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Intestinal helminths and protozoa in children in pre-schools in Kafue district, Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most widespread of human infections in developing countries, and children are the most vulnerable. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia, as well as prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths in children attending pre-school or day-care centres in Kafue District, Zambia. Single stool samples were collected from 403 children from 10 pre-schools and Were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears to identify and quantify helminths. A commercial immunofluorescence kit was used to identify Cryptosporidium- and Giardia-positive samples. The overall prevalence of helminth infection was 17.9%. Ascaris lumbricoides was found in 12.0%, hookworm in 8.3%, Taenia spp. in 0.9%, Hymenolepis nano in 0.6% and Schistosoma mansoni in 0.3%. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia was 28.0 and 29.0%, respectively, with more girls infected with Giardia (33.8%) than boys (22.7%) (P = 0.02). Significant differences in infections with A. lumbricoides and Cryptosporidium were observed between the various pre-schools (P <0.001). These findings indicate that intestinal parasites are prevalent in children enrolled in pre-schools in Zambia. Future studies should explore local factors associated with transmission of these infections, and consequently provide the necessary health education to parents and teachers. Crown Copyright (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved.

Enemark, Heidi L.

2010-01-01

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Floodwaters Renew Zambia's Kafue Wetland  

Science.gov (United States)

Not all floods are unwanted. Heavy rainfall in southern Africa between December 2003 and April 2004 provided central Zambia with floodwaters needed to support the diverse uses of water within the Kafue Flats area. The Kafue Flats are home to about one million people and provide a rich inland fishery, habitat for an array of unique wildlife, and the means for hydroelectricity production. The Flats falls between two dams: Upstream to the west (not visible here) is the Izhi-tezhi, and downstream (middle right of the images) is the Kafue Gorge dam. Since the construction of these dams, the flooded area has been reduced and the timing and intensity of the inundation has changed. During June 2004 an agreement was made with the hydroelectricity company to restore water releases from the dams according to a more natural flooding regime. These images from NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) illustrate surface changes to the wetlands and other surfaces in central Zambia resulting from an unusually lengthy wet season. The Kafue Flats appear relatively dry on July 19, 2003 (upper images), with the Kafue River visible as a slender dark line that snakes from east to west on its way to join the Zambezi (visible in the lower right-hand corner). On July 21, 2004 (lower images), well into the dry season, much of the 6,500-square kilometer area of the Kafue Flats remains inundated. To the east of the Kafue Flats is Lusaka, the Zambian capital, visible as a pale area in the middle right of the picture, north of the river. In the upper portions of these images is the prominent roundish shape of the Lukanga Swamp, another important wetland. The images along the left are natural-color views from MISR's nadir camera, and the images along the right are angular composites in which red band data from MISR's 46o forward, nadir, and 46o backward viewing cameras is displayed as red, green and blue, respectively. In order to preserve brightness variations among the various cameras, the data from each camera were processed identically. Here, color changes indicate surface texture, and are influenced by terrain, vegetation structure, soil type and soil moisture content. Wet surfaces or areas with standing water appear blue in this display because sun glitter makes smooth, wet surfaces look brighter at the backward camera's view angle. Mostly the landscape appears somewhat purple, indicating that most of the surfaces scatter sunlight in both backward and forward directions. Areas that appear with a slight greenish hue can indicate sparce vegetation, since the nadir camera is more likely to sight the gaps between the trees or shrubs, and since vegetation is darker (in the red band) than the underlying soil surface. Areas which preferentially exhibit a red or pink hue correspond with wetland vegetation. The plateau of the Kafue National Park, to the west of Lukanga Swamp, appears brighter in 2004 compared with 2003, which indicates weaker absorption at the red band. Overall, the 2004 image exhibits a subtle blue hue (preference for forward-scattering) compared with 2003, which indicates overall surface changes that may be a result of enhanced surface wetness. The Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82o north and 82o south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 19072 and 24421. The panels cover an area of 235 kilometers x 239 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 100 to 103 within World Reference System-2 path 172. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2004-01-01

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Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic animals in peri-urban communities of Kafue district, Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important parasites infecting a wide range of domestic animals worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites in different domestic animals living in close contact with humans within rural/semiurban communities in Kafue district in Zambia. A single faecal sample per animal was collected from pigs, goats, dogs, ducks, chickens and pigeons and analysed by Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia immunofluorescence antibody assay for the simultaneous detection of these parasites. The faecal consistency was noted and scored as non-diarrhoeic or diarrhoeic. A total of 236 samples were collected. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in pigs (11.5%, 17/148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), ducks (10.0%; 3/30) and chickens (14.3%; 2/14) while Giardia cysts were detected in pigs (8.1%; 12/148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), dogs (25.0%; 5/20) and ducks (6.7%; 2/30). Diarrhoea was not associated with either infection. Age was also not associated with either infection except in dogs where Giardia infection was only detected in animals aged less than six months (p=0.009). It is concluded from this study that Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites are prevalent among domestic animals reared within communities in Kafue district thereby constituting a potential source for zoonotic infections.

Enemark, Heidi L.

2013-01-01

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A Brief History of Kafue National Park, Zambia.  

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Full Text Available This paper presents the first documentation of the history of Zambia's oldest and largest national park: Kafue National Park. The movement of people out of the park is systematically presented. Furthermore, access and resource use and exploitation rights granted to people who lived inside the park are summarised. The paper looks at park administration, wildlife management, tourism and briefly presents areas for future studies.

H.K. Mwima

2001-07-01

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Exploring the hydrology and biogeochemistry of the dam-impacted Kafue River and Kafue Flats (Zambia)  

Science.gov (United States)

Wetland processes are strongly influenced by hydrologic factors such as precipitation, surface runoff, and flooding dynamics. Anthropogenic disturbances to flooding regimes can thus substantially alter wetland habitat and biogeochemistry. The Kafue Flats, a large floodplain (?6500 km 2) along the Kafue River in South-Central Zambia, is a wetland impacted by upstream and downstream hydropower dams. The main purpose of this study was to develop a water budget for the Kafue Flats under current conditions, quantify nutrient and organic carbon concentrations in the river, and use the combined information to estimate biogeochemical budgets. A water balance was developed for the Kafue Flats at a subcatchment scale for the years 2002-2009 using daily hydrological data. In addition, bi-monthly flow and chemical measurements were performed over 1 year (May 2008-May 2009) at multiple stations. Evapotranspiration was an important process in the Flats, accounting for up to 49% of total hydrologic outputs in some subcatchments. Direct precipitation contributes substantial to water inputs to the flats: runoff from the upstream catchment accounted for 45% of water inputs to the Kafue Flats, while the remaining 55% came from direct precipitation to the Kafue Flats from its subcatchment. Estimates from the wet season suggest that ?75% of the water flowing in the river’s main channel as it exits the Flats spent some time within the highly productive floodplain. This exchange between the floodplain and the river appeared to play an important role in nutrient and carbon export to the river’s main channel and out of the wetland. The floodplain was a net source of phosphate (220 t/year), total nitrogen (1300 t N/year, of which ?90% was organic nitrogen) and total organic carbon (50,000 t C/year) to downstream systems. Thus, when considering dam impacts and altered flooding dynamics in this system, potential changes to carbon and nutrient cycling also need to be taken in to consideration, which may have implications for nutrient availability within the Kafue Flats and nutrient export to downstream systems.

Wamulume, J.; Landert, J.; Zurbrügg, R.; Nyambe, I.; Wehrli, B.; Senn, D. B.

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Modeling flooding patterns in the Kafue Flats, Zambia  

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The Kafue Flats is one of the most important wetlands in Zambia. In the early 70's the Kafue Gorge reservoir was built mainly for hydropower production not far downstream the outlet of the Kafue Flats. Only a few years later a dam was constructed upstream the Flats to extend the limited storage of Kafue Gorge. Besides its ecological value the Kafue Flats are also important economically. Around 700 000 people are dependent mainly on fisheries and flood recession agriculture. An increasing number of large irrigation schemes are drawing water from the Kafue river along the wetland. Floodplains in semi-arid and arid areas are often the only source of water supply available throughout the year. They provide numerous economical and ecological services of tremendous value. The ecological uniqueness of many wetlands results largely from a strong seasonality of flooding. As the pressure on water resources grows these natural seasonal patterns are often altered due to water abstractions or the construction of dams. Many efforts have been taken to restore more natural flooding patterns. To assess both, the effects of altered flow regimes and of restoration efforts, a hydrological model reproducing the dynamics of the flooding is required. However, in many cases hydrological modeling of these floodplains is often hampered by the poor availability of data. Data gathering is also limited by the large extent and the limited accessibility of the wetlands. Therefore the application of remote sensing techniques is an attractive approach. The model presented in this study is based on a relatively simple approach which was initially designed for the Okavango Delta. The model is based on the widely used software MODFLOW. However, due to a different environment and technical advances of the software there are some significant differences between the Okavango Delta model and the model presented hereafter. The model is based on MODFLOW 2005 and basically consists of two layers: a subsurface layer, representing the saturated flow in the groundwater, and a surface water layer, representing the flow on the flooded surface. In between these two layers the unsaturated zone is modeled using the kinematic wave approach of the MODFLOW UZF package. To couple the surface water layer and the UZF module, an additional module was developed in order to route excess infiltration water to either the surface layer or a river. Flow in the main river channel of the Kafue is implemented using the stream flow package. Model outputs are calculated on a daily basis. Input data for the model are derived mostly from globally available datasets. Since the purpose of the model is to predict the flooding patterns as accurate as possible, model parameters have to be calibrated against the measured extent of flooding. Images from the ENVISAT ASAR instrument are used to detect flooding patterns. These data provide a good compromise between spatial resolution, spatial coverage and temporal coverage. As additional calibration data measured water levels are available. The calibration is carried out using PEST. This model predictions can serve as a base to provide information on future effects of a changing inflow regime on the ecology as well as on the socio-economic system of the Kafue Flats.

Meier, Philipp; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

2010-05-01

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Taenia spp. infections in wildlife in the Bangweulu and Kafue flood plains ecosystems of Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia spp. have an indirect life cycle, cycling between a definitive and an intermediate host with zoonotic species causing public health problems in many developing countries. During the course of 2 separate surveys in Zambia (2004 and 2009), the presence of Taenia larval stages (cysticerci) was examined in Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis), Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithermani) and other wildlife species from the Kafue and Bangweulu flood plains. Examinations involved post-mortem inspection and serum specific antigen detection. The recovered cysts from seven carcasses were characterised using PCR and DNA sequence analysis. The overall proportion of infection in wildlife on post-mortem examination was 19.0% (95% CI: 9.1-29.0%). The proportion of infected wildlife based on post-mortem examinations in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 28.6% (95% CI: 13.3-43.9%), while the seroprevalence was estimated at 25.0% (95% CI: 2.9-47.1%). The seroprevalence for cattle in the Kafue flood plains was estimated at 61.5% (95% CI: 42.0-81.0%) while that of Kafue lechwe in the same ecosystem was estimated at 66.6% (95% CI: 45.6-85.7%). Infection rates were higher in Kafue lechwe than in Black lechwe suggesting differences in the exposure patterns. The sequencing results indicated that none of the recovered cysts were either Taenia solium or Taenia saginata. We therefore conclude they most likely belong to a less studied (wildlife) Taenia species that requires further characterisation. PMID:25090953

Muma, J B; Gabriël, S; Munyeme, M; Munang'andu, H M; Victor, B; Dorny, P; Nalubamba, K S; Siamudaala, V; Mwape, K E

2014-09-15

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Hepatic and renal concentrations of copper and other trace elements in hippopotami ( Hippopotamus amphibius L.) living in and adjacent to the Kafue and Luangwa Rivers in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hepatic and renal concentrations of the elements arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium and zinc were studied in samples collected from hippopotami from the Kafue River in the Kafue National Park and the Luangwa River in the Southern Luangwa National Park in Zambia. There were no significant differences between trace element concentrations in the tissues of the hippopotami taken in the Kafue River and the Luangwa River. The concentrations of copper an...

Mwase, M.; Almli, B.; Sivertsen, T.; Musonda, M. M.; Flaoyen, A.

2002-01-01

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Remote Sensing of Aquatic Vegetation Coverage in the Kafue River, Zambia and Comparison to Climatic Variables  

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The Kafue River is the longest river in Zambia and is a major tributary of the Zambezi River. It is a vital source of fish, transportation, drinking water, and hydropower for much of Zambia's population, over half of whom live in the Kafue River basin. Like many important water bodies in developing countries the Kafue and its ecosystems face pollution from industrial, mining, agricultural, and domestic/sewage discharge. The Kafue River forms a wide and shallow wetland (the Kafue Flats) during the rainy season (Nov. - Apr.) which serves as habitat for diverse groups of birds and mammals. In recent years the unprecedented emergence of invasive aquatic vegetation such as the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and Salvinia molesta have choked the river, degrading its ability to provide adequate habitat to promote biodiversity, ecosystem services, and hydropower. In addition, these plants provide additional habitat for mosquitoes (vectors for malaria) and aquatic snails (vectors of schistosomiasis). Nutrient-rich effluents are widely believed to contribute to the proliferation and explosive growth of this floating aquatic vegetation. The general methods for managing these aquatic weeds have included mechanical and physical removal, herbicides, and bio-control agents which have had very little impact. However, as in neighboring Lake Victoria, total weed coverage has fluctuated dramatically from year to year making evaluation of the efficacy of management programs difficult. The objectives of this study were to (1) generate the first record of aquatic plant coverage for a section of the Kafue River which is immediately downstream of a sugar plantation (a major source of nitrogen and phosphorus to the river) and (2) determine if plant coverage is correlated with any major climatic (ENSO, temperature, rainfall) or management (introduction of bio-control agents) indices. We utilized remote sensing techniques in conjunction with Landsat 4-5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM imagery for the time range 1990 to 2013 to identify the extent of aquatic vegetation in the dry season for all years available within the time range using spectral data. We derived rainfall for the time period from TRMM data and temperature from MODIS LST data. Overall weed coverage tended to increase from 1990 to 2013. There was no significant correlation between rainfall (as measured by TRMM) and water hyacinth coverage. However there was a significant positive correlation between minimum October temperatures (the warmest month of the year) and weed coverage (exponential fit, R2 = 0.81). There was no indication that the release of bio-control agents reduced weed coverage. Water hyacinth is known to be sensitive to temperature, with cooler temperatures retarding growth. In the Kafue River, aquatic plant coverage varies mainly with October low temperatures indicating an overall control of temperature on weed coverage. Increasing low temperatures in the region would be expected to exacerbate problems associated with aquatic weeds.

Mischler, J. A.; Abdalati, W.; Hussein, K.; Townsend, A. R.

2013-12-01

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Heavy Metal Contaminated Water, Soils and Crops in Peri Urban Wastewater Irrigation Farming in Mufulira and Kafue Towns in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Although research on peri urban arable farming had been conducted in Zambia, the concerns related to heavy metal contaminated wastewater use in crop farming in peri urban areas were inadequately tackled. The study investigated heavy metal contamination of water, soils and crops at two study sites in Zambia. The two study sites were New Farm Extension in Mufulira and Chilumba Gardens in Kafue. Heavy metals comprising chromium (Cr, cobalt (Co, copper (Cu, lead (Pb and nickel (Ni were investigated due to: (i their presence in wastewater used to irrigate crops which were found to be higher than acceptable limits; (ii their potential negative effects on human health when ingested in large quantities; (iii their implications on the livelihoods of people. Samples of water, soil and crops were collected and analysed for lead, copper, chromium, cobalt and nickel using the Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS. The data on heavy metals was analysed using mean, standard error and T-test. The results indicated that heavy metals were present in the water, soil and crops at the two study sites and exceeded acceptable limits. It can be argued that wastewater, soil and crops were contaminated with heavy metals at the two peri-urban areas in Zambia. The study highlighted the problem of heavy metal contaminated crops consumed by peri urban population. The information this study can be used in the planning and development of safe agricultural farming systems in peri urban areas in Zambia.

Evaristo Mwaba Kapungwe

2013-03-01

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Effects of river-floodplain exchange on water quality and nutrient export in the dam-impacted Kafue River (Zambia)  

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Biogeochemical processes in river-floodplain ecosystems are strongly influenced by hydrology and, in particular, river-floodplain exchange. In tropical systems, where the hydrology is dominated by distinct dry and rainy seasons, annual flood waters trigger organic matter mineralization within and nutrient export from the dried and rewetted floodplain, and the magnitude of hydrological exchange between a river and its floodplain has the potential to substantially influence nutrient and carbon exports and water quality in the river. In this study we examined the extent and the effects of hydrological river-floodplain exchange in the Kafue River and its floodplain, the Kafue Flats, in Zambia. The Kafue Flats is a 7000 km2 seasonal wetland whose hydrological regime has been impacted by upstream and downstream large dams constructed in the 1970s, leading to changes in the flooding pattern in this high-biodiversity ecosystem. Field campaigns, carried out during flood recession (May 2008, 2009, 2010) and covering a ~400 km river stretch, revealed a steep decline in dissolved oxygen from 6 mg/L to 1 mg/L over a ~20 km stretch of river beginning approximately 200 km downstream from the first dam, with low oxygen persisting for an additional 150 km downstream. To further explore this phenomenon discharge measurements (ADCP) were conducted in May 2009 and May 2010. River discharge decreased from ~600 m3/s at the upstream dam to 100 m3/s midway through the Kafue Flats, and increased to >800 m3/s towards the end of the floodplain (400 km downstream). River cross section data indicate that the dramatic decrease in discharge occured primarily because of variations in channel area and channel carrying capacity, with channel constrictions forcing ~85% of the discharge out of the river channel and into the floodplain. Using specific conductivity and ?18O-H2O as tracers for floodplain water, we estimate that the downstream increases in flow occur through lateral inflows of receding floodplain waters, induced by an expansion of the river channel, and that 80% of the downstream flow came from the floodplain. Model calculations indicate that intense exchange between river and floodplain and the introduction of low-oxygen floodplain water into the river was the primary cause of the low dissolved oxygen levels observed in the river during flood recession in May 2008-2010. This exchange also appears to play an important role in nutrient and carbon export, with the floodplain acting as a net source of phosphate (220 tons/yr), total nitrogen (1300 tons/yr, of which ~90% was organic nitrogen) and total organic carbon (50,000 tons/yr) to downstream systems.

Zurbrugg, R.; Wamulume, J.; Blank, N.; Nyambe, I.; Wehrli, B.; Senn, D. B.

2010-12-01

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Tuberculosis in Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis and in a bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus on a game ranch in Central Province, Zambia : case report  

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Full Text Available Mycobacteriosis was diagnosed for the first time outside a national park in free-ranging wild animals on a game ranch in Zambia. A Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis was found dead with tuberculous lesions on a ranch near Lusaka. Acid-fast bacilli were found in the affected organs. Mycobacteria were isolated from these tissues. A bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus was found dead on the same ranch with multiple superficial abscesses in the neck region, extensive granulomatous lesions in the lung, the bronchial and mediastinal lymph nodes and several nodular lesions in the spleen. Few acid-fast bacilli were found in the exudate from the abscesses and lesions in the affected organs. Histologically the lesions resembled those of tuberculosis, but mycobacteria could not be isolated. In addition, 1 Kafue lechwe among 37 wild ungulates of 13 species shot on the ranch showed typical tuberculous lesions in the lungs, but the diagnosis was not confirmed by bacterial isolation. The role of the Kafue lechwe as maintenance host for tuberculosis as well as in the possible spread of this disease to other wildlife are discussed.

U. Zieger

2012-07-01

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The Nexus between Bovine Tuberculosis and Fasciolosis Infections in Cattle of the Kafue Basin Ecosystem in Zambia: Implications on Abattoir Surveillance  

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Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and fasciolosis are important but neglected diseases that result in chronic infections in cattle. However, in Zambia, these diseases are mainly diagnosed at abattoirs during routine meat inspection. Albeit the coinfection status, these diseases have been reported as nothing more than normal separate findings without an explanatory phenomena. Forthwith, we formulated this study to assess the possible association of the two diseases in a known high prevalence area on the Kafue basin ecosystem. Of the 1,680 animals screened, 600 (35.7%; 95% CI 33.4%–38%) and 124 (7.4%; 95% CI 6.1%–8.6%) had fasciolosis and tuberculous lesions; respectively, whilst 72 had both fasciola and tuberculous lesions representing 12% (95% CI 9.4%–14.6%) and 58.1% (95% CI; 49.3%–66.7%) of the total positives for fasciola and tuberculosis, respectively. Jaundice was seen in 304 animals, 18.1% (95% CI; 16.3%–19.9%) and was significantly correlated to fasciolosis (r = 0.59, P < 0.0001). A significant association (?2 = 76.2, df = 1, and P < 0.0001) was found between fasciolosis and tuberculous lesions. Simple logistic regression intimated fasciolosis as a strong predictor for tuberculous lesions with animals that had fasciola being five times more likely to have tuberculous lesions (odds ratio = 4.8, 95% CI: 3.3–7.0). This study indicates that transmission and spatial risk factors of communicable and noncommunicable diseases such as bTB and fasciolosis can be correlated in an ecosystem such as the Kafue flats. PMID:23213629

Munyeme, Musso; Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Nambota, Andrew; Muma, John Bwalya; Phiri, Andrew Malata; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo

2012-01-01

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Seasonal prevalence and incidence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis and associated diarrhoea in children attending pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Prevalence, incidence and seasonal variation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis were studied over a 12-month period in 100 children from four pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia. Questionnaire data and a single stool sample were collected monthly from each child. Samples were processed using a commercial kit (Meridian Diagnostics Inc., USA) and oo(cysts) visualised by immunofluorescence microscopy. Cryptosporidium was detected in 30.7% (241/786; 95% CI = 27.5-33.9) while G. duodenalis was detected in 29.0% (228/786; 95% CI = 25.8-32.2). A total of 86% experienced one or more episodes of cryptosporidiosis while 75% had giardiasis. Cumulative incidence per 100 children was 75.4 for Cryptosporidium and 49.0 for G. duodenalis. Both infections were significantly more common in the wet compared to the dry season (34.8%, 162/466 vs. 24.7%, 79/320, P = 0.003 and 35.2%, 164/466 vs. 20.0%, 64/320, P <0.001, respectively). Thus, risk ratios (RR) were 1.41 (95% CI = 1.13-1.77) and 1.76 (95% CI = 1.38-2.27) for Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively. Diarrhoea was significantly associated with cryptosporidiosis (RR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.03-1.47; P = 0.029) but not with giardiasis (RR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.91-1.53; P = 0.26). We conclude that gastro-intestinal protozoal infections are highly prevalent among children attending pre-school in peri-urban Zambia highlighting the need for further studies of risk factors.

Siwila, J.; Phiri, I.G.K.

2011-01-01

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Multiple Shocks and Risk Management Strategies among Rural Households in Zambia’s Mazabuka District  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to document the kinds of shocks or set-backs and events that commonly cause households to become poorer or destitute and the kinds of risk management strategies they utilize in order to prevent, mitigate or cope with the shocks. The study was conducted in Magobbo area which is located in Mazabuka District in Zambia’s Southern Province using qualitative research methods and techniques. The results show that the majority Magobbo households face multiple covariant and idiosyncratic shocks which have led to downward economic mobility or increased poverty. Some of the shocks include market access challenges caused by market liberalization policies; increased morbidity and mortality due to the HIV and AIDS pandemic and other diseases; adverse consequences of climate change and deterioration of the natural resources; adverse consequences of family breakdown caused by spousal abandonment, divorce and widowhood. The study results also show that the households practice several coping mechanisms to address shocks and set-backs that affect them. These coping mechanisms include a range of prevention, mitigation and coping strategies.

Thomson Haamutete Kalinda

2014-09-01

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Investigating effects of parasite infection on body condition of the Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis in the Kafue basin  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche Kafuensis, a medium-sized semi-aquatic antelope, is endemic to the Kafue basin of Zambia. The population of the Kafue lechwe has significantly dropped in the last decades leading to its subsequent inclusion on the red list of endangered species. In order to save the remaining population from extinction, it has become increasingly important that the impact of parasite infection and infestation on the Kafue lechwe is investigated. Findings Endoparasites accounted for the majority of parasites observed from a study of 40 Kafue lechwe occurring in the the Kafue basin. Amphistoma spp. were present in all animals examined, while Fasciola gigantica had a prevalence rate of 0.525 (95% CI: 0.36 to 0.69 and species of Schistosoma 0.3 (95% CI: 0.15 to 0.45. Among the ectoparasites, Strobiloestrous vanzyli, had a prevalence rate of 0.15 (95% CI: 0.03 to 0.27, while Rhipicephalus appendiculatus had a prevalence of 0.075 (3/40. Our findings indicate that body condition was not influenced by the parasitic infestation in Kafue lechwe. There was no association between sex and parasitic burden (odds ratio = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.8-1.3. However, an association between age and parasitic burden was observed as older animals above 15 years were more likely to get parasite infections than those aged between 1-5 years (odds ratio = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4. Conclusion Overall, there was no evidence that parasitic infections and infestations adversely affected the lechwe population on the Kafue basin. These findings indicate that ecto- and endo-parasite infestation might not play a significant role in reducing the Kafue lechwe population on the Kafue basin.

Nambota Andrew M

2010-12-01

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Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Testing of Free-Ranging African Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) Captured for Ex Situ Conservation in the Kafue Basin Ecosystem in Zambia  

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Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in some National Parks in Southern Africa, whilst no studies have been conducted on BTB on buffalo populations in Zambia. The increased demand for ecotourism and conservation of the African buffalo on private owned game ranches has prompted the Zambian Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) and private sector in Zambia to generate a herd of “BTB-free buffaloes” for ex situ conservation. In the present study, 86 African buffalo...

Musso Munyeme; John Bwalya Muma; Aaron Simanyengwe Mweene; Andrew Nambota; Victor Siamudaala; Wigganson Matandiko; Hetron Mweemba Munang'andu

2011-01-01

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Lymphatic filariasis in Luangwa District, South-East Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Past case reports and recent data from LF mapping surveys indicate that LF occurs in Zambia, but no studies have been carried out to document its epidemiology and health implications. The present study assessed infection, disease, transmission and human perception aspects of LF in an endemic area of Luangwa District, South-East Zambia, as a background for planning and implementation of control. Methods. Two neighbouring rural communities were registered and a questionnaire survey undertaken. Clinical examination, and sampling of blood for circulating filarial antigens (CFA; marker of adult worm infection) and antibodies to Bm14 antigen (marker of exposure to transmission), were carried out during the daytime. Blood from CFA positive individuals was examined for microfilariae (mf) at night. Vector surveys were carried out in selected households, using light traps. Results: 985 individuals aged ? 1 year were registered. The CFA prevalence increased with age from 1.2% in age group 1-14 years to 20.6%in age group 50+ years (overall 8.6%). Wuchereria bancrofti mf were identified in 10.9% of CFA positive individuals (corresponding to a community prevalence of 0.9%). Prevalence and intensity of Bm14 antibodies were much higher in individuals ? 30 years than in younger individuals (57.2 vs. 19.3%; 0.594 vs. 0.241 OD-values). Elephantiasis and hydrocele were well known clinical manifestations in the area, but only one case of hydrocele was detected in the study population. Identified potential vectors were Anopheles funestus and An. gambiae. Conclusion: The study confirmed that LF was endemic in the study communities, but infection and disease prevalence was low. Several indications, including a marked recent decline in CFA prevalence, suggest that transmission in the area is on the decrease, perhaps because of intensive application of malaria control measures targeting the Anopheles vectors. It is recommended that mass drug administration is initiated to accelerate this positive trend of decline in LF transmission in the area. © 2013 Shawa et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Shawa, Sheila Tamara; Mwase, Enala T.

2013-01-01

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Investigation of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in the Mbala and Kazungula districts of Zambia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute, highly contagious viral infection of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. It is known to be endemic in Zambia, with periodic outbreaks occurring in different geographical areas of the country. This study was conducted to investigate the presence of FMD v [...] irus (FMDV) in reported FMD-suspected cases in cattle from the Kazungula and Mbala districts of Zambia. Sixty epithelial tissues or oesophageal- pharyngeal (OP) scrapings (probang samples) were collected from Mbala (n = 51) and Kazungula (n = 9) and examined for FMDV. The FMDV viral RNA and serotypes were examined by realtime reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and antigen Enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Twenty-two samples (36.7%) were positive for the FMDV genome by qRT-PCR with Cycle threshold (Ct) values ranging from 13 to 31. The FMDV-positive samples from epithelial tissues showed relatively higher Ct values compared to those obtained from OP scrapings, irrespective of geographical location. Forty percent (40%; n = 4) of epithelial tissues from Mbala were serotyped into SAT 2 serotype by antigen ELISA. Kazungula samples were serotyped into SAT 1. These findings indicated that Mbala and Kazungula districts had FMD outbreaks in 2012 that were ascribed to at least FMDV serotype SAT 2 and SAT 1 field strains. Furthermore, regular interaction between buffalos from the Mosi-o Tunya Park and domestic animals from surrounding areas could contribute to the occurrence of regular FMD outbreaks in Kazungula, whilst the uncontrolled animal movements across borders between Mbala and Nsumbawanga could be responsible for disease outbreaks in Mbala. In-depth molecular biological studies, including sequencing and phylogeny of the viruses, should be conducted to elucidate the complex epidemiology of FMD in Zambia, thereby providing valuable information needed for the rational control strategy of FMD in Zambia and neighbouring countries.

Frank, Banda; Christopher J, Kasanga; Raphael, Sallu; Yona, Sinkala; Tingiya W, Sinkombe; Misheck, Mulumba; Mark M, Rweyemamu; Philemon N, Wambura.

2014-02-01

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Investigation of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in the Mbala and Kazungula districts of Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute, highly contagious viral infection of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. It is known to be endemic in Zambia, with periodic outbreaks occurring in different geographical areas of the country. This study was conducted to investigate the presence of FMD virus (FMDV) in reported FMD-suspected cases in cattle from the Kazungula and Mbala districts of Zambia. Sixty epithelial tissues or oesophageal-pharyngeal (OP) scrapings (probang samples) were collected from Mbala (n = 51) and Kazungula (n = 9) and examined for FMDV. The FMDV viral RNA and serotypes were examined by realtime reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and antigen Enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Twenty-two samples (36.7%) were positive for the FMDV genome by qRT-PCR with Cycle threshold (Ct) values ranging from 13 to 31. The FMDV-positive samples from epithelial tissues showed relatively higher Ct values compared to those obtained from OP scrapings, irrespective of geographical location. Forty percent (40%; n = 4) of epithelial tissues from Mbala were serotyped into SAT 2 serotype by antigen ELISA. Kazungula samples were serotyped into SAT 1. These findings indicated that Mbala and Kazungula districts had FMD outbreaks in 2012 that were ascribed to at least FMDV serotype SAT 2 and SAT 1 field strains. Furthermore, regular interaction between buffalos from the Mosi-o Tunya Park and domestic animals from surrounding areas could contribute to the occurrence of regular FMD outbreaks in Kazungula, whilst the uncontrolled animal movements across borders between Mbala and Nsumbawanga could be responsible for disease outbreaks in Mbala. In-depth molecular biological studies, including sequencing and phylogeny of the viruses, should be conducted to elucidate the complex epidemiology of FMD in Zambia, thereby providing valuable information needed for the rational control strategy of FMD in Zambia and neighbouring countries. PMID:25134173

Banda, Frank; Kasanga, Christopher J; Sallu, Raphael; Sinkala, Yona; Sinkombe, Tingiya W; Mulumba, Misheck; Rweyemamu, Mark M; Wambura, Philemon N

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Investigation of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in the Mbala and Kazungula districts of Zambia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute, highly contagious viral infection of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. It is known to be endemic in Zambia, with periodic outbreaks occurring in different geographical areas of the country. This study was conducted to investigate the presence of FMD v [...] irus (FMDV) in reported FMD-suspected cases in cattle from the Kazungula and Mbala districts of Zambia. Sixty epithelial tissues or oesophageal- pharyngeal (OP) scrapings (probang samples) were collected from Mbala (n = 51) and Kazungula (n = 9) and examined for FMDV. The FMDV viral RNA and serotypes were examined by realtime reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and antigen Enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Twenty-two samples (36.7%) were positive for the FMDV genome by qRT-PCR with Cycle threshold (Ct) values ranging from 13 to 31. The FMDV-positive samples from epithelial tissues showed relatively higher Ct values compared to those obtained from OP scrapings, irrespective of geographical location. Forty percent (40%; n = 4) of epithelial tissues from Mbala were serotyped into SAT 2 serotype by antigen ELISA. Kazungula samples were serotyped into SAT 1. These findings indicated that Mbala and Kazungula districts had FMD outbreaks in 2012 that were ascribed to at least FMDV serotype SAT 2 and SAT 1 field strains. Furthermore, regular interaction between buffalos from the Mosi-o Tunya Park and domestic animals from surrounding areas could contribute to the occurrence of regular FMD outbreaks in Kazungula, whilst the uncontrolled animal movements across borders between Mbala and Nsumbawanga could be responsible for disease outbreaks in Mbala. In-depth molecular biological studies, including sequencing and phylogeny of the viruses, should be conducted to elucidate the complex epidemiology of FMD in Zambia, thereby providing valuable information needed for the rational control strategy of FMD in Zambia and neighbouring countries.

Frank, Banda; Christopher J, Kasanga; Raphael, Sallu; Yona, Sinkala; Tingiya W, Sinkombe; Misheck, Mulumba; Mark M, Rweyemamu; Philemon N, Wambura.

22

Characterization of Mycobacterium bovis from Humans and Cattle in Namwala District, Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in Zambia. While human to human transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is of major importance in driving the tuberculosis epidemic, the impact of Mycobacterium bovis transmission from infected cattle is largely unknown. This cross-sectional study aimed at molecular characterization of M. bovis in humans and cattle. A total of 100 human sputum samples and 67 bovine tissues were collected and analyzed for the presence of mycobacteria. Of 65 human samples that harbored acid fast bacteria (AFB), 55 isolates were obtained of which 34 were identified as M. tuberculosis and 2 as M. bovis. AFB-positive bovine samples (n = 67) yielded 47 mycobacterial isolates among which 25 were identified as M. bovis and no M. tuberculosis was found. Among the M. bovis isolates, spoligotyping revealed a high homogeneity in genotypes circulating in Namwala district. Human and cattle isolates shared identical MIRU-VNTR genotypes, suggesting that transmission between the two hosts may occur. Therefore, this study has documented zoonotic TB in human patients in Namwala district of Zambia. However, further molecular epidemiological studies in the study area are recommended. PMID:24847441

Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Muma, John Bwalya; Munyeme, Musso; Mbulo, Grace; Muwonge, Adrian; Dj?nne, Berit

2014-01-01

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Prevalence of canine gastrointestinal helminths in urban Lusaka and rural Katete Districts of Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Faecal samples were collected from January 2010 through September 2010 to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) helminths infestation in dogs in urban Lusaka and rural Katete Districts of Zambia. A total of 452 faecal samples (n=160 Katete, n=292 Lusaka) were examined by faecal flotation for the presence of helminth eggs and 82.5% of dogs were positive for GI helminths in Katete compared to 76% for Lusaka. Positive results with the presence of at least one parasite corresponded to 72.9% Ancylostoma caninum, 11% Toxocara canis, 4.8% Toxascaris leonina, 2.4% Dipylidium caninum, 0.7% Taeniidae and 0.3% T. vulpis, species for Lusaka while Katete recorded 70.6% A. caninum, 18.1% T. vulpis, 11.1% T. canis, 13.1% D. caninum, 3.8% T. leonina, and 0.6% Taeniidae. Except for T. vulpis and D. caninum (pcaninum showed significant difference in prevalence by age category. The study also showed the presence of zoonotic intestinal helminths A. caninum, T. canis and D. caninum. The study highlights that there was no significant difference in spectrum and prevalence of GI helminths between urban and rural areas in Zambia. It further brings to light the importance of educating owners of dogs on the importance of regular deworming of dogs and control of ectoparasites in order to minimise the risk that these dogs pose to them and the public. PMID:21612833

Bwalya, Eugene C; Nalubamba, King S; Hankanga, C; Namangala, B

2011-07-01

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High Schistosoma mansoni Disease Burden in a Rural District of Western Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schistosoma mansoni disease is endemic in most parts of rural Zambia, and associated complications are common. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 754 people in rural communities of Kaoma District, western Zambia to determine the burden of S. mansoni infection and associated morbidity. Parasitology and ultrasonography assessments were conducted on consenting participants. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection and geometric mean egg count (GMEC) were 42.4% (304) and 86.6 eggs per gram (95% confidence interval = 75.6-99.6), respectively. Prevalence was highest in the age group of 15-19 years old (adjusted prevalence ratio = 1.70, P = 0.017). S. mansoni-related portal fibrosis was detected in 26% of the participants screened. Participants above 39 years old were 2.93 times more likely to have fibrosis than the 7-9 years old age group (P = 0.004). The study highlights the high burden of S. mansoni disease in this area and calls for immediate interventions to avert complications associated with the disease. PMID:25246696

Mutengo, Mable M; Mwansa, James C L; Mduluza, Takafira; Sianongo, Sandie; Chipeta, James

2014-11-01

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The state of HIV sector local governance in Malawi and Zambia: Evidence from five districts  

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Full Text Available This paper encapsulates the outputs of a Swiss Agency for Development Cooperation (SDC funded project that aimed to improve the levels of HIV governance at the district level in Malawi and Zambia by encouraging public participation in an effort to more effective use of local resources. The methodology for this project, developed by the Institute for Democracy in Africa (Idasa and SDC, included a barometer which assessed perceptions of district HIV governance among key stakeholders. Perceptions were gathered on governance principles of effectiveness, efficiency, rule of law, accountability, participation and equity. The stakeholders ranged from administrators, political representatives, community-based organisations and the private sector on the supply side and citizens on the demand or beneficiary side. The findings of the research indicate specific sector governance issues that may be generalised to governance. Communication and transparency appear to be major issues underpinning the bottlenecks and shortcomings in the HIV sector governance at the district level. Information gaps have given rise to accountability deficits and coordination deficiencies. Addressing these matters would make more effective use of resources and lessen dependence on external funding sources.

Justin Steyn

2014-07-01

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Bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis in traditionally managed livestock in selected districts of southern province of zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was performed in 2008 to estimate the prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis in traditionally reared cattle of Southern Province in Zambia in four districts. The single comparative intradermal tuberculin test (SCITT) was used to identify TB reactors, and the Rose Bengal test (RBT), followed by confirmation with competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA), was used to test for brucellosis. A total of 459 animals were tested for tuberculosis and 395 for brucellosis. The overall prevalence of BTB based on the 4?mm and 3?mm cutoff criteria was 4.8% (95% CI: 2.6-7.0%) and 6.3% (95% CI: 3.8-8.8%), respectively. Change in skin thickness on SCITT was influenced by initial skin-fold thickness at the inoculation site, where animals with thinner skin had a tendency to give a larger tuberculin response. Brucellosis seroprevalence was estimated at 20.7% (95% CI: 17.0-24.4%). Comparison between results from RBT and c-ELISA showed good agreement (84.1%) and revealed subjectivity in RBT test results. Differences in brucellosis and tuberculosis prevalence across districts were attributed to type of husbandry practices and ecological factors. High prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis suggests that control programmes are necessary for improved cattle productivity and reduced public health risk. PMID:23862096

Muma, J B; Syakalima, M; Munyeme, M; Zulu, V C; Simuunza, M; Kurata, M

2013-01-01

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Classification of the natural vegetation of Mtendere Game Ranch in the Chibombo District of the Central Province, Zambia  

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Full Text Available A phytosociological analysis of the physical environment and the natural plant communities of Mtendere Game Ranch in the Chibombo District of the Central Province of Zambia is presented. A TWINSPAN classification and DECORANA ordination based upon 69 releves revealed three vegetation types, grassland, woodland and thicket, that are subdivided into the following plant communities: Dambo, Munga Woodland, Miombo Woodland, Termitaria and Deciduous Thicket. The natural vegetation of Mtendere Game Ranch is separated into fire management units on the basis of the vegetation types.

M.G. Bingham

1998-02-01

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Increased fairness in priority setting processes within the health sector : the case of Kapiri-Mposhi District, Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: The challenge of priority setting (PS) in health care within contexts of severe resource limitations has continued to receive attention. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) has emerged as a useful framework to guide the implementation of PS processes. In 2006, the AFR approach to enhance legitimate and fair PS was introduced by researchers and decision makers within the health sector in the EU funded research project entitled 'Response to Accountable priority setting for Trust in health systems' (REACT). The project aimed to strengthen fairness and accountability in the PS processes of health systems at district level in Zambia, Tanzania and Kenya. This paper focuses on local perceptions and practices of fair PS (baseline study) as well as at the evolution of such perceptions and practices in PS following an AFR based intervention (evaluation study), carried out at district level in Kapiri-Mposhi District in Zambia. METHODS: Data was collected using in depth interviews (IDIs), focus group discussions (FGDs) and review of documents from national to district level. The study population for this paper consisted of health related stakeholders employed in the district administration, in non-governmental organizations (NGO) and in health facilities. RESULTS: During the baseline study, concepts of legitimacy and fairness in PS processes were found to be grounded in local values of equity and impartiality. Government and other organizational strategies strongly supported devolution of PS and decision making procedures. However, important gaps were identified in terms of experiences of stakeholder involvement and fairness in PS processes in practice. The evaluation study revealed that a transformation of the views and methods regarding fairness in PS processes was ongoing in the study district, which was partly attributed to the AFR based intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings suggest that increased attention was given to fairness in PS processes at district level. The changes were linked to a number of simultaneous factors among them the concepts introduced by the present project with its emphasis on fairness and enhanced participation. A responsive leadership that was increasingly accountable to its operational staff and communities emerged as one of the key elements in driving the processes forward.

Zulu, Joseph M; Michelo, Charles

2014-01-01

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Condom availability in high risk places and condom use: a study at district level in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies from countries with severe HIV epidemics have found gaps in condom availability, even in places where there is a substantial potential for HIV transmission. Although reported condom use has increased in many African countries, there are often big differences by socioeconomic background. The aim of this study was to assess equity aspects of condom availability and uptake in three African districts to evaluate whether condom programmes are given sufficient priority. Methods Data on condom availability and use was examined in one district in Kenya, one in Tanzania and one in Zambia. The study was based on a triangulation of data collection methods in the three study districts: surveys in venues where people meet new sexual partners, population-based surveys and focus group discussions. The data was collected within an overall study on priority setting in health systems. Results At the time of the survey, condoms were observed in less than half of the high risk venues in two of the three districts and in 60% in the third district. Rural respondents in the population-based surveys perceived condoms to be less available and tended to be less likely to report condom use than urban respondents. Although focus group participants reported that condoms were largely available in their district, they expressed concerns related to the accessibility of free condoms. Conclusion As late as thirty years into the HIV epidemic there are still important gaps in the availability of condoms in places where people meet new sexual partners in these three African districts. Considering that previous studies have found that improved condom availability and accessibility in high risk places have a potential to increase condom use among people with multiple partners, the present study findings indicate that substantial further efforts should be made to secure that condoms are easily accessible in places where sexual relationships are initiated. Although condom distribution in drinking places has been pinpointed in the HIV/AIDS prevention strategies of all the three countries, its priority relative to other HIV/AIDS measures must be reassessed locally, nationally and regionally. In practical terms very clear supply chains of condoms to both formal and informal drinking places could make condom provision better and more reliable.

Sandøy Ingvild

2012-11-01

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Condom availability in high risk places and condom use : a study at district level in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background A number of studies from countries with severe HIV epidemics have found gaps in condom availability, even in places where there is a substantial potential for HIV transmission. Although reported condom use has increased in many African countries, there are often big differences by socioeconomic background. The aim of this study was to assess equity aspects of condom availability and uptake in three African districts to evaluate whether condom programmes are given sufficient priority. Methods Data on condom availability and use was examined in one district in Kenya, one in Tanzania and one in Zambia. The study was based on a triangulation of data collection methods in the three study districts: surveys in venues where people meet new sexual partners, population-based surveys and focus group discussions. The data was collected within an overall study on priority setting in health systems. Results At the time of the survey, condoms were observed in less than half of the high risk venues in two of the three districts and in 60% in the third district. Rural respondents in the population-based surveys perceived condoms to be less available and tended to be less likely to report condom use than urban respondents. Although focus group participants reported that condoms were largely available in their district, they expressed concerns related to the accessibility of free condoms. Conclusion As late as thirty years into the HIV epidemic there are still important gaps in the availability of condoms in places where people meet new sexual partners in these three African districts. Considering that previous studies have found that improved condom availability and accessibility in high risk places have a potential to increase condom use among people with multiple partners, the present study findings indicate that substantial further efforts should be made to secure that condoms are easily accessible in places where sexual relationships are initiated. Although condom distribution in drinking places has been pinpointed in the HIV/AIDS prevention strategies of all the three countries, its priority relative to other HIV/AIDS measures must be reassessed locally, nationally and regionally. In practical terms very clear supply chains of condoms to both formal and informal drinking places could make condom provision better and more reliable

SandØy, Ingvild Fossgard; Blystad, Astrid

2012-01-01

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Factors associated with health facility childbirth in districts of Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia : a population based survey  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality continues to be a heavy burden in low and middle income countries where half of all deliveries take place in homes without skilled attendance. The study aimed to investigate the underlying and proximate determinants of health facility childbirth in rural and urban areas of three districts in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia. METHODS: A population-based survey was conducted in 2007 as part of the 'REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems' (REACT) project. Stratified random cluster sampling was used and the data included information on place of delivery and factors that might influence health care seeking behaviour. A total of 1800 women who had childbirth in the previous five years were analysed. The distal and proximate conceptual framework for analysing determinants of maternal mortality was modified for studying factors associated with place of delivery. Socioeconomic position was measured by employing a construct of educational attainment and wealth index. All analyses were stratified by district and urban-rural residence. RESULTS: There were substantial inter-district differences in proportion of health facility childbirth. Facility childbirth was 15, 70 and 37% in the rural areas of Malindi, Mbarali and Kapiri Mposhi respectively, and 57, 75 and 77% in the urban areas of the districts respectively. However, striking socio-economic inequities were revealed regardless of district. Furthermore, there were indications that repeated exposure to ANC services and HIV related counselling and testing were positively associated with health facility deliveries. Perceived distance was negatively associated with facility childbirth in rural areas of Malindi and urban areas of Kapiri Mposhi. CONCLUSION: Strong socio-economic inequities in the likelihood of facility childbirths were revealed in all the districts added to geographic inequities in two of the three districts. This strongly suggests an urgent need to strengthen services targeting disadvantaged and remote populations. The finding of a positive association between HIV counselling/testing and odds in favor of giving birth at a health facility suggests potential positive effects can be achieved by strengthening integrated approaches in maternal health service delivery.

Ng'anjo Phiri, Selia; Kiserud, Torvid

2014-01-01

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Application of Data-Driven Evidential Belief Functions to Prospectivity Mapping for Aquamarine-Bearing Pegmatites, Lundazi District, Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case application of data-driven estimation of evidential belief functions (EBFs) is demonstrated to prospectivity mapping in Lundazi district (eastern Zambia). Spatial data used to represent recognition criteria of prospectivity for aquamarine-bearing pegmatites include mapped granites, mapped faults/fractures, mapped shear zones, and radioelement concentration ratios derived from gridded airborne radiometric data. Data-driven estimates EBFs take into account not only (a) spatial association between an evidential map layer and target deposits but also (b) spatial relationships between classes of evidences in an evidential map layer. Data-driven estimates of EBFs can indicate which spatial data provide positive or negative evidence of prospectivity. Data-driven estimates of EBFs of only spatial data providing positive evidence of prospectivity were integrated according to Dempster's rule of combination. Map of integrated degrees of belief was used to delineate zones of relative degress of prospectivity for aquamarine-bearing pegmatites. The predictive map has at least 85% prediction rate and at least 79% success rate of delineating training and validation deposits, respectively. The results illustrate usefulness of data-driven estimation of EBFs in GIS-based predictive mapping of mineral prospectivity. The results also show usefulness of EBFs in managing uncertainties associated with evidential maps

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Prevalence of hypertension and its correlates in Lusaka urban district of Zambia: a population based survey  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertension is a leading cause for ill-health, premature mortality and disability. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors for hypertension in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess relationships between hypertension and explanatory variables. Results A total of 1928 individuals participated in the survey, of which 33.0% were males. About a third of the respondents had attained secondary level education (35.8%, and 20.6% of males and 48.6% of females were overweight or obese. The prevalence for hypertension was 34.8% (38.0% of males and 33.3% of females. In multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with hypertension were: age, sex, body mass index, alcohol consumption, sedentary lifestyle, and fasting blood glucose level. Conclusions Health education and structural interventions to promote healthier lifestyles should be encouraged taking into account the observed associations of the modifiable risk factors.

Goma Fastone M

2011-10-01

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Combined prevalence of impaired glucose level or diabetes and its correlates in Lusaka urban district, Zambia: a population based survey  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing countries are undergoing an epidemiological transition, from Communicable or Infectious to 'Non-Communicable' diseases (NCDs, such that cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory diseases, cancer, and diabetes were responsible for 60% of all deaths globally in 2005, with more than 75% of these deaths occurring in developing countries. A survey was conducted to determine among other objectives the prevalence of diabetes and its association with physical fitness and biological factors. Methods A cross sectional study utilizing a modified World Health Organization's STEPwise approach to surveillance of NCDs was conducted in Lusaka district, Zambia. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select study participants of age 25 years or older. All eligible members of a household that was selected were invited to participate in the study. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR, and adjusted odds ratios (AOR together with their 95% Confidence Intervals (CI were obtained using Complex samples logistic regression Results A total of 1928 individuals participated in the survey, of which 33.0% were males. About half of the participants were of age 25-34 years (53.2%, and about a third of the respondents had attained secondary level of education (35.8%. The combined prevalence for impaired glucose level or diabetes was 4.0%. Age and mild hypertension were significantly associated with impaired levels of glucose or diabetes. Compared to participants in the age group 25-34 years, older participants were more likely to have impaired glucose level or diabetes (AOR = 2.49 (95%CI [1.35, 2.92] for 35-44 years age group, and AOR = 3.80 (95%CI [2.00, 7.23] for 45 + years age group. Mild hypertension was associated with impaired glucose level or diabetes (AOR = 2.57 (95%CI [1.44, 4.57]. Conclusions The prevalence of diabetes in Lusaka district has not reached an alarming level and it is now that interventions targeting the younger age group 25-34 years should be put in place to curtail the spread of diabetes.

Nsakashalo-Senkwe Mutale

2011-01-01

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“The problem is ours, it is not CRAIDS’ ”. Evaluating sustainability of Community Based Organisations for HIV/AIDS in a rural district in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background While sustainability of health programmes has been the subject of empirical studies, there is little evidence specifically on the sustainability of Community Based Organisations (CBOs for HIV/AIDS. Debates around optimal approaches in community health have centred on utilitarian versus empowerment approaches. This paper, using the World Bank Multi-Country AIDS Program (MAP in Zambia as a case study, seeks to evaluate whether or not this global programme contributed to the sustainability of CBOs working in the area of HIV/AIDS in Zambia. Lessons for optimising sustainability of CBOs in lower income countries are drawn. Methods In-depth interviews with representatives of all CBOs that received CRAIDS funding (n = 18 and district stakeholders (n= 10 in Mumbwa rural district in Zambia, in 2010; and national stakeholders (n=6 in 2011. Results Funding: All eighteen CBOs in Mumbwa that received MAP funding between 2003 and 2008 had existed prior to receiving MAP grants, some from as early as 1992. This was contrary to national level perceptions that CBOs were established to access funds rather than from the needs of communities. Funding opportunities for CBOs in Mumbwa in 2010 were scarce. Health services: While all CBOs were functioning in 2010, most reported reductions in service provision. Home visits had reduced due to a shortage of food to bring to people living with HIV/AIDS and scarcity of funding for transport, which reduced antiretroviral treatment adherence support and transport of patients to clinics. Organisational capacity and viability: Sustainability had been promoted during MAP through funding Income Generating Activities. However, there was a lack of infrastructure and training to make these sustainable. Links between health facilities and communities improved over time, however volunteers’ skills levels had reduced. Conclusions Whilst the World Bank espoused the idea of sustainability in their plans, it remained on the periphery of their Zambia strategy. Assessments of need on the ground and accurate costings for sustainable service delivery, building on existing community strengths, are needed before projects commence. This study highlights the importance of enabling and building the capacity of existing CBOs and community structures, rather than creating new mechanisms.

Walsh Aisling

2012-11-01

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Considerazioni sulle specie del genere Gonimbrasia Butler, 1878 e descrizione di Gonimbrasia desena Vinciguerra, sp. n., nuova specie dello Zambia (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae  

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Full Text Available Se describe y representa una nueva especie del género Gonimbrasia Butler, 1878, Gonimbrasia desena Vinciguerra, sp. n., atribuida al grupo de belina (Westwood, 1849 de Zambia (Kafue sobre la base de un solo espécimen macho. Se desconocen la hembra y los estados preimaginales.

R. Vinciguerra

2009-01-01

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Failure to detect tuberculosis in Black lechwe antelopes (Kobus leche smithemani in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Two types of lechwe antelopes exclusively exist in their natural ecosystems in Zambia; the Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani and the Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis. Despite inhabiting similar ecosystems, tuberculosis has been reported in Kafue lechwe without its documentation in Black lechwe antelopes. However, the past few decades have seen a drastic decline in both lechwe populations. Whereas studies have postulated that infectious diseases such as tuberculosis are having a negative impact on the Kafue lechwe population, no information is available on Black lechwe antelopes. Thus this study was conducted to investigate tuberculosis in Black lechwe antelopes of the Bangweulu swamps in comparison with the Kafue lechwe antelopes of Lochinvar. Findings A total of 44 lechwe antelopes (Black (n = 30: Kafue (n = 14 were sampled from Bangweulu and Lochinvar respectively. A positive case was defined with findings of gross lesions with Ziehl Nielsen and culture confirmation. Out of the 14 animals examined in Lochinvar, 21.4% [95% CI: 15.4, 44.4%] had necropsy lesions consistent with tuberculosis. The corresponding samples from 30 Black lechwe of Bangweulu yielded negative results on all the three tests. Conclusions Current findings from this study intimate the possible absence of tuberculosis in Black lechwe antelopes whilst confirming the presence of tuberculosis in Kafue lechwe of the Kafue basin. The absence of tuberculosis in the Black lechwe suggests that the observed population decline may not be caused by tuberculosis. However, without detailed molecular epidemiological studies it is not possible to determine the association of M. bovis infection in sympatric animal populations. The possible role of transmission of tuberculosis between wildlife and cattle is discussed herein. Findings

Godfroid Jacques

2011-07-01

38

Community capacity to prevent, manage and survive HIV / AIDS in rural Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A multidisciplinary study was conducted in the Chiawa Chieftaincy of Kafue District, Lusaka Province, Zambia, from 1991 through 1997 examining the capacity of a rural community to prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV. Interventions in the community include improved STD management at local health facilities, promoting the early treatment of STDs in the community, and a peer education program on the commercial farm. Community capacity appears to be affected by gender, ethnicity, skills, diversity of economic base, household structure, matrilineal network, intervention at critical and appropriate stages, support from spouses, personality, knowledge, locality, and health problems. However, capacity is limited, with some individuals and households simply failing to cope. While the interventions appear to have helped increase community awareness and knowledge of STDs and HIV, it is unclear whether that added knowledge has effected any behavior change. Training at the hospital and clinic does not appear to have improved the quality of STD care, and the peer education program and production of local videos about AIDS have been popular strategies influencing local perceptions about STDs and HIV. PMID:12347942

Bond, G

1997-06-01

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Helminths and bot fly larvae of wild ungulates on a game ranch in central province, Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Helminths and bot fly larvae were collected from 11 wild ungulate species on a game ranch in the Central Province of Zambia. New host-parasite records are: Calicophoron sp. from defassa waterbuck Kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa and Kafue lechwe Kobus leche kafuensis; Avitellina centripunctata, Gaigeria pachyscelis and Gedoelstia cristata from tsessebe Damaliscus lunatus lunatus; Cooperia rotundispiculum from common reedbuck Redunca arundinum; Dictyocaulus filaria from greater kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros; Dictyocaulus sp. from tsessebe and defassa waterbuck and Strobiloestrus sp. from sable antelope Hippotragus niger. Most of the other parasites collected are first records for Zambia and thus extend the distribution ranges of several species. PMID:9741058

Zieger, U; Boomker, J; Cauldwell, A E; Horak, I G

1998-06-01

40

A review of bovine tuberculosis in the kafue basin ecosystem.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kafue basin ecosystem is the only remaining natural habitat for the endangered Kafue lechwe antelope (Kobus leche Kafuensis). However, hydroelectricity power production, large-scale sugar plantations, commercial fishing and increasing livestock production are threatening its natural existence and sustainability. Further, increasing human settlements within and around the Kafue basin have resulted in decreased grazing grounds for the Kafue lechwe antelopes despite a corresponding increase in cattle population sharing the same pasture. Baseline epidemiological data have persistently reported findings of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in both wild and domestic animals, although these have been deficient in terms of describing direct evidence in the role of either lechwe antelopes or cattle in the reported observations. Despite the current literature being deficient in establishing the casual role and transmission patterns of BTB, a bimodal route of infection at the livestock/wildlife interface has been postulated. Likewise, it is not known how much of (BTB) has the potential of causing disease in humans. This paper, seeks to underline those aspects that need further research and update available data on BTB in the Kafue basin with regards to the prevalence, distribution, risk factors, threats on wildlife conservation, livestock production, public health implications, and possible mitigatory measures. PMID:21547232

Munyeme, Musso; Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Relative costs and effectiveness of treating uncomplicated malaria in two rural districts in Zambia: implications for nationwide scale-up of home-based management  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria case management is one of the key strategies to control malaria. Various studies have demonstrated the feasibility of home management of malaria (HMM. However, data on the costs and effectiveness of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT and rapid diagnostic tests via HMM is limited. Method Cost-effectiveness of home management versus health facility-based management of uncomplicated malaria in two rural districts in Zambia was analysed from a providers' perspective. The sample included 16 community health workers (CHWs and 15 health facilities. The outcome measure was the cost per case appropriately diagnosed and treated. Costs of scaling-up HMM nationwide were estimated based on the CHW utilisation rates observed in the study. Results HMM was more cost effective than facility-based management of uncomplicated malaria. The cost per case correctly diagnosed and treated was USD 4.22 for HMM and USD 6.12 for facility level. Utilization and adherence to diagnostic and treatment guidelines was higher in HMM than at a health facility. Conclusion HMM using ACT and RDTs was more efficient at appropriately diagnosing and treating malaria than the health facility level. Scaling up this intervention requires significant investments.

Banda Patrick

2011-06-01

42

Knowledge and disease management skills of cattle owners on East Coast Fever and Foot and Mouth Disease in Kazungula and Livingstone Districts of Zambia  

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Full Text Available Effective animal disease control and prevention should be based on accurate information from the field. Part of this field information can be obtained from the cattle owners. In order to assess their disease knowledge, a survey focusing on East Coast Fever (ECF and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD was organised among 302 cattle owners from the Kazungula and Livingstone Districts of the Southern Province of Zambia. The cattle owners' level of knowledge of ECF was low (34% with most of those able to describe the disease belonging to the endemic zone where ECF caused high death rates in cattle. A larger proportion of the cattle owners (46% were able to give an adequate description of FMD symptoms. It reached up to 61% in the FMD high-risk zone. Reporting to the animal health service providers appeared to be low. The results of the survey showed that attempts should be made to improve the cattle owners' knowledge and response to important diseases by carrying out more extension and sensitization activities. This is especially so in areas of low infection or where the disease was experienced long time ago.

Chisembele, C.

2005-01-01

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The accountability for reasonableness approach to guide priority setting in health systems within limited resources - findings from action research at district level in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Priority-setting decisions are based on an important, but not sufficient set of values and thus lead to disagreement on priorities. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) is an ethics-based approach to a legitimate and fair priority-setting process that builds upon four conditions: relevance, publicity, appeals, and enforcement, which facilitate agreement on priority-setting decisions and gain support for their implementation. This paper focuses on the assessment of AFR within the project REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT). METHODS: This intervention study applied an action research methodology to assess implementation of AFR in one district in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia, respectively. The assessments focused on selected disease, program, and managerial areas. An implementing action research team of core health team members and supporting researchers was formed to implement, and continually assess and improve the application of the four conditions. Researchers evaluated the intervention using qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods. RESULTS: The values underlying the AFR approach were in all three districts well-aligned with general values expressed by both service providers and community representatives. There was some variation in the interpretations and actual use of the AFR in the decision-making processes in the three districts, and its effect ranged from an increase in awareness of the importance of fairness to a broadened engagement of health team members and other stakeholders in priority setting and other decision-making processes. CONCLUSIONS: District stakeholders were able to take greater charge of closing the gap between nationally set planning on one hand and the local realities and demands of the served communities on the other within the limited resources at hand. This study thus indicates that the operationalization of the four broadly defined and linked conditions is both possible and seems to be responding to an actual demand. This provides arguments for the continued application and further assessment of the potential of AFR in supporting priority-setting and other decision-making processes in health systems to achieve better agreed and more sustainable health improvements linked to a mutual democratic learning with potential wider implications.

Byskov, Jens; Marchal, Bruno

2014-01-01

44

Mycobacterium bovis infection at the interface between domestic and wild animals in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In Zambia, the presence of bovine tuberculosis in both wild and domestic animals has long been acknowledged and mutual transmission between them has been predicted without any direct evidence. Elucidation of the circulating Mycobacterium bovis strains at wild and domestic animals interphase area in Zambia, where bovine tuberculosis was diagnosed in wildlife seemed to be important. Results A PCR identified 15 and 37 M. bovis isolates from lechwe and cattle, respectively. Spoligotype analysis revealed that M. bovis strains from lechwe and cattle in Kafue basin clustered into a major node SB0120, where isolates outside the Kafue basin clustered into different nodes of SB0131 and SB0948. The comparatively higher variety of strains in cattle compared to lechwe elucidated by Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units–Variable Number Tandem Repeats analyses are consistent with cattle being the probable source of M. bovis in wild and domestic animals interphase area in Zambia. Conclusions These results provide strong evidence of M. bovis strains transfer between cattle and lechwe, with the latter having developed into a sylvatic reservoir host.

Hang’ombe Mudenda B

2012-11-01

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Sero-epidemiological survey on selected pathogens in traditionally managed cattle in Zambia. Cattle herds from the "valley" districts of the Southern Province.  

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Livestock play a paramount role in the traditional agricultural sector of zambia. A sero-epidemiological survey (cattle, Sanga type, Tonga breed) has been done in the Valley disctricts of the Southern Porvince, whci is the most important area of the country for agriculture and livestock prodoction. Overall prevalences were: 6,6% for brucellosis, 2,9% for chalmydiosis, 2,9% for leptospirosis and 11% for leukosis. No animal was positive to listeriosis. As some of these diseases are of zzonotic ...

Meneghi, Daniele; Mannelli, Alessandro

1996-01-01

46

The Zambia Initiative  

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Full Text Available In rural Zambia refugees and host communities are working together to move from relief dependence to self reliance. Could UNHCR’s Zambia Initiative (ZI be a model for other countries struggling to cope with the protracted presence of refugees?

Masaki Watabe

2005-11-01

47

Expansion of antiretroviral treatment to rural health centre level by a mobile service in Mumbwa district, Zambia / Élargissement de l'accès au traitement antirétroviral au niveau des centres de santé ruraux grâce à un service mobile dans le district de Mumbwa, Zambie / Expansión del tratamiento antirretroviral a nivel de los centros de salud rurales mediante un servicio móvil en el distrito de Mumbwa, Zambia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish SITUACIÓN: A pesar de los esfuerzos del Gobierno por extender los servicios hasta el nivel de distrito, sigue resultando difícil que las personas con VIH accedan al tratamiento antirretroviral (TAR) en la Zambia rural. Las enérgicas súplicas para ampliar los servicios relacionados con el TAR a los c [...] entros de salud rurales se enfrentan a las dificultades derivadas de la escasez de recursos. ENFOQUE: El equipo de gestión sanitaria en el distrito de Mumbwa introdujo servicios móviles de TAR que hacían uso de recursos humanos y asesoramiento técnico de hospitales de distrito, así como la participación de la comunidad en cuatro centros de salud rurales en el primer trimestre de 2007. Este trabajo aborda el uso de los servicios móviles de TAR en el distrito rural de Mumbwa. MARCO REGIONAL: Mumbwa es un distrito rural con un área de 23 000 km2 y una población de 167 000 habitantes. Antes de la introducción de los servicios móviles, los servicios de TAR se proporcionaban sólo en el Hospital de Distrito de Mumbwa. CAMBIOS IMPORTANTES: Los servicios móviles mejoraron la accesibilidad al TAR, especialmente para usuarios con un mejor estado funcional, es decir, aún capaces de trabajar. Además, estos servicios móviles pueden reducir el número de casos de «pérdidas durante el seguimiento». Esto podría deberse a la mayor implicación de la comunidad y al mejor apoyo ofrecido por estos servicios a los usuarios en las áreas rurales. LECCIONES APRENDIDAS: Estos servicios móviles para el TAR ayudaron a extender los servicios a los centros de salud rurales cuando los recursos fueron limitados, acercándolos lo máximo posible a los lugares donde viven los usuarios. Abstract in english PROBLEM: Despite the Government's effort to expand services to district level, it is still hard for people living with HIV to access antiretroviral treatment (ART) in rural Zambia. Strong demands for expanding ART services at the rural health centre level face challenges of resource shortages. APPRO [...] ACH: The Mumbwa district health management team introduced mobile ART services using human resources and technical support from district hospitals, and community involvement at four rural health centres in the first quarter of 2007. This paper discusses the uptake of the mobile ART services in rural Mumbwa. LOCAL SETTING: Mumbwa is a rural district with an area of 23 000 km² and a population of 167 000. Before the introduction of mobile services, ART services were provided only at Mumbwa District Hospital. RELEVANT CHANGES: The mobile services improved accessibility to ART, especially for clients in better functional status, i.e. still able to work. In addition, these mobile services may reduce the number of cases "lost to follow-up". This might be due to the closer involvement of the community and the better support offered by these services to rural clients. LESSONS LEARNT: These mobile ART services helped expand services to rural health facilities where resources are limited, bringing them as close as possible to where clients live.

Christopher, Dube; Ikuma, Nozaki; Tadao, Hayakawa; Kazuhiro, Kakimoto; Norio, Yamada; James B, Simpungwe.

2010-10-01

48

Expansion of antiretroviral treatment to rural health centre level by a mobile service in Mumbwa district, Zambia / Élargissement de l'accès au traitement antirétroviral au niveau des centres de santé ruraux grâce à un service mobile dans le district de Mumbwa, Zambie / Expansión del tratamiento antirretroviral a nivel de los centros de salud rurales mediante un servicio móvil en el distrito de Mumbwa, Zambia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish SITUACIÓN: A pesar de los esfuerzos del Gobierno por extender los servicios hasta el nivel de distrito, sigue resultando difícil que las personas con VIH accedan al tratamiento antirretroviral (TAR) en la Zambia rural. Las enérgicas súplicas para ampliar los servicios relacionados con el TAR a los c [...] entros de salud rurales se enfrentan a las dificultades derivadas de la escasez de recursos. ENFOQUE: El equipo de gestión sanitaria en el distrito de Mumbwa introdujo servicios móviles de TAR que hacían uso de recursos humanos y asesoramiento técnico de hospitales de distrito, así como la participación de la comunidad en cuatro centros de salud rurales en el primer trimestre de 2007. Este trabajo aborda el uso de los servicios móviles de TAR en el distrito rural de Mumbwa. MARCO REGIONAL: Mumbwa es un distrito rural con un área de 23 000 km2 y una población de 167 000 habitantes. Antes de la introducción de los servicios móviles, los servicios de TAR se proporcionaban sólo en el Hospital de Distrito de Mumbwa. CAMBIOS IMPORTANTES: Los servicios móviles mejoraron la accesibilidad al TAR, especialmente para usuarios con un mejor estado funcional, es decir, aún capaces de trabajar. Además, estos servicios móviles pueden reducir el número de casos de «pérdidas durante el seguimiento». Esto podría deberse a la mayor implicación de la comunidad y al mejor apoyo ofrecido por estos servicios a los usuarios en las áreas rurales. LECCIONES APRENDIDAS: Estos servicios móviles para el TAR ayudaron a extender los servicios a los centros de salud rurales cuando los recursos fueron limitados, acercándolos lo máximo posible a los lugares donde viven los usuarios. Abstract in english PROBLEM: Despite the Government's effort to expand services to district level, it is still hard for people living with HIV to access antiretroviral treatment (ART) in rural Zambia. Strong demands for expanding ART services at the rural health centre level face challenges of resource shortages. APPRO [...] ACH: The Mumbwa district health management team introduced mobile ART services using human resources and technical support from district hospitals, and community involvement at four rural health centres in the first quarter of 2007. This paper discusses the uptake of the mobile ART services in rural Mumbwa. LOCAL SETTING: Mumbwa is a rural district with an area of 23 000 km² and a population of 167 000. Before the introduction of mobile services, ART services were provided only at Mumbwa District Hospital. RELEVANT CHANGES: The mobile services improved accessibility to ART, especially for clients in better functional status, i.e. still able to work. In addition, these mobile services may reduce the number of cases "lost to follow-up". This might be due to the closer involvement of the community and the better support offered by these services to rural clients. LESSONS LEARNT: These mobile ART services helped expand services to rural health facilities where resources are limited, bringing them as close as possible to where clients live.

Christopher, Dube; Ikuma, Nozaki; Tadao, Hayakawa; Kazuhiro, Kakimoto; Norio, Yamada; James B, Simpungwe.

49

Risk factors for foot-and-mouth disease in Zambia, 1981-2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to describe the spatial distribution of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in Zambia for the period January 1981-December 2012 and to quantify the association between geographical features (proximity to roads, national parks, wetland areas) and the spatial distribution of FMD using a Poisson point process model. Details of FMD outbreaks retrieved from the Zambian Department of Veterinary and Livestock Development included the date of onset of clinical signs and the name of the ward in which the index case enterprise was located. A total of 62 FMD outbreaks occurred throughout the study period. Outbreaks occurred in the south of the Southern province along the border with Namibia and Botswana (n=5), in the Western province (n=2), in the Southern and Central provinces on the Kafue flood plains (n=44), and in the north east of the country close to the border with Tanzania (n=11). Increases in distance to the nearest major international border crossing, distance to the nearest major road, distance to the wetland area of the Kafue flood plain, wetness index and elevation were all associated with a decrease in FMD-outbreak ward intensity. Our analyses support the hypothesis that in drier areas of the country cattle are more likely to aggregate around communal drinking pools. Aggregation of cattle provides conditions suitable for FMD spread and detection. PMID:24486093

Hamoonga, R; Stevenson, M A; Allepuz, A; Carpenter, T E; Sinkala, Y

2014-04-01

50

Trypanosoma brucei Infection in asymptomatic greater Kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trypomastogotes of Trypanosoma brucei were detected from 4 asymptomatic kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch located approximately 45 km north east of Lusaka, Zambia. Blood smears examined from 14 wildlife species comprising of the impala (Aepyceros melampus), Kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis), sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), tsessebe (Damaliscus lunatus), warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), puku (Kobus vardoni), zebra (Equus burchelli), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), reedbuck (Redunca arundinum), wilderbeest (Connochaetes taurinus), hartebeest (Alcephelus lichtensteini), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) showed that only the kudu had T. brucei. Although game ranching has emerged to be a successful ex-situ conservation strategy aimed at saving the declining wildlife population in the National Parks, our findings suggest that it has the potential of aiding the re-distribution of animal diseases. Hence, there is a need for augmenting wildlife conservation with disease control strategies aimed at reducing the risk of disease transmission between wildlife and domestic animals. PMID:20333288

Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Munyeme, Musso; Nambota, Andrew; Mutoloki, Stephen; Matandiko, Wigganson

2010-03-01

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Heavy Metal Contaminated Food Crops Irrigated with Wastewater in Peri Urban Areas, Zambia  

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Full Text Available Studies on peri urban farming in Zambia have not adequately tackled the issues pertaining to heavy metal contaminated wastewater irrigation farming. The study investigated heavy metal contamination of water, soils and crops at two peri urban areas in Zambia. Two study sites were New Farm Extension in Mufulira Town in the Copperbelt Province and Chilumba Gardens in Kafue Town in Lusaka Province. The heavy metals investigated were lead, copper, cobalt, nickel and chromium. These heavy metals were found to be higher than acceptable limits in wastewater used to irrigate crops and there are potential human health risks associated with consumption of heavy metal contaminated food crops which have implications on the livelihoods of people. Samples of water, soil and crops were collected and analysed for lead (Pb, copper (Cu, chromium (Cr, cobalt (Co and nickel (Ni using the Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS. The data on heavy metals was analysed using mean, standard error and T-test. The results indicated that the levels of heavy metals in wastewater, soil and food crops were above acceptable limits at two study sites. It can be concluded that there was heavy metal contamination of wastewater, soil and food crops at the two peri-urban areas in Zambia. The study highlighted the actual levels of heavy metal contaminant uptake in food crops consumed by the peri urban population. The information from this study can be used by the relevant authorities to develop appropriate measures for monitoring and control of heavy metal contamination in wastewater irrigation farming systems in peri urban areas inZambia.

Evaristo Mwaba Kapungwe

2013-07-01

52

Rift Valley fever: Real or perceived threat for Zambia?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Zambia was first reported in 1974 during an epizootic of cattle and sheep that occurred in parts of Central, Southern and Copperbelt Provinces. In 1990, the disease was documented in nine districts of the provinces of Zambia. In the last two decades, there have been no rep [...] orts of RVF. This long period without reported clinical disease raises questions as to whether RVF is a current or just a perceived threat. To address this question, World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) disease occurrence data on RVF for the period 2005-2010 in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) was analysed. From the analysis, it was evident that most countries that share a common border with Zambia had reported at least one occurrence of the disease during the period under review. Due to the absence of natural physical barriers between Zambia and most of her neighbours, informal livestock trade and movements is a ubiquitous reality. Analysis of the rainfall patterns also showed that Zambia received rains sufficient to support a mosquito population large enough for high risk of RVF transmission. The evidence of disease occurrence in nearby countries coupled with animal movement, and environmental risk suggests that RVF is a serious threat to Zambia. In conclusion, the current occurrence of RVF in Zambia is unclear, but there are sufficient indications that the magnitude of the circulating infection is such that capacity building in disease surveillance and courses on recognition of the disease for field staff is recommended. Given the zoonotic potential of RVF, these measures are also a prerequisite for accurate assessment of the disease burden in humans.

George, Dautu; Calvin, Sindato; Aaron S., Mweene; Kenny L., Samui; Polly, Roy; Robert, Noad; Janusz, Paweska; Phelix A.O., Majiwa; Antony J., Musoke.

53

Foot and mouth disease in Zambia: Spatial and temporal distributions of outbreaks, assessment of clusters and implications for control  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Zambia has been experiencing low livestock productivity as well as trade restrictions owing to the occurrence of foot and mouth disease (FMD), but little is known about the epidemiology of the disease in these endemic settings. The fundamental questions relate to the spatio-temporal distribution of [...] FMD cases and what determines their occurrence. A retrospective review of FMD cases in Zambia from 1981 to 2012 was conducted using geographical information systems and the SaTScan software package. Information was collected from peer-reviewed journal articles, conference proceedings, laboratory reports, unpublished scientific reports and grey literature. A space-time permutation probability model using a varying time window of one year was used to scan for areas with high infection rates. The spatial scan statistic detected a significant purely spatial cluster around the Mbala-Isoka area between 2009 and 2012, with secondary clusters in Sesheke-Kazungula in 2007 and 2008, the Kafue flats in 2004 and 2005 and Livingstone in 2012. This study provides evidence of the existence of statistically significant FMD clusters and an increase in occurrence in Zambia between 2004 and 2012. The identified clusters agree with areas known to be at high risk of FMD. The FMD virus transmission dynamics and the heterogeneous variability in risk within these locations may need further investigation.

Yona, Sinkala; Martin, Simuunza; John B., Muma; Dirk U., Pfeiffe; Christopher J., Kasanga; Aaron, Mweene.

2014-02-01

54

Foot and mouth disease in Zambia: spatial and temporal distributions of outbreaks, assessment of clusters and implications for control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zambia has been experiencing low livestock productivity as well as trade restrictions owing to the occurrence of foot and mouth disease (FMD), but little is known about the epidemiology of the disease in these endemic settings. The fundamental questions relate to the spatio-temporal distribution of FMD cases and what determines their occurrence. A retrospective review of FMD cases in Zambia from 1981 to 2012 was conducted using geographical information systems and the SaTScan software package. Information was collected from peer-reviewed journal articles, conference proceedings, laboratory reports, unpublished scientific reports and grey literature. A space-time permutation probability model using a varying time window of one year was used to scan for areas with high infection rates. The spatial scan statistic detected a significant purely spatial cluster around the Mbala-Isoka area between 2009 and 2012, with secondary clusters in Sesheke-Kazungula in 2007 and 2008, the Kafue flats in 2004 and 2005 and Livingstone in 2012. This study provides evidence of the existence of statistically significant FMD clusters and an increase in occurrence in Zambia between 2004 and 2012. The identified clusters agree with areas known to be at high risk of FMD. The FMD virus transmission dynamics and the heterogeneous variability in risk within these locations may need further investigation. PMID:25005590

Sinkala, Yona; Simuunza, Martin; Muma, John B; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Kasanga, Christopher J; Mweene, Aaron

2014-01-01

55

Wildlife rabies in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Wildlife species made up 26 (2.0%) of 1,304 positive rabies cases received between 1969 and 1976. The jackal (Canis adustus) was the predominate wildlife species involved (69%) and played a role in the epidemiology of bovine rabies in remote farm areas. Rabies appears to be absent from the intact wildlife communities in Zambia, especially the National Parks; this is considered in the light of the epidemiology of the disease in wildlife. PMID:105155

Röttcher, D; Sawchuk, A M

1978-10-01

56

A qualitative study to identify community structures for management of severe malaria: a basis for introducing rectal artesunate in the under five years children in Nakonde District of Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a serious illness among children aged 5 years and below in Zambia, which carries with it many adverse effects including anemia and high parasites exposure that lead to infant and childhood mortality. Due to poor accessibility to modern health facilities, malaria is normally managed at home using indigenous and cosmopolitan medicines. In view of problems and implications associated with management of severe malaria at home, rectal artesunate is being proposed as a first aid drug to slow down multiplication of parasites in children before accessing appropriate treatment. Methods A qualitative study using standardised in-depth and Focuss Group Discussions (FGDs guides to collect information from four (4 villages in Nakonde district, was conducted between February and March 2004. The guides were administered on 29 key informants living in the community and those whose children were admitted in the health facility. Participants in the 12 FGDs came from the 4 participating villages. Participants and key informants were fathers, younger and older mothers including grandmothers and other influential people at household level. Others were traditional healers, headmen, village secretaries, tradtional birth attendants, church leaders and black smiths. FGDs and interview transcriptions were coded to identify common themes that were related to recognition, classification and naming of malaria illness, care-seeking behaviour and community treatment practices for severe malaria. Results Parental prior knowledge of the disease was important as the majority of informants (23 out of 29 and participants (69 out of 97 mentioned four combined symptoms that were used to recognise severe malaria. The symptoms were excessive body hotness, convulsions, vomiting yellow things and bulging of the fontanelle. On the other hand, all informants mentioned two or more of symptoms associated with severe malaria. In all 12 FGDs, participants reported that treatment of severe malaria commenced with the family and moved into the community as the illness progressed. Although treatment of severe diarrheal effects, were common among the winamwanga, no rectal medicines to treat severe malaria were identified. Apart from the anti-malarial fansidar, which was mentioned by 23 in IDIs and 40 in FGDs, participants and informants also frequently mentioned indigenous medicines provided by healers and other respectable herbalists for repelling evil spirits, once a child had severe malaria. Mothers were the important arms for administration of ant-malarial drugs in the villages. Referrals began with healers to CHWs, where no CHWs existed healers directly referred sick children to the health facility. Conclusion Our findings showed that there is a precedent for rectal application of traditional medicine for childhood illness. Therefore rectal artesunate may be a well-received intervention in Nakonde District, provided effective sensitisation, to mothers and CHWs is given which will strengthen the health care delivery system at community level.

Tuba Mary

2005-03-01

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Callings, work role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement among teachers in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our aim in this study was to investigate the relationships among a calling orientation, work role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement of teachers in Zambia. A quantitative approach was followed and a cross-sectional survey was used. The sample (n = 150 included 75 basic and 75 secondary school teachers in the Choma district of Zambia. The Work Role Fit Scale, Work-Life Questionnaire, Psychological Meaningfulness Scale, and Work Engagement Scale were administered. Structural equation modelling confirmed a model in which a calling orientation impacted psychological meaningfulness and work engagement significantly. A calling orientation impacted work engagement directly, while such work orientation impacted psychological meaningfulness indirectly via work role fit. The results suggest that it is necessary to address the work orientation and work role fit of teachers in Zambia as pathways to psychological meaningfulness and work engagement.These results have implications for the recruitment, selection, training, and development of teachers in Zambia.

Sebastiaan Rothmann

2013-01-01

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Local problems; local solutions: an innovative approach to investigating and addressing causes of maternal deaths in Zambia's Copperbelt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Maternal mortality in developing countries is high and international targets for reduction are unlikely to be met. Zambia's maternal mortality ratio was 591 per 100,000 live births according to survey data (2007) while routinely collected data captured only about 10% of these deaths. In one district in Zambia medical staff reviewed deaths occurring in the labour ward but no related recommendations were documented nor was there evidence of actions taken to ...

Hadley Mary B; Tuba Mary

2011-01-01

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Zambia : long-term generation expansion study - executive summary.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study is to analyze possible long-term development options of the Zambian electric power system in the period up to 2015. The analysis involved the hydro operations studies of the Zambezi river basin and the systems planning studies for the least-cost generation expansion planning. Two well-known and widely accepted computer models were used in the analysis: PC-VALORAGUA model for the hydro operations and optimization studies and the WASP-III Plus model for the optimization of long-term system development. The WASP-III Plus model is a part of the Argonne National Laboratory's Energy and Power Evaluation Model (ENPEP). The analysis was conducted in close collaboration with the Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO). On the initiative from The World Bank, the sponsor of the study, ZESCO formed a team of experts that participated in the analysis and were trained in the use of computer models. Both models were transferred to ZESCO free of charge and installed on several computers in the ZESCO corporate offices in Lusaka. In September-October 1995, two members of the ZESCO National Team participated in a 4-week training course at Argonne National Laboratory near Chicago, U.S.A., focusing on the long-term system expansion planning using the WASP and VALORAGUA models. The hydropower operations studies were performed for the whole Zambezi river basin, including the full installation of the Kariba power station, and the Cahora Bassa hydro power station in Mozambique. The analysis also included possible future projects such as Itezhi-Tezhi, Kafue Gorge Lower, and Batoka Gorge power stations. As hydropower operations studies served to determine the operational characteristics of the existing and future hydro power plants, it was necessary to simulate the whole Zambezi river basin in order to take into account all interactions and mutual influences between the hydro power plants. In addition, it allowed for the optimization of reservoir management and optimization of hydro cascades, resulting in the better utilization of available hydro potential. Numerous analyses were performed for different stages of system development. These include system configurations that correspond to years 1997, 2001, 2015 and 2020. Additional simulations were performed in order to determine the operational parameters of the three existing hydro power stations Victoria Falls, Kariba, and Kafue Gorge Upper, that correspond to the situation before and after their rehabilitation. The rehabilitation works for these three major power stations, that would bring their operational parameters and availability back to the design level, are planned to be carried out in the period until 2000. The main results of the hydro operations studies are presented in Table ES-1. These results correspond to VALORAGUA simulations of system configurations in the years 2001 and 2015. The minimum, average, and maximum electricity generation is based on the simulation of monthly water inflows that correspond to the chronological series of unregulated water inflows at each hydro profile in the period from April 1961 to March 1990. The recommended hydrology dataset provided in the Hydrology Report of the SADC Energy Project AAA 3.8 was used for this study.

Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Buehring, W.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

2008-02-28

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Zambia mental health country profile.  

Science.gov (United States)

This country profile for Zambia was compiled between 1998 and 2002. The objectives of the exercise were to first of all avail policymakers, other key decision makers and leaders in Zambia, information about mental health in Zambia in order to assist policy and services development. Secondly, to facilitate comparative analyses of mental health services between countries. The work involved formation of a core group of experts who coordinated the collection of information from the various organizations in Zambia. The information was later shared to a broad spectrum of stakeholders for consensus. A series of focus group discussions (FGDs) supplemented the information collected. There are various factors that contribute to mental health in Zambia. It is clear from the Zambian perspective that social, demographic, economic, political, environmental, cultural and religious influences affect the mental health of the people. With a population of 10.3 million and annual growth rate of 2.9%, Zambia is one of the most urbanized countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Poverty levels stood at 72.9% in 1998. In terms of unemployment, the most urbanized provinces, Lusaka (the capital city), and the copper-belt are the most affected. The gross domestic product (GDP) is US$3.09 billion dollars while per capita income is US$300. The total budget allocation for health in the year 2002 was 15% while the proportion of the GDP per capita expenditure for health was 5.6%. The HIV/AIDS prevalence rates stand at 20% among the reproductive age group 15-49 years. Political instability and wars in neighbouring states has resulted in an influx of refugees. Environmental factors affecting the country include natural and man-made disasters such as floods and drought, mine accidents, and deforestation. To a large extent in Zambia, people who are mentally ill are stigmatized, feared, scorned at, humiliated and condemned. However, caring for mental ill health in old age is positively perceived. It is traditionally the duty and responsibility of the extended family to look after the aged. Gender based violence (GBV) is another issue. Women, who are totally dependent on their spouses economically, are forced by circumstances to continue living in abusive relationships to the detriment of their mental well-being. In Zambia, the family is considered sacrosanct and the affairs of the family members, private. It is within this context that GBV is regarded as a family affair and therefore a private affair, yet spouse beating has led to depression and in some cases death. In terms of psychiatric services, there are close to 560 beds for psychiatric patients across the country. Common mental disorders found in Zambia are acute psychotic episodes, schizophrenia, affective disorders, alcohol related problems and organic brain syndromes. About 70-80% of people with mental health problems consult traditional health practitioners before they seek help from conventional health practitioners. Over time the number of frontline mental health workers and professional staff has been declining. This is due to the 'brain drain', retirement, death and low output from training institutions. For practicing psychiatrists, only one is available for the whole country. Other key mental health workers such as psychologists, social workers and occupational therapists are also in short supply. All in all, the mental health services situation in Zambia could be described as critical, requiring urgent attention. PMID:15276939

Mayeya, John; Chazulwa, Roy; Mayeya, Petronella Ntambo; Mbewe, Edward; Magolo, Lonia Mwape; Kasisi, Friday; Bowa, Annel Chishimba

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Jatropha – Zambia’s first Bio-diesel Feedstock  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to highlight and bring out the main environmental,economic and social impacts of the fast developing Jatropha industry in Zambia. Thestudy addressed key issues related with the Jatropha cultivation, processing and use of bio-diesel and its by-products. Each of the stages of Jatropha cultivation, conversiontechnology and the ultimate use of bio-diesel, glycerine and seedcake were related to the environmental, economic and social impacts. Jatropha based bio-diesel ...

Mundike, Jhonnah

2009-01-01

62

Health workforce responses to global health initiatives funding: a comparison of Malawi and Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Shortages of health workers are obstacles to utilising global health initiative (GHI funds effectively in Africa. This paper reports and analyses two countries' health workforce responses during a period of large increases in GHI funds. Methods Health facility record reviews were conducted in 52 facilities in Malawi and 39 facilities in Zambia in 2006/07 and 2008; quarterly totals from the last quarter of 2005 to the first quarter of 2008 inclusive in Malawi; and annual totals for 2004 to 2007 inclusive in Zambia. Topic-guided interviews were conducted with facility and district managers in both countries, and with health workers in Malawi. Results Facility data confirm significant scale-up in HIV/AIDS service delivery in both countries. In Malawi, this was supported by a large increase in lower trained cadres and only a modest increase in clinical staff numbers. Routine outpatient workload fell in urban facilities, in rural health centres and in facilities not providing antiretroviral treatment (ART, while it increased at district hospitals and in facilities providing ART. In Zambia, total staff and clinical staff numbers stagnated between 2004 and 2007. In rural areas, outpatient workload, which was higher than at urban facilities, increased further. Key informants described the effects of increased workloads in both countries and attributed staff migration from public health facilities to non-government facilities in Zambia to PEPFAR. Conclusions Malawi, which received large levels of GHI funding from only the Global Fund, managed to increase facility staff across all levels of the health system: urban, district and rural health facilities, supported by task-shifting to lower trained staff. The more complex GHI arena in Zambia, where both Global Fund and PEPFAR provided large levels of support, may have undermined a coordinated national workforce response to addressing health worker shortages, leading to a less effective response in rural areas.

Brugha Ruairí

2010-08-01

63

Performance of the Library Profession in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines performance of library profession in Zambia in the context of the criteria of professionalism. Highlights include contribution of librarians to the growth of library profession in Zambia; belonging to a professional association (Zambian Library Association); library education; service-orientation to society; publications of the…

Phiri, Zilole M. K.

1986-01-01

64

Callings, work role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement among teachers in Zambia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Our aim in this study was to investigate the relationships among a calling orientation, work role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement of teachers in Zambia. A quantitative approach was followed and a cross-sectional survey was used. The sample (n = 150) included 75 basic and 75 sec [...] ondary school teachers in the Choma district of Zambia. The Work Role Fit Scale, Work-Life Questionnaire, Psychological Meaningfulness Scale, and Work Engagement Scale were administered. Structural equation modelling confirmed a model in which a calling orientation impacted psychological meaningfulness and work engagement significantly. A calling orientation impacted work engagement directly, while such work orientation impacted psychological meaningfulness indirectly via work role fit. The results suggest that it is necessary to address the work orientation and work role fit of teachers in Zambia as pathways to psychological meaningfulness and work engagement.These results have implications for the recruitment, selection, training, and development of teachers in Zambia.

Sebastiaan, Rothmann; Lukondo, Hamukang' andu.

65

Telemedicine in primary health: the virtual doctor project Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is a commentary on a project application of telemedicine to alleviate primary health care problems in Lundazi district in the Eastern province of Zambia. The project dubbed 'The Virtual Doctor Project' will use hard body vehicles fitted with satellite communication devices and modern medical equipment to deliver primary health care services to some of the neediest areas of the country. The relevance and importance of the project lies in the fact that these areas are hard-to-reach due to rugged natural terrain and have very limited telecommunications infrastructure. The lack of these and other basic services makes it difficult for medical personnel to settle in these areas, which leads to an acute shortage of medical personnel. We comment on this problem and how it is addressed by 'The Virtual Doctor Project', emphasizing that while the telemedicine concept is not new in sub-Saharan Africa, the combination of mobility and connectivity to service a number of villages 'on the go' is an important variation in the shift back to the 1978 Alma Ata principles of the United Nations World Health Organization [WHO]. This overview of the Virtual Doctor Project in Zambia provides insight into both the potential for ICT, and the problems and limitations that any "real-world" articulation of this technology must confront. PMID:21569490

Mupela, Evans N; Mustarde, Paul; Jones, Huw L C

2011-01-01

66

Telemedicine in Primary Health: The Virtual Doctor Project Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract This paper is a commentary on a project application of telemedicine to alleviate primary health care problems in Lundazi district in the Eastern province of Zambia. The project dubbed 'The Virtual Doctor Project' will use hard body vehicles fitted with satellite communication devices and modern medical equipment to deliver primary health care services to some of the neediest areas of the country. The relevance and importance of the project lies in the fact that these areas are hard-to-reach due to rugged natural terrain and have very limited telecommunications infrastructure. The lack of these and other basic services makes it difficult for medical personnel to settle in these areas, which leads to an acute shortage of medical personnel. We comment on this problem and how it is addressed by 'The Virtual Doctor Project', emphasizing that while the telemedicine concept is not new in sub-Saharan Africa, the combination of mobility and connectivity to service a number of villages 'on the go' is an important variation in the shift back to the 1978 Alma Ata principles of the United Nations World Health Organization [WHO]. This overview of the Virtual Doctor Project in Zambia provides insight into both the potential for ICT, and the problems and limitations that any "real-world" articulation of this technology must confront.

Mustarde Paul

2011-05-01

67

The University of Zambia School Teaching Experience: Is It Effective?  

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Full Text Available Teaching practice exercises serve the purpose of orienting the teacher into real classroom situations where the novice puts his or her skills into practice. Education students at the University of Zambia (UNZA go through the school teaching experience after their third year of study. This comes after they have arguably completed enough content and methodology courses to teach. The purpose of this study was to establish the effectiveness of the UNZA school teaching experience. The research instruments used were interview guides, observation checklists, and focus group discussions. The respondents included 80 serving teachers, 80 student teachers, and 10 head teachers drawn from 10 high schools in the Lusaka District. In addition, 10 lecturers from UNZA were also sampled. The findings revealed that the design and delivery of the UNZA student teaching experience was not effective.

Peter Chomba Manchishi

2014-05-01

68

Traditional Irrigation Practices, High Crop Diversification and Multiple Agricultural Cycles in Wastewater Irrigation Farming in Peru Urban Areas, Zambia  

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Full Text Available Studies conducted on peri urban wastewater irrigation agriculture in Zambia have not adequately tackled issues pertaining to farmer managed irrigation systems in heavy metal contaminated wastewater irrigation farming.The study focused on characteristics of farmer managed irrigation systems in wastewater irrigation farming contaminated with heavy metals at New Farm in Mufulira and Chilumba Gardens in Kafue. The study objectives were to ascertain the nature of irrigation practices and types of crops grown at the two study sites in Zambia. It was hypothesised that: (i the nature of irrigation practices and types of crops were not significantly different at the two study sites in different seasons. (ii the agro-ecological factors did not significantly influence the nature of irrigation practices and types of crops. The method comprised observation of sources of water supply, methods of irrigation and types of crops grown coupled with agro-ecological factors such as soil, slope and drainage at field plots located at regular intervals along transects established in the stratified sampling zones. The results indicated that farmer managed irrigation systems at the two study sites were characterised by multiple sources of water supply, multiple methods of irrigation, relatively high number of crops per study site equivalent to twenty types of crops grown per study site and relatively high number of crops per field plot ranging from one crop to ten crops per field plot coupled with multiple cycles of agricultural practices. The nature of irrigation practices and types of crops were influenced by a combination of agro-ecological factors. In conclusion, the farmer managed irrigation systems in wastewater irrigation farming were characterised by traditional irrigation practices, high crop diversification and multiple cycles of agricultural practices which were typical of traditional farmer managed irrigation systems. It can be argued that the crop cultivators have adapted the rural traditional irrigation systems’ practices to the peri urban wastewater irrigation systems in Zambia which confirmed the findings from other studies in developing countries. The study findings will be used to select and implement appropriate agricultural practices which can mitigate the negative effects of heavy metal contamination.

Evaristo Mwaba Kapungwe

2013-12-01

69

Advances in area-wide tsetse control in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Trypanosomosis is one of the major constraints to sustainable agricultural development particularly in the traditional sector, which accounts for about 80% of the national livestock (cattle) in Zambia. The remaining 20% commercially managed herds are located in tsetse free areas. More than five-eighths of Zambia is tsetse infested, and the boundaries of tsetse infestation are not constantly monitored, indicated boundaries are only estimates. In the late 1980's it was reported by Chizyuka and colleagues, that two thirds of the country was infested with tsetse flies and 25% of the traditional herd was at risk of trypanosomosis. Currently Zambia accounts some 2.8 million cattle, a million goats, a marginal number of sheep and 0.5 million pigs. The 1999-2003 Health Statistics Report by the Ministry of Health indicated 83 cases of reported human trypanosomosis, of which 31 were children under five years and 52 were above five years of age. Between January 2003 and 25th August 2003, seven cases of human trypanosomosis have been documented from Nyimba, Luangwa, Mpika, Serenje and Mambwe districts. During the last 15 years Zambia had achieved a lot in terms of tsetse control in the country. Tsetse densities and the disease prevalence were brought down from fly densities as high as 7 fly/trap/day to as low as 0.05 fly/trap/day and trypanosomosis prevalence from as high as 20% to as low as 0% in the tsetse controlled areas. Tsetse have been controlled in approximately 50,000 km2 under projects funded by different donors in separate areas in Western, Southern, Lusaka and Eastern provinces. In recent years the country has been experiencing re-invasion of the areas that where once cleared. The main specific problems experienced from past control operations under the support of donors (EU, Belgium, the Netherlands) include among others: - Re-invasion of tsetse flies in controlled areas when maintenance activities were relaxed due to insufficient funding and inconsistent release of funds. - High costs of keeping controlled areas free of tsetse indefinitely. Small areas are difficulty to maintain free of tsetse. Management of trypanosomosis in the past decade or so has mainly been by tsetse control using bait technology (targets and treated cattle) and chemotherapy at the farmer level. These activities have been restricted to portions of the western and eastern fly belts and were under the support of donor contributions to improved livestock production in the country. Despite the considerable achievements realised from these vector control interventions, the areas of concern got re-infested with flies from neighboring areas that are not under control. Repeated control of tsetse flies in the same areas has cost Zambia huge amount of money. For example in Western Province the Government is spending about USD175,306 per year over the last 7 years to service a target barrier of 200 km in length (with approximately 6,000 targets), USD13,000 on monitoring and regulation, USD20,000 on tsetse and trypanosomosis surveys and USD 55,466 on salaries and other allowances. Local farmers are using approximately USD20,000 on trypanocides in Senanga and Shangombo districts. Altogether the total expenses per year comes up to approximately USD283,772. - Minimal regional cooperation and collaboration due to varying priorities along border areas Other problems include: - Shortage of trained and specialized manpower after donor withdraws. - Loss of manpower to HIV/AIDS. - Unclearly defined objectives of projects (objectives subject to change). It is against this background that Zambia is advocating for area-wide control of tsetse flies in the country and the region. One of the areas where this concept is being applied is the Kwando-Zambezi region where Namibia, Botswana, Angola and Zambia have common boundaries. All the four countries have agreed to eradicate tsetse in this region starting from May 2005 integrating methods (e.g. odoured baited targets, aerial spray, and SIT). The Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC)

70

Observations on Zambia’s Crop Monitoring and Early Warning Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A good early warning system is one that provides timely planning information to a diverse set of stakeholders. While policy makers need very concise messages for quick decisions, aid and development agencies need very specific and detailed information which can help them in programming at grass-roots level. This paper reviews Zambia’s crop monitoring and early warning systems and suggests practical ways to improve its efficiency and effectiveness, taking advantage of existi...

Gelson Tembo; Bernadette Chimai; Nathan Tembo; Mukelabai Ndiyoi

2014-01-01

71

Health worker perspectives on user fee removal in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background User fees for primary care services were removed in rural districts in Zambia in 2006. Experience from other countries has suggested that health workers play a key role in determining the success of a fee removal policy, but also find the implementation of such a policy challenging. The policy was introduced against a backdrop of a major shortage in qualified health staff. Methods As part of a larger study on the experience and effect of user fee removal in Zambia, a number of case studies at the facility level were conducted. As part of these, quantitative and qualitative data were collected to evaluate health workers’ satisfaction and experiences in charging and non-charging facilities. Results Our findings show that health-care workers have mixed feelings about the policy change and its consequences. We found some evidence that personnel motivation was higher in non-charging facilities compared to facilities still charging. Yet it is unclear whether this effect was due to differences in the user fee policy or to the fact that a lot of staff interviewed in non-charging facilities were working in mission facilities, where we found a significantly higher motivation. Health workers expressed satisfaction with an apparent increase in the number of patients visiting the facilities and the removal of a deterring factor for many needy patients, but also complained about an increased workload. Furthermore, working conditions were said to have worsened, which staff felt was linked to the absence of additional resources to deal with the increased demand or replace the loss of revenue generated by fees. Conclusion These findings highlight the need to pay attention to supply-side measures when removing demand-side barriers such as user fees and in particular to be concerned about the burden that increased demand can place on already over-stretched health workers.

Carasso Barbara S

2012-10-01

72

The Local Social and Environmental Impacts of Smallholder-Based Biofuel Investments in Zambia  

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Full Text Available High oil prices, recent commitments by industrialized countries to enhance the use of renewable energy, and efforts by developing countries to stimulate foreign investment as a pathway to development have fueled high levels of interest in the biofuel sector throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa. Zambia is no exception. A large, land-locked country with high pump prices and vast tracts of land considered by many to be “degraded” or “underutilized,” investor interest in the sector has remained high despite uncertainties associated with unproven feedstocks and market fluctuations. While investment in multiple feedstock and production models may be observed, one of the primary investments has been in jatropha outgrower schemes in which small-scale farmers grow feedstock on contract with domestic and foreign investors. We assess the history and evolution of the largest such scheme in Zambia, as well as the social and environmental impacts in two districts with large numbers of outgrowers. Findings suggest that, although such a production model may hold promise for enhancing rural livelihood benefits from the emerging biofuel sector, to date, small-scale farmers have borne the brunt of the risk and uncertainty that are the trademarks of this emerging industry. We conclude with a discussion of options to minimize forest conversion and protect farmers against high-risk investments, while harnessing the potential of this business model for enhancing rural livelihoods in Zambia and elsewhere.

Davison Gumbo

2011-12-01

73

Livestock sector in Zambia: Opportunities and limitations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zambia is endowed with a vast feed resource base for animal production purposes. However, the feed resource base is not fully utilised and this is manifested by low livestock productivity. The quality and production levels of animal products depend largely on the quality and quantity of feed, which is fed to the livestock. Among the constraints limiting livestock productivity in Zambia, insufficient and low quality of veld grass, particularly during the long dry season (March-November) is responsible for low production levels and poor reproductive performance in ruminants. The problem of inadequate veld grass can be overcome by feeding crop residues which are in abundance during the dry season. Zambia produces large quantities of sugarcane tops, bagasse and straws from maize, sorghum, wheat, millet and rice. These could sustain livestock productivity if supplemented with protein sources or treated with urea. Despite the production of large quantities of crop residues, these are wasted by burning or get destroyed by termites. There is a need, therefore, to develop feeding systems based on crop residues which are compatible with the farming systems in Zambia and to promote such feeding systems. (author)

74

Economic prospects of food irradiation in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Instances of economic benefits which are likely to be considered when introducing food irradiation as an industrial and commercial food processing method in Zambia are discussed from a point of view of increasing both the local and external marketing potential of various local food commodities. The present status of the food irradiation programme is also briefly discussed. (author)

75

Zambia: Multi-Faith Religious Education?  

Science.gov (United States)

As countries' populations become more religiously diverse, a need to review the religious education syllabus that operates is often perceived. One such country is Zambia, which was not only traditionally religiously diverse but has become even more so with the advent of Christianity, Islam and Hinduism and other non-African faiths. This article…

Carmody, Brendan

2006-01-01

76

Fairness and legitimacy of decisions during delivery of malaria services and ITN interventions in zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and the second leading cause of mortality in Zambia. Perceptions of fairness and legitimacy of decisions relating to treatment of malaria cases within public health facilities and distribution of ITNs were assessed in a district in Zambia. The study was conducted within the framework of REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT, a north-south collaborative action research study, which evaluates the Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR approach to priority setting in Zambia, Tanzania and Kenya. Methods This paper is based on baseline in-depth interviews (IDIs conducted with 38 decision-makers, who were involved in prioritization of malaria services and ITN distribution at district, facility and community levels in Zambia, one Focus Group Discussion (FGD with District Health Management Team managers and eight FGDs with outpatients' attendees. Perceptions and attitudes of providers and users and practices of providers were systematized according to the four AFR conditions relevance, publicity, appeals and leadership. Results Conflicting criteria for judging fairness were used by decision-makers and patients. Decision-makers argued that there was fairness in delivery of malaria treatment and distribution of ITNs based on alleged excessive supply of free malaria medicines, subsidized ITNs, and presence of a qualified health-provider in every facility. Patients argued that there was unfairness due to differences in waiting time, distances to health facilities, erratic supply of ITNs, no responsive appeal mechanisms, inadequate access to malaria medicines, ITNs and health providers, and uncaring providers. Decision-makers only perceived government bodies and donors/NGOs to be legitimate stakeholders to involve during delivery. Patients found government bodies, patients, indigenous healers, chiefs and politicians to be legitimate stakeholders during both planning and delivery. Conclusion Poor status of the AFR conditions of relevance, publicity, appeals and leadership corresponds well to the differing perceptions of fairness and unfairness among outpatient attendees and decision-makers. This may have been re-enforced by existing disagreements between the two groups regarding who the legitimate stakeholders to involve during service delivery were. Conflicts identified in this study could be resolved by promoting application of approaches such as AFR during priority setting in the district.

Bloch Paul

2010-11-01

77

Cost-effectiveness analysis of the available strategies for diagnosing malaria in outpatient clinics in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria in Zambia accounts for about 4 million clinical cases and 8 000 deaths annually. Artemether-lumefantrine (ACT, a relatively expensive drug, is being used as first line treatment of uncomplicated malaria. However, diagnostic capacity in Zambia is low, leading to potentially avoidable wastage of drugs due to unnecessary anti malarial treatment. Methods A cost-effectiveness evaluation of the three current alternatives to malaria diagnosis (clinical, microscopy and Rapid Diagnostic Tests- RDT was conducted in 12 facilities from 4 districts in Zambia. The analysis was conducted along an observational study, thus reflecting practice in health facilities under routine conditions. Average and incremental cost effectiveness ratios were estimated from the providers' perspective. Effectiveness was measured in relation to malaria cases correctly diagnosed by each strategy. Results Average cost-effectiveness ratios show that RDTs were more efficient (US$ 6.5 than either microscopy (US$ 11.9 or clinical diagnosis (US$ 17.1 for malaria case correctly diagnosed. In relation to clinical diagnoses the incremental cost per case correctly diagnosed and treated was US$ 2.6 and US$ 9.6 for RDT and microscopy respectively. RDTs would be much cheaper to scale up than microscopy. The findings were robust to changes in assumptions and various parameters. Conclusion RDTs were the most cost effective method at correctly diagnosing malaria in primary health facilities in Zambia when compared to clinical and microscopy strategies. However, the treatment prescription practices of the health workers can impact on the potential that a diagnostic test has to lead to savings on antimalarials. The results of this study will serve to inform policy makers on which alternatives will be most efficient in reducing malaria misdiagnosis by taking into account both the costs and effects of each strategy.

Chanda Pascalina

2009-04-01

78

Task sharing in Zambia: HIV service scale-up compounds the human resource crisis  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Abstract Background Considerable attention has been given by policy makers and researchers to the human resources for health crisis in Africa. However, little attention has been paid to quantifying health facility-level trends in health worker numbers, distribution and workload, despite growing demands on health workers due to the availability of new funds for HIV\\/AIDS control scale-up. This study analyses and reports trends in HIV and non-HIV ambulatory service workloads on clinical staff in urban and rural district level facilities. Methods Structured surveys of health facility managers, and health services covering 2005-07 were conducted in three districts of Zambia in 2008 (two urban and one rural), to fill this evidence gap. Intra-facility analyses were conducted, comparing trends in HIV and non-HIV service utilisation with staff trends. Results Clinical staff (doctors, nurses and nurse-midwives, and clinical officers) numbers and staff population densities fell slightly, with lower ratios of staff to population in the rural district. The ratios of antenatal care and family planning registrants to nurses\\/nurse-midwives were highest at baseline and increased further at the rural facilities over the three years, while daily outpatient department (OPD) workload in urban facilities fell below that in rural facilities. HIV workload, as measured by numbers of clients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) per facility staff member, was highest in the capital city, but increased rapidly in all three districts. The analysis suggests evidence of task sharing, in that staff designated by managers as ART and PMTCT workers made up a higher proportion of frontline service providers by 2007. Conclusions This analysis of workforce patterns across 30 facilities in three districts of Zambia illustrates that the remarkable achievements in scaling-up HIV\\/AIDS service delivery has been on the back of sustained non-HIV workload levels, increasing HIV workload and stagnant health worker numbers. The findings are based on an analysis of routine data that are available to district and national managers. Mixed methods research is needed, combining quantitative analyses of routine health information with follow-up qualitative interviews, to explore and explain workload changes, and to identify and measure where problems are most acute, so that decision makers can respond appropriately. This study provides quantitative evidence of a human resource crisis in health facilities in Zambia, which may be more acute in rural areas.

Walsh, Aisling

2010-09-17

79

Task sharing in Zambia: HIV service scale-up compounds the human resource crisis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable attention has been given by policy makers and researchers to the human resources for health crisis in Africa. However, little attention has been paid to quantifying health facility-level trends in health worker numbers, distribution and workload, despite growing demands on health workers due to the availability of new funds for HIV/AIDS control scale-up. This study analyses and reports trends in HIV and non-HIV ambulatory service workloads on clinical staff in urban and rural district level facilities. Methods Structured surveys of health facility managers, and health services covering 2005-07 were conducted in three districts of Zambia in 2008 (two urban and one rural, to fill this evidence gap. Intra-facility analyses were conducted, comparing trends in HIV and non-HIV service utilisation with staff trends. Results Clinical staff (doctors, nurses and nurse-midwives, and clinical officers numbers and staff population densities fell slightly, with lower ratios of staff to population in the rural district. The ratios of antenatal care and family planning registrants to nurses/nurse-midwives were highest at baseline and increased further at the rural facilities over the three years, while daily outpatient department (OPD workload in urban facilities fell below that in rural facilities. HIV workload, as measured by numbers of clients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT per facility staff member, was highest in the capital city, but increased rapidly in all three districts. The analysis suggests evidence of task sharing, in that staff designated by managers as ART and PMTCT workers made up a higher proportion of frontline service providers by 2007. Conclusions This analysis of workforce patterns across 30 facilities in three districts of Zambia illustrates that the remarkable achievements in scaling-up HIV/AIDS service delivery has been on the back of sustained non-HIV workload levels, increasing HIV workload and stagnant health worker numbers. The findings are based on an analysis of routine data that are available to district and national managers. Mixed methods research is needed, combining quantitative analyses of routine health information with follow-up qualitative interviews, to explore and explain workload changes, and to identify and measure where problems are most acute, so that decision makers can respond appropriately. This study provides quantitative evidence of a human resource crisis in health facilities in Zambia, which may be more acute in rural areas.

Simbaya Joseph

2010-09-01

80

New Agricultural Settlement, Meheba River, Zambia, Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

This infra-red view of a new settlement along the Meheba River, Zambia, Africa (12.5S, 26.0E) resembles the resettlement clusters in the Amazon basin of Brazil. However, this settlement is on savanna land not a tropical forest region, so relatively little land clearing was required. The familiar pattern of small single family plots, no large commercial fields, along the branches of a herringbone road network is evident.

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Uranium distribution in drainage samples, Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses the results of Uranium content analyses of samples collected on a country wide survey using fluorimetry.The analysis of the survey samples and based on the threshold of 3.0 ppm U established three possible Uranium provinces in Zambia,namely: the Bangweulu; the Kabwe-Mkushi; and in scattered pockets in the Petauke,Chipata,Lundazi,Kasempa,Mwinilunga,Mumbwa and Mpika areas.13 refs.,fig.,3 maps

82

Status of radioactive waste management in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zambia being part of the world community clearly understands that careless handling of radioactive waste would cause problems - worldwide - for human health, for the environment and natural resources management. It is for this reason that the Radiation Protection Board has initiated a Radioactive Waste Management Programme covering the following areas: (i) Legislation of Radioactive Waste Management; (ii) Immobilization of spent sealed radioactive sources; and (iii) Siting and construction of an interim storage facility. (author)

83

Determinants of Smallholder Farmers’ Access to Agricultural Finance in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Smallholder farmers in Zambia face many challenges in accessing financial services including limited access to financial markets. Despite the numerous reforms undertaken by the Government and the donor community, including financial sector reforms, many rural farmers have remained in poverty with limited capacity to access safety nets like loans to militate against hunger and disease. This paper set out to find out factors that affect smallholders’ decision to access rural finance and the intensity of their participation in the financial markets. A household survey was conducted in five provinces from which thirteen districts were purposively selected. Employing both purposive and random sampling techniques, a pre-tested questionnaire was administered on 1,326 households. Data was analysed using a double huddle model. Results indicated that education level of household head, size of household and number of daily meals served significantly influenced decision to access finance while loan payback period, having a phone and personal savings influenced the intensity of participation in the rural financial market.

Christopher Sebatta

2014-10-01

84

Human parainfluenza virus type 3 in wild nonhuman primates, Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) genome was detected in 4 baboons in Zambia. Antibody for HPIV3 was detected in 13 baboons and 6 vervet monkeys in 2 distinct areas in Zambia. Our findings suggest that wild nonhuman primates are susceptible to HPIV3 infection. PMID:23968816

Sasaki, Michihito; Ishii, Akihiro; Orba, Yasuko; Thomas, Yuka; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Moonga, Ladslav; Mweene, Aaron S; Ogawa, Hirohito; Nakamura, Ichiro; Kimura, Takashi; Sawa, Hirofumi

2013-01-01

85

Recasting Postcolonial Citizenship through Civic Education: Critical Perspectives on Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the early 1990s and, perhaps, as one effect of the emergence of the uni-polar world, there have been a lot of "democratizing" activities in the Sub-Saharan context, with Zambia, a central African country of about 10 million, at the forefront of these processes. While democracy, in one form or another, has come to Zambia, socio-economic…

Abdi, Ali A.; Shizha, Edward; Bwalya, Ignatio

2006-01-01

86

Constraints on the development of biotechnology in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biotechnology can play an essential role in fostering the economic and social development of developing countries like Zambia. However, due to a number of constraints, Zambia is not in a position to exploit the emerging opportunities from biotechnology. Prominent among these constraints are the lack of a biotechnology policy, an insufficient number of trained personnel, a poor science and technology base and very little basic research in universities and research institutions. The challenge Zambia must overcome is to establish a capacity and capability to innovate its own biotechnology as well as to adapt biotechnologies developed elsewhere to the Zambian conditions and environment. Despite all the hurdles and setbacks Zambia will face as she endeavours to enter the world of biotechnology, Zambia cannot afford to be a mere spectator as the rest of the world invests and benefits from the promise of biotechnology. PMID:24415375

Lewanika, M M; Mulenga, K D

1996-09-01

87

Willemite Mineralisation in Namibia and Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Willemite mineralisation of several Zn-Pb deposits hosted in the Proterozoic carbonates of Namibia and Zambia has been rather neglected in the literature on zinc ores of southern Africa. In fact, willemite (Zn2SiO4) is one of the main zinc carriers in several high-grade carbonate-hosted non-sulphide deposits and prospects, located in the southern African subcontinent. These deposits (Berg Aukas, Abenab West and Baltika in the Otavi Mountain Land, Namibia; Kabwe, Excelsior and Star Zinc, Zambi...

Terracciano, Rosario

2008-01-01

88

Development of radiation protection infrastructure in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive materials have been in use in Zambia for a long time and its applications are non-military and mostly are used in medicine, research, teaching and industry. Radioactive waste management practices have been confined mainly to collection and storage of radioactive wastes in temporal storage facilities or strong rooms. With the proposed establishment of the Radiotherapy Centre, the increase of radioactive materials in the country's hospitals, research centres and industries, the volume and types of radioactive wastes on the whole is expected to increase requiring a well defined radiation infrastructure. (author)

89

7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

...of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia. 319.56-48 Section 319.56-48...of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia. Baby squash (Curcurbita maxima ...into the continental United States from Zambia only under the conditions...

2010-01-01

90

District heating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The papers presented at this meeting dealt with an international comparison of district heating, the Swiss district heating network, political aspects of nuclear district heating, nuclear and non-nuclear sources for district heating. 17 figs., 6 tabs

91

Male and female sterility in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Population measures of sterility are traditionally constructed for women, despite fertility and sterility being conditions of the couple. Estimates of male sterility provide insight into population-level sterility, and complement estimates based solely on women. Objective: This study seeks to estimate male sterility for the Gwembe Tonga of Zambia using male birth histories collected by the Gwembe Tonga Research Project from 1957 to 1995, while providing context by estimating female sterility for the Gwembe Tonga, as well as female sterility in all of Zambia, from Zambian DHS data (1992, 1997, 2001-02, and 2007. Methods: Sterility is measured using the Larson-Menken subsequently infertile indicator. Estimates are produced using discrete time event history analysis. Results: The odds of sterility were higher for women than men, though women's odds of sterility were only 1.5 times that of men's in the middle reproductive years. The odds of sterility increased steadily with age for both men and women, and across all datasets. However, women's sterility increased much more sharply with age than men's did, and women's odds of sterility were higher than men's at all reproductive ages.

Athena Pantazis

2014-02-01

92

Personal and environmental predictors of the intention to use maternal healthcare services in Kalomo, Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low maternal healthcare service utilization contributes to poor maternal and new born health outcomes in rural Zambia. The purpose of this study was to identify important factors influencing women's intention to use these services in Kalomo, Zambia. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 1007 women of reproductive age (15-45 years) from 13 rural health centres with the lowest service utilization rates in the district. Questions included measures of (past) healthcare seeking behaviour, psychosocial variables (attitude, perceived social norms, perceived behavioural control), logistical barriers (e.g. distance to the clinic) and sociodemographic variables (e.g. age, income and education level). Overall, our findings showed that most respondents had high intention to use healthcare services. Intention was positively associated with attitude, personal norms, behavioural control, education and income levels. Conversely, intention was negatively related to perceived social norms, age and distance. Multivariate regression analysis showed that, together, these variables accounted for 41.8% of the variance in intention, with perceived behavioural control being the strongest predictor of intention, followed by geographical distance and perceived social norms. These findings suggest that public health programmes mitigating these important factors are likely to motivate pregnant women to use maternal healthcare services. PMID:25274723

Sialubanje, Cephas; Massar, Karlijn; Hamer, Davidson H; Ruiter, Robert A C

2014-12-01

93

The Mesoproterozoic Irumide belt of Zambia  

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The Mesoproterozoic Irumide belt is a northeast-trending structural province stretching from central Zambia to the Zambia-Tanzania border and northern Malawi. Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic transcurrent shear zones within reactivated parts of the Palaeoproterozoic Ubendian belt define its northeastern limit. The northwestern margin is defined by the largely undeformed basement lithologies of the Bangweulu block. An intensely folded and sheared zone at the southeastern margin of the Mporokoso Group sedimentary depocentre on the Bangweulu block, interpreted to have developed above a thrust at the basement-cover interface, indicates that far-field effects of the Irumide Orogen also affected the southeastern part of the Bangweulu block sedimentary cover. To the west and southwest, Irumide and basement lithologies were reworked by the Damara-Lufilian-Zambezi Orogen within the Neoproterozoic Zambezi and Lufilian belts. The Choma-Kalomo block, previously regarded as the southwesterly continuation of the Irumide belt, is a distinct Mesoproterozoic province, while a succession of structurally juxtaposed tectonic terranes in eastern Zambia record a deformation event related to the Irumide Orogen. The lithological units identified in the Irumide belt include: (1) limited Neoarchaean rocks emplaced between 2.73 and 2.61 Ga and representing the oldest rocks in the Bangweulu block; (2) ca. 2.05-1.85 Ga volcano-plutonic complexes and gneisses representing the most important components in the Bangweulu block; (3) an extensive quartzite-metapelite succession with minor carbonate forming the Muva Supergroup, and deposited at ca. 1.85 Ga; (4) granitoids emplaced between 1.65 and 1.55 Ga; (5) a minor suite of anorogenic plutons (nepheline syenite and biotite granite) restricted to the far northeastern Irumide belt and emplaced between 1.36 and 1.33 Ga; (6) voluminous syn- to post-kinematic Irumide granitoids emplaced between 1.05 and 0.95 Ga. Crustal shortening and thickening in the Irumide belt are shown by northwestward-directed thrusts and related folds and metamorphic parageneses recording a clockwise medium-pressure/medium-temperature P- T- t path. Metamorphic grades range from greenschist facies in the foreland to the northwest to upper amphibolite facies in the southeast, with local granulites. Peak metamorphism is diachronous across the belt and bracketed between 1.05 in the southeast and 1.02 Ga in the northwest.

De Waele, B.; Kampunzu, A. B.; Mapani, B. S. E.; Tembo, F.

2006-09-01

94

77 FR 48498 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia  

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...Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International Trade Administration...Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia scheduled for November 26- 30, 2012...with the [[Page 48499

2012-08-14

95

Epidemiology of Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome in the Zambezi River System. A case study for Zambia  

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Full Text Available Objective: An epidemiological investigation on the fish disease Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS was conducted from Januaryto December 2011 in the Zambezi River System (ZRS of Sesheke District in the Western Province of Zambia. The study aimed at determining:factors associated with outbreaks of EUS, infection rate and distribution of the disease. EUS is a newly confirmed disease in Southern Africacaused by a fungal pathogen, Aphanomyces invadans. Material and Methods: Active surveillance was conducted where a total of 4,800 fish wereinspected in February, June and October for gross EUS-like lesions and disease confirmed using histopathology. Environmental cues were alsoassessed monthly for one year to determine their association with disease outbreaks. A questionaire was adminstered to assess spread of EUSwhile Geographic Information System helped map disease distribution. Results of the study implicate several predisposing environmental factors;heavy rains preceded outbreaks resulting in excess flooding which caused water levels to rise 2m higher than normal; predominantly gleysoland arenosol soils of the ZRS resulted in low water pH (4.53 to 6.5. Other factors significantly (p<0.05 associated with EUS outbreaks were:low total alkalinity (45.13±SE 0.0418, water temperature (20.94±SE 0.2173, ambient temperature (25.85±SE 0.3058, month (June and site(lagoons of sampling. Infection rate was 3% (144 of the 4,800 fishes sampled. Of these, 58 (40.2% had mycotic granulomas after histopathologicalanalysis, representing 1.2% of the total sample. Eighty six (86 of the 144 fishes were diagnosed with healing wounds representing 1.8 %of the total fish sampled. Some of them, 4,656 (97% more exactly, had no gross lesions. Conclusion: There is indication that EUS has affectedfish in ZRS from Kazungula to Chavuma Districts of Zambia with sub optimal environmental factors being associated with disease outbreaks.

Daniel Sikawa

2013-03-01

96

7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43 Section 319.56-43...56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby...into the continental United States from Zambia only under the following conditions...

2010-01-01

97

77 FR 60966 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

...Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International Trade Administration...Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia scheduled for November 26- 30, 2012...Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia. Recruitment for this mission will...

2012-10-05

98

Impact assessment of malaria vector control using routine surveillance data in Zambia: implications for monitoring and evaluation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria vector control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and indoor residual spraying (IRS, with pyrethroids and DDT, to reduce malaria transmission has been expansively implemented in Zambia. The impact of these interventions on malaria morbidity and mortality has not previously been formally assessed at the population level in Zambia. Methods The impact of IRS (15 urban districts and LLINs (15 rural districts implementation on severe malaria cases, deaths and case fatality rates in children below the age of five years were compared. Zambian national Health Management Information System data from 2007 to 2008 were retrospectively analysed to assess the epidemiological impact of the two interventions using odds ratios to compare the pre-scaling up year 2007 with the scaling-up year 2008. Results Overall there were marked reductions in morbidity and mortality, with cases, deaths and case fatality rates (CFR of severe malaria decreasing by 31%, 63% and 62%, respectively between 2007 and 2008. In urban districts with IRS introduction there was a significant reduction in mortality (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.31-0.43, P = 0.015, while the reduction in mortality in rural districts with LLINs implementation was not significant (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.67-1.04, P = 0.666. A similar pattern was observed for case fatality rates with a significant reduction in urban districts implementing IRS (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.33-0.36, P = 0.005, but not in rural districts implementing LLINs (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.91-1.00, P = 0.913. No substantial difference was detected in overall reduction of malaria cases between districts implementing IRS and LLINs (P = 0.933. Conclusion Routine surveillance data proved valuable for determining the temporal effects of malaria control with two strategies, IRS and LLINs on severe malaria disease in different types of Zambian districts. However, this analysis did not take into account the effect of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT, which were being scaled up countrywide in both rural and urban districts.

Chanda Emmanuel

2012-12-01

99

The role of nurses and midwives in polio eradication and measles control activities: a survey in Sudan and Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurses and midwives are the key providers of nursing and midwifery services; in many countries, they form the major category of frontline workers who provide both preventive and curative services in the community. When the skills and experience of nursing and midwifery personnel are maximized, they can contribute significantly to positive health outcomes. We conducted a survey among nurses and midwives working at district level in Sudan and Zambia to determine their roles and functions in polio eradication and measles elimination programmes. Methods Nurses and midwives practising in four selected districts in Sudan and in Zambia completed a self-administered questionnaire on their roles and responsibilities, their routine activities and their functions during supplementary immunization campaigns for polio and measles. Results Nurses and midwives were found to play significant roles in implementing immunization programme activities. The level of responsibilities of nurses and midwives in their routine work related more to existing opportunities than to their job descriptions. In Zambia, where nurses reported constraints in performing their tasks, the reasons cited were an increase in the burden of disease and the shortage of health personnel. Factors identified as key to improving work performance included written job descriptions, opportunities for staff and career development and opportunities to earn extra income through activities associated with their jobs. Other non-monetary incentives mentioned included reliable transport, resources and logistics to support routine work in the district. However, in both countries, during supplementary immunization activities or mass campaigns for polio eradication and measles control, nurses and midwives took on more management responsibilities. Conclusion This study shows that nurses and midwives play an important role in implementing immunization activities at the district level and that their roles can be maximized by creating opportunities that lead to their having more responsibilities in their work and in particular, their involvement in early phases of planning of priority health activities. This should be accompanied by written job descriptions, tasks and clear lines of authority as well as good supportive supervision. The lessons from supplementary immunization activities, where the roles of nurses and midwives are maximized, can be easily adopted to benefit the rest of the health services provided at district level.

Haithami Salah

2009-09-01

100

Rabies status in Zambia for the period 1985-2004.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rabies has been present in Zambia since the early years of the 20th century. It is a significant public health problem in Zambia. Domestic dogs accounted for 69.7% (1348/1935) of the samples received for rabies diagnosis for the period 1985-2004. Of the 1069 positive cases confirmed by the fluorescent antibody test, 747 (69.9%) were from domestic dogs, 139 (13.0%) from cattle and 98 (9.2%) from humans. Wildlife samples accounted for 4.5% (87/1935) of the samples tested with the jackal (Canis adustus) being the predominant species. Cases of rabies were highest in Lusaka Province followed by the Copperbelt, Southern and Central Provinces. The monthly distribution of canine rabies showed an average of 2.93 (95% CI 2.59-3.29) dog positive cases per month. The study confirms that rabies is endemic in Zambia and that the domestic dog is the principal maintenance host. The epidemiology and control measures currently used in Zambia are herein discussed highlighting their limitations and successes. Based on the findings obtained from this study we advocate for strengthening the delivery of public health services and that steps must taken to reduce the incidence of rabies in Zambia. PMID:20887398

Munang'andu, H M; Mweene, A S; Siamudaala, V; Muma, J B; Matandiko, W

2011-02-01

 
 
 
 
101

Barriers to implementation of the HIV guidelines in the IMCI algorithm among IMCI trained health workers in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Zambia adopted integrated management of Childhood illnesses (IMCI in 1995 and a number of adaptations have been made to the generic WHO/UNICEF IMCI guidelines to better conform to Zambia's health service needs. One significant adaptation is the incorporation of HIV guidelines into the IMCI algorithm. Since 2004, health workers that have undergone IMCI case management training have also received training in HIV assessment. During initial follow-up visits in 11 districts 90 health workers were assessed in 2007 to determine their adherence to the IMCI algorithm. The assessment showed that 97% of the health workers assessed did not review or mention the HIV guidelines even though they had received HIV training as part of IMCI. This study aimed to explore reasons for non-adherence to HIV guidelines in the IMCI algorithm and make recommendations on how this can be improved. Methods Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to collect information from eligible health workers. Forty (40 health workers were randomly selected from among those who received initial follow-up visits between March 2007 and January 2008. The health workers were selected from eight districts in four provinces of Zambia. Qualitative data was collected using Focus group discussion and key informant interviews Results 83% of the respondents said they had no difficulties in following the HIV adapted IMCI guidelines. 17% said they had difficulties. Of those who admitted having difficulties (60% had difficulties in HIV assessment. Interesting, prompting and focus group discussions revealed that most respondents actually had difficulties in HIV assessment but could not admit it readily. Some barriers that contributed to non-adherence to the guidelines included lack of time due to inadequate staffing, lack of privacy in the health facilities and HIV related stigma from both caregivers and health workers. Frequent use of guidelines and supervision appeared to re-enforce adherence to the guidelines. Conclusion The findings in this study suggest that training in HIV adapted IMCI guidelines is not sufficient to enable health workers to actually use their knowledge in their daily practice. Barriers may exist which prevent them from adhering to the guidelines. Addressing these barriers is critical in increasing the uptake of paediatric ART in Zambia

Kalesha Penny

2010-12-01

102

A cost-effectiveness analysis of artemether lumefantrine for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity, mortality and non-fatal disability in Zambia, especially among children, pregnant women and the poor. Data gathered by the National Malaria Control Centre has shown that recently observed widespread treatment failure of SP and chloroquine precipitated a surge in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. As a result, the Government has recently replaced chloroquine and SP with combination therapy as first-line treatment for malaria. Despite the acclaimed therapeutic advantages of ACTs over monotherapies with SP and CQ, the cost of ACTs is much greater, raising concerns about affordability in many poor countries such as Zambia. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness analysis of artemether-lumefantrine, a version of ACTs adopted in Zambia in mid 2004. Methods Using data gathered from patients presenting at public health facilities with suspected malaria, the costs and effects of using ACTs versus SP as first-line treatment for malaria were estimated. The study was conducted in six district sites. Treatment success and reduction in demand for second line treatment constituted the main effectiveness outcomes. The study gathered data on the efficacy of, and compliance to, AL and SP treatment from a random sample of patients. Costs are based on estimated drug, labour, operational and capital inputs. Drug costs were based on dosages and unit prices provided by the Ministry of Health and the manufacturer (Norvatis. Findings The results suggest that AL produces successful treatment at less cost than SP, implying that AL is more cost-effective. While it is acknowledged that implementing national ACT program will require considerable resources, the study demonstrates that the health gains (treatment success from every dollar spent are significantly greater if AL is used rather than SP. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is estimated to be US$4.10. When the costs of second line treatment are considered the ICER of AL becomes negative, indicating that there are greater resource savings associated with AL in terms of reduction of costs of complicated malaria treatment. Conclusion This study suggests the decision to adopt AL is justifiable on both economic and public health grounds.

Hawela Moonga

2007-02-01

103

From chloroquine to artemether-lumefantrine: the process of drug policy change in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the recognition that morbidity and mortality due to malaria had dramatically increased in the last three decades, in 2002 the government of Zambia reviewed its efforts to prevent and treat malaria. Convincing evidence of the failing efficacy of chloroquine resulted in the initiation of a process that eventually led to the development and implementation of a new national drug policy based on artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT. Methods All published and unpublished documented evidence dealing with the antimalarial drug policy change was reviewed. These data were supplemented by the authors' observations of the policy change process. The information has been structured to capture the timing of events, the challenges encountered, and the resolutions reached in order to achieve implementation of the new treatment policy. Results A decision was made to change national drug policy to artemether-lumefantrine (AL in the first quarter of 2002, with a formal announcement made in October 2002. During this period, efforts were undertaken to identify funding for the procurement of AL and to develop new malaria treatment guidelines, training materials, and plans for implementation of the policy. In order to avoid a delay in implementation, the policy change decision required a formal adoption within existing legislation. Starting with donated drug, a phased deployment of AL began in January 2003 with initial use in seven districts followed by scaling up to 28 districts in the second half of 2003 and then to all 72 districts countrywide in early 2004. Conclusion Drug policy changes are not without difficulties and demand a sustained international financing strategy for them to succeed. The Zambian experience demonstrates the need for a harmonized national consensus among many stakeholders and a political commitment to ensure that new policies are translated into practice quickly. To guarantee effective policies requires more effort and recognition that this becomes a health system and not a drug issue. This case study attempts to document the successful experience of change to ACT in Zambia and provides a realistic overview of some of the painful experiences and important lessons learnt.

Snow Robert W

2008-01-01

104

The political economy of maize production and poverty reduction in Zambia: analysis of the last 50 years.  

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Poverty and food security are endemic issues in much of sub-Saharan Africa. To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger in the region remains a key Millennium Development Goal. Many African governments have pursued economic reforms and agricultural policy interventions in order to accelerate economic growth that reduces poverty faster. Agricultural policy regimes in Zambia in the last 50 years (1964–2008) are examined here to better understand their likely impact on food security and poverty, with an emphasis on the political economy of maize subsidy policies. The empirical work draws on secondary sources and an evaluation of farm household data from three villages in the Kasama District of Zambia from 1986/87 and 1992/93 to estimate a two-period econometric model to examine the impact on household welfare in a pre- and post-reform period. The analysis shows that past interventions had mixed effects on enhancing the production of food crops such as maize. While such reforms were politically popular, it did not necessarily translate into household-level productivity or welfare gains in the short term. The political economy of reforms needs to respond to the inherent diversity among the poor rural and urban households. The potential of agriculture to generate a more pro-poor growth process depends on the creation of new market opportunities that most benefit the rural poor. The state should encourage private sector investments for addressing infrastructure constraints to improve market access and accelerate more pro-poor growth through renewed investments in agriculture, rural infrastructure, gender inclusion, smarter subsidies and regional food trade. However, the financing of such investments poses significant challenges. There is a need to address impediments to the effective participation of public private investors to generate more effective poverty reduction and hunger eradication programmes. This article also explores the opportunities for new public–private investments through South–South cooperation and Asia-driven growth for reducing poverty in Zambia. PMID:22213879

Hanjra, Munir A; Culas, Richard J

2011-01-01

105

The current status of major tick borne diseases in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tick-borne diseases occurring in Zambia are assuming more importance as they continue to be a major economic problem not only in Zambia, but in many parts of Eastern, Southern and Central Africa. The current control methods, which include the use of toxic acaricides to kill ticks, and the virulent sporozoite infection and treatment method have limitations. Recombinant vaccines, currently in their experimental stages, offer hope for the future. The use of acaricides is hampered by the development of acaricide resistance and live vaccines are dependent on cold chain facilities, which are a formidable obstacle in the poorly developed infrastructure in parts of Zambia where the vaccine is most needed. Amidst these drawbacks are the results of the recent research on parasites and vector recombinant vaccines which promise to circumvent these problems. The history, current status and attitudes regarding the control of these diseases, taking into account their complexity, are reviewed. The establishment of the well-designed Central Veterinary Research Institute (CVRI) and Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) sponsored veterinary school, both have a potential for high quality research, with access to a wealth of specimens a veritable goldmine of research material. It is thus hoped that this review will stimulate the desire to maximize the value of the tick and tick-borne disease research in both Zambia and the international research community. PMID:12588682

Makala, Levi Hakwale; Mangani, Peter; Fujisaki, Kozo; Nagasawa, Hideyuki

2003-01-01

106

Textbooks and Learning Materials Program: Zambia. Final Report  

Science.gov (United States)

The Mississippi Consortium for International Development's (MCID's) intervention involved the development, publication and distribution of an Integrated Foundations of Learning Kit, focused on numeracy. This intervention was aligned with Zambia's priorities and strategies and matched the requirements of the Textbooks and Learning Materials Program…

US Agency for International Development, 2009

2009-01-01

107

The Implementation of School Based Continuous Assessment (CA) in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

In Zambia, continuous assessment (CA) is defined as an on-going, diagnostic, classroom-based process that uses a variety of assessment tools to measure learner performance (MOE, 2005:5). Over the years, examinations have been used for selection and certification, without formal considerations on school-based continuous assessment as a component in…

Kapambwe, William M.

2010-01-01

108

Mapping the geographical distribution of lymphatic filariasis in Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Past case reports have indicated that lymphatic filariasis (LF) occurs in Zambia, but knowledge about its geographical distribution and prevalence pattern, and the underlying potential environmental drivers, has been limited. As a background for planning and implementation of control, a country-wide mapping survey was undertaken between 2003 and 2011. Here the mapping activities are outlined, the findings across the numerous survey sites are presented, and the ecological requirements of the LF distribution are explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Approximately 10,000 adult volunteers from 108 geo-referenced survey sites across Zambia were examined for circulating filarial antigens (CFA) with rapid format ICT cards, and a map indicating the distribution of CFA prevalences in Zambia was prepared. 78% of survey sites had CFA positive cases, with prevalences ranging between 1% and 54%. Most positive survey sites had low prevalence, but six foci with more than 15% prevalence were identified. The observed geographical variation in prevalence pattern was examined in more detail using a species distribution modeling approach to explore environmental requirements for parasite presence, and to predict potential suitable habitats over unsurveyed areas. Of note, areas associated with human modification of the landscape appeared to play an important role for the general presence of LF, whereas temperature (measured as averaged seasonal land surface temperature) seemed to be an important determinant of medium-high prevalence levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: LF was found to be surprisingly widespread in Zambia, although in most places with low prevalence. The produced maps and the identified environmental correlates of LF infection will provide useful guidance for planning and start-up of geographically targeted and cost-effective LF control in Zambia.

Mwase, Enala T; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie

2014-01-01

109

Mapping the Geographical Distribution of Lymphatic Filariasis in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Past case reports have indicated that lymphatic filariasis (LF) occurs in Zambia, but knowledge about its geographical distribution and prevalence pattern, and the underlying potential environmental drivers, has been limited. As a background for planning and implementation of control, a country-wide mapping survey was undertaken between 2003 and 2011. Here the mapping activities are outlined, the findings across the numerous survey sites are presented, and the ecological requirements of the LF distribution are explored. Methodology/Principal findings Approximately 10,000 adult volunteers from 108 geo-referenced survey sites across Zambia were examined for circulating filarial antigens (CFA) with rapid format ICT cards, and a map indicating the distribution of CFA prevalences in Zambia was prepared. 78% of survey sites had CFA positive cases, with prevalences ranging between 1% and 54%. Most positive survey sites had low prevalence, but six foci with more than 15% prevalence were identified. The observed geographical variation in prevalence pattern was examined in more detail using a species distribution modeling approach to explore environmental requirements for parasite presence, and to predict potential suitable habitats over unsurveyed areas. Of note, areas associated with human modification of the landscape appeared to play an important role for the general presence of LF, whereas temperature (measured as averaged seasonal land surface temperature) seemed to be an important determinant of medium-high prevalence levels. Conclusions/significance LF was found to be surprisingly widespread in Zambia, although in most places with low prevalence. The produced maps and the identified environmental correlates of LF infection will provide useful guidance for planning and start-up of geographically targeted and cost-effective LF control in Zambia. PMID:24587466

Mwase, Enala T.; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Nsakashalo-Senkwe, Mutale; Mubila, Likezo; Mwansa, James; Songolo, Peter; Shawa, Sheila T.; Simonsen, Paul E.

2014-01-01

110

Identifying barriers to the availability and use of Magnesium Sulphate Injection in resource poor countries: A case study in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are serious complications of pregnancy and major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. According to systematic reviews and WHO guidelines magnesium sulphate injection (MgSO4 should be the first -line treatment for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Studies have shown that this safe and effective medicine is unavailable and underutilized in many resource poor countries. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to the availability and use of MgSO4 in the Zambian Public Health System. Methods A 'fishbone' (Ishikawa diagram listing probable facilitators to the availability and use of MgSO4 identified from the literature was used to develop an assessment tool. Barriers to availability and use of MgSO4 were assessed at the regulatory/government, supply, procurement, distribution, health facility and health professional levels. The assessment was completed during August 2008 using archival data, and observations at a pragmatic sample of health facilities providing obstetric services in Lusaka District, Zambia. Results The major barrier to the availability of MgSO4 within the public health system in Zambia was lack of procurement by the Ministry of Health. Other barriers identified included a lack of demand by health professionals at the health centre level and a lack of in-service training in the use of MgSO4. Where there was demand by obstetricians, magnesium sulphate injection was being procured from the private sector by the hospital pharmacy despite not being registered and licensed for use for the treatment of severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia by the national Pharmaceutical Regulatory Authority. Conclusions The case study in Zambia highlights the complexities that underlie making essential medicines available and used appropriately. The fishbone diagram is a useful theoretical framework for illustrating the complexity of translating research findings into clinical practice. A better understanding of the supply system and of the pattern of demand for MgSO4 in Zambia should enable policy makers and stakeholders to develop and implement appropriate interventions to improve the availability and use of MgSO4.

Hill Suzanne R

2010-12-01

111

Land Administration in Zambia After 1991: History, Opportunities and Challenges From the 1995 Lands Act  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Land tenure system in Zambia is divided in the following administrative segments: colonial period 1880-1964; immediate post independence 1964-1975, post independence period of one party political administration 1975-1991; and the liberalization period of multiparty government of post 1991, with emphasis on the implications of the 1995 Lands Act. Generally, each period of land tenure administration provided local people relative opportunities and challenges. The aim of this study was to establish the history of, opportunities to and challenges faced by local people in Chibombo district emerging from the 1995 Lands Act. Primary data was obtained through questionnaires, interviews and observations between August 2008 and 2012 involving 60 smallholder farmers around Chibombo (39 respondents and Mungule (21 respondents areas of Chibombo district. Through this study it was concluded that several individuals, from within Chibombo district and elsewhere, had obtained title deeds on customary land based on the 1995 Lands Act. Dominantly, among the local people who managed to obtain title deeds to their pieces of land over 70 percent were men. Furthermore, through this policy shift new investments emerged on customary land including a cooking oil processing plant, filling stations and lodges, among others, and the local people benefitted through employment creation, improvements to their houses, purchase of solar panels, radios, cell phones and others. On the contrary, others reduced their land hectarage through selling of parts of their land for money, some relocated from their previous residence and evidence of land boundary conflicts was recorded. Therefore, a mixture of opportunities and challenges emerged from the introduction of the 1995 Lands Act.

Augrey H. Malambo

2014-01-01

112

Airborne gamma-ray spectrometric surveys in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During 1967-1976 five airborne geophysical surveys, covering almost the whole country, were carried out in Zambia. In every case magnetic total field and gamma-ray spectrometer measurements were made. In the Western Province the spectrometer measurements do not cover the Kalahari area. Four of these surveys have been made on behalf of the Government of Zambia. They were done in order to speed up mineral prospecting and also to diversify mining activities from the Copperbelt to other parts of the country. A summary of the airborne gamma-ray spectrometer surveys with short comments on the results and outlines of the analysis of survey data as well as the follow-up work are given. (author)

113

Report to the government of Zambia. Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the request of the Government of the Republic of Zambia, the International Atomic Energy Agency set up a technical assistance project to supply an expert plus some equipment, commencing 1 October 1971 and of one year's duration. The project was to expand Zambia's radiation protection service through monitoring of radiation doses, radiation sources, and premises, and provide advise related to the safe handling of sources of ionizing radiation. Upon arrival the expert found that some of these activities had been initiated. The key measures therefore were to establish channels of communication and authority, survey the state of radiation safety and protective measures, and coordination of protective and control measures. On these lines the Ionising Radiation Act is stated to show how its establishment and organizational structure could assist in the implementation of radiation protection measures. maps

114

Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the causality relationship between foreign direct investment inflow (FDI and economic growth (GDPGR in Zambia using the time-series analyses. All analyses are conducted with the annual data of foreign direct investment and real gross domestic product of Zambia over the years of 1970 and 2011. The results of the ADF unit root test show that the time-series data are non-stationary at levels, but become stationary in the first differences. Besides, the results of the Johansen co-integration test indicate that both series are co-integrated, and long-run equilibrium thus exists between FDI and GDPGR. Findings of Granger-causality test suggest that there is a one-way causality effect running from FDI to GDPGR. 

Eyup Dogan

2013-12-01

115

The Role of Open and Distance Learning in the Implementation of the Right to Education in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

As a member of the United Nations, Zambia is committed to the observance of human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948. This is evidenced, among others, by the fact that Zambia is a signatory to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. Zambia has a…

Siaciwena, Richard; Lubinda, Foster

2008-01-01

116

Options for Improving Smallholder Conservation Agriculture in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined the agronomic practices of smallholder Conservation Agriculture (CA) farmers in Zambia. Questionnaire survey, focus group discussions, key informant interviews, field assessments, desk study and soil analyses were employed to collect data on tillage systems, crop rotations, weed control, soil fertility management, crop residue retention and crop yields. The results showed that weed management, crop residue retention, timely planting and soil fertility management were the m...

Umar, Bridget B.; Aune, Jens B.; Johnsen, Fred H.; Lungu, Obed I.

2011-01-01

117

Poverty, inequality and growth in Zambia during the 1990s  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Zambia has undergone a dramatic transformation of economic policy during the 1990s. The election in 1991 of the Movement for Multi-party Democracy government saw the introduction of a series of major economic reforms designed to transform the Zambian economy from a relatively inward looking and state dominated economy to a outward oriented economy based upon private enterprise. A sharp stabilization early in the decade was followed by reforms to open the economy to the rest of the world inclu...

Macculloch, Neil; Baulch, Bob; Cherel-robson, Milasoa

2001-01-01

118

Wildlife conservation in Zambia and the Landsafe Customary Commons  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation both proposes and records the ongoing implementation of a Landsafe integrated conservation and development model for the customary commons of Zambia. In Volume I, a geographical historical perspective of the country is presented which concentrates on wildlife conservation and rural people. The changes wrought successively on indigenous peoples by invading native Africans of the Bantu linguistic group, then in turn on them by Europeans in the form of Charter...

Manning, Ian Patrick Alexander

2011-01-01

119

Reporting livestock disease information in Zambia: constraints and challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A desk and field study was conducted to quantify the flow of veterinary information between the livestock owner and the various levels of the veterinary department in Zambia. The studies were conducted in the Eastern Province, a major livestock keeping area. Results from the survey indicate that, although information is exchanged, reporting to the highest level is erratic. The repercussions of such irregular reporting are discussed.

Mataa, L.

2005-01-01

120

Molecular epidemiology of infectious bursal disease virus in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR) of 10 infectious bursal disease viruses detected in indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia from 2004 to 2005 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses diverged into two genotypes and belonged to the African very virulent types (VV1 and VV2). In the phylogenetic tree, strains in one genotype clustered in a distinct group and were closely related to some strains isolated in western Africa (VV1), with nucleotid...

Kasanga, Christopher J.; Tsuyoshi Yamaguchi; Munang’andu, Hetron M.; Kenji Ohya; Hideto Fukushi

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Policy options for the sustainable development of Zambia's electricity sector  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper aims at understanding how Zambia's electricity system would be affected by droughts (due to a dry year) and how the system's adaptive capacity could be improved. Hydropower currently supplies 99% of the total electricity in Zambia, and concerns have been raised because many climate change [...] studies project increased occurrences of dry years in the Southern Africa region. Different economic and climatic scenarios were explored to understand their impact on the development of Zambia's power generation system, and what policies and strategies could be adopted to mitigate these impacts on security of supply and average generation costs, which directly affect the electricity price. The results show that a dry year has significant impact on the average generating cost since hydropower continues to dominate the system. Diversifying the system does not improve the adaptive capacity of the system but only increases the average cost of generating electricity in an average year. The most cost effective way of increasing the system's adaptive capacity is by importing electricity and gradually increasing share of renewable and coal technologies in the system. Further research on how electricity trade in Southern Africa could be enhanced, should be done.

Bernard, Tembo; Bruno, Merven.

2013-05-01

122

Geophysical and geochemical characterisation of groundwater resources in Western Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Zambia’s rural water supply system depends on groundwater resources to a large extent. However, groundwater resources are variable in both quantity and quality across the country and a national groundwater resources assessment and mapping program is presently not in place. In the Machile area in South-Western Zambia, groundwater quality problems are particularly acute. Saline groundwater occurrence is widespread and affects rural water supply, which is mainly based on shallow groundwater abstraction using hand pumps. This study has mapped groundwater quality variations in the Machile area using both ground-based and airborne geophysical methods as well as extensive water quality sampling. The occurrence of saline groundwater follows a clear spatial pattern and appears to be related to the palaeo Lake Makgadikgadi, whose northernmost extension reached into the Machile area. Because the lake was a closed endorheic system over at least parts of its geologic history, evapo-concentration caused high lake water salinity and deposition of saline sediments. Those saline sediments are presently exposed at the land surface. Surface water – groundwater interaction as well as local recharge from precipitation has formed limited freshwater reservoirs in a generally saline area, which need to be sustainably managed. We will present initial results from the geophysical and geochemical surveys conducted over the past few years. We will interpret these findings in terms of the geologic history of Southern Africa and link them to Lake Palaeo Makgadikgadi. Finally, we will discuss implications for sustainable groundwater resources management in the area.

Chongo, Mkhuzo; Banda, Kawawa Eddy

123

Review of the malaria epidemiology and trends in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comprehensive desk review of malaria trends was conducted between 2000-2010 in Zambia to study malaria epidemiology and trends to guide strategies and approaches for effective malaria control. This review considered data from the National Health Information Management System, Malaria Surveys and Programme Review reports and analyzed malaria in-patient cases and deaths in relation to intervention coverage for all ages. Data showed three distinct epidemiological strata after a notable malaria reduction (66%) in in-patient cases and deaths, particularly between 2000-2008. These changes occurred following the (re-)introduction and expansion of indoor residual spraying up to 90% coverage, scale-up of coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets in household from 50% to 70%, and artemisin-based combination therapy nationwide. However, malaria cases and deaths re-surged, increasing in 2009-2010 in the northern-eastern parts of Zambia. Delays in the disbursement of funds affected the implementation of interventions, which resulted in resurgence of cases and deaths. In spite of a decline in malaria disease burden over the past decade in Zambia, a reversal in impact is notable in the year 2009-2010, signifying that control gains are fragile and must be sustained to eliminate malaria. PMID:23593585

Masaninga, Freddie; Chanda, Emmanuel; Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Hamainza, Busiku; Masendu, Hieronymo T; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Kapelwa, Wambinji; Chimumbwa, John; Govere, John; Otten, Mac; Fall, Ibrahima Soce; Babaniyi, Olusegun

2013-02-01

124

Policy options for the sustainable development of Zambia's electricity sector  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper aims at understanding how Zambia's electricity system would be affected by droughts (due to a dry year) and how the system's adaptive capacity could be improved. Hydropower currently supplies 99% of the total electricity in Zambia, and concerns have been raised because many climate change [...] studies project increased occurrences of dry years in the Southern Africa region. Different economic and climatic scenarios were explored to understand their impact on the development of Zambia's power generation system, and what policies and strategies could be adopted to mitigate these impacts on security of supply and average generation costs, which directly affect the electricity price. The results show that a dry year has significant impact on the average generating cost since hydropower continues to dominate the system. Diversifying the system does not improve the adaptive capacity of the system but only increases the average cost of generating electricity in an average year. The most cost effective way of increasing the system's adaptive capacity is by importing electricity and gradually increasing share of renewable and coal technologies in the system. Further research on how electricity trade in Southern Africa could be enhanced, should be done.

Bernard, Tembo; Bruno, Merven.

125

Molecular epidemiology of infectious bursal disease virus in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR of 10 infectious bursal disease viruses detected in indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia from 2004 to 2005 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses diverged into two genotypes and belonged to the African very virulent types (VV1 and VV2. In the phylogenetic tree, strains in one genotype clustered in a distinct group and were closely related to some strains isolated in western Africa (VV1, with nucleotide similarities of 95.7%– 96.5%. Strains in the other genotype were clustered within the eastern African VV type (VV2, with nucleotide similarities of 97.3%– 98.5%. Both genotypes were distributed in the southern parts of Zambia and had a unique conserved amino acid substitution at 300 (E?A in addition to the putative virulence marker at positions 222(A, 242(I, 256(I, 294(I and 299(S. These findings represent the first documentation of the existence of the African VV-IBDV variants in both indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia.

Christopher J. Kasanga

2013-10-01

126

Molecular epidemiology of infectious bursal disease virus in Zambia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR) of 10 infectious bursal disease viruses detected in indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia from 2004 to 2005 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses diverged into two genotypes and belonged to the African very vi [...] rulent types (VV1 and VV2). In the phylogenetic tree, strains in one genotype clustered in a distinct group and were closely related to some strains isolated in western Africa (VV1), with nucleotide similarities of 95.7% - 96.5%. Strains in the other genotype were clustered within the eastern African VV type (VV2), with nucleotide similarities of 97.3% - 98.5%. Both genotypes were distributed in the southern parts of Zambia and had a unique conserved amino acid substitution at 300 (E?A) in addition to the putative virulence marker at positions 222(A), 242(1), 256(1), 294(1) and 299(S). These findings represent the first documentation of the existence of the African VV-IBDV variants in both indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia.

Christopher J., Kasanga; Tsuyoshi, Yamaguchi; Hetron M., Munang' andu; Kenji, Ohya; Hideto, Fukushi.

127

Urbanization in Zambia. An International Urbanization Survey Report to the Ford Foundation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report reviews the "Seers Report," which contained policy guidelines for modern development planning in Zambia, and compares its findings to recent findings during the period 1963-1970. The Seers Report found that Zambia was the most urbanized country in Africa south of the Sahara (excluding South Africa). This report finds that since…

Simmance, Alan J. F.

128

Strategies for Living with the Challenges of HIV and Antiretroviral Use in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

This study sought to identify strategies for living with the challenges of HIV and antiretroviral (ARV) use among new medication users in urban Zambia. Participants (n = 160) were recruited from urban Lusaka, Zambia. Qualitative Data was drawn from monthly ARV treatment education intervention groups addressing HIV and antiretroviral use. Themes…

Jones, Deborah; Zulu, Isaac; Mumbi, Miriam; Chitalu, Ndashi; Vamos, Szonja; Gomez, Jacqueline; Weiss, Stephen M.

2009-01-01

129

Child Abuse and Aids-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior among Adolescents in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To research the correlation between physical and sexual abuse by family members and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy and behavior among urban and rural adolescents in Zambia. Sample: The sample comprises 3,360 adolescents, aged 10-19, from urban and rural Zambia; 2,160 of them attended school, while 1,200 of them did…

Slonim-Nevo, Vered; Mukuka, Lawrence

2007-01-01

130

Why Context Matters: Understanding the Material Conditions of School-Based Caring in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

This study utilized in-depth interviewing, participant observation, and student diaries completed by participants to examine the quality of teacher-student relationships at a low-cost private school in the townships of Ndola, Zambia. Amidst economic decline and the HIV/AIDS epidemic facing Zambia today, teachers and students developed strong…

Bajaj, Monisha

2009-01-01

131

Prevalence and correlates of obesity among Lusaka residents, Zambia: a population-based survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-communicable lifestyle diseases are a growing public health concern globally. Obesity is a risk factor for premature mortality from cardiovascular diseases and diabetes as well as all-cause mortality. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence and associated factors for obesity among Zambian adults in Lusaka district. Methods A community-based study was done among adults in Zambia. Descriptive and co-relational analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of being obese as well as identify associated factors. Results A total of 1,928 individuals participated in the survey, of which 33.0% were males. About half of the participants were aged 25–34?years (53.2%, and about two-thirds had attended at least secondary level of education (63.9%. Overall, 14.2% of the participants (5.1% of males, and 18.6% of females were obese. Significant factors associated with obesity were sex, age, education, cigarette smoking and blood pressure. Male participants were 55% (AOR?=?0.45; 95% CI [0.29, 0.69] less likely to be obese compared to female participants. Compared to participants who were of age 45?years or older, participants of age 25–34?years were 61% (AOR?=?0.39 (95% CI [0.23, 0.67] less likely to be obese. Compared to participants who attained college or university level of education, participants who had no formal education were 63% (AOR?=?0.37; 95% CI [0.15, 0.91] less likely to be obese; and participants who had attained secondary level of education were 2.22 (95% CI [1.21, 4.07] times more likely to be obese. Participants who smoked cigarettes were 67% (AOR?=?0.33; 95% CI [0.12, 0.95] less likely to be obese compared to participants who did not smoke cigarettes. Compared to participants who had severe hypertension, participants who had moderate hypertension were 3.46 (95% CI [1.34, 8.95] times more likely to be obese. Conclusions The findings from this study indicate that Zambian women are more at risk of being obese. Prevention and control measures are needed to address high prevalence and gender inequalities in risks for non-communicable diseases in Zambia. Such measures should include policies that support gender specific approaches for the promotion of health behavior changes.

Rudatsikira Emmanuel

2012-05-01

132

Innovation District  

Science.gov (United States)

Many cities are working to create innovation districts in the vein of the Silicon Valley and it can be an up-hill battle. Boston is currently working just such a district in its Seaport neighborhood and has been the recent subject of many articles, blog posts, and general discussion. As the city's official website for the district, visitors to this site can learn about physical headquarters in the District Hall building, along with details on long-term strategy, and upcoming events. Some recent posts deal with co-working spaces, networking, and more. In the Resources area visitors can learn about the various innovative businesses that are already in the neighborhood, along with others in and around Boston.

133

The prevalence and distribution of schistosomiasis in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper attempts to approach an accurate report of prevalence of schistosomiasis in Zambia by bringing together several reports. A review of some early prevalence studies in Zambia shows the prevalence of S. hematobium infection to be (14-40%) and that for S. mansoni to range from (0-7%), in the Northern and Luapula Provinces. The areas around Lakes Kariba in the south, and Bangweulu in the north had prevalence rates of (3-35%) for S. hematobium and (2-6%) for S. mansoni. A nationwide survey found the overall prevalence of S. hematobium to be about 16%. The Gwembe Valley in the South had the highest prevalence of 57.9% for S. hematobium; S. mansoni with a prevalence of (45-77%) in the Northern Province from more recent studies is not very widespread. A comprehensive study performed between 1969-73 covered almost the entire rural population and found an overall prevalence of 16.8%, varying greatly between ecozones. The 5-14 year age group showed the highest prevalence. A 1976-82 study of rural primary school children in several provinces found high prevalence rates. Specimen gathering and analysis is described for most studies analyzed, revealing some inconsistencies threatening the reliability of data. Available data do show the spotty and local nature of the prevalence rates between areas. There have not been many studies of S. mansoni prevalence, possibly due to the difficulties involved with the collection of stool specimens, but prevalence (especially seasonal) has been shown to be high in certain areas (although low generally). The areas around the 2 major lakes show considerable prevalence of both parasites, and further study is needed on the health impact of man-made lakes in Zambia and elsewhere. PMID:3936619

Boatin, B A; Wurapa, F K; Ulrich, A M

1985-09-01

134

Quality of antenatal care in Zambia: a national assessment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Antenatal care (ANC is one of the recommended interventions to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. Yet in most Sub-Saharan African countries, high rates of ANC coverage coexist with high maternal and neonatal mortality. This disconnect has fueled calls to focus on the quality of ANC services. However, little conceptual or empirical work exists on the measurement of ANC quality at health facilities in low-income countries. We developed a classification tool and assessed the level of ANC service provision at health facilities in Zambia on a national scale and compared this to the quality of ANC received by expectant mothers. Methods We analysed two national datasets with detailed antenatal provider and user information, the 2005 Zambia Health Facility Census and the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS, to describe the level of ANC service provision at 1,299 antenatal facilities in 2005 and the quality of ANC received by 4,148 mothers between 2002 and 2007. Results We found that only 45 antenatal facilities (3% fulfilled our developed criteria for optimum ANC service, while 47% of facilities provided adequate service, and the remaining 50% offered inadequate service. Although 94% of mothers reported at least one ANC visit with a skilled health worker and 60% attended at least four visits, only 29% of mothers received good quality ANC, and only 8% of mothers received good quality ANC and attended in the first trimester. Conclusions DHS data can be used to monitor “effective ANC coverage” which can be far below ANC coverage as estimated by current indicators. This “quality gap” indicates missed opportunities at ANC for delivering effective interventions. Evaluating the level of ANC provision at health facilities is an efficient way to detect where deficiencies are located in the system and could serve as a monitoring tool to evaluate country progress.

Kyei Nicholas N A

2012-12-01

135

Challenges affecting the development of radiation safety infrastructure in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This brief presentation gives some of the highlights of the activities that the government of the Republic of Zambia undertook from 1972 to date in its effort to ensure the development of a national radiation protection infrastructure. The paper also discusses some of the challenges that have to be addressed. The final section discusses some of the policy options and recommendations that should be undertaken in order to ensure that the Zambian government has a clear direction for the development of radiation safety infrastructure. The issue of national emergency plan and response in the event of a radiological accident is also discussed. (author)

136

Coprological survey of alimentary tract parasites in dogs from Zambia and evaluation of a coproantigen assay for canine echinococcosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Faecal samples were collected from the rectum of 540 domestic dogs from four districts (Lusaka, Katete, Petauke and Luangwa) in Zambia between 2005 and 2006 and prevalences of canine alimentary tract parasites were determined by coprological examination. Thirteen different ova and parasites including strongyle (43.3%), Spirocerca lupi (18.7%), taeniid (13.1%), Toxocara canis (7.6%), Sarcocystis sp.* (7.5%), Isospora sp.* (5.7%), Physaloptera sp.* (4.6%), Capillaria sp.* (2.8%), Dipylidium caninum (2.2%), Mesocestoides sp.* (2.0%), Ascaris sp.* (1.7%), Trichuris vulpis* (0.4%) and Schistosoma mansoni* (0.4%) were detected, Ascaris and Schistosoma probably originating from coprophagy. The species with asterisks and later-described Taenia multiceps are for the first time reported from dogs in Zambia. A coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoproAg-ELISA) developed for Echinococcus spp. revealed 43 positive dogs and 37 of these harboured taeniid eggs. From 63 of the 71 taeniid egg-positive samples, eggs and DNA thereof were isolated and subjected to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for differentiating E. granulosus sensu lato, E. multilocularis and Taenia spp. Amplicons indicative for Taenia spp. were obtained from 60 samples. Sequencing of amplicons spanning part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, which was possible with 38 samples, revealed 35 infections with T. hydatigena and 3 with T. multiceps. Therefore, the CoproAg-ELISA showed some positives, but concrete evidence for the existence of canine E. granulosus infection could not be established. Comparison of the results of the CoproAg-ELISA and Taenia species identification indicated that the CoproAg-ELISA cross-reacts with patent infections of T. hydatigena (57%) and T. multiceps (33%). PMID:22185947

Nonaka, N; Nakamura, S; Inoue, T; Oku, Y; Katakura, K; Matsumoto, J; Mathis, A; Chembesofu, M; Phiri, I G K

2011-10-01

137

Assessment of Dissolved Heavy Metal Pollution in Five Provinces of Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Zambia’s economy is hinged on mining activities with Cu being the main metal. Zn and Pb were mined at one point in Kabwe town. There are also known deposits of Co and Mn. The study focused on comparing heavy metal pollution from different regions across Zambia with a view of determining the impact of the stage of social development and economic activities on the environment. The water analysed was obtained near dump sites,farmlands, pit latrines, water reservoirs or dams, major rivers and s...

Nachiyunde, Kabunga; Ikeda, Hideo; Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru

2013-01-01

138

Persistence of lindane and endosulfan under field conditions in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The persistence of lindane and endosulfan was studied under field conditions in Zambia in 1992 to 1994. Both pesticides dissipated rapidly under field conditions. About 29% and 73% of initial concentration was lost during the first 30 and 60 days after treatment, respectively in 1992. After 180 days, about 11% of the initial concentration was recovered from the soil. In 1993, 40% of initial residues were lost during the first 30 days. At 180 days after spraying, slightly more residues (25% of the initial values) were recovered at this time than in 1992. This indicated a change in the longer term behaviour of lindane in the soil since the calculated half-lives of lindane, covering the shorter term behaviour, were 55-80 days in 1992 and ? 17 days in 1993. In 1994, losses of ?-Endosulfan and ?-Endosulfan were 40% and 37% respectively during the initial 30 days after treatment. A further 25% of ?-Endosulfan and 33% of ?-Endosulfan were lost during the following 30 days. These data allow estimates of the half-lives of ?- and ?-Endosulfan (40 and 38 days) under the field conditions pertaining in Zambia at the time of the trials showing that this compound has only moderate persistence and unlikely to cause long term environmental problems. (author). 7 refs, 8 tabs

139

e-Government for Development Information Exchange (DIE): Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

In most parts of the world, political systems which utilize authoritative rule and mostly employ top-down decision-making processes are slowly transcending towards democratic norms. Information Technology Systems have been identified and adopted as one of the most efficient vehicles for appropriate, transparent and inclusive / participatory decision making. Zambia has shown a higher propensity to indigenous knowledge systems which are full of inefficiencies, a lot of red tape in public service delivery, and prone to corrupt practices. Despite that being the case, it is slowly trying to implement e-government. The adoption of e-government promises a sharp paradigm shift where public institutions will be more responsive and transparent, promote efficient PPP (Public Private Partnerships), and empower citizens by making knowledge and other resources more directly accessible. This paper examines three cases from Zambia where ICT in support of e-government has been implemented for Development Information Exchange (DIE) - knowledge-based decision making. The paper also assesses the challenges, opportunities, and issues together with e-government adoption criteria regarding successful encapsulation of e-government into the Zambian contextual environment. I propose a conceptual model which offers balanced e-government adoption criteria involving a combination of electronic and participatory services. This conceptual e-government adoption model can later be replicated to be used at the Southern African Development Community (SADC) level given the similarity in the contextual environment.

Joseph, Bwalya Kelvin

140

Phenotypic characterization of the Barotse and Tonga cattle of Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The Barotse and Tonga are among the known indigenous cattle of Zambia they belong to the Sanga cattle. Barotse cattle are long horned found predominantly in Western Province while Tonga cattle are small framed, medium to short horns with a rudimentary hump found in Southern Province of Zambia. A total of 271 mature Barotse cattle and 268 mature Tonga cattle were included in the morphological characterization study. The aim of the study was to create an understanding of the physical characteristics of the two types of cattle. The comparisons of least - square means on the dimensional measurements between the male and female mature Barotse cattle revealed that males are bigger than females. There were very high significant differences (P < 0.001) in favour of males for withers height, body length, heart girth, head length, head width and horn circumference. In Tonga cattle wither height was highly correlated to rump height, body length, heart girth, and barrel size. Body length was highly correlated to heart girth and barrel size. Barrel size was also very highly correlated (0.834) to the heart girth. The phenotypic characterization of the two cattle groups shows variations in measurements. Preliminary findings on genetic characterization using RAPD markers showed remarkable differences in the two breeds of cattle. A more comprehensive study including the production parameters and genetic variation is ongoing. (author))

 
 
 
 
141

Will savannas survive outside the parks? A lesson from Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Miombo woodlands cover the transition zone between dry open savannas and moist forests in Southern Africa. They cover about 2.7 million km2 in southern Africa and provide many ecosystem services that support rural life, including medical products, wild foods, construction timber and fuel. In Zambia, as in many of its neighbouring countries, miombo woodlands are currently experiencing accelerating degradation and clearing, mostly with charcoal production as the initial driver. Domestic energy needs in the growing urban areas are largely satisfied by charcoal, which is less energy-efficient fuel on a tree-to-table basis than the firewood that is used in rural areas, but has a higher energy density and is thus cheaper to transport. This study uses data from inventories and from eddy covariance measurements of carbon exchange to characterize the impact of charcoal production on miombo woodlands. We address the following questions: (i) how much carbon is lost at local as well as at national scale and (ii) does forest degradation result in the loss of a carbon sink? On the basis of our data we (iii) estimate the per capita emissions through deforestation and forest degradation in Zambia and relate it to fossil fuel emissions. Furthermore, (iv) a rough estimate of the energy that is provided by charcoal production to private households at a national level is calculated and (v) options for alternative energy supply to private households are discussed.

Kutsch, W.; Merbold, L.; Scholes, B.; Mukelabai, M.

2012-04-01

142

‘Donors go home’ : Non-traditional state actors and the creation of development space in Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The international development arena is currently subject to major changes in the geographies of power. In this article I analyse how and to what extent the (re)entry on the development scene of China, India and Brazil, together with increasing prices for primary commodities and improved access to international finance, has affected Zambia’s political leverage to set, implement and fund its own developmental policies. I argue that, while real changes in external financial flows comparable to aid from these non-traditional state actors are still small, these actors’ experience is providing Zambia with an alternative development model that combines purposive state intervention with market-based economic growth and integration into world markets. While Zambia may be taking the first steps in strengthening its ‘sovereign frontier’, the extent of this movement is still small and its development outcomes are far from assured.

Kragelund, Peter

2014-01-01

143

Geology of the uranium occurrence in the Bungua area, Siavonga District, Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uranium mineralization related to the fluviatile continental sandstone of the Escarpment Grit Formation of Upper Karroo System has been studied in detail in the Bungua area. Airborne and ground gamma-radiation surveys resulted in the discovery of mineralized bodies containing secondary minerals such as meta-autunite, phosphuranylite, uranocircite, abernythite, boltwoodite, etc. disseminated in various ways. Geological, radiometric, stratigraphic, sedimentological and petrological studies coupled with exploration pitting, trenching and drilling were employed to assess the nature, distribution and sub-surface continuation of mineralized bodies. Drilling, logging and XRF analysis revealed that the uranium mineralized bodies are mainly lenses at different levels, which may be concordant or discordant with bedding. The thickness and grade of ore horizons differ considerably. Mineral distribution and controls are complex and that the main deposit is controlled by reducing lithologies, organic matter, clay traps, micas, iron cementing and permeable channels. Although no definite mode of origin can be attributed to the presently seen uranium mineralized bodies, they appear to be from a pre-existing ore deposit which is mobilized and redistributed during oxidation by supergene processes. It is suggested that the original uranium was in solution as uranylion and came from the same source area as the host rocks and the uranium-bearing groundwater and streams moved in the same direction as the associated Escarpment Grit sediments. Uranium was precipitated wherever favourable conditions prevailed in the Escarpment Grit Formation. (author)

144

Child Health Week in Zambia: costs, efficiency, coverage and a reassessment of need.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child Health Weeks (CHWs) are semi-annual, campaign-style, facility- and outreach-based events that provide a package of high-impact nutrition and health services to under-five children. Since 1999, 30% of the 85 countries that regularly implement campaign-style vitamin A supplementation programmes have transformed their programmes into CHW. Using data drawn from districts' budget, expenditures and salary documents, UNICEF's CHW planning and budgeting tool and a special purposive survey, an economic analysis of the June 2010 CHW's provision of measles, vitamin A and deworming was conducted using activity-based costing combined with an ingredients approach. Total CHW costs were estimated to be US$5.7 million per round. Measles accounted for 57%, deworming 22% and vitamin A 21% of total costs. The cost per child was US$0.46. The additional supplies and personnel required to include measles increased total costs by 42%, but reduced the average costs of providing vitamin A and deworming alone, manifesting economies of scope. The average costs of covering larger, more urban populations was less than the cost of covering smaller, more dispersed populations. Provincial-level costs per child served were determined primarily by the number of service sites, not the number of children treated. Reliance on volunteers to provide 60% of CHW manpower enables expanding coverage, shortening the duration of CHWs and reduces costs by one-third. With costs of $1093 per life saved and $45 per disability-adjusted life-year saved, WHO criteria classify Zambia's CHWs as 'very cost-effective'. The continued need for CHWs is discussed. PMID:23242696

Fiedler, John L; Mubanga, Freddie; Siamusantu, Ward; Musonda, Mofu; Kabwe, Kabaso F; Zulu, Charles

2014-01-01

145

Management of pulmonary tuberculosis patients in an urban setting in Zambia: a patient's perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Zambia continues to grapple with a high tuberculosis (TB burden despite a long running Directly Observed Treatment Short course programme. Understanding issues that affect patient adherence to treatment programme is an important component in implementation of a successful TB control programme. We set out to investigate pulmonary TB patient's attitudes to seek health care, assess the care received from government health care centres based on TB patients' reports, and to seek associations with patient adherence to TB treatment programme. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 105 respondents who had been registered as pulmonary TB patients (new and retreatment cases in Ndola District between January 2006 and July 2007. We administered a structured questionnaire, bearing questions to obtain individual data on socio-demographics, health seeking behaviour, knowledge on TB, reported adherence to TB treatment, and health centre care received during treatment to consenting respondents. Results We identified that respondents delayed to seek treatment (68% even when knowledge of TB symptoms was high (78% or when they suspected that they had TB (73%. Respondent adherence to taking medication was high (77% but low adherence to submitting follow-up sputum (47% was observed in this group. Similarly, caregivers educate their patients more often on the treatment of the disease (98% and drug taking (100%, than on submitting sputum during treatment (53% and its importance (54%. Respondent adherence to treatment was significantly associated with respondent's knowledge about the disease and its treatment (p Conclusions There is a need to emphasise the importance of submitting follow-up sputum during patient education and counselling in order to enhance patient adherence and ultimately treatment outcome.

Shamputa Isdore

2010-12-01

146

Responding to adolescents living with HIV in Zambia:a social–ecological approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The number of adolescents living with HIV in Zambia is increasing, yet little is known about their experiences in a social context. Such knowledge could enable HIV programs to better respond to their needs. This qualitative study examined the experiences of adolescents living with HIV in Kitwe, Kalomo and Lusaka in Zambia. In- depth interviews were conducted with adolescents aged 10–19 living with HIV (n = 58) and their health care providers (n = 14). In addition, 13 focus group sessions we...

Mburu, Gitau; Ram, Mala; Oxenham, Danielle; Haamujompa, Choolwe; Iorpenda, Kate; Ferguson, Laura

2014-01-01

147

Victimization from bullying among school-attending adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Among school- attending adolescents, victimization from bullying is associated with anxiety, depression and poor academic performance. There are limited reports on victimization from bullying in Zambia; we therefore conducted this study to determine the prevalence and correlates for victimization from bullying among adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in the country in order to add information on the body of knowledge on victimization from bullying. METHODS: The 2004 Zambia Global Scho...

Emmanuel Rudatsikira; Seter Siziya; Adamson Sinjani Muula

2012-01-01

148

Non-sexual transmission of Trichomonas vaginalis in adolescent girls attending school in Ndola, Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for trichomoniasis among young women in Ndola, Zambia. METHOD: The study was a cross-sectional study among adolescent girls aged 13-16 years in Ndola, Zambia. Study participants were recruited from schools in selected administrative areas that represented the different socio-economic strata in town. Consenting participants were interviewed about their socio-demographic characteristics; sexual behaviour; and hygiene practices. Self-administered vaginal swab...

Crucitti, T.; Jespers, V.; Mulenga, C.; Khondowe, S.; Vandepitte, J.; Buve?, A.

2011-01-01

149

Rural electrification in Zambia: A policy and institutional analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the establishment of an independent regulator so as to stimulate private sector participation and efficiency. In addition, a Rural Electrification Fund (REF) and associated administration mechanism was established in 1995. However, RE continued to experience many challenges. In 2003, the government enacted the Rural Electrification Act leading to the establishment of an agency dedicated to RE. This paper analyses the policy, legal and institutional measures implemented in Zambia and assesses their potential or effectiveness to tackle some of the challenges facing RE in the country so as to increase access and affordability. (author)

150

Rural electrification in Zambia: A policy and institutional analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the establishment of an independent regulator so as to stimulate private sector participation and efficiency. In addition, a Rural Electrification Fund (REF) and associated administration mechanism was established in 1995. However, RE continued to experience many challenges. In 2003, the government enacted the Rural Electrification Act leading to the establishment of an agency dedicated to RE. This paper analyses the policy, legal and institutional measures implemented in Zambia and assesses their potential or effectiveness to tackle some of the challenges facing RE in the country so as to increase access and affordability

151

Transforming Household Energy Practices among Charcoal Users in Lusaka, Zambia: A User-Centred Approach | Publications at SEI  

...Transforming Household Energy Practices among Charcoal Users in Lusaka, Zambia: A User-Centred Approach | Publications at SEI Transforming Household Energy Practices ...among Charcoal Users in Lusaka, Zambia: A User-Centred Approach Transforming Household Energy Practices among Charcoal Users in Lusaka, Zambia: A ...to SEI author(s):Aaron AtteridgeJacqueline Senyagwa Transforming Household Energy Practices among Charcoal Users in Lusaka, Zambia: A User-Centred Approach This study ... The practice of burning charcoal to service household cooking and heating needs, common in urban and peri-urban Lusaka as in other parts ...

152

An investigation of the amount and environmental Impact of chemical fertilizers and pesticides running off from commercial and traditional farmlands in the upper Kaleya catchment, Mazabuka, Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study investigated the amount of and impact of fertiliser loading into the upper Kaleya river of Mazabuka district in Southern Province of Zambia. It provides an opportunity to evaluate water quality associated with nutrient and pesticide use, due to prominence of intensive agriculture in the area. Storm water runoff of fertilizers and pesticides applied on farmlands have appeared to be the predominant source of nutrients and contaminants affecting surface water quality in upper Kaleya River, a factor very much dependent on land use in the catchment.The study concluded that upper Kaleya River is polluted from the application of fertilizers and pesticides used by farmers and that more long term studies are required to evaluate environmental effects of fertilizers and pesticide use in order to provide assessments of pollution and and for developing cost effective pollution control and monitoring programmes

153

Human impact on Karst: the example of Lusaka (Zambia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lusaka, the capital of Zambia with over 2,000,000 inhabitants, is built on an extensive plateau composed mainly of schists and dolomitic marbles, constituting a very important aquifer that provides the city with almost half of its drinking water needs. Recent demographic growth, leading to uncontrolled urban expansion, and mismanagement of the water resource and of urban waste has lead, in the past 20 years, to an overexploitation of the aquifer and to a generalised water quality depletion, putting in serious danger the future social and economical development of the capital. This third world city has, for these reasons, become a terrifying example of human impact on a vulnerable karst environment, and if no measures will be taken in the very near future, quality of life in the city will be at serious risk.

De Waele Jo

2003-01-01

154

Possibilities and constraints in implementing wind energy in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1989 the first activities concerning wind energy started in Zambia, resulting in a wind energy project of the Department of Energy. The first phase of this project was the set up of an appropriate technology test site. It included the fabrication of a CWD 2740 wind pump, adapted to local circumstances. The total costs of the manufacture of the complete system was approximately US$ 8,000 (of which 60% are labor cost), while an imported system would cost between US$ 2,000 and US$ 4,000. The second phase will focus on possible commercialization of wind energy. The major constraints for implementation of wind energy are: 1. inadequate provision of funds, caused by short sighted policy makers having not a clear policy regarding the utilization of wind energy; 2. high costs of windmills, especially when these are manufactured locally; 3. lack of trained and skilled manpower to provide backup and effective maintenance service of windmills in the field

155

Mapping the Spatial Variability of Soil Acidity in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A common strategy for ameliorating soil acidity is the application of agricultural lime. However, this measure is hampered by the lack of high resolution soil maps that can enable lime application according to the spatial variability of soil pH in an area. Therefore, this study was carried out to map soil acidity in South Eastern Zambia. The objective of the study was to apply geostatistical procedures to mapping soil acidity in the country. Ordinary kriging was performed on a set of 119 soil samples collected from the 0–20 cm soil layer whose pH was determined by the electrometric method. The kriging model that was developed was found to be satisfactory with low prediction errors (root mean square error 0.36. Thus, the map produced could be used to draw up strategies for management of soil acidity in the area.

Lydia M. Chabala

2014-10-01

156

Sex differentials in the uptake of antiretroviral treatment in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explores socio-structural factors that influence uptake of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Zambia and assess differences between men and women. We conducted a case-control study nested in a community- and health facility-based survey, between September 2010 and February 2011. Cases were defined as HIV-positive individuals who, while eligible, never started ART and controls were HIV-positive individuals who were on ART. Cases and controls were matched by place of residence. We performed a conditional logistic regression analysis using a discrete logistic model stratified by sex. Overall, a significantly larger proportion of men (32.7%) than women (25.6%) did not uptake ART (Pearson ?(2) = 5.9135; p = 0.015). In the crude analysis, poor health status and low self-efficacy were common factors associated with non-uptake in both sexes. After adjusting for covariates, men were more likely than women to refuse ART even though men's self-rated health was lower than women's. In general, the adjusted analysis suggests that HIV status disclosure affects uptake in both sexes but women's uptake of ART is largely hampered by poverty-related factors while for men, side effects and social pressure, probably associated with masculinity, are more important barriers. Alarmingly men's health seems to deteriorate until they start treatment, in contrast to women. Understanding gender differences in uptake and attitudes to ART is a crucial component to providing effective and appropriate health care to both men and women living with HIV/AIDS in Zambia. PMID:24666201

Gari, S; Martin-Hilber, A; Malungo, J R S; Musheke, M; Merten, S

2014-01-01

157

36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District...28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District...are three districts: The Community Development District, the Seashore...

2010-07-01

158

Provision of Learning and Teaching Materials for Pupils with Visual Impairment: Results from a National Survey in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine the provision of learning and teaching materials for pupils with visual impairment in basic and high schools of Zambia. A survey approach utilizing a questionnaire, interviews and a review of the literature was adopted for the study. The findings demonstrated that most schools in Zambia did not provide…

Akakandelwa, Akakandelwa; Munsanje, Joseph

2012-01-01

159

Stochastic Frontier Analysis of the Technical Efficiency of Smallholder Maize Farmers in Central Province, Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maize is the main staple food and cornerstone of Zambia’s agricultural economy and as such, high productivity and efficiency in its production are critical to food security and poverty reduction in the country. This paper estimates the technical efficiency of maize producers in Zambia using Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA and also determines the factors which influence technical efficiency in maize production. Primary data from 400 households in the Central Province of Zambia were used in this study. Results show that there exists opportunities to increase technical efficiency from the present level of inputs. The average technical efficiency was at 50%, with a minimum of 2% and a maximum of 84%. The distribution of the technical efficiency is such that 14% of the farmers have efficiency scores that are less than 30% while 46% of the farmers have technical scores above 50%, and 14% have technical efficiency scores above 70%. Maximum likelihood results showed that the age of a farmer, use of certified hybrid seed, access to loans and extension advice and off-farm income influence technical efficiency. The study recommends Government and other maize stakeholders to devise strategies for improving access to credit and extension services and promoting use of certified hybrid seed as a way to improve the technical efficiency of maize producers in Zambia.

Susan Chiona

2014-09-01

160

Impact of the large-scale deployment of artemether/lumefantrine on the malaria disease burden in Africa: case studies of South Africa, Zambia and Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Malaria is one of the most significant causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Every year, nearly one million deaths result from malaria infection. Malaria can be controlled in endemic countries by using artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT in combination with indoor residual spraying (IRS and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs. At least 40 malaria-endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa now recommend the use of ACT as first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria as a cornerstone of their malaria case management. The scaling up of malaria control strategies in Zambia has dramatically reduced the burden of malaria. Zambia was the first African country to adopt artemether/lumefantrine (AL; Coartem® as first-line therapy in national malaria treatment guidelines in 2002. Further, the vector control with IRS and ITNs was also scaled up. By 2008, the rates of in-patient malaria cases and deaths decreased by 61% and 66%, respectively, compared with the 2001-2002 reference period. Treatment with AL as first-line therapy against a malaria epidemic in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa, in combination with strengthening of vector control, caused the number of malaria-related outpatient cases and hospital admissions to each fall by 99% from 2001 to 2003, and malaria-related deaths decreased by 97% over the same period. A prospective study also showed that gametocyte development was prevented in all patients receiving AL. This reduction in malaria morbidity has been sustained over the past seven years. AL was introduced as first-line anti-malarial treatment in 2004 in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. During a major malaria epidemic from May-October 2005, the district in which local community health workers were operating had half the rate of malaria-related deaths compared with the district in which AL was only available in state health facilities. Over the two-year study period, the community-based deployment of AL significantly lowered the risk of malaria-specific mortality by 37%. Additionally, the malaria parasite reservoir was three-fold lower in the intervention district than in the control district during the 2005 high-transmission season. Artemisinin-based combination therapy has made a substantial contribution to reducing the burden of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa.

Chanda Pascalina

2009-10-01

 
 
 
 
161

Declining HIV prevalence among young pregnant women in Lusaka, Zambia / Déclin de la prévalence du VIH chez les jeunes femmes enceintes de Lusaka en Zambie / Disminución de la prevalencia de VIH entre embarazadas jóvenes en Lusaka, Zambia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Desde hace ya muchos años se aplican en Lusaka medidas de prevención de la infección por VIH. Algunos datos recientes parecen indicar que se ha producido una disminución de la seroincidencia de VIH en Zambia y en algunos países vecinos. El objetivo de este estudio fue examinar las tendenci [...] as de la seroprevalencia de VIH entre las mujeres embarazadas y parturientas entre 2002 y 2006. MÉTODOS: Analizamos las tendencias de la seroprevalencia de VIH en Lusaka a partir de dos fuentes: (i) datos prenatales de un programa de prevención de la transmisión del VIH de la madre al niño que abarcaba toda la ciudad, y (ii) datos sobre partos extraídos de dos sistemas anónimos independientes de vigilancia de la sangre de cordón umbilical aplicados en 2003 y de nuevo en 2005-2006, que permitieron obtener y analizar muestras en más del 97% de los nacimientos registrados en el sector público en cada periodo. RESULTADOS: Entre julio de 2002 y diciembre de 2006, el distrito de Lusaka analizó la serología VIH de 243 302 mujeres que recibieron atención prenatal; 54 853 (22,5%) estaban infectadas por el virus. A lo largo de ese periodo, la seroprevalencia de VIH entre las mujeres que recibieron atención prenatal y se sometieron a los análisis disminuyó de forma sostenida del 24,5% en el tercer trimestre de 2002 al 21,4% en el último trimestre de 2006 (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: HIV prevention has been ongoing in Lusaka for many years. Recent reports suggest a possible decline in HIV sero-incidence in Zambia and some neighbouring countries. This study aimed to examine trends in HIV seroprevalence among pregnant and parturient women between 2002 and 2006. METHODS: [...] We analysed HIV seroprevalence trends from two Lusaka sources: (i) antenatal data from a city-wide programme to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission, and (ii) delivery data from two anonymous unlinked cord-blood surveillances performed in 2003 and again in 2005-2006, where specimens from > 97% of public-sector births in each period were obtained and analysed. FINDINGS: Between July 2002 and December 2006, the Lusaka district tested 243 302 antenatal women for HIV; 54 853 (22.5%) were HIV infected. Over this period, the HIV seroprevalence among antenatal attendees who were tested declined steadily from 24.5% in the third quarter of 2002 to 21.4% in the last quarter of 2006 (P

Elizabeth M, Stringer; Namwinga T, Chintu; Jens W, Levy; Moses, Sinkala; Benjamin H, Chi; Jubra, Muyanga; Marc, Bulterys; Maximilian, Bweupe; Karen, Megazzini; Jeffrey SA, Stringer.

162

“All for some”: water inequity in Zambia and Zimbabwe  

Science.gov (United States)

In southern Africa, gross disparities in access to water are symptomatic of the overall uneven pattern of development. Despite post-independence egalitarian rhetoric, in countries such as Zambia and Zimbabwe inappropriate models (piped house connections in the urban areas, high technology irrigation schemes in the agricultural sector), combined with weak macro-economies and poorly formulated sectoral policies have actually exacerbated the disparities. Zero or very low tariffs have played a major role in this. Although justified as being consistent with water’s special status, inadequate tariffs in fact serve to undermine any programme of making water accessible to all. This has led to a narrowing of development options, resulting in exclusivist rather than inclusivist development, and stagnation rather than dynamism. A major part of the explanation for perpetuation of such unsatisfactory outcomes is the existence of political interest groups who benefit from the status quo. The first case study in the paper involves urban water consumers in Zambia, where those with piped water connections seek to continue the culture of low tariffs which is by now deeply embedded. The result is that the water supply authorities (in this case the newly formed, but still politically constrained ‘commercialised utilities’) are unable even to maintain adequate supplies to the piped customers, let alone extend service to the peri-urban dwellers, 56% of whom do not have access to safe water. The paper outlines some modest, workable principles to achieve universal, affordable access to water in the urban areas, albeit through a mix of service delivery mechanisms. In a second case study of rural productive water in Zimbabwe, the reasons for only 2% of the rural subsistence farming households being involved in formal small-scale irrigation schemes 20 years after independence are explored. Again, a major part of the explanation lies in government pursuing a water delivery model which is not affordable or sustainable on a wide scale. Its provision, via substantial capital and recurrent subsidies, for a small group has a large opportunity cost for society as a whole. The small-scale irrigators have a vested interest in ensuring that the subsidies are maintained, but in the process continue to absorb a disproportionate amount of resources which could be used for development elsewhere. By choosing simpler, cheaper water technologies, and assisting farmers with growing and marketing high value crops, the resources could instead be used to benefit a much larger proportion of households. With well designed programmes aimed at achieving equity, large numbers of subsistence farmers could improve their incomes and start working their way out of poverty.

Robinson, Peter B.

163

Regulatory framework, strategy and radioactive waste management in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Zambia is involved in the peaceful application in Nuclear Science and Technology which cover the agriculture, human health, industry, research and education sectors. In the execution of the projects various radioactive sources and radioisotopes are used. The data from the Radiation Protection Board show that there are 136 organizations and 971 Radiation workers benefit from the regulatory control and personnel Dosimetry service that is provided by the Board. The radiation user institutions are broken down as follows: medical (106), industrial (18), research (10) and (2) in teaching. The radioactive waste generated and spent sources are managed, in several ways depending on the type . In addition to radioactive waste generated by various application there are new developments concerning the management of spent sources mainly brought into control by the detection of illicit trade or trafficking activities by the Police, Drug Enforcement Commission, and the vigilant people of the community. The challenge for Zambia is to set-up a Radioactive Waste Management Facility preferably under the National Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research (NISIR). The RPB should legally designate NISIR for this function and assist to have the Government provide support that is required to have an operation and effective facility. One Radioactive Waste Interim Storage Shed at Kalulushi. This shed was put up by a copper mining conglomerate which now has been privatized. It is hoped that this facility can be licensed by Radiation Protection Board to be run by private enterprise for storage of prescribed spent radioactive sources and materials. This shed should be technically competent persons and should have good equipment for the purpose. The application in industry (NDT, mining, radiation sterilization, pipeline and construction, human health (nuclear medicine, radioimmunoassay and radiotherapy practices) and agriculture (use of P-32) required that a National Strategy for the management of the spent radioactive materials and the waste materials from the practices be developed with Radiation Protection Board playing a leading role. The International Atomic Energy Agency will continue to be a major cooperating partner in the development of this capacity through die technical expertise, equipment, technical literature and training fellowships that can be provided through the Technical Cooperation Programme. (author)

164

School District Mergers: What One District Learned  

Science.gov (United States)

Throughout the planning process for a school district merger in a northwestern Pennsylvania school district, effective communication proved to be a challenge. Formed in 1932, this school district of approximately 1400 students was part of a utopian community; one established by a transportation system's corporation that was a major industrial…

Kingston, Kathleen

2009-01-01

165

The Impact of Tuberculosis on Zambia and the Zambian Nursing Workforce  

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Full Text Available In Zambia, the incidence of tuberculosis (TB has greatly increased in the last 10 years. This article describes Zambia and highlights the country’s use of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals as a framework to guide TB treatment programmes. An overview of TB in Zambia is provided. Data related to TB cases at the county’s main referral hospital, the University Teaching Hospital (UTH, is discussed. Treatment policies and barriers are described. Zambian nurses have been greatly affected by the rise in the morbidity and mortality of nurses with TB. This article explains the impact of TB on the Zambian nursing workforce. Review of Zambian government programmes designed to address this health crisis and targeted interventions to reduce TB among nurses are offered.

Dorothy Chanda

2006-01-01

166

Bringing "indigenous" ownership back : Chinese presence and the Citizen Economic Empowerment Commission in Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

African economies are currently experiencing an upsurge in foreign ownership of key parts of their economies. This, however, is not new, and in the wake of independence several African countries pursued indigenisation policies to bring ownership back to their own citizens. Now indigenisation policies thrive again, this time disguised in terms such as ‘empowerment’, but just as politicised as in the 1970s. Zambia is at the heart of this development. In the light of liberalisation, booming commodity prices and the increasing importance of Chinese investors, this article seeks to further our understanding of how processes of exclusion interact with domestic politics in Zambia. It argues that the Citizens Economic Empowerment Commission, a new institution to bring ownership back to Zambians, builds on a long tradition of nationalist policies in Zambia, while its actual work is strictly related to the critique of the growing foreign dominance over the economy, and in particular of the upsurge in Chinese investments.

Kragelund, Peter

2012-01-01

167

An intervention to increase the condom supply in rural zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

More than US$800 million per year is spent on programs in low- and middle-income countries to increase demand for condoms, yet in rural areas of Africa condoms are often distributed for free only by regional health clinics that may be located far from home. Anecdotal evidence suggests that limited supply, resulting primarily from long travel times to acquire condoms, is a major barrier to use. This study investigates the potential unmet demand for condoms in rural sub-Saharan Africa. I provide empirical evidence of the importance of supply effects, based on an evaluation of a distribution program in which nine agents were enlisted to sell condoms across 92 rural villages in Zambia. I find that the number of individuals acquiring condoms tripled and the number of condoms distributed rose by more than 250 percent. The study demonstrates that individuals in poor rural areas are willing to pay for condoms and provides a model whereby public health goods can be acquired through market forces without the government incurring large costs and without detracting from public health services. PMID:25207498

Seidenfeld, David

2014-09-01

168

Uranium mineralization in the Karroo system of Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Karroo geology of Zambia with respect to uranium mineralization is outlined and compared with the sandstone deposits of western United States of America. Whereas numerous uranium anomalies are known in the Karroo System, those of the Escarpment Grit Formation in the mid-Zambezi Valley would appear to be significant. Airborne radiometric survey did not always reflect the mineralization recorded on the ground. Several other Karroo anomalies are still to be traversed. Porosity, permeability, clay traps, micas and reducing lithologies are the major factors controlling mineralization. The present loci of mineralization are a function of the remobilization brought about by fluctuating water table, dip of strata and structure. While most of the deposits contain secondary uranium minerals, pitchblende has been recorded in two areas, and probably reflects the 'primary' ore. The deposits are primarily sheet-like, concordant to discordant units. The source for uranium would appear to be the Katanga and basement rocks to the north-north east and north-west. The results of the last three years of investigation support further work and already a number of low to medium scale deposits have been outlined, thus warranting further intensive large-scale investigation. (author)

169

Options for Improving Smallholder Conservation Agriculture in Zambia  

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Full Text Available This study examined the agronomic practices of smallholder Conservation Agriculture (CA farmers in Zambia. Questionnaire survey, focus group discussions, key informant interviews, field assessments, desk study and soil analyses were employed to collect data on tillage systems, crop rotations, weed control, soil fertility management, crop residue retention and crop yields. The results showed that weed management, crop residue retention, timely planting and soil fertility management were the most challenging for CA farmers especially those without reliable access to oxen. Crop residue retention conflicted with the socio-cultural practices of the communities and was hardly practised while crop rotation seemed difficult in light of the dominance of maize cultivation and the lack of markets for crop legumes. Possible options for improving smallholder CA systems were greater integration of livestock, correct herbicide application, market provision for crop legumes, farmer training in agri-business and better access to agricultural credit and subsidized inputs. CA promoters must incorporate the farmers’ local cultural contexts in order to better address the challenges associated with adopting CA.

Bridget. B. Umar

2011-09-01

170

Coal prospects in Botswana, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Namibia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increasing demand for coal in Asia is stimulating interest in the potentially large coal resources in Southern African countries such as Botswana, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Namibia. These countries have been slow to utilise their coal as local demand has been limited and the means to export coal has been inadequate. The governments in these regions are now recognising coal as a strategically important commodity, capable of earning foreign revenue but also adding value to the economy by generating much needed electricity. This report looks in turn at the role of coal in the energy economies of each of these countries. As in most emerging economies, the provision of a reliable and cost-effective supply of electricity to industries and people is essential for economic growth and the welfare of communities. Demand for Africa's mineral commodities such as diamonds and copper is driving a massive need for electricity and coal will play a major role. Not only does the mining industry need power, but with these growing industries come communities and commerce which are also in need of energy.

NONE

2013-12-01

171

Proterozoic strata-bound uranium deposits of Zambia and Zaire  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Katanga System, host to uranium and copper mineralisation, is several thousands of metres thick and rests unconformably on an older complex of crystalline rocks and metasediments and is locally covered by Karoo sandstones or Kalahari sands. The deposition of the Katanga System took place during the Late Proterozoic in a wide complex basin extending from Shaba province in Zaire through a large part of Zambia and into eastern Angola. The sediments were affected by different grades of metamorphism, tectonic events, and by thermal events associated with post-tectonic metamorphism. At the base of Katanga system there are 84 known copper deposits and 42 uranium occurrences. It is suggested that all the known uranium and copper occurrences are of an essentially syngenetic sedimentary origin. The mineralisation is found in the Lower Roan Formation near the base of the Katanga System occurring in rocks produced in similar environmental conditions and thus being stratigraphic controlled, however, their areal distribution is localised producing a regional metal zonation. Many of the uranium occurrences have a typical vein aspect. These transgressive relationships are not inconsistent with a syngenetic origin as evidenced by the vein morphology. (author)

172

The threat of illicit trafficking in an under-resourced country: The case of Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From July 1995 to January 2005, five cases of attempted illicit trafficking of spent radioactive materials have been reported and investigated in Zambia. In all five cases, monetary gain was the motivation. The paper describes factors contributing to the vulnerability of Zambia to illicit trafficking of nuclear material, including the consequences of an unstable economy, the involvement of international institutions in Government funding policies, inadequate training or remuneration of personnel and inadequate equipment. To raise awareness among policy makers and the public, a six-pronged strategy is suggested. (author)

173

Can family planning outreach bridge the urban-rural divide in Zambia?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Zambia experienced declining aggregate fertility and increasing aggregate contraceptive use from 1990 to 2000. Yet, in rural Zambia, progress in family planning has lagged far behind the advances made in Zambia's urban areas. The contraceptive prevalence rate in Lusaka and other urban areas outstripped the rate in rural Zambia by nearly 25 percentage points (41.2 percent versus 16.6 percent in 2001. The total fertility rate varied between urban and rural areas by 2.5 children (4.3 versus 6.9 children. This paper considers the urban-rural differentials in Zambia and assesses family planning outreach as a tool to narrow this divide. Methods This study uses the Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS data, collected between 2001 and 2002. Logistic regression techniques were employed to examine factors associated with contraceptive use. The first analysis tested modern contraceptive use versus traditional method use and no use. In addition, separate models were run for samples stratified by type of residence (rural or urban to determine if different factors were associated with use by residence. A simulation determined the effect of all women receiving at least one household visit from a health worker if all other variables were held constant. Results Differences in modern contraceptive use between urban and rural areas persist (OR: 1.56, 95 percent CI: 1.24–1.96 even after adjusting for a number of demographic, socioeconomic, cognitive, and attitudinal factors. Household visits by a community health worker significantly increased the likelihood of modern contraceptive use among rural women (OR: 1.83; 95 percent CI: 1.29–2.58. If all rural women received at least one outreach visit per year, the prevalence rate for modern contraceptive methods would be expected to increase for this group by 5.9 percentage points, a marked increase but less than one-quarter of the total urban-rural differential. Conclusion Outreach in the form of health worker visits can improve access to family planning services, but it does not eliminate barriers to access or address continued high-fertility desires in Zambia. Until policymakers consider strategies that address both family planning demand creation and supply of services, progress in Zambia and the rest of sub-Saharan Africa will continue to lag behind the rest of the world.

Speizer Ilene S

2007-09-01

174

Impact of Minimum Tillage and Crop Rotation as Climate Change Adaptation Strategies on Farmer Welfare in Smallholder Farming Systems of Zambia  

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Full Text Available Worldwide, climate change is currently recognized as one of the major challenges to increased food production. The agriculture sector is the main source of livelihoods, growth and foreign exchange earnings in many developing countries including Zambia. However, it is also a sector that is mostly vulnerable to effects of climate change. Smallholder farmers in Zambia have been adopting agricultural related adaptation strategies including minimum tillage and crop rotation to mitigate effects of climate change. There has been contentious debate on whether the two strategies (that are elements of conservation farming increase crop yields and incomes. Available literature heavily relies on biophysical experiments and show contradictions in the ability of these strategies to improve crop yields. Taking cognizance of the differences in socioeconomic circumstances of the farmers, the purpose of this study was to estimate the impact of minimum tillage and crop rotation on maize yields and incomes for farmers adopting the strategies. The study used cross sectional data collected in 2012/13 from 1231 households across six districts of Zambia and applied propensity score matching techniques and Heckman’s selection estimators to account for observed and unobserved heterogeneity between the adopters and non-adopters. The results showed that about 12 and 19% of the farmers have adopted minimum tillage and crop rotation respectively. The strategies improved on-farm maize productivity by about 26% to 38% for minimum tillage and 21% to 24% for crop rotation. Minimum tillage also improved total household maize production. On the other hand crop rotation did not significantly improve total maize production and gross income from the crop. This could reflect the small proportions of areas allocated to legumes versus the areas subsequently allocated to the maize crop during crop rotation. The impact of crop rotation on the staple maize crop could be boosted by encouraging farmers to increase the areas allocated to legumes. The legumes portfolio in the government sponsored input support programme should be increased. The results from this study generally confirm the potential direct role of agricultural related climate change adaptation strategies in improving crop productivity levels in small holder farming systems.

Elias Kuntashula

2014-07-01

175

Plasmodium falciparum parasite infection prevalence from a household survey in Zambia using microscopy and a rapid diagnostic test: implications for monitoring and evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents estimates of P. falciparum infection prevalence in children under 5 years old in the context of a population-based household survey in Luangwa District (Lusaka Province), Zambia, an area where greater than 75% of households possess at least one insecticide-treated mosquito net (ITN). The sensitivity and specificity of an HRP-2 rapid diagnostic test (RDT) (ICT Malaria Pf((R))) compared to microscopy, as well as factors associated with discordant diagnostic results are also presented. P. falciparum infection prevalence was estimated at 7.0% (95% CI 4.9-9.0%) using microscopy. Using microscopy as the gold standard, the sensitivity of the HRP-2 RDT was 100% and specificity was 91.5%; positive predictive value was estimated to be 46.7% (95% CI 36.3-57.4%). RDT discordance, or HRP-2 false positivity, was highest among older children, those in the northern part of Luangwa District, and those with a reported history of antimalarial treatment. These data suggest microscopy should remain the gold standard for estimating malaria parasite point prevalence from household surveys for monitoring and evaluation purposes. PMID:19682968

Keating, Joseph; Miller, John M; Bennett, Adam; Moonga, Hawela B; Eisele, Thomas P

2009-12-01

176

Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes circulating in Ndola, Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is one of the major public health problems in Zambia. However, information about lineages of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC isolates useful for epidemiology investigations is unknown. In this study, we investigated the diversity of MTBC isolates from Ndola, a typical Zambian urbanized city with a documented high HIV prevalence. Methods This was part of a prospective cohort study in subjects with sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB. Spoligotyping was used to genotype the MTBC isolates and establish the circulating lineages. The 15-locus Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units - Variable Number Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR typing was used to study recent transmission. Results A total of 98 different spoligotypes were identified among 273 MTBC isolates. The majority (64.8% of the isolates belonged to 9 known families, while 96 (35.2% of the isolates were orphans. While LAM (41.8% was the largest spoligotype family observed, most of the isolates (87.7% belonging to the SAF1 family, with a significant portion coming from the T (13.6%, and X (5.9% families. A few isolates (3.6% belonged to the CAS, EAI, H, S, X1-LAM9 or U families. MIRU-VNTR typing was highly discriminatory (h = 0.988 among the 156 isolates tested in our sample, and increased the discrimination among 82 SAF1 isolates from 6 to 46 distinct patterns. In addition, 3.2% (5/156 of cases with available MIRU-VNTR results harbored more than one MTBC strain. Conclusions Our findings show a limited diversity of MTBC in Ndola with a high clustering rate (37.7%, which indicates that recent transmission plays an appreciable role in the dynamics of TB disease in this setting. This conclusion emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and timely treatment. The results also confirm that MIRU-VNTR typing is suitable for studying the molecular epidemiology of TB in Ndola.

Mwakazanga David

2010-06-01

177

Socio-cultural factors surrounding mental distress during the perinatal period in Zambia: a qualitative investigation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of mental distress during pregnancy and after childbirth imposes detrimental developmental and health consequences for families in all nations. In Zambia, the Ministry of Health (MoH has proposed a more comprehensive approach towards mental health care, recognizing the importance of the mental health of women during the perinatal period. Aim The study explores factors contributing to mental distress during the perinatal period of motherhood in Zambia. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in Lusaka, Zambia with nineteen focus groups comprising 149 women and men from primary health facilities and schools respectively. Findings There are high levels of mental distress in four domains: worry about HIV status and testing; uncertainty about survival from childbirth; lack of social support; and vulnerability/oppression. Conclusion Identifying mental distress and prompt referral for interventions is critical to improving the mental health of the mother and prevent the effects of mental distress on the baby. Recommendation Strategies should be put in place to ensure pregnant women are screened for possible perinatal mental health problems during their visit to antenatal clinic and referral made to qualified mental health professionals. In addition further research is recommended in order to facilitate evidence based mental health policy formulation and implementation in Zambia.

Mwape Lonia

2012-09-01

178

CORRESPONDENCE INSTRUCTION IN ETHIOPIA, KENYA, TANZANIA, MALAWI, ZAMBIA, AND UGANDA--EXPERIENCES, NEEDS, AND INTEREST.  

Science.gov (United States)

THIS REPORT ON THE SALIENT FEATURES AND CONCERNS OF CORRESPONDENCE INSTRUCTION IN ETHIOPIA, KENYA, TANZANIA, MALAWI, ZAMBIA, AND UGANDA--(1) DISCUSSES ADVANTAGES, DISADVANTAGES, AND REQUIREMENTS OF THE CORRESPONDENCE METHOD IN AN AFRICAN CONTEXT, (2) SURVEYS CONDITIONS AND FACILITIES (POSTAL SERVICES, ROADS, INSTRUCTIONAL RADIO AND TELEVISION,…

EDSTROEM, LARS-OLOF

179

Role of partnership in enhancing the performance of radiation regulatory authority in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The National Radiation Infrastructure includes legislation, human resource, technical capacity to execute responsibilities of the regulatory (1). In cases of developing countries like Zambia, special challenges arise in view of the constraints both in terms of human resource and funding. This paper will highlight same measures that may be undertaken to improve the operations of nation radiation protection infrastructure. The measures include collaboration with Science and Technology organisations that have technical capacity, delegation of responsible to key institutions that may have competence and generation of funds through training and provision of reliable quality service. (2). In Zambia, some achievements in this line have been registered by Radiation Protection Board working with the University of Zambia and National Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research (3). Some measures of generation of funds have been done though utilization of the generated remains to be the limiting factor to exploit fully benefits that may arise from the use of the monies generated from services. Partnerships with private sector may be used as regulatory authorities for support to its programme in particular the public awareness campaign. Sponsorship by a Private Cellar Phone Company (Telecel Zambia) and Rotary Club of Lusaka for Radiation Week to Radiation Protection Service under Theme 'Safe Radiation Use' is one such an example. The other opportunity is the technical cooperation with regional and international organisations such as SADC, IAEA, WHO, Interpol, EU and WCO for technical capacity building, human resource development and information access. (author)

180

Health Worker Satisfaction and Motivation: An Empirical Study of Incomes, Allowances and Working Conditions in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Health worker salaries in Zambia are low by any standard. In recent times there have been real reductions in thesalaries of health workers. This has resulted in significant attrition in the public sector as health workers areattracted to the private sector or leave Zambia entirely, leaving a large deficit in public sector health workers. Inthis study we examine the relationship between health worker incomes and their satisfaction and motivation.Cross-sectional data collection was undertaken using both quantitative and qualitative methods. A refined surveyinstrument was used for the quantitative data method. Document review (past and current records was employedfor the qualitative method. Data was collected in three regions that represent extremes in overall remunerationand benefits. Lusaka represented the favourable area while Monze and Nyimba represented less favourable areasfor study in Zambia.There are hefty disparities between different health workers. There are also enormous salary differentials for thesame workers between the public and private sectors. These salary differentials explain the experience of publicto private “traffic” of health workers as well as casual private sector work by public sector health workers. Inaddition, there are negligible efforts by government to reduce the benefits gaps among key public health cadres.The low incomes received by public health workers in Zambia have many negative implications: it begetsabsenteeism, results in low output, poor quality health care, and the departure of health workers to the privatesector and overseas.

Jeff Gow

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
181

Organization of Distance Education at the University of Zambia: An Analysis of the Practice.  

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Discussion of two basic organizational models for distance education systems or institutions focuses on the mixed-mode organization at the University of Zambia. Highlights include the development, production, storage, and distribution of teaching materials; communication channels between students and teachers; and the record-keeping system. (11…

Nyirenda, Juma E.

1989-01-01

182

Factors Contributing to the Failure to Use Condoms among Students in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored factors that may predict condom use among college and high school students in Zambia. Using the Social Cognitive Theory, this study examined the relationship of drinking behaviors, alcohol-sexual expectations, education level, and religion to condom use among 961 students. The results of the study show that condom use was low…

Mbulo, Lazarous; Newman, Ian M.; Shell, Duane F.

2007-01-01

183

Education and Zambia's Democratic Development: Reconstituting "Something" from the Predatory Project of Neoliberal Globalization  

Science.gov (United States)

Zambia, a central African country of about 10 million people, is currently exposed to the nonsubjective forces of globalization, including institutional weaknesses such as high unemployment rated and chronic levels of poverty that ipso facto problematize its governance and social development priorities. The first part of the article focuses on an…

Abdi, Ali A.; Ellis, Lee

2007-01-01

184

The Nature and Role of Religious Studies at the University of Zambia: 1985-2005  

Science.gov (United States)

The place of religion in higher education has been and remains a complex issue internationally. This article aims to outline the nature and development of Religious Studies at the University of Zambia in Lusaka (UNZA) as an instance of how religion entered higher education in an African setting. In doing so, it will also provide perspectives on…

Carmody, Brendan

2008-01-01

185

Developing a Nutrition and Health Education Program for Primary Schools in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

School-based health and nutrition interventions in developing countries aim at improving children's nutrition and learning ability. In addition to the food and health inputs, children need access to education that is relevant to their lives, of good quality, and effective in its approach. Based on evidence from the Zambia Nutrition Education in…

Sherman, Jane; Muehlhoff, Ellen

2007-01-01

186

Comparative Policy Brief: Status of Intellectual Disabilities in the Republic of Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Republic of Zambia, an estimated 256,000 persons have some form of disability, and of these, 5.4% have intellectual disabilities. Even now, traditional beliefs about the etiology of intellectual disabilities persist and considerable stigma is attached to the presence of persons with intellectual disabilities who are often excluded from…

Mung'omba, James

2008-01-01

187

Factors Related to Pre-Service Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusion: A Case for Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Inclusive education has become a global trend in the provision of services for students with disabilities. In Zambia and other developing nations, international initiatives from UNESCO and other nongovernmental organisations have contributed to the consensus that all children have a right to a free and appropriate education and that all students…

Muwana, Florence Chuzu; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

2014-01-01

188

Information Provision in Emergency Settings: The Experience of Refugee Communities in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

This article identifies information provision services in emergency settings using Zambia as a case study by identifying innovative ways of providing library and information services. The thrust of the article is to analyze information management practices of organizations that work within refugee camps and how they take specific cognizance of the…

Kanyengo, Brendah Kakulwa; Kanyengo, Christine Wamunyima

2011-01-01

189

Environmental approaches adopted for the sound management of radioactive and non-radioactive pollutants in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation gives an overview of the situation in Zambia with respect to the management of chemicals. A summary description of key pieces of legislation that deal with the protection of human beings and the environment and their objectives are discussed briefly. The paper gives also a summary description of key approaches and procedures for the management of chemicals. (author)

190

Extremely Drug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Senftenberg Infections in Patients in Zambia.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Two cases of extremely drug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg isolated from patients in Zambia were investigated by utilizing MIC determinations and whole-genome sequencing. The isolates were resistant to, and harbored genes toward, nine drug classes, including fluoroquinolones and extended-spectrum cephalosporins, contained two plasmid replicons, and differed by 93 single-nucleotide polymorphisms.

Hendriksen, Rene S.; Joensen, Katrine Grimstrup

2013-01-01

191

Un/Doing Gender? A Case Study of School Policy and Practice in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores an attempt to disrupt gender inequality in a unique, low-cost private school in Ndola, Zambia. It examines deliberate school policies aimed at "undoing gender" or fostering greater gender equity. These include efforts to maintain gender parity at all levels of the school and the requirement that both young men and women carry…

Bajaj, Monisha

2009-01-01

192

Gender, British Administration and Mission Management of Education in Zambia 1900-1939  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses the impact of including gender in the analytical framework in a study of the management and provision of education in Zambia from 1900 to 1939. It shows that a focus on gender allows females to enter the historical narrative and the leadership of women such as Mabel Shaw, Hannah Frances Davidson and Julia Smith can be given…

Allen, Julia

2010-01-01

193

International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) mission to Zambia. The IUREP Orientation Phase mission to Zambia estimates that the Speculative Resources of that country fall within the range of 33 000 and 100 000 tonnes uranium. The majority of these resources are believed to exist in the Karoo sediments. Other potentially favourable geological environments are the Precambrian Katanga sediments, as well as intrusive rocks of different chemical compositions and surficial duricrusts. Previous unofficial estimates of Zambia's Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR) and Estimated Additional Resources (EAR) are considered to be still valid: the total RAR amount to 6 000 tonnes uranium, located in Karoo (4 000 tonnes) and Katanga (2 000 tonnes) sediments, while the EAR are believed to total 4 000 tonnes being found only in Karoo sediments. The mission recommends that approximately US$ 40 million be spent on uranium exploration in Zambia over 10 years. The largest part of this expenditure would be for drilling, while the remainder should be spent on airborne and ground surveys, as well as on interpretative work on previous airborne data, Landsat imageries, etc. (author)

194

Disease constraints for utilization of the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) on game ranches in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eco-tourism depending on wildlife is becoming increasingly profitable and landowners are beginning to favor game farming and ecotourism. In these areas, large-scale translocation of wildlife involves a diversity of species and large populations. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is one of the major tourist attractions in Zambia. It accounts for 8.7% and 12.4% of the total animal species hunted in the Game Management Areas and the total hunting revenue earned in Zambia, respectively. It is ecologically an important animal species essential for the purpose of habitat control and facilitating the provision of suitable grazing pastures. However, the rearing of the African buffalo on game ranches has been hampered by its carrier state of the Southern Africa Terroritory (SAT) serotypes of foot and mouth disease virus (FMD). The African buffalo is also known to be a carrier of Theileria parva lawrencei, the causative agent of corridor disease (CD) that continues to have devastating effects on the livestock industry in Zambia. In addition, the importation of buffaloes from countries with populations endemic to bovine tuberculosis is highly restricted. Veterinary regulations in Zambia, strongly advocate against the translocation of buffaloes from protected areas to private ranches for disease control purposes thereby mounting a considerable constraint on the economic and ecological viability of the industry. It is hoped that this review will motivate the relevant government authorities in exploiting ways in which this animal species play a central role in eco-tourism. PMID:16786973

Munang'andu, Hetron M; Munag'andu, Hetron M; Siamudaala, Victor M; Nambota, Andrew; Bwalya, John M; Munyeme, Musso; Mweene, Aaron S; Takada, Ayato; Kida, Hiroshi

2006-05-01

195

Reversing Agro-Based Land Degradation through Conservation Agriculture: Emerging Experiences from Zambia’s Smallholder Farming Sector  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study reports on the land degradation minimizing effects of Conservation Agriculture (CA as promoted among smallholder Zambian farmers. It found no evidence of CA associated improvements in soil fertility after five years of CA practice, most probably because crop residues were removed from the fields. The study reports high phosphorus (15.53 mg kg-1 and potassium (0.75 cmol kg-1 levels, low nitrogen (0.12 % and organic carbon (1.19 % levels, and no plough/hoe pans in soils from both CA and conventionally (CV managed fields. This is in part contrary to the dominant land degradation narratives which have been the basis for promoting CA in the study areas. Faidherbia albida, a leguminous tree promoted as part of the CA package in Zambia, is associated with significantly higher levels of nitrogen, organic carbon and potassium under its canopy. Its planting by CA farmers is linked to the incentives provided by CA promoters. Average maize yields of 3.8 t ha-1 and 2.8 t ha-1 were reported under CA and CV systems respectively. Government subsidies for mineral fertilizer and hybrid seed promote maize mono-cropping and remain unsupportive of CA. It is concluded that the dominant land degradation narrative, which posits population induced land degradation, may not hold in this case. Instead, the removal of crop residues and low levels of mineral fertilizer and manure amendments may better explain the soil fertility status of the study areas. More nutrient replacement strategies are required if the benefits of CA on soil fertility are to be actualized in the immediate future.

Bridget Bwalya Umar

2012-06-01

196

The reach and impact of social marketing and reproductive health communication campaigns in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Like many sub-Saharan African countries, Zambia is dealing with major health issues, including HIV/AIDS, family planning, and reproductive health. To address reproductive health problems and the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Zambia, several social marketing and health communication programs focusing on reproductive and HIV/AIDS prevention programs are being implemented. This paper describes the reach of these programs and assesses their impact on condom use. Methods This paper assesses the reach of selected radio and television programs about family planning and HIV/AIDS and of communications about the socially marketed Maximum condoms in Zambia, as well as their impact on condom use, using data from the 2001–2002 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey. To control for self-selection and endogeneity, we use a two-stage regression model to estimate the effect of program exposure on the behavioural outcomes. Results Those who were exposed to radio and television programs about family planning and HIV/AIDS were more likely to have ever used a condom (OR = 1.16 for men and 1.06 for women. Men highly exposed to Maximum condoms social marketing communication were more likely than those with low exposure to the program to have ever used a condom (OR = 1.48, and to have used a condom at their last sexual intercourse (OR = 1.23. Conclusion Findings suggest that the reproductive health and social marketing campaigns in Zambia reached a large portion of the population and had a significant impact on condom use. The results suggest that future reproductive health communication campaigns that invest in radio programming may be more effective than those investing in television programming, and that future campaigns should seek to increase their impact among women, perhaps by focusing on the specific constrains that prevent females from using condoms.

Meekers Dominique

2007-12-01

197

7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Dacus frontalis, Dacus lounsburyii, Dacus punctatifrons, Dacus vertebratus, Diaphania indica, Helicoverpa armigera, and Spodoptera littoralis. (a) Approved greenhouses. The baby squash and baby courgettes must be grown in Zambia in...

2010-01-01

198

Synthesis of the main results of the Budget Support evaluations in Mali, Tunisia and Zambia – Draft September 28, 2011  

Title: Synthesis of the main results of the Budget Support evaluations in Mali, Tunisia and ...Synthesis of main results ...Support operations: findings from Mali, Zambia and Tunisia Synthesis of main results

199

Zambia's participation in past CTBTO activities and the upgrading of AS119 and N192: Experiences and the way forward  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation briefly describes the Zambian Seisimic Network (ZSN), Zambia's participation in past CTBTO activities and upgrading of AS119 and N192. It goes on to describe various experiences encountered and makes some suggestions for future considerations

200

Evaluation of a task-shifting strategy involving peer educators in HIV care and treatment clinics in Lusaka, Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rapid expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART and a shortage of health care workers (HCWs required the implementation of a peer educator (PE model as part of a task-shifting strategy in Lusaka District clinics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient and staff perceptions regarding whether the PE program: a relieved the workload on professional HCWs; and b delivered services of acceptable quality. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered from five primary care clinics delivering ART in Lusaka, Zambia. Closed surveys were conducted with 148 patients receiving ART, 29 PEs, and 53 HCWs. Data was imported into Microsoft Excel to calculate descriptive statistics. Six focus group discussions and eight key informant (KI interviews were conducted, recorded, transcribed, and coded to extract relevant data. Survey results demonstrated that 50 of 53 (96.1% HCWs agreed PEs reduced the amount of counseling duties required of HCWs. HCWs felt that PEs performed as well as HCWs in counseling patients (48 of 53; 90.6% and that having PEs conduct counseling enabled clinical staff to see more patients (44 of 53; 83%. A majority of patients (141 of 148; 95.2% agreed or strongly agreed that PEs were knowledgeable about ART, and 89 of 144 (61.8% expressed a high level of confidence with PEs performing counseling and related tasks. Focus group and KI interviews supported these findings. PEs helped ease the work burden of HCWs and provided effective counseling, education talks, and adherence support to patients in HIV care. Consideration should be given to formalizing their role in the public health sector.

Lonny J. Born

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
201

The burden of knowing: balancing benefits and barriers in HIV testing decisions. a qualitative study from Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Client-initiated HIV counselling and testing has been scaled up in many African countries, in the form of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT. Test rates have remained low, with HIV-related stigma being an important barrier to HIV testing. This study explored HIV testing decisions in one rural and one urban district in Zambia with high HIV prevalence and available antiretroviral treatment. Methods Data were collected through 17 in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions with individuals and 10 in-depth interviews with counsellors. Interpretive description methodology was employed to analyse the data. Results 'To know your status' was found to be a highly charged concept yielding strong barriers against HIV testing. VCT was perceived as a diagnostic device and a gateway to treatment for the severely ill. Known benefits of prevention and early treatment were outweighed by a perceived burden of knowing your HIV status related to stigma and fear. The manner in which the VCT services were organised added to this burden. Conclusions This study draws on social stigma theory to enhance the understanding of the continuity of HIV related stigma in the presence of ART, and argues that the burden of knowing an HIV status and the related reluctance to get HIV tested can be understood both as a form of label-avoidance and as strong expressions of the still powerful embodied memories of suffering and death among non-curable AIDS patients over the last decades. Hope lies in the emerging signs of a reduction in HIV related stigma experienced by those who had been tested for HIV. Further research into innovative HIV testing service designs that do not add to the burden of knowing is needed.

Jürgensen Marte

2012-01-01

202

Evaluation of malaria prevention strategies during pregnancy in Ndola, Zambia  

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Full Text Available Background: Malaria in pregnancy is associated with many negative outcomes for the woman,foetus and neonate. Intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp using three doses of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP, insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs and indoor residual spray (IRS, constitute the main strategies used to prevent malaria. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of these strategies for the reduction of malaria prevalence in pregnant women.

Methods: A questionnaire on socio-demographic information, history of malaria during current pregnancy and prevention strategies used was administered to 450 consecutive patients admitted into labour wards at three local clinics. From the antenatal cards, information was collected on the last menstrual period, date of each dose of SP taken, gravidity, and HIV status. A blood slide to detect Plasmodium was then collected from each woman after consent.

Results: Of the participants in the study, 2.4% had a positive blood slide at term and 15.8% reported malaria during pregnancy. All the participants took at least one dose of SP with 87.6% completing the stipulated three doses. The mean gestational ages for each dose were 22.1 (SD 4.6, 29.1 (SD 4.4and 34.4 (SD 3.9 weeks for the first, second and third dose respectively. With regard to ITNs, 79.5% had one, but only 74.1% used it regularly. IRS was completed in all three of the clinics’ catchment areas. Only 23.4% used commercial insecticide.

Conclusion: The measured prevalence of malaria at term in Ndola was remarkably low, although the self-reported rate during pregnancy was still high. The national targets for accessing IPTp were exceeded, although the timing of each dose needs to be improved. Access to ITNs was high, but usage needs to increase.

How to cite this article:Mulamba M, Mash B. Evaluation of malaria prevention strategies during pregnancy in Ndola, Zambia. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med.2010; 2(1, Art. #159,5 pages. DOI: 10.4102/phcfm.v2i1.159

Bob Mash

2010-03-01

203

The Determinants and Extent of Crop Diversification Among Smallholder Farmers: A Case Study of Southern Province Zambia  

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Full Text Available Agriculture is vital to Zambia’s economic development and is a mainstay for the livelihoods of a large proportion of the population. Agricultural production is mainly dependent on rain-fed hoe cultivation with maize as the principal staple food crop. About 18 percent of national maize production comes from Zambia’s Southern province. In order to improve food security and minimize risks associated with heavy dependence on maize, the government of Zambia has been promoting crop diversification. This study analyzed the determinants of crop diversification as well as the factors influencing the extent of crop diversification by smallholder farmers in Southern province. The study used secondary data from the Central Statistical Office of Zambia. Results from a double-hurdle model analysis indicates that landholding size, fertilizer quantity, distance to market, and the type of tillage mechanism adopted have a strong influence on whether a farmer practices crop diversification. Our findings have important implications for policies that are designed to enhance crop diversification. In particular, our results suggest the need for government to consider undertaking policies that will enhance farmers’ access to and control over land, that will provide farmers with improved access to agricultural implements like ploughs, and that will bring trading markets closer to farmers.

Kiru Sichoongwe

2014-10-01

204

Restructuring of labor markets in the Philippines and Zambia: the gender dimension.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper critically examines labor market changes accompanying the process of structural adjustment in the Philippines and Zambia and, in particular, the resulting impact on women's economic participation. The changes in the labor market occurring during the process of economic restructuring in Zambia and the Philippines are similar in some respects but very different in others. Zambia's economic performance has not been sufficient to generate wide-based employment and has been characterized by rising unemployment. The Philippines has also unfortunately been characterized by a growth in joblessness, specifically with regard to skilled and semiskilled employment. Global integration of labor markets in the Philippines give some employment opportunity to workers who are willing to seek jobs overseas but not to those in Zambia. Both in the Philippines and Zambia, the informal sector has shifted its agricultural reforms to female labor toward agricultural wage work (which is seasonal and low paid). In the Philippines, specifically in urban areas, certain export-oriented industries have created some jobs, predominantly for young women, but only a small proportion of total females are employed. Much of the female job growth has occurred in sales and service sectors, including sex work, domestic service, and petty trade. International labor migration in the Philippines has become more feminized, because a majority of overseas contract workers are women, who are employed in the service sector as entertainers and domestic helpers. Access to paid work in some cases may empower women, yet in other cases their power may be diminished. Both the specific character of labor market development and the nature of the accompanying economic reform alter the ability of the women and men to take advantage of the opportunity. Reform shifts patterns of production organization and location of employment and can either reinforce the prevailing distribution of power or provide tension, thereby challenging the governing pattern of income control and decision making. Thus, the economic restructuring of the Philippines and Zambia did not necessarily bring about significant changes in the labor market such that gender equality would be promoted. PMID:12322204

Floro, M S; Schaefer, K

1998-01-01

205

The influence of cultural practices on the HIV and AIDS pandemic in Zambia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Culture plays a significant role in people's lives in Zambia and in Africa as a whole. Consequently, there is a need to take Zambian or African culture seriously in order to look at the salient elements of cultural practices in rites of passage that influence the spread of HIV and AIDS. This article [...] analyses four rites of passage associated with birth, puberty, marriage and death. There are numerous rites of passage in Zambian culture. Some of these rites help to curb the spread of HIV and AIDS, whilst others exacerbate the spread of the virus. Using the Reformed Church in Zambia Bible Study Method of Subgroups, discussions were held that allowed victims of cultural practices to tell their stories using the narrative model. This article sought to shed light on cultural practices that exacerbate HIV and AIDS and more importantly, provide culturally sensitive alternatives to these harmful practices.

Nolipher, Moyo; Julian C., M& #252; ller.

206

Evaluating the program effects of a radio drama about AIDS in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes an approach to the analysis of data that is designed to isolate program effects for evaluations and applies that approach to a program in Zambia designed to disseminate AIDS information. Evidence is considered that a radio drama broadcast for nine months had an impact on knowledge and behavior related to AIDS among Bemba speakers in northern Zambia. Using results from large sample surveys (1,600 men and women), conducted before and after the drama was broadcast, the analyses compare changes in knowledge and behavior in those most likely and least likely to have listened to the broadcast. While the population as a whole had improved its knowledge substantially, and some people reported having reduced risky behavior, attributing these changes to the program itself was not possible. PMID:8875732

Yoder, P S; Hornik, R; Chirwa, B C

1996-01-01

207

Structural study and geochronology in the Hook Batholith, Central Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pan-African Hook batholith is emplaced N of the Mwembeshi dislocation, a regional scale structure at the contact between Zambezi Belt and Lufilian Arc in Central Zambia. Exposed over 12000 km2 the batholith is composed mainly of fine-grained and coarse-grained porphyritic granites and leucogranites affected by solid-state deformation along high-strain zones. Two main zones of deformation were investigated - the Itezhi-Tezhi Zone (ITZ) in the SW part of the batholith and the Nalusanga Zone (NZ) to the NE. The 2.5 km wide, N-S trending, subvertical ITZ is a medium-grade, pure shear dominated structure, reflecting probably regional scale E-W shortening. In the central part of the zone, augen-gneiss textures developed. Mineral lineations plunging ~40° S are recorded occasionally. The deformed feldspar porphyroclasts show symmetrical tails and rarely sinistral stair-stepping. In the SE part of the Hook batholith the continuation of the ITZ trends E-W. This orientation can be explained by rotation of the original ITZ trend by N-S shortening that also has been recorded in the siliciclastic metasediments S of the contact. S dipping, up to 15 cm wide thrust zones observed in the ITZ area were probably formed during this tectonic event. The 3 km wide NZ is a subvertical to steeply SSW dipping structure, parallel to the NE contact of the batholith, with well-developed foliation and mineral stretching lineations. Field and microstructural analyses defined the NZ as a medium-grade, non-coaxial, sinistral strike-slip shear zone. The transition from weak foliated granite to S-C mylonites and ultramylonites was observed. The sinistral shearing is consistent with E-W shortening in agreement with the tectonic framework of the ITZ. The low grade metasediments to the E of the granite are folded in N to NNW trending structures also implying E-W shortening. Temperature conditions during the deformation in ITZ and NZ inferred from microstructural analyses are about 500°-550°C. The metamorphism in the country rocks E of the batholith is in the lower greenschist facies indicating that deformation along the ITZ and NZ occurred during the cooling of the granite. U-Pb zircon LA-SF-ICP-MS analyses reveal that the coarse-grained and fine-grained granites in the NE part of the batholith have the same age of 549×2 Ma. The age of an undeformed aplite that truncates the NZ's foliation brackets the strike-slip shearing between 549×2 Ma and 541×3 Ma. In the SE margin of the batholith deformed coarse-grained granite is dated at 544×2 Ma and an undeformed granitic vein gave an age of 543×3 Ma, thus relating the fabric formation to the same time interval. To the SW the deformed granite in the ITZ is dated at 533×3 Ma indicating that the E-W shortening was still active at this time. This study reports two deformational stages recorded in the Hook batholith and its country rocks. E-W shortening folded the sediments form the E margin of the granite and formed the solid-state fabric in the batholith. The following N-S shortening cold be related to the final docking of the Zambezi sequence to the Lufilian Arc along the Mwembeshi dislocation.

Naydenov, K.; Lehmann, J.; Saalmann, K.; Milani, L.; Kinnaird, J.; Charlesworth, G.; Frei, D.

2013-12-01

208

Characterisation of the Wildlife Reservoir Community for Human and Animal Trypanosomiasis in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Animal and human trypanosomiasis are constraints to both animal and human health in Sub-Saharan Africa, but there is little recent evidence as to how these parasites circulate in natural hosts in natural ecosystems. A cross-sectional survey of trypanosome prevalence in 418 wildlife hosts was conducted in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia, from 2005 to 2007. The overall prevalence in all species was 13.9%. Infection was significantly more likely to be detected in waterbuck, lion, greater kudu and bus...

Anderson, Neil E.; Mubanga, Joseph; Fevre, Eric M.; Picozzi, Kim; Eisler, Mark C.; Thomas, Robert; Welburn, Susan C.

2011-01-01

209

‘It is just culture’ : Eight young people’s perception of the gender roles in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study explores eight young people’s perception of the gender roles in Zambia, Lusaka. In this study I have asked the informants to define the genders and the result were that the genders are defined based on the biological sexes. The genders therefore become homogenous based on the male and female sex. The regulations of the genders were traditionally also based on assumed ‘biologically natural characteristics’. As I argue in this study that gender roles are social constructed I al...

Nyman, Mikaela

2013-01-01

210

Genital tract infections among HIV-infected pregnant women in Malawi, Tanzania and Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and factors associated with genital tract infections among HIV-infected pregnant women from African sites. Participants were recruited from Blantyre and Lilongwe, Malawi; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; and Lusaka, Zambia. Genital tract infections were assessed at baseline. Of 2627 eligible women enrolled, 2292 were HIV-infected. Of these, 47.8% had bacterial vaginosis (BV), 22.4% had vaginal candidiasis, 18.8% had trichomoniasis, 8.5% had genital ...

Aboud, S.; Msamanga, G.; Read, J. S.; Mwatha, A.; Chen, Y. Q.; Potter, D.; Valentine, M.; Sharma, U.; Hoffmann, I.; Taha, T. E.; Goldenberg, R. L.; Fawzi, W. W.

2008-01-01

211

Reclamation of lead/zinc processing wastes at Kabwe, Zambia: A phytogeochemical approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The lead/zinc mining industry of Kabwe (Central Province of Zambia), in operation from 1906 to 1994, generated metalliferous slag heaps covering an area of over 75 ha. The slag heaps are responsible for aerosol emissions with a high heavy metal content over the mine townships of Kasanda and Chowa, resulting in health risks for the local population. In this phytogeochemical investigation, soil samples showed very high lead, zinc and copper concentrations in topsoil. Plant surveys identified 39...

Leteinturier, B.; Laroche, J.; Matera, J.; Malaisse, Franc?ois

2001-01-01

212

Role of non-governmental organisations in basic education policy reform in Lusaka province of Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Through an exploration and analysis of the roles of Non-Government Organisations (NGOs) in education policy reform particularly at the Basic Education level in Zambia, this thesis argues that over the past few decades, NGOs have become increasingly visible. Indeed, since the 1990s, many NGOs supporting education have entered the arena of advocacy and policy dialogue with government; yet the success of internationally recognised goals - such as Education For All (EFA) – seem a...

Mwanza, Peggy

2013-01-01

213

Self-reported poor oral hygiene among in-school adolescents in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Dental health is a neglected aspect of adolescent health globally but more so in low-income countries. Secondary analysis using the 2004 Zambia Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS) was conducted in which we estimated frequencies of relevant socio-demographic variables and explored associations between selected explanatory variables and self-reported poor oral hygiene (not cleaning or brushing teeth) within the last 30 days of the completion of question...

Rudatsikira Emmanuel; Muula Adamson S; Siziya Seter

2011-01-01

214

Evolution of anti-corruption journalism in Africa: lessons from Zambia  

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All African countries, where there are functioning states, express a strong desire to curb corruption. The African Union has a convention to prevent and combat corruption. Zambia, under President Levy Mwanawasa, has positioned itself as a leader in Africa's fight against corruption. Last year, former Zambian President Frederick Chiluba was found guilty of grand corruption by a London court in a case brought against him by the Zambian government. There is general agreement that the media plays...

Isaac Phiri

2011-01-01

215

Household lifestyle, energy related practices and perceptions of energy efficiency: Evidence from Kitwe, Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Southern Africa is noted for not only constant power shortages but also poor access to electricity. In Zambia, for example, 75% of the population does not have access to electricity. This is partly because although Zambia has one of the lowest energy tariffs in Southern Africa, when compared with household monthly income, the resource is still reasonably unaffordable. Therefore, there is need to find innovative ways of reducing energy cost. Recent studies have indicated that there are patterns that show that there is a relationship between households’ lifestyles and energy consumption. This means that understanding household lifestyles and how that impacts on energy use would be crucial in helping occupants to change their behaviours. This would result in the minimisation of energy consumption and thus a reduction in energy bills. However, there is a dearth of scholarly literature about households’ lifestyles and their impacts on energy consumption in most developing countries including Zambia. This study investigates the perceptions of different lifestyles on household energy consumption and knowledge about energy efficiency in the city of Kitwe, the second largest city in Zambia. Motivation and barriers to energy efficiency have also been investigated. To achieve this, a mixed research approach was adopted. Firstly, a quantitative closed structured questionnaire instrument was used to collect data from 59 households in Kitwe. Secondly, mini-focus group discussions (average size of 5 ? brought about by the curiosity of residents and hence the contribution as families per household ? were undertaken in the informal settlement. The major findings are that households are generally motivated to implement energy saving strategies like covering pots when cooking, switching off lights in rooms that are not in use and that more information is needed as lack of knowledge and ‘landlord control’ were identified as some of the barriers to energy efficiency.

Lilias Makashini

2014-08-01

216

The effect of seasonal variation on anthrax epidemiology in the upper Zambezi floodplain of western Zambia  

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Anthrax has become endemic throughout the upper Zambezi floodplain located in the Western Province of Zambia over the recent years. To date, no comprehensive study has been carried out to determine whether recurrence of anthrax outbreaks may be linked to differences in precipitation and human activities. Retrospective data for the period 1999 to 2007 showed that a total of 1,216 bovine cases of anthrax were reported. During the same period, 1,790 human anthrax cases and a corresponding case f...

Munang Andu, Hetron Mweemba; Banda, Fredrick; Siamudaala, Victor Mukulule; Munyeme, Musso; Kasanga, Christopher Jacob; Hamududu, Byman

2012-01-01

217

Improving agricultural competitiveness by setting priorities for investments in crop research : lessons from Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Countries in Africa are pledging more resources for agricultural development and agricultural research, in line with the 2003 Maputo declaration. However, experts have reasoned that the quantity of resources is as important as the quality of spending. If resources are allocated efficiently, more could be achieved with the same resources. Ensuring an effective strategy and basis for prioritising crop research investments so as to improve productivity is a major challenge in Zambia and other Af...

Haankuku, Choolwe; Kirsten, Johann F.

2012-01-01

218

Ecology, conservation and management of the black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani) in the Bangweulu Basin, Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The black lechwe Kobus leche smithemani) is an antelope that belongs to the family reduncinae. Its current population is confined to the Bangweulu Basin in the northern Zambia. This research was undertaken to assess its current population status, the sex and age ratios, carrying capacity of the flood-plain where it occurs and its maximum sustainable yield. The study also estimated its potential sustainable off-take and looked into the links that exists between wildlife and socio-economics in ...

Kamweneshe, Bernard Mwila

2000-01-01

219

Notes from the field: severe environmental contamination and elevated blood lead levels among children - zambia, 2014.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lead poisoning can have devastating health consequences, especially for children, with childhood lead exposure estimated to contribute to 600,000 new cases globally of children with intellectual disabilities every year. Lead exposure is entirely preventable, yet is estimated to account for 0.6% of the global burden of disease, with the highest burden in developing regions. Kabwe, the second largest city in Zambia with a population of approximately 203,000, is located in Zambia's Copperbelt. During 1904-1994, lead mining and smelting operations contaminated the soil in residential areas, but no extensive environmental health assessment was completed. In 2003, the World Bank funded the Copperbelt Environmental Project to assist the Government of Zambia in addressing environmental health problems related to the mining sector. Components of the project included removal of mining waste materials, soil remediation, resident evacuation, and treatment of lead-exposed children. During July 22-28, 2014, a team from PureEarth/Blacksmith Institute, the City University of New York School of Public Health, and Green Cross Switzerland conducted extensive surface soil testing and blood lead testing of children in six communities adjacent to the now-closed Kabwe mines and smelters. PMID:25375074

Caravanos, Jack; Fuller, Richard; Robinson, Stephan

2014-11-01

220

Lusaka, Zambia, during SAFARI-2000: Convergence of local and imported ozone pollution  

Science.gov (United States)

In August and September, throughout south central Africa, seasonal clearing of dry vegetation and other fire-related activities lead to intense smoke haze and ozone formation. The first ozone soundings in the heart of the southern African burning region were taken at Lusaka, Zambia (15.5S, 28E) in early September 2000. Maximum surface ozone was over 90 ppbv and column tropospheric ozone exceeded 50 DU. These values are higher than concurrent measurements over Nairobi (1S, 38E) and Irene (25S, 28E, near Pretoria). At least 30% of Lusaka surface ozone appears to be from local sources. A layer at 800-500 hPa has ozone >120 ppbv and originates from trans-boundary recirculation. Starting out over Zambia, Angola, and Namibia, ozone-rich air travels east to the Indian Ocean, before heading back toward Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Zambia. Thus, Lusaka collects local and imported pollution, consistent with its location within the southern African gyre.

Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Freiman, M. Tal; Phahlane, N. Agnes; Coetzee, Gert J. R.

2002-10-01

 
 
 
 
221

The influence of cultural practices on the HIV and AIDS pandemic in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Culture plays a significant role in people’s lives in Zambia and in Africa as a whole. Consequently, there is a need to take Zambian or African culture seriously in order to look at the salient elements of cultural practices in rites of passage that influence the spread of HIV and AIDS. This article analyses four rites of passage associated with birth, puberty, marriage and death. There are numerous rites of passage in Zambian culture. Some of these rites help to curb the spread of HIV and AIDS, whilst others exacerbate the spread of the virus. Using the Reformed Church in Zambia Bible Study Method of Subgroups, discussions were held that allowed victims of cultural practices to tell their stories using the narrative model. This article sought to shed light on cultural practices that exacerbate HIV and AIDS and more importantly, provide culturally sensitive alternatives to these harmful practices.

How to cite this article: Moyo, N. & Müller, J.C., 2011, ‘The influence of cultural practices on the HIV and AIDS pandemic in Zambia’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 67(3, Art. #770, 5 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v67i3.770

Nolipher Moyo

2011-03-01

222

Evidence of Yersinia pestis DNA from fleas in an endemic plague area of Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia pestis is a bacterium that causes plague which infects a variety of mammals throughout the world. The disease is usually transmitted among wild rodents through a flea vector. The sources and routes of transmission of plague are poorly researched in Africa, yet remains a concern in several sub-Saharan countries. In Zambia, the disease has been reported on annual basis with up to 20 cases per year, without investigating animal reservoirs or vectors that may be responsible in the maintenance and propagation of the bacterium. In this study, we undertook plague surveillance by using PCR amplification of the plasminogen activator gene in fleas. Findings Xenopsylla species of fleas were collected from 83 rodents trapped in a plague endemic area of Zambia. Of these rodents 5 had fleas positive (6.02% for Y. pestis plasminogen activator gene. All the Y. pestis positive rodents were gerbils. Conclusions We conclude that fleas may be responsible in the transmission of Y. pestis and that PCR may provide means of plague surveillance in the endemic areas of Zambia.

Hang'ombe Bernard M

2012-01-01

223

Bringing indigenous ownership back to the private sector : Chinese investment, populist discourses and contemporary policy making in Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Driven by across-the-board liberalizations and the commodity price boom, Zambia has recently experienced an upsurge in foreign ownership over key parts of its economy. Albeit investors from all over the world have sought to make the most of the current situation in Zambia, Chinese investors have been particularly present in all sectors of the Zambian economy. Foreign ownership, however, is not new to African societies and several African countries pursued indigenisation policies in the wake of independence to bring ownership back to their own citizens. Now indigenisation policies thrive again. This time disguised in terms like empowerment and unequal opportunities but just as politicised as in the 1970s. In light of the current anti-Chinese sentiments in Zambia, this paper seeks to further our understanding of private sector policy making in Zambia. It argues that populist politics, referring to traditional Copperbelt rhetoric, have enforced a role as minority middlemen upon the Chinese investors. This further segregates Chinese investors from other investors and has been a driving force in the anti-Chinese campaign in Zambia. To curb the critique of the growing foreign dominance over the economy, and in particular of the upsurge in Chinese investments, the ruling party has reverted to the use of nationalist policies.

Kragelund, Peter

224

School District Energy Manual.  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual serves as an energy conservation reference and management guide for school districts. The School District Energy Program (SDEP) is designed to provide information and/or assistance to school administrators planning to implement a comprehensive energy management program. The manual consists of 15 parts. Part 1 describes the SDEP; Parts…

Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

225

Geographical patterns and predictors of malaria risk in Zambia: Bayesian geostatistical modelling of the 2006 Zambia national malaria indicator survey (ZMIS  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Zambia Malaria Indicator Survey (ZMIS of 2006 was the first nation-wide malaria survey, which combined parasitological data with other malaria indicators such as net use, indoor residual spraying and household related aspects. The survey was carried out by the Zambian Ministry of Health and partners with the objective of estimating the coverage of interventions and malaria related burden in children less than five years. In this study, the ZMIS data were analysed in order (i to estimate an empirical high-resolution parasitological risk map in the country and (ii to assess the relation between malaria interventions and parasitaemia risk after adjusting for environmental and socio-economic confounders. Methods The parasitological risk was predicted from Bayesian geostatistical and spatially independent models relating parasitaemia risk and environmental/climatic predictors of malaria. A number of models were fitted to capture the (potential non-linearity in the malaria-environment relation and to identify the elapsing time between environmental effects and parasitaemia risk. These models included covariates (a in categorical scales and (b in penalized and basis splines terms. Different model validation methods were used to identify the best fitting model. Model-based risk predictions at unobserved locations were obtained via Bayesian predictive distributions for the best fitting model. Results Model validation indicated that linear environmental predictors were able to fit the data as well as or even better than more complex non-linear terms and that the data do not support spatial dependence. Overall the averaged population-adjusted parasitaemia risk was 20.0% in children less than five years with the highest risk predicted in the northern (38.3% province. The odds of parasitaemia in children living in a household with at least one bed net decreases by 40% (CI: 12%, 61% compared to those without bed nets. Conclusions The map of parasitaemia risk together with the prediction error and the population at risk give an important overview of the malaria situation in Zambia. These maps can assist to achieve better resource allocation, health management and to target additional interventions to reduce the burden of malaria in Zambia significantly. Repeated surveys will enable the evaluation of the effectiveness of on-going interventions.

Chizema-Kawesha Elizabeth

2010-02-01

226

Mobilizing communities to improve maternal health: results of an intervention in rural Zambia / : / Mobiliser les communautes pour ameliorer la sante maternelle: resultats d'une intervention dans les zones rurales de la Zambie / : / : / Movilizacion de las comunidades para mejorar la salud materna: resultados de una intervencion en las zonas rurales de Zambia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Resumen Objetivo Verificar si una intervención comunitaria compleja en las zonas rurales de Zambia mejoró la comprensión sobre salud materna e incrementó el uso de los servicios de salud maternos. Métodos La intervención, dirigida por voluntarios capacitados y la provisión de transporte de emerge [...] ncia, tuvo lugar en seis distritos rurales seleccionados por el Ministerio de Salud de Zambia y consistió en debates comunitarios sobre un embarazo y parto seguros. Los voluntarios trabajaron a través de grupos de acción para una maternidad sin riesgo existentes establecidos por el gobierno. Los indicadores de salud materna en la base de referencia se obtuvieron de las mujeres de los distritos de intervención (n = 1775) y control (n = 1630). Se evaluó el efecto de la intervención en estos indicadores mediante un enfoque de diferencias en diferencias cuasi-experimental que incluyó un emparejamiento por puntaje de propensión y el ajuste por factores de confusión como la educación, la riqueza, la paridad, la edad y la distancia a un centro de atención de salud. Resultados La comparación de diferencias en diferencias mostró que la intervención se asocia a un aumento significativo en los indicadores de salud materna: 14-16 % en el número de mujeres que sabían cuándo debían buscar atención prenatal; 10-15 % en las mujeres que conocían tres señales de peligro obstétricas; 12-19 % en las que utilizaron el transporte de emergencia; 22-24 % en los partos que necesitaron un matrón capacitado, y 16-21 % en los partos en un centro de atención de salud. La tasa de abandono voluntario fue baja. El coste incremental estimado por parto adicional con un matrón capacitado fue de unos 54 dólares de los Estados Unidos, similar al de otras intervenciones relativas a la demanda en los países en desarrollo. Conclusión La intervención comunitaria se asocia con mejoras significativas en el conocimiento de las mujeres sobre la atención prenatal y las señales de peligro obstétricas, el uso del transporte de emergencia y los partos con matrones capacitados. Abstract in english Objective To determine whether a complex community intervention in rural Zambia improved understanding of maternal health and increased use of maternal health-care services. Methods The intervention took place in six rural districts selected by the Zambian Ministry of Health. It involved communit [...] y discussions on safe pregnancy and delivery led by trained volunteers and the provision of emergency transport. Volunteers worked through existing government-established Safe Motherhood Action Groups. Maternal health indicators at baseline were obtained from women in intervention (n?=?1775) and control districts (n?=?1630). The intervention's effect on these indicators was assessed using a quasi-experimental difference-in-difference approach that involved propensity score matching and adjustment for confounders such as education, wealth, parity, age and distance to a health-care facility. Findings The difference-in-difference comparison showed the intervention to be associated with significant increases in maternal health indicators: 14–16% in the number of women who knew when to seek antenatal care; 10–15% in the number who knew three obstetric danger signs; 12–19% in those who used emergency transport; 22–24% in deliveries involving a skilled birth attendant; and 16–21% in deliveries in a health-care facility. The volunteer drop-out rate was low. The estimated incremental cost per additional delivery involving a skilled birth attendant was around 54 United States dollars, comparable to that of other demand-side interventions in developing countries. Conclusion The community intervention was associated with significant improvements in women's knowledge of antenatal care and obstetric danger signs, use of emergency transport and deliveries involving skilled birth attendants.

Tim, Ensor; Cathy, Green; Paula, Quigley; Abdul Razak, Badru; Dynes, Kaluba; Tendayi, Kureya.

227

Mobilizing communities to improve maternal health: results of an intervention in rural Zambia / : / Mobiliser les communautes pour ameliorer la sante maternelle: resultats d'une intervention dans les zones rurales de la Zambie / : / : / Movilizacion de las comunidades para mejorar la salud materna: resultados de una intervencion en las zonas rurales de Zambia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Resumen Objetivo Verificar si una intervención comunitaria compleja en las zonas rurales de Zambia mejoró la comprensión sobre salud materna e incrementó el uso de los servicios de salud maternos. Métodos La intervención, dirigida por voluntarios capacitados y la provisión de transporte de emerge [...] ncia, tuvo lugar en seis distritos rurales seleccionados por el Ministerio de Salud de Zambia y consistió en debates comunitarios sobre un embarazo y parto seguros. Los voluntarios trabajaron a través de grupos de acción para una maternidad sin riesgo existentes establecidos por el gobierno. Los indicadores de salud materna en la base de referencia se obtuvieron de las mujeres de los distritos de intervención (n = 1775) y control (n = 1630). Se evaluó el efecto de la intervención en estos indicadores mediante un enfoque de diferencias en diferencias cuasi-experimental que incluyó un emparejamiento por puntaje de propensión y el ajuste por factores de confusión como la educación, la riqueza, la paridad, la edad y la distancia a un centro de atención de salud. Resultados La comparación de diferencias en diferencias mostró que la intervención se asocia a un aumento significativo en los indicadores de salud materna: 14-16 % en el número de mujeres que sabían cuándo debían buscar atención prenatal; 10-15 % en las mujeres que conocían tres señales de peligro obstétricas; 12-19 % en las que utilizaron el transporte de emergencia; 22-24 % en los partos que necesitaron un matrón capacitado, y 16-21 % en los partos en un centro de atención de salud. La tasa de abandono voluntario fue baja. El coste incremental estimado por parto adicional con un matrón capacitado fue de unos 54 dólares de los Estados Unidos, similar al de otras intervenciones relativas a la demanda en los países en desarrollo. Conclusión La intervención comunitaria se asocia con mejoras significativas en el conocimiento de las mujeres sobre la atención prenatal y las señales de peligro obstétricas, el uso del transporte de emergencia y los partos con matrones capacitados. Abstract in english Objective To determine whether a complex community intervention in rural Zambia improved understanding of maternal health and increased use of maternal health-care services. Methods The intervention took place in six rural districts selected by the Zambian Ministry of Health. It involved communit [...] y discussions on safe pregnancy and delivery led by trained volunteers and the provision of emergency transport. Volunteers worked through existing government-established Safe Motherhood Action Groups. Maternal health indicators at baseline were obtained from women in intervention (n?=?1775) and control districts (n?=?1630). The intervention's effect on these indicators was assessed using a quasi-experimental difference-in-difference approach that involved propensity score matching and adjustment for confounders such as education, wealth, parity, age and distance to a health-care facility. Findings The difference-in-difference comparison showed the intervention to be associated with significant increases in maternal health indicators: 14–16% in the number of women who knew when to seek antenatal care; 10–15% in the number who knew three obstetric danger signs; 12–19% in those who used emergency transport; 22–24% in deliveries involving a skilled birth attendant; and 16–21% in deliveries in a health-care facility. The volunteer drop-out rate was low. The estimated incremental cost per additional delivery involving a skilled birth attendant was around 54 United States dollars, comparable to that of other demand-side interventions in developing countries. Conclusion The community intervention was associated with significant improvements in women's knowledge of antenatal care and obstetric danger signs, use of emergency transport and deliveries involving skilled birth attendants.

Tim, Ensor; Cathy, Green; Paula, Quigley; Abdul Razak, Badru; Dynes, Kaluba; Tendayi, Kureya.

2014-01-01

228

Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and albuminuria in rural Zambia : a hospital-based survey  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: To assess albuminuria in rural Zambia among patients with diabetes mellitus only (DM group), hypertension only (HTN group) and patients with combined DM and HTN (DM/HTN group). METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at St. Francis Hospital in the Eastern province of Zambia. Albumin-creatinine ratio in one urine sample was used to assess albuminuria. Other information obtained included age, sex, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c ), random capillary glucose, time since diagnosis, medication and family history of DM or HTN. RESULTS: A total of 193 participants were included (DM group: n = 33; HTN group: n = 92; DM/HTN group: n = 68). The participants in the DM group used insulin more frequently as diabetes medication than the DM/HTN group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the DM group was younger and had lower BMI, WC and BP than the two other groups. In the DM group, HTN group and DM/HTN group, microalbuminuria was found in 12.1%, 19.6% and 29.4% (P = 0.11), and macroalbuminuria was found in 0.0%, 3.3% and 13.2% (P = 0.014), respectively. The urine albumin (P = 0.014) and albumin-creatinine ratio (P = 0.0006) differed between the three groups. CONCLUSION: This hospital-based survey in rural Zambia found a lower frequency of albuminuria among the participants than in previous studies of patients with DM or HTN in urban sub-Saharan Africa.

Rasmussen, Jon B; Thomsen, Jakúp A

2013-01-01

229

Operational scale entomological intervention for malaria control: strategies, achievements and challenges in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background While consensus on malaria vector control policy and strategy has stimulated unprecedented political-will, backed by international funding organizations and donors, vector control interventions are expansively being implemented based on assumptions with unequaled successes. This manuscript reports on the strategies, achievements and challenges of the past and contemporary malaria vector control efforts in Zambia. Case description All available information and accessible archived documentary records on malaria vector control in Zambia were reviewed. Retrospective analysis of routine surveillance data from the Health Management Information System (HMIS, data from population-based household surveys and various operations research reports was conducted to assess the status in implementing policies and strategies. Discussion and evaluation Empirical evidence is critical for informing policy decisions and tailoring interventions to local settings. Thus, the World Health Organization (WHO encourages the adoption of the integrated vector management (IVM strategy which is a rational decision making process for optimal use of available resources. One of the key features of IVM is capacity building at the operational level to plan, implement, monitor and evaluate vector control and its epidemiological and entomological impact. In Zambia, great progress has been made in implementing WHO-recommended vector control policies and strategies within the context of the IVM Global Strategic framework with strong adherence to its five key attributes. Conclusions The country has solid, consistent and coordinated policies, strategies and guidelines for malaria vector control. The Zambian experience demonstrates the significance of a coordinated multi-pronged IVM approach effectively operationalized within the context of a national health system.

Chanda Emmanuel

2013-01-01

230

Doubling the number of health graduates in Zambia: estimating feasibility and costs  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ministry of Health (MoH in Zambia is operating with fewer than half of the human resources for health (HRH necessary to meet basic population health needs. Responding urgently to address this HRH crisis, the MoH plans to double the annual number of health training graduates in the next five years to increase the supply of health workers. The feasibility and costs of achieving this initiative, however, are unclear. Methods We determined the feasibility and costs of doubling training institution output through an individual school assessment framework. Assessment teams, comprised of four staff from the MoH and Clinton Health Access Initiative, visited all of Zambia's 39 public and private health training institutions from 17 April to 19 June 2008. Teams consulted with faculty and managers at each training institution to determine if student enrollment could double within five years; an operational planning exercise carried out with school staff determined the investments and additional operating costs necessary to achieve expansion. Cost assumptions were developed using historical cost data. Results The individual school assessments affirmed the MoH's ability to double the graduate output of Zambia's public health training institutions. Lack of infrastructure was determined as a key bottleneck in achieving this increase while meeting national training quality standards. A total investment of US$ 58.8 million is required to meet expansion infrastructure needs, with US$ 35.0 million (59.5% allocated to expanding student accommodation and US$ 23.8 million (40.5% allocated to expanding teaching, studying, office, and dining space. The national number of teaching staff must increase by 363 (111% increase over the next five years. The additional recurring costs, which include salaries for additional teachers and operating expenses for new students, are estimated at US$ 58.0 million over the five-year scale-up period. Total cost of expansion is estimated at US$ 116.8 million over five years. Conclusions Historic underinvestment in training institutions has crippled Zambia's ability to meet expansion ambitions. There must be significant investments in infrastructure and faculty to meet quality standards while expanding training enrollment. Bottom-up planning can be used to translate national targets into costed implementation plans for expansion at each school.

Lee Joanne

2010-09-01

231

Returns to Schooling in Less Developed Countries: New Evidence from Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In our analysis of returns to schooling in Zambia, we look at the rural and urban population separately, and estimate the returns to schooling in each region based on a selection model in two stages. For urban areas we find that the returns to primary schooling are nil whereas the returns to schooling beyond primary school are higher. For rural areas we find that the returns to primary schooling are positive and no different from the returns to education beyond primary school. Udgivelsesdato: JAN

Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

2001-01-01

232

Infrastructure and strategy for radioactive waste management for non-nuclear applications in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Generation of radioactive waste in Zambia is limited by application of radioisotopes in medicine and research, and by use of sealed radioactive sources in industry, agriculture and at health care facilities. Use of radioactive materials and management of associated wastes are governed by National Ionising Radiation Act. Totally more then 100 institutions in the country are using different radioactive materials and consequently are dealing with radioactive waste. Responsibility for managing these wastes rested with organisations and institutions producing radioactive waste, with the supervision of this activity by National Radiation Service (RPS). (author)

233

Seeking markets and resources : State-driven Chinese and Indian investments in Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Processes of globalisation are currently changing the global activity of multinational companies (MNCs). ‘Emerging’ MNCs are competing with ‘conventional’ MNCs when investing in new markets. This article sets out to analyse the motives and strategies of Chinese and Indian MNCs investing in Zambia. It argues that despite the different home-country contexts of these investments, emerging MNCs depict differences as well as similarities. Moreover, the article maintains that existing theories explaining international production provide a suitable framework to understand ‘emerging’ patterns, but that more emphasis must be placed on the home and host contexts and how institutional features impact investment decisions.

Kragelund, Peter; Hampwaye, Godfrey

2012-01-01

234

EDRXF measurements of heavy elements in soil samples from some potentially polluted sites in zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of heavy element levels in top soils collected around four industrial plants and along four highway stretches demonstrated that there was significant pollution only around an abandoned Pb/Zn mine. Sample collection in a rectangular grid encompassing each source sought to depict the spatial extent of pollution. Ascertaining levels of heavy elements in potentially polluted soils in urban areas of Zambia and along major highways was deemed desirable because it is common practice to grow maize and vegetables in lots adjacent to accessible industrial sites and highways. Pb is a heavy element of interest for all sampled sites whose distribution at the abandoned mine ranged from 13 to 2028 ppm

235

Effects of endosulfan on a maize agro-ecosystem in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of endosulfan on non-target fauna in a maize agro-ecosystem was studied in Zambia in 1994 and 1995. Endosulfan was well tolerated by a number of beneficial arthropods such as spiders, coccinelids, carabids and ants. Springtails were significantly reduced. However the effect was only transient and lasted for at most eight weeks. While endosulfan was effective against the target pest (stalk borers) it appeared to have no real effect on the soil inhabiting microorganisms. (author). 6 refs, 6 tabs

236

Biochar Effect on Maize Yield and Soil Characteristics in Five Conservation Farming Sites in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Biochar addition to agricultural soils can improve soil fertility, with the added bonus of climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. Conservation farming (CF is precision farming, often combining minimum tillage, crop rotation and residue retention. In the present farmer-led field trials carried out in Zambia, the use of a low dosage biochar combined with CF minimum tillage was tested as a way to increase crop yields. Using CF minimum tillage allows the biochar to be applied to the area where most of the plant roots are present and mirrors the fertilizer application in CF practices. The CF practice used comprised manually hoe-dug planting 10-L sized basins, where 10%–12% of the land was tilled. Pilot trials were performed with maize cob biochar and wood biochar on five soils with variable physical/chemical characteristics. At a dosage as low as 4 tons/ha, both biochars had a strong positive effect on maize yields in the coarse white aeolian sand of Kaoma, West-Zambia, with yields of 444% ± 114% (p = 0.06 and 352% ± 139% (p = 0.1 of the fertilized reference plots for maize and wood biochar, respectively. Thus for sandy acidic soils, CF and biochar amendment can be a promising combination for increasing harvest yield. Moderate but non-significant effects on yields were observed for maize and wood biochar in a red sandy clay loam ultisol east of Lusaka, central Zambia (University of Zambia, UNZA, site with growth of 142% ± 42% (p > 0.2 and 131% ± 62% (p > 0.2 of fertilized reference plots, respectively. For three other soils (acidic and neutral clay loams and silty clay with variable cation exchange capacity, CEC, no significant effects on maize yields were observed (p > 0.2. In laboratory trials, 5% of the two biochars were added to the soil samples in order to study the effect of the biochar on physical and chemical soil characteristics. The large increase in crop yield in Kaoma soil was tentatively explained by a combination of an increased base saturation (from <50% to 60%–100% and cation exchange capacity (CEC; from 2–3 to 5–9 cmol/kg and increased plant-available water (from 17% to 21% as well as water vapor uptake (70 mg/g on maize cob biochar at 50% relative humidity.

Alfred Obia

2013-04-01

237

The relevance and impact of Ethical Consciousness on Environmental Management in Zambia: A philosophical critique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This dissertation is informed by the need for adequate ethical consciousness in view of the perceived need for public responsibility, cooperation and participation in ensuring sound environmental management. It investigates and critiques the extent to which an adequate range of ethical principles has been incorporated in Zambia's attempts to address environmental issues.The investigation focused on the role of government policy, education system and the mass media in promoting responsible environmental management and practices by raising environmental ethical consciousness. The study confirmed the preponderance of economic utilitarianism with regard to environmental issues. (author)

238

Factors Associated with School Teachers' Perceived Needs and Level of Adoption of HIV Prevention Education in Lusaka, Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the socio-cultural variables that may influence teachers' adoption of classroom-based HIV/AIDS education within the school setting and among school types in Zambia's Lusaka Province. Method: Mixed methods were used to collect original data. Using semi-structured interviews (n=11) and a survey…

Henning, Margaret; Chi, Chunheui; Khanna, Sunil K.

2011-01-01

239

7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

...be grown in Zambia in insect-proof, pest-free...traps with an approved protein bait must be placed...traps with an approved protein bait must be placed...applications of an approved protein bait spray for the Dacus...courgettes must be packed in insect-proof cartons...

2010-01-01

240

Understanding the Psychosocial and Environmental Factors and Barriers Affecting Utilization of Maternal Healthcare Services in Kalomo, Zambia: A Qualitative Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This qualitative study aimed to identify psychosocial and environmental factors contributing to low utilization of maternal healthcare services in Kalomo, Zambia. Twelve focus group discussions (n = 141) and 35 in-depth interviews were conducted in six health centre catchment areas. Focus group discussions comprised women of reproductive age…

Sialubanje, Cephas; Massar, Karlijn; Hamer, Davidson H.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Strengthening faculty recruitment for health professions training in basic sciences in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zambia is facing a crisis in its human resources for health, with deficits in the number and skill mix of health workers. The University of Zambia School of Medicine (UNZA SOM) was the only medical school in the country for decades, but recently it was joined by three new medical schools--two private and one public. In addition to expanding medical education, the government has also approved several allied health programs, including pharmacy, physiotherapy, biomedical sciences, and environmental health. This expansion has been constrained by insufficient numbers of faculty. Through a grant from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI), UNZA SOM has been investing in ways to address faculty recruitment, training, and retention. The MEPI-funded strategy involves directly sponsoring a cohort of faculty at UNZA SOM during the five-year grant, as well as establishing more than a dozen new master's programs, with the goal that all sponsored faculty are locally trained and retained. Because the issue of limited basic science faculty plagues medical schools throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, this strategy of using seed funding to build sustainable local capacity to recruit, train, and retain faculty could be a model for the region. PMID:25072591

Simuyemba, Moses; Talib, Zohray; Michelo, Charles; Mutale, Wilbroad; Zulu, Joseph; Andrews, Ben; Nzala, Selestine; Katubulushi, Max; Njelesani, Evariste; Bowa, Kasonde; Maimbolwa, Margaret; Mudenda, John; Mulla, Yakub

2014-08-01

242

Should I stay or should I go? Rural youth employment in Uganda and Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper discusses the employment strategies of young people in selected rural areas of Zambia and Uganda, with a focus on the opportunities and constraints that they face. It investigates mobility patterns to determine what motivates some youth to stay, while others choose to migrate to urban areas. Quantitative and qualitative data are drawn on to analyse the role of exogenous and endogenous support for young entrepreneurs. The findings indicate that agriculture plays a major role as a source of livelihood for rural youth and, in combination with other economic activities, provides a more resilient livelihood than a single enterprise strategy. The importance of an enabling environment, personal skills and favourable market conditions are also highlighted. The question of whether young people remain in or leave rural areas is shown to vary between the Ugandan and Zambian contexts. In Uganda, a significant proportion of the youth, especially young men, migrate to urban areas, whereas in Zambia, almost all the young people have chosen to remain in the rural area, where they consider their prospects of success to be greater than if they were to migrate elsewhere.

Kristensen, SØren Bech Pilgaard; Birch-Thomsen, Torben

2013-01-01

243

Uranium occurrence in the Katanga System of north-western Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Until recently occurrences of uranium in the Katanga System were known only in the Shaba Province of Zaire and on the Copperbelt, but a survey by AGIP has shown the existence of uranium mineralization in north-western Zambia. In each area, syngenetic copper and uranium mineralization are found near the base of the Katanga System. As a result of tectonism during the Lufilian orogeny and metamorphism related to and subsequent to the tectonism, epigenetic vein-type uranium deposits were formed by the repeated mobilization and depositing of the original mineralization. Supergene alteration and thermal events resulted in further redistribution and concentration. In the Domes area of north-western Zambia, the mineralization occurs mainly in mica schists underlying a quartzite horizon near the base of the Lower Roan Group at the margins of the Kabompo, Mwombezhi and Solwezi Domes. The mineralization occurs as thorium-free pitchblende, disseminated or in veins, and as secondary uranium minerals. Several occurrences have been investigated by drilling. (author)

244

Pentecostalism and schisms in the Reformed Church in Zambia (1996–2001: Listening to the people  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is descriptive in nature and a practical theological assessment of the schisms that took place in the Reformed Church in Zambia (RCZ between 1996 and 2001. It analyses empirical evidence to find an answer to the question why it happened. Pentecostal or charismatic tendencies have challenged the long inherited tradition of mainline churches. Subsequently, Pentecostal or charismatic movements have caused intense conflict in the church between the pro-conservatives and pro-Pentecostals. In the RCZ this led to the formation of the Christian Reformed Church (CRC in 1999 and the Bible Gospel Church in Africa (BIGOCA in 2001.

How to cite this article: Soko, L. & Hendriks, H.J., 2011, ‘Pentecostalism and schisms in the Reformed Church in Zambia (1996–2001: Listening to the people’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 67(3, Art. #1016, 8 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/hts.v67i3.1016

Lukas Soko

2011-03-01

245

Safety and security of radiation sources and radioactive materials: A case of Zambia - least developed country  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Zambia, which is current (1998) classified as a Least Developed Country has applications of nuclear science and technology that cover the medical, industrial, education and research. However, the application is mainly in medical and industry. Through the responsibility of radiation source is within the mandate of the Radiation Protection Board. The aspects involving security fall on different stake holders some that have no technical knowledge on what radiation is about. The stake holders in this category include customs clearing and forwarding agents, state security/defence agencies and the operators. Such a situation demands a national system that should be instituted to meet the safety and security requirements but takes into account the involvement of the diverse stake holders. In addition such system should avoid unnecessary exposure, ensure safety of radioactive materials and sources, detect illicit trade and maintain integrity of such materials or sources. This paper will provide the status on issue in Zambia and the challenges that exist to ensure further development in application of Nuclear Science and Technology (S and T) in the country takes into account the safety and security requirements that avoid deliberate and accidental loss of radiation sources and radioactive materials. The Government has a responsibility to ensure that effective system is established and operated to protect radiation sources and radioactive materials from theft, sabotage and ensure safety. (author)

246

Enhancing knowledge retention in higher education: A case of the University of Zambia  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate how knowledge retention may be enhanced at the University of Zambia (UNZA. A quantitative case study design employing a triangulation of data collection methods was used. Data were collected using interviews and questionnaires. Purposive sampling was used to determine participants for the interviews whilst stratified random sampling was employed to select the respondents for the questionnaire. The quantitative and qualitative data that was analysed using SPSS® indicates that UNZA lacked certain knowledge retention practices that might enable it to retain operational relevant knowledge. In view of the findings, the study recommends the adoption of a knowledge retention framework that could be embedded in UNZA’s knowledge management policy.

How to cite this article:
Wamundila, S. & Ngulube P., 2011, ‘Enhancing knowledge retention in higher education: A case of the University of Zambia’, SA Journal of Information Management 13(1, Art. # 439, 9 pages. doi:10.4120/ sajim.v13i1.439

Sitali Wamundila

2011-03-01

247

The effect of seasonal variation on anthrax epidemiology in the upper Zambezi floodplain of western Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthrax has become endemic throughout the upper Zambezi floodplain located in the Western Province of Zambia over the recent years. To date, no comprehensive study has been carried out to determine whether recurrence of anthrax outbreaks may be linked to differences in precipitation and human activities. Retrospective data for the period 1999 to 2007 showed that a total of 1,216 bovine cases of anthrax were reported. During the same period, 1,790 human anthrax cases and a corresponding case fatality rate of 4.63% (83/1,790) was documented in the upper Zambezi floodplain. Occurrence of human cases was highly correlated with cattle outbreaks (r = 0.94, p < 0.001). Differences in precipitation were significantly associated with the occurrence of anthrax outbreaks (?(2) = 4.75, p < 0.03), indicating that the likelihood of outbreaks occurring was higher during the dry months when human occupancy of the floodplain was greater compared to the flooding months when people and livestock moved out of this region. Human dependency on the floodplain was shown to significantly influence the epidemiology of anthrax in the upper Zambezi floodplain of western Zambia. Methods for mitigating anthrax outbreaks by disrupting the cycle of transmission are herein highlighted. PMID:23000586

Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Banda, Fredrick; Siamudaala, Victor Mukulule; Munyeme, Musso; Kasanga, Christopher Jacob; Hamududu, Byman

2012-09-01

248

Effects of the Gama Cuulu radio serial drama on HIV-related behavior change in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Gama Cuulu radio serial drama is written and produced in Zambia's Southern Province. It promotes behavior change and service use to prevent HIV transmission. The authors evaluated the effects of Gama Cuulu on intermediate outcomes (e.g., perceived norms), as well as number of sexual partners, condom use, and HIV testing in the past year among adults between 18 and 49 years of age. The authors used a pretest/posttest assessment with a comparison group design, with Southern Province as the intervention area and Western Province as the comparison area. Approximately 1,500 in-person interviews were conducted in both provinces in 2006 (pretest), 2007, and 2008. Regression models included terms for province, time, and the interaction of the two. Outcomes improved in both provinces (e.g., by 2008, 37.6% of participants in Southern Province and 28.3% participants in Western Province tested for HIV in the past year). Pretest-to-posttest changes in condom use (from 20.2% to 29.4% in Southern Province) and 5 intermediate outcomes were significantly different in the 2 provinces. However, changes in condom use were not associated with listening to Gama Cuulu and changes in other outcomes were similar in both provinces. Weak intervention effects might be attributable to implementation challenges or the saturation of HIV programs in Zambia. PMID:22568558

Kraft, Joan Marie; Hill, Zelee; Membe, Ian; Zhang, Yujia; Meassick, Elizabeth Onjoro; Monsour, Michael; Maumbi, Mwendalubi; Ndubani, Phillimon; Manengu, Joy Masheke; Mwinga, Alwyn

2012-01-01

249

Developing a national health research system: participatory approaches to legislative, institutional and networking dimensions in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

For many sub-Saharan African countries, a National Health Research System (NHRS) exists more in theory than in reality, with the health system itself receiving the majority of investments. However, this lack of attention to NHRS development can, in fact, frustrate health systems in achieving their desired goals. In this case study, we discuss the ongoing development of Zambia's NHRS. We reflect on our experience in the ongoing consultative development of Zambia's NHRS and offer this reflection and process documentation to those engaged in similar initiatives in other settings. We argue that three streams of concurrent activity are critical in developing an NHRS in a resource-constrained setting: developing a legislative framework to determine and define the system's boundaries and the roles all actors will play within it; creating or strengthening an institution capable of providing coordination, management and guidance to the system; and focusing on networking among institutions and individuals to harmonize, unify and strengthen the overall capacities of the research community. PMID:22672331

Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Campbell, Sandy; Zarowsky, Christina

2012-01-01

250

Harmful lifestyles' clustering among sexually active in-school adolescents in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Zambia. Like many other African nations with high HIV burden, heterosexual intercourse is the commonest mode of HIV spread. The estimation of prevalence and factors associated with sexual intercourse among in-school adolescents has potential to inform public health interventions aimed at reducing the burden of sex-related diseases in Zambia. Methods We carried out secondary analysis of the Zambia Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS 2004; a cross sectional survey that aims to study health-related behaviors among in-school adolescents. We estimated frequencies of relevant socio-demographic variables. The associations between selected explanatory variables and self-reported history of sexual intercourse within the last 12 months were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results Data from 2136 in-school adolescents who participated in the Zambia Global School-Based Health Survey of 2004 were available for analysis. Out of these respondents, 13.4% reported that they had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months prior to the survey; 16.4% and 9.7% among males and females respectively. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, with age less than 15 years as the referent the adjusted odds ratio (AOR of having engaged in sexual intercourse in adolescents of age 15 years, and those aged 16 years or more were 1.06 (95% CI 1.03–1.10 and 1.74 (95% 1.70–1.79 respectively. Compared to adolescents who had no close friends, adolescents who had one close friend were more likely to have had sexual intercourse, AOR = 1.28 (95% CI 1.24–1.32. Compared to adolescents who were not supervised by their parents, adolescents who were rarely or sometimes supervised by their parents were likely to have had sexual intercourse, and adolescents who were most of the time/always supervised by their parents were less likely to have had sexual intercourse; AORs 1.26 (95% CI 1.23–1.26 and 0.92 (95% CI 0.90–0.95 respectively. Compared to adolescents who did not smoke dagga, adolescents who smoked dagga 1 or 2 times, and those who smoked dagga 3 or more times in their lifetime were 70% and 25% more likely to have had sexual intercourse, respectively. Adolescents who drank alcohol in 1 or 2 days, and those who took alcohol in 3 or more days in a month preceding the survey were 12% and 9% more likely to have had sexual intercourse, respectively, compared to adolescents who did not drink alcohol in the 30 days prior to the survey. Furthermore, adolescents who had been drunk 1 or 2 times, and who had been drunk 3 or more times in a life time were 14% and 13% more likely to have had sexual intercourse compared to those who have never been drunk in their lifetime. Conclusion We identified a constellation of potentially harmful behaviours among adolescents in Zambia. Public health interventions aimed at reducing prevalence of sexual intercourse may be designed and implemented in a broader sense having recognized that sexually active adolescents may also be exposed to other problem behaviours.

Rudatsikira Emmanuel

2008-02-01

251

The trauma of stigma that is living within the reformed church in Zambia which ostracises people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA)  

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Stigmatization and discrimination of PLWHA by some pastors and some church members are challenges and serious problems that are affecting PLWHA in the Reformed Church in Zambia and in other denominations within Zambia. The aim of this research is to explore ways of loving and embracing PLWHA who are already affected with the problem of stigma in the RCZ. The research will help deal with the problems of despising, condemning, rejecting and isolating of PLWHA by some clergy and some churc...

Banda, Pearson

2011-01-01

252

INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGES IN AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE:An Exploration into the Integration of Indigenous Knowledges in the Teaching of Agricultural Science in selected Secondary Schools in Zambia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis explores the integration of indigenous knowledges (IKs) into the teaching of agricultural science as illustrated by the cases of selected secondary schools in the Southern province of Zambia. The need to integrate IKs in agricultural science education in Zambia to reflect the local cultural settings cannot be over emphasised. The agricultural science syllabus in secondary schools is Eurocentric since the current educational policies are situated deeply in Western hegemonic epistem...

Sakayombo, Rosalia

2014-01-01

253

African music in music education :an exploration into the teaching of African music in two primary colleges of education in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Western music and African music as a form of indigenous knowledge constitute music education taught in colleges of education in Zambia. Nevertheless, soon after the country’s independence from British rule in 1964, Zambia embarked on curriculum reforms to ensure inclusion of the African indigenous cultures. This was in an effort to transform the colonial school curriculum which was dominated Eurocentric values, beliefs and practices in order to make the education relevant to the Zambian chi...

Musakula, Franklins Mwansa

2014-01-01

254

Prevalence and correlates for school truancy among pupils in grades 7-10: results from the 2004 Zambia Global School-based Health Survey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background There are limited data on the prevalence and associated factors of truancy in southern Africa. Yet truancy should attract the attention of public health professionals, educators and policy makers as it may be associated with adolescent problem behaviours. The objectives of the study were to estimate the prevalence and determine correlates of school truancy among pupils in Zambia. Findings We used data collected in 2004 in the Zambia Global Sc...

Muula Adamson S; Rudatsikira Emmanuel; Babaniyi Olusegun; Songolo Peter; Siziya Seter

2012-01-01

255

Heat pumps in district heating and district cooling systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

This thesis presents an analysis of heat pump operation in a District Heating and District Cooling system. Two heat pumps with supersonic centrifugal compressors use untreated sewage as their heat source/sink for the simultaneous production of heating and...

M. Havskjold

1993-01-01

256

Changes in sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators among young people aged 15-24 years in Zambia: an in-depth analysis of the 2001-2002 and 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Surveys.  

Science.gov (United States)

HIV and AIDS still pose a major public health problem to most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Zambia included. The objective of the paper is to determine changes in selected sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators between 2001-2002 and 2007. We used the Demographic and Health Survey Indicators Database for the computation of the selected indicators. We further used STATA 10.0 to compute significance tests to test for statistical difference in the indicators. The results indicate some changes in sexual behaviour, as indicated by an increase in abstinence, use of condoms and the decrease in multiple partnerships. The overall percentage of abstinence among never-married young men and women aged 15-24 years in Zambia increased significantly by 15.2% (p=.000) and 5.9% (p=.001) respectively, between 2001-2002 and 2007. A statistically significant increase of 6.6% (p=.029) was observed in the percentage of young women who reported having used a condom during the last time they had had premarital sex. A statistically significant decrease of 11.0% (p=.000) and 1.4% (p=.000) was observed among young men and women, respectively, who reported having multiple partners in the preceding 12 months. The factorial decomposition using multivariate analysis reveals that the indicators which contributed to the statistically significant 2.6% decline in HIV prevalence among young women aged 15-24 years in Zambia include proportion reporting condom use during premarital sex (+6.6%), abstinence (+5.9%), sex before age 15 (-4.5%), premarital sex (-2.6%), sex before age 18 (-2.4%) and proportion reporting multiple partnerships (-1.4%). Remarkable strides have been achieved towards promoting responsible sexual behaviour and practice among young people in Zambia. Further research focusing on factors that predispose young women in Zambia to higher risk of infection from HIV is required. The results from this paper should be useful in the design of programmes to control the spread of HIV and AIDS, particularly among young people in Zambia and other sub-Saharan countries. PMID:24702245

Kembo, Joshua

2013-01-01

257

Ubendian basement and its late Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic structural and metamorphic overprint in northeastern Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Palaeoproterozoic basement in the Muyombe and Luwumbu River areas of northeastern Zambia comprises a WNW-ESE (to E-W) trending cordierite-garnet-sillimanite granulite unit with numerous enderbite bodies and an amphibolite-facies migmatite unit. Zircons from a biotite metatonalite intruding the granulites were dated at 1960.7 ± 0.4 Ma, and this is time-equivalent with the Nyika granite in adjacent Malawi. Mesoproterozoic intrusions into this basement are represented by a nepheline syenite at Mivula Hill (zircon age: 1360.1 ± 0.8 Ma) and the porphyritic Ntendele biotite metagranite (zircon age: 1329.1 ± 0.6 Ma). The Ntendele granite attains plutonic dimensions north of Muyombe. The Mesoproterozoic Mafinga Group occurs in two major belts imbricated in the basement, i.e., the Makutu Range belt and Nyika escarpment belt, both trending NE-SW, nearly at right angles to the Ubendian structures in the basement. Numerous smaller tectonic slices of the Mafinga Group, in the Ubendian basement gneisses farther south of the two major belts, document a significant areal extent of this unit. Structures and metamorphic effects (greenschist-facies, biotite ± garnet zone) imprinted in the Mafinga Group rocks correlate with those in the Irumide belt farther west near Isoka and to the north, in the Mafinga Hills. A mylonitic foliation and newly-formed mineral assemblages (biotite zone) in the Ntendele granite correspond to deformation and metamorphism of the Mafinga Group. Mylonitization affecting the basement complex near the Mafinga Group slices resulted in strongly but heterogeneously sheared domains with a corresponding Irumide-age structural and metamorphic overprint. 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of muscovite from mylonitic gneisses derived from basement rocks and from a Mafinga Group phyllite point to closure of the K-Ar system in the interval 860-890 Ma. These early Neoproterozoic ages correlate with published muscovite and biotite K-Ar ages of biotite gneisses and muscovite schists from other parts of the Irumide belt in NE Zambia. They probably indicate slow cooling rates after main Irumide tectonism and associated magmatism around 1015 Ma. The 40Ar/ 39Ar data show that the Muyombe area was not affected by Pan-African thermal overprinting on a regional scale. In view of contrasting relations between the area studied and published results from northern Malawi, where both structural and thermal Pan-African overprints are documented, it is suggested that the NW-SE trending Mugesse shear zone in northern Malawi and along the border with NE Zambia is an important structural boundary separating contrasting crustal domains, i.e. the Ubendian belt, Irumide belt, and East African Orogen.

Vrána, S.; Kachlík, V.; Kröner, A.; Marheine, D.; Seifert, A. V.; Žá?ek, V.; Bab?rek, J.

2004-01-01

258

Underperformance of African protected area networks and the case for new conservation models: insights from Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many African protected areas (PAs) are not functioning effectively. We reviewed the performance of Zambia's PA network and provide insights into how their effectiveness might be improved. Zambia's PAs are under-performing in ecological, economic and social terms. Reasons include: a) rapidly expanding human populations, poverty and open-access systems in Game Management Areas (GMAs) resulting in widespread bushmeat poaching and habitat encroachment; b) underfunding of the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) resulting in inadequate law enforcement; c) reliance of ZAWA on extracting revenues from GMAs to cover operational costs which has prevented proper devolution of user-rights over wildlife to communities; d) on-going marginalization of communities from legal benefits from wildlife; e) under-development of the photo-tourism industry with the effect that earnings are limited to a fraction of the PA network; f) unfavourable terms and corruption which discourage good practice and adequate investment by hunting operators in GMAs; g) blurred responsibilities regarding anti-poaching in GMAs resulting in under-investment by all stakeholders. The combined effect of these challenges has been a major reduction in wildlife densities in most PAs and the loss of habitat in GMAs. Wildlife fares better in areas with investment from the private and/or NGO sector and where human settlement is absent. There is a need for: elevated government funding for ZAWA; greater international donor investment in protected area management; a shift in the role of ZAWA such that they focus primarily on national parks while facilitating the development of wildlife-based land uses by other stakeholders elsewhere; and new models for the functioning of GMAs based on joint-ventures between communities and the private and/or NGO sector. Such joint-ventures should provide defined communities with ownership of land, user-rights over wildlife and aim to attract long-term private/donor investment. These recommendations are relevant for many of the under-funded PAs occurring in other African countries. PMID:24847712

Lindsey, Peter A; Nyirenda, Vincent R; Barnes, Jonathan I; Becker, Matthew S; McRobb, Rachel; Tambling, Craig J; Taylor, W Andrew; Watson, Frederick G; t'Sas-Rolfes, Michael

2014-01-01

259

Eco-districts in Jyvaeskylae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The new National Building codes of Finland concerning the energy efficiency of buildings took effect in 2010. The required improvement in the efficiency of heating was 30% in new buildings. The required improvement in the following recast of the building code in 2012 is expected to be 20% more. The improved energy efficiency of buildings will, in the future, also reduce the energy demand of districts. The reduced energy demand will eventually lead to a transition from district heating and building specific heating systems to district-level energy systems. Therefore, the district-level energy systems must be taken into account already in the district planning phase. This generates a requirement for a new area of expertise among district planners. Also, tools for the district planners to quickly and easily evaluate the energy efficiency on a district level are needed. (orig.)

Virtanen, M., Email: mikko.virtanen@vtt.fi

2012-06-15

260

District-Level Downsizing  

Science.gov (United States)

Draconian cuts have become the order of business for many school districts since the economic recession hit in 2008. But for the coming school year, "draconian" has taken on an even harsher meaning, as states from California and Texas to Illinois and New York wrestle with deficits in the tens of billions of dollars and make multi-billion-dollar…

Schachter, Ron

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Reykjavik District Heating System.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reykjavik, Iceland, utilizes natural geothermal resources as the heat input for its district heating system. This system served about 8,700 of the 10,000 residences in 1970. The water used is non-corrosive, allowing the use of standard pipe and fittings. ...

J. Zoega, G. Kristinsson

1970-01-01

262

Barriers and resources to PMTCT of HIV: Luba-Kasai men's perspective in Lusaka, Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to describe the views of Luba-Kasai (a Congolese tribe) men on barriers inhibiting them from the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV and the resources they need to implement such prevention in Lusaka, Zambia. Twenty-one men were interviewed and the data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The barriers identified in the data were poverty, refugee status, absence of support arrangements, and the working culture in antenatal care, passivity, ignorance, marital disharmony, HIV-related stigma, and cultural characteristics, such as ways of being a man and religious beliefs. The resources were spiritual outlook on life, knowledge of HIV issues, support and availability of advanced health services, and satisfaction of basic needs. Improving male participation in PMTCT in this subpopulation presupposes cooperation between different sectors of society and inspiring trust in antenatal care. PMID:24070641

Auvinen, Jaana; Kylmä, Jari; Välimäki, Maritta; Bweupe, Max; Suominen, Tarja

2013-01-01

263

Evaluation of the use of simulation with student midwives in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The largest health discrepancy in the world is maternal mortality with most deaths occurring around the labor, delivery and postpartum period. The presence of skilled birth attendants such as qualified midwives is a leading factor in averting death and disability. This study evaluated the use of simulation with midwifery students in Zambia using a pre and post test quasi experimental design measuring confidence, satisfaction with learning, and knowledge between students who experienced simulation and those who had traditional instruction. A total of 34 students participated in the study. There were no statistical differences between mean scores on knowledge or confidence measures. Students who participated in simulation were more satisfied with learning than those who did not (p = .03). This pilot study provided data on the process of implementing simulation with midwifery students in a low resourced setting and area's for improvement for it to be an effective teaching method. PMID:22947661

Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Zulu, Beatrice; Maimbolwa, Margaret; Guarino, Anthony

2012-01-01

264

An evaluation of trauma focused cognitive behavioral therapy for children in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

To monitor and evaluate the feasibility of implementing Trauma Focused-Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) to address trauma and stress-related symptoms in orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in Zambia as part of ongoing programming within a non-governmental organization (NGO). As part of ongoing programming, voluntary care-workers administered locally validated assessments to identify children who met criteria for moderate to severe trauma symptomatology. Local lay counselors implemented TF-CBT with identified families, while participating in ongoing supervision. Fifty-eight children and adolescents aged 5-18 completed the TF-CBT treatment, with pre- and post-assessments. The mean number of traumas reported by the treatment completers (N=58) was 4.11. Post assessments showed significant reductions in severity of trauma symptoms (pApprenticeship Model of training and supervision. PMID:23768939

Murray, Laura K; Familiar, Itziar; Skavenski, Stephanie; Jere, Elizabeth; Cohen, Judy; Imasiku, Mwiya; Mayeya, John; Bass, Judith K; Bolton, Paul

2013-12-01

265

The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Zambia, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With $5.5 million of Agency support received, Zambia ranks 33rd among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. More than half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (61%), followed by expert services (25%) and training (14%). Almost all of the resources made available came from the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (93%), with only very small shares provided through extrabudgetary contributions (4%) and assistance in kind (3%). With regard to project disbursements during the past ten years, by sector, the largest areas have been agriculture (33%) and general atomic energy development (23%), followed by industry and hydrology (19%), nuclear raw materials (13%) and nuclear safety (6%)

266

Pentecostalism & schisms in the Reformed Church in Zambia 1996-2001; evidence from documentary sources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is descriptive in nature and a practical theological assessment of the
schisms that took place in the Reformed Church in Zambia (RCZ between 1996 and
2001. It analyzes the available documents to find an answer to the question why it
happened. Pentecostal/charismatic tendencies have challenged the long inherited
tradition of mainline churches in general and the RCZ in particular. Subsequently,
Pentecostal/charismatic movements have caused intense conflict in the church
between the pro-conservatives and pro-Pentecostals. In the RCZ this led to the
formation of the Christian Reformed Church (CRC in 1999 and the Bible Gospel
Church in Africa (BIGOCA in 2001.

H. Jurgens Hendriks

2011-09-01

267

Pentecostalism and schisms in the Reformed Church in Zambia (1996-2001): listening to the people  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This article is descriptive in nature and a practical theological assessment of the schisms that took place in the Reformed Church in Zambia (RCZ) between 1996 and 2001. It analyses empirical evidence to find an answer to the question why it happened. Pentecostal or charismatic tendencies have chall [...] enged the long inherited tradition of mainline churches. Subsequently, Pentecostal or charismatic movements have caused intense conflict in the church between the pro-conservatives and pro-Pentecostals. In the RCZ this led to the formation of the Christian Reformed Church (CRC) in 1999 and the Bible Gospel Church in Africa (BIGOCA) in 2001.

Lukas, Soko; H. Jurgens, Hendriks.

268

Urban waste landfill planning and karstic groundwater resources in developing countries: the example of Lusaka (Zambia)  

Science.gov (United States)

Lusaka, the capital city of Zambia with more than two million inhabitants, derives approximately 70% of its water requirements from groundwater sourced in the underlying karstic Lusaka aquifer. This water resource is, therefore, extremely important for the future of the population. The characteristics of the aquifer and the shallow water table make the resource vulnerable and in need of protection and monitoring. A joint project between the Geology Departments of the University of Cagliari and the School of Mines of the University of Zambia, to investigate the "Anthropogenic and natural processes in the Lusaka area leading to environmental degradation and their possible mitigation" was carried out in July 2001. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the extent of the present environmental degradation, assessing the vulnerability of the carbonatic aquifer and the degree of pollution of the groundwater and to make proposals to mitigate adverse environmental effects. Analyses of water samples collected during project indicate some areas of concern, particularly with respect to the levels of ammonia, nitrates and some heavy metals. As groundwater quality and quantity are prerogatives for a healthy and sustainable society, the study offers guidelines for consideration by the local and national authorities. Uptake of these guidelines should result in a number of initiatives being taken, including: (a) closure or reclamation of existing waste dumps; (b) upgrading of existing waste dumps to controlled landfills; (c) establishing new urban waste landfills and plants in geo-environmentally suitable sites; (d) local waste management projects in all compounds (residential areas) to prevent and reduce haphazard waste dumping; (e) enlarging sewerage drainage systems to all compounds; (f) enforcing control on groundwater abstraction and pollution, and demarcation of zones of control at existing drill holes; (g) providing the city with new water supplies from outside the Lusaka well-field; and (h) in increasing environmental education in schools and to all citizens.

De Waele, J.; Nyambe, I. A.; Di Gregorio, A.; Di Gregorio, F.; Simasiku, S.; Follesa, R.; Nkemba, S.

2004-06-01

269

Prevalence and Correlates of Alcohol Dependence Disorder among TB and HIV Infected Patients in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives To determine the prevalence and correlates of alcohol dependence disorders in persons receiving treatment for HIV and Tuberculosis (TB) at 16 Primary Health Care centres (PHC) across Zambia. Methods 649 adult patients receiving treatment for HIV and/or TB at PHCs in Zambia (363 males, 286 females) were recruited between 1st December 2009 and 31st January 2010. Data on socio-demographic variables, clinical disease features (TB and HIV), and psychopathological status were collected. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to diagnose alcohol dependence disorder. Correlates of alcohol dependence were analyzed for men only, due to low prevalence in women. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using general estimating equations to allow for within-PHC clustering. Results The prevalence of alcohol dependence was 27.2% (95%CI: 17.7-39.5%) for men and 3.9% (95%CI: 1.4-0.1%) for women. Factors associated with alcohol dependence disorder in men included being single, divorced or widowed compared with married (adjusted OR = 1.47, 95%CI: 1.00-2.14) and being unemployed (adjusted OR=1.30, 95%CI: 1.01-1.67). The highest prevalence of alcohol dependence was among HIV-test unknown TB patients (34.7%), and lowest was among HIV positive patients on treatment but without TB (14.1%), although the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.38). Conclusions Male TB/HIV patients in this population have high prevalence of alcohol dependence disorder, and prevalence differs by HIV/TB status. Further work is needed to explore interventions to reduce harmful drinking in this population. PMID:24069309

O'Connell, Rebecca; Chishinga, Nathaniel; Kinyanda, Eugene; Patel, Vikram; Ayles, Helen; Weiss, Helen A.; Seedat, Soraya

2013-01-01

270

Task-shifting HIV counselling and testing services in Zambia: the role of lay counsellors  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The human resource shortage in Zambia is placing a heavy burden on the few health care workers available at health facilities. The Zambia Prevention, Care and Treatment Partnership began training and placing community volunteers as lay counsellors in order to complement the efforts of the health care workers in providing HIV counselling and testing services. These volunteers are trained using the standard national counselling and testing curriculum. This study was conducted to review the effectiveness of lay counsellors in addressing staff shortages and the provision of HIV counselling and testing services. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by means of semistructured interviews from all active lay counsellors in each of the facilities and a facility manager or counselling supervisor overseeing counseling and testing services and clients. At each of the 10 selected facilities, all counselling and testing record books for the month of May 2007 were examined and any recordkeeping errors were tallied by cadre. Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions with health care workers at each facility. Results Lay counsellors provide counselling and testing services of quality and relieve the workload of overstretched health care workers. Facility managers recognize and appreciate the services provided by lay counsellors. Lay counsellors provide up to 70% of counselling and testing services at health facilities. The data review revealed lower error rates for lay counsellors, compared to health care workers, in completing the counselling and testing registers. Conclusion Community volunteers, with approved training and ongoing supervision, can play a major role at health facilities to provide counselling and testing services of quality, and relieve the burden on already overstretched health care workers.

Kapanda Paul

2009-05-01

271

Assessing Zambia's industrial fortification options: getting beyond changes in prevalence and cost-effectiveness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Since fortification of sugar with vitamin A was mandated in 1998, Zambia's fortification program has not changed, while the country remains plagued by high rates ofmicronutrient deficiencies. Objective. To provide evidence-based fortification options with the hope of reinvigorating the Zambian fortification program. Methods. Zambia's 2006 Living Conditions Monitoring Survey is used to estimate the apparent intakes of vitamin A, iron, and zinc, as well as the apparent consumption levels and coverage of four fortification vehicles. Fourteen alternativefoodfortification portfolios are modeled, and their costs, impacts, average cost-effectiveness, and incremental cost-effectiveness are calculated using three alternative impact measures. Results. Alternative impact measures result in different rank orderings of the portfolios. The most cost-effective portfolio is vegetable oil, which has a cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) saved ranging from 12% to 25% of that of sugar, depending on the impact measure used. The public health impact of fortified vegetable oil, however, is relatively modest. Additional criteria beyond cost-effectiveness are introduced and used to rank order the portfolios. The size of the public health impact, the total cost, and the incremental cost-effectiveness of phasing in multiple vehicle portfolios over time are analyzed. Conclusions. Assessing fortification portfolios by measuring changes in the prevalence of inadequate intakes underestimates impact. A more sensitive measure, which also takes into account change in the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) gap, is provided by a dose-response-based approach to estimating the number ofDALYs saved. There exist highly cost-effective fortification intervention portfolios with substantial public health impacts and variable price tags that could help improve Zambians' nutrition status. PMID:24605698

Fiedler, John L; Lividini, Keith; Kabaghe, Gladys; Zulu, Rodah; Tehinse, John; Bermudez, Odilia I; Jallier, Vincent; Guyondet, Christophe

2013-12-01

272

A 12-Month Study of Food Crops Contaminated by Heavy Metals, Lusaka, Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate heavy-metal contamination of irrigation water used for urban agriculture and subsequent contamination of food crops in Chunga, NW Lusaka, the capital of Zambia. Inhabitants of the Chunga area rely on urban agriculture as both a major source of income and food. From August 2004 to July 2005, monthly samples of irrigation water used and edible portions of food crops were taken from a farmer's plot at Chunga. The food crops (cabbage, Chinese cabbage, pumpkin leaves, rape, sweet potato leaves and tomatoes) are grown using irrigation throughout the year. Irrigation water samples and digested food crop samples were analysed using ICP-MS at the Department of Geology, Colgate University, USA for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb, and U. We find heavy-metal concentrations present in both irrigation water and food crop samples. Zambian sample concentrations were compared to Zambian and international legislative and guideline limits for concentrations of heavy metals in industrial effluent, heavy metals in irrigation water and heavy metals in foods. In irrigation water samples recommended national and/or international legislative limits for Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Hg, Pb and U were exceeded. Limits for Hg were exceeded by up to 130 times. There were heavy-metal concentrations above recommended limits in food crops for Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb throughout the different food crops grown and throughout the year. In all 14 samples recommended limits for Cr, Fe and Hg were exceeded. Zambian legislated limits for food crops were exceeded by up to 16 times for Pb and 58 times for Hg. The results of this study show that heavy metal contamination is present in irrigation water used and food crops grown in urban agriculture in Chunga, Lusaka, Zambia. Recommended maximum limits for heavy metals in irrigation water and food are exceeded in some samples indicating there may be a risk to health.

Holden, J. A.; Malamud, B. D.; Chishala, B. H.; Kapungwe, E.; Volk, J.; Harpp, K. S.

2009-04-01

273

Secular trends in pediatric antiretroviral treatment programs in rural and urban Zambia: a retrospective cohort study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2003 pediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART programs have scaled-up in sub-Saharan Africa and should be evaluated to assess progress and identify areas for improvement. We evaluated secular trends in the characteristics and treatment outcomes of children in three pediatric ART clinics in urban and rural areas in Zambia. Methods Routinely collected data were analyzed from three ART programs in rural (Macha and Mukinge and urban (Lusaka Zambia between program implementation and July 2008. Data were obtained from electronic medical record systems and medical record abstraction, and were categorized by year of program implementation. Characteristics of all HIV-infected and exposed children enrolled in the programs and all children initiating treatment were compared by year of implementation. Results Age decreased and immunologic characteristics improved in all groups over time in both urban and rural clinics, with greater improvement observed in the rural clinics. Among children both eligible and ineligible for ART at clinic enrollment, the majority started treatment within a year. A high proportion of children, particularly those ineligible for ART at clinic enrollment, were lost to follow-up prior to initiating ART. Among children initiating ART, clinical and immunologic outcomes after six months of treatment improved in both urban and rural clinics. In the urban clinics, mortality after six months of treatment declined with program duration, and in the rural clinics, the proportion of children defaulting by six months increased with program duration. Conclusions Treatment programs are showing signs of progress in the care of HIV-infected children, particularly in the rural clinics where scale-up increased rapidly over the first three years of program implementation. However, continued efforts to optimize care are needed as many children continue to enroll in ART programs at a late stage of disease and thus are not receiving the full benefits of treatment.

Cotham Matt

2010-07-01

274

The zoonotic potential of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia.  

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Whilst remarkable progress in elucidating the mechanisms governing interspecies transmission and pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been made, similar studies focusing on low-pathogenic AIVs isolated from the wild waterfowl reservoir are limited. We previously reported that two AIV strains (subtypes H6N2 and H3N8) isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia harbored some amino acid residues preferentially associated with human influenza virus proteins (so-called human signatures) and replicated better in the lungs of infected mice and caused more morbidity than a strain lacking such residues. To further substantiate these observations, we infected chickens and mice intranasally with AIV strains of various subtypes (H3N6, H3N8, H4N6, H6N2, H9N1 and H11N9) isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia. Although some strains induced seroconversion, all of the tested strains replicated poorly and were nonpathogenic for chickens. In contrast, most of the strains having human signatures replicated well in the lungs of mice, and one of these strains caused severe illness in mice and induced lung injury that was characterized by a severe accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. These results suggest that some strains tested in this study may have the potential to infect mammalian hosts directly without adaptation, which might possibly be associated with the possession of human signature residues. Close monitoring and evaluation of host-associated signatures may help to elucidate the prevalence and emergence of AIVs with potential for causing zoonotic infections. PMID:24862188

Simulundu, Edgar; Nao, Naganori; Yabe, John; Muto, Nilton A; Sithebe, Thami; Sawa, Hirofumi; Manzoor, Rashid; Kajihara, Masahiro; Muramatsu, Mieko; Ishii, Akihiro; Ogawa, Hirohito; Mweene, Aaron S; Takada, Ayato

2014-10-01

275

Risk factors, healthcare-seeking and sexual behaviour among patients with genital ulcers in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Genital ulcers (GU are associated with an increased risk of HIV transmission. Understanding risk factors for genital ulcers and sexual behaviour patterns after onset of symptoms and health seeking behaviour among GU-patients can provide useful information to aid design effective prevention strategies for genital ulcers. We investigated risk factors of self-reported GUs and care-seeking in the general population, and assessed GU patients regarding past care-seeking, recent sexual behaviour and partner awareness of the disease. Methods We analysed national data on genital ulcers from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey, and data from a cross-sectional survey of genital ulcer patients from primary health care facilities in Lusaka, Zambia. Results The prevalence of GU in 2007 in the general population of Lusaka was 3.6%. Important predictors for genital ulcers were age 25–29?years, being widowed/separated/divorced and having a high number of life-time sexual partners. No differences in care-seeking were observed by residence, wealth and gender, and 60% of the respondents sought care from public health facilities. Among patients with GUs in Lusaka, 14% sought care >2?weeks after symptom onset. Forty-two percent were not aware of their HIV status, 57% reported sex after onset of symptoms and only 15% reported consistent condom use. Conclusions Low awareness of HIV status despite high probability of being infected and low condom use after onset of genital ulcer symptoms leads to a high potential for transmission to sexual partners. This, combined with the fact that many patients with GUs delayed seeking care, shows a need for awareness campaigns about GUs and the importance of abstinence or use of condoms when experiencing such symptoms.

Makasa Mpundu

2012-06-01

276

Life- and worldview: development and transformation – the case of the Lamba of the Masaiti region in Zambia  

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Full Text Available This article reports on a case study regarding the development and educational transformation of a subgroup of the Lamba living in the Masaiti region of the Copper Belt Province of Zambia, where the Foundation for Cross-Cultural Education in Zambia (FCE has been serving for the past thirteen years. It was concluded that the current life- and worldview of a community such as the one living in the Masaiti region can be transformed to a truly Christ-centred life- and worldview by firstly taking cognisance of how the community currently expresses itself in terms of each of the universals or components of a lifeand worldview, and secondly by subjecting each of those universals or components to a process of life- and worldview transformation. It was furthermore found that life- and worldview transformation should be seen as a prerequisite for the developmental transformation of such communities.

J. Compion

2010-07-01

277

VII international district heating conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proceedings of the 7th International District Heating Conference contain the full texts of the 89 presented papers of which 11 fall under the INIS Subject Scope. The conference met in seven sessions and dealt with the following problem areas: design and optimization of systems of district heating, integration of the power system and the district heating systems, cooperation of nuclear and fossil burning sources in district heating systems, the use of specific nuclear power plants for heating purposes, questions of the control of systems of district heating, the development of components of heating networks, the reliability and design of heat supply pipes. (Z.M.)

278

Trichomonas vaginalis is highly prevalent in adolescent girls, pregnant women, and commercial sex workers in Ndola, Zambia  

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OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of Trichomonas sp. infection among adolescent girls, pregnant women, and commercial sex workers in Ndola, Zambia. METHODS:: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 460 girls attending school, 307 pregnant women, and 197 commercial sex workers. Self-collected specimens from the vagina, rectum, and mouth were tested by polymerase chain amplification assays for the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis, Pentatrichomonas hominis, and T...

Crucitti, T.; Jespers, V.; Mulenga, C.; Khondowe, S.; Vandepitte, J.; Buve?, A.

2010-01-01

279

Diarrhea is a Major killer of Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition Admitted to Inpatient Set-up in Lusaka, Zambia  

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Abstract Introduction Mortality of children with Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) in inpatient set-ups in sub-Saharan Africa still remains unacceptably high. We investigated the prevalence and effect of diarrhea and HIV infection on inpatient treatment outcome of children with complicated SAM receiving treatment in inpatient units. Method A cohort of 430 children aged 6-59 months old with complicated SAM admitted to Zambia University Teaching Hospital's stabiliza...

Irena Abel H; Mulenga Veronica

2011-01-01

280

Gay Rights, the Devil and the End Times: Public Religion and the Enchantment of the Homosexuality Debate in Zambia  

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This article contributes to the understanding of the role of religion in the public and political controversies about homosexuality in Africa. As a case study it investigates the heated public debate in Zambia following a February 2012 visit by United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon, who emphasised the need for the country to recognise the human rights of homosexuals. The focus is on a particular Christian discourse in this debate, in which the international pressure to recognise gay ri...

Klinken, As

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

The Urgent Need to Train Teachers for Multigrade Pedagogy in African Schooling Contexts: Lessons from Uganda and Zambia  

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Full Text Available Our research project funded by the British Council on multigrade teaching capacity building in Uganda and Zambia found that Uganda does not have a single higher education institution training teachers in multigrade pedagogy and Zambia has only one located at Serenje village in rural Zambia. Yet the research found that in both countries many teachers actually teach multigraded classes in spite of never having been trained in multigrade pedagogy. Our literature searches also found that this situation is not unique to these two countries but in fact very common throughout Africa. Moreover, multigrade is used not by pedagogical choice but by necessity because these countries do not have enough teachers, classrooms or other school equipment to universalize access to primary schooling on a monograde basis. Yet we know that there are well founded pedagogical reasons for using multigrade pedagogy in the education of learners, young and old. These findings lead us to the conclusion that it is not prudent to continue overlooking the potential of multigrade pedagogy to improve educational opportunities for children in African schooling contexts. This is especially true in rural and remote areas; it is therefore imperative to train teachers for multigrade pedagogy in Africa. This paper discusses the problems facing multigrade teaching in Africa and the reasons why multigrade has been neglected, the consequences of that neglect, and the need for a paradigm shift towards multigrade teaching so as to provide universal access to primary education for all children in Africa.

Charles Kivunja

2014-03-01

282

Detection of Babesia spp. in free-ranging Pukus, Kobus vardonii, on a game ranch in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Babesia spp. were detected from 4 asymptomatic pukus captured on a game ranch in central Zambia in October 2008. Blood smears were examined in 4 species of aymptomatic free-ranging antelopes, namely the puku (Kobus vordanii), reedbuck (Redunca arundinum), bushbuck (Tragelaphus sylvaticus), and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), and showed the presence of Babesia parasites only in the puku. In the puku, the prevalence of babesiosis was estimated at 33.3% (n = 12), while the overall prevalence in all examined animals was 8.5% (n = 47). The parasites showed morphological characteristics of paired ring-like stages with the length varying between 1.61 µm and 3.02 µm (mean = 2.12 µm, n = 27; SD = 0.76 µm). Both the infected and non-infected pukus showed good body condition scores (BCS), while the dominant tick species detected from all animals were Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus spp., and Boophilus spp. To our knowledge this is the first report of Babesia spp. infection in pukus in Zambia. These findings suggest that wildlife could play an important role in the epidemiology of babesiosis in Zambia. PMID:22355215

Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Munyeme, Musso; Nambota, Andrew Mubila; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo; Siamudaala, Victor M

2011-12-01

283

Metal and metalloid contamination in roadside soil and wild rats around a Pb-Zn mine in Kabwe, Zambia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Metal (Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni) and metalloid (As) accumulation was studied in roadside soil and wild rat (Rattus sp.) samples from near a Pb-Zn mine (Kabwe, Zambia) and the capital city of Zambia (Lusaka). The concentrations of the seven metals and As in the soil samples and Pb in the rat tissue samples were quantified using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, and As in Kabwe soil were much higher than benchmark values. Geographic Information System analysis indicated the source of metal pollution was mining and smelting activity. Interestingly, the area south of the mine was more highly contaminated even though the prevailing wind flow was westward. Wild rats from Kabwe had much higher tissue concentrations of Pb than those from Lusaka. Their body weight and renal Pb levels were negatively correlated, which suggests that mining activity might affect terrestrial animals in Kabwe. - The area around Kabwe, Zambia is highly polluted with metals and As. Wild rats from this area had high tissue concentrations of Pb and decreased body weight.

Nakayama, Shouta M.M.; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Hamada, Kyohei [Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 18, Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan); Muzandu, Kaampwe; Choongo, Kennedy [Department of Biomedical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, P.O. Box 32379, Lusaka (Zambia); Teraoka, Hiroki; Mizuno, Naoharu [Department of Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu 069-8501 (Japan); Ishizuka, Mayumi, E-mail: ishizum@vetmed.hokudai.ac.j [Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 18, Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan)

2011-01-15

284

Metal and metalloid contamination in roadside soil and wild rats around a Pb-Zn mine in Kabwe, Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metal (Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni) and metalloid (As) accumulation was studied in roadside soil and wild rat (Rattus sp.) samples from near a Pb-Zn mine (Kabwe, Zambia) and the capital city of Zambia (Lusaka). The concentrations of the seven metals and As in the soil samples and Pb in the rat tissue samples were quantified using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, and As in Kabwe soil were much higher than benchmark values. Geographic Information System analysis indicated the source of metal pollution was mining and smelting activity. Interestingly, the area south of the mine was more highly contaminated even though the prevailing wind flow was westward. Wild rats from Kabwe had much higher tissue concentrations of Pb than those from Lusaka. Their body weight and renal Pb levels were negatively correlated, which suggests that mining activity might affect terrestrial animals in Kabwe. - The area around Kabwe, Zambia is highly polluted with metals and As. Wild rats from this area had high tissue concentrations of Pb and decreased body weight.

285

GNF - Labanoras Lake District  

...Regional Park Labanoras, Lithuania, Living Lakes, ENOS, Vilnius, moors, wetlands, salmon, beaver, otter, elk, Arctic Loon, Dunlin, Osprey, Bittern, Crane, Black Stork, Common Kingfisher, Spotted Crake, Black Grouse, White Stork GNF - Labanoras Lake District deutsch ... Grass snake Mammals are represented by beaver, otter, and elk. Beaver are ecologically particularly important as for example they dam up drainage ditches and thus create new wetlands. Among the nesting birds are (in pairs): 5 Arctic Loon, 10 ...

286

Small district heating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this work is to identify, from an economical point of view, the optimal system design and operation strategy for the district heating of a small residential area. The applied methodology is an overall approach on the heat distribution system, the house connection and the space heating system in the building, i.e. all parts are regarded as one system. To comply with this task, dynamic simulation which takes into account the interaction between different components is applied. Existing simulation model components and new developed model components for all parts of the small district heating system in question are combined to a system as a whole to predict the thermal performance for the period of one year. To ensure that the valid component and system models are in accordance with the performance of real systems, measurements from two small district heating systems were compared with the calculated results. The outcome is a calibrated simulation model. The calibrated system simulation model was then generalised by using a typical space heating and domestic hot water load and weather data for the location of Goeteborg. Using the generalised system simulation model a thermal analysis of common system alternatives was carried out. Three different temperature levels for two district heating network types, 2-pipe and 4-pipe, and house heating system were analysed to ascertain distribution heat loss and electricity consumption for pumps. The result of the thermal analysis was combined with typical costs for system parts, operation of the system and for covering the heat demand to calculate annual heat costs for each system. A sensitivity analysis regarding annual heat costs was carried out for the investigated system alternatives by varying major cost and design factors.

Dahm, Jochen

1999-07-01

287

Spatial Aspects of Census Districting  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban districting refers to partitioning of an urban area into smaller regions for a specific application in order to effectively facilitate and enhance the quality of municipal services. Among other considerations, which are imposed by the general problem or the application in hand, several factors in urban districting have spatial aspects, many of which have been disregarded in most of districting plans, and only descriptive measures have been considered. This paper explores the impact of spatial aspects on census districting, as an important urban districting. It proposes an approach that not only considers the workload, as the most effective criterion in census districting, but spatial criteria such as compactness, barriers and travers length are also involved. The implementation results of the proposed approach for a case study have been evaluated and discussed.

Dezyani, S.; Karimipour, F.

2014-10-01

288

Implementation of cervical cancer prevention services for HIV-infected women in Zambia: measuring program effectiveness  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Cervical cancer kills more women in low-income nations than any other malignancy. A variety of research and demonstration efforts have proven the efficacy and effectiveness of low-cost cervical cancer prevention methods but none in routine program implementation settings of the developing world, particularly in HIV-infected women. Methods In our public sector cervical cancer prevention program in Zambia, nurses conduct screening using visual inspection with acetic acid aided by digital cervicography. Women with visible lesions are offered same-visit cryotherapy or referred for histologic evaluation and clinical management. We analyzed clinical outcomes and modeled program effectiveness among HIV-infected women by estimating the total number of cervical cancer deaths prevented through screening and treatment. Results Between 2006 and 2008, 6572 HIV-infected women were screened, 53.6% (3523) had visible lesions, 58.5% (2062) were eligible for cryotherapy and 41.5% (1461) were referred for histologic evaluation. A total of 75% (1095 out of 1462) of patients who were referred for evaluation complied. Pathology results from 65% (715 out of 1095) of women revealed benign abnormalities in 21% (151), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I in 30% (214), CIN 2/3 in 33% (235) and invasive cervical cancer in 16.1% (115, of which 69% were early stage). Using a conditional probability model, we estimated that our program prevented 142 cervical cancer deaths (high/low range: 238–96) among the 6572 HIV-infected women screened, or one cervical cancer death prevented per 46 (corresponding range: 28–68) HIV-infected women screened. Conclusion Our prevention efforts using setting-appropriate human resources and technology have reduced morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer among HIV-infected women in Zambia. Financial support for implementing cervical cancer prevention programs integrated within HIV/AIDS care programs is warranted. Our prevention model can serve as the implementation platform for future low-cost HPV-based screening methods, and our results may provide the basis for comparison of programmatic effectiveness of future prevention efforts.

Parham, Groesbeck P; Mwanahamuntu, Mulindi H; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; Westfall, Andrew O; King, Kristin E; Chibwesha, Carla; Pfaendler, Krista S; Mkumba, Gracilia; Mudenda, Victor; Kapambwe, Sharon; Vermund, Sten H; Hicks, Michael L; Stringer, Jeffrey SA; Chi, Benjamin H

2014-01-01

289

Suppressed or unsuppressed HIV in adults on antiretroviral therapy in Zambia: who is at risk?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose of the study: To determine factors associated with suppressed or unsuppressed HIV in adults receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART in Zambia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted between August 2008 and October 2009 in 16 Zambian communities nested within the ZAMSTAR trial [1]. Adult TB cases identified at a TB clinic of each community and their adult household members were invited to participate in the study. A structured interview was used to obtain information on the participants’ social, demographic and clinical characteristics. Socio-economic position (SEP was measured using household wealth indices used in demographic health surveys. Principal component analysis was used to determine the cut-off for high (wealthy and low (poor SEP. Depression symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D. A cut-off of?22 on the CES-D was used to define current depression [2]. Participants were included in this analysis if they were found to be receiving cART for>90 days at the time of the interview. The outcome was HIV suppression (viral load?300 copies/ml. In both univariable and multivariable analyses, log Poisson regression models with robust standard errors adjusted for the 16 communities were used to calculate the risk ratios (RR, 95% confidence intervals (CI and p-values of factors associated with HIV suppression. In multivariable analysis, each variable was independently assessed for its association with HIV suppression while minimally adjusting for a priori confounders (age, gender and education level. Summary of results: There were 520 patients receiving cART for>90 days. The median age was 35 years (inter-quartile range: 31–41 and 328/520 (63.1% were married (Table.Of the 520 patients, 442 (85.0% had HIV suppression while 78 (15.0% did not. At univariable analysis, having high SEP was negatively associated with HIV suppression while receiving ZDV+3TC+EFV was positively associated with HIV suppression. At multivariable analysis, patients with high SEP were less likely to have HIV suppression than those with low SEP. Conclusions: Patients with high SEP were found to be at risk of having unsuppressed HIV. There is need for targeted interventions that can improve HIV outcomes in this group of patients receiving cART in Zambia.

N Chishinga

2012-11-01

290

ECOTOURISM CENTERS IN AURANGABAD DISTRICT  

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The tourism sector is increasing day to day and it has great potential of getting many, employments and also supporting for local merchants, therefore it is called as fourth dimension of modern economy. An impact of tourism has become is an important part of economy especially in India, here in the country number of natural tourist places as well as historical tourist places. Aurangabad district is leading district in Marathwada region in tourism it has 9 Tahsils and district ...

Khan, A. I.; Bawane S.N; Mhaslekar I.D

2014-01-01

291

77 FR 63326 - Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland...  

Science.gov (United States)

...District, Madison Wetland Management District, Sand Lake Wetland Management District final CCP...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Introduction With this notice, we finalize...process for Huron Wetland Management District, Madison...

2012-10-16

292

Postpartum maternal morbidity requiring hospital admission in Lusaka, Zambia – a descriptive study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the extent of postpartum maternal morbidity in developing countries is extremely limited. In many settings, data from hospital-based studies is hard to interpret because of the small proportion of women that have access to medical care. However, in those areas with good uptake of health care, the measurement of the type and incidence of complications severe enough to require hospitalisation may provide useful baseline information on the acute and severe morbidity that women experience in the early weeks following childbirth. An analysis of health services data from Lusaka, Zambia, is presented. Methods Six-month retrospective review of hospital registers and 4-week cross-sectional study with prospective identification of postpartum admissions. Results Both parts of the study identified puerperal sepsis and malaria as, respectively, the leading direct and indirect causes of postpartum morbidity requiring hospital admission. Puerperal sepsis accounted for 34.8% of 365 postpartum admissions in the 6-month period. Malaria and pneumonia together accounted for one-fifth of all postpartum admissions (14.5% & 6% respectively. At least 1.7% of the postpartum population in Lusaka will require hospital-level care for a maternal morbidity. Conclusions In developing country urban settings with high public health care usage, meticulous review of hospital registers can provide baseline information on the burden of moderate-to-severe postpartum morbidity.

Murray Susan F

2005-02-01

293

Cost benefit analysis of tuberculosis control in wildlife-livestock interface areas of Southern Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the results of an economic simulation model evaluating the costs and benefits of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) control in a wildlife-livestock interface area of Southern Zambia over a 10 year period, using test and slaughter in livestock and promotion of milk pasteurization amongst livestock keeping communities to reduce the zoonotic transmission of bTB through milk. Expected benefits included increased productivity and health in village resident and transhumant cattle, and averted human bTB treatment costs after the fourth year of the project. In monetary terms, at different bTB prevalence estimates in cattle, the simulation outcome showed that the costs of control never exceeded the few benefits considered over the simulated period. However, the benefits are likely to outweigh the costs if wider implications of bTB in humans (infirmity-related productivity losses), livestock and wildlife (reduced productivity and herd value in cattle and diminished tourism potential from bTB-related wildlife mortalities) are taken into account. PMID:23206544

Mwacalimba, K K; Mumba, C; Munyeme, M

2013-06-01

294

Heat flow and heat production in Zambia: evidence for lithospheric thinning in central Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat-flow results from eleven widely spaced sites in central and western regions of the Republic of Zambia range between 54 and 76 mW m/sup -2/. Ten of the sites are located in late Precambrian (Katangan) metasediments or Kibaran age basement, while one site is located in Karroo age sandstone. Compared to the global mean of 39 +- 7 (sd) mW m/sup -2/ for Precambrian provinces elsewhere, these heat-flow results are anomalously high by some 25 mW m/sup -2/. Heat-production measurements on borehole core samples indicate that enhanced radioactivity of an enriched surface zone can account for only half of the observed anomaly. The remaining anomalous heat flow must have a deeper source, and can be interpreted as a flux from the asthenosphere, providing the overlying lithosphere has been thinned to less than 60 km. Such an interpretation supports the existence of an incipient arm of the East African rift system trending southwest from Lake Tanganyika into the central African plateau.

Chapman, D.S.; Pollack, H.N.

1977-08-03

295

USING THE INTERNET FOR DEMOCRACY: A STUDY OF SOUTH AFRICA, KENYA AND ZAMBIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For the first time since democracy in the classical Greek sense became practically impossible, the Internet’s networking possibilities are creating opportunities for all citizens to be active engaging participants in democracy. Open communication channels to government and fellow citizens can now be a reality that allows people at all levels of society to form part of a vibrant public sphere by exchanging ideas, sharing experiences, spreading ideologies and news, and comparing agendas. For African countries dealing with unique and increasingly complicated political and socio-economic issues, the Internet provides a platform from which citizens can now address these issues themselves and, in doing so, contribute to a public sphere that strengthens the democratic fibre of their countries. This research posits that the Internet has significant potential to stimulate democratic culture through public discourse and citizen participation. The focus of this study is on finding evidence-based information about the current influence of information and communication technology (ICT usage in South Africa, Kenya and Zambia as representatives of sub-Saharan Africa, and with specific focus on Internet usage through computers and mobile phones. The research also investigates the capacity and opportunity citizens have to successfully integrate ICTs into the accomplishment of self and mutually identified political goals in order to strengthen a broader democratic culture.

Aletta H. Janse van Rensburg

2012-07-01

296

Distribution of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc concentrations in soils around Kabwe town in Zambia.  

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The extent of pollution of the environment as a result of mining activities in Kabwe, the provincial capital of Central province in Zambia has not yet been evaluated. Mining of lead and zinc were the core activities of Kabwe mine while cadmium and silver were produced as by-products. The smelting processes produced a significant amount of copper. The spatial distribution of four heavy metals in soils in the northern, eastern, southern and western directions of the mine was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Samples were collected up to 20 km in each direction from the mine. Results were consistent with the wind flow patterns in the town. Results ranged between 0.08 and 28 mg kg(-1) (Cd); 0.20 and 0.61 mg kg(-1) (Cu); 0.10 and 758 mg kg(-1) (Pb) and 0.40 and 234 mg kg(-1) (Zn) suggesting high precipitation of metals from the core mining activities. These concentrations were for only the fractions of metals extractable by 0.5M nitric acid and that could be available for plant uptake in the environment. The distribution of metals indicated a decrease of metal concentrations with distance from the mine, which confirmed that precipitation due to mining activities was the main cause of soil contamination. PMID:16337989

Tembo, Backsion D; Sichilongo, Kwenga; Cernak, Joseph

2006-04-01

297

Strategies of the poorest in local water conflict and cooperation – Evidence from Vietnam, Bolivia and Zambia  

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Full Text Available Media stories often speak of a future dominated by large-scale water wars. Rather less attention has been paid to the way water conflicts already play out at local levels and form part of people’s everyday lives. Based on case study studies from Vietnam, Bolivia and Zambia, this paper examines the strategies of poor households in local water conflicts. It is shown how such households may not only engage actively in collaborative water management but may also apply risk aversion strategies when faced with powerful adversaries in conflict situations. It is further shown how dependency relations between poor and wealthy households can reduce the scope of action for the poor in water conflicts. As a result, poor households can be forced to abstain from defending their water resources in order to maintain socio-economic and political ties with the very same households that oppose them in water conflicts. The paper concludes by briefly discussing how the poorest can be supported in local water conflicts. This includes ensuring that alternative spaces for expressing grievances exist and are accessible; facilitating that water sharing agreements and rights are clearly stipulated and monitored; and working beyond water governance to reduce the socio-economic dependency-relations of poor households.

Imasiku Nyambe

2012-02-01

298

Examining targets for HIV prevention: intravaginal practices in Urban Lusaka, Zambia.  

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Intravaginal practices (IVP) are the introduction of products inside the vagina for hygienic, health, or sexuality reasons. The influence of men and Alengizis, traditional marriage counselors for girls, in promoting IVP has not been explored. We conducted gender-concordant focus groups and key informant interviews with Alengizis. The responses were conducted grouped into three themes: (1) cultural norms, (2) types and reasons for IVP, and (3) health consequences. We found that IVP were used by all participants in our sample and were taught from generation to generation by friends, relatives, or Alengizis. The reasons for women to engage in IVP were hygienic, though men expect women to engage in IVP to enhance sexual pleasure. Approximately 40% of women are aware that IVP can facilitate genital infections, but felt they would not feel clean discontinuing IVP. All men were unaware of the vaginal damage caused by IVP, and were concerned about the loss of sexual pleasure if women discontinued IVP. Despite the health risks of IVP, IVP continue to be widespread in Zambia and an integral component of hygiene and sexuality. The frequency of IVP mandates exploration into methods to decrease or ameliorate their use as an essential component of HIV prevention. PMID:24568672

Alcaide, Maria L; Chisembele, Maureen; Mumbi, Miriam; Malupande, Emeria; Jones, Deborah

2014-03-01

299

Resource Utilization and Costs of Care prior to ART Initiation for Pediatric Patients in Zambia.  

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Objective. We estimated time to initiation, outpatient resource use, and costs of outpatient care during the 6 months prior to ART initiation for HIV-infected pediatric patients in Zambia. Methods. We enrolled 1,102 children who initiated ART at <15 years of age between 2006 and 2011 at 5 study sites. Of these, 832 initiated ART ?6 months after first presenting to care at the study sites. Data on time in care and resources utilized during the 6 months prior to ART initiation were extracted from patient medical records. Costs were estimated from the provider's perspective and are reported in 2011 USD. Results. For the patients who initiated ART ?6 months after presenting to care, median age at presentation to care was 3.9 years; median CD4 percentage was 13%. Median time to ART initiation was 26 days. Patients made, on average, 2.38 clinic visits prior to ART initiation and received 0.81 CD4 tests, 0.74 full blood count tests, and 0.49 blood chemistry tests. The mean cost of pre-ART care was $20 per patient. Conclusions. Zambian pediatric patients initiating ART ?6 months after presenting to care do so quickly, utilize fewer resources than mandated by national guidelines, and accrue low costs. PMID:24711925

Iyer, Hari S; Scott, Callie A; Lembela Bwalya, Deophine; Meyer-Rath, Gesine; Moyo, Crispin; Bolton Moore, Carolyn; Larson, Bruce A; Rosen, Sydney

2014-01-01

300

Evolution of anti-corruption journalism in Africa: lessons from Zambia  

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Full Text Available All African countries, where there are functioning states, express a strong desire to curb corruption. The African Union has a convention to prevent and combat corruption. Zambia, under President Levy Mwanawasa, has positioned itself as a leader in Africa's fight against corruption. Last year, former Zambian President Frederick Chiluba was found guilty of grand corruption by a London court in a case brought against him by the Zambian government. There is general agreement that the media plays a significant role in the war against plunder of national resources by African leaders. However, studies that examine exactly how the media influences the decisions and actions of public actors in Africa's anti-corruption agenda are few. This paper aims to fill this gap. The goal is to use the Zambian case to gain a clearer understanding of the evolution of anti-graft journalism in Africa and to derive enduring insights into the relationship between the anti-corruption actions of the state and anti-corruption reporting by the press. Three key questions provide a framework for this investigation: 1 Is the press driving the Zambian government's anti-corruption campaign? 2 Is President Mwanawasa's 'zero-tolerance' campaign self-generated and the press simply following and reporting news events coming out of the bold steps already determined by the government? 3 Is it possible that the press and the state have found common ground and formed an informal but formidable alliance to combat graft?

Isaac Phiri

2011-08-01

 
 
 
 
301

An ultrastructural investigation of Argulus personatus Cunnington, 1913 (Crustacea: Branchiura from Lake Tanganyika, northern Zambia  

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Full Text Available Sixteen male and one female specimen ofArgulus personatus Cunnington, 1913, were collected from Bathybates ferox Boulenger, 1898, from Lake Tanganyika in northern Zambia. Light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM examinations documented a thickening of cuticle located on the dorsal surface between last thoracic segment and abdomen, which was rectangular in shape; a basal section of the pre-oral spine and proboscis ornamented with simple scales; three large simple setae present on the distal end of the basal plate; the dorsal distal end of second podomere of maxillae ornamented with scales resembling those of a fish; second and third podomeres of maxillae ornamented with two types of pectinate scales (with fine bristle-like ends and scales with large pointed ends; the ventral distal end of third and fourth maxillary podomeres bearing large teardrop-shaped scales; a pair of tubular structures present adjacent to the anterior projection; a peg on the fourth pairs of legs of males bearing shallow grooves running irregularly across surface; and an accessory cushion bearing minute projections. These characters differed from the original description of A. personatus and are addressed in a redescription.

Ernest H. Williams, Jr

2011-10-01

302

Life cycle assessment to evaluate the environmental impact of biochar implementation in conservation agriculture in Zambia.  

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Biochar amendment to soil is a potential technology for carbon storage and climate change mitigation. It may, in addition, be a valuable soil fertility enhancer for agricultural purposes in sandy and/or weathered soils. A life cycle assessment including ecological, health and resource impacts has been conducted for field sites in Zambia to evaluate the overall impacts of biochar for agricultural use. The life cycle impacts from conservation farming using cultivation growth basins and precision fertilization with and without biochar addition were in the present study compared to conventional agricultural methods. Three different biochar production methods were evaluated: traditional earth-mound kilns, improved retort kilns, and micro top-lit updraft (TLUD) gasifier stoves. The results confirm that the use of biochar in conservation farming is beneficial for climate change mitigation purposes. However, when including health impacts from particle emissions originating from biochar production, conservation farming plus biochar from earth-mound kilns generally results in a larger negative effect over the whole life cycle than conservation farming without biochar addition. The use of cleaner technologies such as retort kilns or TLUDs can overcome this problem, mainly because fewer particles and less volatile organic compounds, methane and carbon monoxide are emitted. These results emphasize the need for a holistic view on biochar use in agricultural systems. Of special importance is the biochar production technique which has to be evaluated from both environmental/climate, health and social perspectives. PMID:23272937

Sparrevik, Magnus; Field, John L; Martinsen, Vegard; Breedveld, Gijs D; Cornelissen, Gerard

2013-02-01

303

Liver scanning using indium-113m at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia  

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Liver scanning using the radio-isotope indium-113m, can now be routinely perfomed at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia. The dose used is 1 - 4 mCi. Liver scans have been performed on 48 subjects, including 10 healthy individuals 16 patients with histologically proven hepatocellular carcinoma, 11 with clinical and laboratory evidence of portal hypertension and 11 with miscellaneous illnesses. Seven representative scans are illustrated. The procedure is easy, and gives a fairly accurate functional estimate of Kupffer cell mass. In hepatoma the scan may be either larger than or smaller than normal and reflects more accurately the residual function of the Kupffer cells. In cirrhosis of the liver with portal hypertention, residual Kupffer cell mass is small. Consequently, most of the indium-113m is taken up by the splenic reticulo-endothelial system, resulting in a large spleen scan. This technique, although fraught with major limitations, is a useful additional diagnostic tool in the management of chronic liver disease.

Mulaisho, C. (Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia); Mumba, K.N. (Radio-isotope Research Unit, National Council for Scientific Research, Lusaka, Zambia)

1981-11-21

304

Knowledge and use of modern family planning methods by rural women in Zambia  

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Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to determine knowledge and use of modem contractive methods among reproductive age group rural women in Zambia. The study is a descriptive cross-sectional study of 105 randomly selected rural women. Data was collected using semi-structured interview schedule and analyzed using EPI Info version 6 statistical packages. The findings revealed that 63% of the respondents were within the age group 21-35 years, 65% were married and 64% were peasant farmers. 90% of the respondents had heard about modem contraceptives and their main source of information was the Health worker (62%. 76% of the respondents stated that modem contraceptive methods could be obtained from public health facilities. 56% of the respondents were currently using modem contraceptive methods and 46% were not using modem contraceptive methods. Reasons for non use of contraceptive methods were religious beliefs (50%, partner disapproval (30% and side effects (20%. The results showed a relationship between educational level and use of contraceptives (Chi-square 7.83, df = 3, P < 0.05 and spouse approval or support of contractive methods and use of contraceptive (Chisquare 5.9, df = 2, P < 0.05. Therefore, efforts to promote modem contraceptive use among the rural women should be intensified to overcome barriers to contraceptive use and should involve men.

C. Mubita-Ngoma

2010-09-01

305

Supermarkets in the Food Supply Systems in Southern African Development Community: A Case Study of Zambia  

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Full Text Available This study evaluated how supermarkets procurement practises in the fresh fruits and vegetables (FFV and processed products such as dairy impact on local producers in Zambia. Data was collected from key informants and secondary sources. The results showed that supermarkets procured approximately 60% of FFV from local farmers, though the bulk of these are from large-scale farms. Products not produced in the host countries were imported from South Africa and other countries. Small-scale farmers were hindered by constraints such as lack of irrigation and the stringent grades and standards imposed by supermarkets. Supermarkets procure dairy products from large processors. Farmers access supermarkets through dairy processors. Small-scale dairy processors do not access the supermarkets because of high transaction costs and lack of transport. Government involvement in the supply chain in terms of setting policies and regulatory frameworks are important in determining the type of procurement systems that develop and whether local producers especially small-scale farmers and processors access and supply to supermarkets.

R.A. Emongor

2006-01-01

306

Liver scanning using indium-113m at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liver scanning using the radio-isotope indium-113m, can now be routinely perfomed at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia. The dose used is 1 - 4 mCi. Liver scans have been performed on 48 subjects, including 10 healthy individuals 16 patients with histologically proven hepatocellular carcinoma, 11 with clinical and laboratory evidence of portal hypertension and 11 with miscellaneous illnesses. Seven representative scans are illustrated. The procedure is easy, and gives a fairly accurate functional estimate of Kupffer cell mass. In hepatoma the scan may be either larger than or smaller than normal and reflects more accurately the residual function of the Kupffer cells. In cirrhosis of the liver with portal hypertention, residual Kupffer cell mass is small. Consequently, most of the indium-113m is taken up by the splenic reticulo-endothelial system, resulting in a large spleen scan. This technique, although fraught with major limitations, is a useful additional diagnostic tool in the management of chronic liver disease

307

Determinants of Profit Variability among Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs in developing economies like Zambia are major contributors of livelihood, job creation, poverty reduction, production and distribution of goods and services, and foreign exchange earnings. All these benefits could be realized if firms are profitable. This paper tried to envisage sources of variations in profitability among micro and small enterprises. By conducting an empirical study using 187 micro and small sized firms selected from four sectors: Trading, Services, Manufacturing, and Agriculture, the paper analyzed the sources of variations in firm profit across time. The study was made with selected firm-level characteristics like sales, cost, market coverage and perception about the level of competition. The analysis is done by using both descriptive statistics and an Ordered Probit Regression Model. Although measuring profit directly is difficult, alternative variables like changes in sales, revenue, cost, competition and market coverage are used. The estimation result revealed that, among firm effects, variations in sales and market coverage over time are the significant variables that explain variations in firm’s profitability.

Yordanos Gebremeskel

2014-07-01

308

Rural health centres, communities and malaria case detection in Zambia using mobile telephones: a means to detect potential reservoirs of infection in unstable transmission conditions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective malaria control depends on timely acquisition of information on new cases, their location and their frequency so as to deploy supplies, plan interventions or focus attention on specific locations appropriately to intervene and prevent an upsurge in transmission. The process is known as active case detection, but because the information is time sensitive, it is difficult to carry out. In Zambia, the rural health services are operating effectively and for the most part are provided with adequate supplies of rapid diagnostic tests (RDT as well as effective drugs for the diagnosis and treatment of malaria. The tests are administered to all prior to treatment and appropriate records are kept. Data are obtained in a timely manner and distribution of this information is important for the effective management of malaria control operations. The work reported here involves combining the process of positive diagnoses in rural health centres (passive case detection to help detect potential outbreaks of malaria and target interventions to foci where parasite reservoirs are likely to occur. Methods Twelve rural health centres in the Choma and Namwala Districts were recruited to send weekly information of rapid malaria tests used and number of positive diagnoses to the Malaria Institute at Macha using mobile telephone SMS. Data were entered in excel, expressed as number of cases per rural health centre and distributed weekly to interested parties. Results These data from each of the health centres which were mapped using geographical positioning system (GPS coordinates were used in a time sensitive manner to plot the patterns of malaria case detection in the vicinity of each location. The data were passed on to the appropriate authorities. The seasonal pattern of malaria transmission associated with local ecological conditions can be seen in the distribution of cases diagnosed. Conclusions Adequate supplies of RDT are essential in health centres and the system can be expanded throughout the country to support strategic targeting of interventions by the National Malaria Control Programme. Participation by the health centre staff was excellent.

Kamanga Aniset

2010-04-01

309

The Roman Catholic Church and the United Church of Zambia challenged by HIV and AIDS, which results in creating poverty among Zambian people  

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The writing of this thesis is to investigate the role that the church play for the people living with HIV and AIDS and are poverty stricken. This investigation takes us both into the role of the Roman Catholic Church of Ndola Diocese and the Copperbelt Presbytery of the United Church of Zambia are doing in the fight against HIV and AIDS and poverty. The problem of HIV and AIDS in Zambia, as well as Africa in general, represents an economic, social, moral, and spiritual problem of gr...

Chimfwembe, Richard

2007-01-01

310

The Roman Catholic Church and the United Church of Zambia challenged by HIV and AIDS, which results in creating poverty among Zambian people  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The writing of this thesis is to investigate the role that the church play for the people living with HIV and AIDS and are poverty stricken. This investigation takes us both into the role of the Roman Catholic Church of Ndola Diocese and the Copperbelt Presbytery of the United Church of Zambia are doing in the fight against HIV and AIDS and poverty. The problem of HIV and AIDS in Zambia, as well as Africa in general, represents an economic, social, moral, and spiritual problem of great magnit...

Chimfwembe, Richard

2006-01-01

311

Analyse: Afrikas korruption ruller videre : Retssagen mod Zambias tidligere præsident lignede en ny begyndelse i kampen mod korruption, men endte som en fuser  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Zambias tidligere præsident, Frederick Chiluba, er ikke den første afrikanske leder, som har stået over for anklager om korruption. Han bliver formentlig heller ikke den sidste. Alligevel er den netop overståede retssag mod ham værd at lægge mærke til – også selv om den endte  med en frifindelse. For Chiluba er ikke som andre korruptionsanklagede, afrikanske ledere før ham. Dels gik anklagerne primært på personlig berigelse – i størrelsesordenen 500.000 dollar. Dels var sagen rejst ved en lokal domstol i hans hjemland Zambia. Var Chiluba blevet dømt skyldig, kunne han være indskrevet i historiebøgerne som den første afrikanske leder, der blev straffet for korruption i sit eget land

Kragelund, Peter

2009-01-01

312

7 CFR 920.12 - District.  

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...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false District. 920.12 Section 920.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of...AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.12 District. District means the...

2010-01-01

313

Mixed crop-livestock production systems of smallholder farmers in sub-humid and semi-arid areas of Zambia  

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Livestock production activities among small-scale farmers of semi-arid (Agro-ecological zone 1) and sub-humid (Agro-ecological zone 2) areas of Zambia are integrated with crop production activities in what is termed as crop/livestock farming system. This is a closed system in which production of one enterprise depends on the other. In Zambia, crop production depends on draught animals for tillage of cropping area, animal manure for fertilisation of crops while livestock depend on crop residues for dry season feeding. Good quality grass is generally available in adequate amounts to support reasonable level of livestock productivity during the rainy season. But livestock rely on low quantity and poor quality, highly fibrous perennial grass from veld and fibrous crop residues during the dry season. These resources are inadequate to support optimum livestock productivity activities. Poor nutrition results in low rates of reproduction and production as well as increased susceptibility to diseases. With the increasing human population cropping land is expanding, leading to increased production of crop residues. This has however, reduced the grazing land available for ruminant production. In Zambia large quantities of crop residues (stovers, husks and straws, legume tops and hulls, sugar cane tops, cassava leaves, potato vines, etc.) are left in the field where they are wasted each year because small-scale farmers lack the knowledge on how best to use them. There is a need to find ways to reverse this situation by adapting known and workable technologies to local conditions and by introducing new approaches for improving the use of crop residues and poor quality fibrous feeds. Efforts should also be made to enlarge feed resource base. The technologies should be simple and effective. In the presence of a dynamic market system, livestock production in a crop/livestock system could be intensified and made profitable for small-scale farmers. (author)

314

Barriers to the care of HIV-infected children in rural Zambia: a cross-sectional analysis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful antiretroviral treatment programs in rural sub-Saharan Africa may face different challenges than programs in urban areas. The objective of this study was to identify patient characteristics, barriers to care, and treatment responses of HIV-infected children seeking care in rural Zambia. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of HIV-infected children seeking care at Macha Hospital in rural southern Zambia. Information was collected from caretakers and medical records. Results 192 HIV-infected children were enrolled from September 2007 through September 2008, 28% of whom were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART at enrollment. The median age was 3.3 years for children not receiving ART (IQR 1.8, 6.7 and 4.5 years for children receiving ART (IQR 2.7, 8.6. 91% travelled more than one hour to the clinic and 26% travelled more than 5 hours. Most participants (73% reported difficulties accessing the clinic, including insufficient money (60%, lack of transportation (54% and roads in poor condition (32%. The 54 children who were receiving ART at study enrollment had been on ART a median of 8.6 months (IQR: 2.7, 19.5. The median percentage of CD4+ T cells was 12.4 (IQR: 9.2, 18.6 at the start of ART, and increased to 28.6 (IQR: 23.5, 36.1 at the initial study visit. However, the proportion of children who were underweight decreased only slightly, from 70% at initiation of ART to 61% at the initial study visit. Conclusion HIV-infected children in rural southern Zambia have long travel times to access care and may have poorer weight gain on ART than children in urban areas. Despite these barriers, these children had a substantial rise in CD4+ T cell counts in the first year of ART although longer follow-up may indicate these gains are not sustained.

Hamangaba Francis

2009-10-01

315

The Public-Private Sector Wage Gap in Zambia in the 1990s: A Quantile Regression Approach  

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We investigate the determinants of wages in Zambia and based on the quantile regression approach, we analyze how their effects differ at different points in the wage distribution and over time. We use three cross-sections of Zambian household data from the early nineties, which was a period of economic transition, because items as privatization and deregulation were on the political agenda. The focus is placed on the public-private sector wage gap, and the results show that this gap was relatively favorable for the low-skilled and less favorable for the high-skilled. This picture was further strengthened during the period 1991-1996.

Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael

2001-01-01

316

Characterization of H3N6 avian influenza virus isolated from a wild white pelican in Zambia.  

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We characterized an influenza virus isolated from a great white pelican in Zambia. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all of its gene segments belonged to the Eurasian lineage and that they appear to have evolved in distinct geographical regions in Europe, Asia, and Africa, suggesting reassortment of virus genes maintained in wild aquatic birds whose flyways overlap across these continents. It is notable that this virus might possess some genes of the same origin as those of highly pathogenic H7 and H5 viruses isolated in Eurasia. The present study underscores the need for continued monitoring of avian influenza viruses in Eurasia and Africa. PMID:19655084

Simulundu, Edgar; Mweene, Aaron S; Tomabechi, Daisuke; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Ishii, Akihiro; Suzuki, Yuka; Nakamura, Ichiro; Sawa, Hirofumi; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Ito, Kimihito; Kida, Hiroshi; Saiwana, Lewis; Takada, Ayato

2009-01-01

317

Development Reporting as a crumbling tower: Impact of Brown Envelope Journalism on journalistic practice in Zambia and Ghana  

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Full Text Available Development Reporting (DR has long been considered the cornerstone of journalistic practice in Africa. The high prevalence of Brown Envelope Journalism (BEJ - defined as a practice that involves news sources granting monetary incentives to journalists - is, however, posing a challenge to DR. BEJ has signaled a shift from a traditional model or DR, where journalists strived to report any legitimate development news to a public relations model where news is heavily influenced by source payments. Using Zambia and Ghana as case studies, this study provides insight into journalists' perspectives on DR and BEJ. Additionally, the study delves into the extenuating factors that perpetuate BEJ.

Twange Kasoma

2011-08-01

318

Meeting human resources for health staffing goals by 2018: a quantitative analysis of policy options in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ministry of Health (MOH in Zambia is currently operating with fewer than half of the health workers required to deliver basic health services. The MOH has developed a human resources for health (HRH strategic plan to address the crisis through improved training, hiring, and retention. However, the projected success of each strategy or combination of strategies is unclear. Methods We developed a model to forecast the size of the public sector health workforce in Zambia over the next ten years to identify a combination of interventions that would expand the workforce to meet staffing targets. The key forecasting variables are training enrolment, graduation rates, public sector entry rates for graduates, and attrition of workforce staff. We model, using Excel (Office, Microsoft; 2007, the effects of changes in these variables on the projected number of doctors, clinical officers, nurses and midwives in the public sector workforce in 2018. Results With no changes to current training, hiring, and attrition conditions, the total number of doctors, clinical officers, nurses, and midwives will increase from 44% to 59% of the minimum necessary staff by 2018. No combination of changes in staff retention, graduation rates, and public sector entry rates of graduates by 2010, without including training expansion, is sufficient to meet staffing targets by 2018 for any cadre except midwives. Training enrolment needs to increase by a factor of between three and thirteen for doctors, three and four for clinical officers, two and three for nurses, and one and two for midwives by 2010 to reach staffing targets by 2018. Necessary enrolment increases can be held to a minimum if the rates of retention, graduation, and public sector entry increase to 100% by 2010, but will need to increase if these rates remain at 2008 levels. Conclusions Meeting the minimum need for health workers in Zambia this decade will require an increase in health training school enrolment. Supplemental interventions targeting attrition, graduation and public sector entry rates can help close the gap. HRH modelling can help MOH policy makers determine the relative priority and level of investment needed to expand Zambia's workforce to target staffing levels.

Schroder Kate

2010-06-01

319

Fortifying food in the field to boost nutrition: case studies from Afghanistan, Angola, and Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deficiencies in micronutrients such as iron, vitamin A, and iodine affect billions of people worldwide, causing death, disease, and disability. The UN World Food Programme (WFP) has long been recognised for its ability to deliver food to some of the most remote locations, under the toughest conditions: refugees in border camps, populations cut off by conflict, extremely poor and marginalised people like ethnic minorities, orphans, and widows. Relatively little, however, is known about its efforts to ensure that the food it delivers not only provides enough calories for immediate survival but also provides the vitamins and minerals needed for healthy growth and development. Much of the food delivered by WFP is fortified with iron, vitamin A, and other micronutrients before being shipped. But there are several reasons to mill and fortify food as close to the beneficiaries as possible. For instance, milling and fortifying food locally helps to overcome the problems of the short shelf-life of whole fortified maizemeal. It also enhances the nutritional value of locally procured cereals. And it can foster demand for fortified foods among local consumers beyond WFP beneficiaries, thus nurturing an industry with potentially significant benefits for the health of entire communities. This paper outlines three approaches by WFP to fortifying cereals in Afghanistan, Angola, and Zambia. It examines the challenges faced and the outcomes achieved in an effort to share this knowledge with others dedicated to improving the nutritional status of poor and food-insecure people. In Afghanistan, attempts to mill and fortify wheat flour using small-scale chakki mills were successful but much larger-scale efforts would be needed to promote demand and reach the level of consumption required to address serious iron deficiencies across the country. In Angola, maize has been fortified to combat the persistent occurrence of pellagra, a micronutrient deficiency disease found among people whose diets are dominated by maize. By providing fortification equipment to a commercial mill at the port of Lobito and using a vitamin and mineral pre-mix provided by UNICEF, this project has overcome many of the difficulties common in countries emerging from conflict to provide monthly fortified maize rations to some 115,000 beneficiaries. In Zambia, iron deficiency anaemia was a serious problem among camp-restricted refugees. WFP and its partners imported, installed, and trained workers in the use of two containerized milling and fortification units (MFUs), halved iron-deficiency anaemia, and reduced vitamin A deficiency among camp residents. In addition, WFP dramatically reduced waiting times for refugees who used to have their whole grain maize rations milled at small local facilities with insufficient milling capacity. The context and scale of each of the three case-studies described in this paper was different, but the lessons learned are comparable. All projects were succesful in their own right, but also required a considerable amount of staff time and supervision as well as external technical expertise, limiting the potential for scaling up within the WFP operational context. In order to expand and sustain the provision of fortified cereal flour to WFP beneficiaries and beyond, getting the private milling sector as well as governments on board would be crucial. Where this is not possible, such as in very isolated, difficult to reach locations, strong, specialized partners are a prerequisite, but these are few in number. Alternatively, in such contexts or in situations where the need is urgent and cannot be met through local flour fortification in the short term, or through local purchases of fresh foods, other approaches to improve the diet, such as the use of multimicronutrient formulations, packed for individual or household use, may be more appropriate. PMID:17974369

van den Briel, Tina; Cheung, Edith; Zewari, Jamshid; Khan, Rose

2007-09-01

320

Sustainable maize production through leguminous tree and shrub fallows in Eastern Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nitrogen is the major nutrient limiting maize production in Zambia and Southern Africa. Removal of subsidies on manufactured fertilizers made them very expensive and most farmers cannot afford them. Short duration planted fallows using a wide range of leguminous trees have been found to replenish soil fertility and increase subsequent maize yields. Species such as Sesbania sesban, Tephrosia vogelii and Cajanus cajan have been found to be well suited for planted fallow technology. These improved fallow crop rotations are being adopted by small-scale farmers in Eastern Zambia. Since the seminal paper of Kwesiga and Coe, research has been carried out to understand how the planted tree fallows replenish soil fertility and improve maize yields. A wide range of species has been screened as alternatives to Sesbania fallows to overcome limitations of Sesbania such as susceptibility to nematodes and insect pests. Species such as Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala have maintained maize yields of 3 t ha1 over 10 years of cropping when Sesbania fallow yields declined to 1.1 t ha1 after 3 years of cropping. The selection criteria for good fallow species are high biomass production and litterfall. Maize yields after fallows were highly correlated to biomass and litterfall yields. High quality biomass, which is low in lignin and polyphenols and high in N, is needed for higher maize yields. Mixing of Gliricidia and Sesbania fallows resulted in higher maize yields compared with single species fallows (3.0 vs. 1.8 t ha1). Mechanisms contributing to the efficacy of mixed fallows will be discussed. Pre-season inorganic-N (NO3- + NH4+) was highly correlated with maize yield (r2 = 0.62) and this could be used to select fallow species and management practices. Nutrient budgets of N, P and K over 8 years showed that a positive balance of N and P was maintained for coppicing fallows, while a negative balance of K started from the fourth year onwards on fertilized maize, Gliricidia, Leucaena and Sesbania fallows, emphasising the need to use P and K fertilizers to supplement the N supply from leguminous fallows. Improved fallows increased infiltration, reduced runoff, increased water storage, and reduced soil loss. The biophysical limits of most fallow species and other emerging issues such as pests and diseases, the need to inoculate with rhizobium, the amount of N fixed by different species and provenances and soil acidification under improved fallows are the subjects of further research. Biomass transfer technology using biomass from leguminous trees was evaluated on maize and vegetable production in the dambos (wetlands). Maize and vegetable yields were significantly increased by application of high quality biomass from Gliricidia and Leucaena. However, financial analysis showed that it is not viable to apply biomass on a low value crop like maize, but biomass transfer was economically viable on high value crops such a vegetables. (author)

 
 
 
 
321

ECOTOURISM CENTERS IN AURANGABAD DISTRICT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The tourism sector is increasing day to day and it has great potential of getting many, employments and also supporting for local merchants, therefore it is called as fourth dimension of modern economy. An impact of tourism has become is an important part of economy especially in India, here in the country number of natural tourist places as well as historical tourist places. Aurangabad district is leading district in Marathwada region in tourism it has 9 Tahsils and district has great potential of tourism the study region have full of potentiality of natural as well as historical places but Government not taking authentic step of their conservation

A.I.Khan

2014-03-01

322

Moving malaria in pregnancy programs from neglect to priority: experience from Malawi, Senegal, and Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Pregnant women and infants are particularly vulnerable to malaria. National malaria in pregnancy (MIP) programs in Malawi, Senegal, and Zambia were reviewed to identify promising strategies that have helped these countries achieve relatively high coverage of MIP interventions as well as ongoing challenges that have inhibited further progress. Methods: We used a systematic case study methodology to assess health system strengths and challenges in the 3 countries, including desk reviews of available reports and literature and key informant interviews with national stakeholders. Data were collected between 2009 and 2011 and analyzed across 8 MIP health systems components: (1) integration of programs and services, (2) policy, (3) commodities, (4) quality assurance, (5) capacity building, (6) community involvement, (7) monitoring and evaluation, and (8) financing. Within each program area, we ranked degree of scale up across 4 stages and synthesized the findings in a MIP table of analysis to reveal common themes related to better practices, remaining bottlenecks, and opportunities to accelerate MIP coverage, strengthen MIP programs, and improve results. Findings: Each of the 3 countries has malaria policies in place that reflect current MIP guidance from the World Health Organization. The 3 countries successfully integrated MIP interventions into a platform of antenatal care services, but coordination at the national level was disjointed. All 3 countries recognized the importance of having a MIP focal person to ensure collaboration and planning at the national level, but only Malawi had appointed one. Commodity stockouts were frequent due to problems at all levels of the logistics system, from quantification to distribution. Lack of support for quality assurance and weak monitoring and evaluation mechanisms across all 3 countries affected optimal coverage. Conclusions: MIP programs should address all 8 interconnected MIP health systems areas holistically, in the context of a health systems approach to building successful programs. The MIP table of analysis can be a useful tool for other malaria-endemic countries to review their programs and improve MIP outcomes.

Roman, Elaine; Wallon, Michelle; Brieger, William; Dickerson, Aimee; Rawlins, Barbara; Agarwal, Koki

2014-01-01

323

Development of a curriculum for training in One Health analytical epidemiology at the University of Zambia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Recently, the world has witnessed emergence of novel diseases such as avian influenza, HIV and AIDS, West Nile Virus and Ebola. The evolution of these pathogens has been facilitated mainly by a constantly evolving animal-human interface. Whilst infectious disease control was previously conceptualise [...] d as either public health or animal health related issues, the distinction between disciplinary foci have been blurred by multiple causal factors that clearly traverse traditional disciplinary divides. These multiple evolutionary pressures have included changes in land use, ecosystems, human-livestock-wildlife interactions and antibiotic use, representing novel routes for pathogen emergence. With the growing realisation that pathogens do not respect traditional epistemological divides, the 'One Health' initiative has emerged to advocate for closer collaboration across the health disciplines and has provided a new agenda for health education. Against this background, the One Health Analytical Epidemiology course was developed under the auspices of the Southern African Centre for Infectious Diseases Surveillance by staff from the University of Zambia with collaborators from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and the Royal Veterinary College in London. The course is aimed at equipping scientists with multidisciplinary skill sets to match the contemporary challenges of human, animal and zoonotic disease prevention and control. Epidemiology is an important discipline for both public and animal health. Therefore, this two-year programme has been developed to generate a cadre of epidemiologists with a broad understanding of disease control and prevention and will be able to conceptualise and design holistic programs for informing health and disease control policy decisions.

J.B., Muma; Martin, Simuunza; K., Mwachalimba; M., Munyeme; B., Namangala; C., Hankanga; G., Sijumbila; R. Likwa, Ndonyo; Yona, Sinkala; A., Mwanza; A. Simanyengwe, Mweene.

324

Reducing uncertainties in global HIV prevalence estimates: the case of Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The premise for using antenatal care (ANC clinic data for estimating HIV prevalence in the general population is the finding from community studies in sub-Saharan Africa that total HIV prevalence in pregnant women attending ANC clinics closely approximate levels in the total general population of both women and men aged 15–49 years. In this study, the validity of national level HIV prevalence estimates for the total general population 15–49 years made from ANC clinic and population survey data was assessed. Methods In 2001–2002, a national population HIV prevalence survey for women 15–49 years and men 15–59 years was conducted in Zambia. In the same period, a national HIV sentinel surveillance survey among pregnant women attending ANC clinics was carried out. Results The ANC HIV prevalence estimates for age-group 15–49 years (rural: 11.5%; 95% CI, 11.2–11.8; urban: 25.4%; 95% CI, 24.8–26.0; adjusted national: 16.9%; 95% CI, 16.6–17.2 were similar to the population survey estimates (rural: 10.8%; 95% CI, 9.6–12.1; urban: 23.2%; 95% CI 20.7–25.6; national: 15.6%; 95% CI, 14.4–16.9. The HIV prevalence urban to rural ratio was 2.2 in ANC and 2.1 in population survey estimates. Conclusion The HIV prevalence estimate for the total general population 15–49 years derived from testing both women and men in the population survey was similar to the estimate derived from testing women attending ANC clinics. It shows that national HIV prevalence estimates for adults aged 15–49 years can also be obtained from ANC HIV sentinel surveillance surveys with good coverage when ANC attendance and fertility are high.

Dzekedzeke Kumbutso

2006-04-01

325

A Bayesian Geostatistical Moran Curve Model for Estimating Net Changes of Tsetse Populations in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

For the first time a Bayesian geostatistical version of the Moran Curve, a logarithmic form of the Ricker stock recruitment curve, is proposed that is able to give an estimate of net change in population demographic rates considering components such as fertility and density dependent and density independent mortalities. The method is applied to spatio-temporally referenced count data of tsetse flies obtained from fly-rounds. The model is a linear regression with three components: population rate of change estimated from the Moran curve, an explicit spatio-temporal covariance, and the observation error optimised within a Bayesian framework. The model was applied to the three main climate seasons of Zambia (rainy – January to April, cold-dry – May to August, and hot-dry – September to December) taking into account land surface temperature and (seasonally changing) cattle distribution. The model shows a maximum positive net change during the hot-dry season and a minimum between the rainy and cold-dry seasons. Density independent losses are correlated positively with day-time land surface temperature and negatively with night-time land surface temperature and cattle distribution. The inclusion of density dependent mortality increases considerably the goodness of fit of the model. Cross validation with an independent dataset taken from the same area resulted in a very accurate estimate of tsetse catches. In general, the overall framework provides an important tool for vector control and eradication by identifying vector population concentrations and local vector demographic rates. It can also be applied to the case of sustainable harvesting of natural populations. PMID:24755848

Sedda, Luigi; Mweempwa, Cornelius; Ducheyne, Els; De Pus, Claudia; Hendrickx, Guy; Rogers, David J.

2014-01-01

326

The dating and interpretation of a Mode 1 site in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Flake based assemblages (Mode 1) comprise the earliest stone technologies known, with well-dated Oldowan sites occurring in eastern Africa between ??? 2.6-1.7 Ma, and in less securely dated contexts in central, southern and northern Africa. Our understanding of the spread and local development of this technology outside East Africa remains hampered by the lack of reliable numerical dating techniques applicable to non-volcanic deposits. This study applied the still relatively new technique of cosmogenic nuclide burial dating (10Be/26Al) to calculate burial ages for fluvial gravels containing Mode 1 artefacts in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. The Manzi River, a tributary of the Luangwa River, has exposed a 4.7 m deep section of fluvial sands with discontinuous but stratified gravel layers bearing Mode 1, possibly Oldowan, artefacts in the basal layers. An unconformity divides the Manzi section, separating Mode 1 deposits from overlying gravels containing Mode 3 (Middle Stone Age) artefacts. No diagnostic Mode 2 (Acheulean) artefacts were found. Cosmogenic nuclide burial dating was attempted for the basal gravels as well as exposure ages for the upper Mode 3 gravels, but was unsuccessful. The complex depositional history of the site prevented the calculation of reliable age models. A relative chronology for the full Manzi sequence was constructed, however, from the magnetostratigraphy of the deposit (N>R>N sequence). Isothermal thermoluminescence (ITL) dating of the upper Mode 3 layers also provided consistent results (???78 ka). A coarse but chronologically coherent sequence now exists for the Manzi section with the unconformity separating probable mid- or early Pleistocene deposits below from late Pleistocene deposits above. The results suggest Mode 1 technology in the Luangwa Valley may post-date the Oldowan in eastern and southern Africa. The dating programme has contributed to a clearer understanding of the geomorphological processes that have shaped the valley and structured its archaeological record. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Barham, L.; Phillips, W.M.; Maher, B.A.; Karloukovski, V.; Duller, G.A.T.; Jain, M.; Wintle, A.G.

2011-01-01

327

The dating and interpretation of a Mode 1 site in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Flake based assemblages (Mode 1) comprise the earliest stone technologies known, with well-dated Oldowan sites occurring in eastern Africa between 2.6-1.7 Ma, and in less securely dated contexts in central, southern and northern Africa. Our understanding of the spread and local development of this technology outside East Africa remains hampered by the lack of reliable numerical dating techniques applicable to non-volcanic deposits. This study applied the still relatively new technique of cosmogenic nuclide burial dating (10Be/26Al) to calculate burial ages for fluvial gravels containing Mode 1 artefacts in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. The Manzi River, a tributary of the Luangwa River, has exposed a 4.7 m deep section of fluvial sands with discontinuous but stratified gravel layers bearing Mode 1, possibly Oldowan, artefacts in the basal layers. An unconformity divides the Manzi section, separating Mode 1 deposits from overlying gravels containing Mode 3 (Middle Stone Age) artefacts. No diagnostic Mode 2 (Acheulean) artefacts were found. Cosmogenic nuclide burial dating was attempted for the basal gravels as well as exposure ages for the upper Mode 3 gravels, but was unsuccessful. The complex depositional history of the site prevented the calculation of reliable age models. A relative chronology for the full Manzi sequence was constructed, however, from the magnetostratigraphy of the deposit (N>R>N sequence). Isothermal thermoluminescence (ITL) dating of the upper Mode 3 layers also provided consistent results (78 ka). A coarse but chronologically coherent sequence now exists for the Manzi section with the unconformity separating probable mid- or early Pleistocene deposits below from late Pleistocene deposits above. The results suggest Mode 1 technology in the Luangwa Valley may post-date the Oldowan in eastern and southern Africa. The dating programme has contributed to a clearer understanding of the geomorphological processes that have shaped the valley and structured its archaeological record.

Barham, Lawrence; Phillips, William M.

2011-01-01

328

Diabetes in sub-saharan Africa: kenya, mali, mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa and zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Until a few years ago, a limited number of epidemiologists or public health experts mentioned the words "diabetes." As new lifestyles, imported dietary practices, and globalization take roots in the developing world, as Africa is, today, diabetes and its complications are considered an epidemic in Africa, compelling African governments to start paying more attention to its impact as thousands of Africans run the risk of dying young. The potential severity of diabetes is such that some epidemiologists predict that its economic impact and death toll will surpass the ravages of HIV and AIDS in the near future. On the African sub-continent, present literature and the work of the World Diabetes Foundation have highlighted three countries, namely, Mali, Mozambique, and Zambia. However, the conditions in South Africa, Kenya, and Nigeria, some of the most developed areas of the continent, provide a clue to how people are coping and how governments are responding to diabetes and its full impact. This study is, therefore, a meta-summary of the incidence and prevalence of today's emerging silent killer or diabetes in Sub-Saharan Africa. The theme is that time is running out for Africa and that, as was for HIV/AIDS, by the time the governments wake up and stop denying the catastrophic potential of the epidemic, diabetes will simply overwhelm the continent's resources, and the world will witness the death of millions of Africans. The last section is a call for action against diabetes in terms of advocacy, promotion of awareness, and public health policies that empower people to diabetes self-management. PMID:20165596

Azevedo, Mario; Alla, Sridevi

2008-10-01

329

Behavior change pathways to voluntary medical male circumcision: narrative interviews with circumcision clients in zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

As an HIV prevention strategy, the scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is underway in 14 countries in Africa. For prevention impact, these countries must perform millions of circumcisions in adolescent and adult men before 2015. Although acceptability of VMMC in the region is well documented and service delivery efforts have proven successful, countries remain behind in meeting circumcision targets. A better understanding of men's VMMC-seeking behaviors and experiences is needed to improve communication and interventions to accelerate uptake. To this end, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 40 clients waiting for surgical circumcision at clinics in Zambia. Based on Stages of Change behavioral theory, men were asked to recount how they learned about adult circumcision, why they decided it was right for them, what they feared most, how they overcame their fears, and the steps they took to make it to the clinic that day. Thematic analysis across all cases allowed us to identify key behavior change triggers while within-case analysis elucidated variants of one predominant behavior change pattern. Major stages included: awareness and critical belief adjustment, norming pressures and personalization of advantages, a period of fear management and finally VMMC-seeking. Qualitative comparative analysis of ever-married and never-married men revealed important similarities and differences between the two groups. Unprompted, 17 of the men described one to four failed prior attempts to become circumcised. Experienced more frequently by older men, failed VMMC attempts were often due to service-side barriers. Findings highlight intervention opportunities to increase VMMC uptake. Reaching uncircumcised men via close male friends and female sex partners and tailoring messages to stage-specific concerns and needs would help accelerate men's movement through the behavior change process. Expanding service access is also needed to meet current demand. Improving clinic efficiencies and introducing time-saving procedures and advance scheduling options should be considered. PMID:25375790

Price, Jessica E; Phiri, Lyson; Mulenga, Drosin; Hewett, Paul C; Topp, Stephanie M; Shiliya, Nicholas; Hatzold, Karin

2014-01-01

330

The incidence of human cysticercosis in a rural community of Eastern Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A community-based longitudinal study was performed in the Eastern Province of Zambia, in which repeated serological samplings were done to determine the incidence of human cysticercosis. Three sampling rounds were carried out at six months intervals. A total of 867 participants presented for all three samplings. All samples were tested for the presence of cysticercus antigens using a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sero-Ag-ELISA), while a randomly selected sub-sample of 161 samples from each sampling round was tested for specific antibodies using a commercial enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. Stool samples (n?=?226) were also collected during the final round of sampling for taeniosis diagnosis by coprology and coproantigen ELISA. Cysticercosis seroprevalence varied from 12.2% to 14.5% (sero-Ag) and from 33.5% to 38.5% (sero-Ab) during the study period. A taeniosis prevalence of 11.9% was determined. Incidence rates of 6300 (sero-Ag, per 100000 persons-year) and 23600 (sero-Ab, per 100000 persons-year) were determined. Seroreversion rates of 44% for sero-Ag and 38.7% for sero-Ab were recorded over the whole period. In conclusion, this study has shown the dynamic nature of T. solium infections; many of the people at risk become (re)infected due to the high environmental contamination, with a high number turning seronegative within a year after infection. An important number of infections probably never fully establish, leading to transient antibody responses and short-term antigen presence. PMID:23556026

Mwape, Kabemba E; Phiri, Isaac K; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Muma, John B; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

2013-01-01

331

Patient compliance in the treatment of Burkitt?s lymphoma in rural Zambia: A retrospective study on 80 Burkitt?s lymphoma patients in Katete, Zambia  

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Full Text Available Background : In African settings the treatment results of Burkitt?s lymphoma (BL seem to be less favourable compared with Western settings. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse some factors that affect the treatment of BL. Patients and Methods : Over a 16 year period, data were extracted of 80 patients. Results : Complete remission 5%, very good partial response 35%, partial response 16%, no response 10%, data missing 34%. Of all patients, 56% did have a positive response to treatment. However, 51% of this subgroup of patients did not finish treatment. There was no difference in completion of treatment between patients living in Katete district finishing treatment vs. living outside Katete district (respectively 25% vs. 32%, P = 0.7148. Conclusion: There is potential for higher cure rates for BL in tropical settings if full effort is put into compliance since a majority of patients, even while having a good prognosis, abandon treatment. Large distance to hospital makes no difference in completing the chemotherapy course.

De Boer J

2009-01-01

332

Report to UNESCO on Eleven Weeks as Consultant to the Governments of Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia and Malawi on Aspects of Biology Teaching, February to April, 1971.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes the activities of a UNESCO consultant who visited Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia and Malawi for the purpose of assisting local education agencies in the Biology Teaching Pilot Project. The consultant's report briefly summarizes the status of the School Science Project (SSP) in these East African countries. Also listed are the…

Meyer, Rex

333

Meeting the Educational Needs of Children in Sparsely Populated Areas through Multigrade Teaching: An Experience from Zambia. A Summary of a Research Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study conducted in 1988 assessed the effectiveness of the multigrade system in providing a primary education at four pilot schools in sparsely populated, rural areas of Zambia. In an attempt to alleviate the problems of financial strain and low enrollment in rural schools, this system combines two or more grade levels into one class taught by…

Lungwangwa, Geoffrey

334

Prevalence and diversity of Babesia, Hepatozoon, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella in wild and domestic carnivores from Zambia, Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

A molecular survey was conducted for several hemoparasites of domestic dogs and three species of wild carnivores from two sites in Zambia. Three Babesia spp. were detected including Babesia felis and Babesia leo in lions (Panthera leo) and a Babesia sp. (similar to Babesia lengau) in spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) and a single lion. All wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and domestic dogs were negative for Babesia. High prevalences for Hepatozoon were noted in all three wild carnivores (38-61%) and in domestic dogs (13%). Significantly higher prevalences were noted in hyenas and wild dogs compared with domestic dogs and lions. All carnivores were PCR negative for Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ewingii, and Bartonella spp. Overall, high prevalences and diversity of Babesia and Hepatozoon were noted in wild carnivores from Zambia. This study is the first molecular characterization of Babesia from any hyena species and is the first report of a Babesia sp. closely related to B. lengau, a parasite previously only reported from cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), in lions and hyenas. Although usually benign in wild carnivores, these hemoparasites can be pathogenic under certain circumstances. Importantly, data on vectors for these parasites are lacking, so studies are needed to identify vectors as well as determine transmission routes, infection dynamics, and host specificity of these hemoparasites in wildlife in Africa and also the risk of transmission between domestic animals and wildlife. PMID:24363181

Williams, Brianna M; Berentsen, Are; Shock, Barbara C; Teixiera, Maria; Dunbar, Michael R; Becker, Matthew S; Yabsley, Michael J

2014-03-01

335

Smallholder Farmers’ Responses to Rainfall Variability and Soil Fertility Problems by the Use of Indigenous Knowledge in Chipepo, Southern Zambia  

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Full Text Available The study conducted in Southern Zambia investigated smallholder farmers’ use of indigenous knowledge to respond to rainfall variations and soil fertility problems. Farmer and key informant interviews and observations were employed to collect data. A total of 60 smallholder farmers and 6 key informants were interviewed. Chipepo lies in the low rainfall region of Zambia. Its upland area faces moisture stress and soil fertility problems compared to its valley areas located along tributaries of the Zambezi River. The annual flooding of the tributaries of the Zambezi River along the valley fields results in loss of crop yields. Farmers have responded to problems of low moisture in the upland fields and too much moisture in the river valley fields through crop diversification concentrated on three main food crops namely; maize, sorghum and bulrush millet. These differ not only in their moisture requirements but also in maturity periods. Drought tolerant early maturing crop varieties and off-farm activities enhance their resilience. Maize was planted in river valley fields due to its high water requirements while drought tolerant sorghum and millet were planted on upland fields. The farmers’ knowledge of particular flowering plants helped forecast the onset of rains for purposes of early planting. Farmers with upland fields have adopted indigenous soil classification techniques based on vegetation types, soil colour, and texture and soil workability and utilize particular soils for specific crops. Integrating this indigenous knowledge into modern technologies will enhance smallholder farmers’ resilience when faced with impacts of climate change and variability.

Kabwe Harnadih Mubanga

2014-05-01

336

Impacts of Public-Private Partnership on Local Livelihoods and Natural Resource Dynamics: Perceptions from Eastern Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study evaluated the long-term implications of a Public-Private Partnership (PPP on livelihoods and natural resource (NR dynamics under a market-oriented approach to conservation. Drawing examples from the Luangwa Valley in eastern Zambia, the study sought to answer questions on two closely interrelated aspects. These included the contribution of PPP to sustainable livelihoods in and around Protected Areas (PAs and its impacts on natural resources in Game Management Areas (GMAs. Quantitative data were collected from PPP participating and non-PPP households using standardized structured interviews, while qualitative data were obtained from three chiefdoms using semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. Taking the case of Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO in eastern Zambia, results of this study showed that PPP contributed to sustainable livelihoods and overall natural resources management through varied ways. These include promotion of conservation farming, agroforestry, poacher transformation (individuals who have given up poaching due to PPP interventions and provision of markets for the produce of participating households. Further, impacts of PPP on soil fertility, crop, and honey yields were statistically significant (p ? 0.05. A combination of increased crop productivity and household incomes has seen a 40-fold increase in poacher transformation. The results of this study suggest that PPPs, if well-structured, have the potential to address both livelihoods and enterprise needs with an ultimate benefit of promoting both sustainable livelihoods and natural resources management around PAs in tropical Africa.

Muleba Nshimbi

2014-06-01

337

The Winfrith district gamma survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the District Gamma Survey carried out around the A.E.E., Winfrith since June, 1959. Its organisation, equipment and techniques are described, and the results obtained up to the 31st December, 1960 are given. (author)

338

Boise Geothermal District Heating System.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the pr...

P. J. Hanson

1985-01-01

339

Peak District National Park Authority  

E: customer.service@peakdistrict.gov.uk ... A lived in, sustainable, thriving and \\innovative Peak District that engages both local communities ... Adaptation \\entails changing behavior and practices to ..... water levels and ..... visitor \\satisfaction;.

340

District heating - A clear trend  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article reviews the District Heating Forum that was held on the 21st of January 2010 in Biel, Switzerland. Under the title 'From a Vision to Practice', the development of district heating systems for the period 2010 - 2030 was discussed. The conclusion reached at the conference is quoted as being that waste heat is a usable form of residual energy and that this energy should not simply be ejected into the environment. State promotion of renewable energy sources is discussed and, in particular, the high interest shown in projects for long and short-distance district heating systems. Developments in Europe and Switzerland and the political general frameworks for the realisation of district heating networks are discussed. Specific examples of such systems that have been implemented are examined. The use of waste heat from nuclear power stations is also discussed

 
 
 
 
341

Boise geothermal district heating system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

Hanson, P.J.

1985-10-01

342

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Jodhpur district  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease with a wide geographical distribution in a range of climate and with different epidemiological patterns. In Rajasthan a new endemic zone of the disease has been found at Jodhpur district. The clincial features of 21 smear positive cases of oriental sore from Jodhpur district studied during a period of 1 year have been described. Also the importance of intralesional berberine sulphate in the treatment of oriental sore has been highlighted.

Kalla Gyaneshwar

1996-01-01

343

Monitoring the endangered population of the antelope Kobus leche smithemani (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), in the Bangweulu ecosystem, Zambia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish El lechwe negro (Kobus leche smithemani) es un antílope semi-acuático de tamaño medio que en la actualidad se encuentra en la lista roja de la UICN de especies en peligro de extinción y sólo es endémica de la cuenca del Bangweulu de Zambia. Su población ha disminuido considerablemente, de más de 250 [...] 000 a 15 000, debido a las inundaciones que se dieron durante el período 1930-1940, lo que llevó al gobierno de Zambia a declarar todos los hábitats del lechwe negro en áreas protegidas estatales, y a establecer estrategias de administración urgentes necesarias para salvar el resto de la población de la extinción. Utilizando los datos retrospectivos, nuestros resultados muestran que la población ha aumentado de 15 000 animales en 1954 a 55 632 en 2009. La población actual se estima en 34.77% (55 632/160 000) de la capacidad de carga de la cuenca del Bangweulu. Aunque el lechwe Negro es una de las 42 especies que se ofrecen para su utilización consuntiva por la Autoridad de Vida Silvestre de Zambia (ZAWA), sólo el 0.12% y 0.08% de la población actual se ha ofrecido para el safari y la caza residente anual para el período 2005-2009, respectivamente. La utilización de la cuota anual se estima en 67% (n=67) y 81% (n=37) para safari de caza y residente, respectivamente. Por lo tanto, los ingresos totales obtenidos de la utilización del lechwe negro son muy bajos contando sólo el 2.1% de los ingresos totales obtenidos de la utilización de la fauna silvestre. Aunque la tendencia actual de la población está mostrando un incremento unitario de 639 animales por año, está todavía muy por debajo de los niveles ideales para la utilización lucrativa. En este estudio, se demuestra que los cambios ecológicos perjudiciales sobre especies de fauna silvestre, puede conducir a su vulnerabilidad y peligro de extinción, y que la recuperación de su capacidad de carga completa puede exigir una cantidad considerable de tiempo. Abstract in english Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani) is a semi-aquatic medium sized antelope currently enlisted on the IUCN red list of endangered species and is only endemic to the Bangweulu basin of Zambia. Its population has significantly decreased due to floods that took place during the period 1930-1940 from [...] over 250 000-15 000 leading the Zambian government to gazette all habitats of Black lechwe into state protected areas, and to establish urgent management strategies needed to save the remaining population from extinction. Using retrospective data, our findings show that the population has increased from 15 000 animals in 1954 to 55 632 in 2009. The current population is estimated at 34.77% (55 632/160 000) of the carrying capacity of the Bangweulu basin. Although the Black lechwe is one of the 42 species offered for consumptive utilization by the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA), only 0.12% and 0.08% of the current stock was offered for safari and resident hunting annually for the period 2005-2009, respectively. Annual quota utilization were estimated at 67% (n=37) and 81% (n=37) for safari and resident hunting, respectively. Hence, overall income obtained from utilization of Black lechwe is very low accounting for only 2.1% of the total revenue earned from wildlife utilization. Although the current population trend is showing a unit increase of 639 animals per year, it is still far below levels ideal for the lucrative utilization. In this study, we demonstrate that adverse ecological changes on wildlife species, can lead to their vulnerability and danger of extinction, and that their recovery to full carrying capacity may demand a considerable amount of time

Victor M., Siamudaala; Musso, Munyeme; Wigganson, Matandiko; John B, Muma; Hetron M, Munang& #8217; andu.

1631-16-01

344

Monitoring the endangered population of the antelope Kobus leche smithemani (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), in the Bangweulu ecosystem, Zambia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish El lechwe negro (Kobus leche smithemani) es un antílope semi-acuático de tamaño medio que en la actualidad se encuentra en la lista roja de la UICN de especies en peligro de extinción y sólo es endémica de la cuenca del Bangweulu de Zambia. Su población ha disminuido considerablemente, de más de 250 [...] 000 a 15 000, debido a las inundaciones que se dieron durante el período 1930-1940, lo que llevó al gobierno de Zambia a declarar todos los hábitats del lechwe negro en áreas protegidas estatales, y a establecer estrategias de administración urgentes necesarias para salvar el resto de la población de la extinción. Utilizando los datos retrospectivos, nuestros resultados muestran que la población ha aumentado de 15 000 animales en 1954 a 55 632 en 2009. La población actual se estima en 34.77% (55 632/160 000) de la capacidad de carga de la cuenca del Bangweulu. Aunque el lechwe Negro es una de las 42 especies que se ofrecen para su utilización consuntiva por la Autoridad de Vida Silvestre de Zambia (ZAWA), sólo el 0.12% y 0.08% de la población actual se ha ofrecido para el safari y la caza residente anual para el período 2005-2009, respectivamente. La utilización de la cuota anual se estima en 67% (n=67) y 81% (n=37) para safari de caza y residente, respectivamente. Por lo tanto, los ingresos totales obtenidos de la utilización del lechwe negro son muy bajos contando sólo el 2.1% de los ingresos totales obtenidos de la utilización de la fauna silvestre. Aunque la tendencia actual de la población está mostrando un incremento unitario de 639 animales por año, está todavía muy por debajo de los niveles ideales para la utilización lucrativa. En este estudio, se demuestra que los cambios ecológicos perjudiciales sobre especies de fauna silvestre, puede conducir a su vulnerabilidad y peligro de extinción, y que la recuperación de su capacidad de carga completa puede exigir una cantidad considerable de tiempo. Abstract in english Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani) is a semi-aquatic medium sized antelope currently enlisted on the IUCN red list of endangered species and is only endemic to the Bangweulu basin of Zambia. Its population has significantly decreased due to floods that took place during the period 1930-1940 from [...] over 250 000-15 000 leading the Zambian government to gazette all habitats of Black lechwe into state protected areas, and to establish urgent management strategies needed to save the remaining population from extinction. Using retrospective data, our findings show that the population has increased from 15 000 animals in 1954 to 55 632 in 2009. The current population is estimated at 34.77% (55 632/160 000) of the carrying capacity of the Bangweulu basin. Although the Black lechwe is one of the 42 species offered for consumptive utilization by the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA), only 0.12% and 0.08% of the current stock was offered for safari and resident hunting annually for the period 2005-2009, respectively. Annual quota utilization were estimated at 67% (n=37) and 81% (n=37) for safari and resident hunting, respectively. Hence, overall income obtained from utilization of Black lechwe is very low accounting for only 2.1% of the total revenue earned from wildlife utilization. Although the current population trend is showing a unit increase of 639 animals per year, it is still far below levels ideal for the lucrative utilization. In this study, we demonstrate that adverse ecological changes on wildlife species, can lead to their vulnerability and danger of extinction, and that their recovery to full carrying capacity may demand a considerable amount of time

Victor M., Siamudaala; Musso, Munyeme; Wigganson, Matandiko; John B, Muma; Hetron M, Munang& #8217; andu.

345

Certification of district heating substations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These Technical Regulations, F:103-6, have been produced and published by the Swedish District Heating Association in conjunction with manufacturers. Approved testing is part of the process of obtaining certification for a district heating substation. In addition, the process includes a review of documentation and of the manufacturer's production inspection procedures. A certified unit fulfils the requirements set out in the Association's document F:101, General Technical Requirements. Until further notice, the Association has selected SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden for certification of district heating substations. Certification means that the quality and function/performance of a prefabricated district heating substation have been examined and approved. Certification test method F:103-6 includes both static and dynamic tests and inspections. Detailed information on the district heating substation and its properties is given in the certification test reports. The unique feature of this certification is that the test reports are in the public domain. This is possible because the Association has full right of insight into the certification process, and because testing is performed in accordance with test programmes and procedures decided by the Association. In this document (F: 103-6), the Association specifies what is to be reported when SP carries out inspections at the manufacturer's premises. This can include details of claims lodged with the manufacturer and/or non-compliances with the required specification of the district heating substation. Such cases will be considered by a Certification Panel. Test reports and certificates provide information on the district heating substation's properties and performance, which can be used when assessing the substations. The technical tests do not address the long-term properties of substations, but SP's inspection specifically includes visual examination and application of its experience of such equipment, to identify potential technical weaknesses that could present an increased risk of leakage or malfunctions during the unit's life

2007-01-15

346

Validation of the UCLA Child Post traumatic stress disorder-reaction index in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual violence against children is a major global health and human rights problem. In order to address this issue there needs to be a better understanding of the issue and the consequences. One major challenge in accomplishing this goal has been a lack of validated child mental health assessments in low-resource countries where the prevalence of sexual violence is high. This paper presents results from a validation study of a trauma-focused mental health assessment tool - the UCLA Post-traumatic Stress Disorder - Reaction Index (PTSD-RI in Zambia. Methods The PTSD-RI was adapted through the addition of locally relevant items and validated using local responses to three cross-cultural criterion validity questions. Reliability of the symptoms scale was assessed using Cronbach alpha analyses. Discriminant validity was assessed comparing mean scale scores of cases and non-cases. Concurrent validity was assessed comparing mean scale scores to a traumatic experience index. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were run using receiver operating curves. Results Analysis of data from 352 youth attending a clinic specializing in sexual abuse showed that this adapted PTSD-RI demonstrated good reliability, with Cronbach alpha scores greater than .90 on all the evaluated scales. The symptom scales were able to statistically significantly discriminate between locally identified cases and non-cases, and higher symptom scale scores were associated with increased numbers of trauma exposures which is an indication of concurrent validity. Sensitivity and specificity analyses resulted in an adequate area under the curve, indicating that this tool was appropriate for case definition. Conclusions This study has shown that validating mental health assessment tools in a low-resource country is feasible, and that by taking the time to adapt a measure to the local context, a useful and valid Zambian version of the PTSD-RI was developed to detect traumatic stress among youth. This valid tool can now be used to appropriately measure treatment effectiveness, and more effectively and efficiently triage youth to appropriate services.

Cohen Judith A

2011-09-01

347

Use of Mutation Breeding Technique in Improving Finger Millet in Northern Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many breeders have observed that induced mutation increases genetic variability, and the expose to mutagenic agents increases mutation frequency. Studies have indicated the effect in height reduction, increased yield components,disease resistance, in crop like rice and wheat. A study was conducted in finger millet in thr Northern part of Zambia (Region III), a high rainfall area, aiming at improving finger length, number of fingers till ring capacity in order to increase the yield. the seed of Nyika variety, popular to farmers due to its medium maturity, palm shaped fingers (six fingers on average), and light brown grain. Three quantities of seed were irradiated at 15Kr, 20Kr and 30Kr doses. A dose of 15Kr of gamma rays irradiation continued to create good genetic change in the exposed material. These observations clearly suggest that 15Kr dose of gamma rays is the optimum one to expose/irradiate finger millet to create desired genetic changes. The results of 2000/2001 were not significantly different. However, FMM 165 had better yields (3193 Kg) than FMM 175 in Misamfu, while FMM 175 yielded better (3272 Kg) in Chinsali. During 2001/2002 both FMMs performed well in the national finger number of 10 per head. There were also highly significant differences among finger lengths.FMM 165 had finger length of 10.3 cm. Concerning grain yield FMM 165 and FMM 175 had 3802 and 3864 Kg/ha, respectively, which were above the overall mean 3864 Kg/ha. Grain yield correlated positively with finger number with an r-value of 0.19 and finger length r-value of 0.22 although it was not significant at 1% or 5%. Meanwhile in the advance trial there were significant differences among genotypes in finger number. Both FMMs had 9 fingers above the overall mean of 8.8. In the finger length there were highly significant differences. FMM 175 had a length of 11.5 cm while FMM 165 had 10.4 cm. There were highly significant differences among the genotypes in yield. FMM 165 (4636 Kg) and FMM 175 (4104 Kg/ha) yielded more than the checks (Nyika and Local) 3104 Kg/ha and 2854 Kg/ha respectively. There was some correlation between finger length and finger number with r-value of 0.688, finger number and grain yield with an r-value of 0.187, and finger length and yield r-value of -ve 0.016 but there were not significant at 1% or 5%

348

Medication side effects among people with epilepsy taking phenobarbital in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phenobarbital remains one of the most widely used antiepileptic drugs worldwide, yet there are limited data regarding side effects associated with its use in routine clinical care settings in low-income countries. Available data suggests that phenobarbital is as effective as other first-line drugs for treating tonic-clonic seizures, but side effect reports differ widely between high and low-income settings. A better understanding of phenobarbital side effect profile and severity in low-income settings is warranted given its role in efforts to decrease the epilepsy treatment gap. We used the Liverpool adverse events profile (LEAP) to assess side effects in consecutive patients with epilepsy on phenobarbital seeking care in rural Zambia. Data regarding age, gender, medication dose, and medication adherence were also collected. T-tests and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used to assess predictors of LEAP score and medication adherence. Thirty-five patients receiving a mean dose of 2.1mg/kg/day (SD: 2.78mg/kg/day) of phenobarbital were assessed. All participants reported at least one side effect in the previous four weeks with a median of 6 symptoms (IQR: 4-8) and a mean side effects score of 28/76 (SD: 5.38). Over half reported sleepiness and dizziness. Memory problems and depression were also common (both 46%). Total LAEP score was not associated with age (p=0.88), gender (p=0.17), or phenobarbital dose (p=0.13). Medication adherence was not associated with side effects total score (p=0.56). Rural Zambian adults taking phenobarbital at doses recommended by the World Health Organization report a significant number of side effects. The most common side effects reported were similar to those reported in high-income countries. The significant burden of phenobarbital-associated side effects in this African cohort is in contrast to data from non-randomized clinical trials in China that reported phenobarbital to be well-tolerated with few side effects. Additional investigations regarding phenobarbital side effects during routine care in low income settings is warranted. PMID:25219354

Elafros, Melissa A; Bui, Esther; Birbeck, Gretchen L

2014-11-01

349

District heat in the Nordic countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

District heat regulation - in Sweden: New district heat law (2008). The district heat suppliers are instructed to negotiate the price and other terms of delivery with the costumers when requested by the costumers. If the parties are unable to find an agreement, the can have the authorities arbitrate for them. More openness (e.g. annual reports). In Finland: The district heat suppliers decide their own prices. Has to reflect the costs, but allow for district heat expansion and a reasonable profit. Same price for same type of costumers. Regulated by general legislation (competition and consumer protection legislation). In Denmark: Designated areas for district heat and natural gas where electric heating is prohibited. 'Hvile i seg selv' principle. In Norway: District heat concessions are mandatory for installations over 10 MW. The municipality can decide that connection is mandatory, but not use of district heat. District heat price can not exceed electricity price. (AG)

Langseth, Benedicte; Havskjold, Monica

2009-03-15

350

Occupational Structure Of Ahmednagar District  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Occupation refers to a person's trade or profession or the type of work. The study of working population directly related to the analysis of occupational structure, which is concerned with the resource base, economic behavior urbanization etc. An attempt has been made here to study the spatio, temporal changes in occupation structure. In 2001 census recorded 42.47% of the district population as main workers, 3.48% as marginal worker and remaining 54.05% as non worker the corresponding figures for the state are 39.28%, 3.68% and 57.02% respective. As compared to 1991, there has been substantial rise in the work participation rate in the district (35.43% in 1991 and 42.47% in 2001. Among the main workers participation rate in the district was 50.59%, while that female was 33.91% as per 2001 census. The corresponding figures (1991 for males and females participation rates in the district were 52.19% and 30.45% respective. The proportion of marginal workers was the highest in Jamkhed tahsil (6.81% The lowest in Nagar tahasil (1.73%. It is mainly due to industrialization. Out of the total 4543083 economically active population 47.37% is engaged in agriculture as cultivators, while 26.59% was worked as agricultures lab our laborers in 2001cenus. In the year 1991. Among the main workers in the district 46.37% were cultivators. 30.51% agricultural labors.

H.N. Rede

2012-10-01

351

Southwest Florida Water Management District  

Science.gov (United States)

The mission of the Southwest Florida Water Management District is to manage the water and water-related resources within its boundaries. Central to the mission is maintaining the balance between the water needs of current and future users while protecting and maintaining the natural systems that provide the District with its existing and future water supply. The website includes an Information and Education page, which offers activities, newsletters, virtual field trips, and other resources for K-12 students and teachers. Also provided on the site are various datasets, brochures, publications, reports, textual references and links.

352

Future Services for District Heating Solutions in Residential Districts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The underlying assumption of this study is that in order to retain the competitiveness while reaching for the EU targets regarding low-energy construction, district heating companies need to develop new business and service models. How district heating companies could broaden their perspective and switch to a more service-oriented way of thinking is a key interest of our research. The used methods in our study are house builder interviews and a questionnaire. With the help of these methods we discussed the potential interest in heating related services acquiring a comprehensive understanding of the customer needs. The results indicate the importance of certain criteria when choosing the heating system in households: easiness, comfort and affordability seem to dominate the house builders’ preferences. Also environmental awareness seems to be for many an important factor when making a decision about the heating of the house. Altogether, based on the results of this study, we suggest that the prospects of district heating could benefit from highlighting certain aspects and strengths in the future. District heating companies need to increase flexibility, readiness to adopt new services, to invest in new marketing strategies and improving the communication skills.

Hannele Ahvenniemi

2014-06-01

353

Effect of Seasonal Variation on Adult Clinical Laboratory Parameters in Rwanda, Zambia, and Uganda: Implications for HIV Biomedical Prevention Trials  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives To investigate the effect of seasonal variation on adult clinical laboratory parameters in Rwanda, Zambia, and Uganda and determine its implications for HIV prevention and other clinical trials. Methods Volunteers in a cross-sectional study to establish laboratory reference intervals were asked to return for a seasonal visit after the local season had changed from dry to rainy or vice versa. Volunteers had to be clinically healthy, not pregnant and negative for HIV, Hepatitis B and C, and syphilis infection at both visits. At each visit, blood was taken for measurement of hemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, red blood cells, platelets, total white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, CD4/CD8 T cells, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, direct bilirubin, total bilirubin, total immunoglobulin gamma, total protein, creatinine, total amylase, creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Consensus dry season reference intervals were applied to rainy season values (and vice versa) and the proportion of ‘out-of-range’ values determined. Percentage differences between dry and rainy season parameter mean values were estimated. Results In this cohort of 903 volunteers, less than 10.0% of consensus parameter (except LDH) values in one season were “out-of-range” in the other. Twenty-two (22) percent of rainy season LDH values fell outside of the consensus dry season interval with the higher values observed in the rainy season. Variability between consensus seasonal means ranged from 0.0% (total WBC, neutrophils, monocytes, basophils, and direct bilirubin) to 40.0% (eosinophils). Within sites, the largest seasonal variations were observed for monocytes (Masaka, 11.5%), LDH (Lusaka, 21.7%), and basophils (Kigali, 22.2%). Conclusions Seasonality had minimal impact on adult clinical laboratory parameter values in Rwanda, Zambia, and Uganda. Seasonal variation may not be an important factor in the evaluation of adult clinical laboratory parameters in HIV prevention and other clinical trials in these countries. PMID:25118593

Ruzagira, Eugene; Abaasa, Andrew; Karita, Etienne; Mulenga, Joseph; Kilembe, William; Allen, Susan; Bahemuka, Ubaldo; Bwanika, Agnes N.; Levin, Jonathan; Price, Matthew A.; Kamali, Anatoli

2014-01-01

354

Energy SMEs in sub-Saharan Africa: Outcomes, barriers and prospects in Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the findings of research into the main outcomes of government and donor-backed efforts to promote small and medium-sized energy businesses (energy SMEs) in sub-Saharan Africa. The research follows an outcome analysis methodology. The focus is on four countries: Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia and primarily on UNEP's AREED programme (2002-2012). This research focuses on the 'contributing factors' - a deliberately broader term that incorporates the internal 'success factors' - for energy SMEs, about which much has already been written. Indeed, the research findings presented in this report reaffirm most of what has been concluded in previous studies. These studies identified the lack of access to affordable finance as being the predominant, persistent, barrier to establishing and scaling up a commercially viable energy SME sector, emphasising the lack of strong policy support from governments, poor business skills capacity and the high cost of many RETs as related cause-and-effect barriers. While these issues continue to characterise, to a greater or lesser extent, the energy SMEs sectors in the countries studied for this research, it is more relevant to revisit the main assumption behind AREED and other donor-backed programmes designed to promote energy SMEs. The assumption is that the solution to the aforementioned barriers would be overcome by a 'demonstration effect' whereby successful energy SMEs, supported by donor-backed programmes, influence the commercial financial sector to invest in energy SMEs, thus triggering a virtuous circle of growth and profitability. Experiences drawn from a decade of AREED support across four of the project countries reveal both the presence (Ghana, Senegal) and absence, or weak presence, of this demonstration effect (Tanzania, Zambia). This is a central question, and one which was not the focus of previous research, presumably because the answer was not fully apparent prior to 2006 when the last substantial work was conducted. (LN)

Haselip, J.A.; Desgain, D.; Mackenzie, G.A.

2013-05-15

355

Progress made towards enhancement of rheumatology education and practice in Zambia: review of an ILAR-supported project.  

Science.gov (United States)

The burden of non-communicable diseases such as musculoskeletal diseases in the developing world is often overshadowed by the more prevalent infectious diseases. Generally, there is gross underestimation of the burden of rheumatologic disease in the backdrop of scanty or indeed non-existent rheumatology services in these countries. Local studies conducted in the last two decades in Zambia have documented the increasing burden of rheumatologic conditions in the country. There are unfortunately negligible rheumatology services in the country both at tertiary or primary health-care facility levels. There is thus an urgent need to build capacity for these services so as to improve the care and management of rheumatic conditions. Here, we review progress made by an International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR)-supported project that has run for the past 2 years (2012-2013) with the objective of enhancing paediatric and adult rheumatology education and practice so as to stimulate positive change in practice and related care services in Zambia. During this short time of the project, substantial progress has been made in the areas of paediatric and adult rheumatology services enhancement at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka: streamlining of referrals and follow-ups of rheumatology patients, laying foundations for short- and long-term medical education in rheumatology and raising public awareness of rheumatic diseases. The progress made by this grant underscores the suitability of the ILAR mission statement "think global, act local" demonstrating that even with minimum resources and networking, improvement of rheumatology care in developing countries is attainable. PMID:24752350

Chipeta, James; Njobvu, Panganani; McGill, Paul E; Bucala, Richard

2014-10-01

356

Struggles over Access and Authority in the Governance of new water resources : evidence from Mali and Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Research on water scarcity in the South has often focused on the impacts of limited water resources for the rural poor, prompted most recently by the climate change debate. Less attention has been drawn to the social and institutional processes surrounding the emergence of new collective water resources, and how this affects authority, access rights and social exclusion in local water governance. The paper addresses this issue through a study of local competition over access to new common-pool water resources in isolated rural areas of Zambia and Mali. In Mali, climate change has led to the sporadic emergence of new natural lakes and ponds in some locations. In Zambia, the development of boreholes has provided access to water resources that were not previously available to local communities. The paper explores how local actors and organizations have sought to assert control over and rights of access to the new water resources. It shows the ways in which this has furthered both conflict and cooperation between the involved actors, and how new rules of access and associated institutional domains have developed. At the same time, however, it also shows how the struggles over access and authority have tended to marginalize the poorest and other user groups from access to the new water resources, by seeking either to monopolize access rights or developing explicit and implicit mechanisms of exclusion. The paper concludes by discussing the implications for water policy and research in terms of the way we understand the development of new water resources in the current context of inequality, water scarcity and climate change.

Cold-Ravnkilde, Signe Marie; Funder, Mikkel

357

Heat pumps in district heating and district cooling systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis presents an analysis of heat pump operation in a District Heating and District Cooling system. Two heat pumps with supersonic centrifugal compressors use untreated sewage as their heat source/sink for the simultaneous production of heating and cooling. The heat pumps operate in one of three different modes, according to the momentary demand for heating and cooling. The performance of the heat pumps in each mode is analysed, and the feasibility of the installed control system is discussed. The analysed performance is based on momentary measurements of the process variables, while the heat pump plant was in normal operation during the measuring period of two years. It was not possible to manipulate the operation as would be possible in a laboratory. This limited the available operational conditions. To evaluate the performance of the supersonic centrifugal compressors their part load efficiencies in the different modes are calculated and presented. The limitation of the operation of the heat pump due to the risk of surging is discussed. When the District Heating and Cooling plant was designed, the possible energy source were raw sewage and sea water. The evaluation of the most suitable energy source is discussed, and the operational experiences with the use of untreated sewage are presented. No alternative system design for the distribution of heating and cooling was discussed prior to the design of the heat pump plant in Sandvika, Norway. For future plants the distribution of energy at intermediate temperature with distributed heat pumps may be an alternative. Some aspects of this concept is discussed, based on the experiences from the District Heating and Cooling plant in Sandvika. The cost of an intermediate temperature system is compared to the resulting cost for the conventional District Heating and Cooling plant. 60 refs., 93 figs., 15 tabs.

Havskjold, M.

1993-12-01

358

Modular District Heating System MODiS.  

Science.gov (United States)

MODiS (Modular District Heating System) products were developed during the project for either building an entirely new district heating (DH) system or for renovating and extending an existing system. Good planning of the parts that constitute DH systems, ...

K. Sipilae, A. Ranne, T. Koljonen

2000-01-01

359

7 CFR 917.14 - District.  

Science.gov (United States)

...County, Monterey County, Santa Clara County, San Mateo County, Santa Cruz County, and San Benito County. (i) Lake District includes and...South Coast District includes and consists of San Luis Obispo County, Santa Barbara County,...

2010-01-01

360

7 CFR 932.21 - District.  

Science.gov (United States)

...counties of Glenn, Tehama, and Shasta. (b) District 2 shall include the counties of Mono, Mariposa, Merced, San Benito, Monterey, Madera, Fresno, Tulare, and all counties to the south thereof. (c) District 3 shall include...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Spatial Planning of School Districts  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of several plans based on linear programming and geographic methodology will permit school administrators to make better decisions concerning the planning of school districts: where to locate boundaries, how to eliminate overcrowding, where to locate new classrooms, and how to overcome de facto segregation. The primal and dual…

Maxfield, Donald W.

1972-01-01

362

Making the cut: evidence-based lessons for improving the informed consent process for voluntary medical male circumcision in Swaziland and Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The informed consent (IC) process for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) was evaluated in Zambia and Swaziland as VMMC programs scaled up. In-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with clients 1 week after surgery to explore understanding of IC and gauge how expectations of MC surgery compared to actual experiences. In Zambia, key opinion leaders (KOLs) were also interviewed. Some clients equated written IC with releasing the clinic from liability. Most clients felt well prepared for the procedure, although many were surprised by the level of pain experienced during anesthesia and postsurgery. Clients were highly motivated to adhere to wound care, but some were overwhelmed by extensive instructions. Adolescents described barriers to accessing follow-up care and the need for support in overcoming adult gatekeepers. KOLs indicated that IC is not well understood in poorly educated communities. Results led to concrete programmatic changes, including revised patient education materials and more effective anesthesia for longer-lasting pain relief. PMID:24694330

Schenk, Katie D; Friedland, Barbara A; Sheehy, Meredith; Apicella, Louis; Hewett, Paul C

2014-04-01

363

The first record of Tardigrada from the Republic of Zambia, with a description of Doryphoribius niedbalai sp. nov. (Eutardigrada: Hypsibiidae, the evelinae group  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In three mixed samples (mosses and leaf litter collected in the Republic of Zambia (Southern Africa, forty three specimens and six eggs of eutardigrades were found. Among them, twenty nine specimens belonged to a new species of the family Hypsibiidae, Doryphoribius niedbalai sp. nov. The new species belongs to the Doryphoribius evelinae group and it differs from other members of the group mainly by a different number and configuration of dorsal gibbosities as well as by some morphometric characters. Apart from the new species, the examined material contained also two rare African eutardigrades: Milnesium tetralamellatum and Calcarobiotus (Calcarobiotus parvicalcar. These species are recorded for the first time outside their type localities. Additionally, Paramacrobiotus vanescens is recorded for the fourth time from Africa. In this paper, together with the description of the new species, first ever photomicrographs of Milnesium tetralamellatum and Paramacrobiotus vanescens are also given. This is the first account of the phylum Tardigrada from the Republic of Zambia.

Krzysztof Piotr Zawierucha

2013-03-01

364

The carbonate-hosted willemite prospects of the Zambezi Metamorphic Belt (Zambia)  

Science.gov (United States)

Zambian willemite (Zn2SiO4) deposits occur in the metasedimentary carbonate rocks of the Proterozoic Katangan Supergroup. The most important orebodies are located around Kabwe and contain both sulphides and willemite in dolomites of low metamorphic grade. The Star Zinc and Excelsior prospects (Lusaka area), discovered in the early 1920s, occur in the metamorphic lithotypes of the late Proterozoic Zambezi Supracrustal sequence, which were deposited in a transtensional basin formed during the oblique collision of the Kalahari and Congo cratons. The deposits are hosted by the limestone and dolomitic marbles of the Cheta and Lusaka Formations. Structural analysis indicates that several fracture sets host the deposits, which may be genetically related to the Pan-African Mwembeshi dislocation zone (a major geotectonic boundary between the Lufilian Arc and the Zambezi Belt). In both prospects, willemite replaces the marbles and is found along joints and fissures with open-space filling textures and locally may develop colloform and vuggy fabrics as well. Silver as well as traces of germanium and cadmium have been detected within the willemite ore, and lead or zinc sulphides are scarce or absent. Calcite locally replaces willemite. Willemite is associated with specular hematite and franklinite and post-dates the Zn-spinel gahnite in the paragenesis. Genthelvite [Zn4Be3(SiO4)3S] occurs as a minor phase in irregular aggregates. The willemites from the Lusaka area, though Mn-poor, show green cathodoluminescence colours and bright green fluorescence in short-wave UV (as the high-temperature willemites in USA). Thermometric analyses of primary fluid inclusions in willemite yield homogenization temperatures that range from 160°C to 240°C and salinities of 8-16 wt.% equiv. NaCl. The homogenization temperatures suggest a hypogene-hydrothermal origin for the willemite concentrations. The geochemistry of fluid inclusion leachates suggests that the hydrothermal fluids were brines derived from highly evaporated seawater. Precise age constraints are currently lacking for the Lusaka area deposits, though the deposits are not deformed, indicating that they post-date the Lufilian orogeny (~520 Ma). The possibility of precursor ores exists; the gahnite-franklinite-willemite deposits could have been derived from a metamorphosed primary sulphide (or even nonsulphide) concentration that has subsequently been completely destroyed. However, there is no real evidence of such a primary source for the willemite mineral association. The Lusaka zinc ores may have been produced by an extensive hydrothermal system, with fluids discharging along basinal fracture zones controlled by the pre-Pan-African rifting stage. A paragenesis similar to that of the Lusaka prospects has been proposed to be a vector towards massive sulphide ores in several parts of the world; therefore, it is possible that these small willemite showings in Zambia may be part of a much bigger, and still unexplored, zinc province.

Boni, Maria; Terracciano, Rosario; Balassone, Giuseppina; Gleeson, Sarah A.; Matthews, Alexander

2011-10-01

365

7 CFR 947.32 - Districts.  

Science.gov (United States)

...District No. 3: The counties of Curry, Coos...in the State of Oregon; District No. 4: The counties of Modoc and Siskiyou...District No. 5: The counties of Wasco, Sherman, Gilliam, Morrow...in the State of Oregon. (b)...

2010-01-01

366

School District Leadership: Systems, Strategies, and Structures  

Science.gov (United States)

The researcher studied eight Minnesota school district leadership systems, strategies, and structures and the effect on student achievement. Quantitative research methods were used to collect data from the eight Minnesota school districts. The population included eight northwestern Minnesota public school districts identified for "Needing…

Kovash, Lynne A.

2009-01-01

367

Antimicrobial Resistance in Human and Animal Pathogens in Zambia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Mozambique and Tanzania: An Urgent Need of a Sustainable Surveillance System.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A review of the published and unpublished literature on bacterial resistance in human and animals was performed. Sixty-eight articles/reports from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Mozambique, Tanzania and Zambia were reviewed. The majority of these articles were from Tanzania. There is an increasing trend in the incidence of antibiotic resistance; of major concern is the increase in multidrug- resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholera, non...

Mshana, Stephen E.; Matee, Mecky; Rweyemamu, Mark

2013-01-01