitability of Fertilizer Use Among Small-Scale Maize Producers in Zambia

    Xu, Zhiying; Govereh, Jones; Black, J. Roy; Jayne, Thomas S.

    2006-01-01

    Multi-year nationwide survey data is used to estimate maize yield response functions and determine profitability of fertilizer use by small-scale farmers in Zambia. There has been a dearth of empirical studies on economics of fertilization in the context of Sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper we identify major methodological issues arising from using survey data and estimate maize yield response functions for small-scale rural households that have various management practices and soil condition...

  16. Reassessing the Significance of Firearms in Central Africa: The Case of North-Western Zambia to the 1920s

    Macola, Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    Based on a close examination of European travelogues and the evidence produced in the wake of the formulation of colonial gun policies, this article contends that the significance of firearms in Central Africa in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries has been unduly played down in the existing literature. The first substantive section of the article charts the movement of the gun frontier in nineteenth-century north-western Zambia. It foregrounds the new technology’s economic and milit...

  17. Zambia's Stop-And-Go Revolution: The Impact of Policies and Organizations on the Development and Spread of Maize Technology

    Howard, Julie A; Mungoma, Catherine

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores how Zambia's policy and organizational environment has shaped the development, spread, and more recently, the disadoption of maize technology. It also traces the political motivations that drove the establishment of the policy and organizational framework supporting maize production and impeded the efficient operation of the parastatal-managed marketing system. Options facing Zambian policy makers for increasing food production under evolving political and economic conditi...

  18. Feeding and indoor resting behaviour of the mosquito Anopheles longipalpis in an area of hyperendemic malaria transmission in southern Zambia

    Kent, R.J.; Coetzee, M.; Mharakurwa, S.; Norris, D. E.

    2006-01-01

    Anopheles longipalpis (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a predominantly zoophilic mosquito that has not been implicated in malaria transmission. However, this species was collected indoors with An. funestus s.l. in southern Zambia, where transmission of Plasmodium falciparum is hyperendemic, and we initially misidentified it morphologically and molecularly as An. funestus s.l. The indoor resting density and blood-feeding behaviour of An. longipalpis were investigated during the 2004 – 05 and...

  19. Perceptions of HIV-related health services in Zambia for people with disabilities who are HIV-positive

    Nixon, Stephanie A.; Cathy Cameron; Jill Hanass-Hancock; Phillimon Simwaba; Patricia E Solomon; Bond, Virginia A; Anitha Menon; Emma Richardson; Marianne Stevens; Elisse Zack

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Despite the emerging body of literature on increased vulnerability to HIV among people with disabilities (PWDs), there is a dearth of evidence related to experiences of PWDs who have become HIV-positive. This priority was identified by a disability advocacy organization in Lusaka, Zambia, where the prevalence of HIV and of disability is each approximately 15%. The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions and experiences of HIV-related health services for PWDs who are als...

  20. Quality of Basic Education Provided by Rural Community and Regular Schools in the Northern Province of Zambia

    Nkosha, Dickson C.; Mwanza, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Community schools provide an alternative mode of education delivery in Zambia. They have helped in making basic education accessible to many school goingage children. In addition, community schools have helped in strengthening relationships between schools and surrounding communities; and pupils do not have to travel long distances to schools. Considering that both regular and community basic schools play a very important role in the provision of education, the study sought to establish the q...

  1. The twin challenges of eliminating child labour and achieving EFA: evidence and policy options from Mali and Zambia

    UCW

    2009-01-01

    Child labour constitutes a key obstacle to achieving Education For All (EFA) and Millennium Development Goals in Mali and Zambia. It not only arms the welfare of individual children, but also slows broader national poverty reduction and development efforts. Children forced out of school and into labour to help their families make ends meet are denied the opportunity to acquire the knowledge and skills needed for gainful future employment, thereby perpetuating the cycle of poverty. One out of ...

  2. Metal and metalloid contamination in roadside soil and wild rats around a Pb-Zn mine in Kabwe, Zambia

    Metal (Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni) and metalloid (As) accumulation was studied in roadside soil and wild rat (Rattus sp.) samples from near a Pb-Zn mine (Kabwe, Zambia) and the capital city of Zambia (Lusaka). The concentrations of the seven metals and As in the soil samples and Pb in the rat tissue samples were quantified using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, and As in Kabwe soil were much higher than benchmark values. Geographic Information System analysis indicated the source of metal pollution was mining and smelting activity. Interestingly, the area south of the mine was more highly contaminated even though the prevailing wind flow was westward. Wild rats from Kabwe had much higher tissue concentrations of Pb than those from Lusaka. Their body weight and renal Pb levels were negatively correlated, which suggests that mining activity might affect terrestrial animals in Kabwe. - The area around Kabwe, Zambia is highly polluted with metals and As. Wild rats from this area had high tissue concentrations of Pb and decreased body weight.

  3. Unified School Districts, Census 2000

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The New Mexico 2000 Unified School Districts layer was derived from the TIGER Line files from the US Census Bureau. The districts are clipped to the state...

  4. New Mexico State Forestry Districts

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries of the New Mexico Forestry Districts, plus the names of the district offices. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a...

  5. District-Level Downsizing

    Schachter, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Draconian cuts have become the order of business for many school districts since the economic recession hit in 2008. But for the coming school year, "draconian" has taken on an even harsher meaning, as states from California and Texas to Illinois and New York wrestle with deficits in the tens of billions of dollars and make multi-billion-dollar…

  6. School District Budgeting.

    Hartman, William T.

    This book is devoted exclusively to the budgeting process in school districts, unlike the more common generic budgeting texts. As such, it allows an in-depth treatment of both conceptual and practical aspects of budgeting in a single volume. By default, school business officials have had to rely on the state education accounting manual as their…

  7. District Consolidation: Rivals Coming Together

    Mart, Dan

    2011-01-01

    District consolidation is a highly emotional process. One key to success is sticking to the facts. In Iowa, school districts facing financial difficulties or enrollment concerns do not have to move directly to consolidation. In many cases, districts begin by developing sharing agreements. These sharing agreements may start with simple sharing of…

  8. Comprehensive Conservation Plan: Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, Sand Lake Wetland Management District

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake...

  9. VII international district heating conference

    The proceedings of the 7th International District Heating Conference contain the full texts of the 89 presented papers of which 11 fall under the INIS Subject Scope. The conference met in seven sessions and dealt with the following problem areas: design and optimization of systems of district heating, integration of the power system and the district heating systems, cooperation of nuclear and fossil burning sources in district heating systems, the use of specific nuclear power plants for heating purposes, questions of the control of systems of district heating, the development of components of heating networks, the reliability and design of heat supply pipes. (Z.M.)

  10. Suppressed or unsuppressed HIV in adults on antiretroviral therapy in Zambia: who is at risk?

    N Chishinga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: To determine factors associated with suppressed or unsuppressed HIV in adults receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART in Zambia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted between August 2008 and October 2009 in 16 Zambian communities nested within the ZAMSTAR trial [1]. Adult TB cases identified at a TB clinic of each community and their adult household members were invited to participate in the study. A structured interview was used to obtain information on the participants’ social, demographic and clinical characteristics. Socio-economic position (SEP was measured using household wealth indices used in demographic health surveys. Principal component analysis was used to determine the cut-off for high (wealthy and low (poor SEP. Depression symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D. A cut-off of≥22 on the CES-D was used to define current depression [2]. Participants were included in this analysis if they were found to be receiving cART for>90 days at the time of the interview. The outcome was HIV suppression (viral load≤300 copies/ml. In both univariable and multivariable analyses, log Poisson regression models with robust standard errors adjusted for the 16 communities were used to calculate the risk ratios (RR, 95% confidence intervals (CI and p-values of factors associated with HIV suppression. In multivariable analysis, each variable was independently assessed for its association with HIV suppression while minimally adjusting for a priori confounders (age, gender and education level. Summary of results: There were 520 patients receiving cART for>90 days. The median age was 35 years (inter-quartile range: 31–41 and 328/520 (63.1% were married (Table.Of the 520 patients, 442 (85.0% had HIV suppression while 78 (15.0% did not. At univariable analysis, having high SEP was negatively associated with HIV suppression while receiving ZDV+3TC+EFV was

  11. “All for some”: water inequity in Zambia and Zimbabwe

    Robinson, Peter B.

    In southern Africa, gross disparities in access to water are symptomatic of the overall uneven pattern of development. Despite post-independence egalitarian rhetoric, in countries such as Zambia and Zimbabwe inappropriate models (piped house connections in the urban areas, high technology irrigation schemes in the agricultural sector), combined with weak macro-economies and poorly formulated sectoral policies have actually exacerbated the disparities. Zero or very low tariffs have played a major role in this. Although justified as being consistent with water’s special status, inadequate tariffs in fact serve to undermine any programme of making water accessible to all. This has led to a narrowing of development options, resulting in exclusivist rather than inclusivist development, and stagnation rather than dynamism. A major part of the explanation for perpetuation of such unsatisfactory outcomes is the existence of political interest groups who benefit from the status quo. The first case study in the paper involves urban water consumers in Zambia, where those with piped water connections seek to continue the culture of low tariffs which is by now deeply embedded. The result is that the water supply authorities (in this case the newly formed, but still politically constrained ‘commercialised utilities’) are unable even to maintain adequate supplies to the piped customers, let alone extend service to the peri-urban dwellers, 56% of whom do not have access to safe water. The paper outlines some modest, workable principles to achieve universal, affordable access to water in the urban areas, albeit through a mix of service delivery mechanisms. In a second case study of rural productive water in Zimbabwe, the reasons for only 2% of the rural subsistence farming households being involved in formal small-scale irrigation schemes 20 years after independence are explored. Again, a major part of the explanation lies in government pursuing a water delivery model which

  12. Solar district heating

    The model presented here analyzes solar district heating systems on the basis of the power supplied at the grid feeding point. Consumption patterns are taken into account only in the form of different preset load curves. Processes are selected in consideration of the following aspects: (1) The design of a solar district heating system (collector surface, storage volume) depends on the expected contribution of solar power to electricity supply. For each of the key years 1989, 2005 and 2020, a low, average and high contribution were investigated, from which design concepts for other supply rates can be derived. (2) Yields and economic efficiency of solar systems also depend on collector sites and consumption patterns. 10 variants each with low and very high contributions of solar power were calculated for the key year 2020. (orig.)

  13. Districting and Government Overspending

    Reza Baqir

    2001-01-01

    The common-pool problem is a central issue in the relationship between the political structure of jurisdictions and the size of public spending. Models predict that, other things being equal, greater political districting of a jurisdiction raises the scale of government. This paper presents new evidence on this and related predictions from a cross-section of city governments in the United States. The main finding is that one additional legislator is associated, on average, with 3 percent larg...

  14. Resource Utilization and Costs of Care prior to ART Initiation for Pediatric Patients in Zambia

    Hari S. Iyer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We estimated time to initiation, outpatient resource use, and costs of outpatient care during the 6 months prior to ART initiation for HIV-infected pediatric patients in Zambia. Methods. We enrolled 1,102 children who initiated ART at <15 years of age between 2006 and 2011 at 5 study sites. Of these, 832 initiated ART ≤6 months after first presenting to care at the study sites. Data on time in care and resources utilized during the 6 months prior to ART initiation were extracted from patient medical records. Costs were estimated from the provider’s perspective and are reported in 2011 USD. Results. For the patients who initiated ART ≤6 months after presenting to care, median age at presentation to care was 3.9 years; median CD4 percentage was 13%. Median time to ART initiation was 26 days. Patients made, on average, 2.38 clinic visits prior to ART initiation and received 0.81 CD4 tests, 0.74 full blood count tests, and 0.49 blood chemistry tests. The mean cost of pre-ART care was $20 per patient. Conclusions. Zambian pediatric patients initiating ART ≤6 months after presenting to care do so quickly, utilize fewer resources than mandated by national guidelines, and accrue low costs.

  15. Heat flow and heat production in Zambia: evidence for lithospheric thinning in central Africa

    Chapman, D.S.; Pollack, H.N.

    1977-08-03

    Heat-flow results from eleven widely spaced sites in central and western regions of the Republic of Zambia range between 54 and 76 mW m/sup -2/. Ten of the sites are located in late Precambrian (Katangan) metasediments or Kibaran age basement, while one site is located in Karroo age sandstone. Compared to the global mean of 39 +- 7 (sd) mW m/sup -2/ for Precambrian provinces elsewhere, these heat-flow results are anomalously high by some 25 mW m/sup -2/. Heat-production measurements on borehole core samples indicate that enhanced radioactivity of an enriched surface zone can account for only half of the observed anomaly. The remaining anomalous heat flow must have a deeper source, and can be interpreted as a flux from the asthenosphere, providing the overlying lithosphere has been thinned to less than 60 km. Such an interpretation supports the existence of an incipient arm of the East African rift system trending southwest from Lake Tanganyika into the central African plateau.

  16. Postpartum maternal morbidity requiring hospital admission in Lusaka, Zambia – a descriptive study

    Murray Susan F

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the extent of postpartum maternal morbidity in developing countries is extremely limited. In many settings, data from hospital-based studies is hard to interpret because of the small proportion of women that have access to medical care. However, in those areas with good uptake of health care, the measurement of the type and incidence of complications severe enough to require hospitalisation may provide useful baseline information on the acute and severe morbidity that women experience in the early weeks following childbirth. An analysis of health services data from Lusaka, Zambia, is presented. Methods Six-month retrospective review of hospital registers and 4-week cross-sectional study with prospective identification of postpartum admissions. Results Both parts of the study identified puerperal sepsis and malaria as, respectively, the leading direct and indirect causes of postpartum morbidity requiring hospital admission. Puerperal sepsis accounted for 34.8% of 365 postpartum admissions in the 6-month period. Malaria and pneumonia together accounted for one-fifth of all postpartum admissions (14.5% & 6% respectively. At least 1.7% of the postpartum population in Lusaka will require hospital-level care for a maternal morbidity. Conclusions In developing country urban settings with high public health care usage, meticulous review of hospital registers can provide baseline information on the burden of moderate-to-severe postpartum morbidity.

  17. Utilization of Forest Products and Services for Livelihoods among Households in Zambia

    Thomson Kalinda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to document the utilization of forest resources for livelihoods in Zambia based on an analysis of data from the ILUA survey. The analysis of the ILUA data in which households indicated the types of forest products and services they obtained from woodlands in their area show that majority households (25% fetched fuelwood, followed by construction materials such as poles and thatching grass (19%. A good number (16% derived plant foods such as fruits and nuts as well as mushrooms. Equally, a considerable proportion of households (11% were harvesting medicinal plants for household use and sale. Some households were producing charcoal (5%, sawn or industrial timber (5% and wood carvings (4% from the local forests. A number of households also obtained important animal products such as honey and bee wax (4% and game meat and other edible animal products (5%. These results from the ILUA survey clearly show that indigenous forests and woodland resources are important sources of household energy and provide other important livelihood products and services for most rural households These findings also indicate that forests and woodland resources are critical to household food security especially during stressful conditions (drought and floods and they are a “drug store” and ‘insurance” for the rural poor and underscore the need to ensure that these forest resources are sustainably managed.

  18. Life cycle assessment to evaluate the environmental impact of biochar implementation in conservation agriculture in Zambia.

    Sparrevik, Magnus; Field, John L; Martinsen, Vegard; Breedveld, Gijs D; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2013-02-01

    Biochar amendment to soil is a potential technology for carbon storage and climate change mitigation. It may, in addition, be a valuable soil fertility enhancer for agricultural purposes in sandy and/or weathered soils. A life cycle assessment including ecological, health and resource impacts has been conducted for field sites in Zambia to evaluate the overall impacts of biochar for agricultural use. The life cycle impacts from conservation farming using cultivation growth basins and precision fertilization with and without biochar addition were in the present study compared to conventional agricultural methods. Three different biochar production methods were evaluated: traditional earth-mound kilns, improved retort kilns, and micro top-lit updraft (TLUD) gasifier stoves. The results confirm that the use of biochar in conservation farming is beneficial for climate change mitigation purposes. However, when including health impacts from particle emissions originating from biochar production, conservation farming plus biochar from earth-mound kilns generally results in a larger negative effect over the whole life cycle than conservation farming without biochar addition. The use of cleaner technologies such as retort kilns or TLUDs can overcome this problem, mainly because fewer particles and less volatile organic compounds, methane and carbon monoxide are emitted. These results emphasize the need for a holistic view on biochar use in agricultural systems. Of special importance is the biochar production technique which has to be evaluated from both environmental/climate, health and social perspectives. PMID:23272937

  19. Determinants of intravaginal practices among HIV-infected women in Zambia using conjoint analysis.

    Alcaide, Maria L; Cook, Ryan; Chisembele, Maureen; Malupande, Emeria; Jones, Deborah L

    2016-05-01

    Intravaginal practices (IVPs) are associated with an increased risk of bacterial vaginosis and may play a role in HIV transmission. The objective of this study was to identify the importance of factors underlying the decision to engage in IVP using conjoint analysis; a novel statistical technique used to quantify health-related decisions. This study was a cross-sectional study. HIV-infected women in Zambia completed audio computer-administered self-interview questionnaires assessing demographic, risk factors and IVPs. Reasons for engaging in IVPs were explored using conjoint questionnaires. Conjoint analysis was used to identify the relative importance of factors for engaging in IVPs. Results of the conjoint analysis demonstrated that hygiene was the most important reason for engaging in IVPs (mean importance score = 61, SD = 24.3) followed by partner's preference (mean importance score = 20, SD = 14.4) and health (mean importance score = 17, SD = 13.5). When making the decision to engage in IVPs, women rank the importance of hygiene, partner preference and health differently, according to their personal characteristics. The use of conjoint analysis to define the characteristics of women more likely to engage in specific practices should be used to develop tailored rather than standardised IVP interventions, and such interventions should be incorporated into clinical practice and women's health programmes. PMID:25957322

  20. HIV testing and tolerance to gender based violence: a cross-sectional study in Zambia.

    Sara Gari

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effect of social relations and gender-based conflicts on the uptake of HIV testing in the South and Central provinces of Zambia. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study of 1716 randomly selected individuals. Associations were examined using mixed-effect multivariable logistic regression. A total of 264 men (64% and 268 women (56% had never tested for HIV. The strongest determinants for not being tested were disruptive couple relationships (OR = 2.48 95% CI = 1.00-6.19; tolerance to gender-based violence (OR = 2.10 95% CI = 1.05-4.32 and fear of social rejection (OR = 1.48 95% CI = 1.23-1.80. In the Zambian context, unequal power relationships within the couple and the community seem to play a pivotal role in the decision to test which until now have been largely underestimated. Policies, programs and interventions to rapidly increase HIV testing need to urgently address gender-power inequity in relationships and prevent gender-based violence to reduce the negative impact on the lives of couples and families.

  1. Cost and financial sustainability of a household-based water treatment and storage intervention in Zambia.

    Banerjee, Anyana; McFarland, Deborah A; Singh, Ritu; Quick, Robert

    2007-09-01

    Providing safe water to >1 billion people in need is a major challenge. To address this need, the Safe Water System (SWS) - household water treatment with dilute bleach, safe water storage, and behavior change - has been implemented in >20 countries. To assess the potential sustainability of the SWS, we analyzed costs in Zambia of "Clorin" brand product sold in bottles sufficient for a month of water treatment at a price of $0.09. We analyzed production, marketing, distribution, and overhead costs of Clorin before and after sales reached nationwide scale, and analyzed Clorin sales revenue. The average cost per bottle of Clorin production, marketing and distribution at start-up in 1999 was $1.88 but decreased by 82% to $0.33 in 2003, when >1.7 million bottles were sold. The financial loss per bottle decreased from $1.72 in 1999 to $0.24 in 2003. Net program costs in 2003 were $428,984, or only $0.04 per person-month of protection. A sensitivity analysis showed that if the bottle price increased to $0.18, the project would be self-sustaining at maximum capacity. This analysis demonstrated that efficiencies in the SWS supply chain can be achieved through social marketing. Even with a subsidy, overall program costs per beneficiary are low. PMID:17878553

  2. USING THE INTERNET FOR DEMOCRACY: A STUDY OF SOUTH AFRICA, KENYA AND ZAMBIA

    Aletta H. Janse van Rensburg

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available For the first time since democracy in the classical Greek sense became practically impossible, the Internet’s networking possibilities are creating opportunities for all citizens to be active engaging participants in democracy. Open communication channels to government and fellow citizens can now be a reality that allows people at all levels of society to form part of a vibrant public sphere by exchanging ideas, sharing experiences, spreading ideologies and news, and comparing agendas. For African countries dealing with unique and increasingly complicated political and socio-economic issues, the Internet provides a platform from which citizens can now address these issues themselves and, in doing so, contribute to a public sphere that strengthens the democratic fibre of their countries. This research posits that the Internet has significant potential to stimulate democratic culture through public discourse and citizen participation. The focus of this study is on finding evidence-based information about the current influence of information and communication technology (ICT usage in South Africa, Kenya and Zambia as representatives of sub-Saharan Africa, and with specific focus on Internet usage through computers and mobile phones. The research also investigates the capacity and opportunity citizens have to successfully integrate ICTs into the accomplishment of self and mutually identified political goals in order to strengthen a broader democratic culture.

  3. Knowledge and use of modern family planning methods by rural women in Zambia

    C. Mubita-Ngoma

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to determine knowledge and use of modem contractive methods among reproductive age group rural women in Zambia. The study is a descriptive cross-sectional study of 105 randomly selected rural women. Data was collected using semi-structured interview schedule and analyzed using EPI Info version 6 statistical packages. The findings revealed that 63% of the respondents were within the age group 21-35 years, 65% were married and 64% were peasant farmers. 90% of the respondents had heard about modem contraceptives and their main source of information was the Health worker (62%. 76% of the respondents stated that modem contraceptive methods could be obtained from public health facilities. 56% of the respondents were currently using modem contraceptive methods and 46% were not using modem contraceptive methods. Reasons for non use of contraceptive methods were religious beliefs (50%, partner disapproval (30% and side effects (20%. The results showed a relationship between educational level and use of contraceptives (Chi-square 7.83, df = 3, P < 0.05 and spouse approval or support of contractive methods and use of contraceptive (Chisquare 5.9, df = 2, P < 0.05. Therefore, efforts to promote modem contraceptive use among the rural women should be intensified to overcome barriers to contraceptive use and should involve men.

  4. Temporal Trends and Predictors of Modern Contraceptive Use in Lusaka, Zambia, 2004–2011

    Nancy L. Hancock

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although increasing access to family planning has been an important part of the global development agenda, millions of women continue to face unmet need for contraception. Materials and Methods. We analyzed data from a repeated cross-sectional community survey conducted in Lusaka, Zambia, over an eight-year period. We described prevalence of modern contraceptive use, including long-acting reversible contraception (LARC, among female heads of household aged 16–50 years. We also identified predictors of LARC versus short-term contraceptive use among women using modern methods. Results and Discussion. Twelve survey rounds were completed between November 2004 and September 2011. Among 29,476 eligible respondents, 17,605 (60% reported using modern contraception. Oral contraceptive pills remained the most popular method over time, but use of LARC increased significantly, from less than 1% in 2004 to 9% by 2011 (p<0.001. Younger women (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.61 and women with lower levels of education (OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.89 were less likely to report LARC use compared to women using short-term modern methods. Conclusions. Population-based assessments of contraceptive use over time can guide programs and policies. To achieve reproductive health equity and reduce unmet contraceptive need, future efforts to increase LARC use should focus on young women and those with less education.

  5. Self-reported poor oral hygiene among in-school adolescents in Zambia

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental health is a neglected aspect of adolescent health globally but more so in low-income countries. Secondary analysis using the 2004 Zambia Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS was conducted in which we estimated frequencies of relevant socio-demographic variables and explored associations between selected explanatory variables and self-reported poor oral hygiene (not cleaning or brushing teeth within the last 30 days of the completion of questionnaire. Findings Most of the 2257 respondents were males (53.9% and went hungry (82.5%. More than 4 in 10 respondents drank alcohol (42.2% while 37.2% smoked cannabis. Overall 10.0% of the respondents reported to have poor oral hygiene. Male respondents were 7% less likely to report to have poor oral hygiene compared to females. Compared to respondents who never drank alcohol, those who drank alcohol were 27% more likely to report to have poor oral hygiene. Respondents who smoked cannabis were 4% more likely to report to have poor oral hygiene compared to those who did not smoke cannabis. Finally, respondents who went hungry were 35% more likely to report to have poor oral hygiene compared to those who did not go hungry. Conclusions Results from this study indicate that female gender, alcohol drinking, cannabis smoking, and going hungry were associated with self-reported poor oral hygiene. The identification of these factors should guide the design and implementation of programs aimed to improve oral health among adolescents.

  6. Nurse-midwives' attitudes towards adolescent sexual and reproductive health needs in Kenya and Zambia.

    Warenius, Linnéa U; Faxelid, Elisabeth A; Chishimba, Petronella N; Musandu, Joyce O; Ong'any, Antony A; Nissen, Eva B-M

    2006-05-01

    Adolescent sexuality is a highly charged moral issue in Kenya and Zambia. Nurse-midwives are the core health care providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health services but public health facilities are under-utilised by adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate attitudes among Kenyan and Zambian nurse-midwives (n=820) toward adolescent sexual and reproductive health problems, in order to improve services for adolescents. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Findings revealed that nurse-midwives disapproved of adolescent sexual activity, including masturbation, contraceptive use and abortion, but also had a pragmatic attitude to handling these issues. Those with more education and those who had received continuing education on adolescent sexuality and reproduction showed a tendency towards more youth-friendly attitudes. We suggest that critical thinking around the cultural and moral dimensions of adolescent sexuality should be emphasised in undergraduate training and continuing education, to help nurse-midwives to deal more empathetically with the reality of adolescent sexuality. Those in nursing and other leadership positions could also play an important role in encouraging wider social discussion of these matters. This would create an environment that is more tolerant of adolescent sexuality and that recognises the beneficial public health effect for adolescents of greater access to youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services. PMID:16713886

  7. Cultural and health beliefs of pregnant women in Zambia regarding pregnancy and child birth

    Namakau C. M'soka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health beliefs related to pregnancy and childbirth exist in various cultures globally. Healthcare practitioners need to be aware of these beliefs so as to contextualise theirpractice in their communities.Objectives: To explore the health beliefs regarding pregnancy and childbirth of womenattending the antenatal clinic at Chawama Health Center in Lusaka Zambia.Method: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional survey of women attending antenatal care(n = 294 who were selected by systematic sampling. A researcher-administered questionnairewas used for data collection.Results: Results indicated that women attending antenatal care at Chawama Clinic held certain beliefs relating to diet, behaviour and the use of medicinal herbs during pregnancy and post-delivery. The main beliefs on diet related to a balanced diet, eating of eggs, okra, bones, offal, sugar cane, alcohol consumption and salt intake. The main beliefs on behaviour related to commencement of antenatal care, daily activities, quarrels, bad rituals, infidelity and the use of condoms during pregnancy. The main beliefs on the use of medicinal herbs were on their use to expedite the delivery process, to assist in difficult deliveries and for body cleansing following a miscarriage.Conclusion: Women attending antenatal care at the Chawama Clinic hold a number of beliefs regarding pregnancy and childbirth. Those beliefs that are of benefit to the patients should be encouraged with scientific explanations, whilst those posing a health risk should be discouraged respectfully.

  8. A Decade of Implementing Water Services Reform in Zambia: Review of Outcomes, Challenges and Opportunities

    Horman Chitonge

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Zambia has been implementing water sector reforms for the past two decades. These reforms initiated major changes in the organisation and management of water supply services starting from the 1990s culminating in the full-scale commercialisation of water services in major cities and towns. This paper reviews the outcomes of implementing these reforms, focusing on the results of the commercialisation of water services in the last 10 years. Data presented in this paper show that there have been positive developments, but many serious challenges as well. Evidence from the review of the past 10 years suggests that much progress has been made in areas related to management and operation performance, while little success has been recorded in core areas such as expanding the network, service coverage, hours of service, and reducing the affordability burden, especially among lower-income households. The key challenge for the water services sector is to find a workable infrastructural development funding formula that will make it possible to sustain and build on the foundation laid over the past decade.

  9. Application of Balanced Scorecard in the Evaluation of a Complex Health System Intervention: 12 Months Post Intervention Findings from the BHOMA Intervention: A Cluster Randomised Trial in Zambia

    Mutale, Wilbroad; Stringer, Jeffrey; Chintu, Namwinga; Chilengi, Roma; Mwanamwenge, Margaret Tembo; Kasese, Nkatya; Balabanova, Dina; Spicer, Neil; Lewis, James; Ayles, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In many low income countries, the delivery of quality health services is hampered by health system-wide barriers which are often interlinked, however empirical evidence on how to assess the level and scope of these barriers is scarce. A balanced scorecard is a tool that allows for wider analysis of domains that are deemed important in achieving the overall vision of the health system. We present the quantitative results of the 12 months follow-up study applying the balanced scorecard approach in the BHOMA intervention with the aim of demonstrating the utility of the balanced scorecard in evaluating multiple building blocks in a trial setting. Methods The BHOMA is a cluster randomised trial that aims to strengthen the health system in three rural districts in Zambia. The intervention aims to improve clinical care quality by implementing practical tools that establish clear clinical care standards through intensive clinic implementations. This paper reports the findings of the follow-up health facility survey that was conducted after 12 months of intervention implementation. Comparisons were made between those facilities in the intervention and control sites. STATA version 12 was used for analysis. Results The study found significant mean differences between intervention(I) and control (C) sites in the following domains: Training domain (Mean I:C; 87.5.vs 61.1, mean difference 23.3, p = 0.031), adult clinical observation domain (mean I:C; 73.3 vs.58.0, mean difference 10.9, p = 0.02 ) and health information domain (mean I:C; 63.6 vs.56.1, mean difference 6.8, p = 0.01. There was no gender differences in adult service satisfaction. Governance and motivation scores did not differ between control and intervention sites. Conclusion This study demonstrates the utility of the balanced scorecard in assessing multiple elements of the health system. Using system wide approaches and triangulating data collection methods seems to be key to successful

  10. Effects of home-based voluntary counselling and testing on HIV-related stigma: findings from a cluster-randomized trial in Zambia.

    Jürgensen, Marte; Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard; Michelo, Charles; Fylkesnes, Knut

    2013-03-01

    HIV-related stigma continues to be a prominent barrier to testing, treatment and care. However, few studies have investigated changes in stigma over time and the factors contributing to these changes, and there is no evidence of the impact of HIV testing and counselling on stigma. This study was nested within a pair-matched cluster-randomized trial on the acceptance of home-based voluntary HIV counselling and testing conducted in a rural district in Zambia between 2009 and 2011, and investigated changes in stigma over time and the impact of HIV testing and counselling on stigma. Data from a baseline survey (n = 1500) and a follow-up survey (n = 1107) were used to evaluate changes in stigma. There was an overall reduction of seven per cent in stigma from baseline to follow-up. This was mainly due to a reduction in individual stigmatizing attitudes but not in perceived stigma. The reduction did not differ between the trial arms (β = -0.22, p = 0.423). Being tested for HIV was associated with a reduction in stigma (β = -0.57, p = 0.030), and there was a trend towards home-based Voluntary Counselling and Testing having a larger impact on stigma than other testing approaches (β = -0.78, p = 0.080 vs. β = -0.37, p = 0.551), possibly explained by a strong focus on counselling and the safe environment of the home. The reduction observed in both arms may give reason to be optimistic as it may have consequences for disclosure, treatment access and adherence. Yet, the change in stigma may have been affected by social desirability bias, as extensive community mobilization was carried out in both arms. The study underscores the challenges in measuring and monitoring HIV-related stigma. Adjustment for social desirability bias and inclusion of qualitative methods are recommended for further studies on the impact of HIV testing on stigma. PMID:23422056

  11. Mixed crop-livestock production systems of smallholder farmers in sub-humid and semi-arid areas of Zambia

    Livestock production activities among small-scale farmers of semi-arid (Agro-ecological zone 1) and sub-humid (Agro-ecological zone 2) areas of Zambia are integrated with crop production activities in what is termed as crop/livestock farming system. This is a closed system in which production of one enterprise depends on the other. In Zambia, crop production depends on draught animals for tillage of cropping area, animal manure for fertilisation of crops while livestock depend on crop residues for dry season feeding. Good quality grass is generally available in adequate amounts to support reasonable level of livestock productivity during the rainy season. But livestock rely on low quantity and poor quality, highly fibrous perennial grass from veld and fibrous crop residues during the dry season. These resources are inadequate to support optimum livestock productivity activities. Poor nutrition results in low rates of reproduction and production as well as increased susceptibility to diseases. With the increasing human population cropping land is expanding, leading to increased production of crop residues. This has however, reduced the grazing land available for ruminant production. In Zambia large quantities of crop residues (stovers, husks and straws, legume tops and hulls, sugar cane tops, cassava leaves, potato vines, etc.) are left in the field where they are wasted each year because small-scale farmers lack the knowledge on how best to use them. There is a need to find ways to reverse this situation by adapting known and workable technologies to local conditions and by introducing new approaches for improving the use of crop residues and poor quality fibrous feeds. Efforts should also be made to enlarge feed resource base. The technologies should be simple and effective. In the presence of a dynamic market system, livestock production in a crop/livestock system could be intensified and made profitable for small-scale farmers. (author)

  12. Districts, spillovers, and government overspending

    Baqir, Reza

    1999-01-01

    The author considers the overspending bias in legislatures when the benefits of public policies are concentrated in particular districts but the costs of financing them are spread over the entire political jurisdiction. He formalizes this idea in a simple theoretic framework, in the context of externalities between districts. His main prediction is that greater districting leads to bigger government, but the effects are mitigated if there are positive spillovers of government spending between...

  13. Energy SMEs in sub-Saharan Africa: Outcomes, barriers and prospects in Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia

    Haselip, James Arthur; Desgain, Denis DR; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the findings of research into the main outcomes of government and donor-backed efforts to promote small and medium-sized energy businesses (energy SMEs) in sub-Saharan Africa. The research follows an outcome analysis methodology. The focus is on four countries: Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia and primarily on UNEP’s AREED programme (2002-2012). This research focuses on the ‘contributing factors’ – a deliberately broader term that incorporates the internal ‘success fac...

  14. Meeting human resources for health staffing goals by 2018: a quantitative analysis of policy options in Zambia

    Schroder Kate

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ministry of Health (MOH in Zambia is currently operating with fewer than half of the health workers required to deliver basic health services. The MOH has developed a human resources for health (HRH strategic plan to address the crisis through improved training, hiring, and retention. However, the projected success of each strategy or combination of strategies is unclear. Methods We developed a model to forecast the size of the public sector health workforce in Zambia over the next ten years to identify a combination of interventions that would expand the workforce to meet staffing targets. The key forecasting variables are training enrolment, graduation rates, public sector entry rates for graduates, and attrition of workforce staff. We model, using Excel (Office, Microsoft; 2007, the effects of changes in these variables on the projected number of doctors, clinical officers, nurses and midwives in the public sector workforce in 2018. Results With no changes to current training, hiring, and attrition conditions, the total number of doctors, clinical officers, nurses, and midwives will increase from 44% to 59% of the minimum necessary staff by 2018. No combination of changes in staff retention, graduation rates, and public sector entry rates of graduates by 2010, without including training expansion, is sufficient to meet staffing targets by 2018 for any cadre except midwives. Training enrolment needs to increase by a factor of between three and thirteen for doctors, three and four for clinical officers, two and three for nurses, and one and two for midwives by 2010 to reach staffing targets by 2018. Necessary enrolment increases can be held to a minimum if the rates of retention, graduation, and public sector entry increase to 100% by 2010, but will need to increase if these rates remain at 2008 levels. Conclusions Meeting the minimum need for health workers in Zambia this decade will require an increase in health

  15. Development Reporting as a crumbling tower: Impact of Brown Envelope Journalism on journalistic practice in Zambia and Ghana

    Twange Kasoma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Development Reporting (DR has long been considered the cornerstone of journalistic practice in Africa. The high prevalence of Brown Envelope Journalism (BEJ - defined as a practice that involves news sources granting monetary incentives to journalists - is, however, posing a challenge to DR. BEJ has signaled a shift from a traditional model or DR, where journalists strived to report any legitimate development news to a public relations model where news is heavily influenced by source payments. Using Zambia and Ghana as case studies, this study provides insight into journalists' perspectives on DR and BEJ. Additionally, the study delves into the extenuating factors that perpetuate BEJ.

  16. ‘It is just culture’ : Eight young people’s perception of the gender roles in Zambia

    Nyman, Mikaela

    2013-01-01

    This study explores eight young people’s perception of the gender roles in Zambia, Lusaka. In this study I have asked the informants to define the genders and the result were that the genders are defined based on the biological sexes. The genders therefore become homogenous based on the male and female sex. The regulations of the genders were traditionally also based on assumed ‘biologically natural characteristics’. As I argue in this study that gender roles are social constructed I also pre...

  17. The Public-Private Sector Wage Gap in Zambia in the 1990s: A Quantile Regression Approach

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the determinants of wages in Zambia and based on the quantile regression approach, we analyze how their effects differ at different points in the wage distribution and over time. We use three cross-sections of Zambian household data from the early nineties, which was a period of...... economic transition, because items as privatization and deregulation were on the political agenda. The focus is placed on the public-private sector wage gap, and the results show that this gap was relatively favorable for the low-skilled and less favorable for the high-skilled. This picture was further...

  18. HIV- and AIDS-associated neurocognitive functioning in Zambia – a perspective based on differences between the genders

    Kabuba N

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Norma Kabuba,1,2 J Anitha Menon,1 Donald R Franklin Jr,3 Robert K Heaton,3 Knut A Hestad2,4,5 1Department of Psychology, The University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia; 2Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 3Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA; 4Department of Research, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Hamar, Norway; 5Department of Public Health, Hedmark University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS are frequently associated with neurocognitive impairment (NCI. However, few studies have examined the interrelationship between gender and NCI in the HIV and AIDS population. This cross-sectional study examined the neurocognitive (NC functioning of HIV-infected male and female adults from urban Zambia. The participants included 266 HIV seropositive (HIV+ adults (males [n=107] and females [n=159]. Participants completed NC assessment by means of a comprehensive test battery using normative data from 324 HIV-seronegative (HIV- controls. The norms corrected for effects of age, education, and gender in the general population, and the test battery measures domains of attention/working memory (learning and delayed recall, executive function, verbal fluency, processing speed, verbal and visual episodic memory, and fine motor skills. An overall comparison of the HIV+ male and female participants yielded no statistically significant differences. Analysis of covariance results controlling for disease characteristics showed that HIV+ female participants had worse delayed recall scores than males, F(1,117 =9.70, P=0.002, partial ƞ2=0.077. The females also evidenced a trend toward greater impairment on learning efficiency (P=0.015. The findings suggest that there are gender-related differences in NCI after controlling for disease characteristics. It was observed that although the HIV

  19. Minneapolis district-heating options

    Stovall, T. K.; Borkowski, R. J.; Karnitz, M. A.; Strom, S.; Linwick, K.

    1981-10-01

    The feasibility of a large-scale district heating system for the Minneapolis central city area was investigated. The analysis was based on a previous city of St. Paul Hot-water district heating study and other studies done by a Swedish engineering firm. Capital costs such as building and heat source conversion, pipeline construction, and equipment were used in comparing the projected expenses of various district heating scenarios. Options such as coal, refuse-derived fuel burning, and cogeneration at the Riverside Power Station were discussed as energy supplies for a cost-effective district heating system.

  20. Sustainable maize production through leguminous tree and shrub fallows in Eastern Zambia

    Nitrogen is the major nutrient limiting maize production in Zambia and Southern Africa. Removal of subsidies on manufactured fertilizers made them very expensive and most farmers cannot afford them. Short duration planted fallows using a wide range of leguminous trees have been found to replenish soil fertility and increase subsequent maize yields. Species such as Sesbania sesban, Tephrosia vogelii and Cajanus cajan have been found to be well suited for planted fallow technology. These improved fallow crop rotations are being adopted by small-scale farmers in Eastern Zambia. Since the seminal paper of Kwesiga and Coe, research has been carried out to understand how the planted tree fallows replenish soil fertility and improve maize yields. A wide range of species has been screened as alternatives to Sesbania fallows to overcome limitations of Sesbania such as susceptibility to nematodes and insect pests. Species such as Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala have maintained maize yields of 3 t ha1 over 10 years of cropping when Sesbania fallow yields declined to 1.1 t ha1 after 3 years of cropping. The selection criteria for good fallow species are high biomass production and litterfall. Maize yields after fallows were highly correlated to biomass and litterfall yields. High quality biomass, which is low in lignin and polyphenols and high in N, is needed for higher maize yields. Mixing of Gliricidia and Sesbania fallows resulted in higher maize yields compared with single species fallows (3.0 vs. 1.8 t ha1). Mechanisms contributing to the efficacy of mixed fallows will be discussed. Pre-season inorganic-N (NO3- + NH4+) was highly correlated with maize yield (r2 = 0.62) and this could be used to select fallow species and management practices. Nutrient budgets of N, P and K over 8 years showed that a positive balance of N and P was maintained for coppicing fallows, while a negative balance of K started from the fourth year onwards on fertilized maize, Gliricidia

  1. Fortifying food in the field to boost nutrition: case studies from Afghanistan, Angola, and Zambia.

    van den Briel, Tina; Cheung, Edith; Zewari, Jamshid; Khan, Rose

    2007-09-01

    Deficiencies in micronutrients such as iron, vitamin A, and iodine affect billions of people worldwide, causing death, disease, and disability. The UN World Food Programme (WFP) has long been recognised for its ability to deliver food to some of the most remote locations, under the toughest conditions: refugees in border camps, populations cut off by conflict, extremely poor and marginalised people like ethnic minorities, orphans, and widows. Relatively little, however, is known about its efforts to ensure that the food it delivers not only provides enough calories for immediate survival but also provides the vitamins and minerals needed for healthy growth and development. Much of the food delivered by WFP is fortified with iron, vitamin A, and other micronutrients before being shipped. But there are several reasons to mill and fortify food as close to the beneficiaries as possible. For instance, milling and fortifying food locally helps to overcome the problems of the short shelf-life of whole fortified maizemeal. It also enhances the nutritional value of locally procured cereals. And it can foster demand for fortified foods among local consumers beyond WFP beneficiaries, thus nurturing an industry with potentially significant benefits for the health of entire communities. This paper outlines three approaches by WFP to fortifying cereals in Afghanistan, Angola, and Zambia. It examines the challenges faced and the outcomes achieved in an effort to share this knowledge with others dedicated to improving the nutritional status of poor and food-insecure people. In Afghanistan, attempts to mill and fortify wheat flour using small-scale chakki mills were successful but much larger-scale efforts would be needed to promote demand and reach the level of consumption required to address serious iron deficiencies across the country. In Angola, maize has been fortified to combat the persistent occurrence of pellagra, a micronutrient deficiency disease found among people whose

  2. Pediatric malignancies, treatment outcomes and abandonment of pediatric cancer treatment in Zambia.

    Jeremy S Slone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There exist significant challenges to the receipt of comprehensive oncologic treatment for children diagnosed with cancer in sub-Saharan Africa. To better define those challenges, we investigated treatment outcomes and risk factors for treatment abandonment in a cohort of children diagnosed with cancer at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH, the site of the only pediatric oncology ward in Zambia. METHODS: Using an established database, a retrospective cohort study was conducted of children aged 0-15 years admitted to the pediatric oncology ward between July 2008 and June 2010 with suspected cancer. Diagnosis, mode of diagnosis, treatment outcome, and risk factors for abandonment of treatment were abstracted from this database and clinical medical records. RESULTS: Among 162 children treated at the UTH during the study time period that met inclusion criteria, only 8.0% completed a treatment regimen with most of the patients dying during treatment or abandoning care. In multivariable analysis, shorter distance from home to the UTH was associated with a lower risk of treatment abandonment (Adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]  = 0.48 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23-0.97. Conversely maternal education less than secondary school was associated with increased risk for abandonment (aOR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.05-2.58. CONCLUSIONS: Despite availability of dedicated pediatric oncology treatment, treatment completion rates are poor, due in part to the logistical challenges faced by families, low educational status, and significant distance from the hospital. Alternative treatment delivery strategies are required to bring effective pediatric oncology care to the patients in need, as their ability to come to and remain at a central tertiary care facility for treatment is limited. We suggest that the extensive system now in place in most of sub-Saharan Africa that sustains life-long antiretroviral therapy for children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV

  3. Assessment of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation policy integration in Zambia

    Pilli-Sihvola, K.; Väätäinen-Chimpuku, S.

    2015-12-01

    Integration of Disaster Risk Management (DRM) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) policies, their implementation measures and the contribution of these to development has been gaining attention recently. Due to the shared objectives of CCA and particularly Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), a component of DRM, their integration provides many benefits. At the implementation level, DRR and CCA are usually integrated. Policy integration, however, is often lacking. This study presents a novel analysis of the policy integration of DRR and CCA by 1) suggesting a definition for their integration at a general and further at horizontal and vertical levels, 2) using an analysis framework for policy integration cycle, which separates the policy formulation and implementation processes, and 3) applying these to a case study in Zambia. Moreover, the study identifies the key gaps in the integration process, obtains an understanding of identified key factors for creating an enabling environment for the integration, and provides recommendations for further progress. The study is based on a document analysis of the relevant DRM, climate change (CC), agriculture, forestry, water management and meteorology policy documents and Acts, and 21 semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders. Horizontal integration has occurred both ways, as the revised DRM policy draft has incorporated CCA, and the new CC policy draft has incorporated DRR. This is not necessarily an optimal strategy and unless carefully implemented, it may create pressure on institutional structures and duplication of efforts in the implementation. Much less vertical integration takes place, and where it does, no guidance on how potential goal conflicts with sectorial and development objectives ought to be handled. The objectives of the instruments show convergence. At the programme stage, the measures are fully integrated as they can be classified as robust CCA measures, providing benefits in the current and future

  4. Creating a Knowledge Translation Platform: nine lessons from the Zambia Forum for Health Research

    Kasonde Joseph M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The concept of the Knowledge Translation Platform (KTP provides cohesion and leadership for national–level knowledge translation efforts. In this review, we discuss nine key lessons documenting the experience of the Zambia Forum for Health Research, primarily to inform and exchange experience with the growing community of African KTPs. Lessons from ZAMFOHR’s organizational development include the necessity of selecting a multi-stakeholder and -sectoral Board of Directors; performing comprehensive situation analyses to understand not only the prevailing research-and-policy dynamics but a precise operational niche; and selecting a leader that bridges the worlds of research and policy. Programmatic lessons include focusing on building the capacity of both policy-makers and researchers; building a database of local evidence and national-level actors involved in research and policy; and catalyzing work in particular issue areas by identifying leaders from the research community, creating policy-maker demand for research evidence, and fostering the next generation by mentoring both up-and-coming researchers and policy–makers. Ultimately, ZAMFOHR’s experience shows that an African KTP must pay significant attention to its organizational details. A KTP must also invest in the skill base of the wider community and, more importantly, of its own staff. Given the very real deficit of research-support skills in most low-income countries – in synthesis, in communications, in brokering, in training – a KTP must spend significant time and resources in building these types of in-house expertise. And lastly, the role of networking cannot be underestimated. As a fully-networked KTP, ZAMFOHR has benefited from the innovations of other KTPs, from funding opportunities and partnerships, and from invaluable technical support from both African and northern colleagues.

  5. Development of a curriculum for training in One Health analytical epidemiology at the University of Zambia

    J. Muma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the world has witnessed emergence of novel diseases such as avian influenza, HIV and AIDS, West Nile Virus and Ebola. The evolution of these pathogens has been facilitated mainly by a constantly evolving animal-human interface. Whilst infectious disease control was previously conceptualised as either public health or animal health related issues, the distinction between disciplinary foci have been blurred by multiple causal factors that clearly traverse traditional disciplinary divides. These multiple evolutionary pressures have included changes in land use, ecosystems, human-livestock-wildlife interactions and antibiotic use, representing novel routes for pathogen emergence. With the growing realisation that pathogens do not respect traditional epistemological divides, the ‘One Health’ initiative has emerged to advocate for closer collaboration across the health disciplines and has provided a new agenda for health education. Against this background, the One Health Analytical Epidemiology course was developed under the auspices of the Southern African Centre for Infectious Diseases Surveillance by staff from the University of Zambia with collaborators from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and the Royal Veterinary College in London. The course is aimed at equipping scientists with multidisciplinary skill sets to match the contemporary challenges of human, animal and zoonotic disease prevention and control. Epidemiology is an important discipline for both public and animal health. Therefore, this two-year programme has been developed to generate a cadre of epidemiologists with a broad understanding of disease control and prevention and will be able to conceptualise and design holistic programs for informing health and disease control policy decisions.

  6. Intersectoral debate on social research strengthens alliances, advocacy and action for maternal survival in Zambia.

    Manandhar, Mary; Maimbolwa, Margaret; Muulu, Elson; Mulenga, Mary Mwange; O'Donovan, Diarmuid

    2009-03-01

    The Health Promotion Research Centre of the National University of Ireland, Galway and the University of Zambia's School of Medicine conducted operational research to understand and address the socio-cultural and gender contexts of maternal survival. Together with an analytical policy and programming review and qualitative research, the project process also involved the convening of 'Interest Group' meetings involving intersectoral stakeholders at Central (Lusaka) and Provincial (Kasama) levels. These meetings aimed to catalyse debate and stimulate advocacy on the project theme by using discussion of qualitative research as entry point. Participants came from government departments, civil society groups, the indigenous health system, academia, technical provider associations, and media, advocacy and human rights organisations. We found that engagement in Interest Groups was successful at Provincial level with lively participation from civil society, media and advocacy stakeholders and strong engagement by the health system. The process was welcomed as an opportunity to fill gaps in understanding about underlying social determinants of health and jointly explore intervention approaches. Overburdened government staff at central level faced with disease-focused interventions rather than underlying contextual determinants, and a weak culture of health sector engagement with civil society, academics and activists, contributed to less successful functioning in Lusaka. Final Dissemination and Discussion Events incorporated material from Interest Group Meetings to stimulate wider discussion and make recommendations. This project highlights the potential value of intersectoral stakeholder discussions from the inception stage of research to stimulate intersectoral exchange and alliance building, inform advocacy, and catalyse the process of research into action. PMID:19008243

  7. The dating and interpretation of a Mode 1 site in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.

    Barham, Lawrence; Phillips, William M; Maher, Barbara A; Karloukovski, Vassil; Duller, Geoff A T; Jain, Mayank; Wintle, Ann G

    2011-05-01

    Flake based assemblages (Mode 1) comprise the earliest stone technologies known, with well-dated Oldowan sites occurring in eastern Africa between ~2.6-1.7 Ma, and in less securely dated contexts in central, southern and northern Africa. Our understanding of the spread and local development of this technology outside East Africa remains hampered by the lack of reliable numerical dating techniques applicable to non-volcanic deposits. This study applied the still relatively new technique of cosmogenic nuclide burial dating ((10)Be/(26)Al) to calculate burial ages for fluvial gravels containing Mode 1 artefacts in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. The Manzi River, a tributary of the Luangwa River, has exposed a 4.7 m deep section of fluvial sands with discontinuous but stratified gravel layers bearing Mode 1, possibly Oldowan, artefacts in the basal layers. An unconformity divides the Manzi section, separating Mode 1 deposits from overlying gravels containing Mode 3 (Middle Stone Age) artefacts. No diagnostic Mode 2 (Acheulean) artefacts were found. Cosmogenic nuclide burial dating was attempted for the basal gravels as well as exposure ages for the upper Mode 3 gravels, but was unsuccessful. The complex depositional history of the site prevented the calculation of reliable age models. A relative chronology for the full Manzi sequence was constructed, however, from the magnetostratigraphy of the deposit (N>R>N sequence). Isothermal thermoluminescence (ITL) dating of the upper Mode 3 layers also provided consistent results (~78 ka). A coarse but chronologically coherent sequence now exists for the Manzi section with the unconformity separating probable mid- or early Pleistocene deposits below from late Pleistocene deposits above. The results suggest Mode 1 technology in the Luangwa Valley may post-date the Oldowan in eastern and southern Africa. The dating programme has contributed to a clearer understanding of the geomorphological processes that have shaped the valley and

  8. Behavior change pathways to voluntary medical male circumcision: narrative interviews with circumcision clients in Zambia.

    Jessica E Price

    Full Text Available As an HIV prevention strategy, the scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC is underway in 14 countries in Africa. For prevention impact, these countries must perform millions of circumcisions in adolescent and adult men before 2015. Although acceptability of VMMC in the region is well documented and service delivery efforts have proven successful, countries remain behind in meeting circumcision targets. A better understanding of men's VMMC-seeking behaviors and experiences is needed to improve communication and interventions to accelerate uptake. To this end, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 40 clients waiting for surgical circumcision at clinics in Zambia. Based on Stages of Change behavioral theory, men were asked to recount how they learned about adult circumcision, why they decided it was right for them, what they feared most, how they overcame their fears, and the steps they took to make it to the clinic that day. Thematic analysis across all cases allowed us to identify key behavior change triggers while within-case analysis elucidated variants of one predominant behavior change pattern. Major stages included: awareness and critical belief adjustment, norming pressures and personalization of advantages, a period of fear management and finally VMMC-seeking. Qualitative comparative analysis of ever-married and never-married men revealed important similarities and differences between the two groups. Unprompted, 17 of the men described one to four failed prior attempts to become circumcised. Experienced more frequently by older men, failed VMMC attempts were often due to service-side barriers. Findings highlight intervention opportunities to increase VMMC uptake. Reaching uncircumcised men via close male friends and female sex partners and tailoring messages to stage-specific concerns and needs would help accelerate men's movement through the behavior change process. Expanding service access is also needed to meet

  9. Seed management by small-scale farmers in Zambia. A study of cowpea, groundnut and sorghum seed in the Southern and Western Provinces (NRI Bulletin 76)

    Tripp, R.; Walker, D J; Miti, F.; Mukumbuta, S.; Zulu, M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Field surveys of on-farm cowpea, groundnut and sorghum management in two regions of Zambia are described. The survey included seed saved on-farm and seed sources off-farm. Samples of seeds were collected just prior to planting and assessed for germination potential. Conclusions are given on the general status and potential for improving seed quality and on farmer seed management.

  10. Characteristics of District Evaluation Reports.

    McGranahan, Pamela

    This study provides information about the actual functions and activities of school district evaluation units by examining an integral product of the units. This product, an evaluation report, was examined from a nationwide sample of district evaluation organizations (N=116). Reports were checked for the presence of particular evaluation report…

  11. Internal Auditing for School Districts.

    Cuzzetto, Charles

    This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…

  12. Redesigning the District Operating System

    Hodas, Steven

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we look at the inner workings of a school district through the lens of the "district operating system (DOS)," a set of interlocking mutually-reinforcing modules that includes functions like procurement, contracting, data and IT policy, the general counsel's office, human resources, and the systems for employee and family…

  13. Detection of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Market-Ready Chickens in Zambia

    Chishimba, K.; Hang'ombe, B. M.; Muzandu, K.; Mshana, S. E.; Matee, M. I.; Nakajima, C.; Suzuki, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The frequent administering of antibiotics in the treatment of poultry diseases may contribute to emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing Escherichia coli in poultry in Zambia. A total of 384 poultry samples were collected and analyzed for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The cultured E. coli isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests and the polymerase chain reaction for detection of blaCTX-M, blaSHV, and blaTEM genes. Overall 20.1%, 77/384, (95% CI; 43.2–65.5%) of total samples analyzed contained ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The antimicrobial sensitivity test revealed that 85.7% (66/77; CI: 75.7–92) of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates conferred resistance to beta-lactam and other antimicrobial agents. These results indicate that poultry is a potential reservoir for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The presence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in poultry destined for human consumption requires strengthening of the antibiotic administering policy. This is important as antibiotic administration in food animals is gaining momentum for improved animal productivity in developing countries such as Zambia.

  14. Retention in care and outpatient costs for children receiving antiretroviral therapy in Zambia: a retrospective cohort analysis.

    Callie A Scott

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are few published estimates of the cost of pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART in Africa. Our objective was to estimate the outpatient cost of providing ART to children remaining in care at six public sector clinics in Zambia during the first three years after ART initiation, stratified by service delivery site and time on treatment. METHODS: Data on resource utilization (drugs, diagnostics, outpatient visits, fixed costs and treatment outcomes (in care, died, lost to follow up were extracted from medical records for 1,334 children at six sites who initiated ART at 50% at four sites. At the two remaining sites, outpatient visits and fixed costs together accounted for >50% of outpatient costs. The distribution of costs is slightly skewed, with median costs 3% to 13% lower than average costs during the first year after ART initiation depending on site. CONCLUSIONS: Outpatient costs for children initiating ART in Zambia are low and comparable to reported outpatient costs for adults. Outpatient costs and retention in care vary widely by site, suggesting opportunities for efficiency gains. Taking advantage of such opportunities will help ensure that targets for pediatric treatment coverage can be met.

  15. Detection of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Market-Ready Chickens in Zambia.

    Chishimba, K; Hang'ombe, B M; Muzandu, K; Mshana, S E; Matee, M I; Nakajima, C; Suzuki, Y

    2016-01-01

    The frequent administering of antibiotics in the treatment of poultry diseases may contribute to emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing Escherichia coli in poultry in Zambia. A total of 384 poultry samples were collected and analyzed for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The cultured E. coli isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests and the polymerase chain reaction for detection of bla CTX-M, bla SHV, and bla TEM genes. Overall 20.1%, 77/384, (95% CI; 43.2-65.5%) of total samples analyzed contained ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The antimicrobial sensitivity test revealed that 85.7% (66/77; CI: 75.7-92) of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates conferred resistance to beta-lactam and other antimicrobial agents. These results indicate that poultry is a potential reservoir for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The presence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in poultry destined for human consumption requires strengthening of the antibiotic administering policy. This is important as antibiotic administration in food animals is gaining momentum for improved animal productivity in developing countries such as Zambia. PMID:27190518

  16. Detection of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Market-Ready Chickens in Zambia

    K. Chishimba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequent administering of antibiotics in the treatment of poultry diseases may contribute to emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains. The objective of this study was to detect the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL- producing Escherichia coli in poultry in Zambia. A total of 384 poultry samples were collected and analyzed for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The cultured E. coli isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests and the polymerase chain reaction for detection of blaCTX-M, blaSHV, and blaTEM genes. Overall 20.1%, 77/384, (95% CI; 43.2–65.5% of total samples analyzed contained ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The antimicrobial sensitivity test revealed that 85.7% (66/77; CI: 75.7–92 of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates conferred resistance to beta-lactam and other antimicrobial agents. These results indicate that poultry is a potential reservoir for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli. The presence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in poultry destined for human consumption requires strengthening of the antibiotic administering policy. This is important as antibiotic administration in food animals is gaining momentum for improved animal productivity in developing countries such as Zambia.

  17. Evaluation of a density-based rapid diagnostic test for sickle cell disease in a clinical setting in Zambia.

    Ashok A Kumar

    Full Text Available Although simple and low-cost interventions for sickle cell disease (SCD exist in many developing countries, child mortality associated with SCD remains high, in part, because of the lack of access to diagnostic tests for SCD. A density-based test using aqueous multiphase systems (SCD-AMPS is a candidate for a low-cost, point-of-care diagnostic for SCD. In this paper, the field evaluation of SCD-AMPS in a large (n = 505 case-control study in Zambia is described. Of the two variations of the SCD-AMPS used, the best system (SCD-AMPS-2 demonstrated a sensitivity of 86% (82-90% and a specificity of 60% (53-67%. Subsequent analysis identified potential sources of false positives that include clotting, variation between batches of SCD-AMPS, and shipping conditions. Importantly, SCD-AMPS-2 was 84% (62-94% sensitive in detecting SCD in children between 6 months and 1 year old. In addition to an evaluation of performance, an assessment of end-user operability was done with health workers in rural clinics in Zambia. These health workers rated the SCD-AMPS tests to be as simple to use as lateral flow tests for malaria and HIV.

  18. U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Districts

    Department of Homeland Security — This layer is a polygonal dataset that represents land and maritime boundaries for each representative United States Coast Guard district, which includes district...

  19. Can HIV/AIDS be fought by targeting youths in Zambia? Analysis of the Knowledge, Attitudes and Sexual Behaviour among youths aged 15 – 24 years.

    Bupe Bwalya Bwalya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although people of any age are susceptible to HIV, youths aged 15 – 24 face disproportionate risk of contracting it because of challenges that they face with regard to correct HIV and AIDS related knowledge, attitudes and practices. This study was aimed at determining whether HIV and AIDS can be fought by targeting interventions at youths aged 15 – 24 years by assessing their current knowledge, attitudes and sexual behaviours in Zambia.  Methods: The study utilised secondary data from a self-weighting nationally representative sample of the 2009 Zambia Sexual Behaviour Survey. Results: Generally correct comprehensive knowledge is very low among youths (43 percent. This is in spite having good command of general and full general knowledge and the ABCs of HIV and AIDS prevention. Attitudes towards PLHIV, Condom use and HIV counselling and testing were negative. About one third (58 percent of youths in Zambia have a history of early sexual debut (sex before age 15 with more females (64 percent than males (51 percent having hard sex. Male youths were more likely to have used a condom with most recent sexual partner as compared to females (AOR=0.265, 95%CI: 0.160, 0.438; p<0.001. Youths in rural areas had reduced odds of using a condom during their first sexual intercourse compared with those in urban areas (AOR=0.530, 95%CI: 0.387, 0.726; p<0.001. Conclusions: Therefore, it can be seen lack of comprehensive correct knowledge, gender disparities, poor educational levels, youth’s age and place of residence are some of the contributing factors that may hinder the fight against HIV/AIDS among youths in Zambia.Key words: Youths; HIV/AIDS; Knowledge; Attitudes; Behaviour, Zambia

  20. 2006 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: North District

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the Southwest Florida Water Management District's FY2006 Digital Orthophoto (B089) and LiDAR...

  1. Future Services for District Heating Solutions in Residential Districts

    Hannele Ahvenniemi; Krzysztof Klobut

    2014-01-01

    The underlying assumption of this study is that in order to retain the competitiveness while reaching for the EU targets regarding low-energy construction, district heating companies need to develop new business and service models. How district heating companies could broaden their perspective and switch to a more service-oriented way of thinking is a key interest of our research. The used methods in our study are house builder interviews and a questionnaire. With the help of these methods we...

  2. Microbial Contamination and Hygiene of Fresh Cow's Milk Produced by Smallholders in Western Zambia.

    Knight-Jones, Theodore J D; Hang'ombe, M Bernard; Songe, Mwansa M; Sinkala, Yona; Grace, Delia

    2016-01-01

    A field study was performed to assess safety of smallholder fresh cow's milk around Mongu, Western Province, Zambia. This involved observation and sampling of milk along the value chain from milking to point-of-sale and storage. Samples were collected from 86 cows, from 9 farmers, selling through two dairy cooperatives, with additional samples from informal markets. Production was very low; around one litre/day/cow and 10 L/day/herd. The milk was typically transported by bicycle in high ambient temperatures without refrigeration until reaching the point-of-sale (journey times of 30-120 min), where it was sold without pasteurisation despite milk-borne zoonoses being endemic (bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and Brucellosis). Although microbiological contamination was initially low, with geometric mean total bacterial count (TBC) of 425 cfu/mL (cfu = colony forming units) upon arrival at point-of-sale, poor hygiene led to high bacterial loads later on (geometric mean TBC > 600,000 cfu/mL after two days refrigeration), with almost all samples culture positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. After milking, milk was kept for 100-223 min at temperatures favouring microbial growth (median 34 °C) and sold without a microbial kill step. In this situation limited variation in observed standards of milk hygiene had no significant effect on milk end-product bacterial counts. Options for refrigerated transport are limited. Pasteurisation at the cooperative should be investigated, as this would largely remove pathogenic microbes present in the milk whether resulting from cattle infection or poor hygiene during milking and transportation. As milk is also purchased directly from producers, on-farm milk heating options should also be assessed. Smallholders may benefit from access to national markets by providing milk to large dairies, which have systems for ensuring safety. However, this requires significant investment and an increased and more consistent supply of milk

  3. Microbial Contamination and Hygiene of Fresh Cow’s Milk Produced by Smallholders in Western Zambia

    Knight-Jones, Theodore J.D.; Hang’ombe, M. Bernard; Songe, Mwansa M.; Sinkala, Yona; Grace, Delia

    2016-01-01

    A field study was performed to assess safety of smallholder fresh cow’s milk around Mongu, Western Province, Zambia. This involved observation and sampling of milk along the value chain from milking to point-of-sale and storage. Samples were collected from 86 cows, from 9 farmers, selling through two dairy cooperatives, with additional samples from informal markets. Production was very low; around one litre/day/cow and 10 L/day/herd. The milk was typically transported by bicycle in high ambient temperatures without refrigeration until reaching the point-of-sale (journey times of 30–120 min), where it was sold without pasteurisation despite milk-borne zoonoses being endemic (bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and Brucellosis). Although microbiological contamination was initially low, with geometric mean total bacterial count (TBC) of 425 cfu/mL (cfu = colony forming units) upon arrival at point-of-sale, poor hygiene led to high bacterial loads later on (geometric mean TBC > 600,000 cfu/mL after two days refrigeration), with almost all samples culture positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. After milking, milk was kept for 100–223 min at temperatures favouring microbial growth (median 34 °C) and sold without a microbial kill step. In this situation limited variation in observed standards of milk hygiene had no significant effect on milk end-product bacterial counts. Options for refrigerated transport are limited. Pasteurisation at the cooperative should be investigated, as this would largely remove pathogenic microbes present in the milk whether resulting from cattle infection or poor hygiene during milking and transportation. As milk is also purchased directly from producers, on-farm milk heating options should also be assessed. Smallholders may benefit from access to national markets by providing milk to large dairies, which have systems for ensuring safety. However, this requires significant investment and an increased and more consistent supply of

  4. Uranium cycle and tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Lufilian Pan-African orogenic belt (Zambia)

    Uranium is an incompatible and lithophile element, and thus more concentrated in silicate melt produced by the partial melting of the mantle related to continental crust formation. Uranium can be used as a geochemical tracer to discuss the generation and the evolution of continental crust. This thesis, focused on the Pan-African Lufilian belt in Zambia, combines structural geology, metamorphic petrology and thermos-barometry, fluid inclusions, geochemistry and geochronology in order to characterize the uranium cycle for this crustal segment. Silici-clastic and evaporitic sediments have been deposited within an intra-continental rift during the dislocation of the Rodinia super-continent during the early Neo-proterozoic. U-Pb ages on detrital zircon grains in these units indicate a dominant Paleo-proterozoic provenance. The same zircon grains show sub-chondritic εHf (between 0 and -15) and yield Hf model ages between ∼2.9 and 2.5 Ga. These data suggest that the continental crust was generated before the end of the Archean (< 2.5 Ga) associated with uranium extraction from the mantle. This old crust has been reworked by deformation and metamorphism during the Proterozoic. Uranium has been re-mobilized and reconcentrated during several orogenic cycles until the Pan-African orogeny. During this Pan-African cycle, U-Pb and REY (REE and Yttrium) signatures of uranium oxides indicate a first mineralizing event at ca. 650 Ma during the continental rifting. This event is related to late diagenesis hydrothermal processes at the basement/cover interface with the circulation of basinal brines linked to evaporites of the Roan. The second stage, dated at 530 Ma, is connected to metamorphic highly saline fluid circulations, synchronous to the metamorphic peak of the Lufilian orogeny (P=9±3 kbar; T=610±30 deg. C). These fluids are derived from the Roan evaporite dissolution. Some late uranium re-mobilizations are described during exhumation of metamorphic rocks and their

  5. Crustal Structure Beneath the Luangwa Rift, Zambia: Constraints from Potential Field Data

    Atekwana, E. A.; Matende, K.; Abdelsalam, M. G.; Mickus, K. L.; Atekwana, E. A.; Gao, S. S.; Sikazwe, O.; Liu, K. H.; Evans, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    We used gravity and magnetic data to examine the thermal and crustal structure beneath the Luangwa Rift Valley (LRV) in Zambia in order to examine the geodynamic controls of its formation.. The LRV lies at the boundary between the Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic Irumide and Southern Irumide orogenic belts between the Zimbabwe craton and the Bangwelu Block. We computed the Curie Point Depth (CPD) using two-dimensional (2D) power spectrum analysis of the aeromagnetic data, and these results were used to estimate heat flow beneath the LRV. We also inverted the aeromagnetic data for three-dimensional (3D) magnetic susceptibility distribution. We further determined the depths to the Moho using 2D power spectrum analysis of the satellite gravity data and 2D forward modeling of the terrestrial gravity data. We found that: (1) there is no consistent pattern of elevated CPD beneath the LRV, and as such no consistent pattern of elevated heat flow anomaly, (2) there are numerous 5-15 km wide magnetic bodies at shallow depth (5-20 km) beneath the LRV and the 2D forward gravity modeling suggests these to be dense intrusive bodies, (3) a thick crust (49-52 km) underlies the northwestern margin of the rift centered beneath the ~ 1 km high Muchinga escarpment which represents the main border fault of the LRV. This thick crust contrasts with the thinner crust (35-45 km) outside the rift, and (4) the thickened crust coincides with a NE-SE elongated belt of 1.05-1.0 Ga granitoids previously interpreted as manifestations of the metacratonization of the southeastern edge of the Bangweulu Block. Our 2D forward gravity model suggests that the thickened crust is due to the presence of possibly Karoo-aged magmatic under-plated mafic body (UPMB) whose thermal anomaly has since decayed. We suggest that the initiation of the LRV was associated with this deep magmatic activity that introduced rheological weaknesses that facilitated strain localization although it never breached the surface. It

  6. Microbial Contamination and Hygiene of Fresh Cow’s Milk Produced by Smallholders in Western Zambia

    Theodore J.D. Knight-Jones

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A field study was performed to assess safety of smallholder fresh cow’s milk around Mongu, Western Province, Zambia. This involved observation and sampling of milk along the value chain from milking to point-of-sale and storage. Samples were collected from 86 cows, from 9 farmers, selling through two dairy cooperatives, with additional samples from informal markets. Production was very low; around one litre/day/cow and 10 L/day/herd. The milk was typically transported by bicycle in high ambient temperatures without refrigeration until reaching the point-of-sale (journey times of 30–120 min, where it was sold without pasteurisation despite milk-borne zoonoses being endemic (bovine tuberculosis (bTB and Brucellosis. Although microbiological contamination was initially low, with geometric mean total bacterial count (TBC of 425 cfu/mL (cfu = colony forming units upon arrival at point-of-sale, poor hygiene led to high bacterial loads later on (geometric mean TBC > 600,000 cfu/mL after two days refrigeration, with almost all samples culture positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. After milking, milk was kept for 100–223 min at temperatures favouring microbial growth (median 34 °C and sold without a microbial kill step. In this situation limited variation in observed standards of milk hygiene had no significant effect on milk end-product bacterial counts. Options for refrigerated transport are limited. Pasteurisation at the cooperative should be investigated, as this would largely remove pathogenic microbes present in the milk whether resulting from cattle infection or poor hygiene during milking and transportation. As milk is also purchased directly from producers, on-farm milk heating options should also be assessed. Smallholders may benefit from access to national markets by providing milk to large dairies, which have systems for ensuring safety. However, this requires significant investment and an increased and more

  7. Validation of the UCLA Child Post traumatic stress disorder-reaction index in Zambia

    Cohen Judith A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual violence against children is a major global health and human rights problem. In order to address this issue there needs to be a better understanding of the issue and the consequences. One major challenge in accomplishing this goal has been a lack of validated child mental health assessments in low-resource countries where the prevalence of sexual violence is high. This paper presents results from a validation study of a trauma-focused mental health assessment tool - the UCLA Post-traumatic Stress Disorder - Reaction Index (PTSD-RI in Zambia. Methods The PTSD-RI was adapted through the addition of locally relevant items and validated using local responses to three cross-cultural criterion validity questions. Reliability of the symptoms scale was assessed using Cronbach alpha analyses. Discriminant validity was assessed comparing mean scale scores of cases and non-cases. Concurrent validity was assessed comparing mean scale scores to a traumatic experience index. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were run using receiver operating curves. Results Analysis of data from 352 youth attending a clinic specializing in sexual abuse showed that this adapted PTSD-RI demonstrated good reliability, with Cronbach alpha scores greater than .90 on all the evaluated scales. The symptom scales were able to statistically significantly discriminate between locally identified cases and non-cases, and higher symptom scale scores were associated with increased numbers of trauma exposures which is an indication of concurrent validity. Sensitivity and specificity analyses resulted in an adequate area under the curve, indicating that this tool was appropriate for case definition. Conclusions This study has shown that validating mental health assessment tools in a low-resource country is feasible, and that by taking the time to adapt a measure to the local context, a useful and valid Zambian version of the PTSD-RI was developed to detect

  8. Perceptions of HIV-related health services in Zambia for people with disabilities who are HIV-positive

    Stephanie A Nixon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the emerging body of literature on increased vulnerability to HIV among people with disabilities (PWDs, there is a dearth of evidence related to experiences of PWDs who have become HIV-positive. This priority was identified by a disability advocacy organization in Lusaka, Zambia, where the prevalence of HIV and of disability is each approximately 15%. The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions and experiences of HIV-related health services for PWDs who are also living with HIV in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods: This qualitative, interpretive study involved in-depth, semi-structured, one-on-one interviews with two groups of participants in Lusaka, Zambia: 21 PWDs who had become HIV-positive, and 11 people working in HIV and/or disability. PWDs had physical, hearing, visual and/or intellectual impairments. Interviews were conducted in English, Nyanja, Bemba or Zambian sign language. Descriptive and thematic analyses were conducted by a multidisciplinary, international research team. Results: Participants described their experiences with HIV-related health services in terms of the challenges they faced. In particular, they encountered three main challenges while seeking care and treatment: (1 disability-related discrimination heightened when seeking HIV services, (2 communication barriers and related concerns with confidentiality, and (3 movement and mobility challenges related to seeking care and collecting antiretroviral therapy. These experiences were further shaped by participants’ profound concerns about poverty and unmet basic needs. Discussion: This study demonstrates how PWDs who are HIV-positive have the same HIV care, treatment and support needs as able-bodied counterparts, but face avoidable barriers to care. Many challenges mirror concerns identified with HIV prevention, suggesting that efforts to promote inclusion and reduce stigma could have widespread benefits. Conclusions: Despite the growing body of

  9. The Prevalence of Tuberculosis in Zambia: Results from the First National TB Prevalence Survey, 2013–2014

    Kapata, Nathan; Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Ngosa, William; Metitiri, Mine; Klinkenberg, Eveline; Kalisvaart, Nico; Sunkutu, Veronica; Shibemba, Aaron; Chabala, Chishala; Chongwe, Gershom; Tembo, Mathias; Mulenga, Lutinala; Mbulo, Grace; Katemangwe, Patrick; Sakala, Sandra; Chizema-Kawesha, Elizabeth; Masiye, Felix; Sinyangwe, George; Onozaki, Ikushi; Mwaba, Peter; Chikamata, Davy; Zumla, Alimuddin; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis in Zambia is a major public health problem, however the country does not have reliable baseline data on the TB prevalence for impact measurement; therefore it was among the priority countries identified by the World Health Organization to conduct a national TB prevalence survey Objective To estimate the prevalence of tuberculosis among the adult Zambian population aged 15 years and above, in 2013–2014. Methods A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted in 66 clusters across all the 10 provinces of Zambia. Eligible participants aged 15 years and above were screened for TB symptoms, had a chest x-ray (CXR) performed and were offered an HIV test. Participants with TB symptoms and/or CXR abnormality underwent an in-depth interview and submitted one spot- and one morning sputum sample for smear microscopy and liquid culture. Digital data collection methods were used throughout the process. Results Of the 98,458 individuals who were enumerated, 54,830 (55.7%) were eligible to participate, and 46,099 (84.1%) participated. Of those who participated, 45,633/46,099 (99%) were screened by both symptom assessment and chest x-ray, while 466/46,099 (1.01%) were screened by interview only. 6,708 (14.6%) were eligible to submit sputum and 6,154/6,708 (91.7%) of them submitted at least one specimen for examination. MTB cases identified were 265/6,123 (4.3%). The estimated national adult prevalence of smear, culture and bacteriologically confirmed TB was 319/100,000 (232-406/100,000); 568/100,000 (440-697/100,000); and 638/100,000 (502-774/100,000) population, respectively. The risk of having TB was five times higher in the HIV positive than HIV negative individuals. The TB prevalence for all forms was estimated to be 455 /100,000 population for all age groups. Conclusion The prevalence of tuberculosis in Zambia was higher than previously estimated. Innovative approaches are required to accelerate the control of TB. PMID:26771588

  10. Boise geothermal district heating system

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  11. New Mexico Property Tax Districts

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  12. Districts for 104th Congress

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of 104th Congressional District boundaries obtained from the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The 103rd Congress was the first Congress that...

  13. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Jodhpur district

    Kalla Gyaneshwar

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease with a wide geographical distribution in a range of climate and with different epidemiological patterns. In Rajasthan a new endemic zone of the disease has been found at Jodhpur district. The clincial features of 21 smear positive cases of oriental sore from Jodhpur district studied during a period of 1 year have been described. Also the importance of intralesional berberine sulphate in the treatment of oriental sore has been highlighted.

  14. Marshallian Industrial Districts Revisited (3)

    Zaratiegui, J.M. (Jesús M.)

    2004-01-01

    Marshall pointed out that a specific form of industrial organisation (industrial districts) increased the wealth of some regions in England and Germany, and connected it with the accumulation of capital and investment, social capital, externalities and increasing returns. In his view, industrial location was closely linked to demography, local governments, freedom and social institutions. He recognised that districts were a main territorial framework for knowledge-based economic growth.

  15. Marshallian Industrial Districts Revisited (1)

    Zaratiegui, J.M. (Jesús M.)

    2004-01-01

    Marshall pointed out that a specific form of industrial organisation (industrial districts) increased the wealth of some regions in England and Germany, and connected it with the accumulation of capital and investment, social capital, externalities and increasing returns. In his view, industrial location was closely linked to demography, local governments, freedom and social institutions. He recognised that districts were a main territorial framework for knowledge-based economic growth.

  16. Marshallian Industrial Districts Revisited (2)

    Zaratiegui, J.M. (Jesús M.)

    2004-01-01

    Marshall pointed out that a specific form of industrial organisation (industrial districts) increased the wealth of some regions in England and Germany, and connected it with the accumulation of capital and investment, social capital, externalities and increasing returns. In his view, industrial location was closely linked to demography, local governments, freedom and social institutions. He recognised that districts were a main territorial framework for knowledge-based economic growth.

  17. Financial and economic aspects of district heating

    Grooten, J.; van Bemmelen, J.H.A.

    1982-05-01

    Financial and economic aspects play a large role in the decision-making process about the feasibility of district heating projects. Factors to consider include the relationship of district heating and gas and electricity supplies, annual cost per unit of energy conserved, fuel type, gas price for district heating, cost/benefit ratio for district heating, side effects of district heating, and the relative tariff situation.

  18. District formation: a co-opetition approach

    Soubeyran, Antoine; Weber, Shlomo

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers a model of district formation that incorporates a notion of regional industrial systems. Each firm chooses its location from the set of existing industrial districts. The heterogeneous firms are distinguished by its "stand alone" district-dependent production and transportation cost. However, if other firms locate in the same district, the firm's stand alone cost is reduced by a factor that depends on the number of firms in the district. Thus, firms must take into account...

  19. The Anatomy of Medium-Scale Farm Growth in Zambia: What Are the Implications for the Future of Smallholder Agriculture?

    Nicholas Sitko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lost in the debates about the appropriate scale of production to promote agricultural growth in Africa is the rapid expansion of medium-scale farmers. Using Zambia as a case study, this article explores the causes and consequences of this middle-tier transformation on the future of small-scale agriculture. Combining political economic analysis with household survey data, this article examines the relationships between the growth in medium-scale farmers and changing conditions of land access, inequality, and alienation for small-scale farmers. Growth of medium-scale farmers is associated with high land inequality and rapid land alienation in high potential agricultural areas. This growth is shown to be partially driven by wage earner investment in land acquisition and is leading to substantial under-utilization of agricultural land. These processes are both limiting agricultural growth potential and foreclosing future options for an inclusive agricultural development strategy.

  20. Migration as an adaptive strategy to climate variability: a study of the Tonga-speaking people of Southern Zambia.

    Simatele, Danny; Simatele, Munacinga

    2015-10-01

    There is increasing consensus that the effects of extreme weather conditions in the form of drought, flooding and extreme temperature will have increasingly devastating impacts on those who depend on climate-sensitive resources and ecosystems for their livelihoods. The most affected will be the poor in developing countries who have a low adaptive capacity to climate change due to high poverty levels. Despite these projections, there are, to date, insufficient empirical studies linking the relationship between climate change and migration, particularly in the context of southern Africa. Using field-based data collected from two study locations in Zambia, this paper examines the complex relationship between extreme weather events and population movement. It is envisaged that the findings presented in this paper will contribute to current discussions on the complex relationship between extreme weather conditions and population movement specifically in the context of sub-Saharan Africa and other developing countries. PMID:25754466

  1. Socioeconomic and reproductive factors associated with condom use within and outside of marriage among urban pregnant women in Zambia.

    Kankasa, Chipepo; Siwale, Margaret; Kasolo, Francis; Nishiyama, Ayako; Terunuma, Hiroshi; Wakasugi, Naomi

    2005-12-01

    A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on 470 pregnant women in Lusaka, Zambia. Multivariate analysis revealed school attendance and child deaths as independently significant variables positively associated with HIV seropositivity. Among women with fidelity, HIV prevalence was not significantly lower, and condom use was much lower than among women who were having extramarital affairs. Factors significantly associated with condom use within and outside of marriage differed-age and number of live births within, and sexual transmission knowledge outside of marriage. School attendance was not effective for gaining knowledge on sexual transmission or condom use. Regular own earning was significantly effective for condom use in both groups, irrespective of school attendance. The following should be implemented intensively: effective education on HIV and sex in and out of school before early sexual debut, further implementation of family planning with emphasis on condom use, and empowering women by assisting with their economic independence. PMID:16623197

  2. Community participation in natural resources management: reality or rhetoric? Lessons learnt from the Kasanka Game Management Area (GMA) communities, Serenje District, Zambia.

    Mutamba, Emmanuel

    2004-12-01

    In the developing world, the term 'participation' has in recent years become a household word in the same way that 'democracy' or 'gender' have. Development agencies are demanding increased participation in their programmes. The use of the word or its application has become a centre of debate. Due to the difficulties involved in measuring 'participation' or indeed determining levels at which participation should take place, who participates and when, many 'doubting Thomases' have questioned its effectiveness. It has, however been acknowledged in many areas that popular participation changes policies and enhances management and governance. In complex issues of natural resources management, participatory techniques have helped communities develop collective responsibilities towards management of their resources and projects. This paper discusses the complexities of community participation in natural resources management, ranging from interrelations among stakeholders to resource ownership based on the experiences in the Kasanka Game Management Area (KGMA). PMID:15641374

  3. Effect of seasonal variation on adult clinical laboratory parameters in Rwanda, Zambia, and Uganda: implications for HIV biomedical prevention trials.

    Eugene Ruzagira

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of seasonal variation on adult clinical laboratory parameters in Rwanda, Zambia, and Uganda and determine its implications for HIV prevention and other clinical trials.Volunteers in a cross-sectional study to establish laboratory reference intervals were asked to return for a seasonal visit after the local season had changed from dry to rainy or vice versa. Volunteers had to be clinically healthy, not pregnant and negative for HIV, Hepatitis B and C, and syphilis infection at both visits. At each visit, blood was taken for measurement of hemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, red blood cells, platelets, total white blood cells (WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, CD4/CD8 T cells, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, direct bilirubin, total bilirubin, total immunoglobulin gamma, total protein, creatinine, total amylase, creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Consensus dry season reference intervals were applied to rainy season values (and vice versa and the proportion of 'out-of-range' values determined. Percentage differences between dry and rainy season parameter mean values were estimated.In this cohort of 903 volunteers, less than 10.0% of consensus parameter (except LDH values in one season were "out-of-range" in the other. Twenty-two (22 percent of rainy season LDH values fell outside of the consensus dry season interval with the higher values observed in the rainy season. Variability between consensus seasonal means ranged from 0.0% (total WBC, neutrophils, monocytes, basophils, and direct bilirubin to 40.0% (eosinophils. Within sites, the largest seasonal variations were observed for monocytes (Masaka, 11.5%, LDH (Lusaka, 21.7%, and basophils (Kigali, 22.2%.Seasonality had minimal impact on adult clinical laboratory parameter values in Rwanda, Zambia, and Uganda. Seasonal variation may not be an important factor in the

  4. Energy SMEs in sub-Saharan Africa: Outcomes, barriers and prospects in Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia

    Haselip, J.A.; Desgain, D.; Mackenzie, G.A.

    2013-05-15

    This report presents the findings of research into the main outcomes of government and donor-backed efforts to promote small and medium-sized energy businesses (energy SMEs) in sub-Saharan Africa. The research follows an outcome analysis methodology. The focus is on four countries: Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia and primarily on UNEP's AREED programme (2002-2012). This research focuses on the 'contributing factors' - a deliberately broader term that incorporates the internal 'success factors' - for energy SMEs, about which much has already been written. Indeed, the research findings presented in this report reaffirm most of what has been concluded in previous studies. These studies identified the lack of access to affordable finance as being the predominant, persistent, barrier to establishing and scaling up a commercially viable energy SME sector, emphasising the lack of strong policy support from governments, poor business skills capacity and the high cost of many RETs as related cause-and-effect barriers. While these issues continue to characterise, to a greater or lesser extent, the energy SMEs sectors in the countries studied for this research, it is more relevant to revisit the main assumption behind AREED and other donor-backed programmes designed to promote energy SMEs. The assumption is that the solution to the aforementioned barriers would be overcome by a 'demonstration effect' whereby successful energy SMEs, supported by donor-backed programmes, influence the commercial financial sector to invest in energy SMEs, thus triggering a virtuous circle of growth and profitability. Experiences drawn from a decade of AREED support across four of the project countries reveal both the presence (Ghana, Senegal) and absence, or weak presence, of this demonstration effect (Tanzania, Zambia). This is a central question, and one which was not the focus of previous research, presumably because the answer was not fully apparent prior to 2006 when the last

  5. Local perceptions, cultural beliefs and practices that shape umbilical cord care: a qualitative study in Southern Province, Zambia.

    Julie M Herlihy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Global policy regarding optimal umbilical cord care to prevent neonatal illness is an active discussion among researchers and policy makers. In preparation for a large cluster-randomized control trial to measure the impact of 4% chlorhexidine as an umbilical wash versus dry cord care on neonatal mortality in Southern Province, Zambia, we performed a qualitative study to determine local perceptions of cord health and illness and the cultural belief system that shapes umbilical cord care knowledge, attitudes, and practices. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study consisted of 36 focus group discussions with breastfeeding mothers, grandmothers, and traditional birth attendants, and 42 in-depth interviews with key community informants. Semi-structured field guides were used to lead discussions and interviews at urban and rural sites. A wide variation in knowledge, beliefs, and practices surrounding cord care was discovered. For home deliveries, cords were cut with non-sterile razor blades or local grass. Cord applications included drying agents (e.g., charcoal, baby powder, dust, lubricating agents (e.g., Vaseline, cooking oil, used motor oil and agents intended for medicinal/protective purposes (e.g., breast milk, cow dung, chicken feces. Concerns regarding the length of time until cord detachment were universally expressed. Blood clots in the umbilical cord, bulongo-longo, were perceived to foreshadow neonatal illness. Management of bulongo-longo or infected umbilical cords included multiple traditional remedies and treatment at government health centers. CONCLUSION: Umbilical cord care practices and beliefs were diverse. Dry cord care, as recommended by the World Health Organization at the time of the study, is not widely practiced in Southern Province, Zambia. A cultural health systems model that depicts all stakeholders is proposed as an approach for policy makers and program implementers to work synergistically with existing cultural

  6. Prevalence and burden of gastrointestinal helminths in wild and domestic guineafowls (Numida meleagris) in the Southern Province of Zambia

    King; Shimumbo; Nalubamba; Eugene; Chisela; Bwalya; Ntombi; Basimbi; Mudenda; Hetron; Mweemba; Munangandu; Musso; Munyeme; David; Squarre

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the gastrointestinal tract helminthic fauna in domestic and wild guineafowl in Zambia.Methods: Post-mortem and laboratory parasitological examinations for helminth identification and enumeration were conducted on 198 guineafowls(148 domestic and 50 wild) from November 2010 to October 2011.Results: All guineafowls were infested with one or more helminths. Eleven helminth species, namely, Raillietina echinobothrida, Raillietina tetragona, Raillietina cesticillus, Ascaridia galli, Allodapa suctoria, Gongylonema ingluvicola, Tetrameres spp., Heterakis spp., Acuaria spiralis, Syngamus trachea, and Streptocara pectinifera were identified with no trematodes recorded. Mean nematode burden between domestic and wild fowl showed no differences having 113.7 [confidence interval(CI) 98.9-128.6] and 108(CI 76.6-139.5) nematodes respectively. In contrast, female guineafowls had a mean of 151.9(CI 128.4-177.8) nematodes per host which was significantly more than the males that had a mean of 79.6(CI 66.8-94.4). However, there were differences in helminth species richness between domestic and wild guineafowls with domestic guineafowls having more species present at a mean of 4.2(CI 3.91-4.44) than the wild ones at a mean of 3.4(CI 2.92-3.88) but there were no sex differences. Eight of the eleven helminth species co-occurred in domestic and wild fowl and five of the helminth species had higher prevalence in domestic guineafowls.Conclusions: Syngamus trachea, Streptocara pectinifera and Acuaria spiralis are reported for the first time in domestic poultry in Zambia. This study represents the first comparative study of helminths in domestic and wild guineafowls at an interface area and adds to the knowledge base in a discipline where a dearth currently exists.

  7. Postnatal care utilization and local understandings of contagion among HIV-infected and uninfected women in rural, southern Zambia.

    Sacks, Emma; Moss, William J; Winch, Peter J; Thuma, Philip; van Dijk, Janneke H; Mullany, Luke C

    2016-08-01

    Postnatal care is essential for ensuring the optimal health of newborns and necessary for the prevention of maternal-to-child human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission as well as the early diagnosis and treatment of HIV-infected infants. However, coverage of postnatal care is low in many rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa. We examined women's experiences of accessing formal postnatal care for their HIV-exposed newborns, comparing reports of HIV-infected and uninfected women in an HIV-endemic area of rural southern Zambia. We conducted 24 qualitative in-depth interviews with recently delivered women in a rural region of southern Zambia, including 8 with women who were willing to disclose their HIV infection status and answer additional questions. Data were transcribed, coded and analyzed using thematic analysis techniques. HIV-infected women identified more disincentives and reported more negative experiences accessing postnatal care than HIV-uninfected women. A local notion of contagion holds that healthy infants may become sick with chibele, a fatal, febrile illness, if exposed to another infant who is taking "strong medicine", such as antiretroviral drugs. Thus, HIV-uninfected women expressed objections to sharing clinics with women and infants who were presumed to be under treatment. Additionally, women reported receiving better treatment from staff at HIV clinics compared to general pediatric clinics. Due to these tensions, HIV-infected women were less likely to visit a clinic for newborn care if the clinic or waiting area was a common space used by HIV-uninfected women and their children. When integrating programs for HIV with maternal and child health care, these nuanced tensions between groups of patients must be recognized and resolved. PMID:27064444

  8. Certification of district heating substations

    2007-01-15

    These Technical Regulations, F:103-6, have been produced and published by the Swedish District Heating Association in conjunction with manufacturers. Approved testing is part of the process of obtaining certification for a district heating substation. In addition, the process includes a review of documentation and of the manufacturer's production inspection procedures. A certified unit fulfils the requirements set out in the Association's document F:101, General Technical Requirements. Until further notice, the Association has selected SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden for certification of district heating substations. Certification means that the quality and function/performance of a prefabricated district heating substation have been examined and approved. Certification test method F:103-6 includes both static and dynamic tests and inspections. Detailed information on the district heating substation and its properties is given in the certification test reports. The unique feature of this certification is that the test reports are in the public domain. This is possible because the Association has full right of insight into the certification process, and because testing is performed in accordance with test programmes and procedures decided by the Association. In this document (F: 103-6), the Association specifies what is to be reported when SP carries out inspections at the manufacturer's premises. This can include details of claims lodged with the manufacturer and/or non-compliances with the required specification of the district heating substation. Such cases will be considered by a Certification Panel. Test reports and certificates provide information on the district heating substation's properties and performance, which can be used when assessing the substations. The technical tests do not address the long-term properties of substations, but SP's inspection specifically includes visual examination and application of its

  9. Pesticide residues in adipose tissue from hippopotami (Hippopotamus amphibius L living in and adjacent to the Luangwa River Zambia : research communication

    A. Flaoyen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of organochlorines (OCs such as organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls were measured in adipose tissue collected from 14 male hippopotami at Mfuwe in the southern part of the Luangwa National Park, Zambia. The samples contained low levels of OCs, and the concentrations of OCs were comparable to or lower than reported for wild herbivores studied in other parts of the world.

  10. Drinking Water Quality, Feeding Practices, and Diarrhea among Children under 2 Years of HIV-Positive Mothers in Peri-Urban Zambia

    Peletz, Rachel; Simuyandi, Michelo; Sarenje, Kelvin; Baisley, Kathy; Kelly, Paul; Filteau, Suzanne; Clasen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In low-income settings, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive mothers must choose between breastfeeding their infants and risking transmission of HIV or replacement feeding their infants and risking diarrheal disease from contaminated water. We conducted a cross-sectional study of children < 2 years of age of 254 HIV-positive mothers in peri-urban Zambia to assess their exposure to waterborne fecal contamination. Fecal indicators were found in 70% of household drinking water samples. In...

  11. Health inequities, environmental insecurity and the attainment of the millennium development goals in sub-Saharan Africa: the case study of Zambia.

    Anyangwe, Stella C E; Mtonga, Chipayeni; Chirwa, Ben

    2006-09-01

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a series of 8 goals and 18 targets aimed at ending extreme poverty by 2015, and there are 48 quantifiable indicators for monitoring the process. Most of the MDGs are health or health-related goals. Though the MDGs might sound ambitious, it is imperative that the world, and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, wake up to the persistent and unacceptably high rates of extreme poverty that populations live in, and find lasting solutions to age-old problems. Extreme poverty is a cause and consequence of low income, food insecurity and hunger, education and gender inequities, high disease burden, environmental degradation, insecure shelter, and lack of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. It is also directly linked to unsound governance and inequitable distribution of public wealth. While many regions in the world will strive to attain the MDGs by 2015, most of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa, with major human development challenges associated with socio-economic disparities, will not. Zambia's MDG progress reports of 2003 and 2005 show that despite laudable political commitment and some advances made towards achieving universal primary education, gender equality, improvement of child health and management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, it is not likely that Zambia will achieve even half of the goals. Zambia's systems have been weakened by high disease burden and excess mortality, natural and man-made environmental threats and some negative effects of globalization such as huge external debt, low world prices for commodities and the human resource "brain drain", among others. Urgent action must follow political will, and some tried and tested strategies or "quick wins" that have been proven to produce high positive impact in the short term, need to be rapidly embarked upon by Zambia and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa if they are to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. PMID:16968967

  12. The transfer of agricultural technology and the development of small-scale farming in rural Africa: Case studies from Ghana, Sudan, Uganda, Zambia and South Africa

    Lado, C.

    1998-01-01

    Metadata only record This paper examines the situation of agricultural development in African countries, specifically cases in Ghana, Sudan, Uganda, Zambia, and South Africa. The author asserts that inadequate institutional support and a lack of farmer involvement have contributed to low levels of improved technologies and technology adoption among small-scale farmers. The author also cites structural constraints and the process of agricultural development as significant components to cons...

  13. Is There More than Milk? The Impact of Heifer International’s Livestock Donation Program on Rural Livelihoods: Preliminary Findings from a Field Experiment in Zambia

    Kafle, Kashi R.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of Heifer International’s livestock donation program in the Copperbelt Province in Zambia. Using a panel data of 300 households and 4 survey rounds, this analysis assesses the impact of dairy cow, meat goat, and draft cattle donation programs on poverty and food security measures. The impact on consumption expenditures and livestock revenue are estimated with a difference-in-difference method, and the impact on dairy/meat consumption frequency is estimated with...

  14. When knowledge is not power. The integration of traditional midwifery into the health system. The case study of a traditional midwife among the Toka of Zambia

    Phiri, Victoria

    2006-01-01

    Health is one of the major problems facing most developing countries like Zambia. Poor economies, low funding, shortage of staff, epidemics like AIDS, coupled with poor and sometimes inaccessible facilities make the provision of health difficult. The 1978 Alma Ata conference’s call for health for all seemed a far cry for such countries. But the conference was aware of this problem and thus, its recommendation for the utilization of traditional practitioners in an integrated health system. One...

  15. Review of Sample Design for Zambia Post-harvest Survey (1997/98) and Recommendations for Improving the Sampling Strategy and Estimation Procedures

    Megill, David J.

    2000-01-01

    Following a review of the sample design for the 1997/98 Zambia Post-Harvest Survey (PHS), described in the survey reports, summary results were tabulated from the survey data to examine the distribution of the households for the different domains of analysis such as farm size groups. Summary data were also examined for the different crops and animals. The purpose of this report is to document the findings and recommendations from this review. Specific recommendations are made on potential imp...

  16. Can a community health worker and a trained traditional birth attendant work as a team to deliver child health interventions in rural Zambia?

    Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Hamer, Davidson H; Semrau, Katherine; Waltensperger, Karen Z.; Snetro-Plewman, Gail; Kambikambi, Chilobe; Sakala, Amon; Filumba, Stephen; Sichamba, Bias; Marsh, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Teaming is an accepted approach in health care settings but rarely practiced at the community level in developing countries. Save the Children trained and deployed teams of volunteer community health workers (CHWs) and trained traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to provide essential newborn and curative care for children aged 0–59 months in rural Zambia. This paper assessed whether CHWs and trained TBAs can work as teams to deliver interventions and ensure a continuum of care for a...

  17. Hospitalizations and Costs Incurred at the Facility Level after Scale-up of Malaria Control: Pre-Post Comparisons from Two Hospitals in Zambia

    Comfort, Alison B.; van Dijk, Janneke H.; Mharakurwa, Sungano; Stillman, Kathryn; Gabert, Rose; Korde, Sonali; Nachbar, Nancy; Derriennic, Yann; Musau, Stephen; Hamazakaza, Petan; Zyambo, Khozya D.; Zyongwe, Nancy M.; Hamainza, Busiku; Thuma, Philip E.

    2014-01-01

    There is little evidence on the impact of malaria control on the health system, particularly at the facility level. Using retrospective, longitudinal facility-level and patient record data from two hospitals in Zambia, we report a pre-post comparison of hospital admissions and outpatient visits for malaria and estimated costs incurred for malaria admissions before and after malaria control scale-up. The results show a substantial reduction in inpatient admissions and outpatient visits for mal...

  18. Couple experiences of provider-initiated couple HIV testing in an antenatal clinic in Lusaka, Zambia: lessons for policy and practice

    Musheke, M.; Bond, V.; Merten, S

    2013-01-01

    Background: Couple HIV testing has been recognized as critical to increase uptake of HIV testing, facilitate disclosure of HIV status to marital partner, improve access to treatment, care and support, and promote safe sex. The Zambia national protocol on integrated prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) allows for the provision of couple testing in antenatal clinics. This paper examines couple experiences of provider-initiated couple HIV testing at a public antenatal clinic...

  19. A Review of Ecological Factors Associated with the Epidemiology of Wildlife Trypanosomiasis in the Luangwa and Zambezi Valley Ecosystems of Zambia

    King Shimumbo Nalubamba; Musso Munyeme; Hetron Mweemba Munang’andu; Victor Siamudaala

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosomiasis has been endemic in wildlife in Zambia for more than a century. The disease has been associated with neurological disorders in humans. Current conservation strategies by the Zambian government of turning all game reserves into state-protected National Parks (NPs) and game management areas (GMAs) have led to the expansion of the wildlife and tsetse population in the Luangwa and Zambezi valley ecosystem. This ecological niche lies in the common tsetse fly belt that harbors the h...

  20. Scaling Up Youth-Focused Interventions in the Multi-Country HIV/AIDS Programs and Building Capacity of Civil Society Organizations, Case from Zambia : An Assessment Report

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    Zambia is among countries with high HIV/AIDS prevalence, 16 percent among adult population aged 15 to 49 years. Prevalence among urban population is twice that of rural dwellers, 23 percent for urban and 11 percent for rural residents. Like other African countries, youth and women are the groups highly infected and affected by HIV/AIDS. As part of the scaling up effort, the World Bank (WB...

  1. Scaling Down to Scale Up: A Health Economic Analysis of Integrating Point-of-Care Syphilis Testing into Antenatal Care in Zambia during Pilot and National Rollout Implementation.

    Shelley, KD; Ansbro, É, M; Ncube, AT; Sweeney, S; Fleischer, C; Mumba, GT; Gill, MM; Strasser, S.; Peeling, RW; Terris-Prestholt, F

    2015-01-01

    Maternal syphilis results in an estimated 500,000 stillbirths and neonatal deaths annually in Sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the existence of national guidelines for antenatal syphilis screening, syphilis testing is often limited by inadequate laboratory and staff services. Recent availability of inexpensive rapid point-of-care syphilis tests (RST) can improve access to antenatal syphilis screening. A 2010 pilot in Zambia explored the feasibility of integrating RST within prevention of mother-to...

  2. HIV infection and domestic smoke exposure, but not human papillomavirus, are risk factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Zambia: a case–control study

    Kayamba, Violet; Bateman, Allen C.; Asombang, Akwi W; Shibemba, Aaron; Zyambo, Kanekwa; Banda, Themba; Soko, Rose; Kelly, Paul

    2015-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that esophageal cancer occurs in younger adults in sub-Saharan Africa than in Europe or North America. The burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also high in this region. We postulated that HIV and human papillomavirus (HPV) infections might contribute to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) risk. This was a case–control study based at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. Cases were patients with confirmed OSCC and controls had complete...

  3. ‘Are We Not Human?’ Stories of Stigma, Disability and HIV from Lusaka, Zambia and Their Implications for Access to Health Services

    Parsons, JA; Bond, VA; Nixon, SA

    2015-01-01

    Background The advent of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in Southern Africa holds the promise of shifting the experience of HIV toward that of a manageable chronic condition. However, this potential can only be realized when persons living with HIV are able to access services without barriers, which can include stigma. Our qualitative study explored experiences of persons living with disabilities (PWD) in Lusaka, Zambia who became HIV-positive (PWD/HIV+). Methods and Findings We conducted inter...

  4. Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment: Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, Sand Lake Wetland Management District

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan CCP will guide management on Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland...

  5. Improving district heating in Kiev

    The district heating modernisation project currently under way in Kiev, the capital of the Ukraine, is the largest project of its type financed by the World Bank. The budget for the five-year project is some USD 250 million of which USD 200 million is financed by the World Bank loan. The target of the project is to improve the city's district heating system, which is owned and operated by Kyivenergo. Consultancy services for the Project Implementation Unit are being provided by Electrowatt-Ekono and financed by the Finnish government

  6. Industrial District as a Corporation

    Reza MOHAMMADY GARFAMY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comparison study of industrial districts in two European countries, Spain and Sweden, using the conceptual framework of corporation. The relevance of this approach is based on the specific qualities that the industrial districts have, including the preexisting conditions, local traditions, products and production characteristics, marketing strategies, local policies and present challenges. The findings indicate the ways in which different patterns of inter-firm relationships, organization of production and dynamics of local alliances have shaped divergent regional responses to the industrial construction.

  7. Future Services for District Heating Solutions in Residential Districts

    Hannele Ahvenniemi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The underlying assumption of this study is that in order to retain the competitiveness while reaching for the EU targets regarding low-energy construction, district heating companies need to develop new business and service models. How district heating companies could broaden their perspective and switch to a more service-oriented way of thinking is a key interest of our research. The used methods in our study are house builder interviews and a questionnaire. With the help of these methods we discussed the potential interest in heating related services acquiring a comprehensive understanding of the customer needs. The results indicate the importance of certain criteria when choosing the heating system in households: easiness, comfort and affordability seem to dominate the house builders’ preferences. Also environmental awareness seems to be for many an important factor when making a decision about the heating of the house. Altogether, based on the results of this study, we suggest that the prospects of district heating could benefit from highlighting certain aspects and strengths in the future. District heating companies need to increase flexibility, readiness to adopt new services, to invest in new marketing strategies and improving the communication skills.

  8. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1996

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  9. Iowa Congressional Districts for 2013-2022

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Congressional district boundaries, enacted April 19, 2011, effective beginning with the elections in 2012 for the 113th U.S. Congress. The districts will remain in...

  10. Location - Managed Facility - St. Paul District (MVP)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — St. Paul District - US Army Corps of Engineers Managed Facility locations. District headquarters, Natural Resource, Recreation, Lock and Dam, and Regulatory offices...

  11. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1992

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  12. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1995

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  13. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1994

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  14. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1993

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  15. Your District Deserves an Audit Committee

    Schaupp, Frederick W.; Maust, Robert S.

    1974-01-01

    A school district audit committee has the capacity to unearth pertinent information about the operating efficiency and effectiveness of a school district, as well as providing a more professional audit. (Author/WM)

  16. "Urban improvement districts" als Instrumente lokaler Governance

    Böhme, René; Warsewa, Günter

    2014-01-01

    The exploratory study examines the implementation of Urban Improvement Districts (umbrella term for Innovationsquartiere, Housing Improvement Districts, Neighbourhood Improvement Districts, Eigentümer-Standort-Gemeinschaften, lokale Bürgeretats etc.) in three German cities and makes up a balance of ef-fects identified in practical experiences with this new instrument of participative urban design. According to the concept of Business Improvement Districts, citizens, real estate owners and fur...

  17. Marketing Techniques for School Districts.

    Lane, John J., Ed.

    Development of marketing plans can assist not only public school districts in meeting recent competition but will also improve educational processes, increase revenue, and restore confidence in schools. This collection of articles describes a new role for school administrators--particulary for business managers: administrators as "entrepreneurs."…

  18. Accounting Systems for School Districts.

    Atwood, E. Barrett, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Advises careful analysis and improvement of existing school district accounting systems prior to investment in new ones. Emphasizes the importance of attracting and maintaining quality financial staffs, developing an accounting policies and procedures manual, and designing a good core accounting system before purchasing computer hardware and…

  19. District Dives into Data to Improve Feedback

    Robinson, Sheila B.; Dimgba, Marguerite G.

    2014-01-01

    The Greece Professional Learning Center, a New York State Teacher Center in Greece Central School District, works to ensure all district employees have access to high-quality professional learning that supports and facilitates their learning and ultimately advances student achievement. The center is an integral part of the district -- the…

  20. Sharing Local Revenue: One District's Perspective

    Cline, David S.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of U.S. school districts are considered independent and have taxing authority; the remaining districts rely on revenue and budgetary approval from their local government. In the latter case, localities often use some form of negotiated process to determine the amount of revenue their school districts will receive. Typically, a…

  1. The Phantom Mandate: District Capacity for Reform.

    Florian, Judy; Hange, Jane; Copeland, Glenda

    Nearly every state focuses on implementing standards-based systems but supports educational reform in as many different ways as there are states. An examination of 15 districts located in 13 states suggests, however, that some states and districts have policies and practices in common that support a district's capacity for reform, whether there is…

  2. 7 CFR 917.14 - District.

    2010-01-01

    ... County, Yuba County, and Sierra County. (c) Sacramento River District includes and consists of Sacramento... the Sacramento River District, and that portion of Solano County not included in the Sacramento River..., Calaveras County, and Alpine County. (m) Stanislaus District includes and consists of Merced...

  3. Identifying malaria vector breeding habitats with remote sensing data and terrain-based landscape indices in Zambia

    Shiff Clive

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria, caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in southern Zambia. In the Mapanza Chiefdom, where transmission is seasonal, Anopheles arabiensis is the dominant malaria vector. The ability to predict larval habitats can help focus control measures. Methods A survey was conducted in March-April 2007, at the end of the rainy season, to identify and map locations of water pooling and the occurrence anopheline larval habitats; this was repeated in October 2007 at the end of the dry season and in March-April 2008 during the next rainy season. Logistic regression and generalized linear mixed modeling were applied to assess the predictive value of terrain-based landscape indices along with LandSat imagery to identify aquatic habitats and, especially, those with anopheline mosquito larvae. Results Approximately two hundred aquatic habitat sites were identified with 69 percent positive for anopheline mosquitoes. Nine species of anopheline mosquitoes were identified, of which, 19% were An. arabiensis. Terrain-based landscape indices combined with LandSat predicted sites with water, sites with anopheline mosquitoes and sites specifically with An. arabiensis. These models were especially successful at ruling out potential locations, but had limited ability in predicting which anopheline species inhabited aquatic sites. Terrain indices derived from 90 meter Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital elevation data (DEM were better at predicting water drainage patterns and characterizing the landscape than those derived from 30 m Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER DEM. Conclusions The low number of aquatic habitats available and the ability to locate the limited number of aquatic habitat locations for surveillance, especially those containing anopheline larvae, suggest that larval control maybe a cost-effective control measure in the fight

  4. The Relationship between Student Achievement, School District Economies of Scale, School District Size, and Student Socioeconomic Status

    Trani, Randy

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between student achievement, school district economies of scale, school district size and student socioeconomic status were measured for 131 school districts in the state of Oregon. Data for school districts ranging in size from districts with around 300 students to districts with more than 40,000 students were collected for…

  5. Gender equality and education: Increasing the uptake of HIV testing among married women in Kenya, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

    Singh, Kavita; Luseno, Winnie; Haney, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Gender equality and education are being promoted as strategies to combat the HIV epidemic in Africa, but few studies have looked at the role of gender equality and education in the uptake of a vital service - HIV testing. This study looks at the associations between education (a key input needed for gender equality) and key gender equality measures (financial decision making and attitudes toward violence) with ever tested for HIV and tested for HIV in the past year. The study focused on currently married women ages between15-24 and 25-34 in three countries - Kenya, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The data came from the Demographic and Health Surveys. Logistic regression was used to study the role of gender equality and education on the HIV testing outcomes after controlling for both social and biological factors. Results indicated that education had a consistent positive relationship with testing for both age groups, and the associations were always significant for young women aged 15-24 years (pgender-based violence is unacceptable was positively associated with testing for women aged 25-34 in all the three countries, although the associations were only significant in Kenya (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.58, pgender equality are important strategies for increasing uptake of a vital HIV service, and thus are important tools for protecting girls and young women against HIV. PMID:23438082

  6. The impact of a short depression and anxiety screening tool in epilepsy care in primary health care settings in Zambia.

    Mbewe, Edward K; Uys, Leana R; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2013-11-01

    Up to 60% of the 50 million persons with epilepsy (PWE) worldwide have depression and anxiety and 80% of PWE live in low-income regions. Common psychiatric comorbidities are often unrecognized and undertreated. We developed and validated a 10-item screening tool for the detection of depression and anxiety at primary healthcare clinics in Zambia in which the baseline detection rate among PWE was 1%. We trained primary care clinic workers in selected clinics to use this screening tool. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 120 consecutive PWE who received care one month after training. Detection improved from 1% to 49%, and treatment was frequently initiated. Of the 120 screened, 59 (49.2%) scored above cutoff point of 18. Of these persons, 43 (73.0%) were positive for depression, 16 (23.0%) were positive for anxiety, 38 (64.4%) received counseling, 18 (30.5%) received antidepressants, and 3 (5.1%) were referred to a psychiatrist. Use of this screening tool resulted in improved mental health care for PWE. PMID:24062482

  7. Female sex workers, male circumcision and HIV: a qualitative study of their understanding, experience, and HIV risk in Zambia.

    Abbott, Sharon A; Haberland, Nicole A; Mulenga, Drosin M; Hewett, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    Several sub-Saharan African countries, including Zambia, have initiated national voluntary medical male circumcision (MC) programs to reduce HIV incidence. In-depth interviews were conducted with twenty female sex workers (FSWs) in Lusaka to examine their understanding of MC and experiences with circumcised clients. Knowledge of MC was derived primarily through informal sources, with very few FSWs reporting exposure to MC educational campaigns. MC was not widely believed to be protective against HIV, however it was viewed by some as protective against STIs. Three FSWs reported having sex with recently circumcised clients, and most reported that men often used their MC status to try to convince FSWs to forego condoms. Findings suggest that FSWs, already at high risk for HIV infection, may face additional pressure toward higher risk behavior as a result of MC. As MC services are expanded, programs should support FSWs' efforts to protect themselves by providing information about what MC can--and cannot--offer for HIV/STI infection prevention. PMID:23349745

  8. Glycaemic Control and Associated Self-Management Behaviours in Diabetic Outpatients: A Hospital Based Observation Study in Lusaka, Zambia

    Emmanuel Mwila Musenge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The control of diabetes mellitus depends on several factors that also include individual lifestyles. We assessed glycaemic control status and self-management behaviours that may influence glycaemic control among diabetic outpatients. Methods. This cross-sectional study among 198 consenting randomly selected patients was conducted at the University Teaching Hospital diabetic clinic between September and December 2013 in Lusaka, Zambia. A structured interview schedule was used to collect data on demographic characteristics, self-management behaviours, and laboratory measurements. Binary logistic regression analysis using IBM SPSS for Windows version 20.0 was carried out to predict behaviours that were associated with glycaemic control status. Results. The proportion of patients that had good glycaemic control status (HbA1c≤ 48 mmol/mol was 38.7% compared to 61.3% that had poor glycaemic control status (HbA1c≥ 49 mmol/mol. Adherence to antidiabetic treatment and fasting plasma glucose predicted glycaemic control status of the patients. However, self-blood glucose monitoring, self-blood glucose monitoring means and exercise did not predict glycaemic control status of the patients.  Conclusion. We find evidence of poor glycaemic control status among most diabetic patients suggesting that health promotion messages need to take into account both individual and community factors to promote behaviours likely to reduce nonadherence.

  9. The Use of Remotely Sensed Rainfall for Managing Drought Risk: A Case Study of Weather Index Insurance in Zambia

    Emily Black

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Remotely sensed rainfall is increasingly being used to manage climate-related risk in gauge sparse regions. Applications based on such data must make maximal use of the skill of the methodology in order to avoid doing harm by providing misleading information. This is especially challenging in regions, such as Africa, which lack gauge data for validation. In this study, we show how calibrated ensembles of equally likely rainfall can be used to infer uncertainty in remotely sensed rainfall estimates, and subsequently in assessment of drought. We illustrate the methodology through a case study of weather index insurance (WII in Zambia. Unlike traditional insurance, which compensates proven agricultural losses, WII pays out in the event that a weather index is breached. As remotely sensed rainfall is used to extend WII schemes to large numbers of farmers, it is crucial to ensure that the indices being insured are skillful representations of local environmental conditions. In our study we drive a land surface model with rainfall ensembles, in order to demonstrate how aggregation of rainfall estimates in space and time results in a clearer link with soil moisture, and hence a truer representation of agricultural drought. Although our study focuses on agricultural insurance, the methodological principles for application design are widely applicable in Africa and elsewhere.

  10. The impact of the global economic crisis on HIV and AIDS programmes directed at women and children in Zambia.

    Serieux, John; Njelesani, Mwansa; Chompolola, Abson; Sepehri, Ardeshir; Guliani, Harminder

    2015-01-01

    This investigation sought to ascertain the extent to which the global economic crisis of 2008-2009 affected the delivery of HIV/AIDS-related services directed at pregnant and lactating mothers, children living with HIV and children orphaned through HIV in Zambia. Using a combined macroeconomic analysis and a multiple case study approach, the authors found that from mid-2008 to mid-2009 the Zambian economy was indeed buffeted by the global economic crisis. During that period the case study subjects experienced challenges with respect to the funding, delivery and effectiveness of services that were clearly attributable, directly or indirectly, to the global economic crisis. The source of funding most often compromised was external private flows. The services most often compromised were non-medical services (such as the delivery of assistance to orphans and counselling to HIV-positive mothers) while the more strictly medical services (such as antiretroviral therapy) were protected from funding cuts and service interruptions. Impairments to service effectiveness were experienced relatively equally by (HIV-positive) pregnant women and lactating mothers and children orphaned through HIV. Children living with AIDS were least affected because of the primacy of ARV therapy in their care. PMID:26223326

  11. Knowledge and perceptions of couples' voluntary counseling and testing in urban Rwanda and Zambia: a cross-sectional household survey.

    April L Kelley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most incident HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa occur between cohabiting, discordant, heterosexual couples. Though couples' voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT is an effective, well-studied intervention in Africa, <1% of couples have been jointly tested. METHODS: We conducted cross-sectional household surveys in Kigali, Rwanda (n = 600 and Lusaka, Zambia (n = 603 to ascertain knowledge, perceptions, and barriers to use of CVCT. RESULTS: Compared to Lusaka, Kigali respondents were significantly more aware of HIV testing sites (79% vs. 56%; had greater knowledge of HIV serodiscordance between couples (83% vs. 43%; believed CVCT is good (96% vs. 72%; and were willing to test jointly (91% vs. 47%. Stigma, fear of partner reaction, and distance/cost/logistics were CVCT barriers. CONCLUSIONS: Though most respondents had positive attitudes toward CVCT, the majority were unaware that serodiscordance between cohabiting couples is possible. Future messages should target gaps in knowledge about serodiscordance, provide logistical information about CVCT services, and aim to reduce stigma and fear.

  12. Prevalence and Determinants of Mucous Membrane Irritations in a Community Near a Cement Factory in Zambia: A Cross Sectional Study

    Emmy Nkhama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to cement dust has been associated with deleterious health effects in humans. This study investigated whether residing near a cement factory increases the risk of irritations to the mucous membranes of the eyes and respiratory system. A cross sectional study was conducted in Freedom Compound, a community bordering a cement factory in Chilanga, Zambia and a control community, Bauleni, located 18 km from the cement plant. A modified American Thoracic Society questionnaire was administered to 225 and 198 respondents aged 15–59 years from Freedom and Bauleni, respectively, to capture symptoms of the irritations. Respondents from Freedom Compound, were more likely to experience the irritations; adjusted ORs 2.50 (95% CI: 1.65, 3.79, 4.36 (95% CI (2.96, 6.55 and 1.94 (95% CI (1.19, 3.18 for eye, nose and sinus membrane irritations respectively. Cohort panel studies to determine associations of cement emissions to mucous membrane irritations and respiratory symptoms, coupled with field characterization of the exposure are needed to assess whether the excess prevalence of symptoms of mucous membrane irritations observed in Freedom compound are due to emissions from the cement factory.

  13. Comparison of Male and Female Differences in Emotional Intelligence Among Trained Univerisities Athletes of Lusaka Province, Zambia

    Mathivanan D & Clement chileshe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available (Palmer and Stough 2001 defined as Emotional intelligence as ‘the capacity to deal effectively with one’s own and others’ emotions ’Previous empirical studies in this area have indicated that the construct of emotional intelligence provides an athlete with an understanding of their specific emotional competencies, and therefore a better understanding and awareness of how to use emotions in sport. The comparison of the study is to attempt and examine the differences between female and male athletes of Lusaka Province with respect to their emotional intelligence in the selected variables such as Self-awareness, Self-regulation, Motivation, Empathy, Social skills.It was assumed that female athletes would have high emotional intelligence as compared to the male athletes. “Emotional Intelligence Test” developed by Dr. N. K. Chadha (1998 was applied on all of the participants of the study (i.e. 30 female and 40 male athletes.Were selected random for this study Statistical analysis by computation of “t-test” revealed a significant difference in the emotional intelligence of female and male athletes of Lusaka Province. The results confirmed the hypothesis differences in relation to emotional intelligence, findings of the current study indicate that females are more emotionally intelligent than male athletes. The higher level of emotional intelligence of female than male in Lusaka Province are explained in terms of traditional trends, pattern of society and social roles assigned to male and female with respect to African culture in Zambia.

  14. Prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal helminths and their effects on weight gain in free-range chickens in Central Zambia.

    Phiri, I K; Phiri, A M; Ziela, M; Chota, A; Masuku, M; Monrad, J

    2007-05-01

    Examination of helminths from gastrointestinal tracts of 125 free-range chickens in Zambia revealed a 95.2% prevalence rate. The species and their prevalences were: Allodapa suctoria (85.6%), Tetrameres americana (80.8%), Ascaridia galli (28.8%), Gonglonema ingluvicola (50.4%), Raillietina spp. (81.6%) and Heterakis gallinarum (32.8%). No trematodes or Syngamus trachea were found. Mixed infections accounted for 88.2% as compared to 7.2% of single infections. Effects of helminthoses on weight gain were investigated in 100 growing chickens randomly assigned to treatment (levamisole) and untreated control groups. There was a significant mean (+/- SEM) weight gain (grams) of 812.8 +/- 51.4 in the treatment group and 623 +/- 57.4 in the control group (p < 0.01). The mean (+/- SEM) worm burdens from the control group and the treatment group were 96.3 +/- 5.61 and 22.05 +/- 2.61, respectively. These results confirm the higher risk of helminth infections in free-range systems and may explain the deleterious effects in chickens. PMID:17847826

  15. Application of oxygen-18 and deuterium for investigating the origin of groundwater in connection with a dam project in Zambia

    A study on the origin of groundwaters around the Itezhitezhi storage dam in Zambia was performed with the aid of analyses of the environmental isotopes 18O and D at the Laboratory of Mass Spectrometry, Division of Hydrology at the University of Uppsala. After the reservoir was constructed and filled a number of springs with warm water emerged in an area downstream from the dam. Analyses of 18O indicated the existence of a lower groundwater aquifer different in origin to the upper groundwater. A continued programme to study the variation of 18O contents at selected water-sampling points has shown that there is no rapid hydraulic connection between the recent water in the reservoir and the artesian water in the bedrock downstream from the dam. Chemical investigations and 14C age dating confirmed the conclusions drawn from the 18O analysis that the artesian water originated from an ancient epoch. Calculations on calcite saturation and original temperatures of the artesian water suggest the existence of well-separated groundwater aquifers in the area. (author)

  16. Climate variability and change or multiple stressors? Farmer perceptions regarding threats to livelihoods in Zimbabwe and Zambia.

    Mubaya, Chipo Plaxedes; Njuki, Jemimah; Mutsvangwa, Eness Paidamoyo; Mugabe, Francis Temba; Nanja, Durton

    2012-07-15

    Climate variability is set to increase, characterised by extreme conditions in Africa. Southern Africa will likely get drier and experience more extreme weather conditions, particularly droughts and floods. However, while climate risks are acknowledged to be a serious threat to smallholder farmers' livelihoods, these risks do not exist in isolation, but rather, compound a multiplicity of stressors. It was important for this study to understand farmer perceptions regarding the role of climate risks within a complex and multifarious set of risks to farmers' livelihoods. This study used both qualitative and quantitative methods to investigate farmers' perceptions regarding threats to livelihoods in southern Zambia and south-western Zimbabwe. While farmers report changes in local climatic conditions consistent with climate variability, there is a problem in assigning contribution of climate variability and other factors to observed negative impacts on the agricultural and socio-economic system. Furthermore, while there is a multiplicity of stressors that confront farmers, climate variability remains the most critical and exacerbate livelihood insecurity for those farmers with higher levels of vulnerability to these stressors. PMID:22425874

  17. To What did They Consent? Understanding Consent Among Low Literacy Participants in a Microbicide Feasibility Study in Mazabuka, Zambia.

    Munalula-Nkandu, Esther; Ndebele, Paul; Siziya, Seter; Munthali, J C

    2015-12-01

    We conducted a study to review the consenting process in a vaginal microbicide feasibility study conducted in Mazabuka, Zambia. Participants were drawn from those participating in the microbicide study. A questionnaire and focus group discussion were used to collect information on participants' understanding of study aims, risks and benefits. Altogether, 200 participants took part in this study. The results of the study showed that while all participants signed or endorsed their thumbprints to the consent forms, full informed consent was not attained from most of the participants since 77% (n = 154) of the participants had numerous questions about the study and 34% (n = 68) did not know who to get in touch with concerning the study. Study objectives were not fully understood by over 61% of the participants. Sixty four percent of the participants were not sure of the risks of taking part in the microbicide study. A significant number thought the study was all about determining their HIV status. Some participants were concerned that their partners were not on the trial as they were convinced that being on the study meant that that they had a lifetime protection from HIV infection. The process of obtaining consent was inadequate as various phases of the study were not fully understood. We recommend the need for researchers to reinforce the consenting process in all studies and more so when studies are conducted in low literacy populations. PMID:25132499

  18. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia.

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C

    2016-01-01

    Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots) are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond.) Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach.) Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd.) Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants. PMID:27069489

  19. Strategies for seed system development in sub-Saharan Africa: a study of Kenya, Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe

    Robert Tripp

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed systems in Kenya, Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe were studied jointly by ODI, ICRISAT, and national researchers. The study examined various aspects - the nature of seed demand, particularly for new varieties; local-level seed provision and farmer-to-farmer diffusion; the commercial seed sector; community level projects; emergency seed distribution programs; seed policy and regulatory framework; and the role of public-sector research. The study also provides specific recommendations to develop the seed sector. For example, public research programs must invest more heavily in variety promotion and production of breeder and foundation seed. Seed certification should be made voluntary, and variety registration simplified. Emergency seed programs should pay greater attention to variety adaptation and seed quality; and should support local seed enterprises, not compete with them. Seed companies should strengthen their retail networks. NGO seed projects should consider marketing and sustainability issues more carefully. Donor-funded projects, which currently operate in isolation from each other, must be integrated into a coherent, long-term, nationally-directed seed strategy.

  20. Ethnobotanical Study of Plants Used in the Management of HIV/AIDS-Related Diseases in Livingstone, Southern Province, Zambia

    Kazhila C. Chinsembu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection. Eighteen plants, namely, Achyranthes aspera L., Lannea discolor (Sond. Engl., Hyphaene petersiana Klotzsch ex Mart., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Capparis tomentosa Lam., Cleome hirta Oliv., Garcinia livingstonei T. Anderson, Euclea divinorum Hiern, Bridelia cathartica G. Bertol., Acacia nilotica Delile, Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach. Milne-Redh., Dichrostachys cinerea (L. Wight and Arn., Abrus precatorius L., Hoslundia opposita Vahl., Clerodendrum capitatum (Willd. Schumach., Ficus sycomorus L., Ximenia americana L., and Ziziphus mucronata Willd., were used to treat four or more disease conditions. About 31% of the plants in this study were administered as monotherapies. Multiuse medicinal plants may contain broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents. However, since widely used plants easily succumb to the threats of overharvesting, they need special protocols and guidelines for their genetic conservation. There is still need to confirm the antimicrobial efficacies, pharmacological parameters, cytotoxicity, and active chemical ingredients of the discovered plants.

  1. Engaging therapeutic citizenship and clientship: Untangling the reasons for therapeutic pacifism among people living with HIV in urban Zambia.

    Patterson, Amy S

    2016-10-01

    This article explores the reasons for therapeutic pacifism among people living with HIV (PLHIVs) in urban Zambia. It contributes to a growing ethnography on global health, biosociality, and patient-provider dynamics. Therapeutic citizenship is a biopolitical citizenship that includes claims and ethical projects that emerge from techniques to control and manage bodies. In some contexts, therapeutic citizenship has included activism and claims-making against local, national, and international power brokers. This article investigates therapeutic citizenship in the specific context of impoverished urban Zambian compounds, sites of food insecurity, unemployment, and political exclusion, as well as targets for donor, NGO, and faith-based organisation projects and PLHIV support group proliferation. The article utilises data from participant observations at two Lusaka AIDS clinics, interviews, and focused discussions with support groups of PLHIVs. It argues that PLHIVs continuously negotiate subjectivities related to kinship, clientship, religious belief, and political citizenship in processes that complicate therapeutic citizenship. Rather than fostering participation in PLHIV support groups or challenging 'politics as usual' through activist claims-making to institutions of biopower, these processes lead to therapeutic pacifism. PMID:26256509

  2. Moorhead district heating, phase 2

    Sundberg, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of developing a demonstration cogeneration hot water district heating system was studied. The district heating system would use coal and cogenerated heat from the Moorhead power plant to heat the water that would be distributed through underground pipes to customers or their space and domestic water heating needs, serving a substantial portion of the commercial and institutional loads as well as single and multiple family residences near the distribution lines. The technical feasibility effort considered the distribution network, retrofit of the power plant, and conversion of heating systems in customers' buildings to use hot water from the system. The system would be developed over six years. The economic analysis consisted of a market assessment and development of business plans for construction and operation of the system. Rate design methodology, institutional issues, development risk, and the proposal for implementation are discussed.

  3. Geothermal district piping - A primer

    Rafferty, K.

    1989-11-01

    Transmission and distribution piping constitutes approximately 40 -60% of the capital costs of typical geothermal district heating systems. Selections of economical piping suitable for the fluid chemistry is critical. Presently, most piping (56%) in geothermal systems is of asbestos cement construction. Some fiberglass (19%) and steel (19%) is also in use. Identification of an economical material to replace asbestos cement is important to future project development. By providing information on relative costs, purchase considerations, existing material performance and new products, this report seeks to provide a background of information to the potential pipe purchaser. A brief discussion of the use of uninsulated piping in geothermal district heating systems is also provided. 5 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Macrofungi of Kemaliye district (Erzincan)

    ALLI, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    The material of this study comprises macrofungi specimens collected from different localities in Kemaliye district (Erzincan, Turkey) in 2006 and 2007. As a result of field and laboratory studies, 106 taxa under 35 families belonging to the classes Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes are described: 3 of them, namely Psathyrella panaeoloides (Maire) Arnolds, Galerina stylifera var. stylifera (G.F.Atk.) A.H.Sm. & Singer, and Inocybe amblyspora Kühner, are new records for Turkey.

  5. Voting Districts and Minority Representation

    Kousser, J. Morgan

    1999-01-01

    In 1872, in the first congressional reapportionment after African-Americans won the right to vote everywhere in the country, white North Carolina Democrats packed blacks into a strangely-shaped, over-populated, predominantly black congressional district in a racially discriminatory and partisan effort to minimize the influence of black Republican voters. Neither this nor any of the myriad of other nineteenth century anti-black racial gerrymanders was challenged in court. 120 ye...

  6. District heating using wood briquettes

    A new district heating plant in Drammen, Norway, uses wood briquettes as the energy source. This reduces the emission of carbon dioxide in Drammen by 16 000 tonnes per year. The briquettes are made of compressed wood from waste chips from forestry and bark and other waste from sawmills and wood processing. The plant is expected to use 10 000 tonnes of briquettes per year, which corresponds to 4 780 cubic metres of oil. Burning the briquettes produces less than one percent ash

  7. Nuclear power for district heating

    Current district heating trends are towards an increasing use of electricity. This report concerns the evaluation of an alternative means of energy supply - the direct use of thermal energy from CANDU nuclear stations. The energy would be transmitted via a hot fluid in a pipeline over distances of up to 40 km. Advantages of this approach include a high utilization of primary energy, with a consequent reduction in installed capacity, and load flattening due to inherent energy storage capacity and transport delays. Disadvantages include the low load factors for district heating, the high cost of the distribution systems and the necessity for large-scale operation for economic viability. This requirement for large-scale operation from the beginning could cause difficulty in the implementation of the first system. Various approaches have been analysed and costed for a specific application - the supply of energy to a district heating load centre in Toronto from the location of the Pickering reactor station about 40 km away. (author)

  8. Can the biofuel crop, Jatropha curcas, be used as a locally-grown botanical pesticide?:a lab and field study in Zambia

    Wilson, Ken; Maloney, Kyran; Zulu, Donald; Mutamba, Emmanuel; Vermeylen, Saskia

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is grown as a biofuel crop in the tropics, and in many parts of Africa it also has a number of domestic uses, e.g. it is frequently grown as a hedge. The collapse of the biofuels market in Zambia has inspired a search for alternative uses for this plant. Previous laboratory studies suggested that Jatropha exhibits a range of beneficial properties, including pesticidal properties. In this paper, we report a series of studies aimed at testing whether formulations of Jatropha pow...

  9. Health Inequities, Environmental Insecurity and the Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case Study of Zambia

    Ben Chirwa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs are a series of 8 goals and 18 targets aimed at ending extreme poverty by 2015, and there are 48 quantifiable indicators for monitoring the process. Most of the MDGs are health or health-related goals. Though the MDGs might sound ambitious, it is imperative that the world, and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, wake up to the persistent and unacceptably high rates of extreme poverty that populations live in, and find lasting solutions to age-old problems. Extreme poverty is a cause and consequence of low income, food insecurity and hunger, education and gender inequities, high disease burden, environmental degradation, insecure shelter, and lack of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. It is also directly linked to unsound governance and inequitable distribution of public wealth. While many regions in the world will strive to attain the MDGs by 2015, most of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa, with major human development challenges associated with socio-economic disparities, will not. Zambia’s MDG progress reports of 2003 and 2005 show that despite laudable political commitment and some advances made towards achieving universal primary education, gender equality, improvement of child health and management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, it is not likely that Zambia will achieve even half of the goals. Zambia’s systems have been weakened by high disease burden and excess mortality, natural and man-made environmental threats and some negative effects of globalization such as huge external debt, low world prices for commodities and the human resource “brain drain”, among others. Urgent action must follow political will, and some tried and tested strategies or “quick wins” that have been proven to produce high positive impact in the short term, need to be rapidly embarked upon by Zambia and other countries in sub

  10. Thermodynamic calculation of a district energy cycle

    This paper presents a calculation model for a nuclear district energy circuit. Such a circuit means the combination of a steam reforming plant with heat supply from a high-temperature nuclear reactor and a methanation plant with heat production for district heating or electricity production. The model comprises thermodynamic calculations for the endothermic methane reforming reaction as well as the exothermic CO-hydrogenation in adiabatic reactors and allows the optimization of the district energy circuit under consideration. (orig.)

  11. School Districts, washoe county school district, Published in 2006, Washoe County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This School Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as 'washoe county school district'....

  12. Election Districts and Precincts, City Council districts, Published in 2005, Freelance.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Election Districts and Precincts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2005. It is described as 'City Council districts'....

  13. Special Taxing Districts, TaxDistricts2004, Published in 2004, Daggett County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Special Taxing Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2004. It is described as 'TaxDistricts2004'. Data by this publisher...

  14. Cyclone hazard proneness of districts of India

    M Mohapatra

    2015-04-01

    Hazards associated with tropical cyclones (TCs) are long-duration rotatory high velocity winds, very heavy rain, and storm tide. India has a coastline of about 7516 km of which 5400 km is along the mainland. The entire coast is affected by cyclones with varying frequency and intensity. Thus classification of TC hazard proneness of the coastal districts is very essential for planning and preparedness aspects of management of TCs. So, an attempt has been made to classify TC hazard proneness of districts by adopting a hazard criteria based on frequency and intensity of cyclone, wind strength, probable maximum precipitation, and probable maximum storm surge. Ninety-six districts including 72 districts touching the coast and 24 districts not touching the coast, but lying within 100 km from the coast have been classified based on their proneness. Out of 96 districts, 12 are very highly prone, 41 are highly prone, 30 are moderately prone, and the remaining 13 districts are less prone. This classification of coastal districts based on hazard may be considered for all the required purposes including coastal zone management and planning. However, the vulnerability of the place has not been taken into consideration. Therefore, composite cyclone risk of a district, which is the product of hazard and vulnerability, needs to be assessed separately through a detailed study.

  15. AGRICULTURAL LANDUSE PATTERN IN JALNA DISTRICT

    Sakhare Shivkanya Nagnath

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is a main primary activity across world. It is also a prime source of food. Agricultural productivity plays an important role in the development of agriculture sector. Agriculture productivity depends upon the landuse pattern. Most of developed countries has systematic and progressive pattern of agricultural landuse. Considering this importance, researcher has tried to assess the agricultural landuse pattern in Jalna district. Crop combination regions in Jalna district for year 198085 to 2000-05. This is normal year for agricultural phenomenon in this district. The crop data has been computed with the help of wevears technique of crop combination. Jalna district occupies central part of Maharastra state.

  16. Rehabilitation of district heating networks

    Ottosson, Peter [AaF-Energikonsult Syd AB (Sweden)

    1996-11-01

    Often the choice is between reparation or exchange of a damaged section of the network. If the exchange is based on the wrong assumptions, large sections of undamaged pipelines could be removed. Most important for the district heating company is to decide which strategy to use for the future exchange of the pipelines. Whichever strategy used, it has to based on an assessment of the network and/or assumptions based on that assessment. The question if it is possible extend the life span of the pipelines arises. What is the most economical choice, the exchange or the renovation. (au)

  17. Use of task-shifting to rapidly scale-up HIV treatment services: experiences from Lusaka, Zambia

    Chi Harmony F

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The World Health Organization advocates task-shifting, the process of delegating clinical care functions from more specialized to less specialized health workers, as a strategy to achieve the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. However, there is a dearth of literature describing task shifting in sub-Saharan Africa, where services for antiretroviral therapy (ART have scaled up rapidly in the face of generalized human resource crises. As part of ART services expansion in Lusaka, Zambia, we implemented a comprehensive task-shifting program among existing health providers and community-based workers. Training begins with didactic sessions targeting specialized skill sets. This is followed by an intensive period of practical mentorship, where providers are paired with trainers before working independently. We provide on-going quality assessment using key indicators of clinical care quality at each site. Program performance is reviewed with clinic-based staff quarterly. When problems are identified, clinic staff members design and implement specific interventions to address targeted areas. From 2005 to 2007, we trained 516 health providers in adult HIV treatment; 270 in pediatric HIV treatment; 341 in adherence counseling; 91 in a specialty nurse "triage" course, and 93 in an intensive clinical mentorship program. On-going quality assessment demonstrated improvement across clinical care quality indicators, despite rapidly growing patient volumes. Our task-shifting strategy was designed to address current health care worker needs and to sustain ART scale-up activities. While this approach has been successful, long-term solutions to the human resource crisis are also urgently needed to expand the number of providers and to slow staff migration out of the region.

  18. A cluster randomized trial of routine HIV-1 viral load monitoring in Zambia: study design, implementation, and baseline cohort characteristics.

    John R Koethe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The benefit of routine HIV-1 viral load (VL monitoring of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART in resource-constrained settings is uncertain because of the high costs associated with the test and the limited treatment options. We designed a cluster randomized controlled trial to compare the use of routine VL testing at ART-initiation and at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months, versus our local standard of care (which uses immunological and clinical criteria to diagnose treatment failure, with discretionary VL testing when the two do not agree. METHODOLOGY: Dedicated study personnel were integrated into public-sector ART clinics. We collected participant information in a dedicated research database. Twelve ART clinics in Lusaka, Zambia constituted the units of randomization. Study clinics were stratified into pairs according to matching criteria (historical mortality rate, size, and duration of operation to limit the effect of clustering, and independently randomized to the intervention and control arms. The study was powered to detect a 36% reduction in mortality at 18 months. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From December 2006 to May 2008, we completed enrollment of 1973 participants. Measured baseline characteristics did not differ significantly between the study arms. Enrollment was staggered by clinic pair and truncated at two matched sites. CONCLUSIONS: A large clinical trial of routing VL monitoring was successfully implemented in a dynamic and rapidly growing national ART program. Close collaboration with local health authorities and adequate reserve staff were critical to success. Randomized controlled trials such as this will likely prove valuable in determining long-term outcomes in resource-constrained settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00929604.

  19. Risk factors for pre-treatment mortality among HIV-infected children in rural Zambia: a cohort study.

    Catherine G Sutcliffe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa enter care at a late stage of disease. As preparation of the child and family for antiretroviral therapy (ART can take several clinic visits, some children die prior to ART initiation. This study was undertaken to determine mortality rates and clinical predictors of mortality during the period prior to ART initiation. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of HIV-infected treatment-naïve children was conducted between September 2007 and September 2010 at the HIV clinic at Macha Hospital in rural Southern Province, Zambia. HIV-infected children younger than 16 years of age who were treatment-naïve at study enrollment were eligible for analysis. Mortality rates prior to ART initiation were calculated and risk factors for mortality were evaluated. RESULTS: 351 children were included in the study, of whom 210 (59.8% were eligible for ART at study enrollment. Among children ineligible for ART at enrollment, 6 children died (mortality rate: 0.33; 95% CI:0.15, 0.74. Among children eligible at enrollment, 21 children died before initiation of ART and their mortality rate (2.73 per 100 person-years; 95% CI:1.78, 4.18 was significantly higher than among children ineligible for ART (incidence rate ratio: 8.20; 95% CI:3.20, 24.83. In both groups, mortality was highest in the first three months of follow-up. Factors associated with mortality included younger age, anemia and lower weight-for-age z-score at study enrollment. CONCLUSIONS: These results underscore the need to increase efforts to identify HIV-infected children at an earlier age and stage of disease progression so they can enroll in HIV care and treatment programs prior to becoming eligible for ART and these deaths can be prevented.

  20. Reasons for Missing Antiretroviral Therapy: Results from a Multi-Country Study in Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia.

    Olivier Koole

    Full Text Available To identify the reasons patients miss taking their antiretroviral therapy (ART and the proportion who miss their ART because of symptoms; and to explore the association between symptoms and incomplete adherence.Secondary analysis of data collected during a cross-sectional study that examined ART adherence among adults from 18 purposefully selected sites in Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. We interviewed 250 systematically selected patients per facility (≥ 18 years on reasons for missing ART and symptoms they had experienced (using the HIV Symptom Index. We abstracted clinical data from the patients' medical, pharmacy, and laboratory records. Incomplete adherence was defined as having missed ART for at least 48 consecutive hours during the past 3 months.Twenty-nine percent of participants reported at least one reason for having ever missed ART (1278/4425. The most frequent reason was simply forgetting (681/1278 or 53%, followed by ART-related hunger or not having enough food (30%, and symptoms (12%. The median number of symptoms reported by participants was 4 (IQR: 2-7. Every additional symptom increased the odds of incomplete adherence by 12% (OR: 1.1, 95% CI: 1.1-1.2. Female participants and participants initiated on a regimen containing stavudine were more likely to report greater numbers of symptoms.Symptoms were a common reason for missing ART, together with simply forgetting and food insecurity. A combination of ART regimens with fewer side effects, use of mobile phone text message reminders, and integration of food supplementation and livelihood programmes into HIV programmes, have the potential to decrease missed ART and hence to improve adherence and the outcomes of ART programmes.