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1

Intestinal helminths and protozoa in children in pre-schools in Kafue district, Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most widespread of human infections in developing countries, and children are the most vulnerable. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia, as well as prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths in children attending pre-school or day-care centres in Kafue District, Zambia. Single stool samples were collected from 403 children from 10 pre-schools and Were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears to identify and quantify helminths. A commercial immunofluorescence kit was used to identify Cryptosporidium- and Giardia-positive samples. The overall prevalence of helminth infection was 17.9%. Ascaris lumbricoides was found in 12.0%, hookworm in 8.3%, Taenia spp. in 0.9%, Hymenolepis nano in 0.6% and Schistosoma mansoni in 0.3%. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia was 28.0 and 29.0%, respectively, with more girls infected with Giardia (33.8%) than boys (22.7%) (P = 0.02). Significant differences in infections with A. lumbricoides and Cryptosporidium were observed between the various pre-schools (P <0.001). These findings indicate that intestinal parasites are prevalent in children enrolled in pre-schools in Zambia. Future studies should explore local factors associated with transmission of these infections, and consequently provide the necessary health education to parents and teachers. Crown Copyright (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved.

Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.

2010-01-01

2

A Brief History of Kafue National Park, Zambia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the first documentation of the history of Zambia's oldest and largest national park: Kafue National Park. The movement of people out of the park is systematically presented. Furthermore, access and resource use and exploitation rights granted to people who lived inside the park are summarised. The paper looks at park administration, wildlife management, tourism and briefly presents areas for future studies.

H.K. Mwima

2001-01-01

3

Nutrient and carbon cycling in the Kafue River (Zambia)  

Science.gov (United States)

The lower Kafue River in central Zambia flows through the Kafue Flats (830 sq. km), a sensitive floodplain ecosystem (Ramsar site), and serves as an important subsistence fishery. The lower Kafue River (Qavg ~ 300 m3/s) is heavily impacted by two dams that regulate flow and flooding, and in so doing have substantially degraded the habitats. While the hydrology and ecology of the system have been studied extensively in some sections, there have been no systematic studies of the dam impacts on floodplain biogeochemistry. In May 2008 we initiated a study of C, N, and P cycling in the lower Kafue River through sampling at 10-20 km resolution along 300 km of river. Low inorganic nitrogen levels (40 uM), suggesting that the riverine N budget is dominated by organic N. Phosphate concentrations increased by a factor of 4 along the river (0.2 uM to 0.8 uM), and transitioned from representing only a small fraction of total P upstream to accounting for nearly 100% of total P at downstream stations. Along one short (35 km; travel time ~ 16 h), relatively pristine stretch of river with a substantial flow rate (400 m3/s) and no visible tributaries, dissolved oxygen levels decreased from >5 mg/l to 1 mg/l. A drop in pH from (7.9 to 7.2) accompanied the sharp oxygen decline, consistent with respiration occurring either within the river or in the adjacent floodplain. Low dissolved oxygen levels (<2 mg/l). persisted for another 150 km downstream despite reaeration. This presentation will explore in greater detail the factors contributing to this persistent low oxygen stretch in the Kafue River, along with an exploration of N, C, and P cycling in the system

Zurbruegg, R.; Senn, D.; Lehmann, M.; Wamulume, J.; Nyambe, I.; Wehrli, B.

2008-12-01

4

Exploring the hydrology and biogeochemistry of the dam-impacted Kafue River and Kafue Flats (Zambia)  

Science.gov (United States)

Wetland processes are strongly influenced by hydrologic factors such as precipitation, surface runoff, and flooding dynamics. Anthropogenic disturbances to flooding regimes can thus substantially alter wetland habitat and biogeochemistry. The Kafue Flats, a large floodplain (˜6500 km2) along the Kafue River in South-Central Zambia, is a wetland impacted by upstream and downstream hydropower dams. The main purpose of this study was to develop a water budget for the Kafue Flats under current conditions, quantify nutrient and organic carbon concentrations in the river, and use the combined information to estimate biogeochemical budgets. A water balance was developed for the Kafue Flats at a subcatchment scale for the years 2002-2009 using daily hydrological data. In addition, bi-monthly flow and chemical measurements were performed over 1 year (May 2008-May 2009) at multiple stations. Evapotranspiration was an important process in the Flats, accounting for up to 49% of total hydrologic outputs in some subcatchments. Direct precipitation contributes substantial to water inputs to the flats: runoff from the upstream catchment accounted for 45% of water inputs to the Kafue Flats, while the remaining 55% came from direct precipitation to the Kafue Flats from its subcatchment. Estimates from the wet season suggest that ˜75% of the water flowing in the river's main channel as it exits the Flats spent some time within the highly productive floodplain. This exchange between the floodplain and the river appeared to play an important role in nutrient and carbon export to the river's main channel and out of the wetland. The floodplain was a net source of phosphate (220 t/year), total nitrogen (1300 t N/year, of which ˜90% was organic nitrogen) and total organic carbon (50,000 t C/year) to downstream systems. Thus, when considering dam impacts and altered flooding dynamics in this system, potential changes to carbon and nutrient cycling also need to be taken in to consideration, which may have implications for nutrient availability within the Kafue Flats and nutrient export to downstream systems.

Wamulume, J.; Landert, J.; Zurbrügg, R.; Nyambe, I.; Wehrli, B.; Senn, D. B.

5

Tuberculosis in Kafue lechwe antelopes (Kobus leche Kafuensis) of the Kafue Basin in Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tuberculosis (TB) has been reported in the Kafue lechwe antelopes (Kobus leche Kafuensis) of Zambia. However, previous reports are restricted to the southern parts in Lochinvar, where only old male animals were investigated. This study was conducted to gather epidemiological information on TB in Lechwe antelopes across sexes and age groups in relation to other explanatory variables of disease occurrence in the Kafue Basin. Animals were hunted under a special licence to investigate diseases in the Kafue Basin during the 2004, 2005 and 2008 hunting seasons. Histopathology, acid-fast staining and mycobacterial culturing from tissue samples were conducted. A total of 119 animals were slaughtered with an estimated age range of 2.5-20 years. Of these, 29 (24.3% [95% CI: 16.5, 32.3%]) had necropsy lesions suggestive of tuberculosis, of which 21 (17.6% [95% CI: 10.7, 24.6%]) tested positive on acid-fast staining while 33 (27.7% [95% CI: 19.6, 35.9%]) showed culture and colony morphological characteristics suggestive of Mycobacterium species. On univariate analysis, animals with poor body condition were twice as likely to have tuberculosis associated lesions as those having good body conditions (OR=2.3, 95% CI: 0.6, 9.3%). Based on lesion distribution, a respiratory route of mycobacterial infection is intimated.

Munyeme M; Muma JB; Siamudaala VM; Skjerve E; Munang'andu HM; Tryland M

2010-07-01

6

Tuberculosis in Kafue lechwe antelopes (Kobus leche Kafuensis) of the Kafue Basin in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tuberculosis (TB) has been reported in the Kafue lechwe antelopes (Kobus leche Kafuensis) of Zambia. However, previous reports are restricted to the southern parts in Lochinvar, where only old male animals were investigated. This study was conducted to gather epidemiological information on TB in Lechwe antelopes across sexes and age groups in relation to other explanatory variables of disease occurrence in the Kafue Basin. Animals were hunted under a special licence to investigate diseases in the Kafue Basin during the 2004, 2005 and 2008 hunting seasons. Histopathology, acid-fast staining and mycobacterial culturing from tissue samples were conducted. A total of 119 animals were slaughtered with an estimated age range of 2.5-20 years. Of these, 29 (24.3% [95% CI: 16.5, 32.3%]) had necropsy lesions suggestive of tuberculosis, of which 21 (17.6% [95% CI: 10.7, 24.6%]) tested positive on acid-fast staining while 33 (27.7% [95% CI: 19.6, 35.9%]) showed culture and colony morphological characteristics suggestive of Mycobacterium species. On univariate analysis, animals with poor body condition were twice as likely to have tuberculosis associated lesions as those having good body conditions (OR=2.3, 95% CI: 0.6, 9.3%). Based on lesion distribution, a respiratory route of mycobacterial infection is intimated. PMID:20417978

Munyeme, M; Muma, J B; Siamudaala, V M; Skjerve, E; Munang'andu, H M; Tryland, M

2010-04-24

7

Modeling flooding patterns in the Kafue Flats, Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kafue Flats is one of the most important wetlands in Zambia. In the early 70's the Kafue Gorge reservoir was built mainly for hydropower production not far downstream the outlet of the Kafue Flats. Only a few years later a dam was constructed upstream the Flats to extend the limited storage of Kafue Gorge. Besides its ecological value the Kafue Flats are also important economically. Around 700 000 people are dependent mainly on fisheries and flood recession agriculture. An increasing number of large irrigation schemes are drawing water from the Kafue river along the wetland. Floodplains in semi-arid and arid areas are often the only source of water supply available throughout the year. They provide numerous economical and ecological services of tremendous value. The ecological uniqueness of many wetlands results largely from a strong seasonality of flooding. As the pressure on water resources grows these natural seasonal patterns are often altered due to water abstractions or the construction of dams. Many efforts have been taken to restore more natural flooding patterns. To assess both, the effects of altered flow regimes and of restoration efforts, a hydrological model reproducing the dynamics of the flooding is required. However, in many cases hydrological modeling of these floodplains is often hampered by the poor availability of data. Data gathering is also limited by the large extent and the limited accessibility of the wetlands. Therefore the application of remote sensing techniques is an attractive approach. The model presented in this study is based on a relatively simple approach which was initially designed for the Okavango Delta. The model is based on the widely used software MODFLOW. However, due to a different environment and technical advances of the software there are some significant differences between the Okavango Delta model and the model presented hereafter. The model is based on MODFLOW 2005 and basically consists of two layers: a subsurface layer, representing the saturated flow in the groundwater, and a surface water layer, representing the flow on the flooded surface. In between these two layers the unsaturated zone is modeled using the kinematic wave approach of the MODFLOW UZF package. To couple the surface water layer and the UZF module, an additional module was developed in order to route excess infiltration water to either the surface layer or a river. Flow in the main river channel of the Kafue is implemented using the stream flow package. Model outputs are calculated on a daily basis. Input data for the model are derived mostly from globally available datasets. Since the purpose of the model is to predict the flooding patterns as accurate as possible, model parameters have to be calibrated against the measured extent of flooding. Images from the ENVISAT ASAR instrument are used to detect flooding patterns. These data provide a good compromise between spatial resolution, spatial coverage and temporal coverage. As additional calibration data measured water levels are available. The calibration is carried out using PEST. This model predictions can serve as a base to provide information on future effects of a changing inflow regime on the ecology as well as on the socio-economic system of the Kafue Flats.

Meier, Philipp; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

2010-05-01

8

GC-MS Determination of Targeted Pesticides in Environmental Samples from the Kafue Flats of Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Results of a GC-MS analysis for targeted pesticides i.e. dieldrin, endosulfan, pp-DDT, endrin, HCB, heptachlor, mirex and aldrin in the Kafue Flats of Zambia are presented. Analysis was done in soils, sediments, water and vegetation samples from the Lochinvar and Blue Lagoon National Parks along the Kafue River. A validated analytical method that was used gave recoveries in a spiked soil sample ranging between 60 % and 100 % with limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 0.94 to 8.0 ng/g. The targeted pesticides were not detected in all the samples i.e. were below LODs. Screening using the Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System (AMDIS) simplified the analysis due to its power of deconvolution and identification of analytes of interest.

Sichilongo K; Banda D

2013-09-01

9

GC-MS Determination of Targeted Pesticides in Environmental Samples from the Kafue Flats of Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Results of a GC-MS analysis for targeted pesticides i.e. dieldrin, endosulfan, pp-DDT, endrin, HCB, heptachlor, mirex and aldrin in the Kafue Flats of Zambia are presented. Analysis was done in soils, sediments, water and vegetation samples from the Lochinvar and Blue Lagoon National Parks along the Kafue River. A validated analytical method that was used gave recoveries in a spiked soil sample ranging between 60 % and 100 % with limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 0.94 to 8.0 ng/g. The targeted pesticides were not detected in all the samples i.e. were below LODs. Screening using the Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System (AMDIS) simplified the analysis due to its power of deconvolution and identification of analytes of interest. PMID:23995850

Sichilongo, Kwenga; Banda, Daniel

2013-09-01

10

GC-MS Determination of Targeted Pesticides in Environmental Samples from the Kafue Flats of Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Results of a GC-MS analysis for targeted pesticides i.e. dieldrin, endosulfan, pp-DDT, endrin, HCB, heptachlor, mirex and aldrin in the Kafue Flats of Zambia are presented. Analysis was done in soils, sediments, water and vegetation samples from the Lochinvar and Blue Lagoon National Parks along the Kafue River. A validated analytical method that was used gave recoveries in a spiked soil sample ranging between 60 % and 100 % with limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 0.94 to 8.0 ng/g. The targeted pesticides were not detected in all the samples i.e. were below LODs. Screening using the Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System (AMDIS) simplified the analysis due to its power of deconvolution and identification of analytes of interest.

Sichilongo K; Banda D

2013-11-01

11

Helminth parasites of the Kafue lechwe antelope ( Kobus leche kafuensis): a potential source of infection to domestic animals in the Kafue wetlands of Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Kafue lechwe antelope (Kobus leche kafuensis), a medium-sized, semi-aquatic antelope, grazes extensively on pastures accessed by livestock in and around Lochinvar and Blue Lagoon national parks in the Kafue wetlands of Zambia. This interaction has a potential for bi-modal transmission of a wide range of parasitic helminths between lechwe and domestic ruminants. A survey was conducted to investigate the status of helminths in the Kafue lechwe during the 2008 (July-December) hunting season, involving 65 animals hunted under special research licences. Worm identification was based on morphological features using standard identification keys. Eleven different types of helminths were identified in the animals studied; namely, Oesophagostomum, Bunostomum, Cooperia, Dictyocaulus, Marshallagia, Stilesia, Setaria, Trichuris, Fasciola, amphistomes and Schistosoma. Amphistomes (100%) and Oesophagostomum (60.9%) were the most common while Fasciola (7.8%) and Stilesia (1.6%) were the least of the identified helminths. There was no evidence that helminths, at intensities observed, adversely affected the health of the lechwe. The degree of worm infection was observed to vary between the two study areas, with Blue Lagoon recording higher infection levels compared to Lochinvar. The host range of many of the helminths found in the Kafue lechwe is broad and could serve as a potentially stable source of infection to domestic animals such as goats and cattle. Therefore, issues concerning livestock management and conservation may arise.

Phiri AM; Chota A; Muma JB; Munyeme M; Sikasunge CS

2011-03-01

12

Helminth parasites of the Kafue lechwe antelope ( Kobus leche kafuensis): a potential source of infection to domestic animals in the Kafue wetlands of Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kafue lechwe antelope (Kobus leche kafuensis), a medium-sized, semi-aquatic antelope, grazes extensively on pastures accessed by livestock in and around Lochinvar and Blue Lagoon national parks in the Kafue wetlands of Zambia. This interaction has a potential for bi-modal transmission of a wide range of parasitic helminths between lechwe and domestic ruminants. A survey was conducted to investigate the status of helminths in the Kafue lechwe during the 2008 (July-December) hunting season, involving 65 animals hunted under special research licences. Worm identification was based on morphological features using standard identification keys. Eleven different types of helminths were identified in the animals studied; namely, Oesophagostomum, Bunostomum, Cooperia, Dictyocaulus, Marshallagia, Stilesia, Setaria, Trichuris, Fasciola, amphistomes and Schistosoma. Amphistomes (100%) and Oesophagostomum (60.9%) were the most common while Fasciola (7.8%) and Stilesia (1.6%) were the least of the identified helminths. There was no evidence that helminths, at intensities observed, adversely affected the health of the lechwe. The degree of worm infection was observed to vary between the two study areas, with Blue Lagoon recording higher infection levels compared to Lochinvar. The host range of many of the helminths found in the Kafue lechwe is broad and could serve as a potentially stable source of infection to domestic animals such as goats and cattle. Therefore, issues concerning livestock management and conservation may arise. PMID:20388247

Phiri, A M; Chota, A; Muma, J B; Munyeme, M; Sikasunge, C S

2010-04-14

13

Environmental monitoring of the kafue river, located in the Copperbelt, Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Zambia is a country with an extensive mining industry with the majority of mines located in the Copperbelt province. Through this region of the country, the Kafue River drains and receives effluent water from mining activities as well as from other industrial point sources. In addition, production of agricultural products and pest control requires use of different pesticides in the area. Information on industrial and agricultural pollution has not been clearly identified in Zambia, and little attention has been paid to pollution control and possible impact of metals, pesticides, and other persistent compounds in the environment. The objective of this study was to introduce and to evaluate a few methodologies based on in situ bioassays for environmental assessment to promote sustainable and environmentally sound water resource management of the Kafue River. The results show that caged threespot tilapia exposed downstream of industrial points sources rapidly bioaccumulate several trace elements, i.e., Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni. These elements also occurred in much higher concentrations in water samples downstream of the industrial area compared with a locality upstream. Furthermore, the use of a semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) for passive absorption of lipophilic pollutants in the water showed relatively high concentration of several pesticides, i.e., DDT with major metabolites, PCB, and dieldrin. The present study shows that only 2 weeks of in situ studies in waters contaminated by pollutants affects in situ exposed fish and that the correlation between water and tissue concentrations was relatively good. Both trace elements and persistent organic pollutants occurred in such high concentrations that they must be considered from ecotoxicological aspects and may affect aquatic animal health.

Norrgren L; Pettersson U; Orn S; Bergqvist P

2000-04-01

14

Hepatic and renal concentrations of copper and other trace elements in hippopotami (Hippopotamus amphibius L) living in and adjacent to the Kafue and Luangwa Rivers in Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hepatic and renal concentrations of the elements arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium and zinc were studied in samples collected from hippopotami from the Kafue River in the Kafue National Park and the Luangwa River in the Southern Luangwa National Park in Zambia. There were no significant differences between trace element concentrations in the tissues of the hippopotami taken in the Kafue River and the Luangwa River. The concentrations of copper and other essential elements were similar to those reported in normal domestic and wild ruminants. Judging by the results obtained in this study, pollution from the mining activity around the Kafue River drainage area in the Copperbelt region has not led to any accumulation of elements in tissues of the hippopotami in the Kafue National Park. The trace element concentrations observed may serve as reference for similar future studies on hippopotami.

Mwase M; Almli B; Sivertsen T; Musonda MM; Flåøyen A

2002-09-01

15

Hepatic and renal concentrations of 10 trace elements in crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in the Kafue and Luangwa rivers in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Hepatic and renal concentrations of the elements arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium and zinc were determined in samples collected from four crocodiles from the Kafue River, Kafue National Park and five crocodiles from the Luangwa River, Luangwa National Park, Zambia. The concentrations of the essential elements were similar to those reported in other vertebrates. Arsenic and cadmium concentrations were low (medians below 0.05 ?g As/g and below 0.16 ?g Cd/g, wet wt.). Mercury and lead concentrations were several orders of magnitude higher (medians up to 3.7 ?g Hg/g, and up to 8.7 ?g Pb/g, all wet wt.) than in hippopotami from the same rivers, probably as a result of food-chain biomagnification. Judging by the results obtained in this study, pollution from the mining activity around the Kafue River drainage area in the Copperbelt region has not significantly influenced the trace element concentrations in tissues of the crocodiles in the Kafue National Park. The trace element concentrations measured may serve as reference values in future studies on crocodilians

2005-01-20

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Tuberculosis in Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) and in a bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) on a game ranch in Central Province, Zambia : case report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mycobacteriosis was diagnosed for the first time outside a national park in free-ranging wild animals on a game ranch in Zambia. A Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) was found dead with tuberculous lesions on a ranch near Lusaka. Acid-fast bacilli were found in the affected or...

U. Zieger; G.S. Pandey; N.P.J. Kriek; A.E. Cauldwell

17

Heavy Metal Contaminated Water, Soils and Crops in Peri Urban Wastewater Irrigation Farming in Mufulira and Kafue Towns in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although research on peri urban arable farming had been conducted in Zambia, the concerns related to heavy metal contaminated wastewater use in crop farming in peri urban areas were inadequately tackled. The study investigated heavy metal contamination of water, soils and crops at two study sites in Zambia. The two study sites were New Farm Extension in Mufulira and Chilumba Gardens in Kafue. Heavy metals comprising chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) were investigated due to: (i) their presence in wastewater used to irrigate crops which were found to be higher than acceptable limits; (ii) their potential negative effects on human health when ingested in large quantities; (iii) their implications on the livelihoods of people. Samples of water, soil and crops were collected and analysed for lead, copper, chromium, cobalt and nickel using the Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The data on heavy metals was analysed using mean, standard error and T-test. The results indicated that heavy metals were present in the water, soil and crops at the two study sites and exceeded acceptable limits. It can be argued that wastewater, soil and crops were contaminated with heavy metals at the two peri-urban areas in Zambia. The study highlighted the problem of heavy metal contaminated crops consumed by peri urban population. The information this study can be used in the planning and development of safe agricultural farming systems in peri urban areas in Zambia.

Evaristo Mwaba Kapungwe

2013-01-01

18

Effect of river-floodplain exchange on OC and ON biogeochemistry in a tropical floodplain system (Kafue Flats, Zambia)  

Science.gov (United States)

Tropical floodplains are often highly productive ecosystems that produce, transform, and export large quantities of organic C (OC) and N (ON) to downstream systems and oceans. We studied OC and ON dynamics in the Kafue Flats, a 6,500-km2 floodplain system along the Kafue River in Zambia, the hydrology of which is substantially impacted by upstream and downstream dams. The goal of the study was to explore the quality and bioavailability of OC and ON, and how river-floodplain exchange influences both the net export of organic matter (OM) and its composition. We collected samples along a 410 km transect along the Kafue River downstream of Itezhi-Tezhi dam in 2009 and 2010 with a focus on the flood recession period, and determined concentrations and stable isotopes of dissolved and particulate OC (DOC, POC) and ON (DON, PON), as well as spectrofluorometric properties (excitation emission spectroscopy; EEMs) of dissolved OM (DOM). During flood recession, the Kafue Flats and Kafue River undergo intense river floodplain exchange (i.e., >80% of the stream flow passing through the floodplain), and DON and DOC loads increased 2.5-fold along the main river channel. The vast majority of fixed nitrogen was present as in organic form (~94% of the total N including 80% DON and 14% PON). Despite the large contribution of floodplain-derived DOM, measured variables of DOM quality remained relatively constant (DOC:DON ~8; ?15N-DON = +1.5 ± 1.0%) along the river. A modest decrease in the ?13C-DOC (from -22 to -24%) was observed as floodplain-derived DOC became increasingly dominant. EEMs results further suggest that overall DOM composition remained fairly constant along the river despite quantitative injection of floodplain-derived DOM. ?13C-POC, ?15N-PON, and POC:PON (-28.3 ± 0.8%, +2.8 ± 1.2%, and ~20, respectively) differed considerably with respect to the same parameters for DOC and DON, indicating that the particulate and dissolved OM pools derive from very different sources or suggesting fundamental compositional and isotopic changes during initial OM breakdown along the flow path. This presentation will explore potential underlying causes of the fairly constant DOM composition and the distinct DOM and POM pools, and what these observations imply about OM cycling in this system.

Zurbrügg, R.; Suter, S.; Lehmann, M. F.; Wehrli, B.; Senn, D. B.

2011-12-01

19

Kinda baboons (Papio kindae) and grayfoot chacma baboons (P. ursinus griseipes) hybridize in the Kafue river valley, Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ranges of small kinda (Papio kindae) and much larger grayfooted chacma (P. ursinus griseipes) baboons adjoin in the Kafue National Park, Zambia. In a visual survey of baboons at 48 sites in the Kafue River drainage we found that, contrary to previous reports, groups at the species interface near the town of Ngoma are phenotypically diverse and presumably formed by multigenerational hybridization. Mitochondrial and/or Y-chromosome genetic markers from fecal samples (N=164) collected at 29 sites support this conclusion. Groups with phenotypic signs of a history of hybridization also had taxon-specific mitochondria and Y-haplotypes from both parental species. Although the distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes largely mirrored that of external phenotypes, a significant proportion of male specimens from grayfoot as well as hybrid groups carried kinda Y-chromosomes, and kinda Y-chromosomes were involved in all observed cases of mitochondrial/Y-chromosome discordance. These observations are consistent with, though they do not prove, a population history in which the range of chacmas and the hybrid zone have advanced at the expense of the kinda range. They also suggest that, unexpectedly, kinda male×chacma female matings are much more common than the reciprocal cross in the ancestry of hybrids. We suggest that distinctive male kinda behavior and the "juvenile" appearance of kinda baboons of both sexes, perhaps combined with obstetric difficulties of a small kinda female carrying the large offspring of a chacma male, may account for this bias.

Jolly CJ; Burrell AS; Phillips-Conroy JE; Bergey C; Rogers J

2011-03-01

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Ciliate protozoa in the rumen of Kafue lechwe, Kobus leche kafuensis, in Zambia, with the description of four new species.  

Science.gov (United States)

The composition of the rumen ciliate fauna in 76 Kafue lechwe inhabiting a limited area in Zambia was surveyed and five genera containing 24 species with 16 formae belonging to the family Ophryoscolecidae were identified. Four new species belonging to Diplodiniinae were recognized and described as Diplodinium lochinvarense n. sp., Diplodinium leche n. sp., Diplodinium zambiense n. sp., and Metadinium ossiculi n. sp. In addition, Ostracodinium gracile form fissilaminatum Dogiel, 1932 was found for the second time and described as Metadinium fissilaminatum n. comb. The species composition was fairly unusual. Seven of the species have been found only in African wild antelopes and these species were found more frequently than cosmopolitan species. There was no evidence of isotrichid species. The average density of ciliates per 1 ml of the rumen fluid was 25.7 x 10(4), and the number of ciliate species per head of host was 10.8. PMID:1522538

Imai, S; Tsutsumi, Y; Yumura, S; Mulenga, A

 
 
 
 
21

Effects of river-floodplain exchange on water quality and nutrient export in the dam-impacted Kafue River (Zambia)  

Science.gov (United States)

Biogeochemical processes in river-floodplain ecosystems are strongly influenced by hydrology and, in particular, river-floodplain exchange. In tropical systems, where the hydrology is dominated by distinct dry and rainy seasons, annual flood waters trigger organic matter mineralization within and nutrient export from the dried and rewetted floodplain, and the magnitude of hydrological exchange between a river and its floodplain has the potential to substantially influence nutrient and carbon exports and water quality in the river. In this study we examined the extent and the effects of hydrological river-floodplain exchange in the Kafue River and its floodplain, the Kafue Flats, in Zambia. The Kafue Flats is a 7000 km2 seasonal wetland whose hydrological regime has been impacted by upstream and downstream large dams constructed in the 1970s, leading to changes in the flooding pattern in this high-biodiversity ecosystem. Field campaigns, carried out during flood recession (May 2008, 2009, 2010) and covering a ~400 km river stretch, revealed a steep decline in dissolved oxygen from 6 mg/L to 1 mg/L over a ~20 km stretch of river beginning approximately 200 km downstream from the first dam, with low oxygen persisting for an additional 150 km downstream. To further explore this phenomenon discharge measurements (ADCP) were conducted in May 2009 and May 2010. River discharge decreased from ~600 m3/s at the upstream dam to 100 m3/s midway through the Kafue Flats, and increased to >800 m3/s towards the end of the floodplain (400 km downstream). River cross section data indicate that the dramatic decrease in discharge occured primarily because of variations in channel area and channel carrying capacity, with channel constrictions forcing ~85% of the discharge out of the river channel and into the floodplain. Using specific conductivity and ?18O-H2O as tracers for floodplain water, we estimate that the downstream increases in flow occur through lateral inflows of receding floodplain waters, induced by an expansion of the river channel, and that 80% of the downstream flow came from the floodplain. Model calculations indicate that intense exchange between river and floodplain and the introduction of low-oxygen floodplain water into the river was the primary cause of the low dissolved oxygen levels observed in the river during flood recession in May 2008-2010. This exchange also appears to play an important role in nutrient and carbon export, with the floodplain acting as a net source of phosphate (220 tons/yr), total nitrogen (1300 tons/yr, of which ~90% was organic nitrogen) and total organic carbon (50,000 tons/yr) to downstream systems.

Zurbrugg, R.; Wamulume, J.; Blank, N.; Nyambe, I.; Wehrli, B.; Senn, D. B.

2010-12-01

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Measuring health system strengthening: application of the balanced scorecard approach to rank the baseline performance of three rural districts in Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: There is growing interest in health system performance and recently WHO launched a report on health systems strengthening emphasising the need for close monitoring using system-wide approaches. One recent method is the balanced scorecard system. There is limited application of this method in middle- and low-income countries. This paper applies the concept of balanced scorecard to describe the baseline status of three intervention districts in Zambia. METHODOLOGY: The Better Health Outcome through Mentoring and Assessment (BHOMA) project is a randomised step-wedged community intervention that aims to strengthen the health system in three districts in the Republic of Zambia. To assess the baseline status of the participating districts we used a modified balanced scorecard approach following the domains highlighted in the MOH 2011 Strategic Plan. RESULTS: Differences in performance were noted by district and residence. Finance and service delivery domains performed poorly in all study districts. The proportion of the health workers receiving training in the past 12 months was lowest in Kafue (58%) and highest in Luangwa district (77%). Under service capacity, basic equipment and laboratory capacity scores showed major variation, with Kafue and Luangwa having lower scores when compared to Chongwe. The finance domain showed that Kafue and Chongwe had lower scores (44% and 47% respectively). Regression model showed that children's clinical observation scores were negatively correlated with drug availability (coeff -0.40, p = 0.02). Adult clinical observation scores were positively association with adult service satisfaction score (coeff 0.82, p = 0.04) and service readiness (coeff 0.54, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: The study applied the balanced scorecard to describe the baseline status of 42 health facilities in three districts of Zambia. Differences in performance were noted by district and residence in most domains with finance and service delivery performing poorly in all study districts. This tool could be valuable in monitoring and evaluation of health systems.

Mutale W; Godfrey-Fausset P; Mwanamwenge MT; Kasese N; Chintu N; Balabanova D; Spicer N; Ayles H

2013-01-01

23

Determination of endocrine disruptors in Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) samples from the Lochinvar National Park of Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of serum, whole blood and liver tissue samples from Kafue lechwe in the Lochinvar National Park of Zambia for suspected endocrine disrupting compounds revealed high concentrations for some of the compounds. 45 samples of serum, whole blood and liver tissue were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction followed by an analysis using Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detection (GC-ECD). The following endocrine disruptors were analyzed: deltamethrin, aldrin, endosulfan, dieldrin, pp-DDD, heptachlor, d-t-allethrin, pp-DDE, endrin and pp-DDT. For all the samples, dieldrin showed the highest concentration ranging from 1.7 to 44.4 microg/ml in serum and whole blood sample extracts and 0.10-5.1 microg/g wet weight in liver sample extracts. The most frequently detected was deltamethrin in 62% of the samples. Percent recoveries in spiked laboratory blanks ranged between 60% and 100% while calculated detection limits ranged from 0.004 to 0.21 microg/ml for all the endocrine disruptors evaluated. Where endocrine disruptors were detected, the concentrations of most of them far exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) and the extraneous maximum residue limits (EMRLs) set by the Codex Alimentarius of the United Nations (UN), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). PMID:16624410

Sichilongo, Kwenga; Torto, Nelson

2006-04-19

24

An investigation of heavy metal exposure and risks to wildlife in the Kafue flats of Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Exposure and ecological risks to heavy metals (copper, zinc, manganese, iron) at Lochnivar and Blue Lagoon National Parks in wildlife dependent on the Kafue river contaminated with mining waste was evaluated. Samples included water, fish, grasses and Kafue Lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) liver. At both parks copper ranged from 0.03-0.04 mg/l; 3.0-6.0 mg/kg; 11.0-44.0 mg/kg; trace -199.0 mg/kg; while zinc was 0.01 mg/l; 32.0-82.0 mg/kg; 15.0-21.0 mg/kg; and 52.0-138.0 mg/kg; in water, fish, grasses and lechwe, respectively. Manganese ranges were 0.15-0.16 mg/l; 7.0-18.0 mg/kg; 51.0-145.0 mg/kg; and 40.0-53.0 mg/kg while iron ranges were 0.13-0.14 mg/l; 26.0-134.0 mg/kg; 1766.0-1797.0 mg/kg; and 131.0-856.0 mg/kg; in water, fish, grasses and lechwe, respectively. Levels in all samples except water were high indicating potential for adverse effects.

Syakalima O; Choongo K; Nakazato Y; Onuma M; Sugimoto C; Tsubota T; Fukushi H; Yoshida M; Itagaki T; Yasuda J

2001-03-01

25

River-floodplain exchange and its effects on the fluvial oxygen regime in a large tropical river system (Kafue Flats, Zambia)  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrological exchange between a river and its floodplain plays a critical role in maintaining key ecosystem services like habitat formation, nutrient transformation, and flood attenuation. We studied the spatial and temporal patterns of river-floodplain exchange in the Kafue Flats, a 6500-km2, dam-impacted floodplain ecosystem in Zambia. In addition, we characterized the effects of floodplain runoff on river biogeochemistry and assessed dam-related changes in the hydrological regime. The basic flood pulse concept poorly describes conditions in the Kafue Flats. Instead, high resolution measurements of discharge and tracers (specific conductivity,?18O-H2O) along 410 km of river revealed substantial spatial variations in both the magnitude and direction of river-floodplain exchange. During peak discharge, a river channel constriction, 230 km into the floodplain, diverted as much as 80% of the river's ˜700 m3 s-1discharge into the floodplain. As a net result, >80% of the water exiting the Kafue Flats via the river, either passed through the floodplain or originated from precipitation on the floodplain. This floodplain-derived water had a strong impact on river water quality, resulting in a seasonally recurring sharp decline in dissolved oxygen levels to <50?M that persisted for 150 km downstream. A comparison with historical flow data showed that concurrent bank overflow and floodplain inflows were a sustained pattern during the wet season. However, lateral exchange over an annual cycle has been reduced by as much as 50% due to dam operation.

Zurbrügg, Roland; Wamulume, Jason; Kamanga, Romas; Wehrli, Bernhard; Senn, David B.

2012-09-01

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Tuberculosis in Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) and in a bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) on a game ranch in Central Province, Zambia : case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mycobacteriosis was diagnosed for the first time outside a national park in free-ranging wild animals on a game ranch in Zambia. A Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) was found dead with tuberculous lesions on a ranch near Lusaka. Acid-fast bacilli were found in the affected organs. Mycobacteria were isolated from these tissues. A bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) was found dead on the same ranch with multiple superficial abscesses in the neck region, extensive granulomatous lesions in the lung, the bronchial and mediastinal lymph nodes and several nodular lesions in the spleen. Few acid-fast bacilli were found in the exudate from the abscesses and lesions in the affected organs. Histologically the lesions resembled those of tuberculosis, but mycobacteria could not be isolated. In addition, 1 Kafue lechwe among 37 wild ungulates of 13 species shot on the ranch showed typical tuberculous lesions in the lungs, but the diagnosis was not confirmed by bacterial isolation. The role of the Kafue lechwe as maintenance host for tuberculosis as well as in the possible spread of this disease to other wildlife are discussed.

U. Zieger; G.S. Pandey; N.P.J. Kriek; A.E. Cauldwell

2012-01-01

27

Tuberculosis in Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) and in a bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) on a game ranch in central province, Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycobacteriosis was diagnosed for the first time outside a national park in free-ranging wild animals on a game ranch in Zambia. A Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) was found dead with tuberculous lesions on a ranch near Lusaka. Acid-fast bacilli were found in the affected organs. Mycobacteria were isolated from these tissues. A bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) was found dead on the same ranch with multiple superficial abscesses in the neck region, extensive granulomatous lesions in the lung, the bronchial and mediastinal lymph nodes and several nodular lesions in the spleen. Few acid-fast bacilli were found in the exudate from the abscesses and lesions in the affected organs. Histologically the lesions resembled those of tuberculosis, but mycobacteria could not be isolated. In addition, 1 Kafue lechwe among 37 wild ungulates of 13 species shot on the ranch showed typical tuberculous lesions in the lungs, but the diagnosis was not confirmed by bacterial isolation. The role of the Kafue lechwe as maintenance host for tuberculosis as well as in the possible spread of this disease to other wildlife are discussed. PMID:9850514

Zieger, U; Pandey, G S; Kriek, N P; Cauldwell, A E

1998-09-01

28

Tuberculosis in Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) and in a bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) on a game ranch in central province, Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mycobacteriosis was diagnosed for the first time outside a national park in free-ranging wild animals on a game ranch in Zambia. A Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) was found dead with tuberculous lesions on a ranch near Lusaka. Acid-fast bacilli were found in the affected organs. Mycobacteria were isolated from these tissues. A bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) was found dead on the same ranch with multiple superficial abscesses in the neck region, extensive granulomatous lesions in the lung, the bronchial and mediastinal lymph nodes and several nodular lesions in the spleen. Few acid-fast bacilli were found in the exudate from the abscesses and lesions in the affected organs. Histologically the lesions resembled those of tuberculosis, but mycobacteria could not be isolated. In addition, 1 Kafue lechwe among 37 wild ungulates of 13 species shot on the ranch showed typical tuberculous lesions in the lungs, but the diagnosis was not confirmed by bacterial isolation. The role of the Kafue lechwe as maintenance host for tuberculosis as well as in the possible spread of this disease to other wildlife are discussed.

Zieger U; Pandey GS; Kriek NP; Cauldwell AE

1998-09-01

29

Seasonal pattern of bovine fasciolosis in the Kafue and Zambezi catchment areas of Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to establish seasonality of bovine fasciolosis in the Southern province of Zambia, 288 cattle were examined at slaughter at Turnpike slaughter slab for 1 year. The examination involved liver inspection and coprological examination. Liver condemnation rates were relatively high at the beginning of both the cold dry season and the rainy season (May/June and December, respectively). All cattle, regardless of age, had higher fluke abundances in the post-rainy season (39.1% young and 42.1% adult) while the lowest rates were in the hot dry season (13.3% young and 14.3% adult). On coprological examination, the highest abundance was in the post-rainy season (45.0%) and the lowest in the cold dry season (24.9%). From November (end of dry season) to February/March (end of rains), more fluke eggs were found than in any other period. The distribution of fluke eggs was significantly different (p<0.001) among the four seasons. Identified associations were: egg counts were highest in post-rainy (mean abundance=146) and lowest in cold dry season (mean abundance=118) at 95% confidence (CI 0.64-1.25). Differences in abundance observed according to origin, sex and age of cattle were not significant on both methods. Based on these results, it may be concluded that Fasciola gigantica was present throughout the year in cattle in Zambia but the abundance was highest in the post-rainy season and lowest in the cold dry season.

Phiri AM; Phiri IK; Siziya S; Sikasunge CS; Chembensofu M; Monrad J

2005-11-01

30

Seasonal pattern of bovine fasciolosis in the Kafue and Zambezi catchment areas of Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to establish seasonality of bovine fasciolosis in the Southern province of Zambia, 288 cattle were examined at slaughter at Turnpike slaughter slab for 1 year. The examination involved liver inspection and coprological examination. Liver condemnation rates were relatively high at the beginning of both the cold dry season and the rainy season (May/June and December, respectively). All cattle, regardless of age, had higher fluke abundances in the post-rainy season (39.1% young and 42.1% adult) while the lowest rates were in the hot dry season (13.3% young and 14.3% adult). On coprological examination, the highest abundance was in the post-rainy season (45.0%) and the lowest in the cold dry season (24.9%). From November (end of dry season) to February/March (end of rains), more fluke eggs were found than in any other period. The distribution of fluke eggs was significantly different (p<0.001) among the four seasons. Identified associations were: egg counts were highest in post-rainy (mean abundance=146) and lowest in cold dry season (mean abundance=118) at 95% confidence (CI 0.64-1.25). Differences in abundance observed according to origin, sex and age of cattle were not significant on both methods. Based on these results, it may be concluded that Fasciola gigantica was present throughout the year in cattle in Zambia but the abundance was highest in the post-rainy season and lowest in the cold dry season. PMID:16043299

Phiri, A M; Phiri, I K; Siziya, S; Sikasunge, C S; Chembensofu, M; Monrad, J

2005-07-25

31

Investigating effects of parasite infection on body condition of the Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) in the Kafue basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche Kafuensis), a medium-sized semi-aquatic antelope, is endemic to the Kafue basin of Zambia. The population of the Kafue lechwe has significantly dropped in the last decades leading to its subsequent inclusion on the red list ...

Munyeme Musso; Munang'andu Hetron M; Muma John B; Nambota Andrew M; Biffa Demelash; Siamudaala Victor M

32

Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Testing of Free-Ranging African Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) Captured for Ex Situ Conservation in the Kafue Basin Ecosystem in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in some National Parks in Southern Africa, whilst no studies have been conducted on BTB on buffalo populations in Zambia. The increased demand for ecotourism and conservation of the African buffalo on private owned game ranches has prompted the Zambian Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) and private sector in Zambia to generate a herd of “BTB-free buffaloes” for ex situ conservation. In the present study, 86 African buffaloes from four different herds comprising a total of 530 animals were investigated for the presence of BTB for the purpose of generating “BTB free” buffalo for ex-situ conservation. Using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) the BTB status at both individual animal and herd level was estimated to be 0.0% by the CIDT technique. Compared to Avian reactors only, a prevalence of 5.8% was determined whilst for Bovine-only reactors a prevalence of 0.0% was determined. These results suggest the likelihood of buffalo herds in the Kafue National Park being free of BTB.

Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Matandiko, Wigganson; Nambota, Andrew; Muma, John Bwalya; Mweene, Aaron Simanyengwe; Munyeme, Musso

2011-01-01

33

Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Testing of Free-Ranging African Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) Captured for Ex Situ Conservation in the Kafue Basin Ecosystem in Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in some National Parks in Southern Africa, whilst no studies have been conducted on BTB on buffalo populations in Zambia. The increased demand for ecotourism and conservation of the African buffalo on private owned game ranches has prompted the Zambian Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) and private sector in Zambia to generate a herd of "BTB-free buffaloes" for ex situ conservation. In the present study, 86 African buffaloes from four different herds comprising a total of 530 animals were investigated for the presence of BTB for the purpose of generating "BTB free" buffalo for ex-situ conservation. Using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) the BTB status at both individual animal and herd level was estimated to be 0.0% by the CIDT technique. Compared to Avian reactors only, a prevalence of 5.8% was determined whilst for Bovine-only reactors a prevalence of 0.0% was determined. These results suggest the likelihood of buffalo herds in the Kafue National Park being free of BTB.

Munang'andu HM; Siamudaala V; Matandiko W; Nambota A; Muma JB; Mweene AS; Munyeme M

2011-01-01

34

The Nexus between Bovine Tuberculosis and Fasciolosis Infections in Cattle of the Kafue Basin Ecosystem in Zambia: Implications on Abattoir Surveillance  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and fasciolosis are important but neglected diseases that result in chronic infections in cattle. However, in Zambia, these diseases are mainly diagnosed at abattoirs during routine meat inspection. Albeit the coinfection status, these diseases have been reported as nothing more than normal separate findings without an explanatory phenomena. Forthwith, we formulated this study to assess the possible association of the two diseases in a known high prevalence area on the Kafue basin ecosystem. Of the 1,680 animals screened, 600 (35.7%; 95% CI 33.4%–38%) and 124 (7.4%; 95% CI 6.1%–8.6%) had fasciolosis and tuberculous lesions; respectively, whilst 72 had both fasciola and tuberculous lesions representing 12% (95% CI 9.4%–14.6%) and 58.1% (95% CI; 49.3%–66.7%) of the total positives for fasciola and tuberculosis, respectively. Jaundice was seen in 304 animals, 18.1% (95% CI; 16.3%–19.9%) and was significantly correlated to fasciolosis (r = 0.59, P < 0.0001). A significant association (?2 = 76.2, df = 1, and P < 0.0001) was found between fasciolosis and tuberculous lesions. Simple logistic regression intimated fasciolosis as a strong predictor for tuberculous lesions with animals that had fasciola being five times more likely to have tuberculous lesions (odds ratio = 4.8, 95% CI: 3.3–7.0). This study indicates that transmission and spatial risk factors of communicable and noncommunicable diseases such as bTB and fasciolosis can be correlated in an ecosystem such as the Kafue flats.

Munyeme, Musso; Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Nambota, Andrew; Muma, John Bwalya; Phiri, Andrew Malata; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo

2012-01-01

35

The Nexus between Bovine Tuberculosis and Fasciolosis Infections in Cattle of the Kafue Basin Ecosystem in Zambia: Implications on Abattoir Surveillance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and fasciolosis are important but neglected diseases that result in chronic infections in cattle. However, in Zambia, these diseases are mainly diagnosed at abattoirs during routine meat inspection. Albeit the coinfection status, these diseases have been reported as nothing more than normal separate findings without an explanatory phenomena. Forthwith, we formulated this study to assess the possible association of the two diseases in a known high prevalence area on the Kafue basin ecosystem. Of the 1,680 animals screened, 600 (35.7%; 95% CI 33.4%-38%) and 124 (7.4%; 95% CI 6.1%-8.6%) had fasciolosis and tuberculous lesions; respectively, whilst 72 had both fasciola and tuberculous lesions representing 12% (95% CI 9.4%-14.6%) and 58.1% (95% CI; 49.3%-66.7%) of the total positives for fasciola and tuberculosis, respectively. Jaundice was seen in 304 animals, 18.1% (95% CI; 16.3%-19.9%) and was significantly correlated to fasciolosis (r = 0.59, P < 0.0001). A significant association (?(2) = 76.2, df = 1, and P < 0.0001) was found between fasciolosis and tuberculous lesions. Simple logistic regression intimated fasciolosis as a strong predictor for tuberculous lesions with animals that had fasciola being five times more likely to have tuberculous lesions (odds ratio = 4.8, 95% CI: 3.3-7.0). This study indicates that transmission and spatial risk factors of communicable and noncommunicable diseases such as bTB and fasciolosis can be correlated in an ecosystem such as the Kafue flats.

Munyeme M; Munang'andu HM; Nambota A; Muma JB; Phiri AM; Nalubamba KS

2012-01-01

36

Seasonal prevalence and incidence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis and associated diarrhoea in children attending pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Prevalence, incidence and seasonal variation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis were studied over a 12-month period in 100 children from four pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia. Questionnaire data and a single stool sample were collected monthly from each child. Samples were processed using a commercial kit (Meridian Diagnostics Inc., USA) and oo(cysts) visualised by immunofluorescence microscopy. Cryptosporidium was detected in 30.7% (241/786; 95% CI = 27.5-33.9) while G. duodenalis was detected in 29.0% (228/786; 95% CI = 25.8-32.2). A total of 86% experienced one or more episodes of cryptosporidiosis while 75% had giardiasis. Cumulative incidence per 100 children was 75.4 for Cryptosporidium and 49.0 for G. duodenalis. Both infections were significantly more common in the wet compared to the dry season (34.8%, 162/466 vs. 24.7%, 79/320, P = 0.003 and 35.2%, 164/466 vs. 20.0%, 64/320, P <0.001, respectively). Thus, risk ratios (RR) were 1.41 (95% CI = 1.13-1.77) and 1.76 (95% CI = 1.38-2.27) for Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively. Diarrhoea was significantly associated with cryptosporidiosis (RR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.03-1.47; P = 0.029) but not with giardiasis (RR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.91-1.53; P = 0.26). We conclude that gastro-intestinal protozoal infections are highly prevalent among children attending pre-school in peri-urban Zambia highlighting the need for further studies of risk factors.

Siwila, J.; Phiri, I.G.K.

2011-01-01

37

Hepatic and renal concentrations of copper and other trace elements in hippopotami ( Hippopotamus amphibius L.) living in and adjacent to the Kafue and Luangwa Rivers in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hepatic and renal concentrations of the elements arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium and zinc were studied in samples collected from hippopotami from the Kafue River in the Kafue National Park and the Luangwa River in the Southern Luangwa National Park in...

Mwase, M.; Almli, B.; Sivertsen, T.; Musonda, M.M.; Flaoyen, A.

38

Evaluation of endocrine disruptor levels in Kafue Lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) samples from the Blue Lagoon National Park of Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentrations of endocrine disruptors were determined in 36 liver tissue, serum and whole blood sample extracts drawn from 15 Blue Lagoon National Park Kafue lechwe. Out of 10 analytes evaluated, 89% of the sample extracts showed very high dieldrin concentrations of between 0.08–100 ?g/mL in serum, 0.08–24.8 ?g/mL in whole blood and 0.08–4.6 ?g/g wet weight in liver tissue extracts. pp-DDE was detected in 83% of the sample extracts at 0.006–5.1 ?g/mL in serum, 0.006–8.5 ?g/mL in whole blood and 0.006–0.12 ?g/g wet weight in liver tissue extracts. There was strong correlation between pp-DDE and dieldrin in all the three matrices. Deltamethrin and endosulfan detected at 50% frequency each. Percent recoveries in spiked laboratory blanks ranged between 60–100% while calculated detection limits ranged from 0.004 to 0.21 ?g/mL for all the endocrine disruptors evaluated. PMID:19669681

Sichilongo, Kwenga; Torto, Nelson

2009-12-01

39

Evaluation of endocrine disruptor levels in Kafue Lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) samples from the Blue Lagoon National Park of Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The concentrations of endocrine disruptors were determined in 36 liver tissue, serum and whole blood sample extracts drawn from 15 Blue Lagoon National Park Kafue lechwe. Out of 10 analytes evaluated, 89% of the sample extracts showed very high dieldrin concentrations of between 0.08–100 ?g/mL in serum, 0.08–24.8 ?g/mL in whole blood and 0.08–4.6 ?g/g wet weight in liver tissue extracts. pp-DDE was detected in 83% of the sample extracts at 0.006–5.1 ?g/mL in serum, 0.006–8.5 ?g/mL in whole blood and 0.006–0.12 ?g/g wet weight in liver tissue extracts. There was strong correlation between pp-DDE and dieldrin in all the three matrices. Deltamethrin and endosulfan detected at 50% frequency each. Percent recoveries in spiked laboratory blanks ranged between 60–100% while calculated detection limits ranged from 0.004 to 0.21 ?g/mL for all the endocrine disruptors evaluated.

Sichilongo K; Torto N

2009-12-01

40

Seasonal pattern of bovine amphistomosis in traditionally reared cattle in the Kafue and Zambezi catchment areas of Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seasonality of bovine amphistomosis in the Southern province of Zambia was established after examining 268 faecal samples from cattle presented for slaughter at Turnpike slaughter slab, Mazabuka. Amphistomosis was found present throughout the year but the highest abundance rate was found during the post-rainy season (47.8%) and the lowest during the cold dry season (24.8%). In the rainy and post-rainy seasons, higher mean egg counts and cattle found positive were recorded than in any other season. The distribution of amphistome eggs was significantly different (p < 0.001) among the four seasons, with the rainy season having higher median egg counts than others. There were no significant differences in abundance rates between sexes or between ages of cattle. A similar seasonality to that of fasciolosis exists and may help in strategic management of Fasciola and amphistomes. PMID:18318347

Phiri, A M; Chota, A; Phiri, I K

2007-02-01

 
 
 
 
41

Seasonal pattern of bovine amphistomosis in traditionally reared cattle in the Kafue and Zambezi catchment areas of Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seasonality of bovine amphistomosis in the Southern province of Zambia was established after examining 268 faecal samples from cattle presented for slaughter at Turnpike slaughter slab, Mazabuka. Amphistomosis was found present throughout the year but the highest abundance rate was found during the post-rainy season (47.8%) and the lowest during the cold dry season (24.8%). In the rainy and post-rainy seasons, higher mean egg counts and cattle found positive were recorded than in any other season. The distribution of amphistome eggs was significantly different (p < 0.001) among the four seasons, with the rainy season having higher median egg counts than others. There were no significant differences in abundance rates between sexes or between ages of cattle. A similar seasonality to that of fasciolosis exists and may help in strategic management of Fasciola and amphistomes.

Phiri AM; Chota A; Phiri IK

2007-02-01

42

A review of diseases of parasites of the Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis).  

Science.gov (United States)

The diseases of the Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) are reviewed in this paper. Kafue lechwe are an important natural resource for Zambia. Bovine tuberculosis is widespread within the lechwe population and they are host to many parasites, especially the warble Strobiloestrous vanzyli. PMID:1758033

Stafford, K J

1991-10-01

43

A review of diseases of parasites of the Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The diseases of the Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) are reviewed in this paper. Kafue lechwe are an important natural resource for Zambia. Bovine tuberculosis is widespread within the lechwe population and they are host to many parasites, especially the warble Strobiloestrous vanzyli.

Stafford KJ

1991-10-01

44

District specific correlates for hypertension in Kaoma and Kasama rural districts of Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Hypertension a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is the most widely recognized modifiable risk factor for this disease. There is little information on the prevalence and risk factors for hypertension in Zambia, and in particular in rural areas of the country. In order to contribute to the existing global literature on hypertension, particularly in rural Zambia, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of hypertension and its correlates in two rural districts of Zambia, namely Kaoma and Kasama. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using a modified World Health Organization (WHO) global non communicable diseases (NCD) surveillance initiative NCD-STEPwise approach was used. Proportions were compared using the Yates' corrected ?2 test, and a result yielding a p-value of less than 5% was considered significant. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. Factors that were significantly associated with the outcome in bivariate analyses were considered in a multivariate logistic regression analysis using a backward variable selection method. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported. RESULTS: In total, 895 participants from Kaoma and 1198 participants from Kasama took part in the surveys. Overall, 25.8% participants (27.5% male, 24.6% female; p=0.373) in Kaoma and 30.3% (31.3% male, 29.5% female; p=0.531) in Kasama were hypertensive. In Kaoma, age and BMI were independently associated with hypertension. Compared with participants aged 45 years or older, participants aged 25-34 years were 60% (AOR=0.40, 95% CI [0.21, 0.56]) less likely to be hypertensive. Participants with BMI <18.5 and 18.5-24.9 were 54% (AOR=0.46, 95% CI [0.30, 0.69]) and 31% (AOR=0.69, 95% CI [0.49, 0.98]) less likely to be hypertensive compared with participants with BMI ?30. In Kasama, age, smoking and heart rate were significantly associated with hypertension in multivariate analysis. Participants 25-34 years were 49% (AOR=0.51, 95% CI [0.41, 0.65]) less likely to be hypertensive compared with participants 45 years or older. Compared with participants who were non-smokers, smokers were 21% (AOR=1.21, 95% CI [1.02, 1.45]) more likely to be hypertensive. Participants who had heart rate >90 beats/min were 59% (AOR=1.59, 95% CI [1.17, 2.16]) more likely to be hypertensive compared with participants who had heart rate 60-90 beats/min. CONCLUSIONS: The findings reveal that hypertension is prevalent among rural residents in Kaoma and Kasama, Zambia. The disease is highly associated with age, BMI, smoking and heart rate. Efficient preventive strategies are needed to halt the growing trend of non-communicable diseases through the control of risk factors highlighted in this study.

Mulenga D; Siziya S; Rudatsikira E; Mukonka VM; Babaniyi O; Songolo P; Muula AS

2013-07-01

45

Investigating effects of parasite infection on body condition of the Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) in the Kafue basin  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche Kafuensis), a medium-sized semi-aquatic antelope, is endemic to the Kafue basin of Zambia. The population of the Kafue lechwe has significantly dropped in the last decades leading to its subsequent inclusion on the red list of endangered species. In order to save the remaining population from extinction, it has become increasingly important that the impact of parasite infection and infestation on the Kafue lechwe is investigated. Findings Endoparasites accounted for the majority of parasites observed from a study of 40 Kafue lechwe occurring in the the Kafue basin. Amphistoma spp. were present in all animals examined, while Fasciola gigantica had a prevalence rate of 0.525 (95% CI: 0.36 to 0.69) and species of Schistosoma 0.3 (95% CI: 0.15 to 0.45). Among the ectoparasites, Strobiloestrous vanzyli, had a prevalence rate of 0.15 (95% CI: 0.03 to 0.27), while Rhipicephalus appendiculatus had a prevalence of 0.075 (3/40). Our findings indicate that body condition was not influenced by the parasitic infestation in Kafue lechwe. There was no association between sex and parasitic burden (odds ratio = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.8-1.3). However, an association between age and parasitic burden was observed as older animals above 15 years were more likely to get parasite infections than those aged between 1-5 years (odds ratio = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4). Conclusion Overall, there was no evidence that parasitic infections and infestations adversely affected the lechwe population on the Kafue basin. These findings indicate that ecto- and endo-parasite infestation might not play a significant role in reducing the Kafue lechwe population on the Kafue basin.

Munyeme Musso; Munang'andu Hetron M; Muma John B; Nambota Andrew M; Biffa Demelash; Siamudaala Victor M

2010-01-01

46

Investigating effects of parasite infection on body condition of the Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) in the Kafue basin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche Kafuensis), a medium-sized semi-aquatic antelope, is endemic to the Kafue basin of Zambia. The population of the Kafue lechwe has significantly dropped in the last decades leading to its subsequent inclusion on the red list of endangered species. In order to save the remaining population from extinction, it has become increasingly important that the impact of parasite infection and infestation on the Kafue lechwe is investigated. FINDINGS: Endoparasites accounted for the majority of parasites observed from a study of 40 Kafue lechwe occurring in the the Kafue basin. Amphistoma spp. were present in all animals examined, while Fasciola gigantica had a prevalence rate of 0.525 (95% CI: 0.36 to 0.69) and species of Schistosoma 0.3 (95% CI: 0.15 to 0.45). Among the ectoparasites, Strobiloestrous vanzyli, had a prevalence rate of 0.15 (95% CI: 0.03 to 0.27), while Rhipicephalus appendiculatus had a prevalence of 0.075 (3/40). Our findings indicate that body condition was not influenced by the parasitic infestation in Kafue lechwe. There was no association between sex and parasitic burden (odds ratio = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.8-1.3). However, an association between age and parasitic burden was observed as older animals above 15 years were more likely to get parasite infections than those aged between 1-5 years (odds ratio = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4). CONCLUSION: Overall, there was no evidence that parasitic infections and infestations adversely affected the lechwe population on the Kafue basin. These findings indicate that ecto- and endo-parasite infestation might not play a significant role in reducing the Kafue lechwe population on the Kafue basin.

Munyeme M; Munang'andu HM; Muma JB; Nambota AM; Biffa D; Siamudaala VM

2010-01-01

47

The Nexus between Bovine Tuberculosis and Fasciolosis Infections in Cattle of the Kafue Basin Ecosystem in Zambia: Implications on Abattoir Surveillance  

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Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and fasciolosis are important but neglected diseases that result in chronic infections in cattle. However, in Zambia, these diseases are mainly diagnosed at abattoirs during routine meat inspection. Albeit the coinfection status, these diseases have been reported as nothing...

Munyeme, Musso; Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Nambota, Andrew; Muma, John Bwalya; Phiri, Andrew Malata; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo

48

Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Testing of Free-Ranging African Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) Captured for Ex Situ Conservation in the Kafue Basin Ecosystem in Zambia  

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Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in some National Parks in Southern Africa, whilst no studies have been conducted on BTB on buffalo populations in Zambia. The increased demand for ecotourism and conservation of the African buffalo on private owned game ranc...

Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Matandiko, Wigganson; Nambota, Andrew; Muma, John Bwalya; Mweene, Aaron Simanyengwe

49

Challenges in the control of Human African Trypanosomiasis in the Mpika district of Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Human African Trypanosomiasis is one of the Neglected Tropical Diseases that is targeted for elimination by the World Health Organization. Strong health delivery system in endemic countries is required for a control program to eliminate this disease. In Zambia, Human African Trypanosomiasis is lowly endemic in the northeastern part of the country. FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of health institutions in Mpika district in Northern Province of Zambia from 9th to 23rd November 2011. The aim of this study was to assess current health delivery system in the management of Human African Trypanosomiasis cases in Mpika district, Northern Province of Zambia. Ten health institutions were covered in the survey. Two structured questionnaires targeting health workers were used to collect the data on general knowledge on HAT and state of health care facilities in relation to HAT management from the surveyed health institution.Only 46% of the 28 respondents scored more than 50% from the questionnaire on general knowledge about Human African Trypanosomiasis disease. None of the respondents knew how to differentiate the two clinical stages of Human African Trypanosomiasis disease. There were only three medical doctors to attend to all Human African Trypanosomiasis cases and other diseases at the only diagnostic and treatment hospital in Mpika district. The supply of antitrypanosomal drugs to the only treatment centre was erratic. Only one refresher course on Human African Trypanosomiasis case diagnosis and management for health staff in the district had been organized by the Ministry of Health in conjunction with the World Health Organization in the district in 2009. The referral system for suspected Human African Trypanosomiasis cases from Rural Health Centres (RHCs) to the diagnostic/treatment centre was inefficient. CONCLUSIONS: There are a number of challenges that have been identified and need to be addressed if Human African Trypanosomiasis is to be eliminated in a lowly endemic country such as Zambia. These include shortage of trained health workers, inadequate diagnostic and treatment centres, lack of more sensitive laboratory diagnostic techniques, shortage of trypanosomicides among others discussed in detail here.

Mwanakasale V; Songolo P; Daka V

2013-01-01

50

The stomach of the Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis).  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kafue lechwe is endemic to the Kafue Flats area of Zambia. It is semi-aquatic in habit, feeding upon grasses above and below the waterline. The volume of the lechwe rumen is 17 L in the male and 14 L in the female. It has strong and definite pillars. The interior of the rumen is papillated except in the roof area and on the pillars. The omasum has more than 70 laminae which are papillated on the reticular end. The anatomy of the lechwe stomach is similar to the stomachs of other water dependent grazers such as Bohor Reedbuck, Waterbuck, Uganda Kob and Puku. PMID:1796782

Stafford, K J; Stafford, Y M

1991-12-01

51

Dermatophilosis (Cutaneous streptothricosis) in Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Extensive dermatitis caused by Dermatophilus congolensis was identified in two kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) in Lochinvar National Park of Zambia. The lesions were characterized by thickening of the skin, crusts, and nodfule formation. Almost all parts of the body were affected. Histologically there was an exudative dermatitis with acanthosis, parakeratosis, hyperkeratosis, and an exudate rich in neutrophils. This is the first known report of dermatophilosis in lechwe.

Pandey GS; Mweene A; Suzuki AK; Nambota A; Kaji T

1994-10-01

52

Dermatophilosis (Cutaneous streptothricosis) in Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis).  

Science.gov (United States)

Extensive dermatitis caused by Dermatophilus congolensis was identified in two kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) in Lochinvar National Park of Zambia. The lesions were characterized by thickening of the skin, crusts, and nodfule formation. Almost all parts of the body were affected. Histologically there was an exudative dermatitis with acanthosis, parakeratosis, hyperkeratosis, and an exudate rich in neutrophils. This is the first known report of dermatophilosis in lechwe. PMID:7760496

Pandey, G S; Mweene, A; Suzuki, A K; Nambota, A; Kaji, T

1994-10-01

53

Failure to detect tuberculosis in Black lechwe antelopes (Kobus leche smithemani) in Zambia  

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Abstract Background Two types of lechwe antelopes exclusively exist in their natural ecosystems in Zambia; the Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani) and the Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis). Despite inhabiting similar ecosystems, tuberculosis has been reported ...

Munyeme Musso; Muma John B; Munang'andu Hetron M; Nalubamba King S; Kankya Clovice; Skjerve Eystein; Godfroid Jacques

54

Risk analysis of an anthrax outbreak in cattle and humans of Sesheke district of Western Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An anthrax outbreak occurred in November 2010 in five villages of Sesheke district in Western Zambia. Control measures and data collection was carried out immediately the outbreak was reported. The prevalence of the disease in cattle was estimated at 7.4% (45/609) while the average herd size of infected cattle in affected villages was estimated at 121.8 (95% CI 48.8-194.8). Individual mortality per herd varied between 1.70% (3/179) and 20.25% (6/79). The relative risk of infection of cattle in the five affected villages varied between 0.18 (95% CI 0.4-5.7) and 3.7 (95% CI 1.99-6.68). In humans, the disease only affected three people and was characterized by cutaneous carbuncles. The ratio of infected persons per number of infected carcasses varied between 1:37 and 1:49 in affected villages while the overall ratio of people at risk to the number of carcasses was 42:1 indicating that despite availability of a large number of carcasses, human contact with infected carcasses was low. The findings of this study underline the importance of timely disease control measures in reducing the risk of human infections to anthrax in the face of an outbreak.

Munang'andu HM; Banda F; Chikampa W; Mutoloki S; Syakalima M; Munyeme M

2012-11-01

55

Risk analysis of an anthrax outbreak in cattle and humans of Sesheke district of Western Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

An anthrax outbreak occurred in November 2010 in five villages of Sesheke district in Western Zambia. Control measures and data collection was carried out immediately the outbreak was reported. The prevalence of the disease in cattle was estimated at 7.4% (45/609) while the average herd size of infected cattle in affected villages was estimated at 121.8 (95% CI 48.8-194.8). Individual mortality per herd varied between 1.70% (3/179) and 20.25% (6/79). The relative risk of infection of cattle in the five affected villages varied between 0.18 (95% CI 0.4-5.7) and 3.7 (95% CI 1.99-6.68). In humans, the disease only affected three people and was characterized by cutaneous carbuncles. The ratio of infected persons per number of infected carcasses varied between 1:37 and 1:49 in affected villages while the overall ratio of people at risk to the number of carcasses was 42:1 indicating that despite availability of a large number of carcasses, human contact with infected carcasses was low. The findings of this study underline the importance of timely disease control measures in reducing the risk of human infections to anthrax in the face of an outbreak. PMID:22885011

Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Banda, Fredrick; Chikampa, Webster; Mutoloki, Stephen; Syakalima, Michelo; Munyeme, Musso

2012-08-02

56

Classification of the natural vegetation of Mtendere Game Ranch in the Chibombo District of the Central Province, Zambia  

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Full Text Available A phytosociological analysis of the physical environment and the natural plant communities of Mtendere Game Ranch in the Chibombo District of the Central Province of Zambia is presented. A TWINSPAN classification and DECORANA ordination based upon 69 releves revealed three vegetation types, grassland, woodland and thicket, that are subdivided into the following plant communities: Dambo, Munga Woodland, Miombo Woodland, Termitaria and Deciduous Thicket. The natural vegetation of Mtendere Game Ranch is separated into fire management units on the basis of the vegetation types.

A.E. Cauldwell; U. Zieger; M.G. Bingham; G.J. Bredenkamp

1998-01-01

57

Measuring health workers' motivation in rural health facilities: baseline results from three study districts in Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Health worker motivation can potentially affect the provision of health services. Low morale among the workforce can undermine the quality of service provision and drive workers away from the profession. While the presence of high-quality, motivated staff is a key aspect of health system performance, it is also one of the most difficult factors to measure. METHODS: We assessed health worker motivation as part of the baseline assessment for a health system strengthening intervention in three rural districts in Zambia. The intervention (Better Health Outcomes Through Mentoring and Assessment (BHOMA)) aims to increase health worker motivation through training, mentoring and support. We assessed motivation by examining underlying issues grouped around relevant outcome constructs such as job satisfaction, general motivation, burnout, organization commitment, conscientiousness and timeliness that collectively measure overall levels of motivation. The tools and the concepts have been used in high-income countries and they were recently applied in African settings to measure health worker motivation. RESULTS: Female participants had the highest motivation scores (female: mean 78.5 (SD 7.8) vs male: mean (SD 7.0)). By type of worker, nurses had the highest scores while environmental health technicians had the lowest score (77.4 (SD 7.8 vs 73.2 (SD 9.3)). Health workers who had been in post longer also had higher scores (>7 months). Health workers who had received some form of training in the preceding 12 months were more likely to have a higher score; this was also true for those older than 40 years when compared to those less than 40 years of age. The highest score values were noted in conscientiousness and timeliness, with all districts scoring above 80. CONCLUSIONS: This study evaluated motivation among rural health workers using a simple adapted tool to measure the concept of motivation. Results showed variation in motivation score by sex, type of health worker, training and time in post. Further research is needed to establish why these health worker attributes were associated with motivation and whether health system interventions targeting health workers, such as the current intervention, could influence health worker motivation.

Mutale W; Ayles H; Bond V; Mwanamwenge MT; Balabanova D

2013-01-01

58

Measuring health workers' motivation in rural health facilities: baseline results from three study districts in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Health worker motivation can potentially affect the provision of health services. Low morale among the workforce can undermine the quality of service provision and drive workers away from the profession. While the presence of high-quality, motivated staff is a key aspect of health system performance, it is also one of the most difficult factors to measure. Methods We assessed health worker motivation as part of the baseline assessment for a health system strengthening intervention in three rural districts in Zambia. The intervention (Better Health Outcomes Through Mentoring and Assessment (BHOMA)) aims to increase health worker motivation through training, mentoring and support. We assessed motivation by examining underlying issues grouped around relevant outcome constructs such as job satisfaction, general motivation, burnout, organization commitment, conscientiousness and timeliness that collectively measure overall levels of motivation. The tools and the concepts have been used in high-income countries and they were recently applied in African settings to measure health worker motivation. Results Female participants had the highest motivation scores (female: mean 78.5 (SD 7.8) vs male: mean (SD 7.0)). By type of worker, nurses had the highest scores while environmental health technicians had the lowest score (77.4 (SD 7.8 vs 73.2 (SD 9.3)). Health workers who had been in post longer also had higher scores (>7 months). Health workers who had received some form of training in the preceding 12 months were more likely to have a higher score; this was also true for those older than 40 years when compared to those less than 40 years of age. The highest score values were noted in conscientiousness and timeliness, with all districts scoring above 80. Conclusions This study evaluated motivation among rural health workers using a simple adapted tool to measure the concept of motivation. Results showed variation in motivation score by sex, type of health worker, training and time in post. Further research is needed to establish why these health worker attributes were associated with motivation and whether health system interventions targeting health workers, such as the current intervention, could influence health worker motivation.

2013-01-01

59

Thelazia rhodesii in the African Buffalo, Syncerus caffer, in Zambia  

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We report 2 cases of Thelazia rhodesii infection in the African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, in Zambia. African buffalo calves were captured from the livestock and wildlife interface area of the Kafue basin in the dry season of August 2005 for the purpose to translocate to game ranches. At capture, c...

Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Chembensofu, Mweelwa; Siamudaala, Victor M.; Munyeme, Musso; Matandiko, Wigganson

60

Condom availability in high risk places and condom use: a study at district level in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies from countries with severe HIV epidemics have found gaps in condom availability, even in places where there is a substantial potential for HIV transmission. Although reported condom use has increased in many African countries, there are often big differences by socioeconomic background. The aim of this study was to assess equity aspects of condom availability and uptake in three African districts to evaluate whether condom programmes are given sufficient priority. Methods Data on condom availability and use was examined in one district in Kenya, one in Tanzania and one in Zambia. The study was based on a triangulation of data collection methods in the three study districts: surveys in venues where people meet new sexual partners, population-based surveys and focus group discussions. The data was collected within an overall study on priority setting in health systems. Results At the time of the survey, condoms were observed in less than half of the high risk venues in two of the three districts and in 60% in the third district. Rural respondents in the population-based surveys perceived condoms to be less available and tended to be less likely to report condom use than urban respondents. Although focus group participants reported that condoms were largely available in their district, they expressed concerns related to the accessibility of free condoms. Conclusion As late as thirty years into the HIV epidemic there are still important gaps in the availability of condoms in places where people meet new sexual partners in these three African districts. Considering that previous studies have found that improved condom availability and accessibility in high risk places have a potential to increase condom use among people with multiple partners, the present study findings indicate that substantial further efforts should be made to secure that condoms are easily accessible in places where sexual relationships are initiated. Although condom distribution in drinking places has been pinpointed in the HIV/AIDS prevention strategies of all the three countries, its priority relative to other HIV/AIDS measures must be reassessed locally, nationally and regionally. In practical terms very clear supply chains of condoms to both formal and informal drinking places could make condom provision better and more reliable.

Sandøy Ingvild; Blystad Astrid; Shayo Elizabeth H; Makundi Emmanuel; Michelo Charles; Zulu Joseph; Byskov Jens

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Condom availability in high risk places and condom use : a study at district level in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background A number of studies from countries with severe HIV epidemics have found gaps in condom availability, even in places where there is a substantial potential for HIV transmission. Although reported condom use has increased in many African countries, there are often big differences by socioeconomic background. The aim of this study was to assess equity aspects of condom availability and uptake in three African districts to evaluate whether condom programmes are given sufficient priority. Methods Data on condom availability and use was examined in one district in Kenya, one in Tanzania and one in Zambia. The study was based on a triangulation of data collection methods in the three study districts: surveys in venues where people meet new sexual partners, population-based surveys and focus group discussions. The data was collected within an overall study on priority setting in health systems. Results At the time of the survey, condoms were observed in less than half of the high risk venues in two of the three districts and in 60% in the third district. Rural respondents in the population-based surveys perceived condoms to be less available and tended to be less likely to report condom use than urban respondents. Although focus group participants reported that condoms were largely available in their district, they expressed concerns related to the accessibility of free condoms. Conclusion As late as thirty years into the HIV epidemic there are still important gaps in the availability of condoms in places where people meet new sexual partners in these three African districts. Considering that previous studies have found that improved condom availability and accessibility in high risk places have a potential to increase condom use among people with multiple partners, the present study findings indicate that substantial further efforts should be made to secure that condoms are easily accessible in places where sexual relationships are initiated. Although condom distribution in drinking places has been pinpointed in the HIV/AIDS prevention strategies of all the three countries, its priority relative to other HIV/AIDS measures must be reassessed locally, nationally and regionally. In practical terms very clear supply chains of condoms to both formal and informal drinking places could make condom provision better and more reliable

SandØy, Ingvild Fossgard; Blystad, Astrid

2012-01-01

62

Brucella seroprevalence of the Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) and Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani): exposure associated to contact with cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated Brucella seroprevalence in Kafue (Kobus leche kafuensis) and Black (Kobus leche smithemani) lechwe antelopes to assess Brucella infections in relation to presence/absence of cattle interaction on the wetlands. Accordingly, two study populations based on cattle interaction were assesed: Kafue lechwe from Kafue flats which interact with cattle; and the Black lechwe with no known interaction with cattle from the Bangweulu swamps. Fourteen Kafue lechwe and thirty Black lechwe were slaughtered between October and December 2009 using special research licenses obtained from the Zambia wildlife authority to investigate diseases in lechwe antelope. For the purpose of this study, blood was collected and sera separated for Rose Bengal and indirect ELISA tests. Seroprevalence of Brucella in the Kafue lechwe was estimated at 42.9% [95% CI: 15.2-70.5] while that in Black lechwe was 0% [95% CI:0.0-11.6]. On the Kafue flats, cattle were spotted grazing in the same areas as lechwe while there was no evidence of cattle presence on the Bangweulu swamps. These differences in seroprevalence between Kafue lechwe and Black lechwe were assumed to be associated with interaction between Kafue lechwe and Brucella infected cattle, and no such contact existed between cattle and the Black lechwe. Our study suggests that brucellosis in the Kafue lechwe may have originated from cattle but has now established a reservoir in wild animals. It is also important to keep in mind that the Black lechwe can easily become infected with Brucella spp. once cattle are introduced in the surrounding areas. PMID:21536335

Muma, J B; Munyeme, M; Matope, G; Siamudaala, V M; Munang'andu, H M; Matandiko, W; Godfroid, J; Skjerve, E; Tryland, M

2011-05-01

63

Brucella seroprevalence of the Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) and Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani): exposure associated to contact with cattle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigated Brucella seroprevalence in Kafue (Kobus leche kafuensis) and Black (Kobus leche smithemani) lechwe antelopes to assess Brucella infections in relation to presence/absence of cattle interaction on the wetlands. Accordingly, two study populations based on cattle interaction were assesed: Kafue lechwe from Kafue flats which interact with cattle; and the Black lechwe with no known interaction with cattle from the Bangweulu swamps. Fourteen Kafue lechwe and thirty Black lechwe were slaughtered between October and December 2009 using special research licenses obtained from the Zambia wildlife authority to investigate diseases in lechwe antelope. For the purpose of this study, blood was collected and sera separated for Rose Bengal and indirect ELISA tests. Seroprevalence of Brucella in the Kafue lechwe was estimated at 42.9% [95% CI: 15.2-70.5] while that in Black lechwe was 0% [95% CI:0.0-11.6]. On the Kafue flats, cattle were spotted grazing in the same areas as lechwe while there was no evidence of cattle presence on the Bangweulu swamps. These differences in seroprevalence between Kafue lechwe and Black lechwe were assumed to be associated with interaction between Kafue lechwe and Brucella infected cattle, and no such contact existed between cattle and the Black lechwe. Our study suggests that brucellosis in the Kafue lechwe may have originated from cattle but has now established a reservoir in wild animals. It is also important to keep in mind that the Black lechwe can easily become infected with Brucella spp. once cattle are introduced in the surrounding areas.

Muma JB; Munyeme M; Matope G; Siamudaala VM; Munang'andu HM; Matandiko W; Godfroid J; Skjerve E; Tryland M

2011-07-01

64

Field observations of fish species susceptible to epizootic ulcerative syndrome in the Zambezi River basin in Sesheke District of Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A field investigation was conducted in the Sesheke District of Zambia along the Zambezi River to determine the fish species susceptible to epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS), a newly confirmed disease in Southern Africa. A total of 2,132 fishes were inspected for gross EUS-like lesions, of which 188 (8.82%; 95% CI=7.67-10.1%) were found with typical characteristic lesions of EUS. Of these 188 samples, 156 were found to have mycotic granulomas on histopathological analysis, representing 83.0% (95% CI=76.7-87.9%) of the initially identified in the laboratory through gross examination. The following 16 species of fish were examined and found with EUS lesions; Clarias ngamensis, Clarias gariepinus, Barbus poechii, Tilapia sparrmanii, Serranochromis angusticeps, Brycinus lateralis, Micralestes acutidens, Sargochromis carlottae, Hydrocynus vittatus, Phryngochromis acuticeps, Schilbe intermedius, Hepsetus odoe, Labeo lunatus, Oreochromis andersonii, Barbus unitaeniatus, and Barbus paludinosus. T. sparrmanii did not show any lesions, while the Clarias species were found to be the most afflicted with EUS. These results could be useful to fish farmers and organizations interested in improving aquaculture in the area.

Songe MM; Hang'ombe MB; Phiri H; Mwase M; Choongo K; Van der Waal B; Kanchanakhan S; Reantaso MB; Subasinghe RP

2012-01-01

65

Field observations of fish species susceptible to epizootic ulcerative syndrome in the Zambezi River basin in Sesheke District of Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A field investigation was conducted in the Sesheke District of Zambia along the Zambezi River to determine the fish species susceptible to epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS), a newly confirmed disease in Southern Africa. A total of 2,132 fishes were inspected for gross EUS-like lesions, of which 188 (8.82%; 95% CI=7.67-10.1%) were found with typical characteristic lesions of EUS. Of these 188 samples, 156 were found to have mycotic granulomas on histopathological analysis, representing 83.0% (95% CI=76.7-87.9%) of the initially identified in the laboratory through gross examination. The following 16 species of fish were examined and found with EUS lesions; Clarias ngamensis, Clarias gariepinus, Barbus poechii, Tilapia sparrmanii, Serranochromis angusticeps, Brycinus lateralis, Micralestes acutidens, Sargochromis carlottae, Hydrocynus vittatus, Phryngochromis acuticeps, Schilbe intermedius, Hepsetus odoe, Labeo lunatus, Oreochromis andersonii, Barbus unitaeniatus, and Barbus paludinosus. T. sparrmanii did not show any lesions, while the Clarias species were found to be the most afflicted with EUS. These results could be useful to fish farmers and organizations interested in improving aquaculture in the area. PMID:21647772

Songe, Mwansa M; Hang'ombe, Mudenda B; Phiri, Harris; Mwase, Maxwell; Choongo, Kennedy; Van der Waal, Ben; Kanchanakhan, Somkiat; Reantaso, Melba B; Subasinghe, Rohana P

2011-06-07

66

Application of Data-Driven Evidential Belief Functions to Prospectivity Mapping for Aquamarine-Bearing Pegmatites, Lundazi District, Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A case application of data-driven estimation of evidential belief functions (EBFs) is demonstrated to prospectivity mapping in Lundazi district (eastern Zambia). Spatial data used to represent recognition criteria of prospectivity for aquamarine-bearing pegmatites include mapped granites, mapped faults/fractures, mapped shear zones, and radioelement concentration ratios derived from gridded airborne radiometric data. Data-driven estimates EBFs take into account not only (a) spatial association between an evidential map layer and target deposits but also (b) spatial relationships between classes of evidences in an evidential map layer. Data-driven estimates of EBFs can indicate which spatial data provide positive or negative evidence of prospectivity. Data-driven estimates of EBFs of only spatial data providing positive evidence of prospectivity were integrated according to Dempster's rule of combination. Map of integrated degrees of belief was used to delineate zones of relative degress of prospectivity for aquamarine-bearing pegmatites. The predictive map has at least 85% prediction rate and at least 79% success rate of delineating training and validation deposits, respectively. The results illustrate usefulness of data-driven estimation of EBFs in GIS-based predictive mapping of mineral prospectivity. The results also show usefulness of EBFs in managing uncertainties associated with evidential maps

2005-01-01

67

Prevalence of hypertension and its correlates in Lusaka urban district of Zambia: a population based survey  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertension is a leading cause for ill-health, premature mortality and disability. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors for hypertension in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess relationships between hypertension and explanatory variables. Results A total of 1928 individuals participated in the survey, of which 33.0% were males. About a third of the respondents had attained secondary level education (35.8%), and 20.6% of males and 48.6% of females were overweight or obese. The prevalence for hypertension was 34.8% (38.0% of males and 33.3% of females). In multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with hypertension were: age, sex, body mass index, alcohol consumption, sedentary lifestyle, and fasting blood glucose level. Conclusions Health education and structural interventions to promote healthier lifestyles should be encouraged taking into account the observed associations of the modifiable risk factors.

Goma Fastone M; Nzala Selestine H; Babaniyi Olusegun; Songolo Peter; Zyaambo Cosmos; Rudatsikira Emmanuel; Siziya Seter; Muula Adamson S

2011-01-01

68

Lekking behavior in kafue lechwe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) exhibits lekking behavior in which a number of males occupy small territories clustered together in discrete areas where females go for mating. Similar behavior in antelope is known only in the Uganda kob (Kobus kob thomasi). Lechwe lekking occurs only during a main rutting season although some breeding occurs throughout the year.

Schuster RH

1976-06-01

69

Health care seeking behaviour and utilisation of health services in Kalabo District, Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Van 1997 tot 2001 werkte de auteur in het Zambiaanse gezondheidszorgsysteem en wel in het Kalabo District Hospital. In die tijd rezen bij hem vele vragen. Een aantal daarvan wordt in dit proefschrift behandeld en beantwoord. Het centrale thema is de tegenstelling tussen enerzijds de grote ziektelast...

Stekelenburg, J.

70

Trypanosoma brucei Infection in Asymptomatic Greater Kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a Game Ranch in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Trypomastogotes of Trypanosoma brucei were detected from 4 asymptomatic kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch located approximately 45 km north east of Lusaka, Zambia. Blood smears examined from 14 wildlife species comprising of the impala (Aepyceros melampus), Kafue lechwe (kobus leche k...

Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Munyeme, Musso; Nambota, Andrew; Mutoloki, Stephen; Matandiko, Wigganson

71

“The problem is ours, it is not CRAIDS’ ”. Evaluating sustainability of Community Based Organisations for HIV/AIDS in a rural district in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background While sustainability of health programmes has been the subject of empirical studies, there is little evidence specifically on the sustainability of Community Based Organisations (CBOs) for HIV/AIDS. Debates around optimal approaches in community health have centred on utilitarian versus empowerment approaches. This paper, using the World Bank Multi-Country AIDS Program (MAP) in Zambia as a case study, seeks to evaluate whether or not this global programme contributed to the sustainability of CBOs working in the area of HIV/AIDS in Zambia. Lessons for optimising sustainability of CBOs in lower income countries are drawn. Methods In-depth interviews with representatives of all CBOs that received CRAIDS funding (n = 18) and district stakeholders (n= 10) in Mumbwa rural district in Zambia, in 2010; and national stakeholders (n=6) in 2011. Results Funding: All eighteen CBOs in Mumbwa that received MAP funding between 2003 and 2008 had existed prior to receiving MAP grants, some from as early as 1992. This was contrary to national level perceptions that CBOs were established to access funds rather than from the needs of communities. Funding opportunities for CBOs in Mumbwa in 2010 were scarce. Health services: While all CBOs were functioning in 2010, most reported reductions in service provision. Home visits had reduced due to a shortage of food to bring to people living with HIV/AIDS and scarcity of funding for transport, which reduced antiretroviral treatment adherence support and transport of patients to clinics. Organisational capacity and viability: Sustainability had been promoted during MAP through funding Income Generating Activities. However, there was a lack of infrastructure and training to make these sustainable. Links between health facilities and communities improved over time, however volunteers’ skills levels had reduced. Conclusions Whilst the World Bank espoused the idea of sustainability in their plans, it remained on the periphery of their Zambia strategy. Assessments of need on the ground and accurate costings for sustainable service delivery, building on existing community strengths, are needed before projects commence. This study highlights the importance of enabling and building the capacity of existing CBOs and community structures, rather than creating new mechanisms.

Walsh Aisling; Mulambia Chishimba; Brugha Ruairi; Hanefeld Johanna

2012-01-01

72

"The problem is ours, it is not CRAIDS' ". Evaluating sustainability of Community Based Organisations for HIV/AIDS in a rural district in Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: While sustainability of health programmes has been the subject of empirical studies, there is little evidence specifically on the sustainability of Community Based Organisations (CBOs) for HIV/AIDS. Debates around optimal approaches in community health have centred on utilitarian versus empowerment approaches. This paper, using the World Bank Multi-Country AIDS Program (MAP) in Zambia as a case study, seeks to evaluate whether or not this global programme contributed to the sustainability of CBOs working in the area of HIV/AIDS in Zambia. Lessons for optimising sustainability of CBOs in lower income countries are drawn. METHODS: In-depth interviews with representatives of all CBOs that received CRAIDS funding (n = 18) and district stakeholders (n= 10) in Mumbwa rural district in Zambia, in 2010; and national stakeholders (n=6) in 2011. RESULTS: Funding: All eighteen CBOs in Mumbwa that received MAP funding between 2003 and 2008 had existed prior to receiving MAP grants, some from as early as 1992. This was contrary to national level perceptions that CBOs were established to access funds rather than from the needs of communities. Funding opportunities for CBOs in Mumbwa in 2010 were scarce.Health services: While all CBOs were functioning in 2010, most reported reductions in service provision. Home visits had reduced due to a shortage of food to bring to people living with HIV/AIDS and scarcity of funding for transport, which reduced antiretroviral treatment adherence support and transport of patients to clinics.Organisational capacity and viability: Sustainability had been promoted during MAP through funding Income Generating Activities. However, there was a lack of infrastructure and training to make these sustainable. Links between health facilities and communities improved over time, however volunteers' skills levels had reduced. CONCLUSIONS: Whilst the World Bank espoused the idea of sustainability in their plans, it remained on the periphery of their Zambia strategy. Assessments of need on the ground and accurate costings for sustainable service delivery, building on existing community strengths, are needed before projects commence. This study highlights the importance of enabling and building the capacity of existing CBOs and community structures, rather than creating new mechanisms.

Walsh A; Mulambia C; Brugha R; Hanefeld J

2012-01-01

73

A review of tuberculosis at the wildlife-livestock-human interface in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zambia's estimated incidence of all forms of human tuberculosis (TB) is 707/100,000. High prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) - infection with Mycobacterium bovis - in cattle and the Kafue lechwe antelopes (Kobus leche Kafuensis) has been reported in the Kafue basin. Consumption of unpasteurised milk and meat products from infected animals poses a risk of transmitting zoonotic tuberculosis to people living at the human-animal interface. Despite the reported high prevalence of BTB in both livestock and wildlife, information on the proportion of human patients infected with M. bovis is unknown in Zambia. This paper reviews the available information in English on human, livestock and wildlife TB in Zambia with the purpose of assessing the burden of animal infections with M. tuberculosis complex and its public health implications. PMID:23849550

Malama, Sydney; Muma, John Bwalya; Godfroid, Jacques

2013-07-09

74

A review of tuberculosis at the wildlife-livestock-human interface in Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Zambia's estimated incidence of all forms of human tuberculosis (TB) is 707/100,000. High prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) - infection with Mycobacterium bovis - in cattle and the Kafue lechwe antelopes (Kobus leche Kafuensis) has been reported in the Kafue basin. Consumption of unpasteurised milk and meat products from infected animals poses a risk of transmitting zoonotic tuberculosis to people living at the human-animal interface. Despite the reported high prevalence of BTB in both livestock and wildlife, information on the proportion of human patients infected with M. bovis is unknown in Zambia. This paper reviews the available information in English on human, livestock and wildlife TB in Zambia with the purpose of assessing the burden of animal infections with M. tuberculosis complex and its public health implications.

Malama S; Muma JB; Godfroid J

2013-01-01

75

A Review of Bovine Tuberculosis in the Kafue Basin Ecosystem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Kafue basin ecosystem is the only remaining natural habitat for the endangered Kafue lechwe antelope (Kobus leche Kafuensis). However, hydroelectricity power production, large-scale sugar plantations, commercial fishing and increasing livestock production are threatening its natural existence an...

Munyeme, Musso; Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba

76

Failure to detect tuberculosis in Black lechwe antelopes (Kobus leche smithemani) in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Two types of lechwe antelopes exclusively exist in their natural ecosystems in Zambia; the Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani) and the Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis). Despite inhabiting similar ecosystems, tuberculosis has been reported in Kafue lechwe without its documentation in Black lechwe antelopes. However, the past few decades have seen a drastic decline in both lechwe populations. Whereas studies have postulated that infectious diseases such as tuberculosis are having a negative impact on the Kafue lechwe population, no information is available on Black lechwe antelopes. Thus this study was conducted to investigate tuberculosis in Black lechwe antelopes of the Bangweulu swamps in comparison with the Kafue lechwe antelopes of Lochinvar. Findings A total of 44 lechwe antelopes (Black (n = 30): Kafue (n = 14) were sampled from Bangweulu and Lochinvar respectively. A positive case was defined with findings of gross lesions with Ziehl Nielsen and culture confirmation. Out of the 14 animals examined in Lochinvar, 21.4% [95% CI: 15.4, 44.4%] had necropsy lesions consistent with tuberculosis. The corresponding samples from 30 Black lechwe of Bangweulu yielded negative results on all the three tests. Conclusions Current findings from this study intimate the possible absence of tuberculosis in Black lechwe antelopes whilst confirming the presence of tuberculosis in Kafue lechwe of the Kafue basin. The absence of tuberculosis in the Black lechwe suggests that the observed population decline may not be caused by tuberculosis. However, without detailed molecular epidemiological studies it is not possible to determine the association of M. bovis infection in sympatric animal populations. The possible role of transmission of tuberculosis between wildlife and cattle is discussed herein. Findings

Munyeme Musso; Muma John B; Munang'andu Hetron M; Nalubamba King S; Kankya Clovice; Skjerve Eystein; Godfroid Jacques; Tryland Morten

2011-01-01

77

Failure to detect tuberculosis in Black lechwe antelopes (Kobus leche smithemani) in Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Two types of lechwe antelopes exclusively exist in their natural ecosystems in Zambia; the Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani) and the Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis). Despite inhabiting similar ecosystems, tuberculosis has been reported in Kafue lechwe without its documentation in Black lechwe antelopes. However, the past few decades have seen a drastic decline in both lechwe populations. Whereas studies have postulated that infectious diseases such as tuberculosis are having a negative impact on the Kafue lechwe population, no information is available on Black lechwe antelopes. Thus this study was conducted to investigate tuberculosis in Black lechwe antelopes of the Bangweulu swamps in comparison with the Kafue lechwe antelopes of Lochinvar. FINDINGS: A total of 44 lechwe antelopes (Black (n = 30): Kafue (n = 14) were sampled from Bangweulu and Lochinvar respectively. A positive case was defined with findings of gross lesions with Ziehl Nielsen and culture confirmation. Out of the 14 animals examined in Lochinvar, 21.4% [95% CI: 15.4, 44.4%] had necropsy lesions consistent with tuberculosis. The corresponding samples from 30 Black lechwe of Bangweulu yielded negative results on all the three tests. CONCLUSIONS: Current findings from this study intimate the possible absence of tuberculosis in Black lechwe antelopes whilst confirming the presence of tuberculosis in Kafue lechwe of the Kafue basin. The absence of tuberculosis in the Black lechwe suggests that the observed population decline may not be caused by tuberculosis. However, without detailed molecular epidemiological studies it is not possible to determine the association of M. bovis infection in sympatric animal populations. The possible role of transmission of tuberculosis between wildlife and cattle is discussed herein. Findings.

Munyeme M; Muma JB; Munang'andu HM; Nalubamba KS; Kankya C; Skjerve E; Godfroid J; Tryland M

2011-01-01

78

Helminths and bot fly larvae of wild ungulates on a game ranch in central province, Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Helminths and bot fly larvae were collected from 11 wild ungulate species on a game ranch in the Central Province of Zambia. New host-parasite records are: Calicophoron sp. from defassa waterbuck Kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa and Kafue lechwe Kobus leche kafuensis; Avitellina centripunctata, Gaigeria pachyscelis and Gedoelstia cristata from tsessebe Damaliscus lunatus lunatus; Cooperia rotundispiculum from common reedbuck Redunca arundinum; Dictyocaulus filaria from greater kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros; Dictyocaulus sp. from tsessebe and defassa waterbuck and Strobiloestrus sp. from sable antelope Hippotragus niger. Most of the other parasites collected are first records for Zambia and thus extend the distribution ranges of several species.

Zieger U; Boomker J; Cauldwell AE; Horak IG

1998-06-01

79

Helminths and bot fly larvae of wild ungulates on a game ranch in central province, Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Helminths and bot fly larvae were collected from 11 wild ungulate species on a game ranch in the Central Province of Zambia. New host-parasite records are: Calicophoron sp. from defassa waterbuck Kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa and Kafue lechwe Kobus leche kafuensis; Avitellina centripunctata, Gaigeria pachyscelis and Gedoelstia cristata from tsessebe Damaliscus lunatus lunatus; Cooperia rotundispiculum from common reedbuck Redunca arundinum; Dictyocaulus filaria from greater kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros; Dictyocaulus sp. from tsessebe and defassa waterbuck and Strobiloestrus sp. from sable antelope Hippotragus niger. Most of the other parasites collected are first records for Zambia and thus extend the distribution ranges of several species. PMID:9741058

Zieger, U; Boomker, J; Cauldwell, A E; Horak, I G

1998-06-01

80

Knowledge and disease management skills of cattle owners on East Coast Fever and Foot and Mouth Disease in Kazungula and Livingstone Districts of Zambia  

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Full Text Available Effective animal disease control and prevention should be based on accurate information from the field. Part of this field information can be obtained from the cattle owners. In order to assess their disease knowledge, a survey focusing on East Coast Fever (ECF) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) was organised among 302 cattle owners from the Kazungula and Livingstone Districts of the Southern Province of Zambia. The cattle owners' level of knowledge of ECF was low (34%) with most of those able to describe the disease belonging to the endemic zone where ECF caused high death rates in cattle. A larger proportion of the cattle owners (46%) were able to give an adequate description of FMD symptoms. It reached up to 61% in the FMD high-risk zone. Reporting to the animal health service providers appeared to be low. The results of the survey showed that attempts should be made to improve the cattle owners' knowledge and response to important diseases by carrying out more extension and sensitization activities. This is especially so in areas of low infection or where the disease was experienced long time ago.

Chisembele, C.

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Prevalence of trypanosomiasis in cattle in south-west Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A trypanosomiasis survey was conducted in South-West Zambia. From a total of 3,346 cattle sampled 342 cattle showed a positive trypanosomiasis parasitaemia. During the survey trypanosome species and PCV values were also recorded. With simple statistical analysis populations with higher and lower prevalence rates were differentiated. The results indicated that the Kwando River Basin Tsetse Fly Belt and the Kafue River Basin Tsetse Fly Belt infested a larger area than originally assumed and that a link-up between both belts occurred or will occur in the near future.

Corten JJ; ter Huurne AA; Moorhouse PD; de Rooij RC

1988-05-01

82

Systems thinking in practice: the current status of the six WHO building blocks for health system strengthening in three BHOMA intervention districts of Zambia: a baseline qualitative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The primary bottleneck to achieving the MDGs in low-income countries is health systems that are too fragile to deliver the volume and quality of services to those in need. Strong and effective health systems are increasingly considered a prerequisite to reducing the disease burden and to achieving the health MDGs. Zambia is one of the countries that are lagging behind in achieving millennium development targets. Several barriers have been identified as hindering the progress towards health related millennium development goals. Designing an intervention that addresses these barriers was crucial and so the Better Health Outcomes through Mentorship (BHOMA) project was designed to address the challenges in the Zambia's MOH using a system wide approach. We applied systems thinking approach to describe the baseline status of the Six WHO building blocks for health system strengthening. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted looking at the status of the Six WHO building blocks for health systems strengthening in three BHOMA districts. We conducted Focus group discussions with community members and In-depth Interviews with key informants. Data was analyzed using Nvivo version 9. RESULTS: The study showed that building block specific weaknesses had cross cutting effect in other health system building blocks which is an essential element of systems thinking. Challenges noted in service delivery were linked to human resources, medical supplies, information flow, governance and finance building blocks either directly or indirectly. Several barriers were identified as hindering access to health services by the local communities. These included supply side barriers: Shortage of qualified health workers, bad staff attitude, poor relationships between community and health staff, long waiting time, confidentiality and the gender of health workers. Demand side barriers: Long distance to health facility, cost of transport and cultural practices. Participating communities seemed to lack the capacity to hold health workers accountable for the drugs and services. CONCLUSION: The study has shown that building block specific weaknesses had cross cutting effect in other health system building blocks. These linkages emphasised the need to use system wide approaches in assessing the performance of health system strengthening interventions.

Mutale W; Bond V; Mwanamwenge MT; Mlewa S; Balabanova D; Spicer N; Ayles H

2013-01-01

83

Improving ability to identify malaria and correctly use chloroquine in children at household level in Nakonde District, Northern Province of Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated causes of malaria and how cases were managed at household level, in order to improve the ability to identify malaria and ensure correct use of chloroquine. It was conducted in Nakonde District, Northern Province of Zambia, between 2000 and 2001. Nakonde district is in a hyperendemic malaria province, where Plasmodium falciparum is predominant. The district has a total population of 153, 548 people, the majority of whom are peasant farmers. The main aim of the post intervention survey was to establish the proportion of caretakers of children five years and below, who were able to identify simple and severe malaria and treat it correctly using chloroquine in the home. Methods A baseline survey was conducted in five wards divided into intervention and control. Intervention and control wards were compared. Village health motivators and vendors were identified and trained in three intervention wards, as a channel through which information on correct chloroquine dose could be transmitted. A total of 575 carers, who were 15 years old and above and had a child who had suffered from malaria 14 days before the survey commenced, were interviewed. The two control wards received no intervention. 345 caretakers were from the intervention wards, while 230 came from the control wards. Identification of malaria and correct use of anti-malarial drugs was assessed in terms of household diagnosis of malaria in children under five years, type and dose of anti-malarial drugs used, self medication and the source of these anti-malarials. Results The majority of respondents in the study were females (81%). Chloroquine was the most frequently used anti-malarial (48.5%) in both the intervention and control wards. There was no difference between the intervention and control wards at pre-intervention (P = 0.266 and P = 0.956), in the way mothers and other caretakers identified simple and severe malaria. At baseline, knowledge on correct chloroquine dosage in the under five children was comparable between intervention and control wards. Post-intervention revealed that mothers and other caretakers were 32% and 51%, respectively, more likely to identify simple and severe malaria. There was a 60% increase on correct chloroquine dosage in all age groups among carers living in post-intervention wards. Conclusion Compliance with standard therapeutic doses and correct identification of malaria was poorest in control wards, where no motivators and vendors were trained.

Kaona Frederick AD; Tuba Mary

2003-01-01

84

Thelazia rhodesii in the African buffalo, Syncerus caffer, in Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report 2 cases of Thelazia rhodesii infection in the African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, in Zambia. African buffalo calves were captured from the livestock and wildlife interface area of the Kafue basin in the dry season of August 2005 for the purpose to translocate to game ranches. At capture, calves (n=48) were examined for the presence of eye infections by gently manipulating the orbital membranes to check for eye-worms in the conjunctival sacs and corneal surfaces. Two (4.3%) were infected and the mean infection burden per infected eye was 5.3 worms (n=3). The mean length of the worms was 16.4 mm (95% CI; 14.7-18.2 mm) and the diameter 0.41 mm (95% CI; 0.38-0.45 mm). The surface cuticle was made of transverse striations which gave the worms a characteristic serrated appearance. Although the calves showed signs of kerato-conjunctivitis, the major pathological change observed was corneal opacity. The calves were kept in quarantine and were examined thrice at 30 days interval. At each interval, they were treated with 200 µg/kg ivermectin, and then translocated to game ranches. Given that the disease has been reported in cattle and Kafue lechwe (Kobus lechwe kafuensis) in the area, there is a need for a comprehensive study which aims at determining the disease dynamics and transmission patterns of thelaziasis between wildlife and livestock in the Kafue basin.

Munang'andu HM; Chembensofu M; Siamudaala VM; Munyeme M; Matandiko W

2011-03-01

85

Mycobacterium bovis infection at the interface between domestic and wild animals in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In Zambia, the presence of bovine tuberculosis in both wild and domestic animals has long been acknowledged and mutual transmission between them has been predicted without any direct evidence. Elucidation of the circulating Mycobacterium bovis strains at wild and domestic animals interphase area in Zambia, where bovine tuberculosis was diagnosed in wildlife seemed to be important. Results A PCR identified 15 and 37 M. bovis isolates from lechwe and cattle, respectively. Spoligotype analysis revealed that M. bovis strains from lechwe and cattle in Kafue basin clustered into a major node SB0120, where isolates outside the Kafue basin clustered into different nodes of SB0131 and SB0948. The comparatively higher variety of strains in cattle compared to lechwe elucidated by Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units–Variable Number Tandem Repeats analyses are consistent with cattle being the probable source of M. bovis in wild and domestic animals interphase area in Zambia. Conclusions These results provide strong evidence of M. bovis strains transfer between cattle and lechwe, with the latter having developed into a sylvatic reservoir host.

Hang’ombe Mudenda B; Munyeme Musso; Nakajima Chie; Fukushima Yukari; Suzuki Haruka; Matandiko Wigganson; Ishii Akihiro; Mweene Aaron S; Suzuki Yasuhiko

2012-01-01

86

A Review of Bovine Tuberculosis in the Kafue Basin Ecosystem  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kafue basin ecosystem is the only remaining natural habitat for the endangered Kafue lechwe antelope (Kobus leche Kafuensis). However, hydroelectricity power production, large-scale sugar plantations, commercial fishing and increasing livestock production are threatening its natural existence and sustainability. Further, increasing human settlements within and around the Kafue basin have resulted in decreased grazing grounds for the Kafue lechwe antelopes despite a corresponding increase in cattle population sharing the same pasture. Baseline epidemiological data have persistently reported findings of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in both wild and domestic animals, although these have been deficient in terms of describing direct evidence in the role of either lechwe antelopes or cattle in the reported observations. Despite the current literature being deficient in establishing the casual role and transmission patterns of BTB, a bimodal route of infection at the livestock/wildlife interface has been postulated. Likewise, it is not known how much of (BTB) has the potential of causing disease in humans. This paper, seeks to underline those aspects that need further research and update available data on BTB in the Kafue basin with regards to the prevalence, distribution, risk factors, threats on wildlife conservation, livestock production, public health implications, and possible mitigatory measures.

Munyeme, Musso; Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba

2011-01-01

87

A review of bovine tuberculosis in the kafue basin ecosystem.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Kafue basin ecosystem is the only remaining natural habitat for the endangered Kafue lechwe antelope (Kobus leche Kafuensis). However, hydroelectricity power production, large-scale sugar plantations, commercial fishing and increasing livestock production are threatening its natural existence and sustainability. Further, increasing human settlements within and around the Kafue basin have resulted in decreased grazing grounds for the Kafue lechwe antelopes despite a corresponding increase in cattle population sharing the same pasture. Baseline epidemiological data have persistently reported findings of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in both wild and domestic animals, although these have been deficient in terms of describing direct evidence in the role of either lechwe antelopes or cattle in the reported observations. Despite the current literature being deficient in establishing the casual role and transmission patterns of BTB, a bimodal route of infection at the livestock/wildlife interface has been postulated. Likewise, it is not known how much of (BTB) has the potential of causing disease in humans. This paper, seeks to underline those aspects that need further research and update available data on BTB in the Kafue basin with regards to the prevalence, distribution, risk factors, threats on wildlife conservation, livestock production, public health implications, and possible mitigatory measures.

Munyeme M; Munang'andu HM

2011-01-01

88

Quality of child health care and under-five-mortality in Zambia:: A case study of two districts in Luapula Province  

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Full Text Available This study was intended to investigate the factors associated with the high under-five mortality in one province of Zambia. Specifically the study (a) Identifies predominant traditional cultural beliefs and perceptions concerning main causes of child deaths; (b) assesses quality of health care services; and, (c) determines the causes of death among children under-five years. Multiple data collection instruments were used to collect the necessary information about 360 deaths. Findings indicate that most children died before the second year of life with more than 50% dying before their first birthday. The paper argues that most of the deaths could have been averted had quality health care been provided. Recommendations on how to improve child health care provision are provided.

Augustus Kapungwe

2005-01-01

89

The Zambia Initiative  

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Full Text Available In rural Zambia refugees and host communities are working together to move from relief dependence to self reliance. Could UNHCR’s Zambia Initiative (ZI) be a model for other countries struggling to cope with the protracted presence of refugees?

Masaki Watabe

2005-01-01

90

Private sector involvement in the control of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in the Kazungula district of Zambia benefitted the community and the control strategy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a disease of economic importance that is widely distributed in sub-Saharan African and contributes significantly to cattle morbidity and mortality. Lack of resources to implement eradication measures has led to the disease becoming endemic in most areas in sub-Saharan Africa where governments have little resources and the majority of the people are poor. Usually, control and eradication of such diseases as CBPP is treated as a public good by governments and to achieve this, governments are usually assisted by nongovernment organisations, bilateral government programmes and international donors. The private sector, which usually is companies that run businesses to make profit, although not very well established in sub-Saharan Africa could play a big role in the eradication of CBPP in the region. This could play a dual role of promoting investment and also eradicate livestock diseases which have proved a menace in the livestock sector. This paper highlights the role played by the private sector in the control of CBPP in Zambia.

Muuka GM; Songolo N; Kabilika S; Fandamu P; Buonavoglia D; Scacchia M

2013-03-01

91

Detection of Theileria parva antibodies in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A serolocigical survey was conducted for the detection of Theileria parva antibodies in 176 African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) sampled between 1996 and 2005 in livestock-wildlife interface areas of Zambia. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus species, and Amblyomma variegatum were the most abundant tick species identified on buffaloes. T. parva sero-positives were reported in buffaloes sampled from game management areas at Mlanga and Nanzhila bordering the Kafue National Parks and in the Lochnivar National Park while buffaloes sampled from Lower Zambezi National Park were sero-negative. Given that Game Management Areas serve as interface areas that permit the co-existence of livestock and wildlife in similar ecological habitats our findings suggest that buffaloes could play a significant role in the epidemiology of theileriosis in livestock-wildlife interface areas. Thus far, the disease has only been reported in livestock and is herein being reported in the African buffalo for the first time in Zambia. PMID:19733007

Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Matandiko, Wigganson; Mulumba, Misheck; Nambota, Andrew; Munyeme, Musso; Mutoloki, Stephen; Nonga, Hezron

2009-08-14

92

Detection of Theileria parva antibodies in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A serolocigical survey was conducted for the detection of Theileria parva antibodies in 176 African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) sampled between 1996 and 2005 in livestock-wildlife interface areas of Zambia. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus species, and Amblyomma variegatum were the most abundant tick species identified on buffaloes. T. parva sero-positives were reported in buffaloes sampled from game management areas at Mlanga and Nanzhila bordering the Kafue National Parks and in the Lochnivar National Park while buffaloes sampled from Lower Zambezi National Park were sero-negative. Given that Game Management Areas serve as interface areas that permit the co-existence of livestock and wildlife in similar ecological habitats our findings suggest that buffaloes could play a significant role in the epidemiology of theileriosis in livestock-wildlife interface areas. Thus far, the disease has only been reported in livestock and is herein being reported in the African buffalo for the first time in Zambia.

Munang'andu HM; Siamudaala V; Matandiko W; Mulumba M; Nambota A; Munyeme M; Mutoloki S; Nonga H

2009-12-01

93

Zambia’s economy: 1964-2004  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Everyone knew, of course, that the copper price is purely the result of external factors. Yet, in post-independence Zambia there was no feeling whatsoever that “seven years of plenteousness” (Joseph in Egypt) might be followed by many more than seven years of famine. Six years after independence the...

Gaay Fortman, B. de

94

Zambia country study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Zambia Country Study, which was part of the Danida-funded project Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa: Phase 2, aimed at methodological development, national mitigation analysis and institutional capacity building in Zambia. The study comprised the following five elements: Comprehensive evaluation of national social and economic development framework for climate change; Baseline scenario(s) projection(s); Mitigation scenario(s) projection(s); Macro-economic assessment; Implementation Issues. (au) 17 refs.

1999-09-01

95

Rural energy survey in Zambezi, Zambia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is a preliminary presentation of the results and experiences obtained during a study in Zambia. The study is one of the major parts of the Ph.D. project - Methods for Assessment of Energy Projects in Developing Countries - currently being performed by the author at the Systms Analysis Department, Risoe National Laboratory, in collaboration with the Technical University of Denmark. This study, as well as the rest of the Project, is organized in close collaboration with the Department of Energy in Lusaka, Zambia, where the Rural and Household Energy Devleopment Section has integrated the project in its plans. Silvester Hibajene from the section participated in the 3 weeks of data collection in the district of Zambezi.

Christensen, J.M.; Kocsis, K.; Petersen, H. (eds.)

1987-05-01

96

Ecology and productivity of an African wetland system: The Kafue, Zambia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book discusses the main ecological processes in African floodplain grasslands. It researches the structure of the various types of grasslands, and their correlation with the environmental factors operating in the floodplain ecosystem. From detailed measurements of structure and biomass it estimates primary production in various habitats. It also surveys the impact of disturbing factors like grazing and fires and discusses the year to year variation in the ecosystems.

Ellenbroek, G.A.

1987-01-01

97

Rift Valley fever: Real or perceived threat for Zambia?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Zambia was first reported in 1974 during an epizootic of cattle and sheep that occurred in parts of Central, Southern and Copperbelt Provinces. In 1990, the disease was documented in nine districts of the provinces of Zambia. In the last two decades, there have been no reports of RVF. This long period without reported clinical disease raises questions as to whether RVF is a current or just a perceived threat. To address this question, World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) disease occurrence data on RVF for the period 2005-2010 in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) was analysed. From the analysis, it was evident that most countries that share a common border with Zambia had reported at least one occurrence of the disease during the period under review. Due to the absence of natural physical barriers between Zambia and most of her neighbours, informal livestock trade and movements is a ubiquitous reality. Analysis of the rainfall patterns also showed that Zambia received rains sufficient to support a mosquito population large enough for high risk of RVF transmission. The evidence of disease occurrence in nearby countries coupled with animal movement, and environmental risk suggests that RVF is a serious threat to Zambia. In conclusion, the current occurrence of RVF in Zambia is unclear, but there are sufficient indications that the magnitude of the circulating infection is such that capacity building in disease surveillance and courses on recognition of the disease for field staff is recommended. Given the zoonotic potential of RVF, these measures are also a prerequisite for accurate assessment of the disease burden in humans.

Dautu G; Sindato C; Mweene AS; Samui KL; Roy P; Noad R; Paweska J; Majiwa PA; Musoke A

2012-01-01

98

Rift Valley fever: Real or perceived threat for Zambia?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Zambia was first reported in 1974 during an epizootic of cattle and sheep that occurred in parts of Central, Southern and Copperbelt Provinces. In 1990, the disease was documented in nine districts of the provinces of Zambia. In the last two decades, there have been no reports of RVF. This long period without reported clinical disease raises questions as to whether RVF is a current or just a perceived threat. To address this question, World Orga (more) nisation for Animal Health (OIE) disease occurrence data on RVF for the period 2005-2010 in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) was analysed. From the analysis, it was evident that most countries that share a common border with Zambia had reported at least one occurrence of the disease during the period under review. Due to the absence of natural physical barriers between Zambia and most of her neighbours, informal livestock trade and movements is a ubiquitous reality. Analysis of the rainfall patterns also showed that Zambia received rains sufficient to support a mosquito population large enough for high risk of RVF transmission. The evidence of disease occurrence in nearby countries coupled with animal movement, and environmental risk suggests that RVF is a serious threat to Zambia. In conclusion, the current occurrence of RVF in Zambia is unclear, but there are sufficient indications that the magnitude of the circulating infection is such that capacity building in disease surveillance and courses on recognition of the disease for field staff is recommended. Given the zoonotic potential of RVF, these measures are also a prerequisite for accurate assessment of the disease burden in humans.

Dautu, George; Sindato, Calvin; Mweene, Aaron S.; Samui, Kenny L.; Roy, Polly; Noad, Robert; Paweska, Janusz; Majiwa, Phelix A.O.; Musoke, Antony J.

2012-01-01

99

Trypanosoma brucei Infection in asymptomatic greater Kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch in Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Trypomastogotes of Trypanosoma brucei were detected from 4 asymptomatic kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch located approximately 45 km north east of Lusaka, Zambia. Blood smears examined from 14 wildlife species comprising of the impala (Aepyceros melampus), Kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis), sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), tsessebe (Damaliscus lunatus), warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), puku (Kobus vardoni), zebra (Equus burchelli), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), reedbuck (Redunca arundinum), wilderbeest (Connochaetes taurinus), hartebeest (Alcephelus lichtensteini), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) showed that only the kudu had T. brucei. Although game ranching has emerged to be a successful ex-situ conservation strategy aimed at saving the declining wildlife population in the National Parks, our findings suggest that it has the potential of aiding the re-distribution of animal diseases. Hence, there is a need for augmenting wildlife conservation with disease control strategies aimed at reducing the risk of disease transmission between wildlife and domestic animals.

Munang'andu HM; Siamudaala V; Munyeme M; Nambota A; Mutoloki S; Matandiko W

2010-03-01

100

Trypanosoma brucei Infection in asymptomatic greater Kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trypomastogotes of Trypanosoma brucei were detected from 4 asymptomatic kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch located approximately 45 km north east of Lusaka, Zambia. Blood smears examined from 14 wildlife species comprising of the impala (Aepyceros melampus), Kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis), sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), tsessebe (Damaliscus lunatus), warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), puku (Kobus vardoni), zebra (Equus burchelli), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), reedbuck (Redunca arundinum), wilderbeest (Connochaetes taurinus), hartebeest (Alcephelus lichtensteini), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) showed that only the kudu had T. brucei. Although game ranching has emerged to be a successful ex-situ conservation strategy aimed at saving the declining wildlife population in the National Parks, our findings suggest that it has the potential of aiding the re-distribution of animal diseases. Hence, there is a need for augmenting wildlife conservation with disease control strategies aimed at reducing the risk of disease transmission between wildlife and domestic animals. PMID:20333288

Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Munyeme, Musso; Nambota, Andrew; Mutoloki, Stephen; Matandiko, Wigganson

2010-03-18

 
 
 
 
101

Citizens Forum Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Zambia embraced plural politics in 1991. The multi-party democracy has, however, not yet brought stable and mature politics and governance to the country. Almost two decades after its introduction, it is still not clear whose interests Zambian politics really serve. The country’s citizens have large...

Kabanda, S.

102

A qualitative study to identify community structures for management of severe malaria: a basis for introducing rectal artesunate in the under five years children in Nakonde District of Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a serious illness among children aged 5 years and below in Zambia, which carries with it many adverse effects including anemia and high parasites exposure that lead to infant and childhood mortality. Due to poor accessibility to modern health facilities, malaria is normally managed at home using indigenous and cosmopolitan medicines. In view of problems and implications associated with management of severe malaria at home, rectal artesunate is being proposed as a first aid drug to slow down multiplication of parasites in children before accessing appropriate treatment. Methods A qualitative study using standardised in-depth and Focuss Group Discussions (FGDs) guides to collect information from four (4) villages in Nakonde district, was conducted between February and March 2004. The guides were administered on 29 key informants living in the community and those whose children were admitted in the health facility. Participants in the 12 FGDs came from the 4 participating villages. Participants and key informants were fathers, younger and older mothers including grandmothers and other influential people at household level. Others were traditional healers, headmen, village secretaries, tradtional birth attendants, church leaders and black smiths. FGDs and interview transcriptions were coded to identify common themes that were related to recognition, classification and naming of malaria illness, care-seeking behaviour and community treatment practices for severe malaria. Results Parental prior knowledge of the disease was important as the majority of informants (23 out of 29) and participants (69 out of 97) mentioned four combined symptoms that were used to recognise severe malaria. The symptoms were excessive body hotness, convulsions, vomiting yellow things and bulging of the fontanelle. On the other hand, all informants mentioned two or more of symptoms associated with severe malaria. In all 12 FGDs, participants reported that treatment of severe malaria commenced with the family and moved into the community as the illness progressed. Although treatment of severe diarrheal effects, were common among the winamwanga, no rectal medicines to treat severe malaria were identified. Apart from the anti-malarial fansidar, which was mentioned by 23 in IDIs and 40 in FGDs, participants and informants also frequently mentioned indigenous medicines provided by healers and other respectable herbalists for repelling evil spirits, once a child had severe malaria. Mothers were the important arms for administration of ant-malarial drugs in the villages. Referrals began with healers to CHWs, where no CHWs existed healers directly referred sick children to the health facility. Conclusion Our findings showed that there is a precedent for rectal application of traditional medicine for childhood illness. Therefore rectal artesunate may be a well-received intervention in Nakonde District, provided effective sensitisation, to mothers and CHWs is given which will strengthen the health care delivery system at community level.

Kaona Frederick AD; Tuba Mary

2005-01-01

103

A qualitative study to identify community structures for management of severe malaria: a basis for introducing rectal artesunate in the under five years children in Nakonde District of Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Malaria is a serious illness among children aged 5 years and below in Zambia, which carries with it many adverse effects including anemia and high parasites exposure that lead to infant and childhood mortality. Due to poor accessibility to modern health facilities, malaria is normally managed at home using indigenous and cosmopolitan medicines. In view of problems and implications associated with management of severe malaria at home, rectal artesunate is being proposed as a first aid drug to slow down multiplication of parasites in children before accessing appropriate treatment. METHODS: A qualitative study using standardised in-depth and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) guides to collect information from four (4) villages in Nakonde district, was conducted between February and March 2004. The guides were administered on 29 key informants living in the community and those whose children were admitted in the health facility. Participants in the 12 FGDs came from the 4 participating villages. Participants and key informants were fathers, younger and older mothers including grandmothers and other influential people at household level. Others were traditional healers, headmen, village secretaries, traditional birth attendants, church leaders and blacksmiths. FGDs and interview transcriptions were coded to identify common themes that were related to recognition, classification and naming of malaria illness, care-seeking behaviour and community treatment practices for severe malaria. RESULTS: Parental prior knowledge of the disease was important as the majority of informants (23 out of 29) and participants (69 out of 97) mentioned four combined symptoms that were used to recognise severe malaria. The symptoms were excessive body hotness, convulsions, vomiting yellow things and bulging of the fontanelle. On the other hand, all informants mentioned two or more of symptoms associated with severe malaria. In all 12 FGDs, participants reported that treatment of severe malaria commenced with the family and moved into the community as the illness progressed. Although treatment of severe diarrheal effects, were common among the Winamwanga, no rectal medicines to treat severe malaria were identified. Apart from the anti-malarial fansidar, which was mentioned by 23 in IDIs and 40 in FGDs, participants and informants also frequently mentioned indigenous medicines provided by healers and other respectable herbalists for repelling evil spirits, once a child had severe malaria. Mothers were the important arms for administration of ant-malarial drugs in the villages. Referrals began with healers to CHWs, where no CHWs existed healers directly referred sick children to the health facility. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that there is a precedent for rectal application of traditional medicine for childhood illness. Therefore rectal artesunate may be a well-received intervention in Nakonde District, provided effective sensitisation, to mothers and CHWs is given which will strengthen the health care delivery system at community level.

Kaona FA; Tuba M

2005-03-01

104

Heavy Metal Contaminated Food Crops Irrigated with Wastewater in Peri Urban Areas, Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies on peri urban farming in Zambia have not adequately tackled the issues pertaining to heavy metal contaminated wastewater irrigation farming. The study investigated heavy metal contamination of water, soils and crops at two peri urban areas in Zambia. Two study sites were New Farm Extension in Mufulira Town in the Copperbelt Province and Chilumba Gardens in Kafue Town in Lusaka Province. The heavy metals investigated were lead, copper, cobalt, nickel and chromium. These heavy metals were found to be higher than acceptable limits in wastewater used to irrigate crops and there are potential human health risks associated with consumption of heavy metal contaminated food crops which have implications on the livelihoods of people. Samples of water, soil and crops were collected and analysed for lead (Pb), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co) and nickel (Ni) using the Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The data on heavy metals was analysed using mean, standard error and T-test. The results indicated that the levels of heavy metals in wastewater, soil and food crops were above acceptable limits at two study sites. It can be concluded that there was heavy metal contamination of wastewater, soil and food crops at the two peri-urban areas in Zambia. The study highlighted the actual levels of heavy metal contaminant uptake in food crops consumed by the peri urban population. The information from this study can be used by the relevant authorities to develop appropriate measures for monitoring and control of heavy metal contamination in wastewater irrigation farming systems in peri urban areas inZambia.

Evaristo Mwaba Kapungwe

2013-01-01

105

Detection of parasites and parasitic infections of free-ranging wildlife on a game ranch in zambia: a challenge for disease control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ex-situ conservancies are expanding alternatives to livestock production in Zambia albeit the lack of information on circulating infectious parasites from wildlife. Therefore, 12 wildlife species were examined on a game ranch were all species were found to be infected by Rhipecephalus spp. Haemoparasite infections were estimated at 7.37% (n = 95) with Babesia spp. detected in bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus); Anaplasma marginale in impala (Aepyceros melampus) and puku (Kobus vardonii) for the first time in Zambia. The majority of worm species isolated from bovids were not detected in equids and, vice versa. Our findings intimate ecological and behavioural patterns of some animals as deterministic to exposure. Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) had the widest range of worm species with more infected organs than other animals suggesting their semi aquatic nature contributory to prolonged worm exposure compared to other animals. On the other hand, Kafue lechwe had the least tick infections attributable more to shorter attachment periods as they spend prolonged periods submerged in water. Our findings indicate the vital role that wildlife plays in the epidemiology of parasitic diseases. To reduce the infection burden, control measures should be focused on reducing transmission to highly susceptible animal species as described herein. PMID:22701163

Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor M; Munyeme, Musso; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo

2012-05-31

106

Detection of Parasites and Parasitic Infections of Free-Ranging Wildlife on a Game Ranch in Zambia: A Challenge for Disease Control  

Science.gov (United States)

Ex-situ conservancies are expanding alternatives to livestock production in Zambia albeit the lack of information on circulating infectious parasites from wildlife. Therefore, 12 wildlife species were examined on a game ranch were all species were found to be infected by Rhipecephalus spp. Haemoparasite infections were estimated at 7.37% (n = 95) with Babesia spp. detected in bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus); Anaplasma marginale in impala (Aepyceros melampus) and puku (Kobus vardonii) for the first time in Zambia. The majority of worm species isolated from bovids were not detected in equids and, vice versa. Our findings intimate ecological and behavioural patterns of some animals as deterministic to exposure. Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) had the widest range of worm species with more infected organs than other animals suggesting their semi aquatic nature contributory to prolonged worm exposure compared to other animals. On the other hand, Kafue lechwe had the least tick infections attributable more to shorter attachment periods as they spend prolonged periods submerged in water. Our findings indicate the vital role that wildlife plays in the epidemiology of parasitic diseases. To reduce the infection burden, control measures should be focused on reducing transmission to highly susceptible animal species as described herein.

Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor M.; Munyeme, Musso; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo

2012-01-01

107

Detection of parasites and parasitic infections of free-ranging wildlife on a game ranch in zambia: a challenge for disease control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ex-situ conservancies are expanding alternatives to livestock production in Zambia albeit the lack of information on circulating infectious parasites from wildlife. Therefore, 12 wildlife species were examined on a game ranch were all species were found to be infected by Rhipecephalus spp. Haemoparasite infections were estimated at 7.37% (n = 95) with Babesia spp. detected in bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus); Anaplasma marginale in impala (Aepyceros melampus) and puku (Kobus vardonii) for the first time in Zambia. The majority of worm species isolated from bovids were not detected in equids and, vice versa. Our findings intimate ecological and behavioural patterns of some animals as deterministic to exposure. Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) had the widest range of worm species with more infected organs than other animals suggesting their semi aquatic nature contributory to prolonged worm exposure compared to other animals. On the other hand, Kafue lechwe had the least tick infections attributable more to shorter attachment periods as they spend prolonged periods submerged in water. Our findings indicate the vital role that wildlife plays in the epidemiology of parasitic diseases. To reduce the infection burden, control measures should be focused on reducing transmission to highly susceptible animal species as described herein.

Munang'andu HM; Siamudaala VM; Munyeme M; Nalubamba KS

2012-01-01

108

Callings, work role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement among teachers in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our aim in this study was to investigate the relationships among a calling orientation, work role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement of teachers in Zambia. A quantitative approach was followed and a cross-sectional survey was used. The sample (n = 150) included 75 basic and 75 secondary school teachers in the Choma district of Zambia. The Work Role Fit Scale, Work-Life Questionnaire, Psychological Meaningfulness Scale, and Work Engagement Scale were administered. Structural equation modelling confirmed a model in which a calling orientation impacted psychological meaningfulness and work engagement significantly. A calling orientation impacted work engagement directly, while such work orientation impacted psychological meaningfulness indirectly via work role fit. The results suggest that it is necessary to address the work orientation and work role fit of teachers in Zambia as pathways to psychological meaningfulness and work engagement.These results have implications for the recruitment, selection, training, and development of teachers in Zambia.

Sebastiaan Rothmann; Lukondo Hamukang'andu

2013-01-01

109

Karoo stratigraphy in part of western Zambia; results of a reconnaissance coal exploration programme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Six diamond-drill boreholes sunk near the eastern margin of the Barntse basin in western Zambia gave considerable further detail of the Karoo succession. This, with new palaeontological and palynological information, enabled the development of a more refined stratigraphic subdivision of the Karoo Supergroup. The Lower Karoo Group strata rest on schists or on adamellite and comprise the Kafue Hook Basal Formation, Chunga Carconaceous Formation, Tatayoyo Argillite Formation and Kahare Siltstone Formation. The Upper Karoo Group comprises the Nkoya Grit Formation, Kato Mudstone Formation, Luena Sandstone Formation and, uppermost, the Batoka Basalt Formation. Kalanari Group sands overlie the Karoo rocks in the more westerly boreholes. The Karoo succession is similar to that found in neighbouring parts of Botswana and represents a complete but condensed succession as compared with successions in the other Karoo basins within Zambia. The maximum thickness of Karoo sediments beneath the Batoka Basalt Formation is estimated at about 525 m. There is evidence for Upper Karoo and post-Karoo faulting. Carbonaceous horizons were intersected in all boreholes except GS265 (not completed) and a 4.4 m (nominal thickness) seam of high-ash (24 per cent.) coal was encountered in borehole GS262. More information is needed before the general distribution and quality of coal in the area can be assessed.

Johns, C.C.

1986-01-01

110

Sarcoptes mite epidemiology and treatment in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) calves captured for translocation from the Kafue game management area to game ranches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In Zambia, translocation of wildlife from National Parks to private owned game ranches demands that only animals free of infectious diseases that could adversely affect the expansion of the wildlife industry should be translocated to game ranches. Sarcoptes mange (Sarcoptes scarbiei) has been involved in the reduction of wildlife populations in some species. Results Sarcoptes mange (Sarcoptes scarbiei) was detected and eradicated from two herds of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) calves captured in the Kafue GMA in July 2004 and August 2005. The overall prevalence was estimated at 89.5% (77/86). Sex had no influence on the occurrence and severity of the disease. Of the 86 calves used in the study, 72.1% had good body condition scores, 20.9% were fair and 7.0% were poor. Of the 77 infected calves, 53.2% were mildly infected, 28.6% were moderately and 18.2% were severely infected. Body condition score was correlated to the severity of the infection (r = 0.72, p n = 86) at capture. Eradication of Sarcoptes mites from the entire herd using ivermetcin was dependant on the severity of the infection. The overall ability of ivermectin to clear the infection after the first treatment was estimated at 81.8% (n = 77). It increased to 94.8% and 100% after the second and third treatments respectively. Conclusion This is the first report on the epidemiology and treatment of Sarcoptes mange in African buffaloes in Zambia. This study improves our understanding about Sarcoptes scabiei epidemiology and treatment which will have further applications for the safe animal translocation.

Munang'andu Hetron M; Siamudaala Victor M; Matandiko Wigganson; Munyeme Musso; Chembensofu Mwelwa; Mwase Enala

2010-01-01

111

Sarcoptes mite epidemiology and treatment in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) calves captured for translocation from the Kafue game management area to game ranches.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In Zambia, translocation of wildlife from National Parks to private owned game ranches demands that only animals free of infectious diseases that could adversely affect the expansion of the wildlife industry should be translocated to game ranches. Sarcoptes mange (Sarcoptes scarbiei) has been involved in the reduction of wildlife populations in some species. RESULTS: Sarcoptes mange (Sarcoptes scarbiei) was detected and eradicated from two herds of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) calves captured in the Kafue GMA in July 2004 and August 2005. The overall prevalence was estimated at 89.5% (77/86). Sex had no influence on the occurrence and severity of the disease. Of the 86 calves used in the study, 72.1% had good body condition scores, 20.9% were fair and 7.0% were poor. Of the 77 infected calves, 53.2% were mildly infected, 28.6% were moderately and 18.2% were severely infected. Body condition score was correlated to the severity of the infection (r = 0.72, p < 0.000, n = 86) at capture. Eradication of Sarcoptes mites from the entire herd using ivermetcin was dependant on the severity of the infection. The overall ability of ivermectin to clear the infection after the first treatment was estimated at 81.8% (n = 77). It increased to 94.8% and 100% after the second and third treatments respectively. CONCLUSION: This is the first report on the epidemiology and treatment of Sarcoptes mange in African buffaloes in Zambia. This study improves our understanding about Sarcoptes scabiei epidemiology and treatment which will have further applications for the safe animal translocation.

Munang'andu HM; Siamudaala VM; Matandiko W; Munyeme M; Chembensofu M; Mwase E

2010-01-01

112

Concurrent infections of Fasciola, Schistosoma and Amphistomum spp. in cattle from Kafue and Zambezi river basins of Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated interactions among Fasciola gigantica, Schistosoma spp. and Amphistomum spp. concurrent natural infections in Zambian cattle, based on egg and worm counts. In the abattoir 315 cattle were screened for worms of F. gigantica in the liver, Schistosoma spp. in mesenteric veins and/or Amphistomum spp. in the rumen. One hundred and thirty-three (42.2%) of the abattoir-examined cattle harboured one, two or all three trematodes. Of 133 cattle, 50 were randomly selected for worm and egg counts. The mean numbers (+/- SD) of Amphistomum, Schistosoma and Fasciola were 622.08 (+/- 97.87), 33.68 (+/- 7.44) and 19.46 (+/- 4.58), respectively. A total of 32% harboured all the three trematodes, 66% had F. gigantica and Amphistomum spp. infections, 52% had Schistosoma spp. and Amphistomum spp. infections while 32% had F. gigantica and Schistosoma infections. A positive correlation (P = 0.014) was found between F. gigantica and Amphistomum worm burdens. There were no correlations between Amphistomum and Schistosoma worm burdens and between F. gigantica and Schistosoma worm burdens. It may be concluded that there is no significant cross-protection among these trematodes in cattle in endemic areas. PMID:18854056

Yabe, J; Phiri, I K; Phiri, A M; Chembensofu, M; Dorny, P; Vercruysse, J

2008-10-15

113

Concurrent infections of Fasciola, Schistosoma and Amphistomum spp. in cattle from Kafue and Zambezi river basins of Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated interactions among Fasciola gigantica, Schistosoma spp. and Amphistomum spp. concurrent natural infections in Zambian cattle, based on egg and worm counts. In the abattoir 315 cattle were screened for worms of F. gigantica in the liver, Schistosoma spp. in mesenteric veins and/or Amphistomum spp. in the rumen. One hundred and thirty-three (42.2%) of the abattoir-examined cattle harboured one, two or all three trematodes. Of 133 cattle, 50 were randomly selected for worm and egg counts. The mean numbers (+/- SD) of Amphistomum, Schistosoma and Fasciola were 622.08 (+/- 97.87), 33.68 (+/- 7.44) and 19.46 (+/- 4.58), respectively. A total of 32% harboured all the three trematodes, 66% had F. gigantica and Amphistomum spp. infections, 52% had Schistosoma spp. and Amphistomum spp. infections while 32% had F. gigantica and Schistosoma infections. A positive correlation (P = 0.014) was found between F. gigantica and Amphistomum worm burdens. There were no correlations between Amphistomum and Schistosoma worm burdens and between F. gigantica and Schistosoma worm burdens. It may be concluded that there is no significant cross-protection among these trematodes in cattle in endemic areas.

Yabe J; Phiri IK; Phiri AM; Chembensofu M; Dorny P; Vercruysse J

2008-12-01

114

Health workforce responses to global health initiatives funding: a comparison of Malawi and Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Shortages of health workers are obstacles to utilising global health initiative (GHI) funds effectively in Africa. This paper reports and analyses two countries' health workforce responses during a period of large increases in GHI funds. Methods Health facility record reviews were conducted in 52 facilities in Malawi and 39 facilities in Zambia in 2006/07 and 2008; quarterly totals from the last quarter of 2005 to the first quarter of 2008 inclusive in Malawi; and annual totals for 2004 to 2007 inclusive in Zambia. Topic-guided interviews were conducted with facility and district managers in both countries, and with health workers in Malawi. Results Facility data confirm significant scale-up in HIV/AIDS service delivery in both countries. In Malawi, this was supported by a large increase in lower trained cadres and only a modest increase in clinical staff numbers. Routine outpatient workload fell in urban facilities, in rural health centres and in facilities not providing antiretroviral treatment (ART), while it increased at district hospitals and in facilities providing ART. In Zambia, total staff and clinical staff numbers stagnated between 2004 and 2007. In rural areas, outpatient workload, which was higher than at urban facilities, increased further. Key informants described the effects of increased workloads in both countries and attributed staff migration from public health facilities to non-government facilities in Zambia to PEPFAR. Conclusions Malawi, which received large levels of GHI funding from only the Global Fund, managed to increase facility staff across all levels of the health system: urban, district and rural health facilities, supported by task-shifting to lower trained staff. The more complex GHI arena in Zambia, where both Global Fund and PEPFAR provided large levels of support, may have undermined a coordinated national workforce response to addressing health worker shortages, leading to a less effective response in rural areas.

Brugha Ruairí; Kadzandira John; Simbaya Joseph; Dicker Patrick; Mwapasa Victor; Walsh Aisling

2010-01-01

115

Zambia : long-term generation expansion study - executive summary.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study is to analyze possible long-term development options of the Zambian electric power system in the period up to 2015. The analysis involved the hydro operations studies of the Zambezi river basin and the systems planning studies for the least-cost generation expansion planning. Two well-known and widely accepted computer models were used in the analysis: PC-VALORAGUA model for the hydro operations and optimization studies and the WASP-III Plus model for the optimization of long-term system development. The WASP-III Plus model is a part of the Argonne National Laboratory's Energy and Power Evaluation Model (ENPEP). The analysis was conducted in close collaboration with the Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO). On the initiative from The World Bank, the sponsor of the study, ZESCO formed a team of experts that participated in the analysis and were trained in the use of computer models. Both models were transferred to ZESCO free of charge and installed on several computers in the ZESCO corporate offices in Lusaka. In September-October 1995, two members of the ZESCO National Team participated in a 4-week training course at Argonne National Laboratory near Chicago, U.S.A., focusing on the long-term system expansion planning using the WASP and VALORAGUA models. The hydropower operations studies were performed for the whole Zambezi river basin, including the full installation of the Kariba power station, and the Cahora Bassa hydro power station in Mozambique. The analysis also included possible future projects such as Itezhi-Tezhi, Kafue Gorge Lower, and Batoka Gorge power stations. As hydropower operations studies served to determine the operational characteristics of the existing and future hydro power plants, it was necessary to simulate the whole Zambezi river basin in order to take into account all interactions and mutual influences between the hydro power plants. In addition, it allowed for the optimization of reservoir management and optimization of hydro cascades, resulting in the better utilization of available hydro potential. Numerous analyses were performed for different stages of system development. These include system configurations that correspond to years 1997, 2001, 2015 and 2020. Additional simulations were performed in order to determine the operational parameters of the three existing hydro power stations Victoria Falls, Kariba, and Kafue Gorge Upper, that correspond to the situation before and after their rehabilitation. The rehabilitation works for these three major power stations, that would bring their operational parameters and availability back to the design level, are planned to be carried out in the period until 2000. The main results of the hydro operations studies are presented in Table ES-1. These results correspond to VALORAGUA simulations of system configurations in the years 2001 and 2015. The minimum, average, and maximum electricity generation is based on the simulation of monthly water inflows that correspond to the chronological series of unregulated water inflows at each hydro profile in the period from April 1961 to March 1990. The recommended hydrology dataset provided in the Hydrology Report of the SADC Energy Project AAA 3.8 was used for this study.

Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Buehring, W.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

2008-02-28

116

Low enthalpy geothermal project in Zambia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A project financed by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MAE), implements the installation of two organic Rankine cycle (ORC) turbogenerators in remote, rural areas of Zambia. The Italian Government grant amounts to 2,000,000 US dollars. The Government of Zambia will bear all costs of the Zambian counterpart and will provide the low voltage transmission line and distribution grid.

Dominco, E.; Liguori, P.E.

1986-01-01

117

Foot-and-mouth disease control in Zambia: A review of the current situation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Zambia has been experiencing low livestock productivity as well as trade restrictions owing to the occurrence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and contagious bovine pleura pneumonia (CBPP). Foot-and-mouth disease was first recorded in Zambia in 1933 in the Western Province and since then the country has experienced repeated outbreaks. Bearing in mind the pressure that may be existing on the many risk factors for FMD including climate change, there is need to review our knowledge on FMD control. We present the spatial distribution of the FMD outbreaks that have been recorded in Zambia in the last twenty years, and the effect of the vaccinations and movement control that have been applied. We propose further strain characterisation of previous FMD outbreaks, including full sequence of VP1 gene and the 5'UTR site. The data will be geo-coded and populated with risk factor attributes. We also present preliminary findings of the buffalo and cattle probang sampling that was conducted in Lochnivar and Kafue National Park. We further probang sampled 25 buffalo at each interface area in Sioma Ngwezi, Lukusuzi and Lower Zambezi national parks. Villages in close proximity to the buffalo populations as well as those not in close proximity will be multistage cluster sampled for comparison. The data will be geo-coded and populated with risk factor and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) characterisation attributes. Data collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire will be geo-coded and populated with identified risk factors and stored in a database and will be spatially modelled to determine their effect on FMD occurrence and control measures. New outbreaks of FMD that may occur will be investigated to find out if there are new strains involved, species affected and predisposing risk factors.The authors conclude that impacts of FMD on livelihoods if appropriate control measures are not put in place are far more devastating especially at community level. Presented with the current poverty levels failure to institute result oriented control measures will exacerbate the already life-threatening situation.

Sinkala Y; Pfeiffer D; Kasanga C; Muma JB; Simuunza M; Mweene A

2012-01-01

118

Callings, work role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement among teachers in Zambia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Our aim in this study was to investigate the relationships among a calling orientation, work role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement of teachers in Zambia. A quantitative approach was followed and a cross-sectional survey was used. The sample (n = 150) included 75 basic and 75 secondary school teachers in the Choma district of Zambia. The Work Role Fit Scale, Work-Life Questionnaire, Psychological Meaningfulness Scale, and Work Engagement Scale were adm (more) inistered. Structural equation modelling confirmed a model in which a calling orientation impacted psychological meaningfulness and work engagement significantly. A calling orientation impacted work engagement directly, while such work orientation impacted psychological meaningfulness indirectly via work role fit. The results suggest that it is necessary to address the work orientation and work role fit of teachers in Zambia as pathways to psychological meaningfulness and work engagement.These results have implications for the recruitment, selection, training, and development of teachers in Zambia.

Rothmann, Sebastiaan; Hamukang'andu, Lukondo

2013-01-01

119

Telemedicine in primary health: the virtual doctor project Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper is a commentary on a project application of telemedicine to alleviate primary health care problems in Lundazi district in the Eastern province of Zambia. The project dubbed 'The Virtual Doctor Project' will use hard body vehicles fitted with satellite communication devices and modern medical equipment to deliver primary health care services to some of the neediest areas of the country. The relevance and importance of the project lies in the fact that these areas are hard-to-reach due to rugged natural terrain and have very limited telecommunications infrastructure. The lack of these and other basic services makes it difficult for medical personnel to settle in these areas, which leads to an acute shortage of medical personnel. We comment on this problem and how it is addressed by 'The Virtual Doctor Project', emphasizing that while the telemedicine concept is not new in sub-Saharan Africa, the combination of mobility and connectivity to service a number of villages 'on the go' is an important variation in the shift back to the 1978 Alma Ata principles of the United Nations World Health Organization [WHO]. This overview of the Virtual Doctor Project in Zambia provides insight into both the potential for ICT, and the problems and limitations that any "real-world" articulation of this technology must confront.

Mupela EN; Mustarde P; Jones HL

2011-01-01

120

Telemedicine in Primary Health: The Virtual Doctor Project Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract This paper is a commentary on a project application of telemedicine to alleviate primary health care problems in Lundazi district in the Eastern province of Zambia. The project dubbed 'The Virtual Doctor Project' will use hard body vehicles fitted with satellite communication devices and modern medical equipment to deliver primary health care services to some of the neediest areas of the country. The relevance and importance of the project lies in the fact that these areas are hard-to-reach due to rugged natural terrain and have very limited telecommunications infrastructure. The lack of these and other basic services makes it difficult for medical personnel to settle in these areas, which leads to an acute shortage of medical personnel. We comment on this problem and how it is addressed by 'The Virtual Doctor Project', emphasizing that while the telemedicine concept is not new in sub-Saharan Africa, the combination of mobility and connectivity to service a number of villages 'on the go' is an important variation in the shift back to the 1978 Alma Ata principles of the United Nations World Health Organization [WHO]. This overview of the Virtual Doctor Project in Zambia provides insight into both the potential for ICT, and the problems and limitations that any "real-world" articulation of this technology must confront.

Mupela Evans N; Mustarde Paul; Jones Huw LC

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Zambia. Energy situation 1993. Sambia. Energiewirtschaft 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy situation of Zambia is reviewed on the basis of selected data. This includes statistics on the country's national and international energy policy, energy sources, and electric power generation. (UA)

1994-09-01

122

Directory of Scientific Organisations in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The directory contains a complete listing of government research organizations in Zambia. Ministries covered include: Commerce; Health; Home Affairs; Lands, Natural Resources and Tourism; Mines and Industry; Power, Transport, and Works; Rural Development;...

1975-01-01

123

Abnormal haemoglobins in zambia. A new haemoglobin zambia ?60 (E9) lysine?Asparagine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A survey for abnormal haemoglobins in Zambia has demonstrated Haemoglobin S—including 187 cases of sickle-cell anaemia, Haemoglobin J Oxford on one occasion, and a new Haemoglobin Zambia in four unrelated families. No evidence for ?-thalassaemia was found, but Haemoglobin H disease and other evidenc...

Barclay, G. P. T.; Charlesworth, Deborah; Lehmann, H.

124

Leprosy trends in Zambia 1991-2009.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective? To document leprosy trends in Zambia over the past two decades to ascertain the importance of leprosy as a health problem in Zambia. Methods? Retrospective study covering the period 1991-2009 of routine national leprosy surveillance data, published national programme review reports and desk reviews of in-country TB reports. Results? Data reports were available for all the years under study apart from years 2001, 2002 and 2006. The Leprosy case notification rates (CNR) declined from 2.73/10?000 population in 1991 to 0.43/10?000 population in 2009. The general leprosy burden showed a downward trend for both adults and children. Leprosy case burden dropped from approximately 18?000 cases in 1980 to only about 1000 cases in 1996, and by the year 2000, the prevalence rates had fallen to 0.67/10?000 population. There were more multibacillary cases of leprosy than pauci-bacillary cases. Several major gaps in data recording, entry and surveillance were identified. Data on disaggregation by gender, HIV status or geographical origin were not available. Conclusion? Whilst Zambia has achieved WHO targets for leprosy control, leprosy prevalence data from Zambia may not reflect real situation because of poor data recording and surveillance. Greater investment into infrastructure and training are required for more accurate surveillance of leprosy in Zambia. PMID:22845796

Kapata, Nathan; Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Grobusch, Martin Peter; O'Grady, Justin; Bates, Matthew; Mwaba, Peter; Zumla, Alimuddin

2012-07-29

125

Leprosy trends in Zambia 1991-2009.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective? To document leprosy trends in Zambia over the past two decades to ascertain the importance of leprosy as a health problem in Zambia. Methods? Retrospective study covering the period 1991-2009 of routine national leprosy surveillance data, published national programme review reports and desk reviews of in-country TB reports. Results? Data reports were available for all the years under study apart from years 2001, 2002 and 2006. The Leprosy case notification rates (CNR) declined from 2.73/10?000 population in 1991 to 0.43/10?000 population in 2009. The general leprosy burden showed a downward trend for both adults and children. Leprosy case burden dropped from approximately 18?000 cases in 1980 to only about 1000 cases in 1996, and by the year 2000, the prevalence rates had fallen to 0.67/10?000 population. There were more multibacillary cases of leprosy than pauci-bacillary cases. Several major gaps in data recording, entry and surveillance were identified. Data on disaggregation by gender, HIV status or geographical origin were not available. Conclusion? Whilst Zambia has achieved WHO targets for leprosy control, leprosy prevalence data from Zambia may not reflect real situation because of poor data recording and surveillance. Greater investment into infrastructure and training are required for more accurate surveillance of leprosy in Zambia.

Kapata N; Chanda-Kapata P; Grobusch MP; O'Grady J; Bates M; Mwaba P; Zumla A

2012-07-01

126

77 FR 66797 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

...Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International...Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia scheduled for November...Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia scheduled for...

2012-11-07

127

77 FR 60966 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

...Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International...Executive- Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia scheduled for November...Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia. Recruitment for...

2012-10-05

128

Health worker perspectives on user fee removal in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background User fees for primary care services were removed in rural districts in Zambia in 2006. Experience from other countries has suggested that health workers play a key role in determining the success of a fee removal policy, but also find the implementation of such a policy challenging. The policy was introduced against a backdrop of a major shortage in qualified health staff. Methods As part of a larger study on the experience and effect of user fee removal in Zambia, a number of case studies at the facility level were conducted. As part of these, quantitative and qualitative data were collected to evaluate health workers’ satisfaction and experiences in charging and non-charging facilities. Results Our findings show that health-care workers have mixed feelings about the policy change and its consequences. We found some evidence that personnel motivation was higher in non-charging facilities compared to facilities still charging. Yet it is unclear whether this effect was due to differences in the user fee policy or to the fact that a lot of staff interviewed in non-charging facilities were working in mission facilities, where we found a significantly higher motivation. Health workers expressed satisfaction with an apparent increase in the number of patients visiting the facilities and the removal of a deterring factor for many needy patients, but also complained about an increased workload. Furthermore, working conditions were said to have worsened, which staff felt was linked to the absence of additional resources to deal with the increased demand or replace the loss of revenue generated by fees. Conclusion These findings highlight the need to pay attention to supply-side measures when removing demand-side barriers such as user fees and in particular to be concerned about the burden that increased demand can place on already over-stretched health workers.

Carasso Barbara S; Lagarde Mylene; Cheelo Caesar; Chansa Collins; Palmer Natasha

2012-01-01

129

Pesticide/herbicide pollutants in the Kafue River and a preliminary investigation into their biological effect through catalase levels in fish.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study determined the types of pesticide/herbicide pollutants in water, sediment and fish from the Kafue River. A preliminary investigation of the oxidative stress from these pesticides/herbicides was also assessed by measurement of catalase activity. Water, sediment and fish samples were collected upstream, midstream and downstream the Kafue river in Chingola, Kitwe, Kafue National Park and Kafue Town. Water, sediment and fish muscle were sampled and analysed for pesticides using Gas chromatography. For catalase activity fish liver samples only were examined. The pesticides/herbicides detected in all samples collectively included: Heptachlor, pp'-DDE, Cypermethrin, Chlordane, Toxaphene, Terbufos, Kelthane, Endosulfan, Dieldrin, pp'-DDD, pp'-DDT, Atrazine, Disulfoton, d-trans-Allethrin and Endrin. On the other hand, catalase activity was detected in all fish liver samples from all sites. Its levels increased significantly from Chingola upstream to sites downstream with highest being in Kafue town. This study therefore, demonstrates that there is widespread contamination of the Kafue River with pesticides/ herbicides. It also demonstrates that organochlorides are found throughout the river especially in fish samples. The spectrum of pesticides/herbicides was much wider in fish probably due to bioaccumulation. It was also observed that fish are subjected to oxidative stress as determined by catalase levels. The stress is more pronounced downstream where the catalase levels were significantly higher than Chingola. The observation that more pesticide varieties are also found downstream may suggest a likely causative effect of the pesticides on oxidative stress although this needs further investigation. This study further tentatively highlights the potential dangers of these agro-related substances to dependants of the Kafue River water body and the need to carry out risk assessments and thereafter institute corrective measures to help reduce contamination and adverse effects.

Syakalima M; Choongo K; Mwenechanya R; Wepener V; Yamasaki M; Maede Y

2006-11-01

130

Fairness and legitimacy of decisions during delivery of malaria services and ITN interventions in zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and the second leading cause of mortality in Zambia. Perceptions of fairness and legitimacy of decisions relating to treatment of malaria cases within public health facilities and distribution of ITNs were assessed in a district in Zambia. The study was conducted within the framework of REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT), a north-south collaborative action research study, which evaluates the Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) approach to priority setting in Zambia, Tanzania and Kenya. Methods This paper is based on baseline in-depth interviews (IDIs) conducted with 38 decision-makers, who were involved in prioritization of malaria services and ITN distribution at district, facility and community levels in Zambia, one Focus Group Discussion (FGD) with District Health Management Team managers and eight FGDs with outpatients' attendees. Perceptions and attitudes of providers and users and practices of providers were systematized according to the four AFR conditions relevance, publicity, appeals and leadership. Results Conflicting criteria for judging fairness were used by decision-makers and patients. Decision-makers argued that there was fairness in delivery of malaria treatment and distribution of ITNs based on alleged excessive supply of free malaria medicines, subsidized ITNs, and presence of a qualified health-provider in every facility. Patients argued that there was unfairness due to differences in waiting time, distances to health facilities, erratic supply of ITNs, no responsive appeal mechanisms, inadequate access to malaria medicines, ITNs and health providers, and uncaring providers. Decision-makers only perceived government bodies and donors/NGOs to be legitimate stakeholders to involve during delivery. Patients found government bodies, patients, indigenous healers, chiefs and politicians to be legitimate stakeholders during both planning and delivery. Conclusion Poor status of the AFR conditions of relevance, publicity, appeals and leadership corresponds well to the differing perceptions of fairness and unfairness among outpatient attendees and decision-makers. This may have been re-enforced by existing disagreements between the two groups regarding who the legitimate stakeholders to involve during service delivery were. Conflicts identified in this study could be resolved by promoting application of approaches such as AFR during priority setting in the district.

Tuba Mary; Sandoy Ingvild F; Bloch Paul; Byskov Jens

2010-01-01

131

Cost-effectiveness analysis of the available strategies for diagnosing malaria in outpatient clinics in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria in Zambia accounts for about 4 million clinical cases and 8 000 deaths annually. Artemether-lumefantrine (ACT), a relatively expensive drug, is being used as first line treatment of uncomplicated malaria. However, diagnostic capacity in Zambia is low, leading to potentially avoidable wastage of drugs due to unnecessary anti malarial treatment. Methods A cost-effectiveness evaluation of the three current alternatives to malaria diagnosis (clinical, microscopy and Rapid Diagnostic Tests- RDT) was conducted in 12 facilities from 4 districts in Zambia. The analysis was conducted along an observational study, thus reflecting practice in health facilities under routine conditions. Average and incremental cost effectiveness ratios were estimated from the providers' perspective. Effectiveness was measured in relation to malaria cases correctly diagnosed by each strategy. Results Average cost-effectiveness ratios show that RDTs were more efficient (US$ 6.5) than either microscopy (US$ 11.9) or clinical diagnosis (US$ 17.1) for malaria case correctly diagnosed. In relation to clinical diagnoses the incremental cost per case correctly diagnosed and treated was US$ 2.6 and US$ 9.6 for RDT and microscopy respectively. RDTs would be much cheaper to scale up than microscopy. The findings were robust to changes in assumptions and various parameters. Conclusion RDTs were the most cost effective method at correctly diagnosing malaria in primary health facilities in Zambia when compared to clinical and microscopy strategies. However, the treatment prescription practices of the health workers can impact on the potential that a diagnostic test has to lead to savings on antimalarials. The results of this study will serve to inform policy makers on which alternatives will be most efficient in reducing malaria misdiagnosis by taking into account both the costs and effects of each strategy.

Chanda Pascalina; Castillo-Riquelme Marianela; Masiye Felix

2009-01-01

132

Zambia - energy situation 1985. Sambia - Energiewirtschaft 1985  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy situation of Zambia is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade and balance of payments.

1986-10-01

133

Economic prospects of food irradiation in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Instances of economic benefits which are likely to be considered when introducing food irradiation as an industrial and commercial food processing method in Zambia are discussed from a point of view of increasing both the local and external marketing potential of various local food commodities. The present status of the food irradiation programme is also briefly discussed. (author)

1985-01-01

134

Zambia - energy situation 1990. Sambia - Energiewirtschaft 1990  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy situation of Zambia is outlined on the basis of selected data. This includes remarks on the country's national and international energy poliy, energy sources, and electric power generation. Key data are presented on the country's foreign trade and balance of payments. (UA).

1991-11-01

135

Zambia: Multi-Faith Religious Education?  

Science.gov (United States)

|As countries' populations become more religiously diverse, a need to review the religious education syllabus that operates is often perceived. One such country is Zambia, which was not only traditionally religiously diverse but has become even more so with the advent of Christianity, Islam and Hinduism and other non-African faiths. This article…

Carmody, Brendan

2006-01-01

136

Livestock sector in Zambia: Opportunities and limitations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zambia is endowed with a vast feed resource base for animal production purposes. However, the feed resource base is not fully utilised and this is manifested by low livestock productivity. The quality and production levels of animal products depend largely on the quality and quantity of feed, which is fed to the livestock. Among the constraints limiting livestock productivity in Zambia, insufficient and low quality of veld grass, particularly during the long dry season (March-November) is responsible for low production levels and poor reproductive performance in ruminants. The problem of inadequate veld grass can be overcome by feeding crop residues which are in abundance during the dry season. Zambia produces large quantities of sugarcane tops, bagasse and straws from maize, sorghum, wheat, millet and rice. These could sustain livestock productivity if supplemented with protein sources or treated with urea. Despite the production of large quantities of crop residues, these are wasted by burning or get destroyed by termites. There is a need, therefore, to develop feeding systems based on crop residues which are compatible with the farming systems in Zambia and to promote such feeding systems. (author)

2002-01-01

137

Task sharing in Zambia: HIV service scale-up compounds the human resource crisis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Considerable attention has been given by policy makers and researchers to the human resources for health crisis in Africa. However, little attention has been paid to quantifying health facility-level trends in health worker numbers, distribution and workload, despite growing demands on health workers due to the availability of new funds for HIV/AIDS control scale-up. This study analyses and reports trends in HIV and non-HIV ambulatory service workloads on clinical staff in urban and rural district level facilities. METHODS: Structured surveys of health facility managers, and health services covering 2005-07 were conducted in three districts of Zambia in 2008 (two urban and one rural), to fill this evidence gap. Intra-facility analyses were conducted, comparing trends in HIV and non-HIV service utilisation with staff trends. RESULTS: Clinical staff (doctors, nurses and nurse-midwives, and clinical officers) numbers and staff population densities fell slightly, with lower ratios of staff to population in the rural district. The ratios of antenatal care and family planning registrants to nurses/nurse-midwives were highest at baseline and increased further at the rural facilities over the three years, while daily outpatient department (OPD) workload in urban facilities fell below that in rural facilities. HIV workload, as measured by numbers of clients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) per facility staff member, was highest in the capital city, but increased rapidly in all three districts. The analysis suggests evidence of task sharing, in that staff designated by managers as ART and PMTCT workers made up a higher proportion of frontline service providers by 2007. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis of workforce patterns across 30 facilities in three districts of Zambia illustrates that the remarkable achievements in scaling-up HIV/AIDS service delivery has been on the back of sustained non-HIV workload levels, increasing HIV workload and stagnant health worker numbers. The findings are based on an analysis of routine data that are available to district and national managers. Mixed methods research is needed, combining quantitative analyses of routine health information with follow-up qualitative interviews, to explore and explain workload changes, and to identify and measure where problems are most acute, so that decision makers can respond appropriately. This study provides quantitative evidence of a human resource crisis in health facilities in Zambia, which may be more acute in rural areas.

Walsh A; Ndubani P; Simbaya J; Dicker P; Brugha R

2010-01-01

138

District heating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The papers presented at this meeting dealt with an international comparison of district heating, the Swiss district heating network, political aspects of nuclear district heating, nuclear and non-nuclear sources for district heating. 17 figs., 6 tabs.

1989-01-01

139

The nucleotide sequence of metallothioneins (MT) in liver of the Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) and their potential as biomarkers of heavy metal pollution of the Kafue River.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study determined heavy metal concentrations and MT1 nucleotide sequence [phylogeny] in liver of the Kafue lechwe. Applicability of MT1 as a biomarker of pollution was assessed. cDNA-encoding sequences for lechwe MT1 were amplified by RT-PCR to characterize the sequence of MT1 which was subjected to BLAST searching at NCBI. Phylogenetic relationships were based on pairwise matrix of sequence divergences calculated by Clustal W. Phylogenetic tree was constructed by NJ method using PHILLIP program. Metals were extracted by acid digestion and concentrations of Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Ni were determined using an AAS. MT1 mRNA expression levels were measured by quantitative comparative real-time RT-PCR. Lechwe MT1 has a length of 183bp, which encode for MT1 proteins of 61AA, which include 20 cysteines. Nucleotide sequence of lechwe MT1 showed identity with sheep MT (97%) and cattle MT1E (97%). Phylogenetic tree revealed that lechwe MT1 was clustered with sheep MT and cattle MT1E. Cu and Ni concentrations and MT1 mRNA expression levels of lechwe from Blue Lagoon were significantly higher than those from Lochinvar (p<0.05). Concentrations of Cd and Cu, Co and Cu, Co and Pb, Ni and Cu, and Ni and Cr were positively correlated. Spearman's rank correlations also showed positive correlations between Cu and Co concentrations and MT mRNA expression. PCA further suggested that MT mRNA expression was related to Zn and Cd concentrations. Hepatic MT1 mRNA expression in lechwe can be used as biomarker of heavy metal pollution. PMID:22796127

M'kandawire, Ethel; Syakalima, Michelo; Muzandu, Kaampwe; Pandey, Girja; Simuunza, Martin; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Kawai, Yusuke K; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Ishizuka, Mayumi

2012-07-13

140

The nucleotide sequence of metallothioneins (MT) in liver of the Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) and their potential as biomarkers of heavy metal pollution of the Kafue River.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study determined heavy metal concentrations and MT1 nucleotide sequence [phylogeny] in liver of the Kafue lechwe. Applicability of MT1 as a biomarker of pollution was assessed. cDNA-encoding sequences for lechwe MT1 were amplified by RT-PCR to characterize the sequence of MT1 which was subjected to BLAST searching at NCBI. Phylogenetic relationships were based on pairwise matrix of sequence divergences calculated by Clustal W. Phylogenetic tree was constructed by NJ method using PHILLIP program. Metals were extracted by acid digestion and concentrations of Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Ni were determined using an AAS. MT1 mRNA expression levels were measured by quantitative comparative real-time RT-PCR. Lechwe MT1 has a length of 183bp, which encode for MT1 proteins of 61AA, which include 20 cysteines. Nucleotide sequence of lechwe MT1 showed identity with sheep MT (97%) and cattle MT1E (97%). Phylogenetic tree revealed that lechwe MT1 was clustered with sheep MT and cattle MT1E. Cu and Ni concentrations and MT1 mRNA expression levels of lechwe from Blue Lagoon were significantly higher than those from Lochinvar (p<0.05). Concentrations of Cd and Cu, Co and Cu, Co and Pb, Ni and Cu, and Ni and Cr were positively correlated. Spearman's rank correlations also showed positive correlations between Cu and Co concentrations and MT mRNA expression. PCA further suggested that MT mRNA expression was related to Zn and Cd concentrations. Hepatic MT1 mRNA expression in lechwe can be used as biomarker of heavy metal pollution.

M'kandawire E; Syakalima M; Muzandu K; Pandey G; Simuunza M; Nakayama SM; Kawai YK; Ikenaka Y; Ishizuka M

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
141

Population genetic analysis and sub-structuring of Theileria parva in the northern and eastern parts of Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Theileriosis, caused by Theileria parva, is an economically important disease in Africa. It is a major constraint to the development of the livestock industry in some parts of eastern, central and southern Africa. In Zambia, theileriosis causes losses of up to 10,000 cattle annually. Methods Cattle blood samples were collected for genetic analysis of Theileria parva from Isoka and Petauke districts in Zambia. Microsatellite analysis was then performed on all Theileria parva positive samples for PCR using a panel of 9 microsatellite markers. Microsatellite data was analyzed using microsatellite toolkit, GenAlEx ver. 6, Fstat ver. 2.9.3.2, and LIAN computer softwares. Results The combined percentage of positive samples in both districts determined by PCR using the p104 gene primers was 54.9% (95% CI: 46.7 – 63.1%, 78/142), while in each district, it was 44.8% (95% CI: 34.8 – 54.8%) and 76.1% (95% CI = 63.9 – 88.4%) for Isoka and Petauke districts, respectively. We analyzed the population genetic structure of Theileria parva from a total of 61 samples (33 from Isoka and 28 from Petauke) using a panel of 9 microsatellite markers encompassing the 4 chromosomes of Theileria parva. Wright’s F index (FST = 0.178) showed significant differentiation between the Isoka and Petauke populations. Linkage disequilibrium was observed when populations from both districts were treated as a single population. When analyzed separately, linkage disequilibrium was observed in Kanyelele and Kalembe areas in Isoka district, Isoka district overall and in Petauke district. Petauke district had a higher multiplicity of infection than Isoka district. Conclusion Population genetic analyses of Theileria parva from Isoka and Petauke districts showed a low level of genotype exchange between the districts, but a high level of genetic diversity within each district population, implying genetic and geographic sub-structuring between the districts. The sub-structuring observed, along with the lack of panmixia in the populations, could have been due to low transmission levels at the time of sampling. However, the Isoka population was less diverse than the Petauke population.

Muleya Walter; Namangala Boniface; Simuunza Martin; Nakao Ryo; Inoue Noboru; Kimura Takashi; Ito Kimihito; Sugimoto Chihiro; Sawa Hirofumi

2012-01-01

142

Status of radioactive waste management in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Zambia being part of the world community clearly understands that careless handling of radioactive waste would cause problems - worldwide - for human health, for the environment and natural resources management. It is for this reason that the Radiation Protection Board has initiated a Radioactive Waste Management Programme covering the following areas: (i) Legislation of Radioactive Waste Management; (ii) Immobilization of spent sealed radioactive sources; and (iii) Siting and construction of an interim storage facility. (author)

1995-01-01

143

Uranium distribution in drainage samples, Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The paper discusses the results of Uranium content analyses of samples collected on a country wide survey using fluorimetry.The analysis of the survey samples and based on the threshold of 3.0 ppm U established three possible Uranium provinces in Zambia,namely: the Bangweulu; the Kabwe-Mkushi; and in scattered pockets in the Petauke,Chipata,Lundazi,Kasempa,Mwinilunga,Mumbwa and Mpika areas.13 refs.,fig.,3 maps

1993-01-01

144

Building opportunities and partnerships in Zambia, Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper explores opportunities in Zambia, Africa for the US and other developed nations to extend building technologies that can potentially reduce global greenhouse gas emissions and also support mutual economic development and environmental quality benefits. About ninety percent of the agrarian population in Zambia live in buildings constructed of wooden sticks and native grasses. Energy for these homes is primarily limited to wood and charcoal for heating and cooking. The countryside and ambient air are tainted by smoke from smoldering wood from production of charcoal for local and export markets. Cooking and heating appliances are extremely primitive, inefficient, and unhealthy. Opportunities exist to develop building technologies that use cleaner burning coal briquettes for fuel, improve efficiency of cooking stoves, improve conditions for human health, construct more energy-efficient buildings, and stimulate economic development. External financial and technical support for such development would yield investor benefits including market entry or expansion in a resource rich developing county, low capital investment costs, low labor costs, and greenhouse gas mitigation and offset opportunities. Zambia is too rich in natural and human resources to be so poor. Building infrastructure and community development can establish a foundation for sustainable economic development and environmental quality for the whole world to enjoy.

Decot, M.E.

1998-07-01

145

Overview of the Current Food Security Crisis in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Zambia was economically prosperous at independence (1964), due to the thriving copper industry. Zambia has the potential to expand agricultural production. However, it is estimated that only 14% of total agricultural land is currently being utilized. Agriculture generates about 22% of Gross Domestic...

Samatebele, Helen M

146

Human parainfluenza virus type 3 in wild nonhuman primates, Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) genome was detected in 4 baboons in Zambia. Antibody for HPIV3 was detected in 13 baboons and 6 vervet monkeys in 2 distinct areas in Zambia. Our findings suggest that wild nonhuman primates are susceptible to HPIV3 infection.

Sasaki M; Ishii A; Orba Y; Thomas Y; Hang'ombe BM; Moonga L; Mweene AS; Ogawa H; Nakamura I; Kimura T; Sawa H

2013-01-01

147

Possibilities of Electoral Reform in Zambia : A Study on Electoral Systems in Zambia and its Consequences  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The topic of this thesis is electoral systems and electoral reform in Zambia. In Africa, democratization is on its way in many countries. However, the democratic upswing in the early 1990s was in most countries followed by a standstill. In recent years the tendency has been a renewal of dem...

Ekdahl, Oscar

148

7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

...of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia. 319.56-48 Section 319.56-48...of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia. Baby squash (Curcurbita maxima ...into the continental United States from Zambia only under the conditions...

2010-01-01

149

Filoviral haemorrhagic fevers: A threat to Zambia?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Filoviral haemorrhagic fevers (FVHF) are caused by agents belonging to Filoviridae family, Ebola and Marburg viruses. They are amongst the most lethal pathogens known to infect humans. Incidence of FVHF outbreaks are increasing, with affected number of patients on the rise. Whilst there has been no report yet of FVHF in Zambia, its proximity to Angola and Democratic Republic of Congo, which have recorded major outbreaks, as well as the open borders, increased trade and annual migration of bats between these countries, puts Zambia at present and increased risk. Previous studies have indicated bats as potential reservoir hosts for filoviruses. An increasing population with an increasing demand for resources has forced incursion into previously uninhabited land, potentially bringing them into contact with unknown pathogens, reservoir hosts and/or amplifying hosts. The recent discovery of a novel arenavirus, Lujo, highlights the potential that every region, including Zambia, has for being the epicentre or primary focus for emerging and re-emerging infections. It is therefore imperative that surveillance for potential emerging infections, such as viral haemorrhagic fevers be instituted. In order to accomplish this surveillance, rapid detection, identification and monitoring of agents in patients and potential reservoirs is needed. International co-operation is the strategy of choice for the surveillance and fight against emerging infections. Due to the extensive area in which filoviral infections can occur, a regional approach to surveillance activities is required, with regional referral centres. There is a need to adopt shared policies for the prevention and control of infectious diseases. There is also need for optimisation of currently available tests and development of new diagnostic tests, in order to have robust, highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tests that can be used even where there are inadequate laboratories and diagnostic services.

Changula K; Mweene AS

2012-01-01

150

Energy planning and project procedures in Zambia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy situation in Zambia is described in detail following a general introduction to the Zambian society. The contribution of the different commercial and woodfuel energy sources to the energy supply in the different sectors is analysed and policy options outlined. The political and administrative structures especially within the energy sector are presented, and the existing formal and informal project handling procedures are analysed. The present situation is generally characterized by limited Zambian influence on project analysis and selection, while foreign donor interests are found to have great impact through very early involvement in the identification and preparation phases. 12 tabs., 7 ill., 28 refs.

Christensen, J.M.

1987-10-01

151

Development of radiation protection infrastructure in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Radioactive materials have been in use in Zambia for a long time and its applications are non-military and mostly are used in medicine, research, teaching and industry. Radioactive waste management practices have been confined mainly to collection and storage of radioactive wastes in temporal storage facilities or strong rooms. With the proposed establishment of the Radiotherapy Centre, the increase of radioactive materials in the country's hospitals, research centres and industries, the volume and types of radioactive wastes on the whole is expected to increase requiring a well defined radiation infrastructure. (author)

2003-01-01

152

Epidemiology of Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome in the Zambezi River System. A case study for Zambia  

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Full Text Available Objective: An epidemiological investigation on the fish disease Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS) was conducted from Januaryto December 2011 in the Zambezi River System (ZRS) of Sesheke District in the Western Province of Zambia. The study aimed at determining:factors associated with outbreaks of EUS, infection rate and distribution of the disease. EUS is a newly confirmed disease in Southern Africacaused by a fungal pathogen, Aphanomyces invadans. Material and Methods: Active surveillance was conducted where a total of 4,800 fish wereinspected in February, June and October for gross EUS-like lesions and disease confirmed using histopathology. Environmental cues were alsoassessed monthly for one year to determine their association with disease outbreaks. A questionaire was adminstered to assess spread of EUSwhile Geographic Information System helped map disease distribution. Results of the study implicate several predisposing environmental factors;heavy rains preceded outbreaks resulting in excess flooding which caused water levels to rise 2m higher than normal; predominantly gleysoland arenosol soils of the ZRS resulted in low water pH (4.53 to 6.5). Other factors significantly (p<0.05) associated with EUS outbreaks were:low total alkalinity (45.13±SE 0.0418), water temperature (20.94±SE 0.2173), ambient temperature (25.85±SE 0.3058), month (June) and site(lagoons) of sampling. Infection rate was 3% (144) of the 4,800 fishes sampled. Of these, 58 (40.2%) had mycotic granulomas after histopathologicalanalysis, representing 1.2% of the total sample. Eighty six (86) of the 144 fishes were diagnosed with healing wounds representing 1.8 %of the total fish sampled. Some of them, 4,656 (97%) more exactly, had no gross lesions. Conclusion: There is indication that EUS has affectedfish in ZRS from Kazungula to Chavuma Districts of Zambia with sub optimal environmental factors being associated with disease outbreaks.

Albert Nsonga; William Mfitilodze; Kenny L. Samui; Daniel Sikawa

2013-01-01

153

77 FR 48498 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

...Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International Trade Administration...Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia scheduled for November 26- 30, 2012...with the [[Page 48499

2012-08-14

154

The Mesoproterozoic Irumide belt of Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Mesoproterozoic Irumide belt is a northeast-trending structural province stretching from central Zambia to the Zambia Tanzania border and northern Malawi. Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic transcurrent shear zones within reactivated parts of the Palaeoproterozoic Ubendian belt define its northeastern limit. The northwestern margin is defined by the largely undeformed basement lithologies of the Bangweulu block. An intensely folded and sheared zone at the southeastern margin of the Mporokoso Group sedimentary depocentre on the Bangweulu block, interpreted to have developed above a thrust at the basement-cover interface, indicates that far-field effects of the Irumide Orogen also affected the southeastern part of the Bangweulu block sedimentary cover. To the west and southwest, Irumide and basement lithologies were reworked by the Damara Lufilian Zambezi Orogen within the Neoproterozoic Zambezi and Lufilian belts. The Choma Kalomo block, previously regarded as the southwesterly continuation of the Irumide belt, is a distinct Mesoproterozoic province, while a succession of structurally juxtaposed tectonic terranes in eastern Zambia record a deformation event related to the Irumide Orogen. The lithological units identified in the Irumide belt include: (1) limited Neoarchaean rocks emplaced between 2.73 and 2.61 Ga and representing the oldest rocks in the Bangweulu block; (2) ca. 2.05 1.85 Ga volcano-plutonic complexes and gneisses representing the most important components in the Bangweulu block; (3) an extensive quartzite metapelite succession with minor carbonate forming the Muva Supergroup, and deposited at ca. 1.85 Ga; (4) granitoids emplaced between 1.65 and 1.55 Ga; (5) a minor suite of anorogenic plutons (nepheline syenite and biotite granite) restricted to the far northeastern Irumide belt and emplaced between 1.36 and 1.33 Ga; (6) voluminous syn- to post-kinematic Irumide granitoids emplaced between 1.05 and 0.95 Ga. Crustal shortening and thickening in the Irumide belt are shown by northwestward-directed thrusts and related folds and metamorphic parageneses recording a clockwise medium-pressure/medium-temperature P T t path. Metamorphic grades range from greenschist facies in the foreland to the northwest to upper amphibolite facies in the southeast, with local granulites. Peak metamorphism is diachronous across the belt and bracketed between 1.05 in the southeast and 1.02 Ga in the northwest.

de Waele, B.; Kampunzu, A. B.; Mapani, B. S. E.; Tembo, F.

2006-09-01

155

Impact assessment of malaria vector control using routine surveillance data in Zambia: implications for monitoring and evaluation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria vector control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), with pyrethroids and DDT, to reduce malaria transmission has been expansively implemented in Zambia. The impact of these interventions on malaria morbidity and mortality has not previously been formally assessed at the population level in Zambia. Methods The impact of IRS (15 urban districts) and LLINs (15 rural districts) implementation on severe malaria cases, deaths and case fatality rates in children below the age of five years were compared. Zambian national Health Management Information System data from 2007 to 2008 were retrospectively analysed to assess the epidemiological impact of the two interventions using odds ratios to compare the pre-scaling up year 2007 with the scaling-up year 2008. Results Overall there were marked reductions in morbidity and mortality, with cases, deaths and case fatality rates (CFR) of severe malaria decreasing by 31%, 63% and 62%, respectively between 2007 and 2008. In urban districts with IRS introduction there was a significant reduction in mortality (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.31-0.43, P = 0.015), while the reduction in mortality in rural districts with LLINs implementation was not significant (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.67-1.04, P = 0.666). A similar pattern was observed for case fatality rates with a significant reduction in urban districts implementing IRS (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.33-0.36, P = 0.005), but not in rural districts implementing LLINs (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.91-1.00, P = 0.913). No substantial difference was detected in overall reduction of malaria cases between districts implementing IRS and LLINs (P = 0.933). Conclusion Routine surveillance data proved valuable for determining the temporal effects of malaria control with two strategies, IRS and LLINs on severe malaria disease in different types of Zambian districts. However, this analysis did not take into account the effect of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), which were being scaled up countrywide in both rural and urban districts.

Chanda Emmanuel; Coleman Michael; Kleinschmidt Immo; Hemingway Janet; Hamainza Busiku; Masaninga Freddie; Chanda-Kapata Pascalina; Baboo Kumar S; Dürrheim David N; Coleman Marlize

2012-01-01

156

Impact assessment of malaria vector control using routine surveillance data in Zambia: implications for monitoring and evaluation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Malaria vector control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), with pyrethroids and DDT, to reduce malaria transmission has been expansively implemented in Zambia. The impact of these interventions on malaria morbidity and mortality has not previously been formally assessed at the population level in Zambia. METHODS: The impact of IRS (15 urban districts) and LLINs (15 rural districts) implementation on severe malaria cases, deaths and case fatality rates in children below the age of five years were compared. Zambian national Health Management Information System data from 2007 to 2008 were retrospectively analysed to assess the epidemiological impact of the two interventions using odds ratios to compare the pre-scaling up year 2007 with the scaling-up year 2008. RESULTS: Overall there were marked reductions in morbidity and mortality, with cases, deaths and case fatality rates (CFR) of severe malaria decreasing by 31%, 63% and 62%, respectively between 2007 and 2008. In urban districts with IRS introduction there was a significant reduction in mortality (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.31-0.43, P = 0.015), while the reduction in mortality in rural districts with LLINs implementation was not significant (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.67-1.04, P = 0.666). A similar pattern was observed for case fatality rates with a significant reduction in urban districts implementing IRS (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.33-0.36, P = 0.005), but not in rural districts implementing LLINs (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.91-1.00, P = 0.913). No substantial difference was detected in overall reduction of malaria cases between districts implementing IRS and LLINs (P = 0.933). CONCLUSION: Routine surveillance data proved valuable for determining the temporal effects of malaria control with two strategies, IRS and LLINs on severe malaria disease in different types of Zambian districts. However, this analysis did not take into account the effect of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), which were being scaled up countrywide in both rural and urban districts.

Chanda E; Coleman M; Kleinschmidt I; Hemingway J; Hamainza B; Masaninga F; Chanda-Kapata P; Baboo KS; Dürrheim DN; Coleman M

2012-01-01

157

7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43 Section 319.56-43...56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked âbaby...into the continental United States from Zambia only under the following conditions...

2009-01-01

158

77 FR 31574 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

...Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International Trade Administration...organizing a Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia November 26--November 30, 2012, to...Cape Town, South Africa, and Lusaka, Zambia. Targeted sectors are: Electric...

2012-05-29

159

Summary of the Zambia Charcoal Industry Workshop  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Charcoal is the most important household fuel in urban Zambia. It meets the energy needs of about 83% of urban households. With an urbanization level of 42%, charcoal is the major source of energy for more than a third of the population. In spite of its significant position in the energy balance, planning for management of charcoal supply and distribution has not received adequate attention over the years. The Ministry of Energy and Water Development is in a process of formulating an energy policy for Zambia. This will be achieved through a series of workshops at which issues pertaining to various energy sub-sectors shall be discussed and policy proposals formulated. The workshop on the Charcoal Industry was one of these workshops for policy formulation. The framework for the seminar consisted of a limited number of themes to which appropriate studies should provide answers: - the institutional/organizational framework of the wood fuel industry, i.e. provide a review of the various institutions that are involved in the industry and how these relate and/or conflict; - sustainable production and management of wood resources for energy purposes; - environmental and health aspects of wood fuel production and use; -the economics of charcoal and alternatives. Material relevant to these themes has been extracted from the various project reports under the programme, and this document presents the main issues from the projects. Most of this summary was prepared for, and used at, the workshop. To the present edition has been added results of projects that were not completed at the time of the workshop

Hibajene, S.H. [Department of Energy (Zambia). Ministry of Energy and Water Development; Chidumayo, E.N. [Univ. of Zambia (Zambia). Biology Dept.; Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

1993-12-31

160

A cost-effectiveness analysis of artemether lumefantrine for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity, mortality and non-fatal disability in Zambia, especially among children, pregnant women and the poor. Data gathered by the National Malaria Control Centre has shown that recently observed widespread treatment failure of SP and chloroquine precipitated a surge in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. As a result, the Government has recently replaced chloroquine and SP with combination therapy as first-line treatment for malaria. Despite the acclaimed therapeutic advantages of ACTs over monotherapies with SP and CQ, the cost of ACTs is much greater, raising concerns about affordability in many poor countries such as Zambia. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness analysis of artemether-lumefantrine, a version of ACTs adopted in Zambia in mid 2004. Methods Using data gathered from patients presenting at public health facilities with suspected malaria, the costs and effects of using ACTs versus SP as first-line treatment for malaria were estimated. The study was conducted in six district sites. Treatment success and reduction in demand for second line treatment constituted the main effectiveness outcomes. The study gathered data on the efficacy of, and compliance to, AL and SP treatment from a random sample of patients. Costs are based on estimated drug, labour, operational and capital inputs. Drug costs were based on dosages and unit prices provided by the Ministry of Health and the manufacturer (Norvatis). Findings The results suggest that AL produces successful treatment at less cost than SP, implying that AL is more cost-effective. While it is acknowledged that implementing national ACT program will require considerable resources, the study demonstrates that the health gains (treatment success) from every dollar spent are significantly greater if AL is used rather than SP. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is estimated to be US$4.10. When the costs of second line treatment are considered the ICER of AL becomes negative, indicating that there are greater resource savings associated with AL in terms of reduction of costs of complicated malaria treatment. Conclusion This study suggests the decision to adopt AL is justifiable on both economic and public health grounds.

Chanda Pascalina; Masiye Felix; Chitah Bona M; Sipilanyambe Naawa; Hawela Moonga; Banda Patrick; Okorosobo Tuoyo

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

From chloroquine to artemether-lumefantrine: the process of drug policy change in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the recognition that morbidity and mortality due to malaria had dramatically increased in the last three decades, in 2002 the government of Zambia reviewed its efforts to prevent and treat malaria. Convincing evidence of the failing efficacy of chloroquine resulted in the initiation of a process that eventually led to the development and implementation of a new national drug policy based on artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Methods All published and unpublished documented evidence dealing with the antimalarial drug policy change was reviewed. These data were supplemented by the authors' observations of the policy change process. The information has been structured to capture the timing of events, the challenges encountered, and the resolutions reached in order to achieve implementation of the new treatment policy. Results A decision was made to change national drug policy to artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in the first quarter of 2002, with a formal announcement made in October 2002. During this period, efforts were undertaken to identify funding for the procurement of AL and to develop new malaria treatment guidelines, training materials, and plans for implementation of the policy. In order to avoid a delay in implementation, the policy change decision required a formal adoption within existing legislation. Starting with donated drug, a phased deployment of AL began in January 2003 with initial use in seven districts followed by scaling up to 28 districts in the second half of 2003 and then to all 72 districts countrywide in early 2004. Conclusion Drug policy changes are not without difficulties and demand a sustained international financing strategy for them to succeed. The Zambian experience demonstrates the need for a harmonized national consensus among many stakeholders and a political commitment to ensure that new policies are translated into practice quickly. To guarantee effective policies requires more effort and recognition that this becomes a health system and not a drug issue. This case study attempts to document the successful experience of change to ACT in Zambia and provides a realistic overview of some of the painful experiences and important lessons learnt.

Sipilanyambe Naawa; Simon Jonathon L; Chanda Pascalina; Olumese Peter; Snow Robert W; Hamer Davidson H

2008-01-01

162

Developing the national community health assistant strategy in Zambia: a policy analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In 2010, the Ministry of Health in Zambia developed the National Community Health Assistant strategy, aiming to integrate community health workers (CHWs) into national health plans by creating a new group of workers, called community health assistants (CHAs). The aim of the paper is to analyse the CHA policy development process and the factors that influenced its evolution and content. A policy analysis approach was used to analyse the policy reform process. METHODOLOGY: Data were gathered through review of documents, participant observation and key informant interviews with CHA strategic team members in Lusaka district, and senior officials at the district level in Kapiri Mposhi district where some CHAs have been deployed. RESULTS: The strategy was developed in order to address the human resources for health shortage and the challenges facing the community-based health workforce in Zambia. However, some actors within the strategic team were more influential than others in informing the policy agenda, determining the process, and shaping the content. These actors negotiated with professional/statutory bodies and health unions on the need to develop the new cadre which resulted in compromises that enabled the policy process to move forward. International agencies also indirectly influenced the course as well as the content of the strategy. Some actors classified the process as both insufficiently consultative and rushed. Due to limited consultation, it was suggested that the policy content did not adequately address key policy content issues such as management of staff attrition, general professional development, and progression matters. Analysis of the process also showed that the strategy might create a new group of workers whose mandate is unclear to the existing group of health workers. CONCLUSIONS: This paper highlights the complex nature of policy-making processes for integrating CHWs into the health system. It reiterates the need for recognising the fact that actors' power or position in the political hierarchy may, more than their knowledge and understanding of the issue, play a disproportionate role in shaping the process as well as content of health policy reform.

Zulu JM; Kinsman J; Michelo C; Hurtig AK

2013-01-01

163

Task-shifting: experiences and opinions of health workers in Mozambique and Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND: This paper describes the task-shifting taking place in health centres and district hospitals in Mozambique and Zambia. The objectives of this study were to identify the perceived causes and factors facilitating or impeding task-shifting, and to determine both the positive and negative consequences of task-shifting for the service users, for the services and for health workers. METHODS: Data collection involved individual and group interviews and focus group discussions with health workers from the civil service. RESULTS: In both the Republic of Mozambique and the Republic of Zambia, health workers have to practice beyond the traditional scope of their professional practice to cope with their daily tasks. They do so to ensure that their patients receive the level of care that they, the health workers, deem due to them, even in the absence of written instructions.The "out of professional scope" activities consume a significant amount of working time. On occasions, health workers are given on-the-job training to assume new roles, but job titles and rewards do not change, and career progression is unheard of. Ancillary staff and nurses are the two cadres assuming a greater diversity of functions as a result of improvised task-shifting. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations show that the consequences of staff deficits and poor conditions of work include heavier workloads for those on duty, the closure of some services, the inability to release staff for continuing education, loss of quality, conflicts with patients, risks for patients, unsatisfied staff (with the exception of ancillary staff) and hazards for health workers and managers. Task-shifting is openly acknowledged and widespread, informal and carries risks for patients, staff and management.

Ferrinho P; Sidat M; Goma F; Dussault G

2012-01-01

164

Sarcoptes mite epidemiology and treatment in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) calves captured for translocation from the Kafue game management area to game ranches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background In Zambia, translocation of wildlife from National Parks to private owned game ranches demands that only animals free of infectious diseases that could adversely affect the expansion of the wildlife industry should be translocated to game ranches. Sarcoptes <...

Munang'andu Hetron M; Siamudaala Victor M; Matandiko Wigganson; Munyeme Musso; Chembensofu Mwelwa; Mwase Enala

165

Public Expenditure on Education and Resource Management : Case of Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In many developing countries, one of the major challenges facing public institutions is the efficient and equitable reallocation of public resources. This paper addresses the issue of how public resources are employed efficiently and equitably in Zambia as a case study. First of all, the study exami...

Ogawa, Keiichi; ???, ????; Ogawa, Ke?chi; ??, ??

166

The Implementation of School Based Continuous Assessment (CA) in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

In Zambia, continuous assessment (CA) is defined as an on-going, diagnostic, classroom-based process that uses a variety of assessment tools to measure learner performance (MOE, 2005:5). Over the years, examinations have been used for selection and certification, without formal considerations on school-based continuous assessment as a component in…

Kapambwe, William M.

2010-01-01

167

FIRST REPORT OF OLIVEA SCITULA ON VITEX DONIANA IN ZAMBIA  

Science.gov (United States)

Vitex doniana Sweet (Verbenaceae) is a semi-deciduous tree of up to 15m height, occurring in most Provinces of Zambia as well as from Senegal to the Sudan, Somalia, Angola, Botswana, and South Africa (1). Wood from V. doniana is used in buildings and in making boxes, interior fittings and furniture;...

168

Simulating the effects of debt relief in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The HIPC initiative for debt relief in the poorest countries has been extended to cover more countries. Zambia is one the countries accepted under the enhanced initiative for a debt relief of US$ 3.8 billion. In this paper, the possible effects of this debt relief are analysed using a social account...

Nokkala, Marko

169

Poverty reduction strategy processes in Malawi and Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Malawi and Zambia are poor and heavily indebted countries whose dependence on foreign aid is pronounced. They both qualify for debt relief in terms of the Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) initiative under the auspices of the Bretton Woods institutions, provided they formulate a Poverty Reduction...

Bwalya, Edgar; Rakner, Lise; Svåsand, Lars; Tostensen, Arne; Tsoka, Maxton

170

Financial sector reforms and savings mobilization in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper explores the relationship between financial sector reforms and savings mobilization in Zambia. Although there exists an extensive literature on financial sector development and savings levels in developing countries, there does not seem to exist satisfactory work on the above nexus for sub...

Maimbo, Samuel Munzele; Mavrotas, George

171

Reporting livestock disease information in Zambia: constraints and challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A desk and field study was conducted to quantify the flow of veterinary information between the livestock owner and the various levels of the veterinary department in Zambia. The studies were conducted in the Eastern Province, a major livestock keeping area. Results from the survey indicate that, al...

Mataa, L.

172

Primary schooling in Zambia squeezed at community and household level  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A part of the current economic reform program in Zambia, is to increase standard, efficiency and equity in the primary school sector. This paper studies primary school attendance. A logistic regression analysis is used to show that community level and household level variables affect the likelihood ...

Belsby, Liv; Wold, Bjørn K.

173

Plantation forestry diseases in Zambia : contributing factors and management options  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plantation forestry in Zambia is based mainly on non-native Eucalyptus and Pinus species and constitutes an important component of the country's economy. The productivity of these plantations is, however, threatened by several factors, including fungal pathogens that reduce timber quality and cause ...

Chungu, Donald; Muimba-Kankolongo, Ambayeba; Wingfield, Michael J.; Roux, Jolanda

174

Rural Development Policies and Performance in Zambia: a critical inventory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As Zambia's Second National Plan gradually comes to an end and the country prepares to embark on its Third Plan in January 1978, both regime members and policy planners will more than ever before be confronted with the ominous task of matching intentions with performance.

Ollawa, P.

175

Cucumis zambianus (Cucurbitaceae): A New Species from Northwestern Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

During germplasm explorations within Zambia in 1984, seven Cucumis accessions were collected that could not be identified to species. Two of the accessions were studied in-depth. Based on phenotypic characters, they were closest to Cucumis pustulatus. In ITS analyses of all available Cucumis spec...

176

Bacteria Isolations from Broiler and Layer Chicks in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chick mortality (CM) is one of the major constraints to the expansion of the poultry industry in Zambia. Of the 2,829 avian disease cases submitted to the national diagnostic laboratory based at the Central Veterinary Research Institute in Lusaka between 1995 and 2007, 34.39% (973/2,829) were from C...

Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Kabilika, Swithine Hameenda; Chibomba, Oliver; Munyeme, Musso; Muuka, Geoffrey Munkombwe

177

Forest Conservation and People’s Livelihoods: Explaining Encroachment on Zambia’s Protected Forest Landscapes - The Case Of Mwekera National Forest, Kitwe, Copperbelt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Forest Conservation and People’s Livelihoods: Explaining Encroachment on Zambia’s Protected Forest Landscapes - The Case Of Mwekera National Forest, Kitwe, Copperbelt Abstract The conflicts between conservation objectives and the livelihood needs of local communities are intricate and difficult to r...

Shitima, Mwepya Ephraim

178

Identifying barriers to the availability and use of Magnesium Sulphate Injection in resource poor countries: A case study in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are serious complications of pregnancy and major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. According to systematic reviews and WHO guidelines magnesium sulphate injection (MgSO4) should be the first -line treatment for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Studies have shown that this safe and effective medicine is unavailable and underutilized in many resource poor countries. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to the availability and use of MgSO4 in the Zambian Public Health System. Methods A 'fishbone' (Ishikawa) diagram listing probable facilitators to the availability and use of MgSO4 identified from the literature was used to develop an assessment tool. Barriers to availability and use of MgSO4 were assessed at the regulatory/government, supply, procurement, distribution, health facility and health professional levels. The assessment was completed during August 2008 using archival data, and observations at a pragmatic sample of health facilities providing obstetric services in Lusaka District, Zambia. Results The major barrier to the availability of MgSO4 within the public health system in Zambia was lack of procurement by the Ministry of Health. Other barriers identified included a lack of demand by health professionals at the health centre level and a lack of in-service training in the use of MgSO4. Where there was demand by obstetricians, magnesium sulphate injection was being procured from the private sector by the hospital pharmacy despite not being registered and licensed for use for the treatment of severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia by the national Pharmaceutical Regulatory Authority. Conclusions The case study in Zambia highlights the complexities that underlie making essential medicines available and used appropriately. The fishbone diagram is a useful theoretical framework for illustrating the complexity of translating research findings into clinical practice. A better understanding of the supply system and of the pattern of demand for MgSO4 in Zambia should enable policy makers and stakeholders to develop and implement appropriate interventions to improve the availability and use of MgSO4.

Ridge Anna L; Bero Lisa A; Hill Suzanne R

2010-01-01

179

Midwives' perspectives on male participation in PMTCT of HIV and how they can support it in Lusaka, Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: the purpose of this study is to describe midwives' perspectives on (1) male participation in Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and (2) the methods that could be used to improve male participation in the Lusaka District, Zambia. DESIGN: a qualitative descriptive study. Data were collected using 10 open-ended questions. SETTING: 25 public antenatal clinics in the Lusaka District, Zambia. PARTICIPANTS: midwives (n=45). FINDINGS: content analysis highlighted that a male partner can prevent his wife and his infant from being exposed to HIV by preventive behaviour in their intimate relationship and by utilising health-care services. Several barriers to male participation were identified. These were linked to the male partner himself, to health-care services and to society. Stigma as a multifaceted barrier was considered to permeate every level. The sources of the resources that a male partner needs to prevent Mother-To-Child Transmission (MTCT) were the male partner himself, health-care services and society. The methods that midwives can use to improve male participation were the following: first, influencing individuals, the community, employers and health personnel; second, intervening in risk behaviour; and third, providing disease intervention services. KEY CONCLUSION: male participation in PMTCT of HIV is diverse, not only in HIV testing at the beginning of pregnancy, and it is influenced by various dimensions. Midwives' methods to improve male participation were broad, extending outside the antenatal clinic. A shortage of midwives and other typical issues of limited resources of developing countries pose challenges to male participation in PMTCT of HIV. IMPLICATION FOR PRACTICE: the study showed that cultivating a male-friendly approach in antenatal care is urgent to protect infants.

Auvinen J; Kylmä J; Välimäki M; Bweupe M; Suominen T

2013-03-01

180

The Role of Open and Distance Learning in the Implementation of the Right to Education in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

|As a member of the United Nations, Zambia is committed to the observance of human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948. This is evidenced, among others, by the fact that Zambia is a signatory to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. Zambia has a…

Siaciwena, Richard; Lubinda, Foster

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) during the early months of treatment in rural Zambia: influence of demographic characteristics and social surroundings of patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Around 70% of those living with HIV in need of treatment accessed antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Zambia by 2009. However, sustaining high levels of adherence to ART is a challenge. This study aimed to identify the predictive factors associated with ART adherence during the early months of treatment in rural Zambia. METHODS: This is a field based observational longitudinal study in Mumbwa district, which is located 150 km west of Lusaka, the capital of Zambia. Treatment naive patients aged over 15 years, who initiated treatment during September-November 2010, were enrolled. Patients were interviewed at the initiation and six weeks later. The treatment adherence was measured according to self-reporting by the patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the predictive factors associated with the adherence. RESULTS: Of 157 patients, 59.9% were fully adherent to the treatment six weeks after starting ART. According to the multivariable analysis, full adherence was associated with being female [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR), 3.3; 95% Confidence interval (CI), 1.2-8.9], having a spouse who were also on ART (AOR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.5-13.1), and experience of food insufficiency in the previous 30 days (AOR, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.8-13.8). Some of the most common reasons for missed doses were long distance to health facilities (n = 21, 53.8%), food insufficiency (n = 20, 51.3%), and being busy with other activities such as work (n = 15, 38.5%). CONCLUSIONS: The treatment adherence continues to be a significant challenge in rural Zambia. Social supports from spouses and people on ART could facilitate their treatment adherence. This is likely to require attention by ART services in the future, focusing on different social influences on male and female in rural Zambia. In addition, poverty reduction strategies may help to reinforce adherence to ART and could mitigate the influence of HIV infection for poor patients and those who fall into poverty after starting ART.

Sasaki Y; Kakimoto K; Dube C; Sikazwe I; Moyo C; Syakantu G; Komada K; Miyano S; Ishikawa N; Kita K; Kai I

2012-01-01

182

Phenotypic characterization of the Barotse and Tonga cattle of Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: The Barotse and Tonga are among the known indigenous cattle of Zambia they belong to the Sanga cattle. Barotse cattle are long horned found predominantly in Western Province while Tonga cattle are small framed, medium to short horns with a rudimentary hump found in Southern Province of Zambia. A total of 271 mature Barotse cattle and 268 mature Tonga cattle were included in the morphological characterization study. The aim of the study was to create an understanding of the physical characteristics of the two types of cattle. The comparisons of least - square means on the dimensional measurements between the male and female mature Barotse cattle revealed that males are bigger than females. There were very high significant differences (P

2009-01-01

183

Report to the government of Zambia. Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] At the request of the Government of the Republic of Zambia, the International Atomic Energy Agency set up a technical assistance project to supply an expert plus some equipment, commencing 1 October 1971 and of one year's duration. The project was to expand Zambia's radiation protection service through monitoring of radiation doses, radiation sources, and premises, and provide advise related to the safe handling of sources of ionizing radiation. Upon arrival the expert found that some of these activities had been initiated. The key measures therefore were to establish channels of communication and authority, survey the state of radiation safety and protective measures, and coordination of protective and control measures. On these lines the Ionising Radiation Act is stated to show how its establishment and organizational structure could assist in the implementation of radiation protection measures. maps

1971-10-01

184

Airborne gamma-ray spectrometric surveys in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] During 1967-1976 five airborne geophysical surveys, covering almost the whole country, were carried out in Zambia. In every case magnetic total field and gamma-ray spectrometer measurements were made. In the Western Province the spectrometer measurements do not cover the Kalahari area. Four of these surveys have been made on behalf of the Government of Zambia. They were done in order to speed up mineral prospecting and also to diversify mining activities from the Copperbelt to other parts of the country. A summary of the airborne gamma-ray spectrometer surveys with short comments on the results and outlines of the analysis of survey data as well as the follow-up work are given. (author)

1977-11-18

185

Reporting livestock disease information in Zambia: constraints and challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A desk and field study was conducted to quantify the flow of veterinary information between the livestock owner and the various levels of the veterinary department in Zambia. The studies were conducted in the Eastern Province, a major livestock keeping area. Results from the survey indicate that, although information is exchanged, reporting to the highest level is erratic. The repercussions of such irregular reporting are discussed.

Mataa, L.

2005-01-01

186

Policy options for the sustainable development of Zambia's electricity sector  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This paper aims at understanding how Zambia's electricity system would be affected by droughts (due to a dry year) and how the system's adaptive capacity could be improved. Hydropower currently supplies 99% of the total electricity in Zambia, and concerns have been raised because many climate change studies project increased occurrences of dry years in the Southern Africa region. Different economic and climatic scenarios were explored to understand their impact on the dev (more) elopment of Zambia's power generation system, and what policies and strategies could be adopted to mitigate these impacts on security of supply and average generation costs, which directly affect the electricity price. The results show that a dry year has significant impact on the average generating cost since hydropower continues to dominate the system. Diversifying the system does not improve the adaptive capacity of the system but only increases the average cost of generating electricity in an average year. The most cost effective way of increasing the system's adaptive capacity is by importing electricity and gradually increasing share of renewable and coal technologies in the system. Further research on how electricity trade in Southern Africa could be enhanced, should be done.

Tembo, Bernard; Merven, Bruno

2013-05-01

187

Review of the malaria epidemiology and trends in Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A comprehensive desk review of malaria trends was conducted between 2000-2010 in Zambia to study malaria epidemiology and trends to guide strategies and approaches for effective malaria control. This review considered data from the National Health Information Management System, Malaria Surveys and Programme Review reports and analyzed malaria in-patient cases and deaths in relation to intervention coverage for all ages. Data showed three distinct epidemiological strata after a notable malaria reduction (66%) in in-patient cases and deaths, particularly between 2000-2008. These changes occurred following the (re-)introduction and expansion of indoor residual spraying up to 90% coverage, scale-up of coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets in household from 50% to 70%, and artemisin-based combination therapy nationwide. However, malaria cases and deaths re-surged, increasing in 2009-2010 in the northern-eastern parts of Zambia. Delays in the disbursement of funds affected the implementation of interventions, which resulted in resurgence of cases and deaths. In spite of a decline in malaria disease burden over the past decade in Zambia, a reversal in impact is notable in the year 2009-2010, signifying that control gains are fragile and must be sustained toeliminate malaria.

Masaninga F; Chanda E; Chanda-Kapata P; Hamainza B; Masendu HT; Kamuliwo M; Kapelwa W; Chimumbwa J; Govere J; Otten M; Fall IS; Babaniyi O; Siziya S

2013-02-01

188

Trends in childhood tuberculosis in Zambia: a situation analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To ascertain childhood tuberculosis (TB) trends, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection rates and multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) prevalence rates in Zambia. METHODS: A retrospective review of Zambian annual TB notification data and National TB Programme reports for a 7 year period (2004-2011). TB trends were stratified by age and HIV status. RESULTS: The total number of children notified during this period with all forms of TB was 40 976. A total of 2670 of 40 976 (6%) were smear-positive cases. Notification rates of all forms of childhood TB show a decline in trends from 135 per 100 000 population in 2004, to 69 per 100 000 population in 2011. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood TB is an important but neglected problem in Zambia highlighted by the fact that no data exists on HIV co-infection and MDR-TB. Strengthening of the National TB Programme and diagnostics services/algorithms are required to accurately define the TB burden, HIV co-infection and MDR-TB rates in children in Zambia.

Kapata N; Chanda-Kapata P; O'Grady J; Bates M; Mwaba P; Janssen S; Marais B; Cobelens F; Grobusch M; Zumla A

2013-04-01

189

Geothermal district heating systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

Budney, G.S.; Childs, F.

1982-01-01

190

Nature and Causes of Learning Difficulties in Genetics at High School Level in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Genetics has been identified as one of the difficult topics in biology for high school students in Zambia. This paper reports a study conducted to determine the nature and causes of learning difficulties students encounter in genetics at high school level in Zambia. A survey design was used and data...

Haambokoma, Christopher

191

Consultancy Report: Assessment of the Zambia College of Distance Education (ZACODE)  

Science.gov (United States)

|This study was carried out at the request of the Ministry of Education, Zambia. The Commonwealth of Learning contracted Turning Points Consultancy CC, a Namibian company, who provided the services of the author, to "carry out an evaluation of the Zambia College of Distance Education (ZACODE) and submit recommendations to the Ministry of…

Ellis, Justin

2009-01-01

192

Bismarck in the Bush: Year 12 Write Zambia's History for Zambian Students  

Science.gov (United States)

|Peter Gray explains how his Year 12 students came to research and write a resource on the history of Zambia, for history teachers "in" Zambia. The construction of the resource stretched the Year 12 students in new ways: the Internet was useless and there were no easy digests in A-Level textbooks to get them started. They would have to read whole…

Gray, Peter

2011-01-01

193

Trade Unions in Processes of Democratisation. A Study of Party Labour Relations in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report assesses the role of labour in the recent transition to multi-party rule in Zambia. The main question considered is to what extent labour, through its policy-making organ the Zambia Congress of Trade Unions (ZCTU), effected policy changes at the national level in a democratic direction. ...

Rakner, Lise

194

Impact of immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on Fournier's gangrene: observations in Zambia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The results of a prospective study in the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia, on the impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus on the incidence and prognosis of Fournier's gangrene is presented; Zambia has been in the grip of an HIV epidemic since the early 1980s. A total of 10 patients with ...

Elem, B.; Ranjan, P.

195

Taenia solium infections in a rural area of eastern Zambia; a community based study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis is a parasitic infection occurring in many developing countries. Data on the status of human infections in Zambia is largely lacking. We conducted a community-based study in Eastern Zambia to determine the prevalence of human taeniosis and cysticerco...

Mwape, K. E.; Phiri, I. K.; Praet, N.; Muma, J. B.; Zulu, G.; Van den Bossche, P.; De Deken, R.; Speybroeck, N.; Dorny, P.

196

Prevalence of schistosome antibodies with hepatosplenic signs and symptoms among patients from Kaoma, Western Province, Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Schistosomiasis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, with over 200 million people infected worldwide. Eighty-five percent of cases are in Africa. The hepatosplenic form develops over time by an immune reaction to trapped Schistosoma mansoni eggs in the portal system leading to liver fibrosis, portal hypertension and oesophageal varices. Most patients presenting to the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka with oesophageal varices, come from Western province, but no formal studies have been carried out in this area assessing the burden of hepatosplenic pathology. We aimed to define the extent of the problem in Kaoma district, western Zambia, and to correlate signs and symptoms with serology. Findings A symptom questionnaire, demographic survey and physical examination was conducted amongst patients presenting to Kaoma district outpatient clinics. To assess the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infections, blood was collected and screened for the presence of Schistosoma antibodies using Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Of the 110 patients screened, 97 (88%) were ELISA positive. Forty-six percent (51/110) reported haematochezia and 7% experienced haematemesis (8/110). On physical examination 27% (30/110) hepatomegaly and 17% (30/110) splenomegaly was observed amongst participants but there were few correlations between serology and signs/symptoms. On questioning 68% (75/110) of participants knew nothing about schistosomiasis transmission. Conclusions Our serological and clinical data indicate a very heavy burden of schistosomiasis-related portal hypertension. Our evidence highlights a need for mass treatment in Kaoma to address and prevent extensive pathology of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. Safe water and health education throughout Western Province are clearly also important.

2013-01-01

197

The human resource for health situation in Zambia: deficit and maldistribution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Current health policy directions in Zambia are formulated in the National Health Strategic Plan. The Plan focuses on national health priorities, which include the human resources (HR) crisis. In this paper we describe the way the HRH establishment is distributed in the different provinces of Zambia, with a view to assess the dimension of shortages and of imbalances in the distribution of health workers by province and by level of care. POPULATION AND METHODS: We used secondary data from the "March 2008 payroll data base", which lists all the public servants on the payroll of the Ministry of Health and of the National Health Service facilities. We computed rates and ratios and compared them. RESULTS: The highest relative concentration of all categories of workers was observed in Northern, Eastern, Lusaka, Western and Luapula provinces (in decreasing order of number of health workers).The ratio of clinical officers (mid-level clinical practitioners) to general medical officer (doctors with university training) varied from 3.77 in the Lusaka to 19.33 in the Northwestern provinces. For registered nurses (3 to 4 years of mid-level training), the ratio went from 3.54 in the Western to 15.00 in Eastern provinces and for enrolled nurses (two years of basic training) from 4.91 in the Luapula to 36.18 in the Southern provinces.This unequal distribution was reflected in the ratio of population per cadre. The provincial distribution of personnel showed a skewed staff distribution in favour of urbanized provinces, e.g. in Lusaka's doctor: population ratio was 1: 6,247 compared to Northern Province's ratio of 1: 65,763.In the whole country, the data set showed only 109 staff in health posts: 1 clinical officer, 3 environmental health technologists, 2 registered nurses, 12 enrolled midwives, 32 enrolled nurses, and 59 other.The vacancy rates for level 3 facilities(central hospitals, national level) varied from 5% in Lusaka to 38% in Copperbelt Province; for level 2 facilities (provincial level hospitals), from 30% for Western to 70% for Copperbelt Province; for level 1 facilities (district level hospitals), from 54% for the Southern to 80% for the Western provinces; for rural health centres, vacancies varied from 15% to 63% (for Lusaka and Luapula provinces respectively); for urban health centres the observed vacancy rates varied from 13% for the Lusaka to 96% for the Western provinces. We observed significant shortages in most staff categories, except for support staff, which had a significant surplus. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This case study documents how a peaceful, politically stable African country with a longstanding tradition of strategic management of the health sector and with a track record of innovative approaches dealt with its HRH problems, but still remains with a major absolute and relative shortage of health workers. The case of Zambia reinforces the idea that training more staff is necessary to address the human resources crisis, but it is not sufficient and has to be completed with measures to mitigate attrition and to increase productivity.

Ferrinho P; Siziya S; Goma F; Dussault G

2011-01-01

198

The human resource for health situation in Zambia: deficit and maldistribution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Current health policy directions in Zambia are formulated in the National Health Strategic Plan. The Plan focuses on national health priorities, which include the human resources (HR) crisis. In this paper we describe the way the HRH establishment is distributed in the different provinces of Zambia, with a view to assess the dimension of shortages and of imbalances in the distribution of health workers by province and by level of care. Population and methods We used secondary data from the "March 2008 payroll data base", which lists all the public servants on the payroll of the Ministry of Health and of the National Health Service facilities. We computed rates and ratios and compared them. Results The highest relative concentration of all categories of workers was observed in Northern, Eastern, Lusaka, Western and Luapula provinces (in decreasing order of number of health workers). The ratio of clinical officers (mid-level clinical practitioners) to general medical officer (doctors with university training) varied from 3.77 in the Lusaka to 19.33 in the Northwestern provinces. For registered nurses (3 to 4 years of mid-level training), the ratio went from 3.54 in the Western to 15.00 in Eastern provinces and for enrolled nurses (two years of basic training) from 4.91 in the Luapula to 36.18 in the Southern provinces. This unequal distribution was reflected in the ratio of population per cadre. The provincial distribution of personnel showed a skewed staff distribution in favour of urbanized provinces, e.g. in Lusaka's doctor: population ratio was 1: 6,247 compared to Northern Province's ratio of 1: 65,763. In the whole country, the data set showed only 109 staff in health posts: 1 clinical officer, 3 environmental health technologists, 2 registered nurses, 12 enrolled midwives, 32 enrolled nurses, and 59 other. The vacancy rates for level 3 facilities(central hospitals, national level) varied from 5% in Lusaka to 38% in Copperbelt Province; for level 2 facilities (provincial level hospitals), from 30% for Western to 70% for Copperbelt Province; for level 1 facilities (district level hospitals), from 54% for the Southern to 80% for the Western provinces; for rural health centres, vacancies varied from 15% to 63% (for Lusaka and Luapula provinces respectively); for urban health centres the observed vacancy rates varied from 13% for the Lusaka to 96% for the Western provinces. We observed significant shortages in most staff categories, except for support staff, which had a significant surplus. Discussion and Conclusions This case study documents how a peaceful, politically stable African country with a longstanding tradition of strategic management of the health sector and with a track record of innovative approaches dealt with its HRH problems, but still remains with a major absolute and relative shortage of health workers. The case of Zambia reinforces the idea that training more staff is necessary to address the human resources crisis, but it is not sufficient and has to be completed with measures to mitigate attrition and to increase productivity.

Ferrinho Paulo; Siziya Seter; Goma Fastone; Dussault Gilles

2011-01-01

199

Paediatric malaria case-management with artemether-lumefantrine in Zambia: a repeat cross-sectional study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Zambia was the first African country to change national antimalarial treatment policy to artemisinin-based combination therapy – artemether-lumefantrine. An evaluation during the early implementation phase revealed low readiness of health facilities and health workers to deliver artemether-lumefantrine, and worryingly suboptimal treatment practices. Improvements in the case-management of uncomplicated malaria two years after the initial evaluation and three years after the change of policy in Zambia are reported. Methods Data collected during the health facility surveys undertaken in 2004 and 2006 at all outpatient departments of government and mission facilities in four Zambian districts were analysed. The surveys were cross-sectional, using a range of quality of care assessment methods. The main outcome measures were changes in health facility and health worker readiness to deliver artemether-lumefantrine, and changes in case-management practices for children below five years of age presenting with uncomplicated malaria as defined by national guidelines. Results In 2004, 94 health facilities, 103 health workers and 944 consultations for children with uncomplicated malaria were evaluated. In 2006, 104 facilities, 135 health workers and 1125 consultations were evaluated using the same criteria of selection. Health facility and health worker readiness improved from 2004 to 2006: availability of artemether-lumefantrine from 51% (48/94) to 60% (62/104), presence of artemether-lumefantrine dosage wall charts from 20% (19/94) to 75% (78/104), possession of guidelines from 58% (60/103) to 92% (124/135), and provision of in-service training from 25% (26/103) to 41% (55/135). The proportions of children with uncomplicated malaria treated with artemether-lumefantrine also increased from 2004 to 2006: from 1% (6/527) to 27% (149/552) in children weighing 5 to 9 kg, and from 11% (42/394) to 42% (231/547) in children weighing 10 kg or more. In both weight groups and both years, 22% (441/2020) of children with uncomplicated malaria were not prescribed any antimalarial drug. Conclusion Although significant improvements in malaria case-management have occurred over two years in Zambia, the quality of treatment provided at the point of care is not yet optimal. Strengthening weak health systems and improving the delivery of effective interventions should remain high priority in all countries implementing new treatment policies for malaria.

Zurovac Dejan; Ndhlovu Mickey; Sipilanyambe Nawa; Chanda Pascalina; Hamer Davidson H; Simon Jon L; Snow Robert W

2007-01-01

200

Clinical patterns of juvenile idiopathic arthritis in Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous group of disorders with different disease manifestations among various populations. There are few reports of JIA among indigenous Africans especially sub-Saharan Africa. We present herein the clinical patterns of JIA encountered at a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. METHOD: Hospital records of patients with a diagnosis of chronic arthritis with onset at the age of 16 years or less presenting to University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia for the periods 1994--98 and 2006--2010 were retrospectively reviewed and reclassified as Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) based on the International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILA R) JIA diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: In total, 126 patients with chronic arthritis of onset at age 16 years or less were evaluated over these periods at the hospital. Of these, 85 could further be analyzed by ILAR JIA criteria but 7 (8.24%) were HIV seropositive and were assessed separately. The average age at disease onset among the 78 JIA patients was 8.70 years (range: 1--15 years) with average age at first visit to hospital being 11.3 years (range: 2 to 25 years) and with a female to male ratio of 1.2:1. Polyarticular rheumatoid factor negative JIA, at 34.62%, was the most frequent type of chronic arthritis encountered. Oligoarthritis was found in 32.05% while 11.54% and 14.10% were polyarticular rheumatoid factor positive and systemic JIA, respectively. Enthesitis-related arthritis was found in 6.41% and only 1.28% were determined to have psoriatic arthritis among this population. CONCLUSION: JIA is predominantly a polyarticular rheumatoid factor negative disease in Zambia. Late presentation is an issue with major implications for educational input and resource acquisition. There is need to elucidate the genetics and environmental factors of JIA in this region.

Chipeta J; Njobvu P; Wa-Somwe S; Chintu C; McGill PE; Bucala R

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
201

Quality of antenatal care in Zambia: a national assessment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Antenatal care (ANC) is one of the recommended interventions to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. Yet in most Sub-Saharan African countries, high rates of ANC coverage coexist with high maternal and neonatal mortality. This disconnect has fueled calls to focus on the quality of ANC services. However, little conceptual or empirical work exists on the measurement of ANC quality at health facilities in low-income countries. We developed a classification tool and assessed the level of ANC service provision at health facilities in Zambia on a national scale and compared this to the quality of ANC received by expectant mothers. Methods We analysed two national datasets with detailed antenatal provider and user information, the 2005 Zambia Health Facility Census and the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), to describe the level of ANC service provision at 1,299 antenatal facilities in 2005 and the quality of ANC received by 4,148 mothers between 2002 and 2007. Results We found that only 45 antenatal facilities (3%) fulfilled our developed criteria for optimum ANC service, while 47% of facilities provided adequate service, and the remaining 50% offered inadequate service. Although 94% of mothers reported at least one ANC visit with a skilled health worker and 60% attended at least four visits, only 29% of mothers received good quality ANC, and only 8% of mothers received good quality ANC and attended in the first trimester. Conclusions DHS data can be used to monitor “effective ANC coverage” which can be far below ANC coverage as estimated by current indicators. This “quality gap” indicates missed opportunities at ANC for delivering effective interventions. Evaluating the level of ANC provision at health facilities is an efficient way to detect where deficiencies are located in the system and could serve as a monitoring tool to evaluate country progress.

Kyei Nicholas N A; Chansa Collins; Gabrysch Sabine

2012-01-01

202

Challenges affecting the development of radiation safety infrastructure in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This brief presentation gives some of the highlights of the activities that the government of the Republic of Zambia undertook from 1972 to date in its effort to ensure the development of a national radiation protection infrastructure. The paper also discusses some of the challenges that have to be addressed. The final section discusses some of the policy options and recommendations that should be undertaken in order to ensure that the Zambian government has a clear direction for the development of radiation safety infrastructure. The issue of national emergency plan and response in the event of a radiological accident is also discussed. (author)

2003-01-01

203

Geology of the uranium occurrence in the Bungua area, Siavonga District, Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Uranium mineralization related to the fluviatile continental sandstone of the Escarpment Grit Formation of Upper Karroo System has been studied in detail in the Bungua area. Airborne and ground gamma-radiation surveys resulted in the discovery of mineralized bodies containing secondary minerals such as meta-autunite, phosphuranylite, uranocircite, abernythite, boltwoodite, etc. disseminated in various ways. Geological, radiometric, stratigraphic, sedimentological and petrological studies coupled with exploration pitting, trenching and drilling were employed to assess the nature, distribution and sub-surface continuation of mineralized bodies. Drilling, logging and XRF analysis revealed that the uranium mineralized bodies are mainly lenses at different levels, which may be concordant or discordant with bedding. The thickness and grade of ore horizons differ considerably. Mineral distribution and controls are complex and that the main deposit is controlled by reducing lithologies, organic matter, clay traps, micas, iron cementing and permeable channels. Although no definite mode of origin can be attributed to the presently seen uranium mineralized bodies, they appear to be from a pre-existing ore deposit which is mobilized and redistributed during oxidation by supergene processes. It is suggested that the original uranium was in solution as uranylion and came from the same source area as the host rocks and the uranium-bearing groundwater and streams moved in the same direction as the associated Escarpment Grit sediments. Uranium was precipitated wherever favourable conditions prevailed in the Escarpment Grit Formation. (author)

1977-11-18

204

Persistence of lindane and endosulfan under field conditions in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The persistence of lindane and endosulfan was studied under field conditions in Zambia in 1992 to 1994. Both pesticides dissipated rapidly under field conditions. About 29% and 73% of initial concentration was lost during the first 30 and 60 days after treatment, respectively in 1992. After 180 days, about 11% of the initial concentration was recovered from the soil. In 1993, 40% of initial residues were lost during the first 30 days. At 180 days after spraying, slightly more residues (25% of the initial values) were recovered at this time than in 1992. This indicated a change in the longer term behaviour of lindane in the soil since the calculated half-lives of lindane, covering the shorter term behaviour, were 55-80 days in 1992 and ? 17 days in 1993. In 1994, losses of ?-Endosulfan and ?-Endosulfan were 40% and 37% respectively during the initial 30 days after treatment. A further 25% of ?-Endosulfan and 33% of ?-Endosulfan were lost during the following 30 days. These data allow estimates of the half-lives of ?- and ?-Endosulfan (40 and 38 days) under the field conditions pertaining in Zambia at the time of the trials showing that this compound has only moderate persistence and unlikely to cause long term environmental problems. (author). 7 refs, 8 tabs

1995-12-01

205

e-Government for Development Information Exchange (DIE): Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

In most parts of the world, political systems which utilize authoritative rule and mostly employ top-down decision-making processes are slowly transcending towards democratic norms. Information Technology Systems have been identified and adopted as one of the most efficient vehicles for appropriate, transparent and inclusive / participatory decision making. Zambia has shown a higher propensity to indigenous knowledge systems which are full of inefficiencies, a lot of red tape in public service delivery, and prone to corrupt practices. Despite that being the case, it is slowly trying to implement e-government. The adoption of e-government promises a sharp paradigm shift where public institutions will be more responsive and transparent, promote efficient PPP (Public Private Partnerships), and empower citizens by making knowledge and other resources more directly accessible. This paper examines three cases from Zambia where ICT in support of e-government has been implemented for Development Information Exchange (DIE) - knowledge-based decision making. The paper also assesses the challenges, opportunities, and issues together with e-government adoption criteria regarding successful encapsulation of e-government into the Zambian contextual environment. I propose a conceptual model which offers balanced e-government adoption criteria involving a combination of electronic and participatory services. This conceptual e-government adoption model can later be replicated to be used at the Southern African Development Community (SADC) level given the similarity in the contextual environment.

Joseph, Bwalya Kelvin

206

Will savannas survive outside the parks? A lesson from Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Miombo woodlands cover the transition zone between dry open savannas and moist forests in Southern Africa. They cover about 2.7 million km2 in southern Africa and provide many ecosystem services that support rural life, including medical products, wild foods, construction timber and fuel. In Zambia, as in many of its neighbouring countries, miombo woodlands are currently experiencing accelerating degradation and clearing, mostly with charcoal production as the initial driver. Domestic energy needs in the growing urban areas are largely satisfied by charcoal, which is less energy-efficient fuel on a tree-to-table basis than the firewood that is used in rural areas, but has a higher energy density and is thus cheaper to transport. This study uses data from inventories and from eddy covariance measurements of carbon exchange to characterize the impact of charcoal production on miombo woodlands. We address the following questions: (i) how much carbon is lost at local as well as at national scale and (ii) does forest degradation result in the loss of a carbon sink? On the basis of our data we (iii) estimate the per capita emissions through deforestation and forest degradation in Zambia and relate it to fossil fuel emissions. Furthermore, (iv) a rough estimate of the energy that is provided by charcoal production to private households at a national level is calculated and (v) options for alternative energy supply to private households are discussed.

Kutsch, W.; Merbold, L.; Scholes, B.; Mukelabai, M.

2012-04-01

207

Bacteria Isolations from Broiler and Layer Chicks in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Chick mortality (CM) is one of the major constraints to the expansion of the poultry industry in Zambia. Of the 2,829 avian disease cases submitted to the national diagnostic laboratory based at the Central Veterinary Research Institute in Lusaka between 1995 and 2007, 34.39% (973/2,829) were from CM cases. The disease accounted for 40.2% (218,787/544,903) mortality in the affected flocks with 89.6% (196,112/218,787) of the affected birds dying within seven days. Major bacteria species involved were Escherichia coli, Salmonella gallinarum, and Proteus species being isolated from 84.58%, 46.15%, and 26.93% of the reported CM cases (n = 973), respectively. Detection of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, and Salmonella dublin indicates that poultry has the potential of transmitting zoonotic pathogenic bacteria to humans. The proportion of Salmonella gallinarum reactors in the adult breeding stock was generally low (<0.5%) throughout the study period although its prevalence in CM cases was correlated (r = 0.68, P < 0.011) with seroprevalence of the same pathogen in the adult breeding stock. Given that the disease accounts for a large proportion of the avian diseases in Zambia as shown in the present study (34.39%, n = 2,829), it is imperative that an effective disease control strategy aimed at reducing its occurrence should be developed.

Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Kabilika, Swithine Hameenda; Chibomba, Oliver; Munyeme, Musso; Muuka, Geoffrey Munkombwe

2012-01-01

208

Bacteria isolations from broiler and layer chicks in zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chick mortality (CM) is one of the major constraints to the expansion of the poultry industry in Zambia. Of the 2,829 avian disease cases submitted to the national diagnostic laboratory based at the Central Veterinary Research Institute in Lusaka between 1995 and 2007, 34.39% (973/2,829) were from CM cases. The disease accounted for 40.2% (218,787/544,903) mortality in the affected flocks with 89.6% (196,112/218,787) of the affected birds dying within seven days. Major bacteria species involved were Escherichia coli, Salmonella gallinarum, and Proteus species being isolated from 84.58%, 46.15%, and 26.93% of the reported CM cases (n = 973), respectively. Detection of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, and Salmonella dublin indicates that poultry has the potential of transmitting zoonotic pathogenic bacteria to humans. The proportion of Salmonella gallinarum reactors in the adult breeding stock was generally low (<0.5%) throughout the study period although its prevalence in CM cases was correlated (r = 0.68, P < 0.011) with seroprevalence of the same pathogen in the adult breeding stock. Given that the disease accounts for a large proportion of the avian diseases in Zambia as shown in the present study (34.39%, n = 2,829), it is imperative that an effective disease control strategy aimed at reducing its occurrence should be developed.

Munang'andu HM; Kabilika SH; Chibomba O; Munyeme M; Muuka GM

2012-01-01

209

Energy Survey in Zambezi. Report from a Study in Zambia - 1985.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report presents the results and experiences from a field study in Zambia. The energy situation is described in detail. Energy consumption is analyzed by end-use and source. The supply situation for the different sources - firewood, charcoal, kerosene ...

J. M. Christensen

1985-01-01

210

Thermal performance of traditional housing in the cool season in Zambia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The thermal performance of a typical traditional house in Zambia, which experiences a tropical upland climate, is investigated by empirical measurements. Results show that the house is not comfortable in the cool season. (author)

Sharples, S.; Malama, A. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Architecture Studies

1996-05-01

211

Mycobacterium bovis infection at the interface between domestic and wild animals in Zambia  

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Abstract Background In Zambia, the presence of bovine tuberculosis in both wild and domestic animals has long been acknowledged and mutual transmission between them has been predicted without any direct evidence. Elucidation of the circulating Mycobacterium bovis strains at...

Hang’ombe Mudenda B; Munyeme Musso; Nakajima Chie; Fukushima Yukari; Suzuki Haruka; Matandiko Wigganson; Ishii Akihiro

212

Efficiency and emission characteristics of two Zambia cookstoves using charcoal and coal briquettes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The emission characteristics of charcoal and coal briquettes in two Zambia household cookstoves were evaluated using an improved chamber method. The two domestic appliances were the traditional mbaula and the newly developed ceramic stove, referred to as ...

J. Kaoma G. Kasali A. Ellegaard

1994-01-01

213

An investigation of the amount and environmental Impact of chemical fertilizers and pesticides running off from commercial and traditional farmlands in the upper Kaleya catchment, Mazabuka, Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This study investigated the amount of and impact of fertiliser loading into the upper Kaleya river of Mazabuka district in Southern Province of Zambia. It provides an opportunity to evaluate water quality associated with nutrient and pesticide use, due to prominence of intensive agriculture in the area. Storm water runoff of fertilizers and pesticides applied on farmlands have appeared to be the predominant source of nutrients and contaminants affecting surface water quality in upper Kaleya River, a factor very much dependent on land use in the catchment.The study concluded that upper Kaleya River is polluted from the application of fertilizers and pesticides used by farmers and that more long term studies are required to evaluate environmental effects of fertilizers and pesticide use in order to provide assessments of pollution and and for developing cost effective pollution control and monitoring programmes

2003-01-01

214

Mutumwa Nchimi healers and wizardry beliefs in Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mutumwa Nchimi practitioners in Zambia today are neotraditional healers who specialize in the diagnosis and curing of illnesses and misfortunes allegedly caused by wizardry (buloshi). Nchimi means 'witch-diviner' and Mutumwa means 'sent (by God)'. Their witch-divining practices are thus placed within the new biblical religious framework. Mutumwa Nchimi healers are contemporary African psychiatrists and psychotherapists who fully accept and work within the framework of the wizardry paradigm as the explanatory mechanism for a whole range of problems and illnesses experienced by a large number of Zambia's urban dwellers. Their success in attracting patients bears witness to the extent to which wizardry still persists as a paradigm for evil. The research data used is comprised of 143 complete tape-recorded cases of Mutumwa Nchimi diagnoses in addition to 1233 summaries of book-recorded cases. Buloshi is mentioned as the cause of illness and misfortune in 58% of the tape-recorded cases and in 55.9% of the book-recorded cases. Wizardry is perceived by Mutumwa Nchimi healers to relate to two dimensions which refer to the activity of witchcraft and of sorcery respectively. The former relates to witch spirits and fibanda ghosts; the latter relates to the use of bwanga magical charms. In addition to the need for prayer and reconciliation, psychotherapy requires the cleansing of one's body and of one's house from buloshi attack. The two dimensions of witchcraft and of sorcery, though distinct, are seen to be essentially related to one another. The dreams of patients, in which unconscious pressures come to the surface, are perceived to confirm the existence and reality of wizardry assault. Wizardry beliefs are placed firmly within the context of social relationships and social change in Zambia and psychosocial analysis is at the centre of the diagnostic process. Wizardry beliefs are seen by Mutumwa Nchimi healers to reflect the problems faced by urban dwellers in particular who, on the one hand, find themselves afflicted by feelings of shame or guilt with respect to failure to observe traditional morality and, on the other hand, by an awareness of suspected rival forces in the competitive urban environment.

Dillon-Malone C

1988-01-01

215

Mutumwa Nchimi healers and wizardry beliefs in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mutumwa Nchimi practitioners in Zambia today are neotraditional healers who specialize in the diagnosis and curing of illnesses and misfortunes allegedly caused by wizardry (buloshi). Nchimi means 'witch-diviner' and Mutumwa means 'sent (by God)'. Their witch-divining practices are thus placed within the new biblical religious framework. Mutumwa Nchimi healers are contemporary African psychiatrists and psychotherapists who fully accept and work within the framework of the wizardry paradigm as the explanatory mechanism for a whole range of problems and illnesses experienced by a large number of Zambia's urban dwellers. Their success in attracting patients bears witness to the extent to which wizardry still persists as a paradigm for evil. The research data used is comprised of 143 complete tape-recorded cases of Mutumwa Nchimi diagnoses in addition to 1233 summaries of book-recorded cases. Buloshi is mentioned as the cause of illness and misfortune in 58% of the tape-recorded cases and in 55.9% of the book-recorded cases. Wizardry is perceived by Mutumwa Nchimi healers to relate to two dimensions which refer to the activity of witchcraft and of sorcery respectively. The former relates to witch spirits and fibanda ghosts; the latter relates to the use of bwanga magical charms. In addition to the need for prayer and reconciliation, psychotherapy requires the cleansing of one's body and of one's house from buloshi attack. The two dimensions of witchcraft and of sorcery, though distinct, are seen to be essentially related to one another. The dreams of patients, in which unconscious pressures come to the surface, are perceived to confirm the existence and reality of wizardry assault. Wizardry beliefs are placed firmly within the context of social relationships and social change in Zambia and psychosocial analysis is at the centre of the diagnostic process. Wizardry beliefs are seen by Mutumwa Nchimi healers to reflect the problems faced by urban dwellers in particular who, on the one hand, find themselves afflicted by feelings of shame or guilt with respect to failure to observe traditional morality and, on the other hand, by an awareness of suspected rival forces in the competitive urban environment. PMID:3393933

Dillon-Malone, C

1988-01-01

216

Rural electrification in Zambia: A policy and institutional analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the establishment of an independent regulator so as to stimulate private sector participation and efficiency. In addition, a Rural Electrification Fund (REF) and associated administration mechanism was established in 1995. However, RE continued to experience many challenges. In 2003, the government enacted the Rural Electrification Act leading to the establishment of an agency dedicated to RE. This paper analyses the policy, legal and institutional measures implemented in Zambia and assesses their potential or effectiveness to tackle some of the challenges facing RE in the country so as to increase access and affordability

2008-01-01

217

Rural electrification in Zambia: A policy and institutional analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the establishment of an independent regulator so as to stimulate private sector participation and efficiency. In addition, a Rural Electrification Fund (REF) and associated administration mechanism was established in 1995. However, RE continued to experience many challenges. In 2003, the government enacted the Rural Electrification Act leading to the establishment of an agency dedicated to RE. This paper analyses the policy, legal and institutional measures implemented in Zambia and assesses their potential or effectiveness to tackle some of the challenges facing RE in the country so as to increase access and affordability. (author)

Haanyika, Charles M. [Utilink Limited, Plot 1311, Lubu Road, Longacres, P.O. Box 31661, Lusaka (Zambia)

2008-03-15

218

Human impact on Karst: the example of Lusaka (Zambia).  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lusaka, the capital of Zambia with over 2,000,000 inhabitants, is built on an extensive plateau composed mainly of schists and dolomitic marbles, constituting a very important aquifer that provides the city with almost half of its drinking water needs. Recent demographic growth, leading to uncontrolled urban expansion, and mismanagement of the water resource and of urban waste has lead, in the past 20 years, to an overexploitation of the aquifer and to a generalised water quality depletion, putting in serious danger the future social and economical development of the capital. This third world city has, for these reasons, become a terrifying example of human impact on a vulnerable karst environment, and if no measures will be taken in the very near future, quality of life in the city will be at serious risk.

De Waele Jo; Follesa Roberto

2003-01-01

219

Acceptability of neonatal male circumcision in Lusaka, Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neonatal male circumcision (NMC) is being scaled up in Zambia and elsewhere in Southern Africa as a long-term HIV prevention strategy. We conducted 12 focus group discussions with 129 parents and grandparents in Lusaka, recruited from two sites providing free NMC services and information about NMC, to explore the acceptability of circumcising newborn boys. Most participants recognized the benefits of circumcision for HIV prevention, and the advantages of circumcising their children and grandchildren at a young age. Fear of negative outcomes, concerns about pain, and issues around cultural identity may challenge NMC uptake. To effectively promote the service, the upper age limit for NMC must be emphasized, and fathers must be targeted by messaging campaigns.

Waters E; Stringer E; Mugisa B; Temba S; Bowa K; Linyama D

2012-01-01

220

Acceptability of neonatal male circumcision in Lusaka, Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neonatal male circumcision (NMC) is being scaled up in Zambia and elsewhere in Southern Africa as a long-term HIV prevention strategy. We conducted 12 focus group discussions with 129 parents and grandparents in Lusaka, recruited from two sites providing free NMC services and information about NMC, to explore the acceptability of circumcising newborn boys. Most participants recognized the benefits of circumcision for HIV prevention, and the advantages of circumcising their children and grandchildren at a young age. Fear of negative outcomes, concerns about pain, and issues around cultural identity may challenge NMC uptake. To effectively promote the service, the upper age limit for NMC must be emphasized, and fathers must be targeted by messaging campaigns. PMID:21711163

Waters, Emily; Stringer, Elizabeth; Mugisa, Bridget; Temba, Salome; Bowa, Kasonde; Linyama, David

2011-06-28

 
 
 
 
221

Subsistence settlement systems in the prehistory of Southwestern Zambia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Humans participate in ecological systems as one means of extracting and distributing environmental resources. Such ecosystems manifest themselves in the archeological record. Settlement systems represent subsistence systems latent with information relevant to explaining the spatial organization of people and change through time. Three subsistence settlement systems were segregated from the record of prehistoric farmers in southwestern Zambia. One is associated with the practice of pioneer populations successively occupying and abandoning favored microenvironments. The second is associated with the cyclical swiddening of a few opportunities within a single microenvironment. The third set spreads centers of production throughout several environmental segments. It is suggested that swiddening the marginal soils of the Zambezi periphery enabled the colonization but did not permit a burgeoning population. It is further suggested that internal networks were crucial to equalization of access to necessary resources and that these were incorporated in the segmentary, descent group.

Vogel, J.O.

1986-12-01

222

Identification of a novel polyomavirus from vervet monkeys in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

To examine polyomavirus (PyV) infection in wildlife, we investigated the presence of PyVs in Zambia with permission from the Zambia Wildlife Authority. We analysed 200 DNA samples from the spleens and kidneys (n = 100 each) of yellow baboons and vervet monkeys (VMs) (n = 50 each). We detected seven PyV genome fragments in 200 DNA samples using a nested broad-spectrum PCR method, and identified five full-length viral genomes using an inverse PCR method. Phylogenetic analysis of virally encoded proteins revealed that four PyVs were closely related to either African green monkey PyV or simian agent 12. Only one virus detected from a VM spleen was found to be related, with relatively low nucleotide sequence identity (74 %), to the chimpanzee PyV, which shares 48 % nucleotide sequence identity with the human Merkel cell PyV identified from Merkel cell carcinoma. The obtained entire genome of this virus was 5157 bp and had large T- and small t-antigens, and VP1 and VP2 ORFs. This virus was tentatively named vervet monkey PyV 1 (VmPyV1) as a novel PyV. Comparison with other PyVs revealed that VmPyV1, like chimpanzee PyV, had a longer VP1 ORF. To examine whether the VmPyV1 genome could produce viral proteins in cultured cells, the whole genome was transfected into HEK293T cells. We detected VP1 protein expression in the transfected HEK293T cells by immunocytochemical and immunoblot analyses. Thus, we identified a novel PyV genome from VM spleen. PMID:23426354

Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Shintaro; Ishii, Akihiro; Ogawa, Hirohito; Nakamura, Ichiro; Moonga, Ladslav; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Thomas, Yuka; Kimura, Takashi; Sawa, Hirofumi; Orba, Yasuko

2013-02-20

223

Child spacing and contraception among the poor in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vijayan K Pillai1, Rashmi Gupta21School of Social Work, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, USA; 2Department of Social Work, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA, USAAbstract: For decades, family planning programs have targeted women in developing countries. These programs bestow a great deal of autonomy on women with respect to fertility decision making. It is well known that a number of close relatives in multigenerational and extended family systems influence women’s fertility decisions with respect to child spacing and contraceptive use. One approach toward a systematic study of fertility decision making is to explicitly consider the husband’s influences on fertility decision making. This study examines the effects of a selected number of factors on the desired birth interval lengths. We interviewed husbands and wives separately from 165 randomly selected households from two poor neighborhoods in the city of Kitwe, Zambia. Three ordinal birth interval groups were obtained for both husbands and wives separately. The effect of selected factors on the likelihood of influencing the three groups was examined using ordinal logistic regression methods. Data from husbands and wives were analyzed separately. Qualitative methods such as semistructured interviews were used to gather extensive information on the various factors that husbands and wives perceive to influence their child spacing decisions. We found differences in accounts with respect to child spacing between husbands and wives, likely due to a lack of communication. A gender-sensitive approach is necessary to promote spacing methods among poor couples in Zambia.Keywords: child spacing, contraceptive use, correspondence analysis, couple decision making

Vijayan K Pillai; Rashmi Gupta

2010-01-01

224

Identification of a novel polyomavirus from vervet monkeys in Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To examine polyomavirus (PyV) infection in wildlife, we investigated the presence of PyVs in Zambia with permission from the Zambia Wildlife Authority. We analysed 200 DNA samples from the spleens and kidneys (n = 100 each) of yellow baboons and vervet monkeys (VMs) (n = 50 each). We detected seven PyV genome fragments in 200 DNA samples using a nested broad-spectrum PCR method, and identified five full-length viral genomes using an inverse PCR method. Phylogenetic analysis of virally encoded proteins revealed that four PyVs were closely related to either African green monkey PyV or simian agent 12. Only one virus detected from a VM spleen was found to be related, with relatively low nucleotide sequence identity (74 %), to the chimpanzee PyV, which shares 48 % nucleotide sequence identity with the human Merkel cell PyV identified from Merkel cell carcinoma. The obtained entire genome of this virus was 5157 bp and had large T- and small t-antigens, and VP1 and VP2 ORFs. This virus was tentatively named vervet monkey PyV 1 (VmPyV1) as a novel PyV. Comparison with other PyVs revealed that VmPyV1, like chimpanzee PyV, had a longer VP1 ORF. To examine whether the VmPyV1 genome could produce viral proteins in cultured cells, the whole genome was transfected into HEK293T cells. We detected VP1 protein expression in the transfected HEK293T cells by immunocytochemical and immunoblot analyses. Thus, we identified a novel PyV genome from VM spleen.

Yamaguchi H; Kobayashi S; Ishii A; Ogawa H; Nakamura I; Moonga L; Hang'ombe BM; Mweene AS; Thomas Y; Kimura T; Sawa H; Orba Y

2013-06-01

225

Insecticide resistance and the future of malaria control in Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In line with the Global trend to improve malaria control efforts a major campaign of insecticide treated net distribution was initiated in 1999 and indoor residual spraying with DDT or pyrethroids was reintroduced in 2000 in Zambia. In 2006, these efforts were strengthened by the President's Malaria Initiative. This manuscript reports on the monitoring and evaluation of these activities and the potential impact of emerging insecticide resistance on disease transmission. METHODS: Mosquitoes were captured daily through a series of 108 window exit traps located at 18 sentinel sites. Specimens were identified to species and analyzed for sporozoites. Adult Anopheles mosquitoes were collected resting indoors and larva collected in breeding sites were reared to F1 and F0 generations in the lab and tested for insecticide resistance following the standard WHO susceptibility assay protocol. Annual cross sectional household parasite surveys were carried out to monitor the impact of the control programme on prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum in children aged 1 to 14 years. RESULTS: A total of 619 Anopheles gambiae s.l. and 228 Anopheles funestus s.l. were captured from window exit traps throughout the period, of which 203 were An. gambiae malaria vectors and 14 An. funestus s.s.. In 2010 resistance to DDT and the pyrethroids deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin was detected in both An. gambiae s.s. and An. funestus s.s.. No sporozoites were detected in either species. Prevalence of P. falciparum in the sentinel sites remained below 10% throughout the study period. CONCLUSION: Both An. gambiae s.s. and An. funestus s.s. were controlled effectively with the ITN and IRS programme in Zambia, maintaining a reduced disease transmission and burden. However, the discovery of DDT and pyrethroid resistance in the country threatens the sustainability of the vector control programme.

Chanda E; Hemingway J; Kleinschmidt I; Rehman AM; Ramdeen V; Phiri FN; Coetzer S; Mthembu D; Shinondo CJ; Chizema-Kawesha E; Kamuliwo M; Mukonka V; Baboo KS; Coleman M

2011-01-01

226

Knowledgeable antenatal care as a pathway to skilled delivery: modelling the interactions between use of services and knowledge in Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The link between antenatal care (ANC) and facility delivery is a specific example of the effect of early medical contacts on later use of essential services. The role of ANC in improving maternal health remains unclear. High levels of ANC are reported in a number of countries where skilled delivery remains uncommon. ANC may influence the use of services by increasing willingness to use services and educating about maternal health. The objective of this study is to understand the interaction between use of skilled and unskilled ANC, knowledge of obstetric complications and danger signs, and the eventual use of a facility for delivery. The study makes use of data from a survey of around 1700 women who had recently given birth across 11 districts of Zambia in 2011. Multivariate analysis is used to explore the associations between ANC use, knowledge and place of delivery. The results suggest that place of care and number of visits is strongly associated with the eventual use of a facility for delivery; an effect that is stronger in remote areas. Both skilled and unskilled ANC and obstetric knowledge is linked to higher use of facility delivery care while care provided at home appears to have an opposite effect. The research suggests that ANC influences later use of delivery care in two ways: by developing a habit to use formal care services and in increasing maternal knowledge. The work might be generalized to other health seeking behaviour to explore how the quantity and quality of initial contacts influence later use of services.

Ensor T; Quigley P; Green C; Razak Badru A; Kaluba D; Siziya S

2013-07-01

227

Rights-based services for adolescents living with HIV: adolescent self-efficacy and implications for health systems in Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A rights-based approach in HIV service delivery for adults is increasingly taking root in sub-Saharan Africa in the context of greater availability of antiretroviral therapy. Yet there has been comparatively little progress in strengthening a rights-based approach to adolescent HIV services, which we learned during a qualitative study in 2010 among 111 adolescents living with HIV, 21 parents and 38 health providers in three districts in Zambia. Adolescents in the study expressed a range of information and support needs and wanted locally relevant interventions to meet those needs. They wanted greater access to HIV, sexual and reproductive health information, information on how to protect themselves, privacy and confidentiality in service sites, skills training so as to be able to earn money, and better control over disclosure of their HIV status to others. Both health workers and parents acknowledged that information and services needed to be improved to meet those needs far better. This paper provides examples of successful programmes in Zimbabwe, Uganda, Tanzania, Botswana and South Africa and calls for adolescent services to be linked to both paediatric and adult services, peer networks to be established to increase adolescents' ability to collectively voice their concerns and support each other, interventions supporting adolescents' control over self-disclosure, and lastly that adolescent health should become a training specialty in sub-Saharan Africa.

Mburu G; Hodgson I; Teltschik A; Ram M; Haamujompa C; Bajpai D; Mutali B

2013-05-01

228

Impact of the large-scale deployment of artemether/lumefantrine on the malaria disease burden in Africa: case studies of South Africa, Zambia and Ethiopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Malaria is one of the most significant causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Every year, nearly one million deaths result from malaria infection. Malaria can be controlled in endemic countries by using artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in combination with indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). At least 40 malaria-endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa now recommend the use of ACT as first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria as a cornerstone of their malaria case management. The scaling up of malaria control strategies in Zambia has dramatically reduced the burden of malaria. Zambia was the first African country to adopt artemether/lumefantrine (AL; Coartem®) as first-line therapy in national malaria treatment guidelines in 2002. Further, the vector control with IRS and ITNs was also scaled up. By 2008, the rates of in-patient malaria cases and deaths decreased by 61% and 66%, respectively, compared with the 2001-2002 reference period. Treatment with AL as first-line therapy against a malaria epidemic in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa, in combination with strengthening of vector control, caused the number of malaria-related outpatient cases and hospital admissions to each fall by 99% from 2001 to 2003, and malaria-related deaths decreased by 97% over the same period. A prospective study also showed that gametocyte development was prevented in all patients receiving AL. This reduction in malaria morbidity has been sustained over the past seven years. AL was introduced as first-line anti-malarial treatment in 2004 in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. During a major malaria epidemic from May-October 2005, the district in which local community health workers were operating had half the rate of malaria-related deaths compared with the district in which AL was only available in state health facilities. Over the two-year study period, the community-based deployment of AL significantly lowered the risk of malaria-specific mortality by 37%. Additionally, the malaria parasite reservoir was three-fold lower in the intervention district than in the control district during the 2005 high-transmission season. Artemisinin-based combination therapy has made a substantial contribution to reducing the burden of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa.

Barnes Karen I; Chanda Pascalina; Ab Barnabas Gebre

2009-01-01

229

Provision of Learning and Teaching Materials for Pupils with Visual Impairment: Results from a National Survey in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

|The aim of this study was to determine the provision of learning and teaching materials for pupils with visual impairment in basic and high schools of Zambia. A survey approach utilizing a questionnaire, interviews and a review of the literature was adopted for the study. The findings demonstrated that most schools in Zambia did not provide…

Akakandelwa, Akakandelwa; Munsanje, Joseph

2012-01-01

230

Are we together? : A study about the integration of Art and Music within the education in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The research had an anthropological perspective, regarding the integration of Art and Music in Zambia. By using qualitative interviews and participating observations I collected information about how some teachers in Zambia reflect about the integration of Art and Music. Through the theoretical fram...

Eckeskog, Hanna

231

Declining HIV prevalence among young pregnant women in Lusaka, Zambia/ Déclin de la prévalence du VIH chez les jeunes femmes enceintes de Lusaka en Zambie/ Disminución de la prevalencia de VIH entre embarazadas jóvenes en Lusaka, Zambia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Desde hace ya muchos años se aplican en Lusaka medidas de prevención de la infección por VIH. Algunos datos recientes parecen indicar que se ha producido una disminución de la seroincidencia de VIH en Zambia y en algunos países vecinos. El objetivo de este estudio fue examinar las tendencias de la seroprevalencia de VIH entre las mujeres embarazadas y parturientas entre 2002 y 2006. MÉTODOS: Analizamos las tendencias de la seroprevalencia de VIH en Lusaka (more) a partir de dos fuentes: (i) datos prenatales de un programa de prevención de la transmisión del VIH de la madre al niño que abarcaba toda la ciudad, y (ii) datos sobre partos extraídos de dos sistemas anónimos independientes de vigilancia de la sangre de cordón umbilical aplicados en 2003 y de nuevo en 2005-2006, que permitieron obtener y analizar muestras en más del 97% de los nacimientos registrados en el sector público en cada periodo. RESULTADOS: Entre julio de 2002 y diciembre de 2006, el distrito de Lusaka analizó la serología VIH de 243 302 mujeres que recibieron atención prenatal; 54 853 (22,5%) estaban infectadas por el virus. A lo largo de ese periodo, la seroprevalencia de VIH entre las mujeres que recibieron atención prenatal y se sometieron a los análisis disminuyó de forma sostenida del 24,5% en el tercer trimestre de 2002 al 21,4% en el último trimestre de 2006 (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: HIV prevention has been ongoing in Lusaka for many years. Recent reports suggest a possible decline in HIV sero-incidence in Zambia and some neighbouring countries. This study aimed to examine trends in HIV seroprevalence among pregnant and parturient women between 2002 and 2006. METHODS: We analysed HIV seroprevalence trends from two Lusaka sources: (i) antenatal data from a city-wide programme to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission, and (ii) delivery dat (more) a from two anonymous unlinked cord-blood surveillances performed in 2003 and again in 2005-2006, where specimens from > 97% of public-sector births in each period were obtained and analysed. FINDINGS: Between July 2002 and December 2006, the Lusaka district tested 243 302 antenatal women for HIV; 54 853 (22.5%) were HIV infected. Over this period, the HIV seroprevalence among antenatal attendees who were tested declined steadily from 24.5% in the third quarter of 2002 to 21.4% in the last quarter of 2006 (P

Stringer, Elizabeth M; Chintu, Namwinga T; Levy, Jens W; Sinkala, Moses; Chi, Benjamin H; Muyanga, Jubra; Bulterys, Marc; Bweupe, Maximilian; Megazzini, Karen; Stringer, Jeffrey SA

2008-09-01

232

The Role of Open and Distance Learning in the Implementation of the Right to Education in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a member of the United Nations, Zambia is committed to the observance of human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948. This is evidenced, among others, by the fact that Zambia is a signatory to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. Zambia has a permanent Human Rights Commission that includes a subcommittee on child rights whose focus is on child abuse and education. Zambia also has a National Child Policy and National Youth Policy whose main objectives are to holistically address problems affecting children and youth. This paper focuses on the progress and challenges currently facing Zambia and the role of open and distance learning in addressing those challenges.

Richard Siaciwena; Foster Lubinda

2008-01-01

233

Anthelmintic efficacy in captive wild impala antelope (Aepyceros melampus) in Lusaka, Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been an increase in the number of wild ungulates kept in captivity for ecotourism and conservation in Zambia and these animals are susceptible to a number of diseases including gastrointestinal helminth infections. Surveys to determine anthelmintic efficacy to gastrointestinal nematodes in captive-wildlife are not common and there have been no reports of anthelmintic resistance in captive-wildlife in Zambia. This study was carried out to determine the efficacy of the benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole in captive wild impala (Aepyceros melampus) in Zambia. During the month of April 2011, at the end of the rainy season, the faecal egg count reduction test was performed at a private game facility for assessing anthelmintic efficacy of oral fenbendazole and the anthelmintic treatment showed an efficacy of 90%. Haemonchus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. were the predominant genera present before treatment, but Haemonchus spp. larvae were the only genus recovered from the faecal cultures after anthelmintic treatment. This represents the first documentation of anthelmintic treatment failure in captive wild-antelopes in Zambia. It also demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the common traditional practice of deworming captive-wild antelopes at the end of the rainy season due to the rapid re-infection of impala that occurs due to high pasture infectivity. Suggestions on changes to current anthelmintic use/practices that will make them more efficacious and reduce the possibility of development of anthelmintic resistance in captive wild game in Zambia are also made. PMID:22115945

Nalubamba, King S; Mudenda, Ntombi B

2011-11-11

234

Anthelmintic efficacy in captive wild impala antelope (Aepyceros melampus) in Lusaka, Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There has been an increase in the number of wild ungulates kept in captivity for ecotourism and conservation in Zambia and these animals are susceptible to a number of diseases including gastrointestinal helminth infections. Surveys to determine anthelmintic efficacy to gastrointestinal nematodes in captive-wildlife are not common and there have been no reports of anthelmintic resistance in captive-wildlife in Zambia. This study was carried out to determine the efficacy of the benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole in captive wild impala (Aepyceros melampus) in Zambia. During the month of April 2011, at the end of the rainy season, the faecal egg count reduction test was performed at a private game facility for assessing anthelmintic efficacy of oral fenbendazole and the anthelmintic treatment showed an efficacy of 90%. Haemonchus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. were the predominant genera present before treatment, but Haemonchus spp. larvae were the only genus recovered from the faecal cultures after anthelmintic treatment. This represents the first documentation of anthelmintic treatment failure in captive wild-antelopes in Zambia. It also demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the common traditional practice of deworming captive-wild antelopes at the end of the rainy season due to the rapid re-infection of impala that occurs due to high pasture infectivity. Suggestions on changes to current anthelmintic use/practices that will make them more efficacious and reduce the possibility of development of anthelmintic resistance in captive wild game in Zambia are also made.

Nalubamba KS; Mudenda NB

2012-05-01

235

The district heating renaissance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article examines the expanding market for district heating and cooling systems as part of independent cogeneration systems. The topics of the article include expanding systems, future potential, government help, cogeneration, district cooling expanding, absorption chilling, indoor air quality, and institutional barriers to the expanding market. The article also includes a sidebar on Denmark's district heating systems.

Seeley, R.S.

1992-09-01

236

Healthcare provision for HIV co-infected tuberculosis patients in rural Zambia: an observational cohort study at primary care centers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Linkage of healthcare services for tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a major challenge in resource-limited settings. Our operational research aimed to evaluate the linkage between TB and HIV services in a rural area of Zambia, and to explore factors associated with the enrolment of TB/HIV co-infected patients in HIV care services. METHODS: All TB patients newly diagnosed as HIV-positive in Chongwe district, Zambia between 2009 and 2010 were included. Data from TB registers and medical records were reviewed. Patient referral to HIV services and provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) were further examined through HIV registers and records. RESULTS: Of 621 patients (median age 33.0 years, female 42.4%) who started anti-TB treatment, clinic records indicated that 297 patients were newly diagnosed as HIV-positive, and 176 (59.3%) of these were referred to an ART clinic. Analysis of records at the ART clinic found that only 85 (28.6%) of TB/HIV patients had actually been enrolled in HIV care, of whom only 58 (68.2%) had commenced ART. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated the following factors associated with lower enrolment: "male" sex (aOR, 0.45; 95%CI 0.26-0.78), "previous TB treatment" (aOR, 0.29; 95%CI, 0.11-0.75), "registration at sites that did not provide ART services (non-ART site)" (aOR, 0.10; 95%CI, 0.01-0.77) and "death on TB treatment outcome (aOR, 0.20; 95%CI, 0.06-0.65). However, patient registration at TB clinics in 2010 was associated with markedly higher enrolment in HIV care as compared to registration in 2009 (aOR, 2.80; 95%CI, 1.53-5.12). CONCLUSIONS: HIV testing for TB patients has been successfully scaled up. However referrals of co-infected patients still remain a challenge due to poor linkage between TB and HIV healthcare services. Committed healthcare workers, a well-organized health services system and patient education are urgently required to ensure a higher rate of referral of TB/HIV co-infected patients for appropriate care.

Miyano S; Muvuma S; Ishikawa N; Endo H; Msiska C; Syakantu G

2013-10-01

237

Preliminary investigation of trypanosomosis in exotic dog breeds from Zambia's Luangwa and Zambezi valleys using LAMP.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract. Canine African trypanosomosis (CAT) is rarely reported in the literature. In this preliminary study, we evaluated the performance of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) against microscopy to detect CAT in six exotic dog breeds naturally infected with trypanosomes from Zambia's South Luangwa National Park and Chiawa Game Management Area. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CAT in Zambia. The patients exhibited a variety of aspecific clinical signs. The LAMP did not only confirm all six parasitologically positive CAT cases detected passively between April 2010 and January 2012, but was also critical in trypanosome speciation. According to LAMP, the majority of the dogs had monolytic infections with either Trypanosoma congolense or Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. The LAMP is thus a potential simple and cost-effective tool for trypanosome diagnosis in endemic regions. The rare report of zoonotic trypanosomes in dogs in Zambia has public health implications and justifies further investigations of CAT. PMID:23716412

Namangala, Boniface; Oparaocha, Elizabeth; Kajino, Kiichi; Hayashida, Kyoko; Moonga, Ladslav; Inoue, Noboru; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Sugimoto, Chihiro

2013-05-28

238

Experiences of the first female physics graduates of the University of Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the Department of Physics was established together with the University of Zambia in 1966, it has only graduated eight females to date. This calls for concern since the University of Zambia is the only institution that offers a physics degree program in Zambia. In this paper, three of these females discuss their understanding of the factors that have led to members of their gender shunning physics. They outline the way they themselves came to do physics and they discuss the problems they faced as they studied physics and the rewards they received from this. They propose ways and means of motivating other females to take up physics and of making studies easier and more fulfilling for those who opt to do so.

Mwewa, Chilufya; Namumba, Brenda; Mofya, Mwape

2013-03-01

239

The Impact of Tuberculosis on Zambia and the Zambian Nursing Workforce  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Zambia, the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) has greatly increased in the last 10 years. This article describes Zambia and highlights the country’s use of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals as a framework to guide TB treatment programmes. An overview of TB in Zambia is provided. Data related to TB cases at the county’s main referral hospital, the University Teaching Hospital (UTH), is discussed. Treatment policies and barriers are described. Zambian nurses have been greatly affected by the rise in the morbidity and mortality of nurses with TB. This article explains the impact of TB on the Zambian nursing workforce. Review of Zambian government programmes designed to address this health crisis and targeted interventions to reduce TB among nurses are offered.

Dorothy Chanda; Davina J. Gosnell

2006-01-01

240

Preliminary investigation of trypanosomosis in exotic dog breeds from Zambia's Luangwa and Zambezi valleys using LAMP.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract. Canine African trypanosomosis (CAT) is rarely reported in the literature. In this preliminary study, we evaluated the performance of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) against microscopy to detect CAT in six exotic dog breeds naturally infected with trypanosomes from Zambia's South Luangwa National Park and Chiawa Game Management Area. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CAT in Zambia. The patients exhibited a variety of aspecific clinical signs. The LAMP did not only confirm all six parasitologically positive CAT cases detected passively between April 2010 and January 2012, but was also critical in trypanosome speciation. According to LAMP, the majority of the dogs had monolytic infections with either Trypanosoma congolense or Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. The LAMP is thus a potential simple and cost-effective tool for trypanosome diagnosis in endemic regions. The rare report of zoonotic trypanosomes in dogs in Zambia has public health implications and justifies further investigations of CAT.

Namangala B; Oparaocha E; Kajino K; Hayashida K; Moonga L; Inoue N; Suzuki Y; Sugimoto C

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

Bringing "indigenous" ownership back : Chinese presence and the Citizen Economic Empowerment Commission in Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

African economies are currently experiencing an upsurge in foreign ownership of key parts of their economies. This, however, is not new, and in the wake of independence several African countries pursued indigenisation policies to bring ownership back to their own citizens. Now indigenisation policies thrive again, this time disguised in terms such as ‘empowerment’, but just as politicised as in the 1970s. Zambia is at the heart of this development. In the light of liberalisation, booming commodity prices and the increasing importance of Chinese investors, this article seeks to further our understanding of how processes of exclusion interact with domestic politics in Zambia. It argues that the Citizens Economic Empowerment Commission, a new institution to bring ownership back to Zambians, builds on a long tradition of nationalist policies in Zambia, while its actual work is strictly related to the critique of the growing foreign dominance over the economy, and in particular of the upsurge in Chinese investments.

Kragelund, Peter

2012-01-01

242

Regulatory framework, strategy and radioactive waste management in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: Zambia is involved in the peaceful application in Nuclear Science and Technology which cover the agriculture, human health, industry, research and education sectors. In the execution of the projects various radioactive sources and radioisotopes are used. The data from the Radiation Protection Board show that there are 136 organizations and 971 Radiation workers benefit from the regulatory control and personnel Dosimetry service that is provided by the Board. The radiation user institutions are broken down as follows: medical (106), industrial (18), research (10) and (2) in teaching. The radioactive waste generated and spent sources are managed, in several ways depending on the type . In addition to radioactive waste generated by various application there are new developments concerning the management of spent sources mainly brought into control by the detection of illicit trade or trafficking activities by the Police, Drug Enforcement Commission, and the vigilant people of the community. The challenge for Zambia is to set-up a Radioactive Waste Management Facility preferably under the National Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research (NISIR). The RPB should legally designate NISIR for this function and assist to have the Government provide support that is required to have an operation and effective facility. One Radioactive Waste Interim Storage Shed at Kalulushi. This shed was put up by a copper mining conglomerate which now has been privatized. It is hoped that this facility can be licensed by Radiation Protection Board to be run by private enterprise for storage of prescribed spent radioactive sources and materials. This shed should be technically competent persons and should have good equipment for the purpose. The application in industry (NDT, mining, radiation sterilization, pipeline and construction, human health (nuclear medicine, radioimmunoassay and radiotherapy practices) and agriculture (use of P-32) required that a National Strategy for the management of the spent radioactive materials and the waste materials from the practices be developed with Radiation Protection Board playing a leading role. The International Atomic Energy Agency will continue to be a major cooperating partner in the development of this capacity through die technical expertise, equipment, technical literature and training fellowships that can be provided through the Technical Cooperation Programme. (author)

2001-01-01

243

District cooling in Scandinavia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper will present the status of the development of district cooling systems in Scandinavia over the last 5 years. It will describe the technologies used in the systems that have been constructed as well as the options considered in different locations. It will identify the drivers for the development of the cooling business to-date, and what future drivers for a continuing development of district cooling in Sweden. To-date, approximately 25 different cities of varying sizes have completed feasibility studies to determine if district cooling is an attractive option. In a survey, that was conducted by the Swedish District Heating Association, some 25 cities expected to have district cooling systems in place by the year 2000. In Sweden, district heating systems with hot water is very common. In many cases, it is simply an addition to the current service for the district heating company to also supply district cooling to the building owners. A parallel from this can be drawn to North America where district cooling systems now are developing rapidly. I am convinced that in these cities a district heating service will be added as a natural expansion of the district cooling company`s service.

Andersson, B. [FVB District Energy, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

1996-11-01

244

The emergence and evolution of HIV counselling in Zambia: a 25-year history.  

Science.gov (United States)

HIV-related counselling practices have evolved since emerging in Zambia in 1987. Whereas, initially, the goal of HIV counselling was to provide psychological support to the dying and their families, as knowledge about HIV grew, counselling objectives expanded to include behavioural change, encouraging safer sexual practices, encouraging disclosure, convincing people to test, treatment adherence and shaping HIV-positive people's sexual and reproductive choices. This paper highlights a number of key shifts in counselling practices in Zambia over the last 25 years, demonstrating the relationship between those shifts, changes in medical technology, (inter)national political will and the epidemiological maturity of the disease. PMID:23713492

Simbaya, Joseph; Moyer, Eileen

2013-05-29

245

Can family planning outreach bridge the urban-rural divide in Zambia?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Zambia experienced declining aggregate fertility and increasing aggregate contraceptive use from 1990 to 2000. Yet, in rural Zambia, progress in family planning has lagged far behind the advances made in Zambia's urban areas. The contraceptive prevalence rate in Lusaka and other urban areas outstripped the rate in rural Zambia by nearly 25 percentage points (41.2 percent versus 16.6 percent) in 2001. The total fertility rate varied between urban and rural areas by 2.5 children (4.3 versus 6.9 children). This paper considers the urban-rural differentials in Zambia and assesses family planning outreach as a tool to narrow this divide. Methods This study uses the Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data, collected between 2001 and 2002. Logistic regression techniques were employed to examine factors associated with contraceptive use. The first analysis tested modern contraceptive use versus traditional method use and no use. In addition, separate models were run for samples stratified by type of residence (rural or urban) to determine if different factors were associated with use by residence. A simulation determined the effect of all women receiving at least one household visit from a health worker if all other variables were held constant. Results Differences in modern contraceptive use between urban and rural areas persist (OR: 1.56, 95 percent CI: 1.24–1.96) even after adjusting for a number of demographic, socioeconomic, cognitive, and attitudinal factors. Household visits by a community health worker significantly increased the likelihood of modern contraceptive use among rural women (OR: 1.83; 95 percent CI: 1.29–2.58). If all rural women received at least one outreach visit per year, the prevalence rate for modern contraceptive methods would be expected to increase for this group by 5.9 percentage points, a marked increase but less than one-quarter of the total urban-rural differential. Conclusion Outreach in the form of health worker visits can improve access to family planning services, but it does not eliminate barriers to access or address continued high-fertility desires in Zambia. Until policymakers consider strategies that address both family planning demand creation and supply of services, progress in Zambia and the rest of sub-Saharan Africa will continue to lag behind the rest of the world.

White Justin S; Speizer Ilene S

2007-01-01

246

A Rural Implementation of a 52 Node Mixed Wireless Mesh Network in Macha, Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

In spite of increasing international and academic attention, there remains many challenges facing real world implementations of developing technologies. There has been considerable hype behind Wireless Mesh Networking as the ubiquitous solution for rural ICT in the developing world. In this paper, we present the real world rural mesh network implementation in the village of Macha, Zambia and draw both performance conclusions as well as overall experiential conclusions. The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze our low cost solution and extrapolate future trends for rural ICT implementations in Zambia.

Backens, Jonathan; Mweemba, Gregory; van Stam, Gertjan

247

Piecework (ganyu) as an indicator of household vulnerability in rural Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Piecework (ganyu) is short-term, casual labor common in rural Zambia and neighboring countries. Reliance on piecework as a strategy to cope during food shortages in the rainy/cultivation season can restrict own-farm production, and thus, is regarded as an indicator of a household's vulnerability to food insecurity. Based on a household's level of participation in piecework, we explore this claim in rural Zambia using survey data collected during the rainy and dry seasons in 2009. We argue that seasonal assessments are essential if such dependence on piecework is used as a robust measure of a household's vulnerability to food insecurity.

Cole SM; Hoon PN

2013-01-01

248

Proterozoic strata-bound uranium deposits of Zambia and Zaire  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Katanga System, host to uranium and copper mineralisation, is several thousands of metres thick and rests unconformably on an older complex of crystalline rocks and metasediments and is locally covered by Karoo sandstones or Kalahari sands. The deposition of the Katanga System took place during the Late Proterozoic in a wide complex basin extending from Shaba province in Zaire through a large part of Zambia and into eastern Angola. The sediments were affected by different grades of metamorphism, tectonic events, and by thermal events associated with post-tectonic metamorphism. At the base of Katanga system there are 84 known copper deposits and 42 uranium occurrences. It is suggested that all the known uranium and copper occurrences are of an essentially syngenetic sedimentary origin. The mineralisation is found in the Lower Roan Formation near the base of the Katanga System occurring in rocks produced in similar environmental conditions and thus being stratigraphic controlled, however, their areal distribution is localised producing a regional metal zonation. Many of the uranium occurrences have a typical vein aspect. These transgressive relationships are not inconsistent with a syngenetic origin as evidenced by the vein morphology. (author)

1984-01-01

249

Two new Ophiostoma species from Protea caffra in Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The genus Ophiostoma (Ophiostomatales) has a global distribution and species are best known for their association with bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) on conifers. An unusual assemblage of these fungi is closely associated with the African endemic plant genus Protea (Proteaceae). Protea-associated Ophiostoma species are ecologically atypical as they colonise the fruiting structures of various serotinous Protea species. Seven species have been described from this niche in South Africa. It has been speculated that novel species may be present in other African countries where these host plants also occur. This view was corroborated by recent collections of two unknown species from Protea caffra trees in Zambia. In the present study we evaluate the species delineation of these isolates using morphological comparisons with other Protea-associated species, differential growth studies and analyses of DNA sequence data for the beta-tubulin and internal transcribed spacer (ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2) regions. As a result, the species O. protea-sedis sp. nov., and O. zambiensis sp. nov. are described here as new. This study brings the number of Protea-associated Ophiostoma species to nine and highlights the need for more inclusive surveys, including additional African countries and hosts, to elucidate species diversity in this uncharacteristic niche.

Roets F; Wingfield BD; de Beer ZW; Wingfield MJ; Dreyer LL

2010-06-01

250

Two new Ophiostoma species from Protea caffra in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genus Ophiostoma (Ophiostomatales) has a global distribution and species are best known for their association with bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) on conifers. An unusual assemblage of these fungi is closely associated with the African endemic plant genus Protea (Proteaceae). Protea-associated Ophiostoma species are ecologically atypical as they colonise the fruiting structures of various serotinous Protea species. Seven species have been described from this niche in South Africa. It has been speculated that novel species may be present in other African countries where these host plants also occur. This view was corroborated by recent collections of two unknown species from Protea caffra trees in Zambia. In the present study we evaluate the species delineation of these isolates using morphological comparisons with other Protea-associated species, differential growth studies and analyses of DNA sequence data for the beta-tubulin and internal transcribed spacer (ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2) regions. As a result, the species O. protea-sedis sp. nov., and O. zambiensis sp. nov. are described here as new. This study brings the number of Protea-associated Ophiostoma species to nine and highlights the need for more inclusive surveys, including additional African countries and hosts, to elucidate species diversity in this uncharacteristic niche. PMID:20664757

Roets, F; Wingfield, B D; de Beer, Z W; Wingfield, M J; Dreyer, L L

2010-02-02

251

Acceptability and uptake of neonatal male circumcision in Lusaka, Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neonatal male circumcision (NMC) is an uncommon procedure in Southern Africa, but is being scaled up in Zambia for long-term HIV prevention. We conducted a cross-sectional survey on NMC with a convenience sample of mothers of newborn boys at two public clinics in Lusaka. Following the survey, mothers received information on availability of NMC, and uptake of the service was tracked. Predictors of uptake were assessed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Of the 1,249 eligible mothers approached, 1000 (80%) agreed to participate. Although 97% of surveyed mothers said they definitely or probably planned to have their newborn son circumcised, only 11% of participants brought their newborn sons for NMC. Significant predictors of uptake in adjusted models included: Older maternal age (AOR 3.77, 95% CI 1.48-9.63 for age 36 and above compared to mothers age 25 and below), having attended antenatal care at an NMC site (AOR 2.13, 95% CI 1.32-3.44), older paternal age (AOR 4.36, 95% CI 1.28-14.91 for age 26-35 compared to fathers age 25 and below), and the infant's father being circumcised (AOR 2.21, 95% CI 1.35-3.62). While acceptability studies in Southern Africa have suggested strong support for MC among parents for having their sons circumcised, this may not translate to high uptake of newly-introduced NMC services. PMID:22968397

Waters, Emily; Li, Michelle; Mugisa, Bridget; Bowa, Kasonde; Linyama, David; Stringer, Elizabeth; Stringer, Jeffrey

2013-07-01

252

Acceptability and uptake of neonatal male circumcision in Lusaka, Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neonatal male circumcision (NMC) is an uncommon procedure in Southern Africa, but is being scaled up in Zambia for long-term HIV prevention. We conducted a cross-sectional survey on NMC with a convenience sample of mothers of newborn boys at two public clinics in Lusaka. Following the survey, mothers received information on availability of NMC, and uptake of the service was tracked. Predictors of uptake were assessed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Of the 1,249 eligible mothers approached, 1000 (80%) agreed to participate. Although 97% of surveyed mothers said they definitely or probably planned to have their newborn son circumcised, only 11% of participants brought their newborn sons for NMC. Significant predictors of uptake in adjusted models included: Older maternal age (AOR 3.77, 95% CI 1.48-9.63 for age 36 and above compared to mothers age 25 and below), having attended antenatal care at an NMC site (AOR 2.13, 95% CI 1.32-3.44), older paternal age (AOR 4.36, 95% CI 1.28-14.91 for age 26-35 compared to fathers age 25 and below), and the infant's father being circumcised (AOR 2.21, 95% CI 1.35-3.62). While acceptability studies in Southern Africa have suggested strong support for MC among parents for having their sons circumcised, this may not translate to high uptake of newly-introduced NMC services.

Waters E; Li M; Mugisa B; Bowa K; Linyama D; Stringer E; Stringer J

2013-07-01

253

Options for Improving Smallholder Conservation Agriculture in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the agronomic practices of smallholder Conservation Agriculture (CA) farmers in Zambia. Questionnaire survey, focus group discussions, key informant interviews, field assessments, desk study and soil analyses were employed to collect data on tillage systems, crop rotations, weed control, soil fertility management, crop residue retention and crop yields. The results showed that weed management, crop residue retention, timely planting and soil fertility management were the most challenging for CA farmers especially those without reliable access to oxen. Crop residue retention conflicted with the socio-cultural practices of the communities and was hardly practised while crop rotation seemed difficult in light of the dominance of maize cultivation and the lack of markets for crop legumes. Possible options for improving smallholder CA systems were greater integration of livestock, correct herbicide application, market provision for crop legumes, farmer training in agri-business and better access to agricultural credit and subsidized inputs. CA promoters must incorporate the farmers’ local cultural contexts in order to better address the challenges associated with adopting CA.

Bridget. B. Umar; Jens. B. Aune; Fred. H. Johnsen; Obed. I. Lungu

2011-01-01

254

Possibilities and constraints in implementing wind energy in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In 1989 the first activities concerning wind energy started in Zambia, resulting in a wind energy project of the Department of Energy. The first phase of this project was the set up of an appropriate technology test site. It included the fabrication of a CWD 2740 wind pump, adapted to local circumstances. The total costs of the manufacture of the complete system was approximately US$ 8,000 (of which 60% are labor cost), while an imported system would cost between US$ 2,000 and US$ 4,000. The second phase will focus on possible commercialization of wind energy. The major constraints for implementation of wind energy are: 1. inadequate provision of funds, caused by short sighted policy makers having not a clear policy regarding the utilization of wind energy; 2. high costs of windmills, especially when these are manufactured locally; 3. lack of trained and skilled manpower to provide backup and effective maintenance service of windmills in the field

1991-01-01

255

Uranium mineralization in the Karroo system of Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Karroo geology of Zambia with respect to uranium mineralization is outlined and compared with the sandstone deposits of western United States of America. Whereas numerous uranium anomalies are known in the Karroo System, those of the Escarpment Grit Formation in the mid-Zambezi Valley would appear to be significant. Airborne radiometric survey did not always reflect the mineralization recorded on the ground. Several other Karroo anomalies are still to be traversed. Porosity, permeability, clay traps, micas and reducing lithologies are the major factors controlling mineralization. The present loci of mineralization are a function of the remobilization brought about by fluctuating water table, dip of strata and structure. While most of the deposits contain secondary uranium minerals, pitchblende has been recorded in two areas, and probably reflects the 'primary' ore. The deposits are primarily sheet-like, concordant to discordant units. The source for uranium would appear to be the Katanga and basement rocks to the north-north east and north-west. The results of the last three years of investigation support further work and already a number of low to medium scale deposits have been outlined, thus warranting further intensive large-scale investigation. (author)

1977-11-18

256

District cooling gets hot  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Utilities across the country are adopting cool storage methods, such as ice-storage and chilled-water tanks, as an economical and environmentally safe way to provide cooling for cities and towns. The use of district cooling, in which cold water or steam is pumped to absorption chillers and then to buildings via a central community chiller plant, is growing strongly in the US. In Chicago, San Diego, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and elsewhere, independent district-energy companies and utilities are refurbishing neglected district-heating systems and adding district cooling, a technology first developed approximately 35 years ago.

Seeley, R.S.

1996-07-01

257

Danish district heating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Power Point presentation includes several viewgraphs depicting district energy in Denmark. District heating from 1972 to 1997 is presented for different fuel types, including oil, natural gas, coal, waste products, combined heat and power from industry, biomass, and biogas. The paper presents a map showing the district heating area supplied by EnergiGruppen, including the combined heat and power supply, connection pipelines, biogas pipelines, substation/heat production and combined heat and power production. The fuel consumption, output and production of different district heating plants were described, along with the types of fuel used at each plant. tabs., figs.

NONE

2002-07-01

258

Extremely Drug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Senftenberg Infections in Patients in Zambia.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Two cases of extremely drug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg isolated from patients in Zambia were investigated by utilizing MIC determinations and whole-genome sequencing. The isolates were resistant to, and harbored genes toward, nine drug classes, including fluoroquinolones and extended-spectrum cephalosporins, contained two plasmid replicons, and differed by 93 single-nucleotide polymorphisms.

Hendriksen, Rene S.; Joensen, Katrine Grimstrup

2013-01-01

259

Socio-cultural factors surrounding mental distress during the perinatal period in Zambia: a qualitative investigation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of mental distress during pregnancy and after childbirth imposes detrimental developmental and health consequences for families in all nations. In Zambia, the Ministry of Health (MoH) has proposed a more comprehensive approach towards mental health care, recognizing the importance of the mental health of women during the perinatal period. Aim The study explores factors contributing to mental distress during the perinatal period of motherhood in Zambia. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in Lusaka, Zambia with nineteen focus groups comprising 149 women and men from primary health facilities and schools respectively. Findings There are high levels of mental distress in four domains: worry about HIV status and testing; uncertainty about survival from childbirth; lack of social support; and vulnerability/oppression. Conclusion Identifying mental distress and prompt referral for interventions is critical to improving the mental health of the mother and prevent the effects of mental distress on the baby. Recommendation Strategies should be put in place to ensure pregnant women are screened for possible perinatal mental health problems during their visit to antenatal clinic and referral made to qualified mental health professionals. In addition further research is recommended in order to facilitate evidence based mental health policy formulation and implementation in Zambia.

Mwape Lonia; McGuinness Teena M; Dixey Rachael; Johnson Sally E

2012-01-01

260

Strategies of the Poorest in Local Water Conflict and Cooperation - Evidence from Vietnam, Bolivia and Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Media stories often speak of a future dominated by large-scale water wars. Rather less attention has been paid to the way water conflicts already play out at local levels and form part of people’s everyday lives. Based on case study studies from Vietnam, Bolivia and Zambia, this paper examines the s...

Funder, M.; Bustamante Zenteno, R.R.; Cossio Rojas, V.; Huong, P.T.M.; Koppen, B., van; Mweemba, C.; Nyambe, L.; Phuong, L.T.T.

 
 
 
 
261

Un/Doing Gender? A Case Study of School Policy and Practice in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores an attempt to disrupt gender inequality in a unique, low-cost private school in Ndola, Zambia. It examines deliberate school policies aimed at "undoing gender" or fostering greater gender equity. These include efforts to maintain gender parity at all levels of the school and the requirement that both young men and women carry…

Bajaj, Monisha

2009-01-01

262

Factors Contributing to the Failure to Use Condoms among Students in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored factors that may predict condom use among college and high school students in Zambia. Using the Social Cognitive Theory, this study examined the relationship of drinking behaviors, alcohol-sexual expectations, education level, and religion to condom use among 961 students. The results of the study show that condom use was low…

Mbulo, Lazarous; Newman, Ian M.; Shell, Duane F.

2007-01-01

263

The Nature and Role of Religious Studies at the University of Zambia: 1985-2005  

Science.gov (United States)

The place of religion in higher education has been and remains a complex issue internationally. This article aims to outline the nature and development of Religious Studies at the University of Zambia in Lusaka (UNZA) as an instance of how religion entered higher education in an African setting. In doing so, it will also provide perspectives on…

Carmody, Brendan

2008-01-01

264

International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) mission to Zambia. The IUREP Orientation Phase mission to Zambia estimates that the Speculative Resources of that country fall within the range of 33 000 and 100 000 tonnes uranium. The majority of these resources are believed to exist in the Karoo sediments. Other potentially favourable geological environments are the Precambrian Katanga sediments, as well as intrusive rocks of different chemical compositions and surficial duricrusts. Previous unofficial estimates of Zambia's Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR) and Estimated Additional Resources (EAR) are considered to be still valid: the total RAR amount to 6 000 tonnes uranium, located in Karoo (4 000 tonnes) and Katanga (2 000 tonnes) sediments, while the EAR are believed to total 4 000 tonnes being found only in Karoo sediments. The mission recommends that approximately US$ 40 million be spent on uranium exploration in Zambia over 10 years. The largest part of this expenditure would be for drilling, while the remainder should be spent on airborne and ground surveys, as well as on interpretative work on previous airborne data, Landsat imageries, etc. (author)

1985-01-01

265

Introduction and development of competitive football in Zambia (1930-1969):a historical perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis will attempt to explore and analyse the diffusion and development of football in Zambia. It will look at how football, a game which was played by the colonialists was introduced and became a popular sport among the local people. The main focus in this study is on the important directions...

Chipande, Hikabwa Decius

266

Gender, British Administration and Mission Management of Education in Zambia 1900-1939  

Science.gov (United States)

|This article discusses the impact of including gender in the analytical framework in a study of the management and provision of education in Zambia from 1900 to 1939. It shows that a focus on gender allows females to enter the historical narrative and the leadership of women such as Mabel Shaw, Hannah Frances Davidson and Julia Smith can be given…

Allen, Julia

2010-01-01

267

Identification of fungal pathogens occurring in eucalypt and pine plantations in Zambia by comparing DNA sequences  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Commercial forestry plantations in Zambia were initiated during the 1960s. Since then, very little attention has been given to diseases that impact negatively on the production of these plantations. Recent field surveys have highlighted the occurrence and impact of several diseases. This study was u...

Chungu, Donald; Muimba-Kankolongo, Ambayeba; Wingfield, Michael J.; Roux, Jolanda

268

Environmental approaches adopted for the sound management of radioactive and non-radioactive pollutants in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This presentation gives an overview of the situation in Zambia with respect to the management of chemicals. A summary description of key pieces of legislation that deal with the protection of human beings and the environment and their objectives are discussed briefly. The paper gives also a summary description of key approaches and procedures for the management of chemicals. (author)

2003-09-01

269

Zambia - energy situation 1982. BfAI-Marktinformation. Reihe MI-BS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy situation of Zambia is reviewed on the basis of some relevant data. Its energy policy is commented on, and developments in electric power generation are described as well as the trends observed for the various energy sources. Figures are given on external trade and the balance of payment.

1983-10-01

270

Early Childhood Care and Education in Zambia: An Integral Part of Educational Provision?  

Science.gov (United States)

|The field of international development has recently been consumed by a shift in contemporary educational discourse, one that moves Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) closer to the forefront of what is considered progressive policy formation. In Zambia, the current educational environment seems to indicate that the creation and continued…

Thomas, Carolyn M.; Thomas, Matthew A. M.

2009-01-01

271

Assessment of Dissolved Heavy Metal Pollution in Five Provinces of Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Zambia’s economy is hinged on mining activities with Cu being the main metal. Zn and Pb were mined at one point in Kabwe town. There are also known deposits of Co and Mn. The study focused on comparing heavy metal pollution from different regions across Zambia with a view of determining the impact of the stage of social development and economic activities on the environment. The water analysed was obtained near dump sites,farmlands, pit latrines, water reservoirs or dams, major rivers and small streams that traverse Lusaka city and towns in the Copperbelt,and water from several public taps. Analysis revealed that Mn was the largest pollution factor study areas; groundwater both near illegal dumpsites and on-site sanitation facilities did not reveal any severe pollution problems beyond drinking water permissible values (PV). Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) and Pearson correlation (r) found a strong correlation between Mn, and the two metals - Cu and Ni at r= 0.632 andr= 0.676 respectively. The other parameters (Cd, Cr, As, Zn & Pb) were not a significant factor in explaining the dissolved metal pollution in Zambia.

Kabunga NACHIYUNDE; Hideo IKEDA; Tetsuji OKUDA; Wataru NISHIJIMA

2013-01-01

272

Research and Fisheries Management; the Uneasy Relationship Review of the Zambia-Zimbabwe SADC Fisheries Project  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report is an evaluation of the "Zambia-Zimbabwe SADC Fisheries Project". The project aims to establish effective fisheries management regimes for the various fisheries of Lake Kariba. The project has been funded by Norad and Danida since the end of the 1980s. The report argues that co...

Jul-Larsen, Eyolf; Graça, Florence Bukali da; Nielsen, Jesper Raakjær; Zwieten, Paul van

273

Uncertainty as a Strategy:Electoral Processes in Zambia 1991-2001  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Zambia has held three multiparty elections since its restoration of democracy in 1991. This peaceful transition raised expectations of a smooth process towards democratic consolidation. But similar to experiences from other African countries and Eastern Europe, the Zambian democratic process has rem...

Rakner, Lise; Svåsand, Lars

274

Exploring Understandings of Inclusion in Schools in Zambia and Tanzania Using Reflective Writing and Photography  

Science.gov (United States)

|In this article I explore insights gained from participating in an exploratory, small-scale study led by the Enabling Education Network (EENET) in 17 schools in northern Zambia and five schools in Tanzania. Facilitating South-based research, while based in a Northern university, raises complex ethical issues about voice and control which are…

Miles, Susie

2011-01-01

275

Crafting political institutions in Africa: Electoral systems and systems of government in Rwanda and Zambia compared  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Scholars of institutional design attribute large importance to the choice of new institutions. The comparative analysis of how Rwanda and Zambia crafted their new electoral systems and the systems of government regards procedural, structural and rational choice variables which may influence the opti...

Stroh, Alexander

276

Role of partnership in enhancing the performance of radiation regulatory authority in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The National Radiation Infrastructure includes legislation, human resource, technical capacity to execute responsibilities of the regulatory (1). In cases of developing countries like Zambia, special challenges arise in view of the constraints both in terms of human resource and funding. This paper will highlight same measures that may be undertaken to improve the operations of nation radiation protection infrastructure. The measures include collaboration with Science and Technology organisations that have technical capacity, delegation of responsible to key institutions that may have competence and generation of funds through training and provision of reliable quality service. (2). In Zambia, some achievements in this line have been registered by Radiation Protection Board working with the University of Zambia and National Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research (3). Some measures of generation of funds have been done though utilization of the generated remains to be the limiting factor to exploit fully benefits that may arise from the use of the monies generated from services. Partnerships with private sector may be used as regulatory authorities for support to its programme in particular the public awareness campaign. Sponsorship by a Private Cellar Phone Company (Telecel Zambia) and Rotary Club of Lusaka for Radiation Week to Radiation Protection Service under Theme 'Safe Radiation Use' is one such an example. The other opportunity is the technical cooperation with regional and international organisations such as SADC, IAEA, WHO, Interpol, EU and WCO for technical capacity building, human resource development and information access. (author)

2003-01-01

277

Supermarkets in the food supply systems in Southern African development community : a case study of Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study evaluated how supermarkets procurement practices in the fresh fruits and vegetables and processed products such as dairy impact on local producers in Zambia. The results showed that supermarkets procured approximately 60% of FFV from local farmers, though the bulk of these are from large-...

Emongor, Rosemary A.; Kirsten, Johann F.

278

Information Provision in Emergency Settings: The Experience of Refugee Communities in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

|This article identifies information provision services in emergency settings using Zambia as a case study by identifying innovative ways of providing library and information services. The thrust of the article is to analyze information management practices of organizations that work within refugee camps and how they take specific cognizance of…

Kanyengo, Brendah Kakulwa; Kanyengo, Christine Wamunyima

2011-01-01

279

Access, Quality, and Opportunity: A Case Study of Zambia Open Community Schools (ZOCS)  

Science.gov (United States)

|Community schools and other approaches to Alternative Primary Education or APE have increased access to primary education for underserved populations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America as a major goal of the Education for All (EFA) movement. In Zambia, a country where an estimated 20 percent of the basic education enrollment now attends community…

Mwalimu, Michelle

2011-01-01

280

Predictors of Attitudes toward Intimate Partner Violence: A Comparative Study of Men in Zambia and Kenya  

Science.gov (United States)

|Attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV) were compared between Zambian and Kenyan men on sociodemographic, attitudinal, and structural predictors of such attitudes. Data were retrieved from the latest Demographic and Health Surveys in each country. The results showed that many men in Zambia (71%) and Kenya (68%) justified IPV to punish a…

Lawoko, Stephen

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

The effect of seasonal variation on anthrax epidemiology in the upper Zambezi floodplain of western Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anthrax has become endemic throughout the upper Zambezi floodplain located in the Western Province of Zambia over the recent years. To date, no comprehensive study has been carried out to determine whether recurrence of anthrax outbreaks may be linked to differences in precipitation and human activi...

Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Banda, Fredrick; Siamudaala, Victor Mukulule; Munyeme, Musso; Kasanga, Christopher Jacob

282

Disease constraints for utilization of the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) on game ranches in Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eco-tourism depending on wildlife is becoming increasingly profitable and landowners are beginning to favor game farming and ecotourism. In these areas, large-scale translocation of wildlife involves a diversity of species and large populations. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is one of the major tourist attractions in Zambia. It accounts for 8.7% and 12.4% of the total animal species hunted in the Game Management Areas and the total hunting revenue earned in Zambia, respectively. It is ecologically an important animal species essential for the purpose of habitat control and facilitating the provision of suitable grazing pastures. However, the rearing of the African buffalo on game ranches has been hampered by its carrier state of the Southern Africa Terroritory (SAT) serotypes of foot and mouth disease virus (FMD). The African buffalo is also known to be a carrier of Theileria parva lawrencei, the causative agent of corridor disease (CD) that continues to have devastating effects on the livestock industry in Zambia. In addition, the importation of buffaloes from countries with populations endemic to bovine tuberculosis is highly restricted. Veterinary regulations in Zambia, strongly advocate against the translocation of buffaloes from protected areas to private ranches for disease control purposes thereby mounting a considerable constraint on the economic and ecological viability of the industry. It is hoped that this review will motivate the relevant government authorities in exploiting ways in which this animal species play a central role in eco-tourism.

Munang'andu HM; Munag'andu HM; Siamudaala VM; Nambota A; Bwalya JM; Munyeme M; Mweene AS; Takada A; Kida H

2006-05-01

283

Disease constraints for utilization of the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) on game ranches in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eco-tourism depending on wildlife is becoming increasingly profitable and landowners are beginning to favor game farming and ecotourism. In these areas, large-scale translocation of wildlife involves a diversity of species and large populations. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is one of the major tourist attractions in Zambia. It accounts for 8.7% and 12.4% of the total animal species hunted in the Game Management Areas and the total hunting revenue earned in Zambia, respectively. It is ecologically an important animal species essential for the purpose of habitat control and facilitating the provision of suitable grazing pastures. However, the rearing of the African buffalo on game ranches has been hampered by its carrier state of the Southern Africa Terroritory (SAT) serotypes of foot and mouth disease virus (FMD). The African buffalo is also known to be a carrier of Theileria parva lawrencei, the causative agent of corridor disease (CD) that continues to have devastating effects on the livestock industry in Zambia. In addition, the importation of buffaloes from countries with populations endemic to bovine tuberculosis is highly restricted. Veterinary regulations in Zambia, strongly advocate against the translocation of buffaloes from protected areas to private ranches for disease control purposes thereby mounting a considerable constraint on the economic and ecological viability of the industry. It is hoped that this review will motivate the relevant government authorities in exploiting ways in which this animal species play a central role in eco-tourism. PMID:16786973

Munang'andu, Hetron M; Munag'andu, Hetron M; Siamudaala, Victor M; Nambota, Andrew; Bwalya, John M; Munyeme, Musso; Mweene, Aaron S; Takada, Ayato; Kida, Hiroshi

2006-05-01

284

Chemical composition and crystal structure refinement of schorl from the Lundazi pegmatite field, Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Present work characterizes tourmaline from one of the major pegmatite fields in Zambia - the Lundazi pegmatite belt.
Microprobe analysis gave (wt%): SiO2 34.65, TiO2 0.85, Al2O3 29.80, Fe...

Ondruš P; Vrána S; Mašlá? M

285

Pentecostalism and schisms in the Reformed Church in Zambia (1996–2001): Listening to the people  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article is descriptive in nature and a practical theological assessment of the schisms that took place in the Reformed Church in Zambia (RCZ) between 1996 and 2001. It analyses empirical evidence to find an answer to the question why it happened. Pentecostal or charismatic tendencies have chall...

Lukas Soko; H. Jurgens Hendriks

286

A survey on anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep in Lusaka, Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While surveys in Southern Africa indicate anthelmintic resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to be common in small ruminants in South Africa, Kenya and Zimbabwe, there have been no reports of resistance in Zambia. The objective of this study was to determine whether anthelmintic resis...

Gabriel, S.; Phiri, I.K.; Dorny, P.; Vercruysse, J.

287

Exploring Understandings of Inclusion in Schools in Zambia and Tanzania Using Reflective Writing and Photography  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article I explore insights gained from participating in an exploratory, small-scale study led by the Enabling Education Network (EENET) in 17 schools in northern Zambia and five schools in Tanzania. Facilitating South-based research, while based in a Northern university, raises complex ethical issues about voice and control which are…

Miles, Susie

2011-01-01

288

The Use of Insects as Human Food in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The life cycle and culture structure of two commonly eaten worms in Zambia (Isoberlinia paniculata and Miombo/Mopani) were evaluated. The worms were grown on an artificial medium to evaluate the potential of producing them on a commercial scale. Approach: An interesting characteristic of the worms studied was that they reached their maximum weight and maximum length at the same time. Results: The larvae started to decrease in weight soon after reaching their maximum size suggesting that they should be harvested shortly before reaching their maximum length (36 days old). Only 10% mortality was observed with the older larvae of the Miombo/Mopani worm. A system where eggs are separated from adults and hatched in separate chambers would alleviate the danger of losing the population due to microbial infection. The high moisture content of the live larvae (60.5-60.9%) could cause handling and storage problems. Drying and grinding the larvae would reduce them to easily manageable forms and would improve their marketability as a novel food. The results obtained from this study showed the potential of using these insects as a protein source for human consumption. They had structured animal protein that contained the essential amino acids, lipids, vitamins, minerals and energy required for human growth and their nutrition contents are comparable to those of conventional foods. These worms are harvested from trees in Africa but the industry is facing droughts and overexploitation that has lead to local extinctions in several areas. Conclusion/Recommendations: Therefore, further research is required to evaluate their growth on low substrates and to assess the effects of environmental parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, CO2 and heat production on food consumption and protein yield and quality. This information will aid in the design of an optimal commercial insect production system. Appropriate processing and marketing procedures would also insure the sustainability of the industry.

Abdel E. Ghaly

2009-01-01

289

The reach and impact of social marketing and reproductive health communication campaigns in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Like many sub-Saharan African countries, Zambia is dealing with major health issues, including HIV/AIDS, family planning, and reproductive health. To address reproductive health problems and the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Zambia, several social marketing and health communication programs focusing on reproductive and HIV/AIDS prevention programs are being implemented. This paper describes the reach of these programs and assesses their impact on condom use. Methods This paper assesses the reach of selected radio and television programs about family planning and HIV/AIDS and of communications about the socially marketed Maximum condoms in Zambia, as well as their impact on condom use, using data from the 2001–2002 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey. To control for self-selection and endogeneity, we use a two-stage regression model to estimate the effect of program exposure on the behavioural outcomes. Results Those who were exposed to radio and television programs about family planning and HIV/AIDS were more likely to have ever used a condom (OR = 1.16 for men and 1.06 for women). Men highly exposed to Maximum condoms social marketing communication were more likely than those with low exposure to the program to have ever used a condom (OR = 1.48), and to have used a condom at their last sexual intercourse (OR = 1.23). Conclusion Findings suggest that the reproductive health and social marketing campaigns in Zambia reached a large portion of the population and had a significant impact on condom use. The results suggest that future reproductive health communication campaigns that invest in radio programming may be more effective than those investing in television programming, and that future campaigns should seek to increase their impact among women, perhaps by focusing on the specific constrains that prevent females from using condoms.

Van Rossem Ronan; Meekers Dominique

2007-01-01

290

The reach and impact of social marketing and reproductive health communication campaigns in Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Like many sub-Saharan African countries, Zambia is dealing with major health issues, including HIV/AIDS, family planning, and reproductive health. To address reproductive health problems and the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Zambia, several social marketing and health communication programs focusing on reproductive and HIV/AIDS prevention programs are being implemented. This paper describes the reach of these programs and assesses their impact on condom use. METHODS: This paper assesses the reach of selected radio and television programs about family planning and HIV/AIDS and of communications about the socially marketed Maximum condoms in Zambia, as well as their impact on condom use, using data from the 2001-2002 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey. To control for self-selection and endogeneity, we use a two-stage regression model to estimate the effect of program exposure on the behavioural outcomes. RESULTS: Those who were exposed to radio and television programs about family planning and HIV/AIDS were more likely to have ever used a condom (OR = 1.16 for men and 1.06 for women). Men highly exposed to Maximum condoms social marketing communication were more likely than those with low exposure to the program to have ever used a condom (OR = 1.48), and to have used a condom at their last sexual intercourse (OR = 1.23). CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that the reproductive health and social marketing campaigns in Zambia reached a large portion of the population and had a significant impact on condom use. The results suggest that future reproductive health communication campaigns that invest in radio programming may be more effective than those investing in television programming, and that future campaigns should seek to increase their impact among women, perhaps by focusing on the specific constrains that prevent females from using condoms.

Van Rossem R; Meekers D

2007-01-01

291

Measuring Coverage in MNCH: Accuracy of Measuring Diagnosis and Treatment of Childhood Malaria from Household Surveys in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background To assess progress in the scale-up of rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) across Africa, malaria control programs have increasingly relied on standardized national household surveys to determine the proportion of children with a fever in the past 2 wk who received an effective antimalarial within 1–2 d of the onset of fever. Here, the validity of caregiver recall for measuring the primary coverage indicators for malaria diagnosis and treatment of children <5 y old is assessed. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in five public clinics in Kaoma District, Western Provence, Zambia, to estimate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of caregivers' recall of malaria testing, diagnosis, and treatment, compared to a gold standard of direct observation at the health clinics. Compared to the gold standard of clinic observation, for recall for children with fever in the past 2 wk, the sensitivity for recalling that a finger/heel stick was done was 61.9%, with a specificity of 90.0%. The sensitivity and specificity of caregivers' recalling a positive malaria test result were 62.4% and 90.7%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of recalling that the child was given a malaria diagnosis, irrespective of whether a laboratory test was actually done, were 76.8% and 75.9%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for recalling that an ACT was given were 81.0% and 91.5%, respectively. Conclusions Based on these findings, results from household surveys should continue to be used for ascertaining the coverage of children with a fever in the past 2 wk that received an ACT. However, as recall of a malaria diagnosis remains suboptimal, its use in defining malaria treatment coverage is not recommended. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Eisele, Thomas P.; Silumbe, Kafula; Yukich, Josh; Hamainza, Busiku; Keating, Joseph; Bennett, Adam; Miller, John M.

2013-01-01

292

The burden of knowing: balancing benefits and barriers in HIV testing decisions. a qualitative study from Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Client-initiated HIV counselling and testing has been scaled up in many African countries, in the form of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT). Test rates have remained low, with HIV-related stigma being an important barrier to HIV testing. This study explored HIV testing decisions in one rural and one urban district in Zambia with high HIV prevalence and available antiretroviral treatment. METHODS: Data were collected through 17 in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions with individuals and 10 in-depth interviews with counsellors. Interpretive description methodology was employed to analyse the data. RESULTS: 'To know your status' was found to be a highly charged concept yielding strong barriers against HIV testing. VCT was perceived as a diagnostic device and a gateway to treatment for the severely ill. Known benefits of prevention and early treatment were outweighed by a perceived burden of knowing your HIV status related to stigma and fear. The manner in which the VCT services were organised added to this burden. CONCLUSIONS: This study draws on social stigma theory to enhance the understanding of the continuity of HIV related stigma in the presence of ART, and argues that the burden of knowing an HIV status and the related reluctance to get HIV tested can be understood both as a form of label-avoidance and as strong expressions of the still powerful embodied memories of suffering and death among non-curable AIDS patients over the last decades. Hope lies in the emerging signs of a reduction in HIV related stigma experienced by those who had been tested for HIV. Further research into innovative HIV testing service designs that do not add to the burden of knowing is needed.

Jürgensen M; Tuba M; Fylkesnes K; Blystad A

2012-01-01

293

Evaluation of a task-shifting strategy involving peer educators in HIV care and treatment clinics in Lusaka, Zambia  

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Full Text Available Rapid expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and a shortage of health care workers (HCWs) required the implementation of a peer educator (PE) model as part of a task-shifting strategy in Lusaka District clinics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient and staff perceptions regarding whether the PE program: a) relieved the workload on professional HCWs; and b) delivered services of acceptable quality. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered from five primary care clinics delivering ART in Lusaka, Zambia. Closed surveys were conducted with 148 patients receiving ART, 29 PEs, and 53 HCWs. Data was imported into Microsoft Excel to calculate descriptive statistics. Six focus group discussions and eight key informant (KI) interviews were conducted, recorded, transcribed, and coded to extract relevant data. Survey results demonstrated that 50 of 53 (96.1%) HCWs agreed PEs reduced the amount of counseling duties required of HCWs. HCWs felt that PEs performed as well as HCWs in counseling patients (48 of 53; 90.6%) and that having PEs conduct counseling enabled clinical staff to see more patients (44 of 53; 83%). A majority of patients (141 of 148; 95.2%) agreed or strongly agreed that PEs were knowledgeable about ART, and 89 of 144 (61.8%) expressed a high level of confidence with PEs performing counseling and related tasks. Focus group and KI interviews supported these findings. PEs helped ease the work burden of HCWs and provided effective counseling, education talks, and adherence support to patients in HIV care. Consideration should be given to formalizing their role in the public health sector.

Lonny J. Born; Chibesa Wamulume; Kim A. Neroda; Nicole Quiterio; Mark J. Giganti; Mary Morris; Carolyn Bolton-Moore; Shelagh Baird; Maggie Sinkamba; Stephanie M. Topp; Stewart E. Reid

2012-01-01

294

Measuring coverage in MNCH: accuracy of measuring diagnosis and treatment of childhood malaria from household surveys in Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: To assess progress in the scale-up of rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) across Africa, malaria control programs have increasingly relied on standardized national household surveys to determine the proportion of children with a fever in the past 2 wk who received an effective antimalarial within 1-2 d of the onset of fever. Here, the validity of caregiver recall for measuring the primary coverage indicators for malaria diagnosis and treatment of children <5 y old is assessed. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in five public clinics in Kaoma District, Western Provence, Zambia, to estimate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of caregivers' recall of malaria testing, diagnosis, and treatment, compared to a gold standard of direct observation at the health clinics. Compared to the gold standard of clinic observation, for recall for children with fever in the past 2 wk, the sensitivity for recalling that a finger/heel stick was done was 61.9%, with a specificity of 90.0%. The sensitivity and specificity of caregivers' recalling a positive malaria test result were 62.4% and 90.7%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of recalling that the child was given a malaria diagnosis, irrespective of whether a laboratory test was actually done, were 76.8% and 75.9%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for recalling that an ACT was given were 81.0% and 91.5%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these findings, results from household surveys should continue to be used for ascertaining the coverage of children with a fever in the past 2 wk that received an ACT. However, as recall of a malaria diagnosis remains suboptimal, its use in defining malaria treatment coverage is not recommended.

Eisele TP; Silumbe K; Yukich J; Hamainza B; Keating J; Bennett A; Miller JM

2013-01-01

295

Enhancing global health and education in Malawi, Zambia, and the United States through an interprofessional global health exchange program.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: This article describes participant outcomes of an interprofessional collaboration between health professionals and faculty in Malawi, Zambia, and the United States (US). BACKGROUND: One strategy critical for improving global health and addressing Millennium Development goals is promotion of interprofessional education and collaboration. METHODS: Program participants included 25 health professionals from Malawi and Zambia, and 19 faculty/health professionals from Alabama and California. African Fellows participated in a 2 week workshop on Interprofessional Education in Alabama followed by 2 weeks working on individual goals with faculty collaborators/mentors. The US Fellows also spent 2 weeks visiting their counterparts in Malawi and Zambia to develop plans for sustainable partnerships. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Program evaluations demonstrated participants' satisfaction with the program and indicated that the program promoted interprofessional and cross-cultural understanding; fostered development of long-term sustainable partnerships between health professionals and educators in Zambia and the US; and created increased awareness and use of resources for global health education.

Wilson LL; Somerall D; Theus L; Rankin S; Ngoma C; Chimwaza A

2013-07-01

296

A quasi-experimental evaluation of an interpersonal communication intervention to increase insecticide-treated net use among children in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents results from an evaluation of the effect of a community health worker (CHW) –based, interpersonal communication campaign (IPC) for increasing insecticide-treated mosquito net (ITN) use among children in Luangwa District, Zambia, an area with near universal coverage of ITNs and moderate to low malaria parasite prevalence. Methods A quasi-experimental community randomized control trial was conducted from 2008 to 2010. CHWs were the unit of randomization. Cross-sectional data were collected from houses in both 2008 and 2010 using simple random sampling of a complete household enumeration of the district. A difference-in -differences approach was used to analyse the data. Results ITN use among children ?2 = 96.3, p 0.05). ITN use also increased among children five to 14?years old from 37% in 2008 to 68% in 2010. There was no indication that the CHW-based intervention activities had a significant effect on increasing ITN use in this context, over and above what is already being done to disseminate information on the importance of using an ITN to prevent malaria infection. Discussion ITN use increased dramatically in the district between 2008 and 2010. It is likely that IPC activities in general may have contributed to the observed increase in ITN use, as the increased observed in this study was far higher than the increase observed between 2008 and 2010 malaria indicator survey (MIS) estimates. Contamination across control communities, coupled with linear settlement patterns and subsequent behavioural norms related to communication in the area, likely contributed to the observed increase in net use and null effect in this study.

Keating Joseph; Hutchinson Paul; Miller John M; Bennett Adam; Larsen David A; Hamainza Busiku; Changufu Cynthia; Shiliya Nicholas; Eisele Thomas P

2012-01-01

297

Rural energy service companies - experiences from Zambia. Providing electricity services through energy service companies (ESCOs) in the eastern province of Zambia. Final report phase 1 1998-2000  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

More than 50 percent of the population in Zambia live in rural areas, often in isolated homesteads difficult and expensive to supply with centrally generated electricity. While 18 percent of the population in the country has access to electricity, only 2 percent of the rural population has access to electricity compared to 35 percent for urban areas. Furthermore, the growth rate of household connections is lower than that for the population and household growth rate indicating that the absolute proportion of the population without electricity is increasing. In Zambia only 2.5 percent of total households are connected to electricity every year while the household growth rate is around 3.5 percent. The prohibitively high initial investments needed to extend the national power grid to scarcely populated and/or isolated rural areas has highlighted the need for alternative forms for supplying energy services. One possible solution is the use of photovoltaic (PV) systems, which are ideal for providing basic services such as lighting and radio/TV for households or institutions not connected to a grid. The main obstacle for using PV systems is the high initial cost. Even although the total cost over the system lifetime may be lower compared to traditional power sources, the high interest rate in Zambia prevents most people from making this initial investment. The overall objective of this project is to develop and test a framework for providing rural communities with electricity services using the concept of Energy Service Companies (ESCOs). Specific objectives of the project include: design a general model specifying the necessary financial, institutional and managerial criteria needed for an ESCO operating in rural communities in Zambia, using photovoltaic systems as a source of electricity supply; apply the model in a specific chosen location. In the local adaptation of the model the specific solutions to the operation of the ESCO will be decided; launch several ESCOs in the local environment for which it has been adapted and monitor its performance, making adjustments, if necessary; assess the financial, environmental, and social aspects of the ESCO framework; establish guidelines to be used in future projects, including financing, credit, and technical support. At the end of the first phase, three ESCOs located in the rural communities of Chipata, Lundazi and Nyimba in Zambia's Eastern Province are providing energy services to private and commercial customers.

Ellegaard, A.; Nordstroem, M. (eds.)

2001-04-01

298

Do School Districts Matter?  

Science.gov (United States)

|School districts occupy center stage in education reform in the U.S. They manage nearly all public funding and are frequently the locus of federal and state reform initiatives, e.g., instituting meaningful teacher evaluation systems. Financial compensation for district leaders is high, with many being paid more than the chief state school…

Whitehurst, Grover J.; Chingos, Matthew M.; Gallaher, Michael R.

2013-01-01

299

District heating in Lithuania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The economic crisis affecting Lithuania`s district heating resulting from subsidised energy costs, the decline in the amount of heat produced, lack of investment, and centrally fixed tariffs are discussed. Recommendations offered by local and foreign experts including decentralisation of district heating management are outlined. (UK)

Klevas, V.; Tamonis, M. [Energy and Air Pollution Information Centre (Lithuania)

1996-12-31

300

District energy growth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Utility competition is heating up as utilities focus attention back to district energy after turning away from it for decades after World War II. Utilities are re-entering the district energy business by forming non-regulated district energy subsidiaries. Trigen Energy Corp., as the largest commercial owner and operator of community district energy systems in North America, defines the district heating and cooling (DHC) growth trend of systems being taken over, upgraded and expanded. These trends gather momentum with the economic attractions that have propelled DHC for the past decade and more. With DHC, a building owner worries less about maintenance and can operate with a smaller workforce for maintenance. Heating and cooling systems operate more reliably. Trigen`s Trenton plant, producing electricity, heating and cooling, recovers 66 percent of input energy - more than double the efficiency of conventional electric generation. Yet, it produces less than one-half the pollutants of conventional generation.

Seeley, R.S.

1995-11-01

 
 
 
 
301

Chicago Park District  

Science.gov (United States)

The Chicago Park District is one of the largest municipal park systems in the United States, containing over 8,100 acres of green space. All told, the District has 580 parks, including two city conservatories, a number of historic lagoons, and the iconic Clarence Buckingham Memorial Fountain. This website allows visitors the opportunity to learn about the District's mission, history, and long-range planning for existing parks and potential new sites. On the homepage, visitors can use the Find a Park feature to learn about these diverse spaces. Additionally, they can use the I Want To area to learn about park permits, volunteering, and reporting problems within the park system. The Events area is quite a find, as visitors can learn about some of the hundreds of events sponsored each year by the District. Finally, visitors can also use the Doing Business area to learn about the various entrepreneurial activities which are possible via the District.

2013-01-01

302

Feasibility study of the Kafue Gorge Lower Hydroelectric Project. Feasibility report. Volume 3 of 4. Appendices C through F. Export trade information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study, conducted by Harza Engineering Company, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The primary objective of the feasibility study was to perform the technical, environmental, economic and financial studies to determine whether or not to proceed with the project. The report covers the preinvestment study that was conducted in 1976 to make comparisons from that period, as well as present and future electrical power demands in order to determine the kinds of equipment and structure needed if the project proceeds. This is Volume III of IV containing Appendices C through F. It is divided as follows: (C) Zambia Energy Sector; (D) Historical and Future Electricity Demand; (E) Alternative Project Developments; (F) Cost Estimates.

NONE

1995-05-01

303

Evaluation of malaria prevention strategies during pregnancy in Ndola, Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Malaria in pregnancy is associated with many negative outcomes for the woman,foetus and neonate. Intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp) using three doses of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP), insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spray (IRS), constitute the main strategies used to prevent malaria. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of these strategies for the reduction of malaria prevalence in pregnant women.Methods: A questionnaire on socio-demographic information, history of malaria during current pregnancy and prevention strategies used was administered to 450 consecutive patients admitted into labour wards at three local clinics. From the antenatal cards, information was collected on the last menstrual period, date of each dose of SP taken, gravidity, and HIV status. A blood slide to detect Plasmodium was then collected from each woman after consent.Results: Of the participants in the study, 2.4% had a positive blood slide at term and 15.8% reported malaria during pregnancy. All the participants took at least one dose of SP with 87.6% completing the stipulated three doses. The mean gestational ages for each dose were 22.1 (SD 4.6), 29.1 (SD 4.4)and 34.4 (SD 3.9) weeks for the first, second and third dose respectively. With regard to ITNs, 79.5% had one, but only 74.1% used it regularly. IRS was completed in all three of the clinics’ catchment areas. Only 23.4% used commercial insecticide.Conclusion: The measured prevalence of malaria at term in Ndola was remarkably low, although the self-reported rate during pregnancy was still high. The national targets for accessing IPTp were exceeded, although the timing of each dose needs to be improved. Access to ITNs was high, but usage needs to increase.How to cite this article:Mulamba M, Mash B. Evaluation of malaria prevention strategies during pregnancy in Ndola, Zambia. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med.2010; 2(1), Art. #159,5 pages. DOI: 10.4102/phcfm.v2i1.159

Mwamba Mulamba; Bob Mash

2010-01-01

304

District energy in Halifax  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The economic benefits of district heating to the Dartmouth/Halifax area were discussed. In some European countries, district heating systems supply 30 to 40% of the heating market; in North America the industry is less well developed. Nevertheless, the technology is gaining popularity and interest due to concerns over emissions and improvements in the technology itself. A preliminary assessment of district heat potential in the metropolitan area of Dartmouth/Halifax was presented. The assessment included a capital cost estimate, economic analysis, a discussion of environmental issues, sustainable development aspects, and greenhouse effects. Based on the findings it was concluded that the use of district energy could be a viable option for the area;it would represent a significant opportunity for sustainable use of energy.

Blamire, D.K. [Nova Scotia Power Corp., Halifax, NS (Canada)

1995-12-31

305

Outbreaks of Salmonella Dublin infection among calves on a dairy farm applying Salmonella bacterins in Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Zambia, a dairy farm keeping about 600 cows and self-contained calves had applied S. Dublin and S. Typhimurium bacterins to pregnant cows and calves in combination with all-in all-out pen system for rearing calves. Only relatively small scale outbreaks of S. Dublin infection occurred repeatedly in these years from 1989 to 1991 among fattening calves on the farm. The results obtained from the epizootiological study suggest that the preventive measures including the vaccination with Salmonella bacterins gave insufficient protection against S. Dublin infection to the calves, but they might have prevented large scale outbreak of the disease. This is the first report of the epizootiological study on outbreak of bovine S. Dublin infection on farm in Zambia.

Sato Y; Schneebeli M; Matsukawa K; Chimana H; Sinsungwe H; Sato G

1993-06-01

306

An intervention to decrease intravaginal practices in hiv-infected women in Zambia: a pilot study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Intravaginal practices (IVP) are those in which women introduce products inside the vagina for hygienic, health, or sexuality reasons. IVP are associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) and potentially implicated in HIV transmission. This report presents the results of a pilot study of a behavioral intervention to decrease IVP in HIV-infected women in Zambia. At baseline, all of the enrolled women (n =40) engaged in IVP and rates of BV were high. Women receiving the intervention reported a decrease of the insertion of water and cloths inside the vagina. Communication with sexual partners regarding IVP was higher for women receiving the intervention. Results from this study suggest that a behavioral intervention could decrease IVP in HIV-infected women in Zambia and this may have an impact in decreasing HIV transmission from women to sexual partners and newborns.

Alcaide ML; Mumbi M; Chitalu N; Jones DL

2013-05-01

307

An intervention to decrease intravaginal practices in hiv-infected women in Zambia: a pilot study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intravaginal practices (IVP) are those in which women introduce products inside the vagina for hygienic, health, or sexuality reasons. IVP are associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) and potentially implicated in HIV transmission. This report presents the results of a pilot study of a behavioral intervention to decrease IVP in HIV-infected women in Zambia. At baseline, all of the enrolled women (n =40) engaged in IVP and rates of BV were high. Women receiving the intervention reported a decrease of the insertion of water and cloths inside the vagina. Communication with sexual partners regarding IVP was higher for women receiving the intervention. Results from this study suggest that a behavioral intervention could decrease IVP in HIV-infected women in Zambia and this may have an impact in decreasing HIV transmission from women to sexual partners and newborns. PMID:23340240

Alcaide, Maria L; Mumbi, Miriam; Chitalu, Ndashi; Jones, Deborah L

2013-01-20

308

Energy survey in Zambezi. Report from a study in Zambia - 1985  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report presents the results and experiences from a field study in Zambia. The energy situation is described in detail. Energy consumption is analyzed by end-use and source. The supply situation for the different sources - firewood, charcoal, kerosene and electricity is presented and the available local and renewable resources are outlined. The household sector is divided into subsectors and the relation between income level and the choice of energy source is studied in detail.

Christensen, J.M.

1985-10-01

309

An Integrated Hydro-Economic Model for Economy-Wide Climate Change Impact Assessment for Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Zambia is a landlocked country in Southern Africa, with a total population of about 11 million and a total area of about 752 thousand square kilometers. Agriculture in the country depends heavily on rainfall as the majority of cultivated land is rain-fed. Significant rainfall variability has been a huge challenge for the country to keep a sustainable agricultural growth, which is an important condition for the country to meet the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. The situation is expected to become even more complex as climate change would impose additional impacts on rainwater availability and crop water requirements, among other changes. To understand the impacts of climate variability and change on agricultural production and national economy, a soil hydrology model and a crop water production model are developed to simulate actual crop water uses and yield losses under water stress which provide annual shocks for a recursive dynamic computational general equilibrium (CGE) model developed for Zambia. Observed meteorological data of the past three decades are used in the integrated hydro-economic model for climate variability impact analysis, and as baseline climatology for climate change impact assessment together with several GCM-based climate change scenarios that cover a broad range of climate projections. We found that climate variability can explain a significant portion of the annual variations of agricultural production and GDP of Zambia in the past. Hidden beneath climate variability, climate change is found to have modest impacts on agriculture and national economy of Zambia around 2025 but the impacts would be pronounced in the far future if appropriate adaptations are not implemented. Policy recommendations are provided based on scenario analysis.

Zhu, T.; Thurlow, J.; Diao, X.

2008-12-01

310

Contraception and family planning among HIV-seroconcordant and -serodiscordant couples in the US and Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Deborah L Jones1, Olga Villar-Loubet1, Chipepo Kankasa2, Ndashi Chitalu2, Miriam Mumbi2, Stephen M Weiss11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Paediatrics, University of Zambia School of Medicine, Lusaka, ZambiaAbstract: With the advent of antiretroviral therapy, remarkable progress has been made in the reduction of morbidity and mortality associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). As a result, in both the developed and developing world, reproductive decision-making and family planning has re-emerged as an important health issue among HIV-seroconcordant and -serodiscordant couples. This study sought to explore contraceptive attitudes and practices among HIV-seropositive and -serodiscordant couples in the US and Zambia and to compare contraceptive decision-making between seroconcordant and discordant couples. Study results suggest that while most participants expressed a willingness to use protection to prevent pregnancy, the majority were not using protection consistently. Similarly, among seropositive younger men in both the US and Zambia, more men expressed a desire to have children than women of either serostatus group. Study outcomes also suggest that male and female condom use to reduce HIV transmission within couples is limited. Thus, as males are largely the sexual decision makers regarding condom use, women’s attitudes or plans regarding child bearing may be eclipsed by those of their male partners, and recent reductions in provision of female condoms in the developing world may further reduce women’s options to protect themselves and prevent pregnancy. Education and counseling on vertical and horizontal transmission of HIV among both seropositive and serodiscordant couples should be an element of family planning efforts. Conversely, family planning should be a critical element of HIV counseling and testing strategies to realistically respond to the desires of both members of the couple.Keywords: urban, decision-making, condom use, HIV transmission

Deborah L Jones; Olga Villar-Loubet; Chipepo Kankasa; et al

2010-01-01

311

Malaria prevention in Zambia: a practical application of the diffusion of innovations model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Transcultural nursing educators can be change agents for health issues in other cultures. Yet unfamiliar disease processes and the foreign environment provide challenges that must be overcome to achieve a lasting, effective, and positive change. Rogers's Diffusion of Innovations Model can be used to plan and implement community-focused interventions into the cultures of developing nations, specifically malaria prevention in Zambia. Transcultural nurse educators could use concepts from the model to effect change in other cultures or communities.

Steury EE

2013-04-01

312

Malaria prevention in Zambia: a practical application of the diffusion of innovations model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transcultural nursing educators can be change agents for health issues in other cultures. Yet unfamiliar disease processes and the foreign environment provide challenges that must be overcome to achieve a lasting, effective, and positive change. Rogers's Diffusion of Innovations Model can be used to plan and implement community-focused interventions into the cultures of developing nations, specifically malaria prevention in Zambia. Transcultural nurse educators could use concepts from the model to effect change in other cultures or communities. PMID:23341408

Steury, Elinda Enright

2013-01-22

313

The influence of cultural practices on the HIV and AIDS pandemic in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Culture plays a significant role in people’s lives in Zambia and in Africa as a whole. Consequently, there is a need to take Zambian or African culture seriously in order to look at the salient elements of cultural practices in rites of passage that influence the spread of HIV and AIDS. This article analyses four rites of passage associated with birth, puberty, marriage and death. There are numerous rites of passage in Zambian culture. Some of these rites help to curb the spread of HIV and AIDS, whilst others exacerbate the spread of the virus. Using the Reformed Church in Zambia Bible Study Method of Subgroups, discussions were held that allowed victims of cultural practices to tell their stories using the narrative model. This article sought to shed light on cultural practices that exacerbate HIV and AIDS and more importantly, provide culturally sensitive alternatives to these harmful practices.How to cite this article: Moyo, N. & Müller, J.C., 2011, ‘The influence of cultural practices on the HIV and AIDS pandemic in Zambia’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 67(3), Art. #770, 5 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v67i3.770

Nolipher Moyo; Julian C. Müller

2011-01-01

314

Environmental impact assessment of the charcoal production and utilization system in central Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The present study is the outcome of the Zambia Charcoal Utilization Programme, which is based on cooperation that started in 1989 between the Department of Energy, Ministry of Energy and Water Development (then Ministry of Power, Transport and Communications) and the Stockholm Environmental Institute (SEI). The programme, which is funded by the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA), consists of a number of studies focusing on different aspects of the wood and charcoal industry in Zambia. Selection of this energy system for detailed study was based on the fact that wood provides the largest contribution to total energy supply in Zambia, and the fact that wood is a renewable resource that could be exploited on a sustainable basis if properly managed. The studies therefore range from those that look at sustainability of the natural forests exploited for charcoal, to those that deal with transportation and health aspects of charcoal production and use. The present report focuses on the environmental and socio-economic effects of charcoal production and use. 72 refs., 20 figs., 38 tabs

1994-01-01

315

Information and communication: a library's local response to HIV/AIDS in Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To document and describe the University of Zambia Medical library's responses to the fight against HIV/AIDS in Zambia. METHODS: The methodology adopted was a case study approach combined with an analysis of the literature such as annual reports and official documents. This was augmented by personal reflections of the author having worked at the Medical Library. RESULTS: The University of Zambia Medical library has over the years instituted and implemented HIV/AIDS information provision programmes that include the provision of information in various formats -- print or electronic and, in addition, capacity building in HIV/AIDS information literacy skills. CONCLUSION: A library's social responsibility calls for it to be part of national responses to crises that arise in society. As HIV/AIDS has affected every aspect of Zambian society prevention, treatment, care and support there is an understanding that the library's role should be using the critical and strategic resource at its disposal - information -- as part of their contribution to the fight against HIV/AIDS. In this context, libraries should source, collect, organize and disseminate information on HIV/AIDS in a way that is easily accessible to researchers, HIV/AIDS programme implementation agencies and the ordinary public.

Kanyengo CW

2010-03-01

316

Ecology and epidemiology of anthrax in cattle and humans in Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Anthrax is endemic in Western and North-western Provinces of Zambia. The disease occurs throughout the year and impacts negatively on the economy of the livestock industry and public health in Zambia. During 1989-1995, there were 1626 suspected cases of anthrax in cattle in Western province and of these 51 were confirmed. There were 220 cases of human anthrax cases in 1990 alone and 248 cases during 1991-1998 with 19.1% and 7.7% case fatality rates, respectively. Interplay of the ecology of affected areas and anthropogenic factors seem to trigger anthrax epidemics. Anthrax has drawn considerable attention in recent years due to its potential use as a biological weapon. In this paper, the history, current status and approaches towards the control of the disease in Zambia are discussed. Quarantine measures restrict trade of livestock and exchange of animals for draught power resulting in poor food security at household levels. Challenges of anthrax control are complex and comprise of socio-political, economical, environmental and cultural factors. Inadequate funding, lack of innovative disease control strategies and lack of cooperation from stakeholders are the major constraints to the control of the disease. It is hoped that the information provided here will stimulate continued awareness for the veterinary and medical authorities to maintain their surveillance and capabilities against the disease. This may lead to a culminating positive impact on livestock and human health in the southern African region.

Siamudaala VM; Bwalya JM; Munang'andu HM; Munag'andu HM; Sinyangwe PG; Banda F; Mweene AS; Takada A; Kida H

2006-05-01

317

Ecology and epidemiology of anthrax in cattle and humans in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthrax is endemic in Western and North-western Provinces of Zambia. The disease occurs throughout the year and impacts negatively on the economy of the livestock industry and public health in Zambia. During 1989-1995, there were 1626 suspected cases of anthrax in cattle in Western province and of these 51 were confirmed. There were 220 cases of human anthrax cases in 1990 alone and 248 cases during 1991-1998 with 19.1% and 7.7% case fatality rates, respectively. Interplay of the ecology of affected areas and anthropogenic factors seem to trigger anthrax epidemics. Anthrax has drawn considerable attention in recent years due to its potential use as a biological weapon. In this paper, the history, current status and approaches towards the control of the disease in Zambia are discussed. Quarantine measures restrict trade of livestock and exchange of animals for draught power resulting in poor food security at household levels. Challenges of anthrax control are complex and comprise of socio-political, economical, environmental and cultural factors. Inadequate funding, lack of innovative disease control strategies and lack of cooperation from stakeholders are the major constraints to the control of the disease. It is hoped that the information provided here will stimulate continued awareness for the veterinary and medical authorities to maintain their surveillance and capabilities against the disease. This may lead to a culminating positive impact on livestock and human health in the southern African region. PMID:16786974

Siamudaala, Victor M; Bwalya, John M; Munang'andu, Hetron M; Munag'andu, Hetron M; Sinyangwe, Peter G; Banda, Fred; Mweene, Aaron S; Takada, Ayato; Kida, Hiroshi

2006-05-01

318

Genetic perspectives on the origin of clicks in Bantu languages from southwestern Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Some Bantu languages spoken in southwestern Zambia and neighboring regions of Botswana, Namibia, and Angola are characterized by the presence of click consonants, whereas their closest linguistic relatives lack such clicks. As clicks are a typical feature not of the Bantu language family, but of Khoisan languages, it is highly probable that the Bantu languages in question borrowed the clicks from Khoisan languages. In this paper, we combine complete mitochondrial genome sequences from a representative sample of populations from the Western Province of Zambia speaking Bantu languages with and without clicks, with fine-scaled analyses of Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms and short tandem repeats to investigate the prehistoric contact that led to this borrowing of click consonants. Our results reveal complex population-specific histories, with female-biased admixture from Khoisan-speaking groups associated with the incorporation of click sounds in one Bantu-speaking population, while concomitant levels of potential Khoisan admixture did not result in sound change in another. Furthermore, the lack of sequence sharing between the Bantu-speaking groups from southwestern Zambia investigated here and extant Khoisan populations provides an indication that there must have been genetic substructure in the Khoisan-speaking indigenous groups of southern Africa that did not survive until the present or has been substantially reduced.

Barbieri C; Butthof A; Bostoen K; Pakendorf B

2013-04-01

319

Environmental impact assessment of the charcoal production and utilization system in central Zambia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present study is the outcome of the Zambia Charcoal Utilization Programme, which is based on cooperation that started in 1989 between the Department of Energy, Ministry of Energy and Water Development (then Ministry of Power, Transport and Communications) and the Stockholm Environmental Institute (SEI). The programme, which is funded by the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA), consists of a number of studies focusing on different aspects of the wood and charcoal industry in Zambia. Selection of this energy system for detailed study was based on the fact that wood provides the largest contribution to total energy supply in Zambia, and the fact that wood is a renewable resource that could be exploited on a sustainable basis if properly managed. The studies therefore range from those that look at sustainability of the natural forests exploited for charcoal, to those that deal with transportation and health aspects of charcoal production and use. The present report focuses on the environmental and socio-economic effects of charcoal production and use. 72 refs., 20 figs., 38 tabs

Serenje, W. [Ministry of Energy and Water Development, Lusaka (Zambia); Chidumayo, E.N. [Univ. of Zambia (Zambia); Chipuwa, J.H. [ZIMCO Inst. of Management (Zambia); Egneus, H.; Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environmental Inst. (Sweden)

1994-10-01

320

Assessing cultural factors influencing choice of business entry mode in a developing country: Case Biolan Group and Global Dry Toilet Association of Finland in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of the thesis was to find out and analyse the key factors in Zambian culture and business culture that influence choice of business entry method for dry toilet market in Zambia. The other aim was to find the most suitable entry mode for a developing country, in this case Zambia. The th...

Kortelainen, Sirpa

 
 
 
 
321

District Energy Windsor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a summary of how District Energy Windsor operates. It includes a system site map and reasons why it is advantageous to get connected to a district heating system. District Energy Windsor is a division of the Windsor Utilities Commission. It was developed in 1996 and was the first in North America to supply both heating and cooling requirements. It supplies nearly 2 million square feet of heating and cooling for Windsor's city centre. The district energy system produces hot water or chilled water at a central plant. Energy is then piped out to buildings in the area, including the Art Gallery of Windsor, the Royal Bank Business Centre, the Windsor Justice Facility, the Windsor Casino, and Northwind Windsor. The energy, which is transferred through heat exchangers, is used for space heating, domestic hot water heating, and air conditioning. The 8 reasons for getting connected are: (1) less management costs, (2) lower energy costs, (3) lower level of risk management, (4) stable energy rates, (5) better use of building space, (6) reliable service, (7) reduced expansion costs, and (8) a cleaner environment. District heating improves air quality through reduced carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions. In addition, fuel delivery and storage are eliminated. figs.

NONE

2002-07-01

322

What impact do Global Health Initiatives have on human resources for antiretroviral treatment roll-out? A qualitative policy analysis of implementation processes in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the beginning of the 21st century, development assistance for HIV/AIDS has increasingly been provided through Global Health Initiatives, specifically the United States Presidential Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, the Global Fund to Fight HIV, TB and Malaria and the World Bank Multi-country AIDS Programme. Zambia, like many of the countries heavily affected by HIV/AIDS in southern Africa, also faces a shortage of human resources for health. The country receives significant amounts of funding from GHIs for the large-scale provision of antiretroviral treatment through the public and private sector. This paper examines the impact of GHIs on human resources for ART roll-out in Zambia, at national level, in one province and two districts. Methods It is a qualitative policy analysis relying on in-depth interviews with more than 90 policy-makers and implementers at all levels. Results Findings show that while GHIs do not provide significant funding for additional human resources, their interventions have significant impact on human resources for health at all levels. While GHIs successfully retrain a large number of health workers, evidence suggests that GHIs actively deplete the pool of skilled human resources for health by recruiting public sector staff to work for GHI-funded nongovernmental implementing agencies. The secondment of GHI staff into public sector facilities may help alleviate immediate staff shortages, but this practice risks undermining sustainability of programmes. GHI-supported programmes and initiatives add significantly to the workload of existing public sector staff at all levels, while incentives including salary top-ups and overtime payments mean that ART programmes are more popular among staff than services for non-focal diseases. Conclusion Research findings suggest that GHIs need to actively mediate against the potentially negative consequences of their funding on human resources for health. Evidence presented highlights the need for new strategies that integrate retraining of existing staff with longer-term staff development to ensure staff retention. The study results show that GHIs must provide significant new and longer-term funding for additional human resources to avoid negative consequences on the overall provision of health care services and to ensure sustainability and quality of programmes they support.

Hanefeld Johanna; Musheke Maurice

2009-01-01

323

District heating in Flensburg  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The majority of our population, but also of our authorities, are still skeptical or even disapproving towards district heating. The reasons of this negative attitude are partly psychological - e.g. the individualism of the Swiss and their dislike for too centralised structures and ''forced connections'' - but also the existence of finished gas supply networks and the fear of considerable pre-investments and torn streets over years. The following article - held as a speech on the information meeting ''District heating and the possible contribution of nuclear energy'' organised by the Swiss Association for Atomic Energy in Bern shows a practical problem solving at the example of the district heating in Flensburg and deals with these questions.

Prinz, W.

1981-01-01

324

Saar district heating system - a regional integrated district heating system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Comprehensive utilization of low-temperature heat for district heating purposes on the basis of cogeneration or industrial waste heat presupposes the development of extensive regional district heating systems, that is district heating lines. As a rule waste heat from electric power generation or industrial waste heat requires the use of district heating lines to be transported to for away potential consumers. In view of the relocation of power plants for ecological reasons extensive district heating systems are about to be gaining in importance. The Federal Republic of Germany has so far completed three regional district heating systems, namely the Ruhr line, the Niederrhein district heating line and the Saar district heating line. The latter is dealt with in the paper abstracted.

Steinmetz, H.; Huembert, A.

1985-12-01

325

Problems in acquiring mineral revenues for financing economic development: a case study of Zambia during 1970-78  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the 1970s Zambia granted tax incentives to translational mining companies (thereby foregoing some revenues) in order to achieve expected investment benefits to the economy and government. The Government also acquired ownership interests in the companies via asset acquisition. Global market forces turned against Zambia's interests, and expected benefits were not forthcoming because company profits had become the sole tax base in the mineral sector. Zambia's experience from 1970 to 1978 suggests that it and other mineral export countries should (a) evaluate carefully whether reducing the effective tax rate on company profits actually induces investment and (b) consider thoroughly whether a tax scheme that includes a proper mix of profit, mineral and export levies is more appropriate than a single tax base.

Curry, R.L. Jr.

1984-01-01

326

Genetic diversity among Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax strains from Zambia and Ghana, based on cathepsin L-like gene.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Understanding the evolutionary relationships of Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax genotypes between West Africa and Southern Africa can provide information on the epidemiology and control of trypanosomosis. Cattle blood samples from Zambia and Ghana were screened for T. vivax infection using specie-specific PCR and sequencing analysis. Substantial polymorphism was obtained from phylogenetic analysis of sequences of cathepsin L-like catalytic domains. T. vivax from Ghana clustered together with West African and South American sequences, while T. vivax from Zambia formed one distinct clade and clustered with East African and Southern African sequences. This study suggests existence of distinct genetic diversity between T. vivax genotypes from West Africa and Zambia as per their geographical origins.

Nakayima J; Nakao R; Alhassan A; Hayashida K; Namangala B; Mahama C; Afakye K; Sugimoto C

2013-01-01

327

District heating price comparison 1982  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since 1973 the District Heating Work Study Group has carried out a district heating price comparison. The survey is conducted on the basis of fictitious, preselected consumer types for domestic and commercial buildings. The prices quoted provide an approximate review of the annual costs for district heat supply. The price developments is compared to figures from previous years.

Kroehner, P.; Reinhard, K.

1983-08-01

328

Geographical patterns and predictors of malaria risk in Zambia: Bayesian geostatistical modelling of the 2006 Zambia national malaria indicator survey (ZMIS)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Zambia Malaria Indicator Survey (ZMIS) of 2006 was the first nation-wide malaria survey, which combined parasitological data with other malaria indicators such as net use, indoor residual spraying and household related aspects. The survey was carried out by the Zambian Ministry of Health and partners with the objective of estimating the coverage of interventions and malaria related burden in children less than five years. In this study, the ZMIS data were analysed in order (i) to estimate an empirical high-resolution parasitological risk map in the country and (ii) to assess the relation between malaria interventions and parasitaemia risk after adjusting for environmental and socio-economic confounders. Methods The parasitological risk was predicted from Bayesian geostatistical and spatially independent models relating parasitaemia risk and environmental/climatic predictors of malaria. A number of models were fitted to capture the (potential) non-linearity in the malaria-environment relation and to identify the elapsing time between environmental effects and parasitaemia risk. These models included covariates (a) in categorical scales and (b) in penalized and basis splines terms. Different model validation methods were used to identify the best fitting model. Model-based risk predictions at unobserved locations were obtained via Bayesian predictive distributions for the best fitting model. Results Model validation indicated that linear environmental predictors were able to fit the data as well as or even better than more complex non-linear terms and that the data do not support spatial dependence. Overall the averaged population-adjusted parasitaemia risk was 20.0% in children less than five years with the highest risk predicted in the northern (38.3%) province. The odds of parasitaemia in children living in a household with at least one bed net decreases by 40% (CI: 12%, 61%) compared to those without bed nets. Conclusions The map of parasitaemia risk together with the prediction error and the population at risk give an important overview of the malaria situation in Zambia. These maps can assist to achieve better resource allocation, health management and to target additional interventions to reduce the burden of malaria in Zambia significantly. Repeated surveys will enable the evaluation of the effectiveness of on-going interventions.

Riedel Nadine; Vounatsou Penelope; Miller John M; Gosoniu Laura; Chizema-Kawesha Elizabeth; Mukonka Victor; Steketee Rick W

2010-01-01

329

District energy a global solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An overview of the development of district energy systems throughout the world is provided. Significant district energy data is provided for Canada, the United States, East Asia, Korea, Japan, China, Eastern Europe and Russia, Estonia, and Sweden. The overall conclusion is that district energy systems are here to stay and have a good chance of succeeding provided that the concept has the support of business, municipalities and national governments. The 40 years old district heating system in Vasteras, Sweden, the oldest and most successful district energy system in the world, was highlighted.

Damecour, R.; Andersson, B. [Kattner/FVB District Energy Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

1999-08-01

330

VII international district heating conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proceedings of the 7th International District Heating Conference contain the full texts of the 89 presented papers of which 11 fall under the INIS Subject Scope. The conference met in seven sessions and dealt with the following problem areas: design and optimization of systems of district heating, integration of the power system and the district heating systems, cooperation of nuclear and fossil burning sources in district heating systems, the use of specific nuclear power plants for heating purposes, questions of the control of systems of district heating, the development of components of heating networks, the reliability and design of heat supply pipes. (Z.M.).

1988-01-01

331

Early alcohol use and problem drinking among students in Zambia and Uganda  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Excessive alcohol use is a serious public health concern worldwide, but less attention has been given to the prevalence, risk and protective factors, and consequences of early alcohol use in low-income, developing countries. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between early alcohol use, before age 13, and problem drinking among adolescents in Uganda and Zambia. Data from students in Zambia (n=2257; 2004) and Uganda (n=3215; 2003) were obtained from the cross-sectional Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS). The self-administered questionnaires were completed by students primarily 13 to 16 years of age. Multiple statistical models were computed using logistic regression analyses to test the associations between early alcohol initiation and problem drinking, while controlling for possible confounding factors (e.g., current alcohol use, bullying victimization, sadness, lack of friends, missing school, lack of parental monitoring, and drug use). Results show that early alcohol initiation was associated with problem drinking in both Zambia (AOR=1.28; 95% CI:1.02-1.61) and Uganda (AOR=1.48; 95% CI: 1.11- 1.98) among youth after controlling for demographic characteristics, risky behaviors, and other possible confounders.The study shows that there is a significant association between alcohol initiation before 13 years of age and problem drinking among youth in these two countries. These findings underscore the need for interventions and strict alcohol controls as an important policy strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth.

Monica H. Swahn; Bina Ali; Jane Palmier; Nazarius Mbona Tumwesigye; George Sikazwe; Jeremiahs Twa-Twa; Kasirye Rogers

2011-01-01

332

Scale-up of TB and HIV programme collaborative activities in Zambia - a 10-year review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To review the activities, progress, achievements and challenges of the Zambia Ministry of Health tuberculosis (TB)/HIV collaborative activities over the past decade. METHODS: Analysis of Zambia Ministry of Health National TB and HIV programme documents and external independent programme review reports pertaining to 2000-2010. RESULTS: The number of people testing for HIV increased from 37 557 persons in 2003 to 1 327 995 persons in 2010 nationally. Those receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART) increased from 143 in 2003 to 344 304 in 2010. The national HIV prevalence estimates declined from 14.3% in 2001 to 13.5% in 2009. The proportion of TB patients being tested for HIV increased from 22.6% in 2006 to 84% in 2010 and approximately 70% were HIV positive. The proportion of the HIV-infected TB patients who: (i) started on ART increased from 38% in 2006 to 50% in 2010; (ii) commenced co-trimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) increased from 31% in 2006 to 70% in 2010; and (iii) were successfully treated increased to an average of 80% resulting in decline of deaths from 13% in 2006 to 9% in 2010. CONCLUSIONS: The scale-up of TB/HIV collaborative programme activities in Zambia has steadily increased over the past decade resulting in increased testing for TB and HIV, and anti-retroviral (ARV) rollout with improved treatment outcomes among TB patients co-infected with HIV. Getting service delivery points to adhere to WHO guidelines for collaborative TB/HIV activities remains problematic, especially those meant to reduce the burden of TB in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA).

Kapata N; Chanda-Kapata P; Grobusch MP; O'Grady J; Schwank S; Bates M; Jansenn S; Mwinga A; Cobelens F; Mwaba P; Zumla A

2012-06-01

333

Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and albuminuria in rural Zambia: a hospital-based survey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess albuminuria in rural Zambia among patients with diabetes mellitus only (DM group), hypertension only (HTN group) and patients with combined DM and HTN (DM/HTN group). METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at St. Francis Hospital in the Eastern province of Zambia. Albumin-creatinine ratio in one urine sample was used to assess albuminuria. Other information obtained included age, sex, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c ), random capillary glucose, time since diagnosis, medication and family history of DM or HTN. RESULTS: A total of 193 participants were included (DM group: n = 33; HTN group: n = 92; DM/HTN group: n = 68). The participants in the DM group used insulin more frequently as diabetes medication than the DM/HTN group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the DM group was younger and had lower BMI, WC and BP than the two other groups. In the DM group, HTN group and DM/HTN group, microalbuminuria was found in 12.1%, 19.6% and 29.4% (P = 0.11), and macroalbuminuria was found in 0.0%, 3.3% and 13.2% (P = 0.014), respectively. The urine albumin (P = 0.014) and albumin-creatinine ratio (P = 0.0006) differed between the three groups. CONCLUSION: This hospital-based survey in rural Zambia found a lower frequency of albuminuria among the participants than in previous studies of patients with DM or HTN in urban sub-Saharan Africa.

Rasmussen JB; Thomsen JA; Rossing P; Parkinson S; Christensen DL; Bygbjerg IC

2013-09-01

334

Tenofovir in second-line ART in Zambia and South Africa: collaborative analysis of cohort studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Tenofovir (TDF) is increasingly used in second-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. We compared outcomes of second-line ART containing and not containing TDF in cohort studies from Zambia and the Republic of South Africa (RSA). METHODS: Patients aged 16 years and older starting protease-inhibitor-based second-line ART in Zambia (1 cohort) and RSA (5 cohorts) were included. We compared mortality, immunological failure (all cohorts), and virological failure (RSA only) between patients receiving and not receiving TDF. Competing risk models and Cox models adjusted for age, sex, CD4 count, time on first-line ART, and calendar year were used to analyze mortality and treatment failure, respectively. Hazard ratios (HRs) were combined in fixed-effects meta-analysis. FINDINGS: 1687 patients from Zambia and 1556 patients from RSA, including 1350 (80.0%) and 206 (13.2%) patients starting TDF, were followed over 4471 person-years. Patients on TDF were more likely to have started second-line ART in recent years and had slightly higher baseline CD4 counts than patients not on TDF. Overall, 127 patients died, 532 were lost to follow-up, and 240 patients developed immunological failure. In RSA, 94 patients had virologic failure. Combined HRs comparing TDF with other regimens were 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.41 to 0.87) for immunologic failure and 0.63 (0.38-1.05) for mortality. The HR for virologic failure in RSA was 0.28 (0.09-0.90). CONCLUSIONS: In this observational study, patients on TDF-containing second-line ART were less likely to develop treatment failure than patients on other regimens. TDF seems to be an effective component of second-line ART in southern Africa.

Wandeler G; Keiser O; Mulenga L; Hoffmann CJ; Wood R; Chaweza T; Brennan A; Prozesky H; Garone D; Giddy J; Chimbetete C; Boulle A; Egger M

2012-09-01

335

Operational scale entomological intervention for malaria control: strategies, achievements and challenges in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background While consensus on malaria vector control policy and strategy has stimulated unprecedented political-will, backed by international funding organizations and donors, vector control interventions are expansively being implemented based on assumptions with unequaled successes. This manuscript reports on the strategies, achievements and challenges of the past and contemporary malaria vector control efforts in Zambia. Case description All available information and accessible archived documentary records on malaria vector control in Zambia were reviewed. Retrospective analysis of routine surveillance data from the Health Management Information System (HMIS), data from population-based household surveys and various operations research reports was conducted to assess the status in implementing policies and strategies. Discussion and evaluation Empirical evidence is critical for informing policy decisions and tailoring interventions to local settings. Thus, the World Health Organization (WHO) encourages the adoption of the integrated vector management (IVM) strategy which is a rational decision making process for optimal use of available resources. One of the key features of IVM is capacity building at the operational level to plan, implement, monitor and evaluate vector control and its epidemiological and entomological impact. In Zambia, great progress has been made in implementing WHO-recommended vector control policies and strategies within the context of the IVM Global Strategic framework with strong adherence to its five key attributes. Conclusions The country has solid, consistent and coordinated policies, strategies and guidelines for malaria vector control. The Zambian experience demonstrates the significance of a coordinated multi-pronged IVM approach effectively operationalized within the context of a national health system.

Chanda Emmanuel; Mukonka Victor M; Kamuliwo Mulakwa; Macdonald Michael B; Haque Ubydul

2013-01-01

336

Multidrug-resistant TB in Zambia: review of national data from 2000 to 2011.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is posing a great threat to global TB control. The burden in Zambia is not well defined because routine surveillance data are scarce. We reviewed national MDR-TB data for the last decade to inform future public health policy with respect to MDR-TB in Zambia. METHOD: Retrospective review of national surveillance of MDR-TB data, TB programme and laboratory reports between 2000 and 2011. RESULTS: The total number of DSTs performed during this 11-year period was 2 038 and accounted for 2.6% (2 038/78 639) of all the retreatment cases notified. The total number of diagnosed MDR-TB cases for this period was 446, of which 56.3% (251/446) were male and 41.7% (186/446) female. Only one child was found to have MDR-TB. Poly-drug resistance accounted for 18.9% (172/911) of the DR-TB cases and 8.4% of the total DSTs. 8.8% (80/911) of the DR-TB cases showed either rifampicin mono- or poly-resistance other than MDR-TB. No XDR-TB was reported. There were no data available on DR-TB and HIV co-infection. Only 65 MDR-TB patients were notified and put on second-line treatment according to WHO guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis may be an emerging challenge in Zambia. There is a need to invest in improving the capacity of the TB programme to detect and manage MDR-TB.

Kapata N; Chanda-Kapata P; Bates M; Mwaba P; Cobelens F; Grobusch MP; Zumla A

2013-09-01

337

Operational scale entomological intervention for malaria control: strategies, achievements and challenges in Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: While consensus on malaria vector control policy and strategy has stimulated unprecedented political-will, backed by international funding organizations and donors, vector control interventions are expansively being implemented based on assumptions with unequaled successes. This manuscript reports on the strategies, achievements and challenges of the past and contemporary malaria vector control efforts in Zambia. CASE DESCRIPTION: All available information and accessible archived documentary records on malaria vector control in Zambia were reviewed. Retrospective analysis of routine surveillance data from the Health Management Information System (HMIS), data from population-based household surveys and various operations research reports was conducted to assess the status in implementing policies and strategies. DISCUSSION AND EVALUATION: Empirical evidence is critical for informing policy decisions and tailoring interventions to local settings. Thus, the World Health Organization (WHO) encourages the adoption of the integrated vector management (IVM) strategy which is a rational decision making process for optimal use of available resources. One of the key features of IVM is capacity building at the operational level to plan, implement, monitor and evaluate vector control and its epidemiological and entomological impact. In Zambia, great progress has been made in implementing WHO-recommended vector control policies and strategies within the context of the IVM Global Strategic framework with strong adherence to its five key attributes. CONCLUSIONS: The country has solid, consistent and coordinated policies, strategies and guidelines for malaria vector control. The Zambian experience demonstrates the significance of a coordinated multi-pronged IVM approach effectively operationalized within the context of a national health system.

Chanda E; Mukonka VM; Kamuliwo M; Macdonald MB; Haque U

2013-01-01

338

Biochar Effect on Maize Yield and Soil Characteristics in Five Conservation Farming Sites in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biochar addition to agricultural soils can improve soil fertility, with the added bonus of climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. Conservation farming (CF) is precision farming, often combining minimum tillage, crop rotation and residue retention. In the present farmer-led field trials carried out in Zambia, the use of a low dosage biochar combined with CF minimum tillage was tested as a way to increase crop yields. Using CF minimum tillage allows the biochar to be applied to the area where most of the plant roots are present and mirrors the fertilizer application in CF practices. The CF practice used comprised manually hoe-dug planting 10-L sized basins, where 10%–12% of the land was tilled. Pilot trials were performed with maize cob biochar and wood biochar on five soils with variable physical/chemical characteristics. At a dosage as low as 4 tons/ha, both biochars had a strong positive effect on maize yields in the coarse white aeolian sand of Kaoma, West-Zambia, with yields of 444% ± 114% (p = 0.06) and 352% ± 139% (p = 0.1) of the fertilized reference plots for maize and wood biochar, respectively. Thus for sandy acidic soils, CF and biochar amendment can be a promising combination for increasing harvest yield. Moderate but non-significant effects on yields were observed for maize and wood biochar in a red sandy clay loam ultisol east of Lusaka, central Zambia (University of Zambia, UNZA, site) with growth of 142% ± 42% (p > 0.2) and 131% ± 62% (p > 0.2) of fertilized reference plots, respectively. For three other soils (acidic and neutral clay loams and silty clay with variable cation exchange capacity, CEC), no significant effects on maize yields were observed (p > 0.2). In laboratory trials, 5% of the two biochars were added to the soil samples in order to study the effect of the biochar on physical and chemical soil characteristics. The large increase in crop yield in Kaoma soil was tentatively explained by a combination of an increased base saturation (from <50% to 60%–100%) and cation exchange capacity (CEC; from 2–3 to 5–9 cmol/kg) and increased plant-available water (from 17% to 21%) as well as water vapor uptake (70 mg/g on maize cob biochar at 50% relative humidity).

Gerard Cornelissen; Vegard Martinsen; Victor Shitumbanuma; Vanja Alling; Gijs D. Breedveld; David W. Rutherford; Magnus Sparrevik; Sarah E. Hale; Alfred Obia; Jan Mulder

2013-01-01

339

Seeking markets and resources : State-driven Chinese and Indian investments in Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Processes of globalisation are currently changing the global activity of multinational companies (MNCs). ‘Emerging’ MNCs are competing with ‘conventional’ MNCs when investing in new markets. This article sets out to analyse the motives and strategies of Chinese and Indian MNCs investing in Zambia. It argues that despite the different home-country contexts of these investments, emerging MNCs depict differences as well as similarities. Moreover, the article maintains that existing theories explaining international production provide a suitable framework to understand ‘emerging’ patterns, but that more emphasis must be placed on the home and host contexts and how institutional features impact investment decisions.

Kragelund, Peter; Hampwaye, Godfrey

2012-01-01

340

Doubling the number of health graduates in Zambia: estimating feasibility and costs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ministry of Health (MoH) in Zambia is operating with fewer than half of the human resources for health (HRH) necessary to meet basic population health needs. Responding urgently to address this HRH crisis, the MoH plans to double the annual number of health training graduates in the next five years to increase the supply of health workers. The feasibility and costs of achieving this initiative, however, are unclear. Methods We determined the feasibility and costs of doubling training institution output through an individual school assessment framework. Assessment teams, comprised of four staff from the MoH and Clinton Health Access Initiative, visited all of Zambia's 39 public and private health training institutions from 17 April to 19 June 2008. Teams consulted with faculty and managers at each training institution to determine if student enrollment could double within five years; an operational planning exercise carried out with school staff determined the investments and additional operating costs necessary to achieve expansion. Cost assumptions were developed using historical cost data. Results The individual school assessments affirmed the MoH's ability to double the graduate output of Zambia's public health training institutions. Lack of infrastructure was determined as a key bottleneck in achieving this increase while meeting national training quality standards. A total investment of US$ 58.8 million is required to meet expansion infrastructure needs, with US$ 35.0 million (59.5%) allocated to expanding student accommodation and US$ 23.8 million (40.5%) allocated to expanding teaching, studying, office, and dining space. The national number of teaching staff must increase by 363 (111% increase) over the next five years. The additional recurring costs, which include salaries for additional teachers and operating expenses for new students, are estimated at US$ 58.0 million over the five-year scale-up period. Total cost of expansion is estimated at US$ 116.8 million over five years. Conclusions Historic underinvestment in training institutions has crippled Zambia's ability to meet expansion ambitions. There must be significant investments in infrastructure and faculty to meet quality standards while expanding training enrollment. Bottom-up planning can be used to translate national targets into costed implementation plans for expansion at each school.

Tjoa Aaron; Kapihya Margaret; Libetwa Miriam; Lee Joanne; Pattinson Charmaine; McCarthy Elizabeth; Schroder Kate

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Infrastructure and strategy for radioactive waste management for non-nuclear applications in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Generation of radioactive waste in Zambia is limited by application of radioisotopes in medicine and research, and by use of sealed radioactive sources in industry, agriculture and at health care facilities. Use of radioactive materials and management of associated wastes are governed by National Ionising Radiation Act. Totally more then 100 institutions in the country are using different radioactive materials and consequently are dealing with radioactive waste. Responsibility for managing these wastes rested with organisations and institutions producing radioactive waste, with the supervision of this activity by National Radiation Service (RPS). (author)

2002-01-01

342

Pentecostalism and schisms in the Reformed Church in Zambia (1996-2001): listening to the people  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This article is descriptive in nature and a practical theological assessment of the schisms that took place in the Reformed Church in Zambia (RCZ) between 1996 and 2001. It analyses empirical evidence to find an answer to the question why it happened. Pentecostal or charismatic tendencies have challenged the long inherited tradition of mainline churches. Subsequently, Pentecostal or charismatic movements have caused intense conflict in the church between the pro-conservat (more) ives and pro-Pentecostals. In the RCZ this led to the formation of the Christian Reformed Church (CRC) in 1999 and the Bible Gospel Church in Africa (BIGOCA) in 2001.

Soko, Lukas; Hendriks, H. Jurgens

2011-01-01

343

Inconsistencies in age profiles of HIV prevalence: A dynamic model applied to Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A two-sex compartmental model of the dynamics of HIV infection was developed and applied to the case of Zambia. Parameters include age specific rates of fertility, mortality, entry into sexual life, number of partners and age of partners. They were all derived from empirical data from Demographic and Health Surveys, and applied by single year of age. The model was unable to fit age and sex patterns of infection observed in 2001. Current knowledge of HIV transmission does not allow fitting the dynamics of HIV epidemics. Further research is needed to understand the dynamics of HIV heterosexual epidemics in Africa.

Pauline M. Leclerc; Michel Garenne

2007-01-01

344

EDRXF measurements of heavy elements in soil samples from some potentially polluted sites in zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of heavy element levels in top soils collected around four industrial plants and along four highway stretches demonstrated that there was significant pollution only around an abandoned Pb/Zn mine. Sample collection in a rectangular grid encompassing each source sought to depict the spatial extent of pollution. Ascertaining levels of heavy elements in potentially polluted soils in urban areas of Zambia and along major highways was deemed desirable because it is common practice to grow maize and vegetables in lots adjacent to accessible industrial sites and highways. Pb is a heavy element of interest for all sampled sites whose distribution at the abandoned mine ranged from 13 to 2028 ppm.

2001-01-01

345

Victimization from bullying among school-attending adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among school- attending adolescents, victimization from bullying is associated with anxiety, depression and poor academic performance. There are limited reports on victimization from bullying in Zambia; we therefore conducted this study to determine the prevalence and correlates for victimization from bullying among adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in the country in order to add information on the body of knowledge on victimization from bullying. METHODS: The 2004 Zambia Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) data among adolescents in grades 7 to 10 were obtained from the World Health Organization. We estimated the prevalence of victimization from bullying. We also conducted weighted multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine independent factors associated with victimization from bullying, and report adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Of 2136 students who participated in the 2004 Zambia GSHS, 1559 had information on whether they were bullied or not. Of these, 1559 students, 62.8% (60.0% of male and 65.0% of female) participants reported having been bullied in the previous 30 days to the survey. We found that respondents of age less than 14 years were 7% (AOR=0.93; 95%CI [0.91, 0.95]) less likely to have been bullied compared to those aged 16 years or older. Being a male (AOR=1.07; 95%CI [1.06, 1.09]), lonely (AOR=1.24; 95%CI [1.22, 1.26]), worried (AOR=1.12; 95%CI [1.11, 1.14]), consuming alcohol (AOR=2.59; 95%CI [2.55, 2.64]), missing classes (AOR=1.30; 95%CI [1.28, 1.32]), and considering attempting suicide (AOR=1.20; 95%CI [1.18, 1.22]) were significantly associated with bullying victimization. CONCLUSIONS: Victimization from bullying is prevalent among in-school adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in Zambia, and interventions to curtail it should consider the factors that have been identified in this study.

Seter Siziya; Emmanuel Rudatsikira; Adamson Sinjani Muula

2012-01-01

346

Effects of endosulfan on a maize agro-ecosystem in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of endosulfan on non-target fauna in a maize agro-ecosystem was studied in Zambia in 1994 and 1995. Endosulfan was well tolerated by a number of beneficial arthropods such as spiders, coccinelids, carabids and ants. Springtails were significantly reduced. However the effect was only transient and lasted for at most eight weeks. While endosulfan was effective against the target pest (stalk borers) it appeared to have no real effect on the soil inhabiting microorganisms. (author). 6 refs, 6 tabs

1995-12-01

347

The relevance and impact of Ethical Consciousness on Environmental Management in Zambia: A philosophical critique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This dissertation is informed by the need for adequate ethical consciousness in view of the perceived need for public responsibility, cooperation and participation in ensuring sound environmental management. It investigates and critiques the extent to which an adequate range of ethical principles has been incorporated in Zambia's attempts to address environmental issues.The investigation focused on the role of government policy, education system and the mass media in promoting responsible environmental management and practices by raising environmental ethical consciousness. The study confirmed the preponderance of economic utilitarianism with regard to environmental issues. (author)

2004-01-01

348

Returns to Schooling in Less Developed Countries: New Evidence from Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In our analysis of returns to schooling in Zambia, we look at the rural and urban population separately, and estimate the returns to schooling in each region based on a selection model in two stages. For urban areas we find that the returns to primary schooling are nil whereas the returns to schooling beyond primary school are higher. For rural areas we find that the returns to primary schooling are positive and no different from the returns to education beyond primary school. Udgivelsesdato: JAN

Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

2001-01-01

349

Solar district heating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The model presented here analyzes solar district heating systems on the basis of the power supplied at the grid feeding point. Consumption patterns are taken into account only in the form of different preset load curves. Processes are selected in consideration of the following aspects: (1) The design of a solar district heating system (collector surface, storage volume) depends on the expected contribution of solar power to electricity supply. For each of the key years 1989, 2005 and 2020, a low, average and high contribution were investigated, from which design concepts for other supply rates can be derived. (2) Yields and economic efficiency of solar systems also depend on collector sites and consumption patterns. 10 variants each with low and very high contributions of solar power were calculated for the key year 2020. (orig.).

1994-01-01

350

Marketing of district energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To many people district energy (DE) is seen as a new technology and a new approach to planning and delivery. This presents a challenge to those in the business of marketing DE. Representatives from six major providers of DE (Toronto District Heating Corp., the Municipality of Geraldton, Ontario, Ajax Energy Corp., Corporation de Chauffage Urbain de Montreal, Cornwall Electric, and Kattner/FVB District Energy Systems) presented their insights and expertise in marketing strategies. It was suggested that effective marketing should not be only commodity driven, but should also focus on explaining the overall benefits of DE systems. Another marketing approach is to emphasize the customer perspective, and the value-added aspect of DE, for example the fact that DE provides heating and cooling with the least amount of consumer involvement, thus liberating them to focus on their own businesses. The marketing strategy should also reflect the business goals and the nature of the DE system, i.e., is it a for profit business, or is it a community service.

Anon.

1997-04-01

351

An Audit of Skills and Qualifications in Preservation and Conservation Techniques: The Case of the University of Zambia Libraries  

Science.gov (United States)

|This article establishes the level of skills and experience in preservation and conservation management using a case study methodological approach conducted in the 3 university libraries at the University of Zambia. The findings revealed that 20 (57%) of the library staff had not received formal training in preservation and conservation of…

Shameenda, Kimbo Lemmy; Kanyengo, Christine Wamunyima

2012-01-01

352

The most important needs to start the use of ICT in the health promotion and care in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thesis was written for academic purposes to fulfill the requirement of the bachelor’s degree course. The thesis aimed to address the ICT use in the health sectors of Zambia. The country is still struggling to implement reliable health care system to a better condition. Therefore, the whole coun...

Mucheleka, Martin

353

Comparison of the virulence of Trypanosoma congolense strains isolated from cattle in a trypanosomiasis endemic area of eastern Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The virulence of 31 genetically different Trypanosoma congolense strains belonging to the Savannah subgroup and isolated from cattle at 11 sites in a trypanosomiasis endemic area of eastern Zambia was compared. Virulence testing, done in OF1 mice, revealed three virulence categories. Strains were co...

Masumu, Justin; Marcotty, Tanguy; Geysen, Dirk; Geerts, Stanny; Vercruysse, J.; Dorny, P.; Van den Bossche, Peter

354

The comparative role of cattle, goats and pigs in the epidemiology of livestock trypanosomiasis on the plateau of eastern Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To determine and compare the prevalence of trypanosome infections in different livestock species (cattle, pigs and goats) in areas where game animals are scarce and livestock constitute the main food source of tsetse, a survey was conducted on the plateau of the Eastern Province of Zambia in Katete ...

Simukoko, H.; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, I.; Geysen, Dirk; Vercruysse, J.; Van den Bossche, Peter

355

Age prevalence of trypanosomal infections in female Glossina morsitans morsitans (Diptera : Glossinidae) on the plateau area of eastern Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Trypanosomal infections in female Glossina morsitans morsitans were investigated in an area in the Eastern Province of Zambia between 1992 and 1994. A total of 4 416 flies were captured, aged using the ovarian ageing method and screened for trypanosomal infections in both the mouthparts, salivary gl...

Kubi, C.; Billiouw, M.; Van den Bossche, Peter

356

From Policy Guidelines to Problem Solving. A Critical Assessment of the National Conservation Strategies of Botswana and Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study focuses on the National Conservation Strategies of Botswana and Zambia. The strategies contain detailed elaborations about environmental problems, goals, means and implementation. The implementation of the NCSs depend on a number of conditions and the main part of this analysis discusses ...

Børhaug, Kjetil

357

Paediatric malaria case-management with artemether-lumefantrine in Zambia: a repeat cross-sectional study.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Zambia was the first African country to change national antimalarial treatment policy to artemisinin-based combination therapy--artemether-lumefantrine. An evaluation during the early implementation phase revealed low readiness of health facilities and health workers to deliver artemether-lumefantri...

Zurovac, D; Ndhlovu, M; Sipilanyambe, N; Chanda, P; Hamer, DH

358

Detection of Babesia spp. in Free-Ranging Pukus, Kobus vardonii, on a Game Ranch in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Babesia spp. were detected from 4 asymptomatic pukus captured on a game ranch in central Zambia in October 2008. Blood smears were examined in 4 species of aymptomatic free-ranging antelopes, namely the puku (Kobus vordanii), reedbuck (Redunca arundinum), bushbuck (Tragelaphus sylvaticus), and kudu ...

Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Munyeme, Musso; Nambota, Andrew Mubila; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo; Siamudaala, Victor M.

359

Population genetic analysis and sub-structuring of Theileria parva in the northern and eastern parts of Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Theileriosis, caused by Theileria parva, is an economically important disease in Africa. It is a major constraint to the development of the livestock industry in some parts of eastern, central and southern Africa. In Zambia, theileriosis causes losses of...

Muleya Walter; Namangala Boniface; Simuunza Martin; Nakao Ryo; Inoue Noboru; Kimura Takashi; Ito Kimihito; Sugimoto Chihiro

360

A Comparative Study of Agricultural Support Institutions in Central Province of Zambia: A Historical and Spatial Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is a comparative study of agricultural support institutions in Central Province, Zambia focusing on the 1980-90 and 1997-2008 periods. Generally, the study intended to identify the names of agricultural support institutions which existed in Central Province, as a smaller unit, and Zambia in general, and analyze their spatial aspect. In order to achieve this and other goals, the investigation conducted an extensive review of existing literature, old and new maps, distribution of questionnaires to informants, interviews, Focus Group Discussions and observations. The main thesis of this study was that agricultural support institutions differed in nature, funding, control and spatiality over different periods in Zambia’s history. The major findings were that both private and government agricultural support institutions existed soon after independence up to 1973 when the Zambian government declared a one party system and thereby nationalizing over 90% of the agricultural industry. Thus, the majority of agricultural support institutions between 1973 and 1990 were government funded, owned and controlled parastatal organizations such as National Agriculture Marketing Board (NAMBOARD), Zambia Cooperative Federation (ZCF) and Lima Bank. These institutions had both a regional and national character, and were spatially more widely distributed. After the introduction of multi party politics and liberalization economic policies in 1991, the institutions collapsed due to withdraw of subsidies by government and, new, largely privately owned institutions, emerged such as Miombo and Omnia Fertilizer companies, Maize Research Institute (MRI), among others. Institutions which emerged after 1991 were more limited in distribution but more financially independent and sustainable. However, after 1997, the government intervened in the agricultural industry again by establishing the Food Reserve Agency (FRA) and Farmer Input Support Programme (FISP). FRA was the conduit through which government bought crops especially maize while FISP was used to distribute subsidized maize seed and eight bags of chemical fertilizers to selected members of cooperatives. The study concludes that different agricultural support institutions have existed at different periods of Zambia’s history and their spatial distribution has been changing depending on their resource base.

Augrey H. Malambo

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Motivations and experiences of women who accessed "see and treat" cervical cancer prevention services in Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In Zambia, a country with a generalized HIV epidemic, age-adjusted cervical cancer incidence is among the highest worldwide. In 2006, the University of Alabama at Birmingham-Center for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia and the Zambian Ministry of Health launched a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) -based "see and treat" cervical cancer prevention program in Lusaka. All services were integrated within existing government-operated primary health care facilities. OBJECTIVE: Study aims were to (i) identify women's motivations for cervical screening, (ii) document women's experiences with screening and (iii) describe the potentially reciprocal influences between women undergoing cervical screening and their social networks. DESIGN AND METHODS: Focus group discussions (FGD) and in-depth interviews (IDI) were conducted with women who accepted screening and with care providers. Low-level content analysis was performed to identify themes evoked by participants. Between September 2009 and July 2010, 60 women and 21 care providers participated in 8 FGD and 10 IDI. RESULTS: Women presented for screening with varying needs and expectations. A majority discussed their screening decisions and experiences with members of their social networks. Key reinforcing factors and obstacles to VIA screening were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions are needed to gain support for the screening process from influential family members and peers.

White HL; Mulambia C; Sinkala M; Mwanahamuntu MH; Parham GP; Kapambwe S; Moneyham L; Kempf MC; Chamot E

2012-06-01

362

Higher Levels of Neutralizing Antibodies against KSHV in KS Patients Compared to Asymptomatic Individuals from Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent for Kaposi Sarcoma (KS), the most common cancer diagnosed in HIV- infected patients. The role of neutralizing antibodies in KS pathogenesis and in KSHV infected individuals is not clearly understood. The goal of this study was to investigate and compare the prevalence and titers of neutralizing antibodies in plasma samples from KS patients and KSHV infected asymptomatic individuals from Zambia, a KS endemic region in sub-Saharan Africa. Plasma samples (N?=?267) consisting of KS patients (group 1) and asymptomatic individuals (group 2) were collected from Lusaka, Zambia. A flow cytometry based quantitative neutralization assay utilizing recombinant KSHV expressing GFP was used to detect KSHV neutralizing antibodies. Our results show that the overall prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in KS patients (group 1) was 66.7% which was significantly higher than the prevalence of 6.5% present in KSHV infected asymptomatic individuals (group 2). Total antibody titers as well as neutralizing antibodies titers were found to be significantly higher among KS patients. It is likely that higher neutralizing antibodies prevalence and titers in KS patients result from higher levels of antigenic stimulation over time. This study is first to compare prevalence and titers of neutralizing antibodies in participants with and without disease from a KSHV endemic region.

Minhas, Veenu; Marimo, Clemence; Shea, Danielle M.; Kankasa, Chipepo; Wood, Charles

2013-01-01

363

Quality of relationship and sexual risk behaviors among HIV couples in Lusaka, Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Relationship quality and partner dynamics provide important insights into understanding sexual behavior within HIV sero-positive and sero-discordant couples. Individuals in long-term partnerships may be vulnerable to HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STI) within their relationships due to misperceptions of their partners risk behaviors and potential concurrent (e.g., extramarital, nonprimary) sexual partnerships. This study sought to examine relationship quality among HIV sero-positive and sero-discordant couples in Zambia, and its association with safer sex behavior. This study utilized data drawn from an ongoing translational study, The Partnership II Project - a couples-based sexual risk reduction intervention in Lusaka, Zambia. Couples (n=240) were assessed on demographics, relationship quality, and sexual risk behavior. Overall, couples perceiving their relationships more positively engaged in less risky sexual behavior (i.e., more condom use (b=0.011, t=3.14, p=0.002) and fewer partners (?(2)=11.4, p=0.003). Within the dyad, condom use was "actor driven," indicating that the association between relationship quality and condom use did not depend on the partner's evaluation of the relationship. Safer sex behavior was positively influenced by communication about condoms. Results support the paradigm shift from prevention strategies with HIV-positive and at-risk individuals to concentrated efforts addressing male-female dyads, and suggest that interventions to address the role of couples' relationship quality, a modifiable target for decreasing sexual risk behavior, are needed. PMID:23336258

Vamos, Szonja; Cook, Ryan; Chitalu, Ndashi; Mumbi, Miriam; Weiss, Stephen M; Jones, Deborah

2013-01-21

364

Enhancing knowledge retention in higher education: A case of the University of Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate how knowledge retention may be enhanced at the University of Zambia (UNZA). A quantitative case study design employing a triangulation of data collection methods was used. Data were collected using interviews and questionnaires. Purposive sampling was used to determine participants for the interviews whilst stratified random sampling was employed to select the respondents for the questionnaire. The quantitative and qualitative data that was analysed using SPSS® indicates that UNZA lacked certain knowledge retention practices that might enable it to retain operational relevant knowledge. In view of the findings, the study recommends the adoption of a knowledge retention framework that could be embedded in UNZA’s knowledge management policy.How to cite this article: Wamundila, S. & Ngulube P., 2011, ‘Enhancing knowledge retention in higher education: A case of the University of Zambia’, SA Journal of Information Management 13(1), Art. # 439, 9 pages. doi:10.4120/ sajim.v13i1.439

Sitali Wamundila; Patrick Ngulube

2011-01-01

365

Higher levels of neutralizing antibodies against KSHV in KS patients compared to asymptomatic individuals from Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent for Kaposi Sarcoma (KS), the most common cancer diagnosed in HIV- infected patients. The role of neutralizing antibodies in KS pathogenesis and in KSHV infected individuals is not clearly understood. The goal of this study was to investigate and compare the prevalence and titers of neutralizing antibodies in plasma samples from KS patients and KSHV infected asymptomatic individuals from Zambia, a KS endemic region in sub-Saharan Africa. Plasma samples (N?=?267) consisting of KS patients (group 1) and asymptomatic individuals (group 2) were collected from Lusaka, Zambia. A flow cytometry based quantitative neutralization assay utilizing recombinant KSHV expressing GFP was used to detect KSHV neutralizing antibodies. Our results show that the overall prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in KS patients (group 1) was 66.7% which was significantly higher than the prevalence of 6.5% present in KSHV infected asymptomatic individuals (group 2). Total antibody titers as well as neutralizing antibodies titers were found to be significantly higher among KS patients. It is likely that higher neutralizing antibodies prevalence and titers in KS patients result from higher levels of antigenic stimulation over time. This study is first to compare prevalence and titers of neutralizing antibodies in participants with and without disease from a KSHV endemic region.

Kumar P; Kuwa NY; Minhas V; Marimo C; Shea DM; Kankasa C; Wood C

2013-01-01

366

Mantle Structure Beneath East Africa and Zambia from Body Wave Tomography  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, P and S travel time residuals from teleseismic earthquakes recorded on over 60 temporary AfricaArray seismic stations deployed in Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia between 2007 and 2011 are being inverted, together with travel time residuals from previous deployments, for a 3D image of mantle wave speeds variations extending to a depth of 1200 km. Preliminary results show that at depths of 200 km of less, low wave speed anomalies are well developed beneath the Eastern and Western Branches of the East African Rift System. At deep depths, the low wave speed anomalies focus under the center and southern part of the East African Plateau and extend into the transition zone. At transition zone depths and within the top part of the lower mantle, the low wave speed anomaly shifts to the southwest beneath Zambia, indicating that the low wave speed anomaly is continuous across the transition zone and that it extends into the lower mantle. This result suggests that the upper mantle low wave speed anomaly beneath East Africa is connected to the African superplume anomaly in the lower mantle beneath southern Africa.

Mulibo, G.; Nyblade, A.; Tugume, F.

2011-12-01

367

Supply and demand for wood as a source of energy in Zambia: An econometric analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines the status of biomass energy in Zambia. In its current usage, the concept of biomass energy often implies woodfuel because woodfuel is the main biomass energy. This study develops an econometric model of household woodfuel demand and also evaluates the supply of woodfuel in Zambia. The study finds that there are significant sectoral differences in woodfuel demand between the rural and urban sectors. In the rural sector, inflation is by far the most significant determinant of household woodfuel demand. The coefficients on inflation are statistically significant at better than the one percent level and also have expected positive signs. In the urban sector, inflation is again by far the most significant determinant of woodfuel demand. However, in the urban sector, household income and woodfuel price are also significant determinants of demand. The coefficients on inflation, household income, and woodfuel price are all significant at better than the one percent level and have expected signs. The income elasticity of woodfuel demand is positive, suggesting that in the short-run, woodfuel is a normal good. However, the elasticity of woodfuel demand with respect to growth in investment is negative, indicating that long-run structural change in the economy reduces woodfuel demand.

Mupimpila, C.

1993-01-01

368

Uranium occurrence in the Katanga System of north-western Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Until recently occurrences of uranium in the Katanga System were known only in the Shaba Province of Zaire and on the Copperbelt, but a survey by AGIP has shown the existence of uranium mineralization in north-western Zambia. In each area, syngenetic copper and uranium mineralization are found near the base of the Katanga System. As a result of tectonism during the Lufilian orogeny and metamorphism related to and subsequent to the tectonism, epigenetic vein-type uranium deposits were formed by the repeated mobilization and depositing of the original mineralization. Supergene alteration and thermal events resulted in further redistribution and concentration. In the Domes area of north-western Zambia, the mineralization occurs mainly in mica schists underlying a quartzite horizon near the base of the Lower Roan Group at the margins of the Kabompo, Mwombezhi and Solwezi Domes. The mineralization occurs as thorium-free pitchblende, disseminated or in veins, and as secondary uranium minerals. Several occurrences have been investigated by drilling. (author)

1977-11-18

369

The construction and testing of a solar food drier in Zambia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A small scale, forced convection, indirect solar food drier was designed, built and tested in Zambia. The drier consisted of five modules: a solar collector, a drying cabinet, a fan housing, a heat storage and a control unit. The construction methods and materials used were selected so as to match the level of technological development in the denser populated areas of Zambia. Practically all the materials were acquired locally. The drier could be run in three main operating modes (straight-through, heat storage, heat recovery) and a number of air recycling submodes by means of manipulating simple slide valves. The food was dried indirectly. A set of eight experiments was first carried out to determine the energy collection and heat transfer characteristics of the equipment in its various operating modes and submodes. Okra, cabbage and beef were then dried. Although the experiments were done during the Zambian 'winter', these foods could be dried to below 15% moisture in two or three operating days.

Kok, R.; Kwendakwema, N.

1983-12-01

370

Energy scenario of Zambia: prospects and constraints in the use of renewable energy resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, the state of energy resources, supply and demand in Zambia is described and analysed. Wood, the only non-commercial energy resource, constitutes 66% of the energy consumed in the country through its use as firewood in rural areas and as charcoal in urban areas. Hydropower with an existing installed capacity of 1670 MW supplies 94% of the country's electricity and meets 13% of the national energy demand. With average annual output of about 470,000 tons and vast reserves of over 80 million tons, coal is also abundant and meets 9% of the national energy demand. Mining and industry have nearly equal share to account for over 90% of the domestic coal consumption. Petroleum contributes 12% of the energy demand and is fully imported. With annual average solar radiation amounting to 7.1 GJm[sup -2] for Zambia, solar energy potential is high but scantily exploited. The same is the case with biomass. Wind potential is weak as the average wind speed is 2.5 ms[sup -1]. Photovoltaic power is being put to some practical applications. While hydropower will continue to remain the mainstay of Zambian electricity supplies, renewable energy sources need to be exploited for applications in remote areas. (author)

Munyeme, G.; Jain, P.C. (University of Zambia, Lusaka (Zambia))

1994-08-01

371

Community attitudes towards childbearing and abortion among HIV-positive women in Nigeria and Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although stigma towards HIV-positive women for both continuing and terminating a pregnancy has been documented, to date few studies have examined relative stigma towards one outcome versus the other. This study seeks to describe community attitudes towards each of two possible elective outcomes of an HIV-positive woman's pregnancy - induced abortion or birth - to determine which garners more stigma and document characteristics of community members associated with stigmatising attitudes towards each outcome. Data come from community-based interviews with reproductive-aged men and women, 2401 in Zambia and 2452 in Nigeria. Bivariate and multivariate analyses revealed that respondents from both countries overwhelmingly favoured continued childbearing for HIV-positive pregnant women, but support for induced abortion was slightly higher in scenarios in which anti-retroviral therapy (ART) was unavailable. Zambian respondents held more stigmatising attitudes towards abortion for HIV-positive women than did Nigerian respondents. Women held more stigmatising attitudes towards abortion for HIV-positive women than men, particularly in Zambia. From a sexual and reproductive health and rights perspective, efforts to assist HIV-positive women in preventing unintended pregnancy and to support them in their pregnancy decisions when they do become pregnant should be encouraged in order to combat the social stigma documented in this paper.

Kavanaugh ML; Moore AM; Akinyemi O; Adewole I; Dzekedzeke K; Awolude O; Arulogun O

2013-01-01

372

An evaluation of trauma focused cognitive behavioral therapy for children in Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To monitor and evaluate the feasibility of implementing Trauma Focused-Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) to address trauma and stress-related symptoms in orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in Zambia as part of ongoing programming within a non-governmental organization (NGO). As part of ongoing programming, voluntary care-workers administered locally validated assessments to identify children who met criteria for moderate to severe trauma symptomatology. Local lay counselors implemented TF-CBT with identified families, while participating in ongoing supervision. Fifty-eight children and adolescents aged 5-18 completed the TF-CBT treatment, with pre- and post-assessments. The mean number of traumas reported by the treatment completers (N=58) was 4.11. Post assessments showed significant reductions in severity of trauma symptoms (p<0.0001), and severity of shame symptoms (p<0.0001). Our results suggest that TF-CBT is a feasible treatment option in Zambia for OVC. A decrease in symptoms suggests that a controlled trial is warranted. Implementation factors monitored suggest that it is feasible to integrate and evaluate evidence-based mental health assessments and intervention into programmatic services run by an NGO in low/middle resource countries. Results also support the effectiveness of implementation strategies such as task shifting, and the Apprenticeship Model of training and supervision.

Murray LK; Familiar I; Skavenski S; Jere E; Cohen J; Imasiku M; Mayeya J; Bass JK; Bolton P

2013-06-01

373

Quality of relationship and sexual risk behaviors among HIV couples in Lusaka, Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Relationship quality and partner dynamics provide important insights into understanding sexual behavior within HIV sero-positive and sero-discordant couples. Individuals in long-term partnerships may be vulnerable to HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STI) within their relationships due to misperceptions of their partners risk behaviors and potential concurrent (e.g., extramarital, nonprimary) sexual partnerships. This study sought to examine relationship quality among HIV sero-positive and sero-discordant couples in Zambia, and its association with safer sex behavior. This study utilized data drawn from an ongoing translational study, The Partnership II Project - a couples-based sexual risk reduction intervention in Lusaka, Zambia. Couples (n=240) were assessed on demographics, relationship quality, and sexual risk behavior. Overall, couples perceiving their relationships more positively engaged in less risky sexual behavior (i.e., more condom use (b=0.011, t=3.14, p=0.002) and fewer partners (?(2)=11.4, p=0.003). Within the dyad, condom use was "actor driven," indicating that the association between relationship quality and condom use did not depend on the partner's evaluation of the relationship. Safer sex behavior was positively influenced by communication about condoms. Results support the paradigm shift from prevention strategies with HIV-positive and at-risk individuals to concentrated efforts addressing male-female dyads, and suggest that interventions to address the role of couples' relationship quality, a modifiable target for decreasing sexual risk behavior, are needed.

Vamos S; Cook R; Chitalu N; Mumbi M; Weiss SM; Jones D

2013-01-01

374

The effect of seasonal variation on anthrax epidemiology in the upper Zambezi floodplain of western Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthrax has become endemic throughout the upper Zambezi floodplain located in the Western Province of Zambia over the recent years. To date, no comprehensive study has been carried out to determine whether recurrence of anthrax outbreaks may be linked to differences in precipitation and human activities. Retrospective data for the period 1999 to 2007 showed that a total of 1,216 bovine cases of anthrax were reported. During the same period, 1,790 human anthrax cases and a corresponding case fatality rate of 4.63% (83/1,790) was documented in the upper Zambezi floodplain. Occurrence of human cases was highly correlated with cattle outbreaks (r = 0.94, p < 0.001). Differences in precipitation were significantly associated with the occurrence of anthrax outbreaks (?(2) = 4.75, p < 0.03), indicating that the likelihood of outbreaks occurring was higher during the dry months when human occupancy of the floodplain was greater compared to the flooding months when people and livestock moved out of this region. Human dependency on the floodplain was shown to significantly influence the epidemiology of anthrax in the upper Zambezi floodplain of western Zambia. Methods for mitigating anthrax outbreaks by disrupting the cycle of transmission are herein highlighted. PMID:23000586

Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Banda, Fredrick; Siamudaala, Victor Mukulule; Munyeme, Musso; Kasanga, Christopher Jacob; Hamududu, Byman

2012-09-01

375

The effect of seasonal variation on anthrax epidemiology in the upper Zambezi floodplain of western Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Anthrax has become endemic throughout the upper Zambezi floodplain located in the Western Province of Zambia over the recent years. To date, no comprehensive study has been carried out to determine whether recurrence of anthrax outbreaks may be linked to differences in precipitation and human activities. Retrospective data for the period 1999 to 2007 showed that a total of 1,216 bovine cases of anthrax were reported. During the same period, 1,790 human anthrax cases and a corresponding case fatality rate of 4.63% (83/1,790) was documented in the upper Zambezi floodplain. Occurrence of human cases was highly correlated with cattle outbreaks (r = 0.94, p < 0.001). Differences in precipitation were significantly associated with the occurrence of anthrax outbreaks (?(2) = 4.75, p < 0.03), indicating that the likelihood of outbreaks occurring was higher during the dry months when human occupancy of the floodplain was greater compared to the flooding months when people and livestock moved out of this region. Human dependency on the floodplain was shown to significantly influence the epidemiology of anthrax in the upper Zambezi floodplain of western Zambia. Methods for mitigating anthrax outbreaks by disrupting the cycle of transmission are herein highlighted.

Munang'andu HM; Banda F; Siamudaala VM; Munyeme M; Kasanga CJ; Hamududu B

2012-09-01

376

Parasitism of the leaf-beetle Mesoplatys ochroptera Stal (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in eastern Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The leaf beetle, Mesoplatys ochroptera Stahl has recently become a serious pest of Sesbania sesban (L.), a nitrogen-fixing leguminous tree being eagerly adopted by farmers in short-rotation planted fallows for soil fertility improvement in eastern Zambia and elsewhere in Southern Africa. Surveys were conducted to identify parasites of M. ochroptera during the rainy season in 1998, 1999 and 2000 at several sites in the Eastern Province of Zambia. During the three years of rearing, no egg or pupal parasitoids were recovered from M. ochroptera. In contrast, two natural enemies, the braconid parasitoid Perilitus larvicida van Achterberg and the entomoparasitic nematode Hexamermis sp. were recorded for the first time from both larval and adult stages of the beetle. P. larvicida is one of the only parasitoids recorded as attacking and emerging from both the larval and adult stages of the same holometabolous insect host. Parasitism by the braconid and the nematode was low even during the peak population of the beetle in farmer's fields. Apparent parasitism due to P. larvicida was 4.5 and 5.5% in larvae and adults, respectively. Hexamermis sp. infections were recorded in 7.3% of the larvae and 0.3% of the adults. Both parasite species were also found in beetle populations on wild Sesbania spp. The potential for biological control of the beetle is discussed.

Kenis M; Sileshi G; Bridge J

2001-10-01

377

Clinical and ultrasonographic features of abdominal tuberculosis in HIV positive adults in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis (TB) is difficult, especially so in health care facilities in developing countries where laparoscopy and colonoscopy are rarely available. There is little information on abdominal TB in HIV infection. We estimated the prevalence and clinical features of abdominal (excluding genitourinary) TB in HIV infected adults attending the University Teaching Hospital, Zambia. Methods We screened 5,609 medical inpatients, and those with fever, weight loss, and clinical features suggestive of abdominal pathology were evaluated further. A clinical algorithm was used to specify definitive investigations including laparoscopy or colonoscopy, with culture of biopsies and other samples. Results Of 140 HIV seropositive patients with these features, 31 patients underwent full evaluation and 22 (71%) had definite or probable abdominal TB. The commonest presenting abdominal features were ascites and persistent tenderness. The commonest ultrasound findings were ascites, para-aortic lymphadenopathy (over 1 cm in size), and hepatomegaly. Abdominal TB was associated with CD4 cell counts over a wide range though 76% had CD4 counts Conclusion The clinical manifestations of abdominal TB in our HIV-infected patients resembled the well-established pattern in HIV-uninfected adults. Patients with fever, weight loss, abdominal tenderness, abdominal lymphadenopathy, ascites and/or hepatomegaly in Zambia have a high probability of abdominal TB, irrespective of CD4 cell count.

Sinkala Edford; Gray Sylvia; Zulu Isaac; Mudenda Victor; Zimba Lameck; Vermund Sten H; Drobniewski Francis; Kelly Paul

2009-01-01

378

Safety and security of radiation sources and radioactive materials: A case of Zambia - least developed country  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Zambia, which is current (1998) classified as a Least Developed Country has applications of nuclear science and technology that cover the medical, industrial, education and research. However, the application is mainly in medical and industry. Through the responsibility of radiation source is within the mandate of the Radiation Protection Board. The aspects involving security fall on different stake holders some that have no technical knowledge on what radiation is about. The stake holders in this category include customs clearing and forwarding agents, state security/defence agencies and the operators. Such a situation demands a national system that should be instituted to meet the safety and security requirements but takes into account the involvement of the diverse stake holders. In addition such system should avoid unnecessary exposure, ensure safety of radioactive materials and sources, detect illicit trade and maintain integrity of such materials or sources. This paper will provide the status on issue in Zambia and the challenges that exist to ensure further development in application of Nuclear Science and Technology (S and T) in the country takes into account the safety and security requirements that avoid deliberate and accidental loss of radiation sources and radioactive materials. The Government has a responsibility to ensure that effective system is established and operated to protect radiation sources and radioactive materials from theft, sabotage and ensure safety. (author)

1998-01-01

379

Harmful lifestyles' clustering among sexually active in-school adolescents in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Zambia. Like many other African nations with high HIV burden, heterosexual intercourse is the commonest mode of HIV spread. The estimation of prevalence and factors associated with sexual intercourse among in-school adolescents has potential to inform public health interventions aimed at reducing the burden of sex-related diseases in Zambia. Methods We carried out secondary analysis of the Zambia Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS) 2004; a cross sectional survey that aims to study health-related behaviors among in-school adolescents. We estimated frequencies of relevant socio-demographic variables. The associations between selected explanatory variables and self-reported history of sexual intercourse within the last 12 months were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results Data from 2136 in-school adolescents who participated in the Zambia Global School-Based Health Survey of 2004 were available for analysis. Out of these respondents, 13.4% reported that they had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months prior to the survey; 16.4% and 9.7% among males and females respectively. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, with age less than 15 years as the referent the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of having engaged in sexual intercourse in adolescents of age 15 years, and those aged 16 years or more were 1.06 (95% CI 1.03–1.10) and 1.74 (95% 1.70–1.79) respectively. Compared to adolescents who had no close friends, adolescents who had one close friend were more likely to have had sexual intercourse, AOR = 1.28 (95% CI 1.24–1.32). Compared to adolescents who were not supervised by their parents, adolescents who were rarely or sometimes supervised by their parents were likely to have had sexual intercourse, and adolescents who were most of the time/always supervised by their parents were less likely to have had sexual intercourse; AORs 1.26 (95% CI 1.23–1.26) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.90–0.95) respectively. Compared to adolescents who did not smoke dagga, adolescents who smoked dagga 1 or 2 times, and those who smoked dagga 3 or more times in their lifetime were 70% and 25% more likely to have had sexual intercourse, respectively. Adolescents who drank alcohol in 1 or 2 days, and those who took alcohol in 3 or more days in a month preceding the survey were 12% and 9% more likely to have had sexual intercourse, respectively, compared to adolescents who did not drink alcohol in the 30 days prior to the survey. Furthermore, adolescents who had been drunk 1 or 2 times, and who had been drunk 3 or more times in a life time were 14% and 13% more likely to have had sexual intercourse compared to those who have never been drunk in their lifetime. Conclusion We identified a constellation of potentially harmful behaviours among adolescents in Zambia. Public health interventions aimed at reducing prevalence of sexual intercourse may be designed and implemented in a broader sense having recognized that sexually active adolescents may also be exposed to other problem behaviours.

Siziya Seter; Muula Adamson S; Kazembe Lawrence N; Rudatsikira Emmanuel

2008-01-01

380

District heating from Forsmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The district heating system of Greater Stockholm must be based on other energy sources than oil. Two alternatives are assessed, namely heat from Forsmark or a coal fueled plant in the region of Stockholm. Forsmark 3 can produce both electricity and heat from the year 1988 on. The capacity can be increased by coal fueled blocks. For low electricity use, 115 TWh in the year 1990, the Forsmark alternative will be profitable. The alternative will be profitable. The alternative with a fossile fuelled plant will be profitable when planning for high consumption of electricity, 125 TWh. The Forsmark alternative means high investments and the introduction of new techniques. (G.B.)

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

75 FR 35778 - Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Commission [Project No. 12745-002] Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...16, 2010. On February 1, 2010, Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District...

2010-06-23

382

The Streltsovskoye uranium district  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper describes the geology of the Streltsovskoye uranium district located in south-eastern Zabaikalie region, Chita Province, Siberia, Russia. This district hosts Russia's only currently active uranium production centre. The uranium ore was discovered from 1963 to 1967 by drilling below fluorite veins which had minor associated uranium mineralization and radioactive anomalies. The uranium occurs as large scale vein stockwork deposits of hydrothermal origin within a volcano-tectonic caldera formed by continental volcanism of Late Mesozoic age. Rocks occurring in the caldera include basalt and trachydacite, overlain by rhyolite, and with associated interbedded sediments. The ore bodies occur in steeply dipping faults, with the greatest concentrations located where faults along the margins of the caldera intersect steeply dipping, cross cutting, northeasterly and northwesterly striking faults. The Streltsovskoye caldera extends over an area of 150 km2 and is underlain by a large batholith. The 19 identified uranium deposits occurred in structural features that cut through the caldera sequence and extend into the basement rocks. The caldera has a maximum thickness of 1400 metres. Details of several deposits are given, including descriptions of mineralization and associated alteration. (author). 10 figs

383

District energy consultation paper  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discussed a district energy system (DES) design proposal developed as part of the District of Squamish's community energy action plan. The DES was designed to initially provide buildings with hot water from natural gas boilers and then introduce electrical cogeneration powered by biomass. Three general approaches were considered, notably (1) hydronic radiant floor heating, (2) fin-type baseboard convectors, and (3) fan coils. Alternative technologies included ocean heat recover; geoexchange; sewer heat recovery; biomass combustion; and biomass gasification. The study considered the economic viability of the technologies in relation to energy density and intensity. Recent examples of DES systems and feasibility studies were also considered. Screening analyses were conducted to define core boundaries and discuss the benefits and challenges of using heating-only or heating and cooling systems. Policy and institutional issues related to DES were also examined. The study showed that total heating peak demand for the region was 9 MW, and total annual heating demand is 17,000 MW. Annual cooling accounted for less than 10 per cent of total demand. Potential heat sources were identified. It was concluded that a detailed feasibility study is needed to confirm the technical and economic viability of the project. tabs., figs.

NONE

2008-02-15

384

Internal Auditing for School Districts.  

Science.gov (United States)

|This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…

Cuzzetto, Charles

385

District energy: a global solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The benefits of district heating and cooling systems were discussed. In various parts of the world, China being one, where air pollution from coal is a serious problem, district heating has been shown to reduce pollution because of improved efficiencies, fewer stacks and significantly reduced emissions. The purpose of the system is to establish a rational and environmentally sound means of distributing heat within city boundaries. District heating and cogeneration has experienced steady growth for several years. District heating and cooling systems are found all over the world, in places such as Canada, United States, East Asia, Korea, Japan, China, Eastern Europe, Russia, Estonia, and Sweden. A summary of the experiences with district heating in these countries was provided. 17 figs.

Andersson, B. [FVB District Energy Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

1995-12-31

386

Descriptive models, grade-tonnage relations, and databases for the assessment of sediment-hosted copper deposits--with emphasis on deposits in the Central Africa Copperbelt, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Central African Copperbelt (CACB) is one of the most important copper-producing regions of the world. The majority of copper produced in Africa comes from this region defined by the Neoproterozoic Katanga sedimentary basin of the southern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and northern Zambia. Copper in the CACB is mined from sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits associated with red beds and includes the giant deposits in the Kolwezi and Tenge-Fungurume districts in the DRC and the Konkola-Musoshi and Nchanga-Chingola districts in Zambia. In recent years, sediment-hosted structurally controlled replacement and vein (SCRV) copper deposits, such as the giant Kansanshi deposit in Zambia have become important exploration targets in the CACB region. In 2011, the CACB accounted for 7.2 percent of the estimated global mine production of copper. Global production of copper is principally derived from porphyry and sediment-hosted copper deposits (57 and 23 percent, respectively). Almost 50 percent of the copper known to exist in sediment-hosted deposits (past production plus identified resources) is contained in the CACB, 25 percent is contained in the Zechstein Basin of northern Europe, and the remainder is contained in an additional 29 sedimentary basins distributed around the globe. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) led an assessment of undiscovered copper resources in the CACB as part of a global mineral resource assessment for undiscovered resources of potash, copper, and platinum-group elements in selected mineral deposit types. As part of the assessment process, available data for the CACB were compiled and evaluated. This report describes the results of that work, including new descriptive mineral-deposit and grade and tonnage models and spatial databases for deposits and occurrences, ore bodies and open pits. Chapter 1 of this report summarizes a descriptive model of sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits. General characteristics and subtypes of sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits are described based upon worldwide examples. Chapter 2 provides a global database of 170 sediment-hosted copper deposits, along with a statistical evaluation of grade and tonnage data for stratabound deposits, a comparison of stratabound deposits in the CACB with those found elsewhere, a discussion of the distinctive characteristics of the subtypes of sediment-hosted copper deposits that occur within the CACB, and guidelines for using grade and tonnage distributions for assessment of undiscovered resources in sediment-hosted stratabound deposits in the CACB. Chapter 3 presents a new descriptive model of sediment-hosted structurally controlled replacement and vein (SCRV) copper deposits with descriptions of individual deposits of this type in the CACB and elsewhere. Appendix A describes a relational database of tonnage, grade, and other information for more than 100 sediment-hosted copper deposits in the CACB. These data are used to calculate the pre-mining mineral endowment for individual deposits in the CACB and serve as the basis for the grade and tonnage models presented in chapter 2. Appendix B describes three spatial databases (Esri shapefiles) for (1) point locations of more than 500 sediment-hosted copper deposits and prospects, (2) projected surface extent of 86 selected copper ore bodies, and (3) areal extent of 77 open pits, all within the CACB.

Taylor, Cliff D.; Causey, J. Douglas; Denning, Paul D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Horton, John D.; Kirschbaum, Michael J.; Parks, Heather L.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Zientek, Michael L.

2013-01-01

387

Intention to use the female condom following a mass-marketing campaign in Lusaka, Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: This report examines intention to use the female condom among men and women in Lusaka, Zambia, who were exposed to mass-marketing of the female condom. METHODS: The study used data from a representative sample of consumers at outlets that sell or distribute the female condom and the male condom. RESULTS: In spite of a high level of awareness of the female condom, use of this method in the last year was considerably lower than use of the male condom. Intention to use the female condom in the future was highest among respondents who had used only the female condom in the last year. CONCLUSIONS: The female condom is likely to be most important for persons who are unable or unwilling to use the male condom.

Agha S

2001-02-01

388

Enhancing knowledge retention in higher education: A case of the University of Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate how knowledge retention may be enhanced at the University of Zambia (UNZA). A quantitative case study design employing a triangulation of data collection methods was used. Data were collected using interviews and questionnaires. Purposive sampling was used to determine participants for the interviews whilst stratified random sampling was employed to select the respondents for the questionnaire. The quantitative