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Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic animals in peri-urban communities of Kafue district, Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important parasites infecting a wide range of domestic animals worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites in different domestic animals living in close contact with humans within rural/semiurban communities in Kafue district in Zambia. A single faecal sample per animal was collected from pigs, goats, dogs, ducks, chickens and pigeons and analysed by Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia immunofluorescence antibody assay for the simultaneous detection of these parasites. The faecal consistency was noted and scored as non-diarrhoeic or diarrhoeic. A total of 236 samples were collected. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in pigs (11.5%, 17/148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), ducks (10.0%; 3/30) and chickens (14.3%; 2/14) while Giardia cysts were detected in pigs (8.1%; 12/148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), dogs (25.0%; 5/20) and ducks (6.7%; 2/30). Diarrhoea was not associated with either infection. Age was also not associated with either infection except in dogs where Giardia infection was only detected in animals aged less than six months (p=0.009). It is concluded from this study that Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites are prevalent among domestic animals reared within communities in Kafue district thereby constituting a potential source for zoonotic infections.

Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.

2013-01-01

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Isolation and molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis from Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) from Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a chronic bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Infections due to M. bovis, which serves as a stable reservoir, can pose serious challenge to control and eradicate in both wildlife and livestock at the interface. This study aimed at isolating and characterizing M. bovis from Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) and black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani) at the animal/human interface in Zambia. The samples with lesions compatible with BTB collected during the hunting seasons of 2009 and 2010 were cultured for isolation of mycobacteria using Stonebrink with pyruvate (BD Diagnostics, MD, USA) and Middlebrook 7H10 (BD Diagnostics) slants. Isolated mycobacteria were identified using IS6110 polymerase chain reaction and deletion analysis. Molecular characterization of the isolates was performed using spoligotyping and mycobacteria interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) with nine loci. Data was analyzed using BioNumerics software 6.1. Out of the 39 samples, acid fast bacilli were detected in 27 (69.2 %) based on smear microscopy. Seven isolates were found to belong to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, and all were identified as M. bovis based on deletion analysis. All seven isolates were identical on spoligotyping as belonging to the SB0120 (SIT 482). MIRU-VNTR differentiated the isolates into five different patterns. This study has confirmed that M. bovis circulates in the Kafue lechwe, and non-tuberculous mycobacteria were detected in the black lechwe in Zambia which represents a wildlife reservoir, with a potential to spillover to cattle and humans. Isolates of M. bovis from lechwe antelopes are much conserved as only one spoligotype was detected. The study has shown that three loci differentiated fairly well. This option is cheap and less laborious, and hence a better option in resource-strained country like Zambia. The study further showed that some of the loci recommended by the European Reference Laboratory are not suitable for typing M. bovis in Zambia. PMID:24146292

Malama, Sydney; Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Muma, John Bwalya; Mwanza, Sydney; Djønne, Berit; Godfroid, Jacques

2014-01-01

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Remote Sensing of Aquatic Vegetation Coverage in the Kafue River, Zambia and Comparison to Climatic Variables  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kafue River is the longest river in Zambia and is a major tributary of the Zambezi River. It is a vital source of fish, transportation, drinking water, and hydropower for much of Zambia's population, over half of whom live in the Kafue River basin. Like many important water bodies in developing countries the Kafue and its ecosystems face pollution from industrial, mining, agricultural, and domestic/sewage discharge. The Kafue River forms a wide and shallow wetland (the Kafue Flats) during the rainy season (Nov. - Apr.) which serves as habitat for diverse groups of birds and mammals. In recent years the unprecedented emergence of invasive aquatic vegetation such as the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and Salvinia molesta have choked the river, degrading its ability to provide adequate habitat to promote biodiversity, ecosystem services, and hydropower. In addition, these plants provide additional habitat for mosquitoes (vectors for malaria) and aquatic snails (vectors of schistosomiasis). Nutrient-rich effluents are widely believed to contribute to the proliferation and explosive growth of this floating aquatic vegetation. The general methods for managing these aquatic weeds have included mechanical and physical removal, herbicides, and bio-control agents which have had very little impact. However, as in neighboring Lake Victoria, total weed coverage has fluctuated dramatically from year to year making evaluation of the efficacy of management programs difficult. The objectives of this study were to (1) generate the first record of aquatic plant coverage for a section of the Kafue River which is immediately downstream of a sugar plantation (a major source of nitrogen and phosphorus to the river) and (2) determine if plant coverage is correlated with any major climatic (ENSO, temperature, rainfall) or management (introduction of bio-control agents) indices. We utilized remote sensing techniques in conjunction with Landsat 4-5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM imagery for the time range 1990 to 2013 to identify the extent of aquatic vegetation in the dry season for all years available within the time range using spectral data. We derived rainfall for the time period from TRMM data and temperature from MODIS LST data. Overall weed coverage tended to increase from 1990 to 2013. There was no significant correlation between rainfall (as measured by TRMM) and water hyacinth coverage. However there was a significant positive correlation between minimum October temperatures (the warmest month of the year) and weed coverage (exponential fit, R2 = 0.81). There was no indication that the release of bio-control agents reduced weed coverage. Water hyacinth is known to be sensitive to temperature, with cooler temperatures retarding growth. In the Kafue River, aquatic plant coverage varies mainly with October low temperatures indicating an overall control of temperature on weed coverage. Increasing low temperatures in the region would be expected to exacerbate problems associated with aquatic weeds.

Mischler, J. A.; Abdalati, W.; Hussein, K.; Townsend, A. R.

2013-12-01

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Risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis in traditional cattle of the livestock/wildlife interface areas in the Kafue basin of Zambia  

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We conducted a cross-sectional study from August 2003 to February 2004 to identify risk factors for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in the Kafue basin of Zambia. We investigated a total of 106 herds of cattle for presence of BTB using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT) while an interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to gather epidemiological data on herd structure, management and grazing strategies. BTB prevalence at herd level was estimated and possible risk factors were i...

2008-01-01

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The Nexus between Bovine Tuberculosis and Fasciolosis Infections in Cattle of the Kafue Basin Ecosystem in Zambia: Implications on Abattoir Surveillance  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and fasciolosis are important but neglected diseases that result in chronic infections in cattle. However, in Zambia, these diseases are mainly diagnosed at abattoirs during routine meat inspection. Albeit the coinfection status, these diseases have been reported as nothing more than normal separate findings without an explanatory phenomena. Forthwith, we formulated this study to assess the possible association of the two diseases in a known high prevalence area on the Kafue basin ecosystem. Of the 1,680 animals screened, 600 (35.7%; 95% CI 33.4%–38%) and 124 (7.4%; 95% CI 6.1%–8.6%) had fasciolosis and tuberculous lesions; respectively, whilst 72 had both fasciola and tuberculous lesions representing 12% (95% CI 9.4%–14.6%) and 58.1% (95% CI; 49.3%–66.7%) of the total positives for fasciola and tuberculosis, respectively. Jaundice was seen in 304 animals, 18.1% (95% CI; 16.3%–19.9%) and was significantly correlated to fasciolosis (r = 0.59, P < 0.0001). A significant association (?2 = 76.2, df = 1, and P < 0.0001) was found between fasciolosis and tuberculous lesions. Simple logistic regression intimated fasciolosis as a strong predictor for tuberculous lesions with animals that had fasciola being five times more likely to have tuberculous lesions (odds ratio = 4.8, 95% CI: 3.3–7.0). This study indicates that transmission and spatial risk factors of communicable and noncommunicable diseases such as bTB and fasciolosis can be correlated in an ecosystem such as the Kafue flats.

Munyeme, Musso; Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Nambota, Andrew; Muma, John Bwalya; Phiri, Andrew Malata; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo

2012-01-01

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Seasonal prevalence and incidence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis and associated diarrhoea in children attending pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Prevalence, incidence and seasonal variation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis were studied over a 12-month period in 100 children from four pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia. Questionnaire data and a single stool sample were collected monthly from each child. Samples were processed using a commercial kit (Meridian Diagnostics Inc., USA) and oo(cysts) visualised by immunofluorescence microscopy. Cryptosporidium was detected in 30.7% (241/786; 95% CI = 27.5-33.9) while G. duodenalis was detected in 29.0% (228/786; 95% CI = 25.8-32.2). A total of 86% experienced one or more episodes of cryptosporidiosis while 75% had giardiasis. Cumulative incidence per 100 children was 75.4 for Cryptosporidium and 49.0 for G. duodenalis. Both infections were significantly more common in the wet compared to the dry season (34.8%, 162/466 vs. 24.7%, 79/320, P = 0.003 and 35.2%, 164/466 vs. 20.0%, 64/320, P <0.001, respectively). Thus, risk ratios (RR) were 1.41 (95% CI = 1.13-1.77) and 1.76 (95% CI = 1.38-2.27) for Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively. Diarrhoea was significantly associated with cryptosporidiosis (RR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.03-1.47; P = 0.029) but not with giardiasis (RR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.91-1.53; P = 0.26). We conclude that gastro-intestinal protozoal infections are highly prevalent among children attending pre-school in peri-urban Zambia highlighting the need for further studies of risk factors.

Enemark, Heidi L.

2011-01-01

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Seasonal pattern of bovine amphistomosis in traditionally reared cattle in the Kafue and Zambezi catchment areas of Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seasonality of bovine amphistomosis in the Southern province of Zambia was established after examining 268 faecal samples from cattle presented for slaughter at Turnpike slaughter slab, Mazabuka. Amphistomosis was found present throughout the year but the highest abundance rate was found during the post-rainy season (47.8%) and the lowest during the cold dry season (24.8%). In the rainy and post-rainy seasons, higher mean egg counts and cattle found positive were recorded than in any other season. The distribution of amphistome eggs was significantly different (p < 0.001) among the four seasons, with the rainy season having higher median egg counts than others. There were no significant differences in abundance rates between sexes or between ages of cattle. A similar seasonality to that of fasciolosis exists and may help in strategic management of Fasciola and amphistomes. PMID:18318347

Phiri, A M; Chota, A; Phiri, I K

2007-02-01

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Investigating effects of parasite infection on body condition of the Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis in the Kafue basin  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche Kafuensis, a medium-sized semi-aquatic antelope, is endemic to the Kafue basin of Zambia. The population of the Kafue lechwe has significantly dropped in the last decades leading to its subsequent inclusion on the red list of endangered species. In order to save the remaining population from extinction, it has become increasingly important that the impact of parasite infection and infestation on the Kafue lechwe is investigated. Findings Endoparasites accounted for the majority of parasites observed from a study of 40 Kafue lechwe occurring in the the Kafue basin. Amphistoma spp. were present in all animals examined, while Fasciola gigantica had a prevalence rate of 0.525 (95% CI: 0.36 to 0.69 and species of Schistosoma 0.3 (95% CI: 0.15 to 0.45. Among the ectoparasites, Strobiloestrous vanzyli, had a prevalence rate of 0.15 (95% CI: 0.03 to 0.27, while Rhipicephalus appendiculatus had a prevalence of 0.075 (3/40. Our findings indicate that body condition was not influenced by the parasitic infestation in Kafue lechwe. There was no association between sex and parasitic burden (odds ratio = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.8-1.3. However, an association between age and parasitic burden was observed as older animals above 15 years were more likely to get parasite infections than those aged between 1-5 years (odds ratio = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4. Conclusion Overall, there was no evidence that parasitic infections and infestations adversely affected the lechwe population on the Kafue basin. These findings indicate that ecto- and endo-parasite infestation might not play a significant role in reducing the Kafue lechwe population on the Kafue basin.

Nambota Andrew M

2010-12-01

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Conceptualization of appropriate technology in Lundazi district of rural Zambia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A sample of 144 people from the Lundazi District of the Eastern Province of rural Zambia in Central Africa responded to a questionnaire. The first objective of the study was to determine how men and women conceptualize and evaluated appropriate technology for food production, processing, preservation, and storage; second, to investigate if participation in modern institutions (COSISOCHINS) was related to conceptualization of appropriate technology. There were no significant gender differences in how men and women viewed appropriate technology. Participation in modern institutions was not significantly related to how people conceptualized and evaluated appropriate technology. There were significant gender differences in participation in modern institutions; men participated more than women. The findings remained the same when age, education, income and marital status held constant. Sex-role task overlap and exclusiveness in gender division of labor account for lack of significant gender differences. Modern institutions can be useful if they are effectively integrated with the social structure, gender division of labor, and social organization of the production process of the rural communities of the Third World.

Tembo, M.S.

1987-01-01

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Lymphatic filariasis in Luangwa District, South-East Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Past case reports and recent data from LF mapping surveys indicate that LF occurs in Zambia, but no studies have been carried out to document its epidemiology and health implications. The present study assessed infection, disease, transmission and human perception aspects of LF in an endemic area of Luangwa District, South-East Zambia, as a background for planning and implementation of control. Methods. Two neighbouring rural communities were registered and a questionnaire survey undertaken. Clinical examination, and sampling of blood for circulating filarial antigens (CFA; marker of adult worm infection) and antibodies to Bm14 antigen (marker of exposure to transmission), were carried out during the daytime. Blood from CFA positive individuals was examined for microfilariae (mf) at night. Vector surveys were carried out in selected households, using light traps. Results: 985 individuals aged � 1 year were registered. The CFA prevalence increased with age from 1.2% in age group 1-14 years to 20.6%in age group 50+ years (overall 8.6%). Wuchereria bancrofti mf were identified in 10.9% of CFA positive individuals (corresponding to a community prevalence of 0.9%). Prevalence and intensity of Bm14 antibodies were much higher in individuals � 30 years than in younger individuals (57.2 vs. 19.3%; 0.594 vs. 0.241 OD-values). Elephantiasis and hydrocele were well known clinical manifestations in the area, but only one case of hydrocele was detected in the study population. Identified potential vectors were Anopheles funestus and An. gambiae. Conclusion: The study confirmed that LF was endemic in the study communities, but infection and disease prevalence was low. Several indications, including a marked recent decline in CFA prevalence, suggest that transmission in the area is on the decrease, perhaps because of intensive application of malaria control measures targeting the Anopheles vectors. It is recommended that mass drug administration is initiated to accelerate this positive trend of decline in LF transmission in the area. © 2013 Shawa et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Shawa, Sheila Tamara; Mwase, Enala T.

2013-01-01

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Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis in Traditionally Managed Livestock in Selected Districts of Southern Province of Zambia  

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A study was performed in 2008 to estimate the prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis in traditionally reared cattle of Southern Province in Zambia in four districts. The single comparative intradermal tuberculin test (SCITT) was used to identify TB reactors, and the Rose Bengal test (RBT), followed by confirmation with competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA), was used to test for brucellosis. A total of 459 animals were tested for tuberculosis and 395 for brucellosis. The ...

2013-01-01

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Characterization of Mycobacterium bovis from Humans and Cattle in Namwala District, Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Tuberculosis remains a major public health problem in Zambia. While human to human transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is of major importance in driving the tuberculosis epidemic, the impact of Mycobacterium bovis transmission from infected cattle is largely unknown. This cross-sectional study aimed at molecular characterization of M. bovis in humans and cattle. A total of 100 human sputum samples and 67 bovine tissues were collected and analyzed for the presence of mycobacteria. Of 65 human samples that harbored acid fast bacteria (AFB), 55 isolates were obtained of which 34 were identified as M. tuberculosis and 2 as M. bovis. AFB-positive bovine samples (n = 67) yielded 47 mycobacterial isolates among which 25 were identified as M. bovis and no M. tuberculosis was found. Among the M. bovis isolates, spoligotyping revealed a high homogeneity in genotypes circulating in Namwala district. Human and cattle isolates shared identical MIRU-VNTR genotypes, suggesting that transmission between the two hosts may occur. Therefore, this study has documented zoonotic TB in human patients in Namwala district of Zambia. However, further molecular epidemiological studies in the study area are recommended.

Johansen, Tone Bjordal; Muma, John Bwalya; Munyeme, Musso; Mbulo, Grace; Muwonge, Adrian; Dj?nne, Berit

2014-01-01

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The Paris Declaration in practice: challenges of health sector aid coordination at the district level in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing resources available for and number of partners providing health sector aid have stimulated innovations, notably, the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, which aim to improve aid coordination. In this, one of the first studies to analyse implementation of aid coordination below national level, the aim was to investigate the effect of the Paris Declaration on coordination of health sector aid at the district level in Zambia. Methods The study was carried out in three districts of Zambia. Data were collected via interviews with health centre staff, district managers and officials from the Ministry of Health, and from district action plans, financial reports and accounts, and health centre ledger cards. Four indicators of coordination related to external-partner activity, common arrangements used by external partners and predictability of funding were analysed and assessed in relation to the 2010 targets set by the Paris Declaration. Findings While the activity of external partners at the district level has increased, funding and activities provided by these partners are often not included in local plans. HIV/AIDS support show better integration in planning and implementation at the district level than other support. Regarding common arrangements used for fund disbursement, the share of resources provided as programme-based support is not increasing. The predictability of funds coming from outside the government financing mechanism is low. Conclusion Greater efforts to integrate partners in district level planning and implementation are needed. External partners must improve the predictability of their support and be more proactive in informing the districts about their intended contributions. With the deadline for achieving the targets set by the Paris Declaration fast approaching, it is time for the signatories to accelerate its implementation.

Sundewall Jesper

2009-06-01

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Hope and despair: community health assistants' experiences of working in a rural district in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background In order to address the challenges facing the community-based health workforce in Zambia, the Ministry of Health implemented the national community health assistant strategy in 2010. The strategy aims to address the challenges by creating a new group of workers called community health assistants (CHAs) and integrating them into the health system. The first group started working in August 2012. The objective of this paper is to document their motivation to become a CHA, their experiences of working in a rural district, and how these experiences affected their motivation to work. Methods A phenomenological approach was used to examine CHAs’ experiences. Data collected through in-depth interviews with 12 CHAs in Kapiri Mposhi district and observations were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Results Personal characteristics such as previous experience and knowledge, passion to serve the community and a desire to improve skills motivated people to become CHAs. Health systems characteristics such as an inclusive work culture in some health posts motivated CHAs to work. Conversely, a non-inclusive work culture created a social structure which constrained CHAs’ ability to learn, to be innovative and to effectively conduct their duties. Further, limited supervision, misconceptions about CHA roles, poor prioritisation of CHA tasks by some supervisors, as well as non- and irregular payment of incentives also adversely affected CHAs’ ability to work effectively. In addition, negative feedback from some colleagues at the health posts affected CHA’s self-confidence and professional outlook. In the community, respect and support provided to CHAs by community members instilled a sense of recognition, appreciation and belonging in CHAs which inspired them to work. On the other hand, limited drug supplies and support from other community-based health workers due to their exclusion from the government payroll inhibited CHAs’ ability to deliver services. Conclusions Programmes aimed at integrating community-based health workers into health systems should adequately consider multiple incentives, effective management, supervision and support from the district. These should be tailored towards enhancing the individual, health system and community characteristics that positively impact work motivation at the local level if such programmes are to effectively contribute towards improved primary healthcare.

2014-01-01

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Improving ability to identify malaria and correctly use chloroquine in children at household level in Nakonde District, Northern Province of Zambia  

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Abstract Background This study investigated causes of malaria and how cases were managed at household level, in order to improve the ability to identify malaria and ensure correct use of chloroquine. It was conducted in Nakonde District, Northern Province of Zambia, between 2000 and 2001. Nakonde district is in a hyperendemic malaria province, where Plasmodium falciparum is predominant. The district has a total population of 153, 548 people, the majority of whom are ...

Ad, Kaona Frederick; Tuba Mary

2003-01-01

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Finding parasites and finding challenges: improved diagnostic access and trends in reported malaria and anti-malarial drug use in Livingstone district, Zambia  

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Abstract Background Understanding the impact of malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) use on management of acute febrile disease at a community level, and on the consumption of anti-malarial medicines, is critical to the planning and success of scale-up to universal parasite-based diagnosis by health systems in malaria-endemic countries. Methods A retrospective study of district-wide community-level RDT introduction was conducted in Livingstone District, Zambia, t...

Masaninga Freddie; Sekeseke-Chinyama Masela; Malambo Thindo; Moonga Hawela; Babaniyi Olusegun; Counihan Helen; Bell David

2012-01-01

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Heavy Metal Contaminated Food Crops Irrigated with Wastewater in Peri Urban Areas, Zambia  

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Studies on peri urban farming in Zambia have not adequately tackled the issues pertaining to heavy metal contaminated wastewater irrigation farming. The study investigated heavy metal contamination of water, soils and crops at two peri urban areas in Zambia. Two study sites were New Farm Extension in Mufulira Town in the Copperbelt Province and Chilumba Gardens in Kafue Town in Lusaka Province. The heavy metals investigated were lead, copper, cobalt, nickel and...

Evaristo Mwaba Kapungwe

2013-01-01

18

Risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis in selected districts of eastern and southern provinces of Zambia  

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To determine the risk factors associated with Taenia solium transmission in humans and pigs in the rural areas of Eastern and Southern provinces of Zambia, a questionnaire was administered in 788 households from 155 villages. Pigs were examined from 800 households. Tongue examination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA) for the detection of circulating antigens of T. solium cysticerci were used to measure infection in pigs. A snowballing technique was utilised to select households...

Sikasunge, C. S.; Phiri, I. K.; Phiri, A. M.; Dorny, P.; Siziya, S.; Willingham, A. L.

2007-01-01

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A comparative study of the seroprevalence of brucellosis in commercial and small-scale mixed dairy-beef cattle enterprises of Lusaka province and Chibombo district, Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2007 and February 2008 to estimate seroprevalence of brucellosis and identify risk factors associated with Brucella infections in commercial cattle in three districts of Lusaka province (Chongwe, Luangwa, and Kafue; n = 849) and in one rural district from the Central province (n = 48). A total of 897 serum samples were randomly collected from 55 farms along with animal-level data such as sex, age, and parity. Sera were screened for presence of anti-Brucella antibodies using the Rose Bengal test, and positive samples were confirmed using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. At the animal level, seroprevalence was estimated at 7.9% (95% CI = 4.4-11.4%) in the Lusaka province and 18.7% (95% CI = 7.5-29.9%) for Chibombo district. Brucellosis seroprevalence varied according to district, with Chongwe district recording the highest compared to other districts. Seroprevalence also varied according to sex with bulls (n = 96) having higher seroprevalence (12.5%; 95% CI = 3.8-21.1%) compared to females (8.1%; 95% CI = 4.6-11.6). Similarly, seroprevalence varied according to age groups, with the age category 1-4 years recording the highest (10.7%). The study recorded relatively low Brucella seroprevalence in commercial farms in Lusaka, compared to the traditional small-scale farms. We suggest that testing and stamping out of infected animals is likely to improve the situation and significantly reduce the public health risk associated with Brucella infections in animals. PMID:20517646

Chimana, Henry M; Muma, John Bwalya; Samui, Kenny L; Hangombe, Benard M; Munyeme, Musso; Matope, Gift; Phiri, Andrew M; Godfroid, Jacques; Skjerve, Eystein; Tryland, Morten

2010-10-01

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Relative costs and effectiveness of treating uncomplicated malaria in two rural districts in Zambia: implications for nationwide scale-up of home-based management  

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Abstract Background Malaria case management is one of the key strategies to control malaria. Various studies have demonstrated the feasibility of home management of malaria (HMM). However, data on the costs and effectiveness of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and rapid diagnostic tests via HMM is limited. Method Cost-effectiveness of home management versus health facility-based management of uncomplicated malaria in two rural districts in Zambia was ...

Chanda Pascalina; Hamainza Busiku; Moonga Hawela B; Chalwe Victor; Banda Patrick; Pagnoni Franco

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Condom availability in high risk places and condom use: a study at district level in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies from countries with severe HIV epidemics have found gaps in condom availability, even in places where there is a substantial potential for HIV transmission. Although reported condom use has increased in many African countries, there are often big differences by socioeconomic background. The aim of this study was to assess equity aspects of condom availability and uptake in three African districts to evaluate whether condom programmes are given sufficient priority. Methods Data on condom availability and use was examined in one district in Kenya, one in Tanzania and one in Zambia. The study was based on a triangulation of data collection methods in the three study districts: surveys in venues where people meet new sexual partners, population-based surveys and focus group discussions. The data was collected within an overall study on priority setting in health systems. Results At the time of the survey, condoms were observed in less than half of the high risk venues in two of the three districts and in 60% in the third district. Rural respondents in the population-based surveys perceived condoms to be less available and tended to be less likely to report condom use than urban respondents. Although focus group participants reported that condoms were largely available in their district, they expressed concerns related to the accessibility of free condoms. Conclusion As late as thirty years into the HIV epidemic there are still important gaps in the availability of condoms in places where people meet new sexual partners in these three African districts. Considering that previous studies have found that improved condom availability and accessibility in high risk places have a potential to increase condom use among people with multiple partners, the present study findings indicate that substantial further efforts should be made to secure that condoms are easily accessible in places where sexual relationships are initiated. Although condom distribution in drinking places has been pinpointed in the HIV/AIDS prevention strategies of all the three countries, its priority relative to other HIV/AIDS measures must be reassessed locally, nationally and regionally. In practical terms very clear supply chains of condoms to both formal and informal drinking places could make condom provision better and more reliable.

Sandøy Ingvild

2012-11-01

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A retrospective evaluation of the quality of malaria case management at twelve health facilities in four districts in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To establish the appropriateness of malaria case management at health facility level in four districts in Zambia. Methods This study was a retrospective evaluation of the quality of malaria case management at health facilities in four districts conveniently sampled to represent both urban and rural settings in different epidemiological zones and health facility coverage. The review period was from January to December 2008. The sample included twelve lower level health facilities from four districts. The Pearson Chi-square test was used to identify characteristics which affected the quality of case management. Results Out of 4?891 suspected malaria cases recorded at the 12 health facilities, more than 80% of the patients had a temperature taken to establish their fever status. About 67% (CI95 66.1-68.7) were tested for parasitemia by either rapid diagnostic test or microscopy, whereas the remaining 22.5% (CI95 21.3.1-23.7) were not subjected to any malaria test. Of the 2?247 malaria cases reported (complicated and uncomplicated), 71% were parasitologically confirmed while 29% were clinically diagnosed (unconfirmed). About 56% (CI95 53.9-58.1) of the malaria cases reported were treated with artemether-lumefantrine (AL), 35% (CI95 33.1-37.0) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, 8% (CI95 6.9-9.2) with quinine and 1% did not receive any anti-malarial. Approximately 30% of patients WHO were found negative for malaria parasites were still prescribed an anti-malarial, contrary to the guidelines. There were marked inter-district variations in the proportion of patients in WHOm a diagnostic tool was used, and in the choice of anti-malarials for the treatment of malaria confirmed cases. Association between health worker characteristics and quality of case malaria management showed that nurses performed better than environmental health technicians and clinical officers on the decision whether to use the rapid diagnostic test or not. Gender, in service training on malaria, years of residence in the district and length of service of the health worker at the facility were not associated with diagnostic and treatment choices. Conclusions Malaria case management was characterised by poor adherence to treatment guidelines. The non-adherence was mainly in terms of: inconsistent use of confirmatory tests (rapid diagnostic test or microscopy) for malaria; prescribing anti-malarials which are not recommended (e.g. sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine) and prescribing anti-malarials to cases testing negative. Innovative approaches are required to improve health worker adherence to diagnosis and treatment guidelines.

Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Chanda, Emmanuel; Masaninga, Freddie; Habluetzel, Annette; Masiye, Felix; Fall, Ibrahima Soce

2014-01-01

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Application of Data-Driven Evidential Belief Functions to Prospectivity Mapping for Aquamarine-Bearing Pegmatites, Lundazi District, Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case application of data-driven estimation of evidential belief functions (EBFs) is demonstrated to prospectivity mapping in Lundazi district (eastern Zambia). Spatial data used to represent recognition criteria of prospectivity for aquamarine-bearing pegmatites include mapped granites, mapped faults/fractures, mapped shear zones, and radioelement concentration ratios derived from gridded airborne radiometric data. Data-driven estimates EBFs take into account not only (a) spatial association between an evidential map layer and target deposits but also (b) spatial relationships between classes of evidences in an evidential map layer. Data-driven estimates of EBFs can indicate which spatial data provide positive or negative evidence of prospectivity. Data-driven estimates of EBFs of only spatial data providing positive evidence of prospectivity were integrated according to Dempster's rule of combination. Map of integrated degrees of belief was used to delineate zones of relative degress of prospectivity for aquamarine-bearing pegmatites. The predictive map has at least 85% prediction rate and at least 79% success rate of delineating training and validation deposits, respectively. The results illustrate usefulness of data-driven estimation of EBFs in GIS-based predictive mapping of mineral prospectivity. The results also show usefulness of EBFs in managing uncertainties associated with evidential maps

2005-03-01

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Health care seeking behaviour and utilisation of health services in Kalabo District, Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Van 1997 tot 2001 werkte de auteur in het Zambiaanse gezondheidszorgsysteem en wel in het Kalabo District Hospital. In die tijd rezen bij hem vele vragen. Een aantal daarvan wordt in dit proefschrift behandeld en beantwoord. Het centrale thema is de tegenstelling tussen enerzijds de grote ziektelast en de hoge mortaliteit en anderzijds het lage gebruik van de beschikbare gezondheidszorgvoorzieningen. De belangrijkste vragen zijn:

Stekelenburg, J.

2004-01-01

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Relative costs and effectiveness of treating uncomplicated malaria in two rural districts in Zambia: implications for nationwide scale-up of home-based management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria case management is one of the key strategies to control malaria. Various studies have demonstrated the feasibility of home management of malaria (HMM. However, data on the costs and effectiveness of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT and rapid diagnostic tests via HMM is limited. Method Cost-effectiveness of home management versus health facility-based management of uncomplicated malaria in two rural districts in Zambia was analysed from a providers' perspective. The sample included 16 community health workers (CHWs and 15 health facilities. The outcome measure was the cost per case appropriately diagnosed and treated. Costs of scaling-up HMM nationwide were estimated based on the CHW utilisation rates observed in the study. Results HMM was more cost effective than facility-based management of uncomplicated malaria. The cost per case correctly diagnosed and treated was USD 4.22 for HMM and USD 6.12 for facility level. Utilization and adherence to diagnostic and treatment guidelines was higher in HMM than at a health facility. Conclusion HMM using ACT and RDTs was more efficient at appropriately diagnosing and treating malaria than the health facility level. Scaling up this intervention requires significant investments.

Banda Patrick

2011-06-01

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Knowledge and disease management skills of cattle owners on East Coast Fever and Foot and Mouth Disease in Kazungula and Livingstone Districts of Zambia  

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Full Text Available Effective animal disease control and prevention should be based on accurate information from the field. Part of this field information can be obtained from the cattle owners. In order to assess their disease knowledge, a survey focusing on East Coast Fever (ECF and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD was organised among 302 cattle owners from the Kazungula and Livingstone Districts of the Southern Province of Zambia. The cattle owners' level of knowledge of ECF was low (34% with most of those able to describe the disease belonging to the endemic zone where ECF caused high death rates in cattle. A larger proportion of the cattle owners (46% were able to give an adequate description of FMD symptoms. It reached up to 61% in the FMD high-risk zone. Reporting to the animal health service providers appeared to be low. The results of the survey showed that attempts should be made to improve the cattle owners' knowledge and response to important diseases by carrying out more extension and sensitization activities. This is especially so in areas of low infection or where the disease was experienced long time ago.

Chisembele, C.

2005-01-01

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Mycobacterium bovis infection at the interface between domestic and wild animals in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In Zambia, the presence of bovine tuberculosis in both wild and domestic animals has long been acknowledged and mutual transmission between them has been predicted without any direct evidence. Elucidation of the circulating Mycobacterium bovis strains at wild and domestic animals interphase area in Zambia, where bovine tuberculosis was diagnosed in wildlife seemed to be important. Results A PCR identified 15 and 37 M. bovis isolates from lechwe and cattle, respectively. Spoligotype analysis revealed that M. bovis strains from lechwe and cattle in Kafue basin clustered into a major node SB0120, where isolates outside the Kafue basin clustered into different nodes of SB0131 and SB0948. The comparatively higher variety of strains in cattle compared to lechwe elucidated by Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units–Variable Number Tandem Repeats analyses are consistent with cattle being the probable source of M. bovis in wild and domestic animals interphase area in Zambia. Conclusions These results provide strong evidence of M. bovis strains transfer between cattle and lechwe, with the latter having developed into a sylvatic reservoir host.

Hang’ombe Mudenda B

2012-11-01

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Condom availability in high risk places and condom use:a study at district level in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: A number of studies from countries with severe HIV epidemics have found gaps in condom availability, even in places where there is a substantial potential for HIV transmission. Although reported condom use has increased in many African countries, there are often big differences by socioeconomic background. The aim of this study was to assess equity aspects of condom availability and uptake in three African districts to evaluate whether condom programmes are given sufficient ...

Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard; Blystad, Astrid; Shayo, Elizabeth H.; Makundi, Emmanuel; Michelo, Charles Cheembo; Zulu, Joseph; Byskov, Jens

2012-01-01

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Condom availability in high risk places and condom use: a study at district level in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background A number of studies from countries with severe HIV epidemics have found gaps in condom availability, even in places where there is a substantial potential for HIV transmission. Although reported condom use has increased in many African countries, there are often big differences by socioeconomic background. The aim of this study was to assess equity aspects of condom availability and uptake in three African districts to evaluate whether condom programmes ar...

Sandøy Ingvild; Blystad Astrid; Shayo Elizabeth H; Makundi Emmanuel; Michelo Charles; Zulu Joseph; Byskov Jens

2012-01-01

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Condom availability in high risk places and condom use: a study at district level in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: A number of studies from countries with severe HIV epidemics have found gaps in condom availability, even in places where there is a substantial potential for HIV transmission. Although reported condom use has increased in many African countries, there are often big differences by socioeconomic background. The aim of this study was to assess equity aspects of condom availability and uptake in three African districts to evaluate whether condom programmes are given sufficient pri...

Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard; Blystad, Astrid; Shayo, Elizabeth H.; Makundi, Emmanuel; Michelo, Charles Cheembo; Zulu, Joseph; Byskov, Jens

2012-01-01

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“The problem is ours, it is not CRAIDS’ ”. Evaluating sustainability of Community Based Organisations for HIV/AIDS in a rural district in Zambia  

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Abstract Background While sustainability of health programmes has been the subject of empirical studies, there is little evidence specifically on the sustainability of Community Based Organisations (CBOs) for HIV/AIDS. Debates around optimal approaches in community health have centred on utilitarian versus empowerment approaches. This paper, using the World Bank Multi-Country AIDS Program (MAP) in Zambia as a case study, seeks to evaluate whether or not this global programme ...

2012-01-01

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Quality assurance in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary health care reforms in Zambia have focused on the themes of effective leadership, community involvement, and improved service quality. To achieve these goals, the Ministry of Health's structure has been decentralized and a Health Reforms Implementation Team (including a Quality Assurance Unit) has been established. This unit collaborates with government and private sector organizations and professional groups in areas such as strategic planning, problem solving, facility assessment, standards setting, and indicator development. Each province has two linkage facilitators who provide district-level training and support to quality assurance coaches. As part of this process, staff at Nanga Rural Health Center in Mazabuka District selected patient privacy as a priority quality assurance issue and established an enclosed area for patient interviews. This measure facilitated increased patient disclosure about and comfort with discussing sensitive medical issues such as family planning and sexually transmitted diseases. Next, the health center staff examined the problem of pharmaceutical shortages, and user fees were identified as a means of purchasing commonly unavailable drugs. At the Magoye Rural Health Center, quality assurance assessment led to the consolidation of services such as infant weighing and immunization at the same location, thereby significantly increasing service utilization. PMID:12347471

Reinke, J; Tembo, J; Limbambala, M F; Chikuta, S; Zaenger, D

1996-01-01

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The control of Glossina morsitans morsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae) in a settled area in Petauke District (Eastern Province, Zambia) using odour-baited targets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A trial to control G. m. morsitans with the use of 980 odour-baited, insecticide-impregnated targets was conducted in a 300 km² area in the Eastern Province of Zambia between 1989 and 1991. The area is highly cultivated and cattle density is high (about 8 cattle/km²). Targets were deployed along roads and tracks. Deployment was restricted to suitable tsetse habitat. The effect of the targets on the tsetse population and on the transmission of tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis was monitored ...

Den Bossche, Peter

1997-01-01

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The Zambia Initiative  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In rural Zambia refugees and host communities are working together to move from relief dependence to self reliance. Could UNHCR’s Zambia Initiative (ZI be a model for other countries struggling to cope with the protracted presence of refugees?

Masaki Watabe

2005-11-01

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Country watch. Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Mansa District, Zambia, people are unaware of the risk factors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). To remedy this, the District HIV Prevention and Care Team invited a member of the Positive and Living Squad (PALS), John Luonde, to speak at educational sessions for various target audiences. Goals included providing information, dissipating misinformation, alleviating community fears, and mobilizing people through specific activities that addressed identified needs. The sessions began with the testimony of John Luonde and a simple question and answer period, which were followed by focus groups, often with a video, for more difficult or sensitive topics. Information materials were distributed and a condom demonstration was conducted. Although some institutions initially refused permission because of the holiday season or the possible impact on staff, Luonde returned to cover the missed groups. More than 105 people from 9 sectors of the community participated. Groups that were represented included the Mansa Sports Club, the Mutende Deaf Branch, a factory, the local army and police, and physicians from the Mansa Hospital Board. Questions from the different groups were similar. Participants saw that, although anyone could contract AIDS (the central theme of the project), they could still hope for productive years with proper treatment, self-care, and diet. Most participants wanted to change their sexual behavior and Luonde was asked to return. Women and people with physical disabilities need to be targeted. Although condoms were previously seen as promoting promiscuity, institutions are now requesting their distribution. The team is collaborating with a social marketing organization on condom use promotion. Distribution sites include bars, restaurants, filling stations, supermarkets, and hair dressers. At the request of the community, a meeting was held with the director of the Mansa Hospital Board to develop policy guidelines and to plan sessions on hospital care of persons with HIV and staff attitude toward them. PMID:12288110

Kapyepye, E

1994-01-01

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Risk factors for foot-and-mouth disease in Zambia, 1981-2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to describe the spatial distribution of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in Zambia for the period January 1981-December 2012 and to quantify the association between geographical features (proximity to roads, national parks, wetland areas) and the spatial distribution of FMD using a Poisson point process model. Details of FMD outbreaks retrieved from the Zambian Department of Veterinary and Livestock Development included the date of onset of clinical signs and the name of the ward in which the index case enterprise was located. A total of 62 FMD outbreaks occurred throughout the study period. Outbreaks occurred in the south of the Southern province along the border with Namibia and Botswana (n=5), in the Western province (n=2), in the Southern and Central provinces on the Kafue flood plains (n=44), and in the north east of the country close to the border with Tanzania (n=11). Increases in distance to the nearest major international border crossing, distance to the nearest major road, distance to the wetland area of the Kafue flood plain, wetness index and elevation were all associated with a decrease in FMD-outbreak ward intensity. Our analyses support the hypothesis that in drier areas of the country cattle are more likely to aggregate around communal drinking pools. Aggregation of cattle provides conditions suitable for FMD spread and detection. PMID:24486093

Hamoonga, R; Stevenson, M A; Allepuz, A; Carpenter, T E; Sinkala, Y

2014-04-01

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Expansion of antiretroviral treatment to rural health centre level by a mobile service in Mumbwa district, Zambia / Élargissement de l'accès au traitement antirétroviral au niveau des centres de santé ruraux grâce à un service mobile dans le district de Mumbwa, Zambie / Expansión del tratamiento antirretroviral a nivel de los centros de salud rurales mediante un servicio móvil en el distrito de Mumbwa, Zambia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish SITUACIÓN: A pesar de los esfuerzos del Gobierno por extender los servicios hasta el nivel de distrito, sigue resultando difícil que las personas con VIH accedan al tratamiento antirretroviral (TAR) en la Zambia rural. Las enérgicas súplicas para ampliar los servicios relacionados con el TAR a los c [...] entros de salud rurales se enfrentan a las dificultades derivadas de la escasez de recursos. ENFOQUE: El equipo de gestión sanitaria en el distrito de Mumbwa introdujo servicios móviles de TAR que hacían uso de recursos humanos y asesoramiento técnico de hospitales de distrito, así como la participación de la comunidad en cuatro centros de salud rurales en el primer trimestre de 2007. Este trabajo aborda el uso de los servicios móviles de TAR en el distrito rural de Mumbwa. MARCO REGIONAL: Mumbwa es un distrito rural con un área de 23 000 km2 y una población de 167 000 habitantes. Antes de la introducción de los servicios móviles, los servicios de TAR se proporcionaban sólo en el Hospital de Distrito de Mumbwa. CAMBIOS IMPORTANTES: Los servicios móviles mejoraron la accesibilidad al TAR, especialmente para usuarios con un mejor estado funcional, es decir, aún capaces de trabajar. Además, estos servicios móviles pueden reducir el número de casos de «pérdidas durante el seguimiento». Esto podría deberse a la mayor implicación de la comunidad y al mejor apoyo ofrecido por estos servicios a los usuarios en las áreas rurales. LECCIONES APRENDIDAS: Estos servicios móviles para el TAR ayudaron a extender los servicios a los centros de salud rurales cuando los recursos fueron limitados, acercándolos lo máximo posible a los lugares donde viven los usuarios. Abstract in english PROBLEM: Despite the Government's effort to expand services to district level, it is still hard for people living with HIV to access antiretroviral treatment (ART) in rural Zambia. Strong demands for expanding ART services at the rural health centre level face challenges of resource shortages. APPRO [...] ACH: The Mumbwa district health management team introduced mobile ART services using human resources and technical support from district hospitals, and community involvement at four rural health centres in the first quarter of 2007. This paper discusses the uptake of the mobile ART services in rural Mumbwa. LOCAL SETTING: Mumbwa is a rural district with an area of 23 000 km² and a population of 167 000. Before the introduction of mobile services, ART services were provided only at Mumbwa District Hospital. RELEVANT CHANGES: The mobile services improved accessibility to ART, especially for clients in better functional status, i.e. still able to work. In addition, these mobile services may reduce the number of cases "lost to follow-up". This might be due to the closer involvement of the community and the better support offered by these services to rural clients. LESSONS LEARNT: These mobile ART services helped expand services to rural health facilities where resources are limited, bringing them as close as possible to where clients live.

Christopher, Dube; Ikuma, Nozaki; Tadao, Hayakawa; Kazuhiro, Kakimoto; Norio, Yamada; James B, Simpungwe.

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Decentralization of the Health System in Zambia. Major Applied Research 6, Technical Report 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zambia's ambitious process of decentralization after 1995 is examined in this study using the decision-space analytical approach in national level data analysis and in field case studies of nine districts. The study found that the deconcentrated system al...

T. Bossert M. B. Chitah M. Simonet L. Mwansa M. Daura

2000-01-01

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Community-based follow-up for late patients enrolled in a district-wide programme for antiretroviral therapy in Lusaka, Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Timely adherence to clinical and pharmacy appointments is well correlated with favourable patient outcomes among HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy. To date, however, there is little work exploring reasons behind missed visits or evaluating programmatic strategies to recall patients. For this study we implemented community-based follow-up of late patients as part of a large-scale programme for HIV care and treatment in Lusaka, Zambia. Through a network of local home-based care organizations, we attempted home visits to recall patients using locator information provided at time of enrolment. Between May and September 2005, home-based caregivers were dispatched to trace 1,343 patients with missed appointments. Of these, 554 (41%) were untraceable because the provided address was invalid, the patient had moved or no one was at the home. Of the remaining 789, 359 (46%) were reported to have died. Only 430 (54% of those traced, 32% overall) were contacted directly and encouraged to return for care. The likelihood of patient return was higher among traced patients in crude analysis (relative risk [RR] = 2.5; 95%CI = 1.9-3.2) and in multivariable analysis controlling for baseline body mass index, sex and CD4 + count < or = 50/microL (adjusted RR = 2.3; 95%CI = 1.7-3.2). However, the process was inefficient: one late patient returned for every 18 home visits that were made. Reasons for missed visits were provided in 271 of 430 (63%) of the patients who were successfully traced. Common reasons included feeling too sick to come to the clinic, travelling away from home and being too busy. Despite the availability of free ART in Lusaka, patients face significant barriers to attending scheduled clinical visits. Cost-effective and feasible strategies are urgently needed to improve timely patient follow-up. PMID:18351478

Krebs, D W; Chi, B H; Mulenga, Y; Morris, M; Cantrell, R A; Mulenga, L; Levy, J; Sinkala, M; Stringer, J S A

2008-03-01

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Heavy Metal Contaminated Food Crops Irrigated with Wastewater in Peri Urban Areas, Zambia  

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Full Text Available Studies on peri urban farming in Zambia have not adequately tackled the issues pertaining to heavy metal contaminated wastewater irrigation farming. The study investigated heavy metal contamination of water, soils and crops at two peri urban areas in Zambia. Two study sites were New Farm Extension in Mufulira Town in the Copperbelt Province and Chilumba Gardens in Kafue Town in Lusaka Province. The heavy metals investigated were lead, copper, cobalt, nickel and chromium. These heavy metals were found to be higher than acceptable limits in wastewater used to irrigate crops and there are potential human health risks associated with consumption of heavy metal contaminated food crops which have implications on the livelihoods of people. Samples of water, soil and crops were collected and analysed for lead (Pb, copper (Cu, chromium (Cr, cobalt (Co and nickel (Ni using the Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS. The data on heavy metals was analysed using mean, standard error and T-test. The results indicated that the levels of heavy metals in wastewater, soil and food crops were above acceptable limits at two study sites. It can be concluded that there was heavy metal contamination of wastewater, soil and food crops at the two peri-urban areas in Zambia. The study highlighted the actual levels of heavy metal contaminant uptake in food crops consumed by the peri urban population. The information from this study can be used by the relevant authorities to develop appropriate measures for monitoring and control of heavy metal contamination in wastewater irrigation farming systems in peri urban areas inZambia.

Evaristo Mwaba Kapungwe

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
41

Rift Valley fever: Real or perceived threat for Zambia?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Zambia was first reported in 1974 during an epizootic of cattle and sheep that occurred in parts of Central, Southern and Copperbelt Provinces. In 1990, the disease was documented in nine districts of the provinces of Zambia. In the last two decades, there have been no rep [...] orts of RVF. This long period without reported clinical disease raises questions as to whether RVF is a current or just a perceived threat. To address this question, World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) disease occurrence data on RVF for the period 2005-2010 in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) was analysed. From the analysis, it was evident that most countries that share a common border with Zambia had reported at least one occurrence of the disease during the period under review. Due to the absence of natural physical barriers between Zambia and most of her neighbours, informal livestock trade and movements is a ubiquitous reality. Analysis of the rainfall patterns also showed that Zambia received rains sufficient to support a mosquito population large enough for high risk of RVF transmission. The evidence of disease occurrence in nearby countries coupled with animal movement, and environmental risk suggests that RVF is a serious threat to Zambia. In conclusion, the current occurrence of RVF in Zambia is unclear, but there are sufficient indications that the magnitude of the circulating infection is such that capacity building in disease surveillance and courses on recognition of the disease for field staff is recommended. Given the zoonotic potential of RVF, these measures are also a prerequisite for accurate assessment of the disease burden in humans.

George, Dautu; Calvin, Sindato; Aaron S., Mweene; Kenny L., Samui; Polly, Roy; Robert, Noad; Janusz, Paweska; Phelix A.O., Majiwa; Antony J., Musoke.

42

Fairness and legitimacy of decisions during delivery of malaria services and ITN interventions in zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and the second leading cause of mortality in Zambia. Perceptions of fairness and legitimacy of decisions relating to treatment of malaria cases within public health facilities and distribution of ITNs were assessed in a district in Zambia. The study was conducted within the framework of REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT), a north-south collaborative action research study, w...

Tuba Mary; Sandoy Ingvild F; Bloch Paul; Byskov Jens

2010-01-01

43

Callings, work role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement among teachers in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our aim in this study was to investigate the relationships among a calling orientation, work role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement of teachers in Zambia. A quantitative approach was followed and a cross-sectional survey was used. The sample (n = 150) included 75 basic and 75 secondary school teachers in the Choma district of Zambia. The Work Role Fit Scale, Work-Life Questionnaire, Psychological Meaningfulness Scale, and Work Engagement Scale were administered. Structural...

Sebastiaan Rothmann; Lukondo Hamukang'andu

2013-01-01

44

A qualitative study to identify community structures for management of severe malaria: a basis for introducing rectal artesunate in the under five years children in Nakonde District of Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a serious illness among children aged 5 years and below in Zambia, which carries with it many adverse effects including anemia and high parasites exposure that lead to infant and childhood mortality. Due to poor accessibility to modern health facilities, malaria is normally managed at home using indigenous and cosmopolitan medicines. In view of problems and implications associated with management of severe malaria at home, rectal artesunate is being proposed as a first aid drug to slow down multiplication of parasites in children before accessing appropriate treatment. Methods A qualitative study using standardised in-depth and Focuss Group Discussions (FGDs guides to collect information from four (4 villages in Nakonde district, was conducted between February and March 2004. The guides were administered on 29 key informants living in the community and those whose children were admitted in the health facility. Participants in the 12 FGDs came from the 4 participating villages. Participants and key informants were fathers, younger and older mothers including grandmothers and other influential people at household level. Others were traditional healers, headmen, village secretaries, tradtional birth attendants, church leaders and black smiths. FGDs and interview transcriptions were coded to identify common themes that were related to recognition, classification and naming of malaria illness, care-seeking behaviour and community treatment practices for severe malaria. Results Parental prior knowledge of the disease was important as the majority of informants (23 out of 29 and participants (69 out of 97 mentioned four combined symptoms that were used to recognise severe malaria. The symptoms were excessive body hotness, convulsions, vomiting yellow things and bulging of the fontanelle. On the other hand, all informants mentioned two or more of symptoms associated with severe malaria. In all 12 FGDs, participants reported that treatment of severe malaria commenced with the family and moved into the community as the illness progressed. Although treatment of severe diarrheal effects, were common among the winamwanga, no rectal medicines to treat severe malaria were identified. Apart from the anti-malarial fansidar, which was mentioned by 23 in IDIs and 40 in FGDs, participants and informants also frequently mentioned indigenous medicines provided by healers and other respectable herbalists for repelling evil spirits, once a child had severe malaria. Mothers were the important arms for administration of ant-malarial drugs in the villages. Referrals began with healers to CHWs, where no CHWs existed healers directly referred sick children to the health facility. Conclusion Our findings showed that there is a precedent for rectal application of traditional medicine for childhood illness. Therefore rectal artesunate may be a well-received intervention in Nakonde District, provided effective sensitisation, to mothers and CHWs is given which will strengthen the health care delivery system at community level.

Tuba Mary

2005-03-01

45

Health worker perspectives on user fee removal in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background User fees for primary care services were removed in rural districts in Zambia in 2006. Experience from other countries has suggested that health workers play a key role in determining the success of a fee removal policy, but also find the implementation of such a policy challenging. The policy was introduced against a backdrop of a major shortage in qualified health staff. Methods As part of a larger study on the experience and effect of user...

Carasso Barbara S; Lagarde Mylene; Cheelo Caesar; Chansa Collins; Palmer Natasha

2012-01-01

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A qualitative study to identify community structures for management of severe malaria: a basis for introducing rectal artesunate in the under five years children in Nakonde District of Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Malaria is a serious illness among children aged 5 years and below in Zambia, which carries with it many adverse effects including anemia and high parasites exposure that lead to infant and childhood mortality. Due to poor accessibility to modern health facilities, malaria is normally managed at home using indigenous and cosmopolitan medicines. In view of problems and implications associated with management of severe malaria at home, rectal artesunate is b...

Ad, Kaona Frederick; Tuba Mary

2005-01-01

47

Local problems; local solutions: an innovative approach to investigating and addressing causes of maternal deaths in Zambia's Copperbelt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Maternal mortality in developing countries is high and international targets for reduction are unlikely to be met. Zambia's maternal mortality ratio was 591 per 100,000 live births according to survey data (2007) while routinely collected data captured only about 10% of these deaths. In one district in Zambia medical staff reviewed deaths occurring in the labour ward but no related recommendations were documented nor was there evidence of actions taken to ...

Hadley Mary B; Tuba Mary

2011-01-01

48

Adult Education Research in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyzes adult education research in Zambia and looks at how it has been undertaken and what else needs to be done. Highlights the paucity of research and the weaknesses in what has been completed. (JOW)

Mtonga, Harry L.

1991-01-01

49

Zambia : long-term generation expansion study - executive summary.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study is to analyze possible long-term development options of the Zambian electric power system in the period up to 2015. The analysis involved the hydro operations studies of the Zambezi river basin and the systems planning studies for the least-cost generation expansion planning. Two well-known and widely accepted computer models were used in the analysis: PC-VALORAGUA model for the hydro operations and optimization studies and the WASP-III Plus model for the optimization of long-term system development. The WASP-III Plus model is a part of the Argonne National Laboratory's Energy and Power Evaluation Model (ENPEP). The analysis was conducted in close collaboration with the Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO). On the initiative from The World Bank, the sponsor of the study, ZESCO formed a team of experts that participated in the analysis and were trained in the use of computer models. Both models were transferred to ZESCO free of charge and installed on several computers in the ZESCO corporate offices in Lusaka. In September-October 1995, two members of the ZESCO National Team participated in a 4-week training course at Argonne National Laboratory near Chicago, U.S.A., focusing on the long-term system expansion planning using the WASP and VALORAGUA models. The hydropower operations studies were performed for the whole Zambezi river basin, including the full installation of the Kariba power station, and the Cahora Bassa hydro power station in Mozambique. The analysis also included possible future projects such as Itezhi-Tezhi, Kafue Gorge Lower, and Batoka Gorge power stations. As hydropower operations studies served to determine the operational characteristics of the existing and future hydro power plants, it was necessary to simulate the whole Zambezi river basin in order to take into account all interactions and mutual influences between the hydro power plants. In addition, it allowed for the optimization of reservoir management and optimization of hydro cascades, resulting in the better utilization of available hydro potential. Numerous analyses were performed for different stages of system development. These include system configurations that correspond to years 1997, 2001, 2015 and 2020. Additional simulations were performed in order to determine the operational parameters of the three existing hydro power stations Victoria Falls, Kariba, and Kafue Gorge Upper, that correspond to the situation before and after their rehabilitation. The rehabilitation works for these three major power stations, that would bring their operational parameters and availability back to the design level, are planned to be carried out in the period until 2000. The main results of the hydro operations studies are presented in Table ES-1. These results correspond to VALORAGUA simulations of system configurations in the years 2001 and 2015. The minimum, average, and maximum electricity generation is based on the simulation of monthly water inflows that correspond to the chronological series of unregulated water inflows at each hydro profile in the period from April 1961 to March 1990. The recommended hydrology dataset provided in the Hydrology Report of the SADC Energy Project AAA 3.8 was used for this study.

Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Buehring, W.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

2008-02-28

50

Attitudes toward abortion in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite Zambia's relatively progressive abortion law, women continue to seek unsafe, illegal abortions. Four domains of abortion attitudes - support for legalization, immorality, rights, and access to services - were measured in 4 communities. A total of 668 people were interviewed. Associations among the 4 domains were inconsistent with expectations. The belief that abortion is immoral was widespread, but was not associated with lack of support for legalization. Instead, it was associated with belief that women need access to safe services. These findings suggest that increasing awareness about abortion law in Zambia may be important for encouraging more favorable attitudes. PMID:22920619

Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Gebreselassie, Hailemichael; Awah, Paschal; Pearson, Erin

2012-09-01

51

Zambia PV ESCO Project | Projects at SEI  

...Zambia PV ESCO Project | Projects at SEI Zambia PV ESCO Project | Projects at SEI GLOBAL STOCKHOLM YORK OXFORD TALLINN US ...AFRICA Home SEI Projects Projects Projects SEI Contact: Anders Arvidson Zambia PV ESCO Project The goal of this project was to examine the framework ...electricity services to rural populations through the formation of energy service companies (ESCOs). These companies would furnish houses with a solar system ...for the use of the panel and the service provided by the ESCO.To combat high poverty levels among the rural populations in Zambia,...

52

Health workforce responses to global health initiatives funding: a comparison of Malawi and Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Shortages of health workers are obstacles to utilising global health initiative (GHI funds effectively in Africa. This paper reports and analyses two countries' health workforce responses during a period of large increases in GHI funds. Methods Health facility record reviews were conducted in 52 facilities in Malawi and 39 facilities in Zambia in 2006/07 and 2008; quarterly totals from the last quarter of 2005 to the first quarter of 2008 inclusive in Malawi; and annual totals for 2004 to 2007 inclusive in Zambia. Topic-guided interviews were conducted with facility and district managers in both countries, and with health workers in Malawi. Results Facility data confirm significant scale-up in HIV/AIDS service delivery in both countries. In Malawi, this was supported by a large increase in lower trained cadres and only a modest increase in clinical staff numbers. Routine outpatient workload fell in urban facilities, in rural health centres and in facilities not providing antiretroviral treatment (ART, while it increased at district hospitals and in facilities providing ART. In Zambia, total staff and clinical staff numbers stagnated between 2004 and 2007. In rural areas, outpatient workload, which was higher than at urban facilities, increased further. Key informants described the effects of increased workloads in both countries and attributed staff migration from public health facilities to non-government facilities in Zambia to PEPFAR. Conclusions Malawi, which received large levels of GHI funding from only the Global Fund, managed to increase facility staff across all levels of the health system: urban, district and rural health facilities, supported by task-shifting to lower trained staff. The more complex GHI arena in Zambia, where both Global Fund and PEPFAR provided large levels of support, may have undermined a coordinated national workforce response to addressing health worker shortages, leading to a less effective response in rural areas.

Brugha Ruairí

2010-08-01

53

The impact of a feeder road project on cash crop production in Zambia's Eastern province between 1997 and 2002  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates the dynamic impacts of rural road improvements on farm productivity and crop choices in Zambia's Eastern Province. There are several channels through which the feeder road improvements impact on farmers. Our aim is to estimate whether the differential outcomes in the five treatment districts and three control districts generated by the expansion of market agricultural activities among small to medium scale farmers could be explained by rural road improvements that took...

2012-01-01

54

Nesting patterns of raptors; White backed vulture (Gyps africanus and African fish eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer, in Lochinvar National Park on the kafue flats, Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study assessed the nesting patterns of raptors, Gyps africanus and Haliaeetus vocifer in Lochinvar National Park. The main objective of the study was to determine whether tree species, height, girth size, and habitat influenced raptor’s nest placement within Lochinvar National Park. Two species were selected as indicator species for the raptors. Habitat types and tree species were identified and measurements of tree species with nests measured. It was found that the minimum height of nest placement was 10 meters above ground and Acacia woodland was found to be the most preferred habitat for nest placement. Raptors avoided human disturbance by placing their nests at least 100 meters away from human disturbance and from the National park boundary inwards or abandoning if human encroachment comes close to the nest. More research is required to assess nesting materials used, and to determine whether raptors can swap nets or return to the abandoned nests when human disturbance ceases.

Chansa Chomba

2013-08-01

55

Task-shifting: experiences and opinions of health workers in Mozambique and Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background This paper describes the task-shifting taking place in health centres and district hospitals in Mozambique and Zambia. The objectives of this study were to identify the perceived causes and factors facilitating or impeding task-shifting, and to determine both the positive and negative consequences of task-shifting for the service users, for the services and for health workers. Methods Data collection involved individual and group interviews a...

Ferrinho Paulo; Sidat Mohsin; Goma Fastone; Dussault Gilles

2012-01-01

56

Prevalence and correlates of obesity among Lusaka residents, Zambia: a population-based survey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Non-communicable lifestyle diseases are a growing public health concern globally. Obesity is a risk factor for premature mortality from cardiovascular diseases and diabetes as well as all-cause mortality. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence and associated factors for obesity among Zambian adults in Lusaka district. Methods A community-based study was done among adults in Zambia. Descriptive and co-relational analyses wer...

Rudatsikira Emmanuel; Muula Adamson S; Mulenga David; Siziya Seter

2012-01-01

57

Callings, work role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement among teachers in Zambia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Our aim in this study was to investigate the relationships among a calling orientation, work role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement of teachers in Zambia. A quantitative approach was followed and a cross-sectional survey was used. The sample (n = 150) included 75 basic and 75 sec [...] ondary school teachers in the Choma district of Zambia. The Work Role Fit Scale, Work-Life Questionnaire, Psychological Meaningfulness Scale, and Work Engagement Scale were administered. Structural equation modelling confirmed a model in which a calling orientation impacted psychological meaningfulness and work engagement significantly. A calling orientation impacted work engagement directly, while such work orientation impacted psychological meaningfulness indirectly via work role fit. The results suggest that it is necessary to address the work orientation and work role fit of teachers in Zambia as pathways to psychological meaningfulness and work engagement.These results have implications for the recruitment, selection, training, and development of teachers in Zambia.

Sebastiaan, Rothmann; Lukondo, Hamukang' andu.

58

Traditional Irrigation Practices, High Crop Diversification and Multiple Agricultural Cycles in Wastewater Irrigation Farming in Peru Urban Areas, Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies conducted on peri urban wastewater irrigation agriculture in Zambia have not adequately tackled issues pertaining to farmer managed irrigation systems in heavy metal contaminated wastewater irrigation farming.The study focused on characteristics of farmer managed irrigation systems in wastewater irrigation farming contaminated with heavy metals at New Farm in Mufulira and Chilumba Gardens in Kafue. The study objectives were to ascertain the nature of irrigation practices and types of crops grown at the two study sites in Zambia. It was hypothesised that: (i the nature of irrigation practices and types of crops were not significantly different at the two study sites in different seasons. (ii the agro-ecological factors did not significantly influence the nature of irrigation practices and types of crops. The method comprised observation of sources of water supply, methods of irrigation and types of crops grown coupled with agro-ecological factors such as soil, slope and drainage at field plots located at regular intervals along transects established in the stratified sampling zones. The results indicated that farmer managed irrigation systems at the two study sites were characterised by multiple sources of water supply, multiple methods of irrigation, relatively high number of crops per study site equivalent to twenty types of crops grown per study site and relatively high number of crops per field plot ranging from one crop to ten crops per field plot coupled with multiple cycles of agricultural practices. The nature of irrigation practices and types of crops were influenced by a combination of agro-ecological factors. In conclusion, the farmer managed irrigation systems in wastewater irrigation farming were characterised by traditional irrigation practices, high crop diversification and multiple cycles of agricultural practices which were typical of traditional farmer managed irrigation systems. It can be argued that the crop cultivators have adapted the rural traditional irrigation systems’ practices to the peri urban wastewater irrigation systems in Zambia which confirmed the findings from other studies in developing countries. The study findings will be used to select and implement appropriate agricultural practices which can mitigate the negative effects of heavy metal contamination.

Evaristo Mwaba Kapungwe

2013-12-01

59

Kitwe City Council: SINPA - Zambia final seminar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The following report gives the proceedings of the final workshop for the SINPA-Zambia Project held at The Ibis Gardens on the 8-9th April 2002. Four key objectives were expected to be met at the end of SINPA – Zambia Project. These are: • Improved capacity of the Kitwe City Council staff in strategic areas; • Capacity building institutions (CBIs) specifically, CBU start running activities relevant to local government and its partners; • Improvement of linkages betwee...

Nkonkomalimba, M.

2002-01-01

60

The University of Zambia School Teaching Experience: Is It Effective?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Teaching practice exercises serve the purpose of orienting the teacher into real classroom situations where the novice puts his or her skills into practice. Education students at the University of Zambia (UNZA go through the school teaching experience after their third year of study. This comes after they have arguably completed enough content and methodology courses to teach. The purpose of this study was to establish the effectiveness of the UNZA school teaching experience. The research instruments used were interview guides, observation checklists, and focus group discussions. The respondents included 80 serving teachers, 80 student teachers, and 10 head teachers drawn from 10 high schools in the Lusaka District. In addition, 10 lecturers from UNZA were also sampled. The findings revealed that the design and delivery of the UNZA student teaching experience was not effective.

Peter Chomba Manchishi

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
61

Spontaneously settled refugees in Northwestern Province, Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) commissioned researchers from the University of Zambia to conduct a socioeconomic survey and census of "spontaneously settled" Zairean and Angolan refugees in the Northwestern Province of Zambia in 1982. The sample consisted of 188 Angolans, 201 Zaireans, and 2 South Africans. The difficulties experienced by refugees in Northwestern Province in achieving integration were related to a combination of factors including the lack of a clear national policy on refugees and refugee status, a national concern for maintaining security, the popular belief that aliens are responsible for an increasing crime rate, the desire by immigration officials for stricter laws to control alien infiltration, conflict between traditional and modern leaders, and Zambia's deteriorating economic situation. In spite of the problems described, the integration of refugees into existing communities is a desirable goal and should be encouraged. One should not assume that self-settling refugees are able to live with ethnic kin, receive assistance and hospitality, and thus are better off than those in camps. The Zambian case provides ample evidence that integration is not easy even with kin support, shared ethnicity, language, and historical connections. Moreover, given the fact that Zambia will continue to receive refugees it is vital that there is a well defined refugee policy and an administrative mechanism for implementing that policy at all levels. This will be particularly important in Zambia as it will undoubtedly continue to receive large influxes of refugees, from countries such as Namibia, Uganda, Angola, Mozambique, and South Africa. PMID:12267853

Freund, P J; Kalumba, K

1986-01-01

62

The burden of knowing: balancing benefits and barriers in HIV testing decisions. a qualitative study from Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background Client-initiated HIV counselling and testing has been scaled up in many African countries, in the form of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT). Test rates have remained low, with HIV-related stigma being an important barrier to HIV testing. This study explored HIV testing decisions in one rural and one urban district in Zambia with high HIV prevalence and available antiretroviral treatment. Methods Data were collected throug...

Ju?rgensen, Marte; Tuba, Mary; Fylkesnes, Knut; Blystad, Astrid

2012-01-01

63

The burden of knowing: balancing benefits and barriers in HIV testing decisions. a qualitative study from Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Client-initiated HIV counselling and testing has been scaled up in many African countries, in the form of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT). Test rates have remained low, with HIV-related stigma being an important barrier to HIV testing. This study explored HIV testing decisions in one rural and one urban district in Zambia with high HIV prevalence and available antiretroviral treatment. Methods Data were collected through 17 in-depth i...

Jürgensen Marte; Tuba Mary; Fylkesnes Knut; Blystad Astrid

2012-01-01

64

The burden of knowing:balancing benefits and barriers in HIV testing decisions. a qualitative study from Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background Client-initiated HIV counselling and testing has been scaled up in many African countries, in the form of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT). Test rates have remained low, with HIV-related stigma being an important barrier to HIV testing. This study explored HIV testing decisions in one rural and one urban district in Zambia with high HIV prevalence and available antiretroviral treatment.

Methods Data were coll...

Ju?rgensen, Marte; Tuba, Mary; Fylkesnes, Knut; Blystad, Astrid

2012-01-01

65

Health worker perspectives on user fee removal in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background User fees for primary care services were removed in rural districts in Zambia in 2006. Experience from other countries has suggested that health workers play a key role in determining the success of a fee removal policy, but also find the implementation of such a policy challenging. The policy was introduced against a backdrop of a major shortage in qualified health staff. Methods As part of a larger study on the experience and effect of user fee removal in Zambia, a number of case studies at the facility level were conducted. As part of these, quantitative and qualitative data were collected to evaluate health workers’ satisfaction and experiences in charging and non-charging facilities. Results Our findings show that health-care workers have mixed feelings about the policy change and its consequences. We found some evidence that personnel motivation was higher in non-charging facilities compared to facilities still charging. Yet it is unclear whether this effect was due to differences in the user fee policy or to the fact that a lot of staff interviewed in non-charging facilities were working in mission facilities, where we found a significantly higher motivation. Health workers expressed satisfaction with an apparent increase in the number of patients visiting the facilities and the removal of a deterring factor for many needy patients, but also complained about an increased workload. Furthermore, working conditions were said to have worsened, which staff felt was linked to the absence of additional resources to deal with the increased demand or replace the loss of revenue generated by fees. Conclusion These findings highlight the need to pay attention to supply-side measures when removing demand-side barriers such as user fees and in particular to be concerned about the burden that increased demand can place on already over-stretched health workers.

Carasso Barbara S

2012-10-01

66

77 FR 66797 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

...Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International...Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia scheduled for November...Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia scheduled for...

2012-11-07

67

77 FR 60966 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

...Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International...Executive- Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia scheduled for November...Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia. Recruitment for...

2012-10-05

68

Fairness and legitimacy of decisions during delivery of malaria services and ITN interventions in zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and the second leading cause of mortality in Zambia. Perceptions of fairness and legitimacy of decisions relating to treatment of malaria cases within public health facilities and distribution of ITNs were assessed in a district in Zambia. The study was conducted within the framework of REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT), a north-south collaborative action research study, which evaluates the Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) approach to priority setting in Zambia, Tanzania and Kenya. Methods This paper is based on baseline in-depth interviews (IDIs) conducted with 38 decision-makers, who were involved in prioritization of malaria services and ITN distribution at district, facility and community levels in Zambia, one Focus Group Discussion (FGD) with District Health Management Team managers and eight FGDs with outpatients' attendees. Perceptions and attitudes of providers and users and practices of providers were systematized according to the four AFR conditions relevance, publicity, appeals and leadership. Results Conflicting criteria for judging fairness were used by decision-makers and patients. Decision-makers argued that there was fairness in delivery of malaria treatment and distribution of ITNs based on alleged excessive supply of free malaria medicines, subsidized ITNs, and presence of a qualified health-provider in every facility. Patients argued that there was unfairness due to differences in waiting time, distances to health facilities, erratic supply of ITNs, no responsive appeal mechanisms, inadequate access to malaria medicines, ITNs and health providers, and uncaring providers. Decision-makers only perceived government bodies and donors/NGOs to be legitimate stakeholders to involve during delivery. Patients found government bodies, patients, indigenous healers, chiefs and politicians to be legitimate stakeholders during both planning and delivery. Conclusion Poor status of the AFR conditions of relevance, publicity, appeals and leadership corresponds well to the differing perceptions of fairness and unfairness among outpatient attendees and decision-makers. This may have been re-enforced by existing disagreements between the two groups regarding who the legitimate stakeholders to involve during service delivery were. Conflicts identified in this study could be resolved by promoting application of approaches such as AFR during priority setting in the district.

2010-01-01

69

Livestock sector in Zambia: Opportunities and limitations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zambia is endowed with a vast feed resource base for animal production purposes. However, the feed resource base is not fully utilised and this is manifested by low livestock productivity. The quality and production levels of animal products depend largely on the quality and quantity of feed, which is fed to the livestock. Among the constraints limiting livestock productivity in Zambia, insufficient and low quality of veld grass, particularly during the long dry season (March-November) is responsible for low production levels and poor reproductive performance in ruminants. The problem of inadequate veld grass can be overcome by feeding crop residues which are in abundance during the dry season. Zambia produces large quantities of sugarcane tops, bagasse and straws from maize, sorghum, wheat, millet and rice. These could sustain livestock productivity if supplemented with protein sources or treated with urea. Despite the production of large quantities of crop residues, these are wasted by burning or get destroyed by termites. There is a need, therefore, to develop feeding systems based on crop residues which are compatible with the farming systems in Zambia and to promote such feeding systems. (author)

2002-06-01

70

Economic prospects of food irradiation in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Instances of economic benefits which are likely to be considered when introducing food irradiation as an industrial and commercial food processing method in Zambia are discussed from a point of view of increasing both the local and external marketing potential of various local food commodities. The present status of the food irradiation programme is also briefly discussed. (author)

1985-03-04

71

From project aid to sustainable HIV services: a case study from Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sustainable service delivery is a major challenge in the HIV response that is often not adequately addressed in project implementation. Sustainable strategies must be built into project design and implementation to enable HIV efforts to continue long after donor-supported projects are completed. Case description This paper presents the experiences in operational sustainability of Family Health International's Zambia Prevention, Care and Treatment Partnership in Zambia, which is supported by the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief through United States Agency for International Development (October 2004 to September 2009. The partnership worked with Zambia's Ministry of Health to scale up HIV clinical services in five of the country's nine provinces, reaching 35 districts and 219 facilities. It provided technical and financial support from within the ministry's systems and structures. By completion of the project, 10 of the 35 districts had graduated beyond receiving ongoing technical support. Discussion and evaluation By working within the ministry's policies, structures and systems, the partnership was able to increase the ministry's capacity to add a comprehensive HIV service delivery component to its health services. Ministry structures were improved through renovations of health facilities, training of healthcare workers, procurement of essential equipment, and establishment of a quality assurance plan to ensure continued quality of care. The quality assurance tools were implemented by both the ministry and project staff as the foundation for technical graduation. Facilities that met all the quality criteria for more than six months were graduated from project technical support, as were districts where most supported facilities met the criteria. The district health offices then provided ongoing supervision of services. This predetermined "graduation" exit strategy, with buy in of the provincial and district health offices, set the stage for continued delivery of high-quality HIV services. Conclusions Achieving operational sustainability in a resource-limited setting is feasible. Developing and institutionalizing a quality assurance/quality improvement system is the basis on which facilities and districts can move beyond project support and, therefore, sustain services. Quality assurance/quality improvement tools should be based on national standards, and project implementation should use and improve existing health system structures.

Torpey Kwasi

2010-06-01

72

Improvement of power supply reliability : Case Study: Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis studied reliability of power supply in Zambia following two major power blackouts that affected the whole country. The case study focussed on the generation and transmission network owned by Zambia?s biggest utility company Zesco. Three methods of study were selected. The first method looked at the transient stability simulations of Zesco generators when subjected to a large disturbance after a three phase short circuit was applied at three selected buses which are considered...

Tambatamba, Terence

2009-01-01

73

Conservation tillage with animal draught in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Golden Valley Agricultural Research Trust (GART) investigates the possibilities for the introduction of conservation tillage to small farmers in the (semi-arid) central and southern provinces of Zambia. Major emphasis is given to the implementation of conservation tillage by using animal drawn rippers, as an alternative to conventional mouldboard ploughing. This simple technology has already proven (by on-station research and on-farm adaptive trials) to be quite successful in being able t...

Hoogmoed, W. B.; Stevens, P. A.; Muliokela, S. W.

2003-01-01

74

Uranium distribution in drainage samples, Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper discusses the results of Uranium content analyses of samples collected on a country wide survey using fluorimetry.The analysis of the survey samples and based on the threshold of 3.0 ppm U established three possible Uranium provinces in Zambia,namely: the Bangweulu; the Kabwe-Mkushi; and in scattered pockets in the Petauke,Chipata,Lundazi,Kasempa,Mwinilunga,Mumbwa and Mpika areas.13 refs.,fig.,3 maps

1993-03-01

75

Status of radioactive waste management in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zambia being part of the world community clearly understands that careless handling of radioactive waste would cause problems - worldwide - for human health, for the environment and natural resources management. It is for this reason that the Radiation Protection Board has initiated a Radioactive Waste Management Programme covering the following areas: (i) Legislation of Radioactive Waste Management; (ii) Immobilization of spent sealed radioactive sources; and (iii) Siting and construction of an interim storage facility. (author)

1995-12-01

76

Building opportunities and partnerships in Zambia, Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper explores opportunities in Zambia, Africa for the US and other developed nations to extend building technologies that can potentially reduce global greenhouse gas emissions and also support mutual economic development and environmental quality benefits. About ninety percent of the agrarian population in Zambia live in buildings constructed of wooden sticks and native grasses. Energy for these homes is primarily limited to wood and charcoal for heating and cooking. The countryside and ambient air are tainted by smoke from smoldering wood from production of charcoal for local and export markets. Cooking and heating appliances are extremely primitive, inefficient, and unhealthy. Opportunities exist to develop building technologies that use cleaner burning coal briquettes for fuel, improve efficiency of cooking stoves, improve conditions for human health, construct more energy-efficient buildings, and stimulate economic development. External financial and technical support for such development would yield investor benefits including market entry or expansion in a resource rich developing county, low capital investment costs, low labor costs, and greenhouse gas mitigation and offset opportunities. Zambia is too rich in natural and human resources to be so poor. Building infrastructure and community development can establish a foundation for sustainable economic development and environmental quality for the whole world to enjoy.

Decot, M.E.

1998-07-01

77

District heating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The papers presented at this meeting dealt with an international comparison of district heating, the Swiss district heating network, political aspects of nuclear district heating, nuclear and non-nuclear sources for district heating. 17 figs., 6 tabs

1989-01-01

78

Willemite Mineralisation in Namibia and Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Willemite mineralisation of several Zn-Pb deposits hosted in the Proterozoic carbonates of Namibia and Zambia has been rather neglected in the literature on zinc ores of southern Africa. In fact, willemite (Zn2SiO4) is one of the main zinc carriers in several high-grade carbonate-hosted non-sulphide deposits and prospects, located in the southern African subcontinent. These deposits (Berg Aukas, Abenab West and Baltika in the Otavi Mountain Land, Namibia; Kabwe, Excelsior and Star Zinc, Zambi...

2008-01-01

79

Development of radiation protection infrastructure in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive materials have been in use in Zambia for a long time and its applications are non-military and mostly are used in medicine, research, teaching and industry. Radioactive waste management practices have been confined mainly to collection and storage of radioactive wastes in temporal storage facilities or strong rooms. With the proposed establishment of the Radiotherapy Centre, the increase of radioactive materials in the country's hospitals, research centres and industries, the volume and types of radioactive wastes on the whole is expected to increase requiring a well defined radiation infrastructure. (author)

2003-09-01

80

Pressure to ban "sexual cleansing" in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Women's groups are campaigning in Zambia to criminalize sexual cleansing, a practice in which a widow (usually) or widower must have sexual relations with a relative of the dead spouse in order to be rid of the spouse's ghost. It is believed that future sexual partners of the surviving spouse will go mad or die if this is not done. The National Women's Lobby Group is asking for parliamentary legislation banning the practice. The Family Life Movement is unsupportive of the practice, but believes legislation will not stop this ingrained part of the culture. The Society for Women Against AIDS in Zambia (SWAAZ) agrees that legislation will do nothing; however, education that changes people's attitudes might. Deputy Health Minister, Dr. Kalumba, believes legislation would protect vulnerable groups, but would not make people change their lifestyles. To promote such a change, the Ministry has begun a community project that includes workshops and seminars aimed at traditional leaders, healers, and ordinary people. The YWCA has convinced people to conduct nonsexual cleansing. In this era of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), sexual cleansing can be deadly. PMID:12288604

Kunda, A

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Possibilities of Electoral Reform in Zambia : A Study on Electoral Systems in Zambia and its Consequences  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The topic of this thesis is electoral systems and electoral reform in Zambia. In Africa, democratization is on its way in many countries. However, the democratic upswing in the early 1990s was in most countries followed by a standstill. In recent years the tendency has been a renewal of democratization which makes it possible to reach new heights. As a part of this recent democratic progress questions regarding constitutional reform and electoral reform have been raised. It is within...

Ekdahl, Oscar

2007-01-01

82

Trade liberalisation in Zambia : popular discourses on trade liberalisation in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study is to analyse the discourses on trade liberalization in Zambia. In 1991, the Zambian government embarked on a series of structural adjustment reforms which included the opening up of the economy to international trade through the dismantling of the then existing trade barriers. Since then, poverty levels in the country have increased and industry has failed to tick. Various opposing reasons have been given as to why the country has failed to benefit from a liberalised ec...

2006-01-01

83

Overview of the Current Food Security Crisis in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Zambia was economically prosperous at independence (1964), due to the thriving copper industry. Zambia has the potential to expand agricultural production. However, it is estimated that only 14% of total agricultural land is currently being utilized. Agriculture generates about 22% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and provides direct livelihood to more than 50% of the population. The agricultural sector employs 67% of the labor force and it is the main source of income and provides employment ...

Samatebele, Helen M.

2003-01-01

84

Constitution making in Zambia : the need for a new perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"While public participation in constitution-making is recognised under international law, its extent is not elaborated. This has resulted in governments pursuing constitution-making processes that, despite involving public participation, do not involve meaningful public participation. As shall be illustrated in this study, this is the dilemma faced in Zambia. Zambia has experienced constitutional instability since independence. It has had four constitutions since then, and is currently in the...

Wamunyima, Mbololwa

2006-01-01

85

Consumption behaviour in Zambia : the linkage to poverty alleviation?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to be able to suggest viable solutions to the overwhelming problem of poverty on the African continent, it is first necessary to know exactly what is causing that poverty. It is the intention of this paper to measure welfare in Zambia, via an estimated consumption function, and then to compare this estimated consumption to the levels of poverty, or subsistence level consumption expenditure, in Zambia. The objective is to understand the underlying determinants and depth...

Ludi, Kirsten L.

2006-01-01

86

77 FR 48498 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

...Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International...Executive- Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia scheduled for November...S. Consulate, Johannesburg, South Africa, Tel: +55-11...

2012-08-14

87

Can family planning outreach bridge the urban-rural divide in Zambia?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Zambia experienced declining aggregate fertility and increasing aggregate contraceptive use from 1990 to 2000. Yet, in rural Zambia, progress in family planning has lagged far behind the advances made in Zambia's urban areas. The contraceptive prevalence rate in Lusaka and other urban areas outstripped the rate in rural Zambia by nearly 25 percentage points (41.2 percent versus 16.6 percent) in 2001. The total fertility rate varied between urban and rural ...

White Justin S; Speizer Ilene S

2007-01-01

88

Developing a strategic marketing plan for the Zambia Tourism Board in China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this thesis is to research how the Zambian Government through the use of the Zambia ?Tourist Board can increase awareness of Zambia’s various tourist attractions, its geographical position, and ?differentiate the country from its competitors as an African tourist destination.?

Kasongo, Mulenga Ablbertina

2011-01-01

89

Nesting patterns of raptors; White backed vulture (Gyps africanus) and African fish eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer), in Lochinvar National Park on the kafue flats, Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study assessed the nesting patterns of raptors, Gyps africanus and Haliaeetus vocifer in Lochinvar National Park. The main objective of the study was to determine whether tree species, height, girth size, and habitat influenced raptor’s nest placement within Lochinvar National Park. Two species were selected as indicator species for the raptors. Habitat types and tree species were identified...

Chansa Chomba; Eneya M’Simuko

2013-01-01

90

From chloroquine to artemether-lumefantrine: the process of drug policy change in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the recognition that morbidity and mortality due to malaria had dramatically increased in the last three decades, in 2002 the government of Zambia reviewed its efforts to prevent and treat malaria. Convincing evidence of the failing efficacy of chloroquine resulted in the initiation of a process that eventually led to the development and implementation of a new national drug policy based on artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT. Methods All published and unpublished documented evidence dealing with the antimalarial drug policy change was reviewed. These data were supplemented by the authors' observations of the policy change process. The information has been structured to capture the timing of events, the challenges encountered, and the resolutions reached in order to achieve implementation of the new treatment policy. Results A decision was made to change national drug policy to artemether-lumefantrine (AL in the first quarter of 2002, with a formal announcement made in October 2002. During this period, efforts were undertaken to identify funding for the procurement of AL and to develop new malaria treatment guidelines, training materials, and plans for implementation of the policy. In order to avoid a delay in implementation, the policy change decision required a formal adoption within existing legislation. Starting with donated drug, a phased deployment of AL began in January 2003 with initial use in seven districts followed by scaling up to 28 districts in the second half of 2003 and then to all 72 districts countrywide in early 2004. Conclusion Drug policy changes are not without difficulties and demand a sustained international financing strategy for them to succeed. The Zambian experience demonstrates the need for a harmonized national consensus among many stakeholders and a political commitment to ensure that new policies are translated into practice quickly. To guarantee effective policies requires more effort and recognition that this becomes a health system and not a drug issue. This case study attempts to document the successful experience of change to ACT in Zambia and provides a realistic overview of some of the painful experiences and important lessons learnt.

Snow Robert W

2008-01-01

91

Task-shifting: experiences and opinions of health workers in Mozambique and Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the task-shifting taking place in health centres and district hospitals in Mozambique and Zambia. The objectives of this study were to identify the perceived causes and factors facilitating or impeding task-shifting, and to determine both the positive and negative consequences of task-shifting for the service users, for the services and for health workers. Methods Data collection involved individual and group interviews and focus group discussions with health workers from the civil service. Results In both the Republic of Mozambique and the Republic of Zambia, health workers have to practice beyond the traditional scope of their professional practice to cope with their daily tasks. They do so to ensure that their patients receive the level of care that they, the health workers, deem due to them, even in the absence of written instructions. The “out of professional scope” activities consume a significant amount of working time. On occasions, health workers are given on-the-job training to assume new roles, but job titles and rewards do not change, and career progression is unheard of. Ancillary staff and nurses are the two cadres assuming a greater diversity of functions as a result of improvised task-shifting. Conclusions Our observations show that the consequences of staff deficits and poor conditions of work include heavier workloads for those on duty, the closure of some services, the inability to release staff for continuing education, loss of quality, conflicts with patients, risks for patients, unsatisfied staff (with the exception of ancillary staff and hazards for health workers and managers. Task-shifting is openly acknowledged and widespread, informal and carries risks for patients, staff and management.

Ferrinho Paulo

2012-09-01

92

The political economy of maize production and poverty reduction in Zambia: analysis of the last 50 years.  

Science.gov (United States)

Poverty and food security are endemic issues in much of sub-Saharan Africa. To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger in the region remains a key Millennium Development Goal. Many African governments have pursued economic reforms and agricultural policy interventions in order to accelerate economic growth that reduces poverty faster. Agricultural policy regimes in Zambia in the last 50 years (1964–2008) are examined here to better understand their likely impact on food security and poverty, with an emphasis on the political economy of maize subsidy policies. The empirical work draws on secondary sources and an evaluation of farm household data from three villages in the Kasama District of Zambia from 1986/87 and 1992/93 to estimate a two-period econometric model to examine the impact on household welfare in a pre- and post-reform period. The analysis shows that past interventions had mixed effects on enhancing the production of food crops such as maize. While such reforms were politically popular, it did not necessarily translate into household-level productivity or welfare gains in the short term. The political economy of reforms needs to respond to the inherent diversity among the poor rural and urban households. The potential of agriculture to generate a more pro-poor growth process depends on the creation of new market opportunities that most benefit the rural poor. The state should encourage private sector investments for addressing infrastructure constraints to improve market access and accelerate more pro-poor growth through renewed investments in agriculture, rural infrastructure, gender inclusion, smarter subsidies and regional food trade. However, the financing of such investments poses significant challenges. There is a need to address impediments to the effective participation of public private investors to generate more effective poverty reduction and hunger eradication programmes. This article also explores the opportunities for new public–private investments through South–South cooperation and Asia-driven growth for reducing poverty in Zambia. PMID:22213879

Hanjra, Munir A; Culas, Richard J

2011-01-01

93

The economic value of an improved malaria treatment programme in Zambia: results from a contingent valuation survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Zambia is facing a double crisis of increasing malaria burden and dwindling capacity to deal with the endemic malaria burden. The pursuit of sustainable but equity mechanisms for financing malaria programmes is a subject of crucial policy discussion. This requires that comprehensive accounting of the economic impact of the various malaria programmes. Information on the economic value of programmes is essential in soliciting appropriate funding allocations for malaria control. Aims and objectives This paper specifically seeks to elicit a measure of the economic benefits of an improved malaria treatment programme in Zambia. The paper also studies the equity implications in malaria treatment given that demand or malaria treatment is determined by household socio-economic status. Methods A contingent valuation survey of about 300 Zambian households was conducted in four districts. Willingness-to-pay (WTP was elicited for an improved treatment programme for malaria in order to generate a measure of the economic benefits of the programme. The payment card method was used in eliciting WTP bids. Findings The study reports that malaria treatment has significant economic benefits to society. The total economic benefits of an improved treatment programme were estimated at an equivalent of US$ 77 million per annum, representing about 1.8% of Zambia's GDP. The study also reports the theoretically anticipated association between WTP and several socio-economic factors. Our income elasticity of demand is positive and similar in magnitude to estimates reported in similar studies. Finally, from an equity standpoint, the constraints imposed by income and socio-economic status are discussed.

Rehnberg Clas

2005-12-01

94

A survey of pre-harvest ear rot diseases of maize and associated mycotoxins in south and central Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maize ear rots reduce grain yield and quality with implication on food security and health. Some of the pathogenic fungi produce mycotoxins in maize grain posing a health risk to humans and livestock. Unfortunately, the levels of ear rot and mycotoxin infection in grain produced by subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan countries are not known. A survey was thus conducted to determine the prevalence of the ear rot problem and levels of mycotoxins in maize grain. A total of 114 farmsteads were randomly sampled from 11 districts in Lusaka and southern provinces in Zambia during 2006. Ten randomly picked cobs were examined per farmstead and the ear rot disease incidence and severity were estimated on site. This was followed by the standard seed health testing procedures for fungal isolation in the laboratory. Results indicated that the dominant ear rots were caused by Fusarium and Stenocarpella. Incidence of Fusarium verticillioides ranged from 2 to 21%, whereas that of Stenocarpella maydis reached 37% on ear rot diseased maize grain. In addition, 2-7% F. verticillioides, and 3-18% Aspergillus flavus, respectively, were recovered from seemingly healthy maize grain. The mean rank of fungal species, from highest to lowest, was F. verticillioides, S. maydis, A. flavus, Fusarium graminearum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp., Botrydiplodia spp., and Cladosporium spp. The direct competitive ELISA-test indicated higher levels of fumonisins than aflatoxins in pre-harvest maize grain samples. The concentration of fumonisins from six districts, and aflatoxin from two districts, was 10-fold higher than 2 ppm and far higher than 2 ppb maximum daily intake recommended by the FAO/WHO. The study therefore suggested that subsistence farmers and consumers in this part of Zambia, and maybe also in similar environments in sub-Saharan Africa, might be exposed to dangerous levels of mycotoxins due to the high levels of ear rot infections in maize grain. PMID:20626099

Mukanga, Mweshi; Derera, John; Tongoona, Pangirayi; Laing, Mark D

2010-07-15

95

Identifying barriers to the availability and use of Magnesium Sulphate Injection in resource poor countries: A case study in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are serious complications of pregnancy and major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. According to systematic reviews and WHO guidelines magnesium sulphate injection (MgSO4 should be the first -line treatment for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Studies have shown that this safe and effective medicine is unavailable and underutilized in many resource poor countries. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to the availability and use of MgSO4 in the Zambian Public Health System. Methods A 'fishbone' (Ishikawa diagram listing probable facilitators to the availability and use of MgSO4 identified from the literature was used to develop an assessment tool. Barriers to availability and use of MgSO4 were assessed at the regulatory/government, supply, procurement, distribution, health facility and health professional levels. The assessment was completed during August 2008 using archival data, and observations at a pragmatic sample of health facilities providing obstetric services in Lusaka District, Zambia. Results The major barrier to the availability of MgSO4 within the public health system in Zambia was lack of procurement by the Ministry of Health. Other barriers identified included a lack of demand by health professionals at the health centre level and a lack of in-service training in the use of MgSO4. Where there was demand by obstetricians, magnesium sulphate injection was being procured from the private sector by the hospital pharmacy despite not being registered and licensed for use for the treatment of severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia by the national Pharmaceutical Regulatory Authority. Conclusions The case study in Zambia highlights the complexities that underlie making essential medicines available and used appropriately. The fishbone diagram is a useful theoretical framework for illustrating the complexity of translating research findings into clinical practice. A better understanding of the supply system and of the pattern of demand for MgSO4 in Zambia should enable policy makers and stakeholders to develop and implement appropriate interventions to improve the availability and use of MgSO4.

Hill Suzanne R

2010-12-01

96

Mapping the geographical distribution of lymphatic filariasis in Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Past case reports have indicated that lymphatic filariasis (LF) occurs in Zambia, but knowledge about its geographical distribution and prevalence pattern, and the underlying potential environmental drivers, has been limited. As a background for planning and implementation of control, a country-wide mapping survey was undertaken between 2003 and 2011. Here the mapping activities are outlined, the findings across the numerous survey sites are presented, and the ecological requirements of the LF distribution are explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Approximately 10,000 adult volunteers from 108 geo-referenced survey sites across Zambia were examined for circulating filarial antigens (CFA) with rapid format ICT cards, and a map indicating the distribution of CFA prevalences in Zambia was prepared. 78% of survey sites had CFA positive cases, with prevalences ranging between 1% and 54%. Most positive survey sites had low prevalence, but six foci with more than 15% prevalence were identified. The observed geographical variation in prevalence pattern was examined in more detail using a species distribution modeling approach to explore environmental requirements for parasite presence, and to predict potential suitable habitats over unsurveyed areas. Of note, areas associated with human modification of the landscape appeared to play an important role for the general presence of LF, whereas temperature (measured as averaged seasonal land surface temperature) seemed to be an important determinant of medium-high prevalence levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: LF was found to be surprisingly widespread in Zambia, although in most places with low prevalence. The produced maps and the identified environmental correlates of LF infection will provide useful guidance for planning and start-up of geographically targeted and cost-effective LF control in Zambia.

Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Simonsen, Paul Erik

2014-01-01

97

Mapping the Geographical Distribution of Lymphatic Filariasis in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Past case reports have indicated that lymphatic filariasis (LF) occurs in Zambia, but knowledge about its geographical distribution and prevalence pattern, and the underlying potential environmental drivers, has been limited. As a background for planning and implementation of control, a country-wide mapping survey was undertaken between 2003 and 2011. Here the mapping activities are outlined, the findings across the numerous survey sites are presented, and the ecological requirements of the LF distribution are explored. Methodology/Principal findings Approximately 10,000 adult volunteers from 108 geo-referenced survey sites across Zambia were examined for circulating filarial antigens (CFA) with rapid format ICT cards, and a map indicating the distribution of CFA prevalences in Zambia was prepared. 78% of survey sites had CFA positive cases, with prevalences ranging between 1% and 54%. Most positive survey sites had low prevalence, but six foci with more than 15% prevalence were identified. The observed geographical variation in prevalence pattern was examined in more detail using a species distribution modeling approach to explore environmental requirements for parasite presence, and to predict potential suitable habitats over unsurveyed areas. Of note, areas associated with human modification of the landscape appeared to play an important role for the general presence of LF, whereas temperature (measured as averaged seasonal land surface temperature) seemed to be an important determinant of medium-high prevalence levels. Conclusions/significance LF was found to be surprisingly widespread in Zambia, although in most places with low prevalence. The produced maps and the identified environmental correlates of LF infection will provide useful guidance for planning and start-up of geographically targeted and cost-effective LF control in Zambia.

Mwase, Enala T.; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Nsakashalo-Senkwe, Mutale; Mubila, Likezo; Mwansa, James; Songolo, Peter; Shawa, Sheila T.; Simonsen, Paul E.

2014-01-01

98

36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.  

Science.gov (United States)

...The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28...The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. ...District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

2009-07-01

99

7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia. 319...56-48 Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia. Baby squash (Curcurbita maxima...

2010-01-01

100

Local problems; local solutions: an innovative approach to investigating and addressing causes of maternal deaths in Zambia's Copperbelt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality in developing countries is high and international targets for reduction are unlikely to be met. Zambia's maternal mortality ratio was 591 per 100,000 live births according to survey data (2007 while routinely collected data captured only about 10% of these deaths. In one district in Zambia medical staff reviewed deaths occurring in the labour ward but no related recommendations were documented nor was there evidence of actions taken to avert further deaths. The Investigate Maternal Deaths and Act (IMDA approach was designed to address these deficiencies and is comprised of four components; identification of maternal deaths; investigation of factors contributing to the deaths; recommendations for action drawn up by multiple stakeholders and monitoring of progress through existing systems. Methods A pilot was conducted in one district of Zambia. Maternal deaths occurring over a period of twelve months were identified and investigated. Data was collected through in-depth interviews with family, focus group discussions and hospital records. The information was summarized and presented at eleven data sharing meetings to key decision makers, during which recommendations for action were drawn up. An output indicator to monitor progress was included in the routine performance assessment tool. High impact interventions were identified using frequency analysis. Results A total of 56 maternal deaths were investigated. Poor communication, existing risk factors, a lack of resources and case management issues were the broad categories under which contributing factors were assigned. Sixty three recommendations were drawn up by key decision-makers of which two thirds were implemented by the end of the pilot period. Potential high impact actions were related to management of AIDS and pregnancy, human resources, referral mechanisms, birth planning at household level and availability of safe blood. Conclusion In resource constrained settings the IMDA approach promotes the use of existing systems to reduce maternal mortality. In turn the capacity of local health officers to use data to determine, plan and implement relevant interventions that address the local factors contributing to maternal deaths is strengthened. Monitoring actions taken against the defined recommendations within the routine performance assessment ensures sustainability. Suggestions for further research are provided.

Hadley Mary B

2011-05-01

 
 
 
 
101

Prevalence and correlates of concurrent sexual partnerships in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concurrent partnerships may cause more rapid spread of HIV in a population. We examined how the prevalence of parallel relationships changed among men and women aged 15-49 in Zambia from 1998 to 2003 using data collected during the Sexual Behavior Surveys 1998, 2000, and 2003. Predictors of concurrent partnerships among men were studied by univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Thirteen percent of rural and 8% of urban men reported more than one ongoing relationship in 1998, and these proportions declined to 8% and 6%, respectively in 2003. The proportion of women reporting concurrent relationships was 0-2%. The most important predictors of concurrency were early sexual debut, being married, early marriage and absence from home. The reduction in concurrent sexual partnerships is consistent with reductions in other sexual risk behaviors found in other studies and may have contributed to the recently observed decline in HIV prevalence in Zambia. PMID:18841461

Sandøy, Ingvild F; Dzekedzeke, Kumbutso; Fylkesnes, Knut

2010-02-01

102

Airborne gamma-ray spectrometric surveys in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During 1967-1976 five airborne geophysical surveys, covering almost the whole country, were carried out in Zambia. In every case magnetic total field and gamma-ray spectrometer measurements were made. In the Western Province the spectrometer measurements do not cover the Kalahari area. Four of these surveys have been made on behalf of the Government of Zambia. They were done in order to speed up mineral prospecting and also to diversify mining activities from the Copperbelt to other parts of the country. A summary of the airborne gamma-ray spectrometer surveys with short comments on the results and outlines of the analysis of survey data as well as the follow-up work are given. (author)

1977-11-18

103

Report to the government of Zambia. Radiation protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the request of the Government of the Republic of Zambia, the International Atomic Energy Agency set up a technical assistance project to supply an expert plus some equipment, commencing 1 October 1971 and of one year's duration. The project was to expand Zambia's radiation protection service through monitoring of radiation doses, radiation sources, and premises, and provide advise related to the safe handling of sources of ionizing radiation. Upon arrival the expert found that some of these activities had been initiated. The key measures therefore were to establish channels of communication and authority, survey the state of radiation safety and protective measures, and coordination of protective and control measures. On these lines the Ionising Radiation Act is stated to show how its establishment and organizational structure could assist in the implementation of radiation protection measures. maps

1971-10-01

104

Innovation District  

Science.gov (United States)

Many cities are working to create innovation districts in the vein of the Silicon Valley and it can be an up-hill battle. Boston is currently working just such a district in its Seaport neighborhood and has been the recent subject of many articles, blog posts, and general discussion. As the city's official website for the district, visitors to this site can learn about physical headquarters in the District Hall building, along with details on long-term strategy, and upcoming events. Some recent posts deal with co-working spaces, networking, and more. In the Resources area visitors can learn about the various innovative businesses that are already in the neighborhood, along with others in and around Boston.

105

Pentastomes (Pentastomida, Armillifer armillatus Wyman, 1848) in snakes from Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Twenty-three snakes, belonging to eight different species, were collected from rural areas of Zambia and inspected for the presence of pentastomes. Pentastomid parasites were found in four snakes: one African rock python (Python sebae), one puff adder (Bitis arietans) and two Mozambique spitting cobras (Naja mossambica) were infested with a small number of Armillifer armillatus, respectively five, two and one adult parasites. As humans can be incidental/intermediate hosts for reptilian pentas...

1999-01-01

106

Investigating trends in HIV transmission and risk factors in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of HIV surveillance is to document trends in HIV prevalence and transmission risk in order to make informed policies and to guide prevention and care/treatment programmes. Zambia established a comprehensive HIV surveillance system in 1994 that provides data on prevalence trends in both urban and rural areas based on over 20 sentinel sites using data from antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees. Furthermore, population-based HIV surveys have been conducted regularly since 1995 in select...

Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard

2008-01-01

107

Knowledge, attitude and compliance with tuberculosis treatment, Lusaka, Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

More than 1.5 million TB cases occur in sub-Saharan Africa every year. Lack of compliance to TB treatment has contributed to the steady rise of TB incidence in Zambia. The prevalence of TB was 511 per 100,000 population in 2000. Much of the increase in incidence has been attributed to co-infection with HIV, there are HIV rates of 70-80% in TB patients

Mweemba, P.; Haruzivishe, C.; Siziya, Seter; Chipimo, Peter Jay; Cristenson, K.; Johansson, E.

2008-01-01

108

Reporting livestock disease information in Zambia: constraints and challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A desk and field study was conducted to quantify the flow of veterinary information between the livestock owner and the various levels of the veterinary department in Zambia. The studies were conducted in the Eastern Province, a major livestock keeping area. Results from the survey indicate that, although information is exchanged, reporting to the highest level is erratic. The repercussions of such irregular reporting are discussed.

Mataa, L.

2005-01-01

109

Tutoring Finnish exchange students in Zambia : experiences of clinical tutors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore the experiences of clinical tutors that were involved with tutoring incoming international exchange students from Finland in Zambia, and to find out what their views are on the development of clinical tutoring in their own institutions by using the following research Questions: 1) What kind of experiences do the teachers/tutors have while tutoring foreign exchange students in the university teaching hospitals? 2) What issues are related to ...

Seppa?, Anja

2009-01-01

110

Improvement of wheat in Zambia using incomplete resistance against rusts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The programme of wheat improvement developed in Zambia used local facilities (finance, personnel, infrastructure), low budget, and few personnel. Incomplete resistance against rusts was used to obtain durable resistance.The abiotic conditions, socio-economic status of the farmers, cropping methods, economic aims of wheat production and the status of research are described. Pests and diseases are discussed including some which are yet of minor importance. Possible grain yield losses are estima...

Milliano, W. A. J.

1983-01-01

111

The Use of Insects as Human Food in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: The life cycle and culture structure of two commonly eaten worms in Zambia (Isoberlinia paniculata and Miombo/Mopani) were evaluated. The worms were grown on an artificial medium to evaluate the potential of producing them on a commercial scale. Approach: An interesting characteristic of the worms studied was that they reached their maximum weight and maximum length at the same time. Results: The larvae started to decrease in weight soon after reaching ...

Ghaly, Abdel E.

2009-01-01

112

Reporting livestock disease information in Zambia: constraints and challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A desk and field study was conducted to quantify the flow of veterinary information between the livestock owner and the various levels of the veterinary department in Zambia. The studies were conducted in the Eastern Province, a major livestock keeping area. Results from the survey indicate that, although information is exchanged, reporting to the highest level is erratic. The repercussions of such irregular reporting are discussed.

Mataa, L.

2005-01-01

113

Poverty, inequality and growth in Zambia during the 1990s  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Zambia has undergone a dramatic transformation of economic policy during the 1990s. The election in 1991 of the Movement for Multi-party Democracy government saw the introduction of a series of major economic reforms designed to transform the Zambian economy from a relatively inward looking and state dominated economy to a outward oriented economy based upon private enterprise. A sharp stabilization early in the decade was followed by reforms to open the economy to the rest of the world inclu...

Macculloch, Neil; Baulch, Bob; Cherel-robson, Milasoa

2001-01-01

114

Options for Improving Smallholder Conservation Agriculture in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined the agronomic practices of smallholder Conservation Agriculture (CA) farmers in Zambia. Questionnaire survey, focus group discussions, key informant interviews, field assessments, desk study and soil analyses were employed to collect data on tillage systems, crop rotations, weed control, soil fertility management, crop residue retention and crop yields. The results showed that weed management, crop residue retention, timely planting and soil fertility management were the m...

Umar, Bridget B.; Aune, Jens B.; Johnsen, Fred H.; Lungu, Obed I.

2011-01-01

115

Poverty reduction strategy processes in Malawi and Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Malawi and Zambia are poor and heavily indebted countries whose dependence on foreign aid is pronounced. They both qualify for debt relief in terms of the Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) initiative under the auspices of the Bretton Woods institutions, provided they formulate a Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) that satisfies the new ‘process’ conditionality which emphasises broad participation. In grappling with the PRSP process the stakeholders (the state, non-state actors, an...

2004-01-01

116

Molecular epidemiology of infectious bursal disease virus in Zambia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR) of 10 infectious bursal disease viruses detected in indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia from 2004 to 2005 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses diverged into two genotypes and belonged to the African very vi [...] rulent types (VV1 and VV2). In the phylogenetic tree, strains in one genotype clustered in a distinct group and were closely related to some strains isolated in western Africa (VV1), with nucleotide similarities of 95.7% - 96.5%. Strains in the other genotype were clustered within the eastern African VV type (VV2), with nucleotide similarities of 97.3% - 98.5%. Both genotypes were distributed in the southern parts of Zambia and had a unique conserved amino acid substitution at 300 (E?A) in addition to the putative virulence marker at positions 222(A), 242(1), 256(1), 294(1) and 299(S). These findings represent the first documentation of the existence of the African VV-IBDV variants in both indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia.

Christopher J., Kasanga; Tsuyoshi, Yamaguchi; Hetron M., Munang' andu; Kenji, Ohya; Hideto, Fukushi.

117

Molecular epidemiology of infectious bursal disease virus in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR of 10 infectious bursal disease viruses detected in indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia from 2004 to 2005 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses diverged into two genotypes and belonged to the African very virulent types (VV1 and VV2. In the phylogenetic tree, strains in one genotype clustered in a distinct group and were closely related to some strains isolated in western Africa (VV1, with nucleotide similarities of 95.7%– 96.5%. Strains in the other genotype were clustered within the eastern African VV type (VV2, with nucleotide similarities of 97.3%– 98.5%. Both genotypes were distributed in the southern parts of Zambia and had a unique conserved amino acid substitution at 300 (E?A in addition to the putative virulence marker at positions 222(A, 242(I, 256(I, 294(I and 299(S. These findings represent the first documentation of the existence of the African VV-IBDV variants in both indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia.

Christopher J. Kasanga

2013-10-01

118

Taenia solium Infections in a Rural Area of Eastern Zambia-A Community Based Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis is a parasitic infection occurring in many developing countries. Data on the status of human infections in Zambia is largely lacking. We conducted a community-based study in Eastern Zambia to determine the prevalence of human taeniosis and cysticercosis in a rural community.

2012-01-01

119

Organic carbon and nitrogen export from a tropical dam-impacted floodplain system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tropical floodplains play an important role in organic matter transport, storage, and transformation between headwaters and oceans. However, the fluxes and quality of organic carbon (OC) and organic nitrogen (ON) in tropical river-floodplain systems are not well constrained. We explored the quantity and characteristics of dissolved and particulate organic matter (DOM and POM) in the Kafue River flowing through the Kafue Flats (Zambia). The Kafue Flats are a tropical dam-impacted river-floodpl...

Zurbru?gg, R.; Suter, S.; Lehmann, M. F.; Wehrli, B.; Senn, D. B.

2012-01-01

120

Prevalence and correlates of obesity among Lusaka residents, Zambia: a population-based survey  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-communicable lifestyle diseases are a growing public health concern globally. Obesity is a risk factor for premature mortality from cardiovascular diseases and diabetes as well as all-cause mortality. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence and associated factors for obesity among Zambian adults in Lusaka district. Methods A community-based study was done among adults in Zambia. Descriptive and co-relational analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of being obese as well as identify associated factors. Results A total of 1,928 individuals participated in the survey, of which 33.0% were males. About half of the participants were aged 25–34?years (53.2%, and about two-thirds had attended at least secondary level of education (63.9%. Overall, 14.2% of the participants (5.1% of males, and 18.6% of females were obese. Significant factors associated with obesity were sex, age, education, cigarette smoking and blood pressure. Male participants were 55% (AOR?=?0.45; 95% CI [0.29, 0.69] less likely to be obese compared to female participants. Compared to participants who were of age 45?years or older, participants of age 25–34?years were 61% (AOR?=?0.39 (95% CI [0.23, 0.67] less likely to be obese. Compared to participants who attained college or university level of education, participants who had no formal education were 63% (AOR?=?0.37; 95% CI [0.15, 0.91] less likely to be obese; and participants who had attained secondary level of education were 2.22 (95% CI [1.21, 4.07] times more likely to be obese. Participants who smoked cigarettes were 67% (AOR?=?0.33; 95% CI [0.12, 0.95] less likely to be obese compared to participants who did not smoke cigarettes. Compared to participants who had severe hypertension, participants who had moderate hypertension were 3.46 (95% CI [1.34, 8.95] times more likely to be obese. Conclusions The findings from this study indicate that Zambian women are more at risk of being obese. Prevention and control measures are needed to address high prevalence and gender inequalities in risks for non-communicable diseases in Zambia. Such measures should include policies that support gender specific approaches for the promotion of health behavior changes.

Rudatsikira Emmanuel

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
121

The human resource for health situation in Zambia: deficit and maldistribution  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Current health policy directions in Zambia are formulated in the National Health Strategic Plan. The Plan focuses on national health priorities, which include the human resources (HR crisis. In this paper we describe the way the HRH establishment is distributed in the different provinces of Zambia, with a view to assess the dimension of shortages and of imbalances in the distribution of health workers by province and by level of care. Population and methods We used secondary data from the "March 2008 payroll data base", which lists all the public servants on the payroll of the Ministry of Health and of the National Health Service facilities. We computed rates and ratios and compared them. Results The highest relative concentration of all categories of workers was observed in Northern, Eastern, Lusaka, Western and Luapula provinces (in decreasing order of number of health workers. The ratio of clinical officers (mid-level clinical practitioners to general medical officer (doctors with university training varied from 3.77 in the Lusaka to 19.33 in the Northwestern provinces. For registered nurses (3 to 4 years of mid-level training, the ratio went from 3.54 in the Western to 15.00 in Eastern provinces and for enrolled nurses (two years of basic training from 4.91 in the Luapula to 36.18 in the Southern provinces. This unequal distribution was reflected in the ratio of population per cadre. The provincial distribution of personnel showed a skewed staff distribution in favour of urbanized provinces, e.g. in Lusaka's doctor: population ratio was 1: 6,247 compared to Northern Province's ratio of 1: 65,763. In the whole country, the data set showed only 109 staff in health posts: 1 clinical officer, 3 environmental health technologists, 2 registered nurses, 12 enrolled midwives, 32 enrolled nurses, and 59 other. The vacancy rates for level 3 facilities(central hospitals, national level varied from 5% in Lusaka to 38% in Copperbelt Province; for level 2 facilities (provincial level hospitals, from 30% for Western to 70% for Copperbelt Province; for level 1 facilities (district level hospitals, from 54% for the Southern to 80% for the Western provinces; for rural health centres, vacancies varied from 15% to 63% (for Lusaka and Luapula provinces respectively; for urban health centres the observed vacancy rates varied from 13% for the Lusaka to 96% for the Western provinces. We observed significant shortages in most staff categories, except for support staff, which had a significant surplus. Discussion and Conclusions This case study documents how a peaceful, politically stable African country with a longstanding tradition of strategic management of the health sector and with a track record of innovative approaches dealt with its HRH problems, but still remains with a major absolute and relative shortage of health workers. The case of Zambia reinforces the idea that training more staff is necessary to address the human resources crisis, but it is not sufficient and has to be completed with measures to mitigate attrition and to increase productivity.

Ferrinho Paulo

2011-12-01

122

Coprological survey of alimentary tract parasites in dogs from Zambia and evaluation of a coproantigen assay for canine echinococcosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Faecal samples were collected from the rectum of 540 domestic dogs from four districts (Lusaka, Katete, Petauke and Luangwa) in Zambia between 2005 and 2006 and prevalences of canine alimentary tract parasites were determined by coprological examination. Thirteen different ova and parasites including strongyle (43.3%), Spirocerca lupi (18.7%), taeniid (13.1%), Toxocara canis (7.6%), Sarcocystis sp.* (7.5%), Isospora sp.* (5.7%), Physaloptera sp.* (4.6%), Capillaria sp.* (2.8%), Dipylidium caninum (2.2%), Mesocestoides sp.* (2.0%), Ascaris sp.* (1.7%), Trichuris vulpis* (0.4%) and Schistosoma mansoni* (0.4%) were detected, Ascaris and Schistosoma probably originating from coprophagy. The species with asterisks and later-described Taenia multiceps are for the first time reported from dogs in Zambia. A coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoproAg-ELISA) developed for Echinococcus spp. revealed 43 positive dogs and 37 of these harboured taeniid eggs. From 63 of the 71 taeniid egg-positive samples, eggs and DNA thereof were isolated and subjected to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for differentiating E. granulosus sensu lato, E. multilocularis and Taenia spp. Amplicons indicative for Taenia spp. were obtained from 60 samples. Sequencing of amplicons spanning part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, which was possible with 38 samples, revealed 35 infections with T. hydatigena and 3 with T. multiceps. Therefore, the CoproAg-ELISA showed some positives, but concrete evidence for the existence of canine E. granulosus infection could not be established. Comparison of the results of the CoproAg-ELISA and Taenia species identification indicated that the CoproAg-ELISA cross-reacts with patent infections of T. hydatigena (57%) and T. multiceps (33%). PMID:22185947

Nonaka, N; Nakamura, S; Inoue, T; Oku, Y; Katakura, K; Matsumoto, J; Mathis, A; Chembesofu, M; Phiri, I G K

2011-10-01

123

Quality of antenatal care in Zambia: a national assessment  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Antenatal care (ANC is one of the recommended interventions to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. Yet in most Sub-Saharan African countries, high rates of ANC coverage coexist with high maternal and neonatal mortality. This disconnect has fueled calls to focus on the quality of ANC services. However, little conceptual or empirical work exists on the measurement of ANC quality at health facilities in low-income countries. We developed a classification tool and assessed the level of ANC service provision at health facilities in Zambia on a national scale and compared this to the quality of ANC received by expectant mothers. Methods We analysed two national datasets with detailed antenatal provider and user information, the 2005 Zambia Health Facility Census and the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS, to describe the level of ANC service provision at 1,299 antenatal facilities in 2005 and the quality of ANC received by 4,148 mothers between 2002 and 2007. Results We found that only 45 antenatal facilities (3% fulfilled our developed criteria for optimum ANC service, while 47% of facilities provided adequate service, and the remaining 50% offered inadequate service. Although 94% of mothers reported at least one ANC visit with a skilled health worker and 60% attended at least four visits, only 29% of mothers received good quality ANC, and only 8% of mothers received good quality ANC and attended in the first trimester. Conclusions DHS data can be used to monitor “effective ANC coverage” which can be far below ANC coverage as estimated by current indicators. This “quality gap” indicates missed opportunities at ANC for delivering effective interventions. Evaluating the level of ANC provision at health facilities is an efficient way to detect where deficiencies are located in the system and could serve as a monitoring tool to evaluate country progress.

Kyei Nicholas N A

2012-12-01

124

HIV stress in primary school teachers in Zambia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study was made of stress factors experienced by primary school teachers in Zambia after they had attended a course on stress management and counselling skills. Their pupils were significantly affected by poverty, death and illness of parents, fellow-pupils and teachers, teenage sex and pregnancy, violence in the home and, among girls, low self-esteem. The HIV epidemic had a major bearing on these factors, and there were wide-ranging effects on the teachers' own lives. Despite the training t...

1999-01-01

125

Pentastomes (Pentastomida, Armillifer armillatus Wyman, 1848) in snakes from Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-three snakes, belonging to eight different species, were collected from rural areas of Zambia and inspected for the presence of pentastomes. Pentastomid parasites were found in four snakes: one African rock python (Python sebae), one puff adder (Bitis arietans) and two Mozambique spitting cobras (Naja mossambica) were infested with a small number of Armillifer armillatus, respectively five, two and one adult parasites. As humans can be incidental/intermediate hosts for reptilian pentastomes, the zoonotic potential of these parasites, especially in tropical countries, is discussed. PMID:10870563

De Meneghi, D

1999-12-01

126

Perinatal transmission of HIV-I in Zambia.  

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OBJECTIVE--To determine the occurrence of vertical transmission of HIV-I from women positive for the virus and the prognosis for their babies. DESIGN--Women presenting in labour were tested for HIV-I. Their newborn babies were also tested. Women positive for the virus were followed up with their babies for two years. SETTING--Teaching hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. SUBJECTS--1954 Women, of whom 227 were seropositive. Of 205 babies, 192 were positive for HIV-I. After birth 109 seropositive mother...

Hira, S. K.; Kamanga, J.; Bhat, G. J.; Mwale, C.; Tembo, G.; Luo, N.; Perine, P. L.

1989-01-01

127

Challenges affecting the development of radiation safety infrastructure in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This brief presentation gives some of the highlights of the activities that the government of the Republic of Zambia undertook from 1972 to date in its effort to ensure the development of a national radiation protection infrastructure. The paper also discusses some of the challenges that have to be addressed. The final section discusses some of the policy options and recommendations that should be undertaken in order to ensure that the Zambian government has a clear direction for the development of radiation safety infrastructure. The issue of national emergency plan and response in the event of a radiological accident is also discussed. (author)

2003-09-01

128

The Zambia Children's KS-HHV8 Study: Rationale, Study Design, and Study Methods  

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The epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus in Zambia has led to a dramatic rise in the incidence of human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)–associated Kaposi's sarcoma in both adults and children. However, there is a paucity of knowledge about the routes of HHV-8 transmission to young children. The Zambia Children's KS-HHV8 Study, a large, prospective cohort study in Lusaka, Zambia, was launched in 2004 to investigate the role of household members as a source of HHV-8 infection in young children and ...

Minhas, Veenu; Crabtree, Kay L.; Chao, Ann; Wojcicki, Janet M.; Sifuniso, Adrian M.; Nkonde, Catherine; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mitchell, Charles D.; Wood, Charles

2011-01-01

129

Bacteria Isolations from Broiler and Layer Chicks in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Chick mortality (CM) is one of the major constraints to the expansion of the poultry industry in Zambia. Of the 2,829 avian disease cases submitted to the national diagnostic laboratory based at the Central Veterinary Research Institute in Lusaka between 1995 and 2007, 34.39% (973/2,829) were from CM cases. The disease accounted for 40.2% (218,787/544,903) mortality in the affected flocks with 89.6% (196,112/218,787) of the affected birds dying within seven days. Major bacteria species involved were Escherichia coli, Salmonella gallinarum, and Proteus species being isolated from 84.58%, 46.15%, and 26.93% of the reported CM cases (n = 973), respectively. Detection of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, and Salmonella dublin indicates that poultry has the potential of transmitting zoonotic pathogenic bacteria to humans. The proportion of Salmonella gallinarum reactors in the adult breeding stock was generally low (<0.5%) throughout the study period although its prevalence in CM cases was correlated (r = 0.68, P < 0.011) with seroprevalence of the same pathogen in the adult breeding stock. Given that the disease accounts for a large proportion of the avian diseases in Zambia as shown in the present study (34.39%, n = 2,829), it is imperative that an effective disease control strategy aimed at reducing its occurrence should be developed.

Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Kabilika, Swithine Hameenda; Chibomba, Oliver; Munyeme, Musso; Muuka, Geoffrey Munkombwe

2012-01-01

130

Persistence of lindane and endosulfan under field conditions in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The persistence of lindane and endosulfan was studied under field conditions in Zambia in 1992 to 1994. Both pesticides dissipated rapidly under field conditions. About 29% and 73% of initial concentration was lost during the first 30 and 60 days after treatment, respectively in 1992. After 180 days, about 11% of the initial concentration was recovered from the soil. In 1993, 40% of initial residues were lost during the first 30 days. At 180 days after spraying, slightly more residues (25% of the initial values) were recovered at this time than in 1992. This indicated a change in the longer term behaviour of lindane in the soil since the calculated half-lives of lindane, covering the shorter term behaviour, were 55-80 days in 1992 and ? 17 days in 1993. In 1994, losses of ?-Endosulfan and ?-Endosulfan were 40% and 37% respectively during the initial 30 days after treatment. A further 25% of ?-Endosulfan and 33% of ?-Endosulfan were lost during the following 30 days. These data allow estimates of the half-lives of ?- and ?-Endosulfan (40 and 38 days) under the field conditions pertaining in Zambia at the time of the trials showing that this compound has only moderate persistence and unlikely to cause long term environmental problems. (author). 7 refs, 8 tabs

1997-03-01

131

Geology of the uranium occurrence in the Bungua area, Siavonga District, Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uranium mineralization related to the fluviatile continental sandstone of the Escarpment Grit Formation of Upper Karroo System has been studied in detail in the Bungua area. Airborne and ground gamma-radiation surveys resulted in the discovery of mineralized bodies containing secondary minerals such as meta-autunite, phosphuranylite, uranocircite, abernythite, boltwoodite, etc. disseminated in various ways. Geological, radiometric, stratigraphic, sedimentological and petrological studies coupled with exploration pitting, trenching and drilling were employed to assess the nature, distribution and sub-surface continuation of mineralized bodies. Drilling, logging and XRF analysis revealed that the uranium mineralized bodies are mainly lenses at different levels, which may be concordant or discordant with bedding. The thickness and grade of ore horizons differ considerably. Mineral distribution and controls are complex and that the main deposit is controlled by reducing lithologies, organic matter, clay traps, micas, iron cementing and permeable channels. Although no definite mode of origin can be attributed to the presently seen uranium mineralized bodies, they appear to be from a pre-existing ore deposit which is mobilized and redistributed during oxidation by supergene processes. It is suggested that the original uranium was in solution as uranylion and came from the same source area as the host rocks and the uranium-bearing groundwater and streams moved in the same direction as the associated Escarpment Grit sediments. Uranium was precipitated wherever favourable conditions prevailed in the Escarpment Grit Formation. (author)

1977-11-18

132

77 FR 31574 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International...other appropriate sectors as space permits. This mission will be led by a senior Department of Commerce official and will...

2012-05-29

133

Guest Blog - Dr Tracy Sweet and Dr Dan Rogers: Projects in Zambia ...  

The classroom includes ten low-power desktop computers loaded with medical e\\-learning material. ... The team is growing in 2014 with plans to take \\undergraduate students from Cardiff University out to Zambia in order to expand \\the project ...

134

Management of pulmonary tuberculosis patients in an urban setting in Zambia: a patient's perspective  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Zambia continues to grapple with a high tuberculosis (TB burden despite a long running Directly Observed Treatment Short course programme. Understanding issues that affect patient adherence to treatment programme is an important component in implementation of a successful TB control programme. We set out to investigate pulmonary TB patient's attitudes to seek health care, assess the care received from government health care centres based on TB patients' reports, and to seek associations with patient adherence to TB treatment programme. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 105 respondents who had been registered as pulmonary TB patients (new and retreatment cases in Ndola District between January 2006 and July 2007. We administered a structured questionnaire, bearing questions to obtain individual data on socio-demographics, health seeking behaviour, knowledge on TB, reported adherence to TB treatment, and health centre care received during treatment to consenting respondents. Results We identified that respondents delayed to seek treatment (68% even when knowledge of TB symptoms was high (78% or when they suspected that they had TB (73%. Respondent adherence to taking medication was high (77% but low adherence to submitting follow-up sputum (47% was observed in this group. Similarly, caregivers educate their patients more often on the treatment of the disease (98% and drug taking (100%, than on submitting sputum during treatment (53% and its importance (54%. Respondent adherence to treatment was significantly associated with respondent's knowledge about the disease and its treatment (p Conclusions There is a need to emphasise the importance of submitting follow-up sputum during patient education and counselling in order to enhance patient adherence and ultimately treatment outcome.

Shamputa Isdore

2010-12-01

135

Taenia solium infections in a rural area of Eastern Zambia: a community based study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis is a parasitic infection occurring in many developing countries. Data on the status of human infections in Zambia is largely lacking. We conducted a community-based study in Eastern Zambia to determine the prevalence of human taeniosis and cysticercosis in a rural community. Methods and Findings: Stool and serum samples were collected from willing participants. Geographical references of the participants' households were determined and hous...

Mwape, Kabemba E.; Phiri, Isaac K.; Praet, Nicolas; Muma, John B.; Zulu, Gideon; Den Bossche, Peter; Deken, Reginald; Speybroeck, Niko; Dorny, Pierre; Gabrie?l, Sarah

2012-01-01

136

Taenia solium infections in a rural area of eastern Zambia; a community based study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis is a parasitic infection occurring in many developing countries. Data on the status of human infections in Zambia is largely lacking. We conducted a community-based study in Eastern Zambia to determine the prevalence of human taeniosis and cysticercosis in a rural community. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Stool and serum samples were collected from willing participants. Geographical references of the participants' households were determined and househo...

Mwape, K. E.; Phiri, I. K.; Praet, N.; Muma, J. B.; Zulu, G.; Den Bossche, P.; Deken, R.; Speybroeck, N.; Dorny, P.; Gabrie?l, S.

2012-01-01

137

The reach and impact of social marketing and reproductive health communication campaigns in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Like many sub-Saharan African countries, Zambia is dealing with major health issues, including HIV/AIDS, family planning, and reproductive health. To address reproductive health problems and the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Zambia, several social marketing and health communication programs focusing on reproductive and HIV/AIDS prevention programs are being implemented. This paper describes the reach of these programs and assesses their impact on condom use. Methods: This paper assesses th...

Rossem, Ronan; Meekers, Dominique

2007-01-01

138

Health Worker Satisfaction and Motivation: An Empirical Study of Incomes, Allowances and Working Conditions in Zambia  

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Health worker salaries in Zambia are low by any standard. In recent times there have been real reductions in the
salaries of health workers. This has resulted in significant attrition in the public sector as health workers are
attracted to the private sector or leave Zambia entirely, leaving a large deficit in public sector health workers. In
this study we examine the relationship between health worker incomes and their satisfaction and motivation.<...

2012-01-01

139

Harmful lifestyles' clustering among sexually active in-school adolescents in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background HIV is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Zambia. Like many other African nations with high HIV burden, heterosexual intercourse is the commonest mode of HIV spread. The estimation of prevalence and factors associated with sexual intercourse among in-school adolescents has potential to inform public health interventions aimed at reducing the burden of sex-related diseases in Zambia. Methods We carried out secondary analysis of the ...

2008-01-01

140

Tuberculosis patients’ experiences of participating ina DOTS program in the Copperbelt province of Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Copperbelt province of Zambia Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious public health problem in Zambia. The long treatment (DOTS) patients have to undergo is challenging, and poor communication between TB patients and health workers in the DOTS program is in the literature described as a barrier to treatment adherence. There is little research on how patients experience participating in a DOTS program and on what the TB patients perceive as good and poor communication. More knowledge is ...

Holm, Nina

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

DEVELOPMENT OF CHEMISTRY TEACHING MATERIALS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION FOR HIGH SCHOOLS IN ZAMBIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The southern African nation of Zambia is confronted by numerous environmental problems whilst constrained by limited fiscal resources. This study examines the current environmental and educational situation in Zambia and how the Ministry of Education through a revision of its curriculum might inculcate hands-on interactive solutions to local environmental problems and enhance student learning. The current Zambian educational curriculum has integrated environmental issues across grade levels a...

Nachiyunde, Kabunga

2013-01-01

142

The human resource for health situation in Zambia: deficit and maldistribution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Introduction Current health policy directions in Zambia are formulated in the National Health Strategic Plan. The Plan focuses on national health priorities, which include the human resources (HR) crisis. In this paper we describe the way the HRH establishment is distributed in the different provinces of Zambia, with a view to assess the dimension of shortages and of imbalances in the distribution of health workers by province and by level of care. Population ...

Ferrinho Paulo; Siziya Seter; Goma Fastone; Dussault Gilles

2011-01-01

143

The reach and impact of social marketing and reproductive health communication campaigns in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Like many sub-Saharan African countries, Zambia is dealing with major health issues, including HIV/AIDS, family planning, and reproductive health. To address reproductive health problems and the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Zambia, several social marketing and health communication programs focusing on reproductive and HIV/AIDS prevention programs are being implemented. This paper describes the reach of these programs and assesses their impact on condom use.

Van Rossem Ronan; Meekers Dominique

2007-01-01

144

Theileria parva seroprevalence in traditionally kept cattle in southern Zambia and El Niño  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

East Coast fever (ECF), a tick-borne disease of cattle, is a major constraint to livestock development in Africa in general and southern Zambia in particular. Understanding the transmission patterns of this disease complex is very difficult as shown by previous studies in southern and eastern Zambia due to the interplay of risk factors. In this long-term study, we investigated whether global weather changes had any influence on disease transmission in traditionally kept cattle in southern Zam...

Fandamu, P.; Duchateau, L.; Speybroeck, N.; Marcotty, T.; Mbao, V.; Mtambo, J.; Mulumba, M.; Berkvens, D.

2005-01-01

145

An investigation of the amount and environmental Impact of chemical fertilizers and pesticides running off from commercial and traditional farmlands in the upper Kaleya catchment, Mazabuka, Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study investigated the amount of and impact of fertiliser loading into the upper Kaleya river of Mazabuka district in Southern Province of Zambia. It provides an opportunity to evaluate water quality associated with nutrient and pesticide use, due to prominence of intensive agriculture in the area. Storm water runoff of fertilizers and pesticides applied on farmlands have appeared to be the predominant source of nutrients and contaminants affecting surface water quality in upper Kaleya River, a factor very much dependent on land use in the catchment.The study concluded that upper Kaleya River is polluted from the application of fertilizers and pesticides used by farmers and that more long term studies are required to evaluate environmental effects of fertilizers and pesticide use in order to provide assessments of pollution and and for developing cost effective pollution control and monitoring programmes

2003-01-01

146

Rural electrification in Zambia: A policy and institutional analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the establishment of an independent regulator so as to stimulate private sector participation and efficiency. In addition, a Rural Electrification Fund (REF) and associated administration mechanism was established in 1995. However, RE continued to experience many challenges. In 2003, the government enacted the Rural Electrification Act leading to the establishment of an agency dedicated to RE. This paper analyses the policy, legal and institutional measures implemented in Zambia and assesses their potential or effectiveness to tackle some of the challenges facing RE in the country so as to increase access and affordability. (author)

2008-03-01

147

Rural electrification in Zambia: A policy and institutional analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the establishment of an independent regulator so as to stimulate private sector participation and efficiency. In addition, a Rural Electrification Fund (REF) and associated administration mechanism was established in 1995. However, RE continued to experience many challenges. In 2003, the government enacted the Rural Electrification Act leading to the establishment of an agency dedicated to RE. This paper analyses the policy, legal and institutional measures implemented in Zambia and assesses their potential or effectiveness to tackle some of the challenges facing RE in the country so as to increase access and affordability

2008-03-01

148

Stochastic characteristics of rainfall-runoff processes in Zambia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Monthly and annual rainfall and runoff sequences from drainage basins in Zambia, central Africa, were subjected to stochastic analyses. The rainfall sequences tended to follow the normal probability distribution and the runoff sequences the lognormal probability distribution. The deterministic periodic component explained more than 60% of the variance in the log-transformed monthly runoff sequences. The stochastic component behaved as a random process in the monthly rainfall sequences and as an autoregressive moving average (ARMA (1,1) or ARMA (1,0)) process in the monthly runoff sequences. The annual rainfall sequences resembled a random process and the annual runoff sequences a Markov or first order autoregressive process (AR (1)). First order linear discrete dynamic models represented the interaction between rainfall and runoff processes on both monthly and annual bases. The runoff models performed satisfactorily for one-step-ahead forecasting. 6 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

Sharma, T.C.

1985-12-01

149

Possibilities and constraints in implementing wind energy in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1989 the first activities concerning wind energy started in Zambia, resulting in a wind energy project of the Department of Energy. The first phase of this project was the set up of an appropriate technology test site. It included the fabrication of a CWD 2740 wind pump, adapted to local circumstances. The total costs of the manufacture of the complete system was approximately US$ 8,000 (of which 60% are labor cost), while an imported system would cost between US$ 2,000 and US$ 4,000. The second phase will focus on possible commercialization of wind energy. The major constraints for implementation of wind energy are: 1. inadequate provision of funds, caused by short sighted policy makers having not a clear policy regarding the utilization of wind energy; 2. high costs of windmills, especially when these are manufactured locally; 3. lack of trained and skilled manpower to provide backup and effective maintenance service of windmills in the field

1991-01-01

150

Sex differentials in the uptake of antiretroviral treatment in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explores socio-structural factors that influence uptake of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Zambia and assess differences between men and women. We conducted a case-control study nested in a community- and health facility-based survey, between September 2010 and February 2011. Cases were defined as HIV-positive individuals who, while eligible, never started ART and controls were HIV-positive individuals who were on ART. Cases and controls were matched by place of residence. We performed a conditional logistic regression analysis using a discrete logistic model stratified by sex. Overall, a significantly larger proportion of men (32.7%) than women (25.6%) did not uptake ART (Pearson ?(2) = 5.9135; p = 0.015). In the crude analysis, poor health status and low self-efficacy were common factors associated with non-uptake in both sexes. After adjusting for covariates, men were more likely than women to refuse ART even though men's self-rated health was lower than women's. In general, the adjusted analysis suggests that HIV status disclosure affects uptake in both sexes but women's uptake of ART is largely hampered by poverty-related factors while for men, side effects and social pressure, probably associated with masculinity, are more important barriers. Alarmingly men's health seems to deteriorate until they start treatment, in contrast to women. Understanding gender differences in uptake and attitudes to ART is a crucial component to providing effective and appropriate health care to both men and women living with HIV/AIDS in Zambia. PMID:24666201

Gari, S; Martin-Hilber, A; Malungo, J R S; Musheke, M; Merten, S

2014-10-01

151

'Big push' to reduce maternal mortality in Uganda and zambia enhanced health systems but lacked a sustainability plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past decade, "big push" global health initiatives financed by international donors have aimed to rapidly reach ambitious health targets in low-income countries. The health system impacts of these efforts are infrequently assessed. Saving Mothers, Giving Life is a global public-private partnership that aims to reduce maternal mortality dramatically in one year in eight districts in Uganda and Zambia. We evaluated the first six to twelve months of the program's implementation, its ownership by national ministries of health, and its effects on health systems. The project's impact on maternal mortality is not reported here. We found that the Saving Mothers, Giving Life initiative delivered a large "dose" of intervention quickly by capitalizing on existing US international health assistance platforms, such as the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. Early benefits to the broader health system included greater policy attention to maternal and child health, new health care infrastructure, and new models for collaborating with the private sector and communities. However, the rapid pace, external design, and lack of a long-term financing plan hindered integration into the health system and local ownership. Sustaining and scaling up early gains of similar big push initiatives requires longer-term commitments and a clear plan for transition to national control. PMID:24889956

Kruk, Margaret E; Rabkin, Miriam; Grépin, Karen Ann; Austin-Evelyn, Katherine; Greeson, Dana; Masvawure, Tsitsi Beatrice; Sacks, Emma Rose; Vail, Daniel; Galea, Sandro

2014-06-01

152

Analyzing the Process of Health Financing Reform in South Africa and Zambia: Zambia Country Report. Major Applied Research 1, Technical Paper No. 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents the findings of the Zambian country study undertaken as part of a two country project called Analyzing the process of health sector reform in South Africa and Zambia (also known as the SAZA project). The report presents an analysis of...

S. Lake M. Daura M. Mabandhla F. Masiye S. Mulenga I. Antezana C. Mwikisa S. Bennett

2000-01-01

153

Identifying River Basin Districts  

Identifying River Basin Districts The Water Framework Directive requires us to identify River Basin Districts. These Districts are used in the WFD to manage water environments. In England and Wales we have identified 11 River Basin Districts: * Six entirely in England (Anglian, Humber, North West, South…

154

Declining HIV prevalence among young pregnant women in Lusaka, Zambia / Déclin de la prévalence du VIH chez les jeunes femmes enceintes de Lusaka en Zambie / Disminución de la prevalencia de VIH entre embarazadas jóvenes en Lusaka, Zambia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Desde hace ya muchos años se aplican en Lusaka medidas de prevención de la infección por VIH. Algunos datos recientes parecen indicar que se ha producido una disminución de la seroincidencia de VIH en Zambia y en algunos países vecinos. El objetivo de este estudio fue examinar las tendenci [...] as de la seroprevalencia de VIH entre las mujeres embarazadas y parturientas entre 2002 y 2006. MÉTODOS: Analizamos las tendencias de la seroprevalencia de VIH en Lusaka a partir de dos fuentes: (i) datos prenatales de un programa de prevención de la transmisión del VIH de la madre al niño que abarcaba toda la ciudad, y (ii) datos sobre partos extraídos de dos sistemas anónimos independientes de vigilancia de la sangre de cordón umbilical aplicados en 2003 y de nuevo en 2005-2006, que permitieron obtener y analizar muestras en más del 97% de los nacimientos registrados en el sector público en cada periodo. RESULTADOS: Entre julio de 2002 y diciembre de 2006, el distrito de Lusaka analizó la serología VIH de 243 302 mujeres que recibieron atención prenatal; 54 853 (22,5%) estaban infectadas por el virus. A lo largo de ese periodo, la seroprevalencia de VIH entre las mujeres que recibieron atención prenatal y se sometieron a los análisis disminuyó de forma sostenida del 24,5% en el tercer trimestre de 2002 al 21,4% en el último trimestre de 2006 (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: HIV prevention has been ongoing in Lusaka for many years. Recent reports suggest a possible decline in HIV sero-incidence in Zambia and some neighbouring countries. This study aimed to examine trends in HIV seroprevalence among pregnant and parturient women between 2002 and 2006. METHODS: [...] We analysed HIV seroprevalence trends from two Lusaka sources: (i) antenatal data from a city-wide programme to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission, and (ii) delivery data from two anonymous unlinked cord-blood surveillances performed in 2003 and again in 2005-2006, where specimens from > 97% of public-sector births in each period were obtained and analysed. FINDINGS: Between July 2002 and December 2006, the Lusaka district tested 243 302 antenatal women for HIV; 54 853 (22.5%) were HIV infected. Over this period, the HIV seroprevalence among antenatal attendees who were tested declined steadily from 24.5% in the third quarter of 2002 to 21.4% in the last quarter of 2006 (P

Stringer, Elizabeth M; Chintu, Namwinga T; Levy, Jens W; Sinkala, Moses; Chi, Benjamin H; Muyanga, Jubra; Bulterys, Marc; Bweupe, Maximilian; Megazzini, Karen; Stringer, Jeffrey SA.

155

The Zambia Children's KS-HHV8 Study: rationale, study design, and study methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

The epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus in Zambia has led to a dramatic rise in the incidence of human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in both adults and children. However, there is a paucity of knowledge about the routes of HHV-8 transmission to young children. The Zambia Children's KS-HHV8 Study, a large, prospective cohort study in Lusaka, Zambia, was launched in 2004 to investigate the role of household members as a source of HHV-8 infection in young children and social behaviors that may modify the risk of HHV-8 acquisition. This cohort is distinct from other epidemiologic studies designed to investigate HHV-8 incidence and transmission because it recruited and followed complete households in the urban central African context. Between July 2004 and March 2007, 1,600 households were screened; 368 households comprising 464 children and 1,335 caregivers and household members were enrolled. Follow-up of this population continued for 48 months postrecruitment, affording a unique opportunity to study horizontal transmission of HHV-8 and understand the routes and sources of transmission to young children in Zambia. The authors describe the study rationale, design, execution, and characteristics of this cohort, which provides critical data on the epidemiology and transmission of HHV-8 to young children in Zambia. PMID:21447476

Minhas, Veenu; Crabtree, Kay L; Chao, Ann; Wojcicki, Janet M; Sifuniso, Adrian M; Nkonde, Catherine; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mitchell, Charles D; Wood, Charles

2011-05-01

156

Anthelmintic efficacy in captive wild impala antelope (Aepyceros melampus) in Lusaka, Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been an increase in the number of wild ungulates kept in captivity for ecotourism and conservation in Zambia and these animals are susceptible to a number of diseases including gastrointestinal helminth infections. Surveys to determine anthelmintic efficacy to gastrointestinal nematodes in captive-wildlife are not common and there have been no reports of anthelmintic resistance in captive-wildlife in Zambia. This study was carried out to determine the efficacy of the benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole in captive wild impala (Aepyceros melampus) in Zambia. During the month of April 2011, at the end of the rainy season, the faecal egg count reduction test was performed at a private game facility for assessing anthelmintic efficacy of oral fenbendazole and the anthelmintic treatment showed an efficacy of 90%. Haemonchus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. were the predominant genera present before treatment, but Haemonchus spp. larvae were the only genus recovered from the faecal cultures after anthelmintic treatment. This represents the first documentation of anthelmintic treatment failure in captive wild-antelopes in Zambia. It also demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the common traditional practice of deworming captive-wild antelopes at the end of the rainy season due to the rapid re-infection of impala that occurs due to high pasture infectivity. Suggestions on changes to current anthelmintic use/practices that will make them more efficacious and reduce the possibility of development of anthelmintic resistance in captive wild game in Zambia are also made. PMID:22115945

Nalubamba, King S; Mudenda, Ntombi B

2012-05-25

157

“All for some”: water inequity in Zambia and Zimbabwe  

Science.gov (United States)

In southern Africa, gross disparities in access to water are symptomatic of the overall uneven pattern of development. Despite post-independence egalitarian rhetoric, in countries such as Zambia and Zimbabwe inappropriate models (piped house connections in the urban areas, high technology irrigation schemes in the agricultural sector), combined with weak macro-economies and poorly formulated sectoral policies have actually exacerbated the disparities. Zero or very low tariffs have played a major role in this. Although justified as being consistent with water’s special status, inadequate tariffs in fact serve to undermine any programme of making water accessible to all. This has led to a narrowing of development options, resulting in exclusivist rather than inclusivist development, and stagnation rather than dynamism. A major part of the explanation for perpetuation of such unsatisfactory outcomes is the existence of political interest groups who benefit from the status quo. The first case study in the paper involves urban water consumers in Zambia, where those with piped water connections seek to continue the culture of low tariffs which is by now deeply embedded. The result is that the water supply authorities (in this case the newly formed, but still politically constrained ‘commercialised utilities’) are unable even to maintain adequate supplies to the piped customers, let alone extend service to the peri-urban dwellers, 56% of whom do not have access to safe water. The paper outlines some modest, workable principles to achieve universal, affordable access to water in the urban areas, albeit through a mix of service delivery mechanisms. In a second case study of rural productive water in Zimbabwe, the reasons for only 2% of the rural subsistence farming households being involved in formal small-scale irrigation schemes 20 years after independence are explored. Again, a major part of the explanation lies in government pursuing a water delivery model which is not affordable or sustainable on a wide scale. Its provision, via substantial capital and recurrent subsidies, for a small group has a large opportunity cost for society as a whole. The small-scale irrigators have a vested interest in ensuring that the subsidies are maintained, but in the process continue to absorb a disproportionate amount of resources which could be used for development elsewhere. By choosing simpler, cheaper water technologies, and assisting farmers with growing and marketing high value crops, the resources could instead be used to benefit a much larger proportion of households. With well designed programmes aimed at achieving equity, large numbers of subsistence farmers could improve their incomes and start working their way out of poverty.

Robinson, Peter B.

158

Regulatory framework, strategy and radioactive waste management in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Zambia is involved in the peaceful application in Nuclear Science and Technology which cover the agriculture, human health, industry, research and education sectors. In the execution of the projects various radioactive sources and radioisotopes are used. The data from the Radiation Protection Board show that there are 136 organizations and 971 Radiation workers benefit from the regulatory control and personnel Dosimetry service that is provided by the Board. The radiation user institutions are broken down as follows: medical (106), industrial (18), research (10) and (2) in teaching. The radioactive waste generated and spent sources are managed, in several ways depending on the type . In addition to radioactive waste generated by various application there are new developments concerning the management of spent sources mainly brought into control by the detection of illicit trade or trafficking activities by the Police, Drug Enforcement Commission, and the vigilant people of the community. The challenge for Zambia is to set-up a Radioactive Waste Management Facility preferably under the National Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research (NISIR). The RPB should legally designate NISIR for this function and assist to have the Government provide support that is required to have an operation and effective facility. One Radioactive Waste Interim Storage Shed at Kalulushi. This shed was put up by a copper mining conglomerate which now has been privatized. It is hoped that this facility can be licensed by Radiation Protection Board to be run by private enterprise for storage of prescribed spent radioactive sources and materials. This shed should be technically competent persons and should have good equipment for the purpose. The application in industry (NDT, mining, radiation sterilization, pipeline and construction, human health (nuclear medicine, radioimmunoassay and radiotherapy practices) and agriculture (use of P-32) required that a National Strategy for the management of the spent radioactive materials and the waste materials from the practices be developed with Radiation Protection Board playing a leading role. The International Atomic Energy Agency will continue to be a major cooperating partner in the development of this capacity through die technical expertise, equipment, technical literature and training fellowships that can be provided through the Technical Cooperation Programme. (author)

2001-11-05

159

The Impact of Tuberculosis on Zambia and the Zambian Nursing Workforce  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Zambia, the incidence of tuberculosis (TB has greatly increased in the last 10 years. This article describes Zambia and highlights the country’s use of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals as a framework to guide TB treatment programmes. An overview of TB in Zambia is provided. Data related to TB cases at the county’s main referral hospital, the University Teaching Hospital (UTH, is discussed. Treatment policies and barriers are described. Zambian nurses have been greatly affected by the rise in the morbidity and mortality of nurses with TB. This article explains the impact of TB on the Zambian nursing workforce. Review of Zambian government programmes designed to address this health crisis and targeted interventions to reduce TB among nurses are offered.

Dorothy Chanda

2006-01-01

160

Bringing "indigenous" ownership back : Chinese presence and the Citizen Economic Empowerment Commission in Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

African economies are currently experiencing an upsurge in foreign ownership of key parts of their economies. This, however, is not new, and in the wake of independence several African countries pursued indigenisation policies to bring ownership back to their own citizens. Now indigenisation policies thrive again, this time disguised in terms such as â??empowermentâ??, but just as politicised as in the 1970s. Zambia is at the heart of this development. In the light of liberalisation, booming commodity prices and the increasing importance of Chinese investors, this article seeks to further our understanding of how processes of exclusion interact with domestic politics in Zambia. It argues that the Citizens Economic Empowerment Commission, a new institution to bring ownership back to Zambians, builds on a long tradition of nationalist policies in Zambia, while its actual work is strictly related to the critique of the growing foreign dominance over the economy, and in particular of the upsurge in Chinese investments.

Kragelund, Peter

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Women poverty in Zambia, incidences and causes:a case study of small-scale rural agricultural women of Kalomo district, Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Women poverty debate has been part of the global poverty debates since the 1970s. Many research reports and publication on poverty reveals that women are disproportionary poorer than men (Jazairy et al 1992, World Bank 2000c, Momsen 2004). The incidences of poverty are high among rural women farmers than in urban area. The women poverty differential between rural and urban areas is attributed to the economic activities the said poor are involved in. Women farmers are said to be poor because t...

2006-01-01

162

Can family planning outreach bridge the urban-rural divide in Zambia?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Zambia experienced declining aggregate fertility and increasing aggregate contraceptive use from 1990 to 2000. Yet, in rural Zambia, progress in family planning has lagged far behind the advances made in Zambia's urban areas. The contraceptive prevalence rate in Lusaka and other urban areas outstripped the rate in rural Zambia by nearly 25 percentage points (41.2 percent versus 16.6 percent in 2001. The total fertility rate varied between urban and rural areas by 2.5 children (4.3 versus 6.9 children. This paper considers the urban-rural differentials in Zambia and assesses family planning outreach as a tool to narrow this divide. Methods This study uses the Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS data, collected between 2001 and 2002. Logistic regression techniques were employed to examine factors associated with contraceptive use. The first analysis tested modern contraceptive use versus traditional method use and no use. In addition, separate models were run for samples stratified by type of residence (rural or urban to determine if different factors were associated with use by residence. A simulation determined the effect of all women receiving at least one household visit from a health worker if all other variables were held constant. Results Differences in modern contraceptive use between urban and rural areas persist (OR: 1.56, 95 percent CI: 1.24–1.96 even after adjusting for a number of demographic, socioeconomic, cognitive, and attitudinal factors. Household visits by a community health worker significantly increased the likelihood of modern contraceptive use among rural women (OR: 1.83; 95 percent CI: 1.29–2.58. If all rural women received at least one outreach visit per year, the prevalence rate for modern contraceptive methods would be expected to increase for this group by 5.9 percentage points, a marked increase but less than one-quarter of the total urban-rural differential. Conclusion Outreach in the form of health worker visits can improve access to family planning services, but it does not eliminate barriers to access or address continued high-fertility desires in Zambia. Until policymakers consider strategies that address both family planning demand creation and supply of services, progress in Zambia and the rest of sub-Saharan Africa will continue to lag behind the rest of the world.

Speizer Ilene S

2007-09-01

163

The threat of illicit trafficking in an under-resourced country: The case of Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From July 1995 to January 2005, five cases of attempted illicit trafficking of spent radioactive materials have been reported and investigated in Zambia. In all five cases, monetary gain was the motivation. The paper describes factors contributing to the vulnerability of Zambia to illicit trafficking of nuclear material, including the consequences of an unstable economy, the involvement of international institutions in Government funding policies, inadequate training or remuneration of personnel and inadequate equipment. To raise awareness among policy makers and the public, a six-pronged strategy is suggested. (author)

2008-07-01

164

Trade Unions in Processes of Democratisation. A Study of Party Labour Relations in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report assesses the role of labour in the recent transition to multi-party rule in Zambia. The main question considered is to what extent labour, through its policy-making organ the Zambia Congress of Trade Unions (ZCTU), effected policy changes at the national level in a democratic direction. The report analyses Zambian industrial relations in the post-colonial period with particular emphasis on the period of one-party rule (The Second Republic 1973). The case study concludes that the t...

Rakner, Lise

1992-01-01

165

Priorities for Antiretroviral Therapy Research in Sub-Saharan Africa: A 2002 Consensus Conference in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background A consensus conference was held to discuss priorities for antiretroviral therapy (ART) research in Zambia, one of the world’s most heavily HIV-afflicted nations. Zambia, like other resource-limited settings, has increasing access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) because of declining drug costs, use of government-purchased generic medications, and increased global donations. For sustained delivery of care with HAART in a resource-constrained medical and public health context, operational research is required and clinical trials are desirable. The priority areas for research are most relevant today given the increasing availability of HAART. Methods A conference was held in Lusaka, Zambia, in January 2002 to discuss priority areas for ART research in Zambia, with participants drawn from a broad cross section of Zambian society. State-of-the-art reviews and 6 intensive small group discussions helped to formulate a suggested research agenda. Results Conference participants believed that the most urgent research priorities were to assess how therapeutic resources could be applied for the greatest overall benefit and to minimize the impact of nonadherence and viral resistance. Identified research priorities were as follows: To determine when to initiate HAART in relation to CD4+ cell count To assess whether HIV/AIDS can be managed well without the use of costly frequent viral load measurements and CD4+ cell count monitoring To assess whether HIV/AIDS can be managed in the same fashion in patients coinfected with opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis and HIV-related chronic diarrhea, taking into consideration complications that may occur in tuberculosis such as immune reconstitution syndrome and medication malabsorption in the presence of diarrhea To carefully assess and characterize toxicities, adverse effects, and viral resistance patterns in Zambia, including studies of mothers exposed to prepartum single-dose nevirapine To conduct operational research to assess clinical and field-based strategies to maximize adherence for better outcomes of ART in Zambia To assess ART approaches most valuable for pediatric and adolescent patients in Zambia Conference participants recommended that HIV-related clinical care and research be integrated within home-based care services and operated within the existing health delivery structures to ensure sustainability, reduce costs, and strengthen the structures. Conclusion Our consensus was that antiretroviral clinical trials and operational research are essential for Zambia to address the new challenges arising from increasing ART availability. There is global consensus that antiretroviral clinical trials in resource-constrained countries are possible, and the capacity for such trials should be developed further in Africa.

Zulu, Isaac; Schuman, Paula; Musonda, Rosemary; Chomba, Elwyn; Mwinga, Kasonde; Sinkala, Moses; Chisembele, Maureen; Mwaba, Peter; Kasonde, Dorothy; Vermund, Sten H.

2009-01-01

166

A Rural Implementation of a 52 Node Mixed Wireless Mesh Network in Macha, Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

In spite of increasing international and academic attention, there remains many challenges facing real world implementations of developing technologies. There has been considerable hype behind Wireless Mesh Networking as the ubiquitous solution for rural ICT in the developing world. In this paper, we present the real world rural mesh network implementation in the village of Macha, Zambia and draw both performance conclusions as well as overall experiential conclusions. The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze our low cost solution and extrapolate future trends for rural ICT implementations in Zambia.

Backens, Jonathan; Mweemba, Gregory; van Stam, Gertjan

167

Coal prospects in Botswana, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Namibia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increasing demand for coal in Asia is stimulating interest in the potentially large coal resources in Southern African countries such as Botswana, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Namibia. These countries have been slow to utilise their coal as local demand has been limited and the means to export coal has been inadequate. The governments in these regions are now recognising coal as a strategically important commodity, capable of earning foreign revenue but also adding value to the economy by generating much needed electricity. This report looks in turn at the role of coal in the energy economies of each of these countries. As in most emerging economies, the provision of a reliable and cost-effective supply of electricity to industries and people is essential for economic growth and the welfare of communities. Demand for Africa's mineral commodities such as diamonds and copper is driving a massive need for electricity and coal will play a major role. Not only does the mining industry need power, but with these growing industries come communities and commerce which are also in need of energy.

NONE

2013-12-01

168

Proterozoic strata-bound uranium deposits of Zambia and Zaire  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Katanga System, host to uranium and copper mineralisation, is several thousands of metres thick and rests unconformably on an older complex of crystalline rocks and metasediments and is locally covered by Karoo sandstones or Kalahari sands. The deposition of the Katanga System took place during the Late Proterozoic in a wide complex basin extending from Shaba province in Zaire through a large part of Zambia and into eastern Angola. The sediments were affected by different grades of metamorphism, tectonic events, and by thermal events associated with post-tectonic metamorphism. At the base of Katanga system there are 84 known copper deposits and 42 uranium occurrences. It is suggested that all the known uranium and copper occurrences are of an essentially syngenetic sedimentary origin. The mineralisation is found in the Lower Roan Formation near the base of the Katanga System occurring in rocks produced in similar environmental conditions and thus being stratigraphic controlled, however, their areal distribution is localised producing a regional metal zonation. Many of the uranium occurrences have a typical vein aspect. These transgressive relationships are not inconsistent with a syngenetic origin as evidenced by the vein morphology. (author)

1984-10-01

169

Uranium mineralization in the Karroo system of Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Karroo geology of Zambia with respect to uranium mineralization is outlined and compared with the sandstone deposits of western United States of America. Whereas numerous uranium anomalies are known in the Karroo System, those of the Escarpment Grit Formation in the mid-Zambezi Valley would appear to be significant. Airborne radiometric survey did not always reflect the mineralization recorded on the ground. Several other Karroo anomalies are still to be traversed. Porosity, permeability, clay traps, micas and reducing lithologies are the major factors controlling mineralization. The present loci of mineralization are a function of the remobilization brought about by fluctuating water table, dip of strata and structure. While most of the deposits contain secondary uranium minerals, pitchblende has been recorded in two areas, and probably reflects the 'primary' ore. The deposits are primarily sheet-like, concordant to discordant units. The source for uranium would appear to be the Katanga and basement rocks to the north-north east and north-west. The results of the last three years of investigation support further work and already a number of low to medium scale deposits have been outlined, thus warranting further intensive large-scale investigation. (author)

1977-11-18

170

Thames River Basin District  

The Thames River Basin District encompasses the River Thames and its tributaries, from its source in Gloucestershire through London to the North Sea. The district covers more than 16,000 square kilometres.

171

District nurse training  

Science.gov (United States)

Training for district nursing is being reviewed. By 1981 district nurses will have a new administrative structure, a new curriculum, and a new examination. Training for nursing, like that for general practice, is to become mandatory. The history of the development of district nurse training is briefly described.

Elliott, Arnold; Freeling, Paul; Owen, John

1980-01-01

172

36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.  

Science.gov (United States)

...District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. (a) Generally...are described in the Act, as amended, and...headquarters. There are three districts: The Community Development...boundary of Sunken Forest Preserve. (xiv) Cherry...

2009-07-01

173

Role of partnership in enhancing the performance of radiation regulatory authority in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The National Radiation Infrastructure includes legislation, human resource, technical capacity to execute responsibilities of the regulatory (1). In cases of developing countries like Zambia, special challenges arise in view of the constraints both in terms of human resource and funding. This paper will highlight same measures that may be undertaken to improve the operations of nation radiation protection infrastructure. The measures include collaboration with Science and Technology organisations that have technical capacity, delegation of responsible to key institutions that may have competence and generation of funds through training and provision of reliable quality service. (2). In Zambia, some achievements in this line have been registered by Radiation Protection Board working with the University of Zambia and National Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research (3). Some measures of generation of funds have been done though utilization of the generated remains to be the limiting factor to exploit fully benefits that may arise from the use of the monies generated from services. Partnerships with private sector may be used as regulatory authorities for support to its programme in particular the public awareness campaign. Sponsorship by a Private Cellar Phone Company (Telecel Zambia) and Rotary Club of Lusaka for Radiation Week to Radiation Protection Service under Theme 'Safe Radiation Use' is one such an example. The other opportunity is the technical cooperation with regional and international organisations such as SADC, IAEA, WHO, Interpol, EU and WCO for technical capacity building, human resource development and information access. (author)

2003-09-01

174

International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) mission to Zambia. The IUREP Orientation Phase mission to Zambia estimates that the Speculative Resources of that country fall within the range of 33 000 and 100 000 tonnes uranium. The majority of these resources are believed to exist in the Karoo sediments. Other potentially favourable geological environments are the Precambrian Katanga sediments, as well as intrusive rocks of different chemical compositions and surficial duricrusts. Previous unofficial estimates of Zambia's Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR) and Estimated Additional Resources (EAR) are considered to be still valid: the total RAR amount to 6 000 tonnes uranium, located in Karoo (4 000 tonnes) and Katanga (2 000 tonnes) sediments, while the EAR are believed to total 4 000 tonnes being found only in Karoo sediments. The mission recommends that approximately US$ 40 million be spent on uranium exploration in Zambia over 10 years. The largest part of this expenditure would be for drilling, while the remainder should be spent on airborne and ground surveys, as well as on interpretative work on previous airborne data, Landsat imageries, etc. (author)

1985-01-01

175

Developing a national health research system: participatory approaches to legislative, institutional and networking dimensions in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract For many sub-Saharan African countries, a National Health Research System (NHRS exists more in theory than in reality, with the health system itself receiving the majority of investments. However, this lack of attention to NHRS development can, in fact, frustrate health systems in achieving their desired goals. In this case study, we discuss the ongoing development of Zambia’s NHRS. We reflect on our experience in the ongoing consultative development of Zambia’s NHRS and offer this reflection and process documentation to those engaged in similar initiatives in other settings. We argue that three streams of concurrent activity are critical in developing an NHRS in a resource-constrained setting: developing a legislative framework to determine and define the system’s boundaries and the roles all actors will play within it; creating or strengthening an institution capable of providing coordination, management and guidance to the system; and focusing on networking among institutions and individuals to harmonize, unify and strengthen the overall capacities of the research community.

Chanda-Kapata Pascalina

2012-06-01

176

Developing a Nutrition and Health Education Program for Primary Schools in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

School-based health and nutrition interventions in developing countries aim at improving children's nutrition and learning ability. In addition to the food and health inputs, children need access to education that is relevant to their lives, of good quality, and effective in its approach. Based on evidence from the Zambia Nutrition Education in…

Sherman, Jane; Muehlhoff, Ellen

2007-01-01

177

Beyond a Learning Society? It Is All to Be Done Again: Zambia and Zimbabwe  

Science.gov (United States)

This article considers the ways in which educators and learning societies in Zambia and Zimbabwe have had to struggle to create independent, democratic and critical curricula in difficult circumstances over the last 50 years in the context of historical shifts in power, a declining British Empire and the re-emergence of reactionary forces at a…

Alexander, David

2006-01-01

178

Assessment of Dissolved Heavy Metal Pollution in Five Provinces of Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Zambia’s economy is hinged on mining activities with Cu being the main metal. Zn and Pb were mined at one point in Kabwe town. There are also known deposits of Co and Mn. The study focused on comparing heavy metal pollution from different regions across Zambia with a view of determining the impact of the stage of social development and economic activities on the environment. The water analysed was obtained near dump sites,farmlands, pit latrines, water reservoirs or dams, major rivers and small streams that traverse Lusaka city and towns in the Copperbelt,and water from several public taps. Analysis revealed that Mn was the largest pollution factor study areas; groundwater both near illegal dumpsites and on-site sanitation facilities did not reveal any severe pollution problems beyond drinking water permissible values (PV. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA and Pearson correlation (r found a strong correlation between Mn, and the two metals - Cu and Ni at r= 0.632 andr= 0.676 respectively. The other parameters (Cd, Cr, As, Zn & Pb were not a significant factor in explaining the dissolved metal pollution in Zambia.

Kabunga NACHIYUNDE

2013-01-01

179

Un/Doing Gender? A Case Study of School Policy and Practice in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores an attempt to disrupt gender inequality in a unique, low-cost private school in Ndola, Zambia. It examines deliberate school policies aimed at "undoing gender" or fostering greater gender equity. These include efforts to maintain gender parity at all levels of the school and the requirement that both young men and women carry…

Bajaj, Monisha

2009-01-01

180

Environmental approaches adopted for the sound management of radioactive and non-radioactive pollutants in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation gives an overview of the situation in Zambia with respect to the management of chemicals. A summary description of key pieces of legislation that deal with the protection of human beings and the environment and their objectives are discussed briefly. The paper gives also a summary description of key approaches and procedures for the management of chemicals. (author)

2003-09-01

 
 
 
 
181

Health Worker Satisfaction and Motivation: An Empirical Study of Incomes, Allowances and Working Conditions in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Health worker salaries in Zambia are low by any standard. In recent times there have been real reductions in thesalaries of health workers. This has resulted in significant attrition in the public sector as health workers areattracted to the private sector or leave Zambia entirely, leaving a large deficit in public sector health workers. Inthis study we examine the relationship between health worker incomes and their satisfaction and motivation.Cross-sectional data collection was undertaken using both quantitative and qualitative methods. A refined surveyinstrument was used for the quantitative data method. Document review (past and current records was employedfor the qualitative method. Data was collected in three regions that represent extremes in overall remunerationand benefits. Lusaka represented the favourable area while Monze and Nyimba represented less favourable areasfor study in Zambia.There are hefty disparities between different health workers. There are also enormous salary differentials for thesame workers between the public and private sectors. These salary differentials explain the experience of publicto private “traffic” of health workers as well as casual private sector work by public sector health workers. Inaddition, there are negligible efforts by government to reduce the benefits gaps among key public health cadres.The low incomes received by public health workers in Zambia have many negative implications: it begetsabsenteeism, results in low output, poor quality health care, and the departure of health workers to the privatesector and overseas.

Jeff Gow

2012-05-01

182

Extremely Drug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Senftenberg Infections in Patients in Zambia.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Two cases of extremely drug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg isolated from patients in Zambia were investigated by utilizing MIC determinations and whole-genome sequencing. The isolates were resistant to, and harbored genes toward, nine drug classes, including fluoroquinolones and extended-spectrum cephalosporins, contained two plasmid replicons, and differed by 93 single-nucleotide polymorphisms.

Hendriksen, Rene S.; Joensen, Katrine Grimstrup

2013-01-01

183

Old district heating systems '  

...Old district heating systems 'at risk of bankruptcy' | EurActiv energy,district heating,energy efficiency EU news & policy debates- across languages ...Revolution Industrial Renaissance The Brain and Multiple Sclerosis Quo Vadis Health and Safety at Work? Sustainable and healthy food European Corporate Reporting Ukraine ... VIDEOS Home › Energy › News Old district heating systems 'at risk of bankruptcy' [fr] -A + A Published 27 June 2012,...updated 10 June 2013 1 comment Tags district heating, energy efficiency District heating systems have not been modernised in many EU member states, although they ...

184

The reach and impact of social marketing and reproductive health communication campaigns in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Like many sub-Saharan African countries, Zambia is dealing with major health issues, including HIV/AIDS, family planning, and reproductive health. To address reproductive health problems and the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Zambia, several social marketing and health communication programs focusing on reproductive and HIV/AIDS prevention programs are being implemented. This paper describes the reach of these programs and assesses their impact on condom use. Methods This paper assesses the reach of selected radio and television programs about family planning and HIV/AIDS and of communications about the socially marketed Maximum condoms in Zambia, as well as their impact on condom use, using data from the 2001–2002 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey. To control for self-selection and endogeneity, we use a two-stage regression model to estimate the effect of program exposure on the behavioural outcomes. Results Those who were exposed to radio and television programs about family planning and HIV/AIDS were more likely to have ever used a condom (OR = 1.16 for men and 1.06 for women. Men highly exposed to Maximum condoms social marketing communication were more likely than those with low exposure to the program to have ever used a condom (OR = 1.48, and to have used a condom at their last sexual intercourse (OR = 1.23. Conclusion Findings suggest that the reproductive health and social marketing campaigns in Zambia reached a large portion of the population and had a significant impact on condom use. The results suggest that future reproductive health communication campaigns that invest in radio programming may be more effective than those investing in television programming, and that future campaigns should seek to increase their impact among women, perhaps by focusing on the specific constrains that prevent females from using condoms.

Meekers Dominique

2007-12-01

185

Zambia's participation in past CTBTO activities and the upgrading of AS119 and N192: Experiences and the way forward  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation briefly describes the Zambian Seisimic Network (ZSN), Zambia's participation in past CTBTO activities and upgrading of AS119 and N192. It goes on to describe various experiences encountered and makes some suggestions for future considerations

2002-09-01

186

The burden of knowing: balancing benefits and barriers in HIV testing decisions. a qualitative study from Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Client-initiated HIV counselling and testing has been scaled up in many African countries, in the form of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT. Test rates have remained low, with HIV-related stigma being an important barrier to HIV testing. This study explored HIV testing decisions in one rural and one urban district in Zambia with high HIV prevalence and available antiretroviral treatment. Methods Data were collected through 17 in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions with individuals and 10 in-depth interviews with counsellors. Interpretive description methodology was employed to analyse the data. Results 'To know your status' was found to be a highly charged concept yielding strong barriers against HIV testing. VCT was perceived as a diagnostic device and a gateway to treatment for the severely ill. Known benefits of prevention and early treatment were outweighed by a perceived burden of knowing your HIV status related to stigma and fear. The manner in which the VCT services were organised added to this burden. Conclusions This study draws on social stigma theory to enhance the understanding of the continuity of HIV related stigma in the presence of ART, and argues that the burden of knowing an HIV status and the related reluctance to get HIV tested can be understood both as a form of label-avoidance and as strong expressions of the still powerful embodied memories of suffering and death among non-curable AIDS patients over the last decades. Hope lies in the emerging signs of a reduction in HIV related stigma experienced by those who had been tested for HIV. Further research into innovative HIV testing service designs that do not add to the burden of knowing is needed.

Jürgensen Marte

2012-01-01

187

Evaluation of a task-shifting strategy involving peer educators in HIV care and treatment clinics in Lusaka, Zambia  

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Full Text Available Rapid expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART and a shortage of health care workers (HCWs required the implementation of a peer educator (PE model as part of a task-shifting strategy in Lusaka District clinics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient and staff perceptions regarding whether the PE program: a relieved the workload on professional HCWs; and b delivered services of acceptable quality. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered from five primary care clinics delivering ART in Lusaka, Zambia. Closed surveys were conducted with 148 patients receiving ART, 29 PEs, and 53 HCWs. Data was imported into Microsoft Excel to calculate descriptive statistics. Six focus group discussions and eight key informant (KI interviews were conducted, recorded, transcribed, and coded to extract relevant data. Survey results demonstrated that 50 of 53 (96.1% HCWs agreed PEs reduced the amount of counseling duties required of HCWs. HCWs felt that PEs performed as well as HCWs in counseling patients (48 of 53; 90.6% and that having PEs conduct counseling enabled clinical staff to see more patients (44 of 53; 83%. A majority of patients (141 of 148; 95.2% agreed or strongly agreed that PEs were knowledgeable about ART, and 89 of 144 (61.8% expressed a high level of confidence with PEs performing counseling and related tasks. Focus group and KI interviews supported these findings. PEs helped ease the work burden of HCWs and provided effective counseling, education talks, and adherence support to patients in HIV care. Consideration should be given to formalizing their role in the public health sector.

Lonny J. Born

2012-03-01

188

Epilepsy-Associated Stigma in Zambia: What factors predict greater felt stigma in a highly stigmatized population?  

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Epilepsy-associated stigma in Africa has been largely described in terms of enacted stigma or discrimination. We conducted a study of 169 adults with epilepsy attending epilepsy clinics in Zambia’s Lusaka or Southern province using a 3-item instrument (maximum score 3). Potential determinants of felt stigma including age, gender, education, wealth, disclosure status (meaning whether or how their community members knew of their condition), seizure type (generalized vs. partial), seizure freq...

2010-01-01

189

Designing minimum-cost recycling collection points with required throughput : A Minor Field Study in Lusaka, Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Denna studie utfördes som ett kandidatexamensarbete vid Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan i Stockholm, Sverige, under våren 2012. Projektet genomfördes som en fältstudie i Lusaka, Zambia, i samarbete med Obert Mambwe på Petrec Zambia Limited. Den lokala avfallshanteringen i Lusaka lider av kraftig överbelastning på grund av otillräckliga resurser och snabb befolkningstillväxt. Endast 50% av den totala mängden producerat avfall samlas in. Med samma procentsats motsvarar detta att 2,9 ton ...

Berling, Ludvig; Palm, Alexander; Sahlin, Linnea

2012-01-01

190

Are we together? : A study about the integration of Art and Music within the education in Zambia  

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The research had an anthropological perspective, regarding the integration of Art and Music in Zambia. By using qualitative interviews and participating observations I collected information about how some teachers in Zambia reflect about the integration of Art and Music. Through the theoretical framework I analyzed the results. The results demonstrated how the teachers were responding due to the curriculum and teacher’s guide but acting differently through the observations. The teacher’s ...

Eckeskog, Hanna

2010-01-01

191

Communicating sexual reproductive health and rights to Zambian youth : A case study of the non-governmental organization Youth Vision Zambia  

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HIV/AIDS is widely spread in Zambia. Numerous organizations work to disseminate information about how individuals can prevent themselves and others from infection. Youth Vision Zambia (YVZ) is a non- governmental organization that works from Lusaka, Zambia to increase knowledge about sexual reproductive health and rights among young people aged 10-24. This qualitative case study explores which means of communication strategies YVZ uses to reach and inform their target group about Sexual Repro...

Dloski, Anna

2013-01-01

192

Field comparison of OraQuick® ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 antibody test and two blood-based rapid HIV antibody tests in Zambia  

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Abstract Background Zambia’s national HIV testing algorithm specifies use of two rapid blood based antibody assays, Determine®HIV-1/2 (Inverness Medical) and if positive then Uni-GoldTM Recombigen HIV-1/2 (Trinity Biotech). Little is known about the performance of oral fluid based HIV testing in Zambia. The aims of this study are two-fold: 1) to compare the diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) under field conditions of the OraQuick® ADVANCE® Rapid...

Zachary Dalila; Mwenge Lawrence; Muyoyeta Monde; Shanaube Kwame; Schaap Albertus; Bond Virginia; Kosloff Barry; de Haas Petra; Ayles Helen

2012-01-01

193

Towards Intelligent District Heating  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A district heating system consists of one or more production units supplying energy in the form of heated water through a distribution pipe network to a multitude of consumers. District heating systems come in a range of different forms and sizes; from small independent systems within industrial estates or university campuses to large city-wide systems supplying millions of consumers with heating and hot water. The geographically dispersed layout of district heating sy...

Johansson, Christian

2010-01-01

194

Restructuring of labor markets in the Philippines and Zambia: the gender dimension.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper critically examines labor market changes accompanying the process of structural adjustment in the Philippines and Zambia and, in particular, the resulting impact on women's economic participation. The changes in the labor market occurring during the process of economic restructuring in Zambia and the Philippines are similar in some respects but very different in others. Zambia's economic performance has not been sufficient to generate wide-based employment and has been characterized by rising unemployment. The Philippines has also unfortunately been characterized by a growth in joblessness, specifically with regard to skilled and semiskilled employment. Global integration of labor markets in the Philippines give some employment opportunity to workers who are willing to seek jobs overseas but not to those in Zambia. Both in the Philippines and Zambia, the informal sector has shifted its agricultural reforms to female labor toward agricultural wage work (which is seasonal and low paid). In the Philippines, specifically in urban areas, certain export-oriented industries have created some jobs, predominantly for young women, but only a small proportion of total females are employed. Much of the female job growth has occurred in sales and service sectors, including sex work, domestic service, and petty trade. International labor migration in the Philippines has become more feminized, because a majority of overseas contract workers are women, who are employed in the service sector as entertainers and domestic helpers. Access to paid work in some cases may empower women, yet in other cases their power may be diminished. Both the specific character of labor market development and the nature of the accompanying economic reform alter the ability of the women and men to take advantage of the opportunity. Reform shifts patterns of production organization and location of employment and can either reinforce the prevailing distribution of power or provide tension, thereby challenging the governing pattern of income control and decision making. Thus, the economic restructuring of the Philippines and Zambia did not necessarily bring about significant changes in the labor market such that gender equality would be promoted. PMID:12322204

Floro, M S; Schaefer, K

1998-01-01

195

Implementing a hospital based injury surveillance system in Zambia: a preliminary report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia, is the nation's premier tertiary referral hospital and a teaching centre for the University of Zambia as well as a research centre of excellence. It was one of the five sites chosen as part of a multinational injury surveillance project conceived to provide preliminary data in response to observations made by public health agencies such as the World Health Organization, and the United States Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on the paucity of such data from third world settings. The study covering a period of 6 months from January 2007 to June 2007, used a pre-tested survey instrument crafted by the Ponce School of Medicine in Puerto Rico in close consultation with the CDC and the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO). A 24-hour system collected a total of 2714 cases, with due care taken to ensure that all the parameters were entered as required. PMID:19065868

Mtonga, Robert E; Zavala, Diego E

2008-01-01

196

The influence of cultural practices on the HIV and AIDS pandemic in Zambia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Culture plays a significant role in people's lives in Zambia and in Africa as a whole. Consequently, there is a need to take Zambian or African culture seriously in order to look at the salient elements of cultural practices in rites of passage that influence the spread of HIV and AIDS. This article [...] analyses four rites of passage associated with birth, puberty, marriage and death. There are numerous rites of passage in Zambian culture. Some of these rites help to curb the spread of HIV and AIDS, whilst others exacerbate the spread of the virus. Using the Reformed Church in Zambia Bible Study Method of Subgroups, discussions were held that allowed victims of cultural practices to tell their stories using the narrative model. This article sought to shed light on cultural practices that exacerbate HIV and AIDS and more importantly, provide culturally sensitive alternatives to these harmful practices.

Nolipher, Moyo; Julian C., M& #252; ller.

197

Organic carbon and nitrogen export from a tropical dam-impacted floodplain system  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tropical floodplains play an important role in organic matter transport, storage, and transformation between headwaters and oceans. However, the fluxes and quality of organic carbon (OC) and organic nitrogen (ON) in tropical river-floodplain systems are not well constrained. We explored the quantity and characteristics of dissolved and particulate organic matter (DOM and POM, respectively) in the Kafue River flowing through the Kafue Flats (Zambia), a tropical river-floodplain system in the Z...

Zurbru?gg, R.; Suter, S.; Lehmann, M. F.; Wehrli, B.; Senn, D. B.

2013-01-01

198

An Integrated Hydro-Economic Model for Economy-Wide Climate Change Impact Assessment for Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Zambia is a landlocked country in Southern Africa, with a total population of about 11 million and a total area of about 752 thousand square kilometers. Agriculture in the country depends heavily on rainfall as the majority of cultivated land is rain-fed. Significant rainfall variability has been a huge challenge for the country to keep a sustainable agricultural growth, which is an important condition for the country to meet the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. The situation is expected to become even more complex as climate change would impose additional impacts on rainwater availability and crop water requirements, among other changes. To understand the impacts of climate variability and change on agricultural production and national economy, a soil hydrology model and a crop water production model are developed to simulate actual crop water uses and yield losses under water stress which provide annual shocks for a recursive dynamic computational general equilibrium (CGE) model developed for Zambia. Observed meteorological data of the past three decades are used in the integrated hydro-economic model for climate variability impact analysis, and as baseline climatology for climate change impact assessment together with several GCM-based climate change scenarios that cover a broad range of climate projections. We found that climate variability can explain a significant portion of the annual variations of agricultural production and GDP of Zambia in the past. Hidden beneath climate variability, climate change is found to have modest impacts on agriculture and national economy of Zambia around 2025 but the impacts would be pronounced in the far future if appropriate adaptations are not implemented. Policy recommendations are provided based on scenario analysis.

Zhu, T.; Thurlow, J.; Diao, X.

2008-12-01

199

Management of pulmonary tuberculosis patients in an urban setting in Zambia: a patient's perspective  

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Abstract Background Zambia continues to grapple with a high tuberculosis (TB) burden despite a long running Directly Observed Treatment Short course programme. Understanding issues that affect patient adherence to treatment programme is an important component in implementation of a successful TB control programme. We set out to investigate pulmonary TB patient's attitudes to seek health care, assess the care received from government health care centres based on TB patients' r...

Mulenga Chanda; Mwakazanga David; Vereecken Kim; Khondowe Shepherd; Kapata Nathan; Shamputa Isdore; Meulemans Herman; Rigouts Leen

2010-01-01

200

The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Eastern and Southern provinces of Zambia  

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The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and importance of porcine cysticercosis in rural areas of Zambia. The study involved an abattoir survey of 1316 pigs at a slaughter slab in Lusaka and two field surveys in villages in Southern and Eastern provinces. Lingual examination of live pigs and visual inspection of their carcass as well as blood sampling for measuring circulating parasite antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA) were used as parameters to measu...

Phiri, I. K.; Dorny, P.; Gabriel, S.; Willingham, A. L.; Speybroeck, N.; Vercruysse, J.

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Integrating family planning messages into immunization services: a cluster-randomized trial in Ghana and Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE To determine whether integrating family planning (FP) messages and referrals into facility-based, child immunization services increase contraceptive uptake in the 9- to 12-month post-partum period. METHODS A cluster-randomized trial was used to test an intervention where vaccinators were trained to provide individualized FP messages and referrals to women presenting their child for immunization services. In each of 2 countries, Ghana and Zambia, 10 public sector health facilities were randomized to control or intervention groups. Shortly after the introduction of the intervention, exit interviews were conducted with women 9-12 months postpartum to assess contraceptive use and related factors before and after the introduction of the intervention. In total, there were 8892 participants (Control Group Ghana, 1634; Intervention Group Ghana, 1129; Control Group Zambia, 3751; Intervention Group Zambia, 2468). Intervention effects were evaluated using logistic mixed models that accounted for clustering in data. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted with vaccinators, and a process assessment was completed mid-way through the implementation of the intervention. RESULTS In both countries, there was no significant effect on non-condom FP method use (Zambia, P = 0.56 and Ghana, P = 0.86). Reported referrals to FP services did not improve nor did women's knowledge of factors related to return of fecundity. Some providers reported having made modifications to the intervention; they generally provided FP information in group talks and not individually as they had been trained to do. CONCLUSION Rigorous evidence of the success of integrated immunization services in resource poor settings remains weak. PMID:23570834

Vance, Gwyneth; Janowitz, Barbara; Chen, Mario; Boyer, Brooke; Kasonde, Prisca; Asare, Gloria; Kafulubiti, Beatrice; Stanback, John

2014-05-01

202

Gender relations and household livelihood security in Lake Kariba fishing communities, Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The focus of this study is the livelihoods of men and women involved in fishery related activities in the Lake Kariba and in the Zambezi River, Southern Province of Zambia. The main questions concerns how norms and rules for gender roles and relations affect livelihood strategies and to which extent occupational diversification and geographical mobility is important as mechanisms to achieve livelihood security. It was found that the majority of the households both apply occupational diversifi...

2007-01-01

203

The political economy of food price policy: The case of Zambia  

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The global food price crisis of 2007/08 raised fears about the impacts of higher and more volatile food prices for the poor in Zambia. Like in the past, the implementation of the strategies to deal with the rising food prices, especially for the staple crop maize were delayed due to ineffective response policies, mistrust between government and private sector, protracted discussions, inaction amongst key agriculture stakeholders and rent-seeking behaviour by some. Using the political economy ...

Chapoto, Antony

2012-01-01

204

Clinical and ultrasonographic features of abdominal tuberculosis in HIV positive adults in Zambia  

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Abstract Background The diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis (TB) is difficult, especially so in health care facilities in developing countries where laparoscopy and colonoscopy are rarely available. There is little information on abdominal TB in HIV infection. We estimated the prevalence and clinical features of abdominal (excluding genitourinary) TB in HIV infected adults attending the University Teaching Hospital, Zambia. Methods We screened 5,609 medical inpa...

Sinkala Edford; Gray Sylvia; Zulu Isaac; Mudenda Victor; Zimba Lameck; Vermund Sten H; Drobniewski Francis; Kelly Paul

2009-01-01

205

Ticks (Acarina: Ixodidae) of reptiles from Central, Lusaka and Southern Provinces of Zambia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the period 1988-1991, reptiles (23 snakes, 36 tortoises, 25 chameleons and 2 monitor lizards) from Central, Lusaka and Southern Provinces of Zambia were caught and checked for ticks. Only 2 snakes, respectively one Python sebae (Gmelin, 1789) and one Bitis arietans (Merrem, 1820), 8 tortoises, respectively seven Geochelone pardalis (Bell, 1828) and one Kinixys belliana (Gray, 1831) were found infested with a small number of ticks: nymphs and adults of Aponomma latum (Koch, 1844) and Am...

Meneghi, Daniele

1993-01-01

206

Enhancing knowledge retention in higher education: A case of the University of Zambia  

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The purpose of this study was to investigate how knowledge retention may be enhanced at the University of Zambia (UNZA). A quantitative case study design employing a triangulation of data collection methods was used. Data were collected using interviews and questionnaires. Purposive sampling was used to determine participants for the interviews whilst stratified random sampling was employed to select the respondents for the questionnaire. The quantitative and qualitative data that was analyse...

Sitali Wamundila; Patrick Ngulube

2011-01-01

207

The economic development of the kapenta fishery Lake Kariba (Zimbabwe/Zambia)  

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Kapenta (Limnothrissa miodon) was introduced from Lake Tanganyika into the man-made Lake Kariba, where it now supports a large and viable fishery for Zimbabwe and Zambia who share the lake. The challenge for this paper has been to investigate whether the viability of the kapenta fishery is dependent upon biological factor or economic parameters. The Pella and Tomlinson surplus production model (Pella and Tomlinson, 1967) was used, and parameterised by historical catch and effor...

Madamombe, Loveness

2002-01-01

208

The economic development of the kapenta fishery Lake Kariba (Zimbabwe/Zambia)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Kapenta (Limnothrissa miodon) was introduced from Lake Tanganyika into the man-made Lake Kariba, where it now supports a large and viable fishery for Zimbabwe and Zambia who share the lake. The challenge for this paper has been to investigate whether the viability of the kapenta fishery is dependent upon biological factor or economic parameters. The Pella and Tomlinson surplus production model (Pella and Tomlinson, 1967) was used, and parameterised by historical catch and effort data in addit...

Madamombe, Loveness

2002-01-01

209

Biochar Effect on Maize Yield and Soil Characteristics in Five Conservation Farming Sites in Zambia  

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Biochar addition to agricultural soils can improve soil fertility, with the added bonus of climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. Conservation farming (CF) is precision farming, often combining minimum tillage, crop rotation and residue retention. In the present farmer-led field trials carried out in Zambia, the use of a low dosage biochar combined with CF minimum tillage was tested as a way to increase crop yields. Using CF minimum tillage allows the biochar to be applied to...

Gerard Cornelissen; Vegard Martinsen; Victor Shitumbanuma; Vanja Alling; Breedveld, Gijs D.; Rutherford, David W.; Magnus Sparrevik; Hale, Sarah E.; Alfred Obia; Jan Mulder

2013-01-01

210

A cost-effectiveness analysis of artemether lumefantrine for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Zambia  

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Abstract Background Malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity, mortality and non-fatal disability in Zambia, especially among children, pregnant women and the poor. Data gathered by the National Malaria Control Centre has shown that recently observed widespread treatment failure of SP and chloroquine precipitated a surge in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. As a result, the Government has recently replaced chloroquine and SP with combination therapy as first-line tr...

Chanda Pascalina; Masiye Felix; Chitah Bona M; Sipilanyambe Naawa; Hawela Moonga; Banda Patrick; Okorosobo Tuoyo

2007-01-01

211

The Local Social and Environmental Impacts of Smallholder-Based Biofuel Investments in Zambia  

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High oil prices, recent commitments by industrialized countries to enhance the use of renewable energy, and efforts by developing countries to stimulate foreign investment as a pathway to development have fueled high levels of interest in the biofuel sector throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa. Zambia is no exception. A large, land-locked country with high pump prices and vast tracts of land considered by many to be “degraded” or “underutilized,” investor interest in ...

2011-01-01

212

Contraception and family planning among HIV-seroconcordant and -serodiscordant couples in the US and Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Deborah L Jones1, Olga Villar-Loubet1, Chipepo Kankasa2, Ndashi Chitalu2, Miriam Mumbi2, Stephen M Weiss11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Paediatrics, University of Zambia School of Medicine, Lusaka, ZambiaAbstract: With the advent of antiretroviral therapy, remarkable progress has been made in the reduction of morbidity and mortality associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. As a result, in both the developed and developing world, reproductive decision-making and family planning has re-emerged as an important health issue among HIV-seroconcordant and -serodiscordant couples. This study sought to explore contraceptive attitudes and practices among HIV-seropositive and -serodiscordant couples in the US and Zambia and to compare contraceptive decision-making between seroconcordant and discordant couples. Study results suggest that while most participants expressed a willingness to use protection to prevent pregnancy, the majority were not using protection consistently. Similarly, among seropositive younger men in both the US and Zambia, more men expressed a desire to have children than women of either serostatus group. Study outcomes also suggest that male and female condom use to reduce HIV transmission within couples is limited. Thus, as males are largely the sexual decision makers regarding condom use, women’s attitudes or plans regarding child bearing may be eclipsed by those of their male partners, and recent reductions in provision of female condoms in the developing world may further reduce women’s options to protect themselves and prevent pregnancy. Education and counseling on vertical and horizontal transmission of HIV among both seropositive and serodiscordant couples should be an element of family planning efforts. Conversely, family planning should be a critical element of HIV counseling and testing strategies to realistically respond to the desires of both members of the couple.Keywords: urban, decision-making, condom use, HIV transmission

Deborah L Jones

2010-05-01

213

The Incidence of Human Cysticercosis in a Rural Community of Eastern Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A community-based longitudinal study was performed in the Eastern Province of Zambia, in which repeated serological samplings were done to determine the incidence of human cysticercosis. Three sampling rounds were carried out at six months intervals. A total of 867 participants presented for all three samplings. All samples were tested for the presence of cysticercus antigens using a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sero-Ag-ELISA), while a randomly selected sub-sam...

Mwape, Kabemba E.; Phiri, Isaac K.; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Muma, John B.; Dorny, Pierre; Gabrie?l, Sarah

2013-01-01

214

Taxonomy and pathogenicity of two novel Chrysoporthe species from Eucalyptus grandis and Syzygium guineense in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Among fungi in the Cryphonectriaceae, Cryphonectria parasitica, the causal agent of chestnut blight, and Chrysoporthe spp., inducing stem cankers and death of plantation-grown Eucalyptus spp., constitute some of the most important tree pathogens. During a survey to determine diseases and related pathogens associated with native and non-native Myrtales in Zambia, two fungi resembling stem canker pathogens in the genus Chrysoporthe were recovered from Syzygium guineense and Eucalyptus grandis....

Chungu, Donald; Gryzenhout, Marieka; Muimba-kankolongo, Ambayeba; Wingfield, Michael J.; Roux, Jolanda

2010-01-01

215

Managing inequality: the political ecology of a small-scale fishery, Mweru-Luapula, Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper starts from the perspective on resource management approaches as based upon a body of environmental knowledge. By analysing fisheries management in Mweru-Luapula, Zambia, we argue that this body of environmental knowledge has (i) remained largely unchanged throughout the recent shift to co-management and (ii) is to a great extent based upon general paradigmatic conventions with regard to common property regimes. We therefore simultaneously studied the historical trajectories of bot...

Verelst, Bram

2013-01-01

216

Reducing pediatric HIV infection: estimating mother to child transmission rates in a program setting in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND:: Vertical transmission of HIV remains the main source of pediatric HIV infection in Africa with transmission rates as high as 25%-45% without intervention. Even though effective interventions to reduce vertical transmission of HIV are now available and remarkable progress has been made in scaling up prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) services, the effectiveness of PMTCT interventions is unknown in Zambia. In this study, we estimate HIV vertical transmission rates a...

2010-01-01

217

Bovine trypanosomiasis risk in an endemic area on the eastern plateau of Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The control of bovine trypanosomiasis could be improved by using the available control tools during periods when the incidence of the disease is highest. The present study assessed the monthly risk of bovine trypanosomiasis in 85 sentinel cattle kept on the tsetse-infested eastern plateau of Zambia during a period of 19 consecutive months. To avoid problems associated with persistence of infections because of trypanocidal drug resistance and/or the time lag between sampling and mo...

Simukoko, H.; Marcotty, Tanguy; Vercruysse, J.; Den Bossche, Peter

2010-01-01

218

Aspects of productivity of traditionally managed Barotse cattle in the Western Province of Zambia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In sub-Saharan Africa, traditionally managed livestock is important because of the provision of draught power and manure, the provision of security and investment possibilities, for the provision of meat and milk, and for social purposes (eg. brideprice, gifts). In the Western Province of Zambia, cattle are the only livestock of significance. The soils of the province virtually entirely consist of Kalahari sands, that are not very suitable for crop production, but with a good suitability ...

Klink, E. G. M.

1994-01-01

219

Creating a Knowledge Translation Platform: nine lessons from the Zambia Forum for Health Research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The concept of the Knowledge Translation Platform (KTP) provides cohesion and leadership for national–level knowledge translation efforts. In this review, we discuss nine key lessons documenting the experience of the Zambia Forum for Health Research, primarily to inform and exchange experience with the growing community of African KTPs. Lessons from ZAMFOHR’s organizational development include the necessity of selecting a multi-stakeholder and -sectoral Board of Directo...

Kasonde Joseph M; Campbell Sandy

2012-01-01

220

Self-reported poor oral hygiene among in-school adolescents in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Dental health is a neglected aspect of adolescent health globally but more so in low-income countries. Secondary analysis using the 2004 Zambia Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS) was conducted in which we estimated frequencies of relevant socio-demographic variables and explored associations between selected explanatory variables and self-reported poor oral hygiene (not cleaning or brushing teeth) within the last 30 days of the completion of question...

Siziya Seter; Muula Adamson S; Rudatsikira Emmanuel

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

‘It is just culture’ : Eight young people’s perception of the gender roles in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study explores eight young people’s perception of the gender roles in Zambia, Lusaka. In this study I have asked the informants to define the genders and the result were that the genders are defined based on the biological sexes. The genders therefore become homogenous based on the male and female sex. The regulations of the genders were traditionally also based on assumed ‘biologically natural characteristics’. As I argue in this study that gender roles are social constructed I al...

Nyman, Mikaela

2013-01-01

222

Evidence of Yersinia pestis DNA from fleas in an endemic plague area of Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia pestis is a bacterium that causes plague which infects a variety of mammals throughout the world. The disease is usually transmitted among wild rodents through a flea vector. The sources and routes of transmission of plague are poorly researched in Africa, yet remains a concern in several sub-Saharan countries. In Zambia, the disease has been reported on annual basis with up to 20 cases per year, without investigating animal reservoirs or vectors that may be responsible in the maintenance and propagation of the bacterium. In this study, we undertook plague surveillance by using PCR amplification of the plasminogen activator gene in fleas. Findings Xenopsylla species of fleas were collected from 83 rodents trapped in a plague endemic area of Zambia. Of these rodents 5 had fleas positive (6.02% for Y. pestis plasminogen activator gene. All the Y. pestis positive rodents were gerbils. Conclusions We conclude that fleas may be responsible in the transmission of Y. pestis and that PCR may provide means of plague surveillance in the endemic areas of Zambia.

Hang'ombe Bernard M

2012-01-01

223

Environmental impact assessment of the charcoal production and utilization system in central Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study is the outcome of the Zambia Charcoal Utilization Programme, which is based on cooperation that started in 1989 between the Department of Energy, Ministry of Energy and Water Development (then Ministry of Power, Transport and Communications) and the Stockholm Environmental Institute (SEI). The programme, which is funded by the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA), consists of a number of studies focusing on different aspects of the wood and charcoal industry in Zambia. Selection of this energy system for detailed study was based on the fact that wood provides the largest contribution to total energy supply in Zambia, and the fact that wood is a renewable resource that could be exploited on a sustainable basis if properly managed. The studies therefore range from those that look at sustainability of the natural forests exploited for charcoal, to those that deal with transportation and health aspects of charcoal production and use. The present report focuses on the environmental and socio-economic effects of charcoal production and use. 72 refs., 20 figs., 38 tabs

1994-01-01

224

Assessing cultural factors influencing choice of business entry mode in a developing country: Case Biolan Group and Global Dry Toilet Association of Finland in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of the thesis was to find out and analyse the key factors in Zambian culture and business culture that influence choice of business entry method for dry toilet market in Zambia. The other aim was to find the most suitable entry mode for a developing country, in this case Zambia.

Kortelainen, Sirpa

2011-01-01

225

Underperformance of African Protected Area Networks and the Case for New Conservation Models: Insights from Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Many African protected areas (PAs) are not functioning effectively. We reviewed the performance of Zambia’s PA network and provide insights into how their effectiveness might be improved. Zambia’s PAs are under-performing in ecological, economic and social terms. Reasons include: a) rapidly expanding human populations, poverty and open-access systems in Game Management Areas (GMAs) resulting in widespread bushmeat poaching and habitat encroachment; b) underfunding of the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) resulting in inadequate law enforcement; c) reliance of ZAWA on extracting revenues from GMAs to cover operational costs which has prevented proper devolution of user-rights over wildlife to communities; d) on-going marginalization of communities from legal benefits from wildlife; e) under-development of the photo-tourism industry with the effect that earnings are limited to a fraction of the PA network; f) unfavourable terms and corruption which discourage good practice and adequate investment by hunting operators in GMAs; g) blurred responsibilities regarding anti-poaching in GMAs resulting in under-investment by all stakeholders. The combined effect of these challenges has been a major reduction in wildlife densities in most PAs and the loss of habitat in GMAs. Wildlife fares better in areas with investment from the private and/or NGO sector and where human settlement is absent. There is a need for: elevated government funding for ZAWA; greater international donor investment in protected area management; a shift in the role of ZAWA such that they focus primarily on national parks while facilitating the development of wildlife-based land uses by other stakeholders elsewhere; and new models for the functioning of GMAs based on joint-ventures between communities and the private and/or NGO sector. Such joint-ventures should provide defined communities with ownership of land, user-rights over wildlife and aim to attract long-term private/donor investment. These recommendations are relevant for many of the under-funded PAs occurring in other African countries.

Lindsey, Peter A.; Nyirenda, Vincent R.; Barnes, Jonathan I.; Becker, Matthew S.; McRobb, Rachel; Tambling, Craig J.; Taylor, W. Andrew; Watson, Frederick G.; t'Sas-Rolfes, Michael

2014-01-01

226

Nuclear district heating plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Sweden district heating is based on petroleum. However, petroleum shortage requires its substitution by other energy resources. In this paper the nuclear district heating plant SECURE, (ASEA-ATOM BWR) is discussed. Its construction and characteristics are detailed in the frame of a survey of recent trends in constructing district heating plants. Economic as well as environmental aspects are discussed based on the characteristics of the reactor, operating at 400 MW. The long-term supply of fuel is also mentioned as an important criterion. (Sz.J.)

1982-01-01

227

Burnout and use of HIV services among health care workers in Lusaka District, Zambia: a cross-sectional study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Well-documented shortages of health care workers in sub-Saharan Africa are exacerbated by the increased human resource demands of rapidly expanding HIV care and treatment programmes. The successful continuation of existing programmes is threatened by health care worker burnout and HIV-related illness. Methods From March to June 2007, we studied occupational burnout and utilization of HIV services among health providers in the Lusaka public health sector. Providers from 13 public clinics were given a 36-item, self-administered questionnaire and invited for focus group discussions and key-informant interviews. Results Some 483 active clinical staff completed the questionnaire (84% response rate, 50 staff participated in six focus groups, and four individuals gave interviews. Focus group participants described burnout as feeling overworked, stressed and tired. In the survey, 51% reported occupational burnout. Risk factors were having another job (RR 1.4 95% CI 1.2–1.6 and knowing a co-worker who left in the last year (RR 1.6 95% CI 1.3–2.2. Reasons for co-worker attrition included: better pay (40%, feeling overworked or stressed (21%, moving away (16%, death (8% and illness (5%. When asked about HIV testing, 370 of 456 (81% reported having tested; 240 (50% tested in the last year. In contrast, discussion groups perceived low testing rates. Both discussion groups and survey respondents identified confidentiality as the prime reason for not undergoing HIV testing. Conclusion In Lusaka primary care clinics, overwork, illness and death were common reasons for attrition. Programmes to improve access, acceptability and confidentiality of health care services for clinical providers and to reduce workplace stress could substantially affect workforce stability.

Quiterio Nicole

2009-07-01

228

What impact do Global Health Initiatives have on human resources for antiretroviral treatment roll-out? A qualitative policy analysis of implementation processes in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the beginning of the 21st century, development assistance for HIV/AIDS has increasingly been provided through Global Health Initiatives, specifically the United States Presidential Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, the Global Fund to Fight HIV, TB and Malaria and the World Bank Multi-country AIDS Programme. Zambia, like many of the countries heavily affected by HIV/AIDS in southern Africa, also faces a shortage of human resources for health. The country receives significant amounts of funding from GHIs for the large-scale provision of antiretroviral treatment through the public and private sector. This paper examines the impact of GHIs on human resources for ART roll-out in Zambia, at national level, in one province and two districts. Methods It is a qualitative policy analysis relying on in-depth interviews with more than 90 policy-makers and implementers at all levels. Results Findings show that while GHIs do not provide significant funding for additional human resources, their interventions have significant impact on human resources for health at all levels. While GHIs successfully retrain a large number of health workers, evidence suggests that GHIs actively deplete the pool of skilled human resources for health by recruiting public sector staff to work for GHI-funded nongovernmental implementing agencies. The secondment of GHI staff into public sector facilities may help alleviate immediate staff shortages, but this practice risks undermining sustainability of programmes. GHI-supported programmes and initiatives add significantly to the workload of existing public sector staff at all levels, while incentives including salary top-ups and overtime payments mean that ART programmes are more popular among staff than services for non-focal diseases. Conclusion Research findings suggest that GHIs need to actively mediate against the potentially negative consequences of their funding on human resources for health. Evidence presented highlights the need for new strategies that integrate retraining of existing staff with longer-term staff development to ensure staff retention. The study results show that GHIs must provide significant new and longer-term funding for additional human resources to avoid negative consequences on the overall provision of health care services and to ensure sustainability and quality of programmes they support.

Hanefeld Johanna

2009-02-01

229

Low temperature district heating  

Mar 26, 2013 ... The District Heating & Cooling (DHC) 'implementing agreement' ... Research \\topics cover all aspects of DHC technology focusing on reducing ... system \\optimisation, pro-active maintenance, thermal storage, integrating.

230

District energy in Halifax  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The economic benefits of district heating to the Dartmouth/Halifax area were discussed. In some European countries, district heating systems supply 30 to 40% of the heating market; in North America the industry is less well developed. Nevertheless, the technology is gaining popularity and interest due to concerns over emissions and improvements in the technology itself. A preliminary assessment of district heat potential in the metropolitan area of Dartmouth/Halifax was presented. The assessment included a capital cost estimate, economic analysis, a discussion of environmental issues, sustainable development aspects, and greenhouse effects. Based on the findings it was concluded that the use of district energy could be a viable option for the area;it would represent a significant opportunity for sustainable use of energy.

Blamire, D.K. [Nova Scotia Power Corp., Halifax, NS (Canada)

1995-12-31

231

Life and worldview: development and transformation – The case of the Lamba of the Masaiti region in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article reports on a case study regarding the development and educational transformation of a subgroup of the Lamba living in the Masaiti region of the Copper Belt Province of Zambia, where the Foundation for Cross-Cultural Education in Zambia (FCE) has been serving for the past thirteen years. It was concluded that the current life- and worldview of a community such as the one living in the Masaiti region can be transformed to a truly Christ-centred life- and worldview by firstly taking...

Compion, Johannes Christiaan; Steyn, Hendrik Johannes; Wolhuter, Charste Coetzee; Walt, Johannes Lodewicus

2010-01-01

232

Life- and worldview: development and transformation – the case of the Lamba of the Masaiti region in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article reports on a case study regarding the development and educational transformation of a subgroup of the Lamba living in the Masaiti region of the Copper Belt Province of Zambia, where the Foundation for Cross-Cultural Education in Zambia (FCE) has been serving for the past thirteen years. It was concluded that the current life- and worldview of a community such as the one living in the Masaiti region can be transformed to a truly Christ-centred life- and worldview by firstly taking...

Compion, J.; Walt, J. L.; Steyn, H. J.; Wolhuter, C. C.

2010-01-01

233

Operational scale entomological intervention for malaria control: strategies, achievements and challenges in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background While consensus on malaria vector control policy and strategy has stimulated unprecedented political-will, backed by international funding organizations and donors, vector control interventions are expansively being implemented based on assumptions with unequaled successes. This manuscript reports on the strategies, achievements and challenges of the past and contemporary malaria vector control efforts in Zambia. Case description All available information and accessible archived documentary records on malaria vector control in Zambia were reviewed. Retrospective analysis of routine surveillance data from the Health Management Information System (HMIS, data from population-based household surveys and various operations research reports was conducted to assess the status in implementing policies and strategies. Discussion and evaluation Empirical evidence is critical for informing policy decisions and tailoring interventions to local settings. Thus, the World Health Organization (WHO encourages the adoption of the integrated vector management (IVM strategy which is a rational decision making process for optimal use of available resources. One of the key features of IVM is capacity building at the operational level to plan, implement, monitor and evaluate vector control and its epidemiological and entomological impact. In Zambia, great progress has been made in implementing WHO-recommended vector control policies and strategies within the context of the IVM Global Strategic framework with strong adherence to its five key attributes. Conclusions The country has solid, consistent and coordinated policies, strategies and guidelines for malaria vector control. The Zambian experience demonstrates the significance of a coordinated multi-pronged IVM approach effectively operationalized within the context of a national health system.

Chanda Emmanuel

2013-01-01

234

The influence of cultural practices on the HIV and AIDS pandemic in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Culture plays a significant role in people’s lives in Zambia and in Africa as a whole. Consequently, there is a need to take Zambian or African culture seriously in order to look at the salient elements of cultural practices in rites of passage that influence the spread of HIV and AIDS. This article analyses four rites of passage associated with birth, puberty, marriage and death. There are numerous rites of passage in Zambian culture. Some of these rites help to curb the spread of HIV and ...

Nolipher Moyo; Mu?ller, Julian C.

2011-01-01

235

Prevalence and distribution of HPV genotypes among HIV-infected women in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We screened 145 HIV-infected non-pregnant women at a tertiary care centre in Lusaka, Zambia. Liquid-based cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping with PGMY09/11 biotinylated primers (Roche Linear Array® HPV genotyping test) maximised sensitivity of cytology and HPV assessments. Among high-risk (HR) types, HPV 52 (37.2%), 58 (24.1%) and 53 (20.7%) were more common overall than HPV 16 (17.2%) and 18 (13.1%) in women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or squamous cell c...

Sahasrabuddhe, V. V.; Mwanahamuntu, M. H.; Vermund, S. H.; Huh, W. K.; Lyon, M. D.; Stringer, J. S. A.; Parham, G. P.

2007-01-01

236

Doubling the number of health graduates in Zambia: estimating feasibility and costs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ministry of Health (MoH in Zambia is operating with fewer than half of the human resources for health (HRH necessary to meet basic population health needs. Responding urgently to address this HRH crisis, the MoH plans to double the annual number of health training graduates in the next five years to increase the supply of health workers. The feasibility and costs of achieving this initiative, however, are unclear. Methods We determined the feasibility and costs of doubling training institution output through an individual school assessment framework. Assessment teams, comprised of four staff from the MoH and Clinton Health Access Initiative, visited all of Zambia's 39 public and private health training institutions from 17 April to 19 June 2008. Teams consulted with faculty and managers at each training institution to determine if student enrollment could double within five years; an operational planning exercise carried out with school staff determined the investments and additional operating costs necessary to achieve expansion. Cost assumptions were developed using historical cost data. Results The individual school assessments affirmed the MoH's ability to double the graduate output of Zambia's public health training institutions. Lack of infrastructure was determined as a key bottleneck in achieving this increase while meeting national training quality standards. A total investment of US$ 58.8 million is required to meet expansion infrastructure needs, with US$ 35.0 million (59.5% allocated to expanding student accommodation and US$ 23.8 million (40.5% allocated to expanding teaching, studying, office, and dining space. The national number of teaching staff must increase by 363 (111% increase over the next five years. The additional recurring costs, which include salaries for additional teachers and operating expenses for new students, are estimated at US$ 58.0 million over the five-year scale-up period. Total cost of expansion is estimated at US$ 116.8 million over five years. Conclusions Historic underinvestment in training institutions has crippled Zambia's ability to meet expansion ambitions. There must be significant investments in infrastructure and faculty to meet quality standards while expanding training enrollment. Bottom-up planning can be used to translate national targets into costed implementation plans for expansion at each school.

Lee Joanne

2010-09-01

237

EDRXF measurements of heavy elements in soil samples from some potentially polluted sites in zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of heavy element levels in top soils collected around four industrial plants and along four highway stretches demonstrated that there was significant pollution only around an abandoned Pb/Zn mine. Sample collection in a rectangular grid encompassing each source sought to depict the spatial extent of pollution. Ascertaining levels of heavy elements in potentially polluted soils in urban areas of Zambia and along major highways was deemed desirable because it is common practice to grow maize and vegetables in lots adjacent to accessible industrial sites and highways. Pb is a heavy element of interest for all sampled sites whose distribution at the abandoned mine ranged from 13 to 2028 ppm

2001-10-22

238

The influence of cultural practices on the HIV and AIDS pandemic in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Culture plays a significant role in people’s lives in Zambia and in Africa as a whole. Consequently, there is a need to take Zambian or African culture seriously in order to look at the salient elements of cultural practices in rites of passage that influence the spread of HIV and AIDS. This article analyses four rites of passage associated with birth, puberty, marriage and death. There are numerous rites of passage in Zambian culture. Some of these rites help to curb the spr...

Moyo, Nolipher; Muller, Julian C.

2011-01-01

239

Seeking markets and resources : State-driven Chinese and Indian investments in Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Processes of globalisation are currently changing the global activity of multinational companies (MNCs). â??Emergingâ?? MNCs are competing with â??conventionalâ?? MNCs when investing in new markets. This article sets out to analyse the motives and strategies of Chinese and Indian MNCs investing in Zambia. It argues that despite the different home-country contexts of these investments, emerging MNCs depict differences as well as similarities. Moreover, the article maintains that existing theories explaining international production provide a suitable framework to understand â??emergingâ?? patterns, but that more emphasis must be placed on the home and host contexts and how institutional features impact investment decisions.

Kragelund, Peter; Hampwaye, Godfrey

2012-01-01

240

Infrastructure and strategy for radioactive waste management for non-nuclear applications in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Generation of radioactive waste in Zambia is limited by application of radioisotopes in medicine and research, and by use of sealed radioactive sources in industry, agriculture and at health care facilities. Use of radioactive materials and management of associated wastes are governed by National Ionising Radiation Act. Totally more then 100 institutions in the country are using different radioactive materials and consequently are dealing with radioactive waste. Responsibility for managing these wastes rested with organisations and institutions producing radioactive waste, with the supervision of this activity by National Radiation Service (RPS). (author)

2002-12-01

 
 
 
 
241

Victimization from bullying among school-attending adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among school- attending adolescents, victimization from bullying is associated with anxiety, depression and poor academic performance. There are limited reports on victimization from bullying in Zambia; we therefore conducted this study to determine the prevalence and correlates for victimization from bullying among adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in the country in order to add information on the body of knowledge on victimization from bullying. METHODS: The 2004 Zambia Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS data among adolescents in grades 7 to 10 were obtained from the World Health Organization. We estimated the prevalence of victimization from bullying. We also conducted weighted multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine independent factors associated with victimization from bullying, and report adjusted odds ratios (AOR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI. RESULTS: Of 2136 students who participated in the 2004 Zambia GSHS, 1559 had information on whether they were bullied or not. Of these, 1559 students, 62.8% (60.0% of male and 65.0% of female participants reported having been bullied in the previous 30 days to the survey. We found that respondents of age less than 14 years were 7% (AOR=0.93; 95%CI [0.91, 0.95] less likely to have been bullied compared to those aged 16 years or older. Being a male (AOR=1.07; 95%CI [1.06, 1.09], lonely (AOR=1.24; 95%CI [1.22, 1.26], worried (AOR=1.12; 95%CI [1.11, 1.14], consuming alcohol (AOR=2.59; 95%CI [2.55, 2.64], missing classes (AOR=1.30; 95%CI [1.28, 1.32], and considering attempting suicide (AOR=1.20; 95%CI [1.18, 1.22] were significantly associated with bullying victimization. CONCLUSIONS: Victimization from bullying is prevalent among in-school adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in Zambia, and interventions to curtail it should consider the factors that have been identified in this study.

Emmanuel Rudatsikira

2012-01-01

242

On nuclear district heating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear district heating - a relatively new direction of nuclear power development is considered. Three methods how to organize the centralized district heating from nuclear power sources are discussed. The application of nuclear central heating- and-power plants (NCHPP), the combined generation of heat and electric power by reactors of condensation NPP and the application of nuclear boilers. The first method is the most economic but the most complicated, the third one - the creation of nuclear district heating plants (NDHP) without generation of electricity has a number of design advantages though it lends to a less economic utilization of primary energy. The second method occupies the intermediate position. Main requirements on NDHP (nuclear boiler) safety operation are stated, its flowsheet and a brief description of its reactor plant are given. It is emphasized that the combined generation of heat and electric power by NCHPP is less effective than by fossil fuel CHPP

1980-04-01

243

District heating in Flensburg  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The majority of our population, but also of our authorities, are still skeptical or even disapproving towards district heating. The reasons of this negative attitude are partly psychological - e.g. the individualism of the Swiss and their dislike for too centralised structures and ''forced connections'' - but also the existence of finished gas supply networks and the fear of considerable pre-investments and torn streets over years. The following article - held as a speech on the information meeting ''District heating and the possible contribution of nuclear energy'' organised by the Swiss Association for Atomic Energy in Bern shows a practical problem solving at the example of the district heating in Flensburg and deals with these questions.

Prinz, W.

1981-01-01

244

District heating in Hungary  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A detailed analysis has been made regarding the possibilities of establishing a transmission network for the district heating system in Budapest. Furthermore, some aspects of transfer of technology, examples of other district heating systems in Hungary, and financing of major projects have been discussed. It has been found that there is a need for modernising the district heating sector in the country in order to adapt it to the market economy with its international energy price level, demands for economic viability, reduction in costs, etc., the new environmental demands which will call for a reduction in the fuel consumption and the optimum utilization of all energy sources, and the consumers' demands regarding a cheap and reliable heat supply. To achieve this, heat planning should be carried out for each community in order to identify which measures should be taken locally in view of adapting it to these demands. The district heating system is an example of such a planning exercise where mainly the aspects of establishing a transmission system has been dealt with. The involvement of other sectors in this planning - to enable the preparation of plans of a community's entire energy sector - will make it possible to assure optimum utilization of, e.g., combined heat and power (CHP), industrial plants, etc. For Budapest in particular, this study shows that major improvements of the district heating supply can be expected and that the economy of the district heating systems will benefit from the establishment of transmission networks. These revisions of the heating system will improve the economy to such an extend that it should be possible to find international sources of finance for these projects. The environmental benefits of the project consisting in the cuts on fuel consumption for heating by an optimum utilization of the future CHP-plants, are furhter supporting the project. (CLS).

1990-12-01

245

An Audit of Skills and Qualifications in Preservation and Conservation Techniques: The Case of the University of Zambia Libraries  

Science.gov (United States)

This article establishes the level of skills and experience in preservation and conservation management using a case study methodological approach conducted in the 3 university libraries at the University of Zambia. The findings revealed that 20 (57%) of the library staff had not received formal training in preservation and conservation of library…

Shameenda, Kimbo Lemmy; Kanyengo, Christine Wamunyima

2012-01-01

246

Should I stay or should I go? Rural youth employment in Uganda and Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper discusses the employment strategies of young people in selected rural areas of Zambia and Uganda, with a focus on the opportunities and constraints that they face. It investigates mobility patterns to determine what motivates some youth to stay, while others choose to migrate to urban areas. Quantitative and qualitative data are drawn on to analyse the role of exogenous and endogenous support for young entrepreneurs. The findings indicate that agriculture plays a major role as a source of livelihood for rural youth and, in combination with other economic activities, provides a more resilient livelihood than a single enterprise strategy. The importance of an enabling environment, personal skills and favourable market conditions are also highlighted. The question of whether young people remain in or leave rural areas is shown to vary between the Ugandan and Zambian contexts. In Uganda, a significant proportion of the youth, especially young men, migrate to urban areas, whereas in Zambia, almost all the young people have chosen to remain in the rural area, where they consider their prospects of success to be greater than if they were to migrate elsewhere.

Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard; Birch-Thomsen, Torben

2013-01-01

247

Pregnancy loss: spontaneous and induced abortions among young women in Lusaka, Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

An estimated 60% of all adolescent pregnancies in low-income countries are unintended. The present study was carried out at the university hospital in Lusaka, Zambia over a four-month period in 2005. The aim was to explore experiences of pregnancy loss and to ascertain the girl's contraceptive knowledge and use and their partner's involvement in the pregnancy/abortion. Eighty-seven girls aged 13-19 years admitted to hospital for incomplete abortions were interviewed. Of these girls, 53 (61%) had had a spontaneous abortion and 34 (39%) had undergone an unsafe induced abortion. Significantly more girls with an unsafe induced abortion were single, students, had completed more years in school and were in less stable relationships. Girls' overall contraceptive knowledge and use was low and most pregnancies were unplanned. Partners played a decisive role in terminating pregnancy through unsafe induced abortion. Traditional healers, girls themselves and health professionals were the main abortion providers. Young women's health risks due to unprotected sex and lack of contraceptive services should urgently be addressed. The existence of the abortion law and access to emergency contraception should be better publicized in Zambia. PMID:19904649

Dahlbäck, Elisabeth; Maimbolwa, Margaret; Yamba, C Bawa; Kasonka, Lackson; Bergström, Staffan; Ransjö-Arvidson, Anna-Berit

2010-04-01

248

The effect of seasonal variation on anthrax epidemiology in the upper Zambezi floodplain of western Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthrax has become endemic throughout the upper Zambezi floodplain located in the Western Province of Zambia over the recent years. To date, no comprehensive study has been carried out to determine whether recurrence of anthrax outbreaks may be linked to differences in precipitation and human activities. Retrospective data for the period 1999 to 2007 showed that a total of 1,216 bovine cases of anthrax were reported. During the same period, 1,790 human anthrax cases and a corresponding case fatality rate of 4.63% (83/1,790) was documented in the upper Zambezi floodplain. Occurrence of human cases was highly correlated with cattle outbreaks (r = 0.94, p < 0.001). Differences in precipitation were significantly associated with the occurrence of anthrax outbreaks (?2 = 4.75, p < 0.03), indicating that the likelihood of outbreaks occurring was higher during the dry months when human occupancy of the floodplain was greater compared to the flooding months when people and livestock moved out of this region. Human dependency on the floodplain was shown to significantly influence the epidemiology of anthrax in the upper Zambezi floodplain of western Zambia. Methods for mitigating anthrax outbreaks by disrupting the cycle of transmission are herein highlighted.

Banda, Fredrick; Siamudaala, Victor Mukulule; Munyeme, Musso; Kasanga, Christopher Jacob; Hamududu, Byman

2012-01-01

249

Uranium occurrence in the Katanga System of north-western Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Until recently occurrences of uranium in the Katanga System were known only in the Shaba Province of Zaire and on the Copperbelt, but a survey by AGIP has shown the existence of uranium mineralization in north-western Zambia. In each area, syngenetic copper and uranium mineralization are found near the base of the Katanga System. As a result of tectonism during the Lufilian orogeny and metamorphism related to and subsequent to the tectonism, epigenetic vein-type uranium deposits were formed by the repeated mobilization and depositing of the original mineralization. Supergene alteration and thermal events resulted in further redistribution and concentration. In the Domes area of north-western Zambia, the mineralization occurs mainly in mica schists underlying a quartzite horizon near the base of the Lower Roan Group at the margins of the Kabompo, Mwombezhi and Solwezi Domes. The mineralization occurs as thorium-free pitchblende, disseminated or in veins, and as secondary uranium minerals. Several occurrences have been investigated by drilling. (author)

1977-11-18

250

Clinical and ultrasonographic features of abdominal tuberculosis in HIV positive adults in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis (TB is difficult, especially so in health care facilities in developing countries where laparoscopy and colonoscopy are rarely available. There is little information on abdominal TB in HIV infection. We estimated the prevalence and clinical features of abdominal (excluding genitourinary TB in HIV infected adults attending the University Teaching Hospital, Zambia. Methods We screened 5,609 medical inpatients, and those with fever, weight loss, and clinical features suggestive of abdominal pathology were evaluated further. A clinical algorithm was used to specify definitive investigations including laparoscopy or colonoscopy, with culture of biopsies and other samples. Results Of 140 HIV seropositive patients with these features, 31 patients underwent full evaluation and 22 (71% had definite or probable abdominal TB. The commonest presenting abdominal features were ascites and persistent tenderness. The commonest ultrasound findings were ascites, para-aortic lymphadenopathy (over 1 cm in size, and hepatomegaly. Abdominal TB was associated with CD4 cell counts over a wide range though 76% had CD4 counts Conclusion The clinical manifestations of abdominal TB in our HIV-infected patients resembled the well-established pattern in HIV-uninfected adults. Patients with fever, weight loss, abdominal tenderness, abdominal lymphadenopathy, ascites and/or hepatomegaly in Zambia have a high probability of abdominal TB, irrespective of CD4 cell count.

Vermund Sten H

2009-04-01

251

Safety and security of radiation sources and radioactive materials: A case of Zambia - least developed country  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Zambia, which is current (1998) classified as a Least Developed Country has applications of nuclear science and technology that cover the medical, industrial, education and research. However, the application is mainly in medical and industry. Through the responsibility of radiation source is within the mandate of the Radiation Protection Board. The aspects involving security fall on different stake holders some that have no technical knowledge on what radiation is about. The stake holders in this category include customs clearing and forwarding agents, state security/defence agencies and the operators. Such a situation demands a national system that should be instituted to meet the safety and security requirements but takes into account the involvement of the diverse stake holders. In addition such system should avoid unnecessary exposure, ensure safety of radioactive materials and sources, detect illicit trade and maintain integrity of such materials or sources. This paper will provide the status on issue in Zambia and the challenges that exist to ensure further development in application of Nuclear Science and Technology (S and T) in the country takes into account the safety and security requirements that avoid deliberate and accidental loss of radiation sources and radioactive materials. The Government has a responsibility to ensure that effective system is established and operated to protect radiation sources and radioactive materials from theft, sabotage and ensure safety. (author)

1998-09-01

252

Community attitudes towards childbearing and abortion among HIV-positive women in Nigeria and Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although stigma towards HIV-positive women for both continuing and terminating a pregnancy has been documented, to date few studies have examined relative stigma towards one outcome versus the other. This study seeks to describe community attitudes towards each of two possible elective outcomes of an HIV-positive woman's pregnancy - induced abortion or birth - to determine which garners more stigma and document characteristics of community members associated with stigmatising attitudes towards each outcome. Data come from community-based interviews with reproductive-aged men and women, 2401 in Zambia and 2452 in Nigeria. Bivariate and multivariate analyses revealed that respondents from both countries overwhelmingly favoured continued childbearing for HIV-positive pregnant women, but support for induced abortion was slightly higher in scenarios in which anti-retroviral therapy (ART) was unavailable. Zambian respondents held more stigmatising attitudes towards abortion for HIV-positive women than did Nigerian respondents. Women held more stigmatising attitudes towards abortion for HIV-positive women than men, particularly in Zambia. From a sexual and reproductive health and rights perspective, efforts to assist HIV-positive women in preventing unintended pregnancy and to support them in their pregnancy decisions when they do become pregnant should be encouraged in order to combat the social stigma documented in this paper. PMID:23173695

Kavanaugh, Megan L; Moore, Ann M; Akinyemi, Odunayo; Adewole, Isaac; Dzekedzeke, Kumbutso; Awolude, Olutosin; Arulogun, Oyedunni

2013-01-01

253

Districts Tackling Meal Debt  

Science.gov (United States)

School districts have resorted to hiring debt collectors, employing constables, and swapping out standard meals for scaled-back versions to try to coerce parents to pay off school lunch debt that, in recent years, appears to have surged as the result of a faltering economy and better record-keeping. While the average school lunch costs just about…

Shah, Nirvi

2012-01-01

254

Reykjavik District Heating System.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reykjavik, Iceland, utilizes natural geothermal resources as the heat input for its district heating system. This system served about 8,700 of the 10,000 residences in 1970. The water used is non-corrosive, allowing the use of standard pipe and fittings. ...

J. Zoega G. Kristinsson

1970-01-01

255

Pribram uranium district  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pribram is one of the largest and richest vein uranium districts in the world. The Pribram district has accounted for about 60 percent of Czechoslovakia`s total uranium production. The Pribram uranium district is located about 60 kilometers southwest of Prague, in Cezechslovakia`s central Bohemia region. This district contains perigranitic, monometallic, vein-type uranium deposits. The deposits are within a northeast-southwest elongated area, about 20 kilometers long and 1-2 kilometers wide, located between Oboriste in the northeast and Tresko in the southwest. Several thousand veins have been discovered; about 1,600 have been mined. Most of the veins are grouped in clusters, which are intense accumulations of veins paralleling or intersecting each other within a narrow segment. Until this year, all uranium production was exported to the USSR, with only the amount required for Czechoslovakia`s nuclear power stations being returned (as fabricated fuel). Most of Czechoslovakia`s present and future uranium production will come from sandstone deposits in the North Bohemian Cretaceous Basin, such as Hamr and Straz.

NONE

1990-11-01

256

The Influence of Distance and Level of Care on Delivery Place in Rural Zambia: A Study of Linked National Data in a Geographic Information System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using linked national data in a geographic information system system, Sabine Gabrysch and colleagues investigate the effects of distance to care and level of care on women's use of health facilities for delivery in rural Zambia.

Gabrysch, Sabine; Cousens, Simon; Cox, Jonathan; Campbell, Oona M. R.

2011-01-01

257

'No sister, the breast alone is not enough for my baby' a qualitative assessment of potentials and barriers in the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding in southern Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Appropriate feeding practices are of fundamental importance for the survival, growth, development and health of infants and young children. The aim of the present study was to collect baseline information on current infant and young child feeding practices, attitudes and knowledge in Mazabuka, Zambia, using a qualitative approach. Methods: The study was conducted in Mazabuka, 130 km south of Lusaka in Zambia in January and February in 2005. Nine focus group discussions with mo...

Fjeld, Eli; Siziya, Seter; Katepa-bwalya, Mary; Kankasa, Chipepo; Moland, Karen Marie; Tylleska?r, Thorkild

2008-01-01

258

VII international district heating conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proceedings of the 7th International District Heating Conference contain the full texts of the 89 presented papers of which 11 fall under the INIS Subject Scope. The conference met in seven sessions and dealt with the following problem areas: design and optimization of systems of district heating, integration of the power system and the district heating systems, cooperation of nuclear and fossil burning sources in district heating systems, the use of specific nuclear power plants for heating purposes, questions of the control of systems of district heating, the development of components of heating networks, the reliability and design of heat supply pipes. (Z.M.)

1988-09-12

259

War protection of district heating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of war protection of district heating is to prevent the inhabitants from unreasonable suffering caused by damages in the in the district heating system. The measures undertaken can either protect the district heating system directly or secure alternatives. There are reasons to choose different solutions in different parts of the country. The district heating is now in a stage of expansion and it has no special fortificatory protection. If imperative incentives are not created the district heating will be wrongly developed concerning preparedness aspects. It is important that these aspects are considered early in the planning of a plant to avoid unnecessary costs.

Arremark, R.; Eriksson, L.; Olerup, B.

1984-08-01

260

Underperformance of African protected area networks and the case for new conservation models: insights from Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many African protected areas (PAs) are not functioning effectively. We reviewed the performance of Zambia's PA network and provide insights into how their effectiveness might be improved. Zambia's PAs are under-performing in ecological, economic and social terms. Reasons include: a) rapidly expanding human populations, poverty and open-access systems in Game Management Areas (GMAs) resulting in widespread bushmeat poaching and habitat encroachment; b) underfunding of the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) resulting in inadequate law enforcement; c) reliance of ZAWA on extracting revenues from GMAs to cover operational costs which has prevented proper devolution of user-rights over wildlife to communities; d) on-going marginalization of communities from legal benefits from wildlife; e) under-development of the photo-tourism industry with the effect that earnings are limited to a fraction of the PA network; f) unfavourable terms and corruption which discourage good practice and adequate investment by hunting operators in GMAs; g) blurred responsibilities regarding anti-poaching in GMAs resulting in under-investment by all stakeholders. The combined effect of these challenges has been a major reduction in wildlife densities in most PAs and the loss of habitat in GMAs. Wildlife fares better in areas with investment from the private and/or NGO sector and where human settlement is absent. There is a need for: elevated government funding for ZAWA; greater international donor investment in protected area management; a shift in the role of ZAWA such that they focus primarily on national parks while facilitating the development of wildlife-based land uses by other stakeholders elsewhere; and new models for the functioning of GMAs based on joint-ventures between communities and the private and/or NGO sector. Such joint-ventures should provide defined communities with ownership of land, user-rights over wildlife and aim to attract long-term private/donor investment. These recommendations are relevant for many of the under-funded PAs occurring in other African countries. PMID:24847712

Lindsey, Peter A; Nyirenda, Vincent R; Barnes, Jonathan I; Becker, Matthew S; McRobb, Rachel; Tambling, Craig J; Taylor, W Andrew; Watson, Frederick G; t'Sas-Rolfes, Michael

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Efficacy of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy, Mansa, Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) decreases adverse effects of malaria during pregnancy. Zambia implemented its IPTp-SP programme in 2003. Emergence of SP-resistant Plasmodium falciparum threatens this strategy. The quintuple mutant haplotype (substitutions in N51I, C59R, S108N in dhfr and A437G and K540E in dhps genes), is associated with SP treatment failure in non-pregnant patients with malaria. This study examined efficacy of IPTp-SP and presence of the quintuple mutant among pregnant women in Mansa, Zambia. Methods In Mansa, an area with high malaria transmission, HIV-negative pregnant women presenting to two antenatal clinics for the 1st dose of IPTp-SP with asymptomatic parasitaemia were enrolled and microscopy for parasitaemia was done weekly for five weeks. Outcomes were parasitological failure and adequate parasitological response (no parasitaemia during follow-up). Polymerase chain reaction assays were employed to distinguish recrudescence from reinfection, and identify molecular markers of SP resistance. Survival analysis included those who had reinfection and incomplete follow-up (missed at least one follow-up). Results Of the 109 women included in the study, 58 (53%) completed all follow-up, 34 (31%) had incomplete follow-up, and 17 (16%) were lost to follow-up after day 0. Of those who had complete follow-up, 15 (26%, 95% confidence interval [CI] [16–38]) had parasitological failure. For the 92 women included in the survival analysis, median age was 20 years (interquartile range [IQR] 18–22), median gestational age was 22 weeks (IQR range 20–24), and 57% were primigravid. There was no difference in time to failure in primigravid versus multigravid women. Of the 84 women with complete haplotype data for the aforementioned loci of the dhfr and dhps genes, 53 (63%, 95% CI [50–70]) had quintuple mutants (two with an additional mutation in A581G of dhps). Among women with complete follow-up and quintuple mutants, 22% had parasitological failure versus 0% without (p?=?0.44). Conclusions While underpowered, this study found 26% failure rates of SP given the moderate prevalence of the quintuple mutant haplotype. Despite the presence of resistance, SP retained some efficacy in clearing parasites in pregnant women, and may remain a viable option for IPTp in Zambia.

2014-01-01

262

Improving community health worker use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in Zambia: package instructions, job aid and job aid-plus-training  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Introduction of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT has boosted interest in parasite-based malaria diagnosis, leading to increased use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs, particularly in rural settings where microscopy is limited. With donor support, national malaria control programmes are now procuring large quantities of RDTs. The scarcity of health facilities and trained personnel in many sub-Saharan African countries means that limiting RDT use to such facilities would exclude a significant proportion of febrile cases. RDT use by volunteer community health workers (CHWs is one alternative, but most sub-Saharan African countries prohibit CHWs from handling blood, and little is known about CHW ability to use RDTs safely and effectively. This Zambia-based study was designed to determine: (i whether Zambian CHWs could prepare and interpret RDTs accurately and safely using manufacturer's instructions alone; (ii whether simple, mostly pictorial instructions (a "job aid" could raise performance to adequate levels; and (iii whether a brief training programme would produce further improvement. Methods The job aid and training programme were based on formative research with 32 CHWs in Luangwa District. The study team then recruited three groups of CHWs in Chongwe and Chibombo districts. All had experience treating malaria based on clinical diagnosis, but only six had prior RDT experience. Trained observers used structured observation checklists to score each participant's preparation of three RDTs. Each also read 10 photographs showing different test results. The first group (n = 32 was guided only by manufacturer's instructions. The second (n = 21 used only the job aid. The last (n = 26 used the job aid after receiving a three-hour training. Results Mean scores, adjusted for education, age, gender and experience, were 57% of 16 RDT steps correctly completed for group 1, 80% for group 2, and 92% for group 3. Mean percentage of test results interpreted correctly were 54% (group 1, 80% (group 2, and 93% (group 3. All differences were statistically significant (p Conclusion Manufacturer's instructions like those provided with the RDTs used in this study are insufficient to ensure safe and accurate use by CHWs. However, well-designed instructions plus training can ensure high performance. More study is underway to determine how well this performance holds up over time.

Mulholland Kurt

2008-08-01

263

Growth of the cichlid fish Tylochromis bangwelenis in Lake Bangweulu, Zambia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Growth of the cichlid Tylochromis bangwelensis was assessed by examination of scales from fish collected in Lake Bangweulu, Zambia, in 1972-1973. Discontinuities in circuli that appeared to be valid annuli were observed. They appeared on scales of yearling fish in August--October and on scales of older fish slightly later, apparently in response to changes in lake temperature. Fish reached an average length of 6.8 cm at the end of their first year, and grew 2 to 3 cm in each subsequent year to a maximum age of 7 years. Male T. bangwelensis grew slightly faster than females. A few fish of both sexes matured at a minimum length of 11 to 12 cm at the end of their second year, but most individuals matured one year later.

Griffith, J.S.

1977-03-01

264

Human serum sensitivities of Trypanozoon isolates from naturally infected hosts in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Of 235 Trypanozoon stocks isolated from naturally infected hosts in northeastern Zambia and tested by the Blood Incubation Infectivity Test (BIIT), 176 came from man, 37 from wild-caught tsetse, 11 from wild animals and 11 from domestic livestock. Of those from man, 2 gave unexpected, human-serum-sensitive (HSS) reactions on first testing; all 15 stocks from tsetse in the northern area (Kampumbu) were strongly serum-resistant (HSR) while 22 other infections, from tsetse in the southern area (Kakumbi), gave 1 equivocal, 11 positive and 10 negative test responses. HSR Trypanozoon infections were found in a bushbuck, a warthog, in a giraffe (for the first time) and in a "sentinel" goat, used to monitor SS transmission in a small SS endemic village. PMID:1800082

Rickman, L R; Ernest, A; Kanyangala, S; Kunda, E

1991-11-01

265

The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Zambia, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With $5.5 million of Agency support received, Zambia ranks 33rd among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. More than half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (61%), followed by expert services (25%) and training (14%). Almost all of the resources made available came from the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (93%), with only very small shares provided through extrabudgetary contributions (4%) and assistance in kind (3%). With regard to project disbursements during the past ten years, by sector, the largest areas have been agriculture (33%) and general atomic energy development (23%), followed by industry and hydrology (19%), nuclear raw materials (13%) and nuclear safety (6%)

1992-01-01

266

Chemical composition and crystal structure refinement of schorl from the Lundazi pegmatite field, Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Present work characterizes tourmaline from one of the major pegmatite fields in Zambia - the Lundazi pegmatite belt.
Microprobe analysis gave (wt%): SiO2 34.65, TiO2 0.85, Al2O3 29.80, Fe2O3 4.94, FeO 9.47, MnO 0.29, MgO 4.06, Li2O < 0.01, CaO 0.59, Na2O 2.38, K2O 0.08, F 0.32...

Ondruš P; Vrána S; Mašlá? M

2002-01-01

267

Identifying antecedent conditions responsible for the high rate of mining injuries in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The incident rates of mining-related accidents and injuries in developing countries exceed those of developed nations. Interventions by international organizations routinely fail to produce appreciable long-term improvement. One major reason is the inability to identify and analyze the underlying factors responsible for creating unsafe working conditions. Understanding these antecedent conditions is necessary to formulate effective intervention strategies and prioritize the use of limited resources. This study utilized a logic model approach to determine the root causes and broad categories of potential interventions for mining accidents and injuries in Zambia. Results showed that policy interventions have the greatest potential for substantive change. A process of educating officials from government and mining companies about the economic and social merits of health and safety programs and extensive changes in regulatory structure and enforcement are needed. PMID:17168220

Miller, Hugh B; Sinkala, Thomson; Renger, Ralph F; Peacock, Erin M; Tabor, Joseph A; Burgess, Jefferey L

2006-01-01

268

Ticks (Acarina: Ixodidae) of reptiles from central, Lusaka and southern provinces of Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the period 1988-1991, reptiles (23 snakes, 36 tortoises, 25 chameleons and 2 monitor lizards) from Central, Lusaka and Southern Provinces of Zambia were caught and checked for ticks. Only 2 snakes, respectively one Python sebae (Gmelin, 1789) and one Bitis arietans (Merrem, 1820), 8 tortoises, respectively seven Geochelone pardalis (Bell, 1828) and one Kinixys belliana (Gray, 1831) were found infested with a small number of ticks: nymphs and adults of Aponomma latum (Koch, 1844) and Amblyomma marmoreum Koch, 1844. Ticks were not observed on chameleons Chamaeleo dilepis (Leach, 1819) and monitor lizards Varanus niloticus (Linneo, 1758). The author makes some observations about the role and the effects of ticks on reptiles and discusses the present findings, comparing the data provided by other authors. PMID:8065818

De Meneghi, D

1993-12-01

269

Un/doing Gender? a Case Study of School Policy and Practice in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores an attempt to disrupt gender inequality in a unique, low-cost private school in Ndola, Zambia. It examines deliberate school policies aimed at "undoing gender" or fostering greater gender equity. These include efforts to maintain gender parity at all levels of the school and the requirement that both young men and women carry out cleaning tasks generally viewed as "women's work". Observations, interviews, student diaries and surveys from this school and from government schools provide the basis for a comparison, indicating how the former strives to interrupt the transmission of gender inequalities as well as how students respond to these practices. The findings suggest that the pedagogical practices deployed by this school have generally succeeded in destabilising norms of gender subordination and gender-based violence, though the replicability of these practices is interrogated given broader questions about the country's public resources and political will.

Bajaj, Monisha

2009-11-01

270

Risk factors, healthcare-seeking and sexual behaviour among patients with genital ulcers in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Genital ulcers (GU are associated with an increased risk of HIV transmission. Understanding risk factors for genital ulcers and sexual behaviour patterns after onset of symptoms and health seeking behaviour among GU-patients can provide useful information to aid design effective prevention strategies for genital ulcers. We investigated risk factors of self-reported GUs and care-seeking in the general population, and assessed GU patients regarding past care-seeking, recent sexual behaviour and partner awareness of the disease. Methods We analysed national data on genital ulcers from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey, and data from a cross-sectional survey of genital ulcer patients from primary health care facilities in Lusaka, Zambia. Results The prevalence of GU in 2007 in the general population of Lusaka was 3.6%. Important predictors for genital ulcers were age 25–29?years, being widowed/separated/divorced and having a high number of life-time sexual partners. No differences in care-seeking were observed by residence, wealth and gender, and 60% of the respondents sought care from public health facilities. Among patients with GUs in Lusaka, 14% sought care >2?weeks after symptom onset. Forty-two percent were not aware of their HIV status, 57% reported sex after onset of symptoms and only 15% reported consistent condom use. Conclusions Low awareness of HIV status despite high probability of being infected and low condom use after onset of genital ulcer symptoms leads to a high potential for transmission to sexual partners. This, combined with the fact that many patients with GUs delayed seeking care, shows a need for awareness campaigns about GUs and the importance of abstinence or use of condoms when experiencing such symptoms.

Makasa Mpundu

2012-06-01

271

Task-shifting HIV counselling and testing services in Zambia: the role of lay counsellors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The human resource shortage in Zambia is placing a heavy burden on the few health care workers available at health facilities. The Zambia Prevention, Care and Treatment Partnership began training and placing community volunteers as lay counsellors in order to complement the efforts of the health care workers in providing HIV counselling and testing services. These volunteers are trained using the standard national counselling and testing curriculum. This study was conducted to review the effectiveness of lay counsellors in addressing staff shortages and the provision of HIV counselling and testing services. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by means of semistructured interviews from all active lay counsellors in each of the facilities and a facility manager or counselling supervisor overseeing counseling and testing services and clients. At each of the 10 selected facilities, all counselling and testing record books for the month of May 2007 were examined and any recordkeeping errors were tallied by cadre. Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions with health care workers at each facility. Results Lay counsellors provide counselling and testing services of quality and relieve the workload of overstretched health care workers. Facility managers recognize and appreciate the services provided by lay counsellors. Lay counsellors provide up to 70% of counselling and testing services at health facilities. The data review revealed lower error rates for lay counsellors, compared to health care workers, in completing the counselling and testing registers. Conclusion Community volunteers, with approved training and ongoing supervision, can play a major role at health facilities to provide counselling and testing services of quality, and relieve the burden on already overstretched health care workers.

Kapanda Paul

2009-05-01

272

Sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted diseases among young men in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are an increasing public health problem in Zambia. About 200 000 cases of STDs are treated annually in the formal health sector. Young people are the most affected by STDs. High-risk sexual behaviour has been identified as the major risk factor for STDs among young people. We conducted interviews and focus group discussions with a purposely selected sample of 126 young men aged between 16 and 26 in Chiawa, rural Zambia. The aim of the interviews and focus group discussions was to explore views about sexual practices and attitudes towards STD. Fifty-eight (59%) young men reported having had pre-marital or extra-marital sexual partners during the past year. The maximum number was five partners for six individuals. Forty-two (43%) had pre-marital or extra-marital sexual partners at the time of the interviews. Focus group discussions revealed that perceptions of manhood encouraged multiple sexual relationships. Twenty-two (23%) reported having suffered from an STD in the past. Seventy-nine (81%) said they were likely to inform their sexual partners if they had an STD. Although condoms were believed to give protection against STDs by the majority (94%), only 6% said they always used condoms. The data suggest that condoms were perceived to affect male potency. These results show that STDs, multiple sexual relationships and unprotected sex are common among the young men of Chiawa. Perceptions that emphasize manhood are widespread and these may negatively affect efforts for positive behavioural change. Health messages that target the young men should take into account the local perceptions and values that seem to sustain risky sexual behaviour. PMID:11238437

Ndubani, P; Höjer, B

2001-03-01

273

Descriptive models, grade-tonnage relations, and databases for the assessment of sediment-hosted copper deposits--with emphasis on deposits in the Central Africa Copperbelt, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Central African Copperbelt (CACB) is one of the most important copper-producing regions of the world. The majority of copper produced in Africa comes from this region defined by the Neoproterozoic Katanga sedimentary basin of the southern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and northern Zambia. Copper in the CACB is mined from sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits associated with red beds and includes the giant deposits in the Kolwezi and Tenge-Fungurume districts in the DRC and the Konkola-Musoshi and Nchanga-Chingola districts in Zambia. In recent years, sediment-hosted structurally controlled replacement and vein (SCRV) copper deposits, such as the giant Kansanshi deposit in Zambia have become important exploration targets in the CACB region. In 2011, the CACB accounted for 7.2 percent of the estimated global mine production of copper. Global production of copper is principally derived from porphyry and sediment-hosted copper deposits (57 and 23 percent, respectively). Almost 50 percent of the copper known to exist in sediment-hosted deposits (past production plus identified resources) is contained in the CACB, 25 percent is contained in the Zechstein Basin of northern Europe, and the remainder is contained in an additional 29 sedimentary basins distributed around the globe. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) led an assessment of undiscovered copper resources in the CACB as part of a global mineral resource assessment for undiscovered resources of potash, copper, and platinum-group elements in selected mineral deposit types. As part of the assessment process, available data for the CACB were compiled and evaluated. This report describes the results of that work, including new descriptive mineral-deposit and grade and tonnage models and spatial databases for deposits and occurrences, ore bodies and open pits. Chapter 1 of this report summarizes a descriptive model of sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits. General characteristics and subtypes of sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits are described based upon worldwide examples. Chapter 2 provides a global database of 170 sediment-hosted copper deposits, along with a statistical evaluation of grade and tonnage data for stratabound deposits, a comparison of stratabound deposits in the CACB with those found elsewhere, a discussion of the distinctive characteristics of the subtypes of sediment-hosted copper deposits that occur within the CACB, and guidelines for using grade and tonnage distributions for assessment of undiscovered resources in sediment-hosted stratabound deposits in the CACB. Chapter 3 presents a new descriptive model of sediment-hosted structurally controlled replacement and vein (SCRV) copper deposits with descriptions of individual deposits of this type in the CACB and elsewhere. Appendix A describes a relational database of tonnage, grade, and other information for more than 100 sediment-hosted copper deposits in the CACB. These data are used to calculate the pre-mining mineral endowment for individual deposits in the CACB and serve as the basis for the grade and tonnage models presented in chapter 2. Appendix B describes three spatial databases (Esri shapefiles) for (1) point locations of more than 500 sediment-hosted copper deposits and prospects, (2) projected surface extent of 86 selected copper ore bodies, and (3) areal extent of 77 open pits, all within the CACB.

Taylor, Cliff D.; Causey, J. Douglas; Denning, Paul D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Horton, John D.; Kirschbaum, Michael J.; Parks, Heather L.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Zientek, Michael L.

2013-01-01

274

An investigation into the way African Traditional Religion as a form of Indigenous Knowledge is taught in the two Senior Secondary School Religious Education Syllabuses in Zambia :a case of two Schools in Southern Province in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

African Traditional Religion, ATR, forms part of African Indigenous Knowledge. The two senior secondary school Religious Education syllabuses in Zambia have a component of African traditional religion or beliefs which the learners are supposed to understand and compare with other religious traditions in the syllabuses. The other religions in the syllabuses are Christianity, Hinduism and Islam. This study sets out to explore how ATR is actually taught and learned in class so as to ascertain wh...

Muma, Patrick Chota

2013-01-01

275

â??Donors go homeâ?? : Non-traditional state actors and the creation of development space in Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The international development arena is currently subject to major changes in the geographies of power. In this article I analyse how and to what extent the (re)entry on the development scene of China, India and Brazil, together with increasing prices for primary commodities and improved access to international finance, has affected Zambiaâ??s political leverage to set, implement and fund its own developmental policies. I argue that, while real changes in external financial flows comparable to aid from these non-traditional state actors are still small, these actorsâ?? experience is providing Zambia with an alternative development model that combines purposive state intervention with market-based economic growth and integration into world markets. While Zambia may be taking the first steps in strengthening its â??sovereign frontierâ??, the extent of this movement is still small and its development outcomes are far from assured.

Kragelund, Peter

2014-01-01

276

Life- and worldview: development and transformation – the case of the Lamba of the Masaiti region in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article reports on a case study regarding the development and educational transformation of a subgroup of the Lamba living in the Masaiti region of the Copper Belt Province of Zambia, where the Foundation for Cross-Cultural Education in Zambia (FCE has been serving for the past thirteen years. It was concluded that the current life- and worldview of a community such as the one living in the Masaiti region can be transformed to a truly Christ-centred life- and worldview by firstly taking cognisance of how the community currently expresses itself in terms of each of the universals or components of a lifeand worldview, and secondly by subjecting each of those universals or components to a process of life- and worldview transformation. It was furthermore found that life- and worldview transformation should be seen as a prerequisite for the developmental transformation of such communities.

J. Compion

2010-07-01

277

75 FR 35778 - Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Commission [Project No. 12745-002] Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...16, 2010. On February 1, 2010, Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District...

2010-06-23

278

Minneapolis district-heating options  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of a large-scale district heating system for the Minneapolis central city area. The analysis was based on a previous city of St. Paul hot-water district heating study and other studies done by a Swedish engineering firm, Studsvik Energiteknik A.B. Capital costs such as building and heat source conversion, pipeline construction, and equipment were used in comparing the projected expenses of various district heating scenarios. Options such as coal, refuse-derived fuel burning, and cogeneration at the Riverside Power Station were discussed as energy supplies for a cost-effective district heating system.

Stovall, T.K.; Borkowski, R.J.; Karnitz, M.A.; Strom, S.; Linwick, K.

1981-10-01

279

Minneapolis district-heating options  

Science.gov (United States)

The feasibility of a large-scale district heating system for the Minneapolis central city area was investigated. The analysis was based on a previous city of St. Paul Hot-water district heating study and other studies done by a Swedish engineering firm. Capital costs such as building and heat source conversion, pipeline construction, and equipment were used in comparing the projected expenses of various district heating scenarios. Options such as coal, refuse-derived fuel burning, and cogeneration at the Riverside Power Station were discussed as energy supplies for a cost-effective district heating system.

Stovall, T. K.; Borkowski, R. J.; Karnitz, M. A.; Strom, S.; Linwick, K.

1981-10-01

280

District heating from Forsmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The district heating system of Greater Stockholm must be based on other energy sources than oil. Two alternatives are assessed, namely heat from Forsmark or a coal fueled plant in the region of Stockholm. Forsmark 3 can produce both electricity and heat from the year 1988 on. The capacity can be increased by coal fueled blocks. For low electricity use, 115 TWh in the year 1990, the Forsmark alternative will be profitable. The alternative will be profitable. The alternative with a fossile fuelled plant will be profitable when planning for high consumption of electricity, 125 TWh. The Forsmark alternative means high investments and the introduction of new techniques. (G.B.)

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Examining Specific Effects of Context on Adaptive Behavior and Achievement in Rural Africa: Six Case Studies from Southern Province, Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern Province, Zambia. This version was administered to the parents/caregivers of 114 children (grades 3-7, mean age = 12.94, sd = 2.34). The relationships between these children's adaptive behavior, academic achievement and cognitive ability indicators are compared to thos...

Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

2011-01-01

282

The impact of South African supermarkets on agricultural development in the SADC : a case study in Zambia, Namibia and Botswana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Supermarkets have expanded rapidly in SADC during the last decade, leading to fears that small-scale farmers and food processors could be excluded from access to urban markets. To assess the impact of supermarket chains on various participants in the supply chain, a survey was carried out in Botswana, Namibia and Zambia in 2004, 2005 and 2007. To determine the factors that influence the choice between the supermarket or traditional market channel and the impact of participation in the superma...

Emongor, Rosemary A.; Kirsten, Johann F.

2009-01-01

283

Individual and contextual factors influencing patient attrition from antiretroviral therapy care in an urban community of Lusaka, Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Despite the relatively effective roll-out of free life-prolonging antiretroviral therapy (ART) in public sector clinics in Zambia since 2005, and the proven efficacy of ART, some people living with HIV (PLHIV) are abandoning the treatment. Drawing on a wider ethnographic study in a predominantly low-income, high-density residential area of Lusaka, this paper reports the reasons why PLHIV opted to discontinue their HIV treatment. Methods: Opened-ended, in-depth interviews were held...

Maurice Musheke; Virginia Bond; Sonja Merten

2012-01-01

284

Safety of artemether-lumefantrine in pregnant women with malaria: results of a prospective cohort study in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Safety data regarding exposure to artemisinin-based combination therapy in pregnancy are limited. This prospective cohort study conducted in Zambia evaluated the safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in pregnant women with malaria. Methods Pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were assigned to groups based on the drug used to treat their most recent malaria episode (AL vs. sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, SP). Safety was assessed using stand...

Manyando Christine; Mkandawire Rhoda; Puma Lwipa; Sinkala Moses; Mpabalwani Evans; Njunju Eric; Gomes Melba; Ribeiro Isabela; Walter Verena; Virtanen Mailis; Schlienger Raymond; Cousin Marc; Chipimo Miriam; Sullivan Frank M

2010-01-01

285

Donor coordination for effective government policies? Implementation of the new aid effectiveness agenda in health and education in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a growing interest in the debate on aid effectiveness for assessing the impact of aid not only on economic growth and poverty reduction, but also on intermediate outcomes such as health and education. This paper reviews evidence from recent in-depth country work on the impact of government policies and service provision in health and basic education in Zambia, and examines to what extent new aid approaches have contributed to the observed outcomes. It finds that limited coordination ...

Leiderer, Stefan

2013-01-01

286

Meeting human resources for health staffing goals by 2018: a quantitative analysis of policy options in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The Ministry of Health (MOH) in Zambia is currently operating with fewer than half of the health workers required to deliver basic health services. The MOH has developed a human resources for health (HRH) strategic plan to address the crisis through improved training, hiring, and retention. However, the projected success of each strategy or combination of strategies is unclear. Methods We developed a model to forecast the size of the public s...

2010-01-01

287

Targeting condom distribution at high risk places increases condom utilization-evidence from an intervention study in Livingstone, Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The PLACE-method presumes that targeting HIV preventive activities at high risk places is effective in settings with major epidemics. Livingstone, Zambia, has a major HIV epidemic despite many preventive efforts in the city. A baseline survey conducted in 2005 in places where people meet new sexual partners found high partner turnover and unprotected sex to be common among guests. In addition, there were major gaps in on-site condom availability. This stud...

Sandøy Ingvild; Zyaambo Cosmas; Michelo Charles; Fylkesnes Knut

2012-01-01

288

Targeting condom distribution at high risk places increases condom utilization-evidence from an intervention study in Livingstone, Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The PLACE-method presumes that targeting HIV preventive activities at high risk places is effective in settings with major epidemics. Livingstone, Zambia, has a major HIV epidemic despite many preventive efforts in the city. A baseline survey conducted in 2005 in places where people meet new sexual partners found high partner turnover and unprotected sex to be common among guests. In addition, there were major gaps in on-site condom availability. This study aimed to assess the ...

Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard; Zyaambo, Cosmas; Michelo, Charles Cheembo; Fylkesnes, Knut

2012-01-01

289

Associations of advertisement-promotion-sponsorship-related factors with current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background : Tobacco use is the leading cause of noncommunicable disease morbidity and mortality. Most smokers initiate the smoking habit as adolescents or young adults. Methods : Survey data from the 2007 Lusaka (Zambia) Global Youth Tobacco Survey were used to estimate the prevalence of current cigarette smoking and assess whether exposure to pro-tobacco media and perception of the potential harm of secondhand smoke are associated with adolescents? smoking. Logistic re...

2009-01-01

290

The economic value of an improved malaria treatment programme in Zambia: results from a contingent valuation survey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Zambia is facing a double crisis of increasing malaria burden and dwindling capacity to deal with the endemic malaria burden. The pursuit of sustainable but equity mechanisms for financing malaria programmes is a subject of crucial policy discussion. This requires that comprehensive accounting of the economic impact of the various malaria programmes. Information on the economic value of programmes is essential in soliciting appropriate funding allocations ...

Masiye Felix; Rehnberg Clas

2005-01-01

291

Metal and metalloid contamination in roadside soil and wild rats around a Pb-Zn mine in Kabwe, Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metal (Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni) and metalloid (As) accumulation was studied in roadside soil and wild rat (Rattus sp.) samples from near a Pb-Zn mine (Kabwe, Zambia) and the capital city of Zambia (Lusaka). The concentrations of the seven metals and As in the soil samples and Pb in the rat tissue samples were quantified using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, and As in Kabwe soil were much higher than benchmark values. Geographic Information System analysis indicated the source of metal pollution was mining and smelting activity. Interestingly, the area south of the mine was more highly contaminated even though the prevailing wind flow was westward. Wild rats from Kabwe had much higher tissue concentrations of Pb than those from Lusaka. Their body weight and renal Pb levels were negatively correlated, which suggests that mining activity might affect terrestrial animals in Kabwe. - The area around Kabwe, Zambia is highly polluted with metals and As. Wild rats from this area had high tissue concentrations of Pb and decreased body weight.

2011-01-01

292

A Tale of Two Districts  

Science.gov (United States)

These days, everyone seems to be wringing their hands about how to construct new evaluation systems that will make teachers better. This unnecessary angst has led to crazy experiments in reform that have embraced churn for the sake of churn, put school districts at risk, and demoralized many of the most talented teachers. A few school districts,…

Simon, Mark

2012-01-01

293

Sustainable district heating; Haallbar fjaerrvaerme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the present project is to make an evaluation of the ecological sustainability of existing and future district heating systems. The goal has been to find out to what degree, and in what way district heating can contribute to reaching the Swedish environmental objectives. This goal is made up of four partial issues: 1. Define what sustainable district heating means in relation to the national environmental quality criteria; 2. Evaluate the sustainability of the present system. Is the district heating sector heading in the right direction?; 3. Describe the environmental work according to the actions/activities that 3a. do not take place today, but ought to do so, 3b. that ought to be discontinued, and 3c. work that is fruitful and should be continued. 4. Suggest indicators that could be used for evaluating how the district heating sector is developing in relation to the national objectives. 5. Propose strategies for the environmental development work in the sector.

Eriksson, Ola [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Environmental Strategies Research Group

2004-07-01

294

District energy: a global solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The benefits of district heating and cooling systems were discussed. In various parts of the world, China being one, where air pollution from coal is a serious problem, district heating has been shown to reduce pollution because of improved efficiencies, fewer stacks and significantly reduced emissions. The purpose of the system is to establish a rational and environmentally sound means of distributing heat within city boundaries. District heating and cogeneration has experienced steady growth for several years. District heating and cooling systems are found all over the world, in places such as Canada, United States, East Asia, Korea, Japan, China, Eastern Europe, Russia, Estonia, and Sweden. A summary of the experiences with district heating in these countries was provided. 17 figs.

Andersson, B. [FVB District Energy Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

1995-12-31

295

Effects of Early, Abrupt Weaning on HIV-free Survival of Children in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background In low-resource settings, many programs recommend that women who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) stop breast-feeding early. We conducted a randomized trial to evaluate whether abrupt weaning at 4 months as compared with the standard practice has a net benefit for HIV-free survival of children. Methods We enrolled 958 HIV-infected women and their infants in Lusaka, Zambia. All the women planned to breast-feed exclusively to 4 months; 481 were randomly assigned to a counseling program that encouraged abrupt weaning at 4 months, and 477 to a program that encouraged continued breast-feeding for as long as the women chose. The primary outcome was either HIV infection or death of the child by 24 months. Results In the intervention group, 69.0% of the mothers stopped breast-feeding at 5 months or earlier; 68.8% of these women reported the completion of weaning in less than 2 days. In the control group, the median duration of breast-feeding was 16 months. In the overall cohort, there was no significant difference between the groups in the rate of HIV-free survival among the children; 68.4% and 64.0% survived to 24 months without HIV infection in the intervention and control groups, respectively (P = 0.13). Among infants who were still being breast-fed and were not infected with HIV at 4 months, there was no significant difference between the groups in HIV-free survival at 24 months (83.9% and 80.7% in the intervention and control groups, respectively; P = 0.27). Children who were infected with HIV by 4 months had a higher mortality by 24 months if they had been assigned to the intervention group than if they had been assigned to the control group (73.6% vs. 54.8%, P = 0.007). Conclusions Early, abrupt cessation of breast-feeding by HIV-infected women in a low-resource setting, such as Lusaka, Zambia, does not improve the rate of HIV-free survival among children born to HIV-infected mothers and is harmful to HIV-infected infants. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00310726.)

Kuhn, Louise; Aldrovandi, Grace M.; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Semrau, Katherine; Mwiya, Mwiya; Kasonde, Prisca; Scott, Nancy; Vwalika, Cheswa; Walter, Jan; Bulterys, Marc; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Thea, Donald M.

2008-01-01

296

Early detection of malaria foci for targeted interventions in endemic southern Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Zambia has achieved significant reductions in the burden of malaria through a strategy of "scaling-up" effective interventions. Progress toward ultimate malaria elimination will require sustained prevention coverage and further interruption of transmission through active strategies to identify and treat asymptomatic malaria reservoirs. A surveillance system in Zambia's Southern Province has begun to implement such an approach. An early detection system could be an additional tool to identify foci of elevated incidence for targeted intervention. Methods Based on surveillance data collected weekly from 13 rural health centres (RHCs divided into three transmission zones, early warning thresholds were created following a technique successfully implemented in Thailand. Alert levels were graphed for all 52 weeks of a year using the mean and 95% confidence interval upper limit of a Poisson distribution of the weekly diagnosed malaria cases for every available week of historic data (beginning in Aug, 2008 at each of the sites within a zone. Annually adjusted population estimates for the RHC catchment areas served as person-time of weekly exposure. The zonal threshold levels were validated against the incidence data from each of the 13 respective RHCs. Results Graphed threshold levels for the three zones generally conformed to observed seasonal incidence patterns. Comparing thresholds with historic weekly incidence values, the overall percentage of aberrant weeks ranged from 1.7% in Mbabala to 36.1% in Kamwanu. For most RHCs, the percentage of weeks above threshold was greater during the high transmission season and during the 2009 year compared to 2010. 39% of weeks breaching alert levels were part of a series of three or more consecutive aberrant weeks. Conclusions The inconsistent sensitivity of the zonal threshold levels impugns the reliability of the alert system. With more years of surveillance data available, individual thresholds for each RHC could be calculated and compared to the technique outlined here. Until then, "aberrant" weeks during low transmission seasons, and during high transmission seasons at sites where the threshold level is less sensitive, could feasibly be followed up for household screening. Communities with disproportionate numbers of aberrant weeks could be reviewed for defaults in the scaling-up intervention coverage.

Chime Nnenna

2011-09-01

297

Suppressed or unsuppressed HIV in adults on antiretroviral therapy in Zambia: who is at risk?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose of the study: To determine factors associated with suppressed or unsuppressed HIV in adults receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART in Zambia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted between August 2008 and October 2009 in 16 Zambian communities nested within the ZAMSTAR trial [1]. Adult TB cases identified at a TB clinic of each community and their adult household members were invited to participate in the study. A structured interview was used to obtain information on the participants’ social, demographic and clinical characteristics. Socio-economic position (SEP was measured using household wealth indices used in demographic health surveys. Principal component analysis was used to determine the cut-off for high (wealthy and low (poor SEP. Depression symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D. A cut-off of?22 on the CES-D was used to define current depression [2]. Participants were included in this analysis if they were found to be receiving cART for>90 days at the time of the interview. The outcome was HIV suppression (viral load?300 copies/ml. In both univariable and multivariable analyses, log Poisson regression models with robust standard errors adjusted for the 16 communities were used to calculate the risk ratios (RR, 95% confidence intervals (CI and p-values of factors associated with HIV suppression. In multivariable analysis, each variable was independently assessed for its association with HIV suppression while minimally adjusting for a priori confounders (age, gender and education level. Summary of results: There were 520 patients receiving cART for>90 days. The median age was 35 years (inter-quartile range: 31–41 and 328/520 (63.1% were married (Table.Of the 520 patients, 442 (85.0% had HIV suppression while 78 (15.0% did not. At univariable analysis, having high SEP was negatively associated with HIV suppression while receiving ZDV+3TC+EFV was positively associated with HIV suppression. At multivariable analysis, patients with high SEP were less likely to have HIV suppression than those with low SEP. Conclusions: Patients with high SEP were found to be at risk of having unsuppressed HIV. There is need for targeted interventions that can improve HIV outcomes in this group of patients receiving cART in Zambia.

N Chishinga

2012-11-01

298

Health Inequities, Environmental Insecurity and the Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case Study of Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a series of 8 goals and 18 targets aimed at ending extreme poverty by 2015, and there are 48 quantifiable indicators for monitoring the process. Most of the MDGs are health or health-related goals. Though the MDGs might sound ambitious, it is imperative that the world, and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, wake up to the persistent and unacceptably high rates of extreme poverty that populations live in, and find lasting solutions to age-old problems. Extreme poverty is a cause and consequence of low income, food insecurity and hunger, education and gender inequities, high disease burden, environmental degradation, insecure shelter, and lack of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. It is also directly linked to unsound governance and inequitable distribution of public wealth. While many regions in the world will strive to attain the MDGs by 2015, most of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa, with major human development challenges associated with socio-economic disparities, will not. Zambia’s MDG progress reports of 2003 and 2005 show that despite laudable political commitment and some advances made towards achieving universal primary education, gender equality, improvement of child health and management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, it is not likely that Zambia will achieve even half of the goals. Zambia’s systems have been weakened by high disease burden and excess mortality, natural and man-made environmental threats and some negative effects of globalization such as huge external debt, low world prices for commodities and the human resource “brain drain”, among others. Urgent action must follow political will, and some tried and tested strategies or “quick wins” that have been proven to produce high positive impact in the short term, need to be rapidly embarked upon by Zambia and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa if they are to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

Anyangwe, Stella C. E.; Mtonga, Chipayeni; Chirwa, Ben

2006-01-01

299

Application of Balanced Scorecard in the Evaluation of a Complex Health System Intervention: 12 Months Post Intervention Findings from the BHOMA Intervention: A Cluster Randomised Trial in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction In many low income countries, the delivery of quality health services is hampered by health system-wide barriers which are often interlinked, however empirical evidence on how to assess the level and scope of these barriers is scarce. A balanced scorecard is a tool that allows for wider analysis of domains that are deemed important in achieving the overall vision of the health system. We present the quantitative results of the 12 months follow-up study applying the balanced scorecard approach in the BHOMA intervention with the aim of demonstrating the utility of the balanced scorecard in evaluating multiple building blocks in a trial setting. Methods The BHOMA is a cluster randomised trial that aims to strengthen the health system in three rural districts in Zambia. The intervention aims to improve clinical care quality by implementing practical tools that establish clear clinical care standards through intensive clinic implementations. This paper reports the findings of the follow-up health facility survey that was conducted after 12 months of intervention implementation. Comparisons were made between those facilities in the intervention and control sites. STATA version 12 was used for analysis. Results The study found significant mean differences between intervention(I) and control (C) sites in the following domains: Training domain (Mean I:C; 87.5.vs 61.1, mean difference 23.3, p?=?0.031), adult clinical observation domain (mean I:C; 73.3 vs.58.0, mean difference 10.9, p?=?0.02 ) and health information domain (mean I:C; 63.6 vs.56.1, mean difference 6.8, p?=?0.01. There was no gender differences in adult service satisfaction. Governance and motivation scores did not differ between control and intervention sites. Conclusion This study demonstrates the utility of the balanced scorecard in assessing multiple elements of the health system. Using system wide approaches and triangulating data collection methods seems to be key to successful evaluation of such complex health intervention. Trial number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01942278

Mutale, Wilbroad; Stringer, Jeffrey; Chintu, Namwinga; Chilengi, Roma; Mwanamwenge, Margaret Tembo; Kasese, Nkatya; Balabanova, Dina; Spicer, Neil; Lewis, James; Ayles, Helen

2014-01-01

300

The Impact of Central Bank's intervention in the foreign exchange market on the Exchange Rate: The case of Zambia (1995-2008)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The central bank of Zambia called Bank of Zambia (BOZ) has, like many other central banks in both developing and developed economies, been from time to time intervening in the foreign exchange market by either purchasing or selling foreign exchange (mainly United States of America Dollars) to the market. Central banks have given a myriad of reasons for this particular behaviour. Chief among these and which is the focus of this paper is to smooth volatility or reverse a trend of the domestic c...

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Knowledge and use of modern family planning methods by rural women in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to determine knowledge and use of modem contractive methods among reproductive age group rural women in Zambia. The study is a descriptive cross-sectional study of 105 randomly selected rural women. Data was collected using semi-structured interview schedule and analyzed using EPI Info version 6 statistical packages. The findings revealed that 63% of the respondents were within the age group 21-35 years, 65% were married and 64% were peasant farmers. 90% of the respondents had heard about modem contraceptives and their main source of information was the Health worker (62%. 76% of the respondents stated that modem contraceptive methods could be obtained from public health facilities. 56% of the respondents were currently using modem contraceptive methods and 46% were not using modem contraceptive methods. Reasons for non use of contraceptive methods were religious beliefs (50%, partner disapproval (30% and side effects (20%. The results showed a relationship between educational level and use of contraceptives (Chi-square 7.83, df = 3, P < 0.05 and spouse approval or support of contractive methods and use of contraceptive (Chisquare 5.9, df = 2, P < 0.05. Therefore, efforts to promote modem contraceptive use among the rural women should be intensified to overcome barriers to contraceptive use and should involve men.

C. Mubita-Ngoma

2010-09-01

302

Resource Utilization and Costs of Care prior to ART Initiation for Pediatric Patients in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. We estimated time to initiation, outpatient resource use, and costs of outpatient care during the 6 months prior to ART initiation for HIV-infected pediatric patients in Zambia. Methods. We enrolled 1,102 children who initiated ART at <15 years of age between 2006 and 2011 at 5 study sites. Of these, 832 initiated ART ?6 months after first presenting to care at the study sites. Data on time in care and resources utilized during the 6 months prior to ART initiation were extracted from patient medical records. Costs were estimated from the provider's perspective and are reported in 2011 USD. Results. For the patients who initiated ART ?6 months after presenting to care, median age at presentation to care was 3.9 years; median CD4 percentage was 13%. Median time to ART initiation was 26 days. Patients made, on average, 2.38 clinic visits prior to ART initiation and received 0.81 CD4 tests, 0.74 full blood count tests, and 0.49 blood chemistry tests. The mean cost of pre-ART care was $20 per patient. Conclusions. Zambian pediatric patients initiating ART ?6 months after presenting to care do so quickly, utilize fewer resources than mandated by national guidelines, and accrue low costs.

Iyer, Hari S.; Scott, Callie A.; Lembela Bwalya, Deophine; Meyer-Rath, Gesine; Moyo, Crispin; Bolton Moore, Carolyn; Larson, Bruce A.

2014-01-01

303

Supermarkets in the Food Supply Systems in Southern African Development Community: A Case Study of Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study evaluated how supermarkets procurement practises in the fresh fruits and vegetables (FFV and processed products such as dairy impact on local producers in Zambia. Data was collected from key informants and secondary sources. The results showed that supermarkets procured approximately 60% of FFV from local farmers, though the bulk of these are from large-scale farms. Products not produced in the host countries were imported from South Africa and other countries. Small-scale farmers were hindered by constraints such as lack of irrigation and the stringent grades and standards imposed by supermarkets. Supermarkets procure dairy products from large processors. Farmers access supermarkets through dairy processors. Small-scale dairy processors do not access the supermarkets because of high transaction costs and lack of transport. Government involvement in the supply chain in terms of setting policies and regulatory frameworks are important in determining the type of procurement systems that develop and whether local producers especially small-scale farmers and processors access and supply to supermarkets.

R.A. Emongor

2006-01-01

304

Epidemic cholera in urban Zambia: hand soap and dried fish as protective factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Between 28 November 2003 and 23 February 2004, 4343 cases and 154 deaths from cholera (case-fatality rate 3.5%) were reported in Lusaka, Zambia. A case-control study was conducted in February 2004 to assess potential transmission routes and prevention strategies. Consumption of raw vegetables was significantly associated with cholera [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 4.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-13, P=0.003). Consumption of a local sardine-like fish was protective (aOR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.7, P=0.008). Hand soap was present in 90% of control homes and 58% of case homes. Observed hand soap was a strongly protective factor (aOR 0.1, 95% CI 0.04-0.4, P=0.001). No water source or treatment practice was significantly associated with cholera. This study documents the importance of foodborne transmission of cholera, illustrates the protective role of hand washing in an epidemic setting, and identifies a novel possible protective factor, a local fish, which warrants further research. PMID:16623992

DuBois, A E; Sinkala, M; Kalluri, P; Makasa-Chikoya, M; Quick, R E

2006-12-01

305

Violence and Abuse Among HIV-Infected Women and Their Children in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

HIV and violence are two major public health problems increasingly shown to be connected and relevant to international mental health issues and HIV-related services. Qualitative research is important due to the dearth of literature on this association in developing countries, cultural influences on mental health syndromes and presentations, and the sensitive nature of the topic. The study presented in this paper sought to investigate the mental health issues of an HIV-affected population of women and children in Lusaka, Zambia, through a systematic qualitative study. Two qualitative methods resulted in the identification of three major problems for women: domestic violence (DV), depression-like syndrome, and alcohol abuse; and children: defilement, DV, and behavior problems. DV and sexual abuse were found to be closely linked to HIV and alcohol abuse. This study shows the local perspective of the overlap between violence and HIV. Results are discussed in relation to the need for violence and abuse to be addressed as HIV services are implemented in sub-Saharan Africa.

Murray, Laura K.; Haworth, Alan; Semrau, Katherine; Singh, Mini; Aldrovandi, Grace M.; Sinkala, Moses; Thea, Donald M.; Bolton, Paul A.

2009-01-01

306

Violence and abuse among HIV-infected women and their children in Zambia: a qualitative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

HIV and violence are two major public health problems increasingly shown to be connected and relevant to international mental health issues and HIV-related services. Qualitative research is important due to the dearth of literature on this association in developing countries, cultural influences on mental health syndromes and presentations, and the sensitive nature of the topic. The study presented in this paper sought to investigate the mental health issues of an HIV-affected population of women and children in Lusaka, Zambia, through a systematic qualitative study. Two qualitative methods resulted in the identification of three major problems for women: domestic violence (DV), depression-like syndrome, and alcohol abuse; and children: defilement, DV, and behavior problems. DV and sexual abuse were found to be closely linked to HIV and alcohol abuse. This study shows the local perspective of the overlap between violence and HIV. Results are discussed in relation to the need for violence and abuse to be addressed as HIV services are implemented in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:16909070

Murray, Laura K; Haworth, Alan; Semrau, Katherine; Singh, Mini; Aldrovandi, Grace M; Sinkala, Moses; Thea, Donald M; Bolton, Paul A

2006-08-01

307

Individual-level predictors for HIV testing among antenatal attendees in Lusaka, Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the availability of antiretroviral prophylaxis, roughly one-fifth of public-sector antenatal patients decline HIV testing in Lusaka, Zambia. We administered a survey to determine individual-level predictors of HIV testing. Of 1064 antenatal attendees approached after pretest counseling, 1060 (>99%) participated. Of these, 686 (65%) agreed to HIV testing. On bivariate analysis controlling for clinic of attendance, women younger than 20 years old (adjusted RR [ARR] = 1.14), unmarried (ARR = 1.14), pregnant for the first time (ARR = 1.14), with lower educational attainment (ARR = 1.15), and with lower income (ARR = 1.14) were all more likely to undergo testing. When HIV risk was considered, women with low self-perceived risk were most likely to undergo HIV testing. As risk perception increased, likelihood for testing decreased (P for trend < 0.001). Although not statistically predictive, we identified prevalent community beliefs that may act as barriers to testing. Because individual-level characteristics were only weakly predictive of HIV testing, future work should concentrate on community-level factors. PMID:16845236

Thierman, Sara; Chi, Benjamin H; Levy, Jens W; Sinkala, Moses; Goldenberg, Robert L; Stringer, Jeffrey S A

2006-07-01

308

Heat flow and heat production in Zambia: evidence for lithospheric thinning in central Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Heat-flow results from eleven widely spaced sites in central and western regions of the Republic of Zambia range between 54 and 76 mW m/sup -2/. Ten of the sites are located in late Precambrian (Katangan) metasediments or Kibaran age basement, while one site is located in Karroo age sandstone. Compared to the global mean of 39 +- 7 (sd) mW m/sup -2/ for Precambrian provinces elsewhere, these heat-flow results are anomalously high by some 25 mW m/sup -2/. Heat-production measurements on borehole core samples indicate that enhanced radioactivity of an enriched surface zone can account for only half of the observed anomaly. The remaining anomalous heat flow must have a deeper source, and can be interpreted as a flux from the asthenosphere, providing the overlying lithosphere has been thinned to less than 60 km. Such an interpretation supports the existence of an incipient arm of the East African rift system trending southwest from Lake Tanganyika into the central African plateau.

Chapman, D.S.; Pollack, H.N.

1977-08-03

309

An ultrastructural investigation of Argulus personatus Cunnington, 1913 (Crustacea: Branchiura from Lake Tanganyika, northern Zambia  

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Full Text Available Sixteen male and one female specimen ofArgulus personatus Cunnington, 1913, were collected from Bathybates ferox Boulenger, 1898, from Lake Tanganyika in northern Zambia. Light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM examinations documented a thickening of cuticle located on the dorsal surface between last thoracic segment and abdomen, which was rectangular in shape; a basal section of the pre-oral spine and proboscis ornamented with simple scales; three large simple setae present on the distal end of the basal plate; the dorsal distal end of second podomere of maxillae ornamented with scales resembling those of a fish; second and third podomeres of maxillae ornamented with two types of pectinate scales (with fine bristle-like ends and scales with large pointed ends; the ventral distal end of third and fourth maxillary podomeres bearing large teardrop-shaped scales; a pair of tubular structures present adjacent to the anterior projection; a peg on the fourth pairs of legs of males bearing shallow grooves running irregularly across surface; and an accessory cushion bearing minute projections. These characters differed from the original description of A. personatus and are addressed in a redescription.

Ernest H. Williams, Jr

2011-10-01

310

USING THE INTERNET FOR DEMOCRACY: A STUDY OF SOUTH AFRICA, KENYA AND ZAMBIA  

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Full Text Available For the first time since democracy in the classical Greek sense became practically impossible, the Internet’s networking possibilities are creating opportunities for all citizens to be active engaging participants in democracy. Open communication channels to government and fellow citizens can now be a reality that allows people at all levels of society to form part of a vibrant public sphere by exchanging ideas, sharing experiences, spreading ideologies and news, and comparing agendas. For African countries dealing with unique and increasingly complicated political and socio-economic issues, the Internet provides a platform from which citizens can now address these issues themselves and, in doing so, contribute to a public sphere that strengthens the democratic fibre of their countries. This research posits that the Internet has significant potential to stimulate democratic culture through public discourse and citizen participation. The focus of this study is on finding evidence-based information about the current influence of information and communication technology (ICT usage in South Africa, Kenya and Zambia as representatives of sub-Saharan Africa, and with specific focus on Internet usage through computers and mobile phones. The research also investigates the capacity and opportunity citizens have to successfully integrate ICTs into the accomplishment of self and mutually identified political goals in order to strengthen a broader democratic culture.

Aletta H. Janse van Rensburg

2012-07-01

311

Spatial Heteogeneity of Methane Ebullition in a Large Tropical Reservoir (Lake Kariba, Zambia/Zimbabwe)  

Science.gov (United States)

While ebullition has the capacity to be a significant methane (CH4) release pathway from reservoirs, it has not been systematically studied in most surveyed systems, due in part to ebullition's high spatiotemporal variability. We hypothesized that CH4 ebullition from littoral areas that are influenced by riverine organic carbon inputs contributes disproportionately to overall CH4 emissions from Lake Kariba (Zambia-Zimbabwe border), one of the world's largest reservoirs. Hydroacoustic measurements and traditional surface chamber surveys revealed substantially higher fluxes in river deltas (~10^3 mg CH4 m-2 d-1) compared to littoral zones with no river input (< 100 mg CH4 m-2 d-1). Hydroacoustic measurements additionally showed that ebullition frequency varied strongly between all sites and that flux events varied over several orders of magnitude (up to 10^5 mg CH4 m-2 d-1) in the ebullition hot spots. An ebullition estimate for the largest subbasin of Lake Kariba was two orders of magnitude more than potential atmospheric CH4 emissions from turbine degassing and surface diffusion combined. Thus, we suggest that CH4 ebullition emissions from river deltas should be explored in greater detail and their contribution included in the CH4 budgets of reservoirs, including even large tropical reservoirs.

Del Sontro, T.; Kunz, M.; Wuest, A.; Wehrli, B.; Senn, D. B.

2011-12-01

312

Self-reported poor oral hygiene among in-school adolescents in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental health is a neglected aspect of adolescent health globally but more so in low-income countries. Secondary analysis using the 2004 Zambia Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS was conducted in which we estimated frequencies of relevant socio-demographic variables and explored associations between selected explanatory variables and self-reported poor oral hygiene (not cleaning or brushing teeth within the last 30 days of the completion of questionnaire. Findings Most of the 2257 respondents were males (53.9% and went hungry (82.5%. More than 4 in 10 respondents drank alcohol (42.2% while 37.2% smoked cannabis. Overall 10.0% of the respondents reported to have poor oral hygiene. Male respondents were 7% less likely to report to have poor oral hygiene compared to females. Compared to respondents who never drank alcohol, those who drank alcohol were 27% more likely to report to have poor oral hygiene. Respondents who smoked cannabis were 4% more likely to report to have poor oral hygiene compared to those who did not smoke cannabis. Finally, respondents who went hungry were 35% more likely to report to have poor oral hygiene compared to those who did not go hungry. Conclusions Results from this study indicate that female gender, alcohol drinking, cannabis smoking, and going hungry were associated with self-reported poor oral hygiene. The identification of these factors should guide the design and implementation of programs aimed to improve oral health among adolescents.

Rudatsikira Emmanuel

2011-07-01

313

HIV testing and tolerance to gender based violence: a cross-sectional study in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the effect of social relations and gender-based conflicts on the uptake of HIV testing in the South and Central provinces of Zambia. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study of 1716 randomly selected individuals. Associations were examined using mixed-effect multivariable logistic regression. A total of 264 men (64%) and 268 women (56%) had never tested for HIV. The strongest determinants for not being tested were disruptive couple relationships (OR = 2.48 95% CI = 1.00-6.19); tolerance to gender-based violence (OR = 2.10 95% CI = 1.05-4.32) and fear of social rejection (OR = 1.48 95% CI = 1.23-1.80). In the Zambian context, unequal power relationships within the couple and the community seem to play a pivotal role in the decision to test which until now have been largely underestimated. Policies, programs and interventions to rapidly increase HIV testing need to urgently address gender-power inequity in relationships and prevent gender-based violence to reduce the negative impact on the lives of couples and families. PMID:23991005

Gari, Sara; Malungo, Jacob R S; Martin-Hilber, Adriane; Musheke, Maurice; Schindler, Christian; Merten, Sonja

2013-01-01

314

HIV Testing and Tolerance to Gender Based Violence: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the effect of social relations and gender-based conflicts on the uptake of HIV testing in the South and Central provinces of Zambia. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study of 1716 randomly selected individuals. Associations were examined using mixed-effect multivariable logistic regression. A total of 264 men (64%) and 268 women (56%) had never tested for HIV. The strongest determinants for not being tested were disruptive couple relationships (OR?=?2.48 95% CI?=?1.00–6.19); tolerance to gender-based violence (OR?=?2.10 95% CI?=?1.05–4.32) and fear of social rejection (OR?=?1.48 95% CI?=?1.23–1.80). In the Zambian context, unequal power relationships within the couple and the community seem to play a pivotal role in the decision to test which until now have been largely underestimated. Policies, programs and interventions to rapidly increase HIV testing need to urgently address gender-power inequity in relationships and prevent gender-based violence to reduce the negative impact on the lives of couples and families.

Gari, Sara; Malungo, Jacob R. S.; Martin-Hilber, Adriane; Musheke, Maurice; Schindler, Christian; Merten, Sonja

2013-01-01

315

Liver scanning using indium-113m at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liver scanning using the radio-isotope indium-113m, can now be routinely perfomed at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia. The dose used is 1 - 4 mCi. Liver scans have been performed on 48 subjects, including 10 healthy individuals 16 patients with histologically proven hepatocellular carcinoma, 11 with clinical and laboratory evidence of portal hypertension and 11 with miscellaneous illnesses. Seven representative scans are illustrated. The procedure is easy, and gives a fairly accurate functional estimate of Kupffer cell mass. In hepatoma the scan may be either larger than or smaller than normal and reflects more accurately the residual function of the Kupffer cells. In cirrhosis of the liver with portal hypertention, residual Kupffer cell mass is small. Consequently, most of the indium-113m is taken up by the splenic reticulo-endothelial system, resulting in a large spleen scan. This technique, although fraught with major limitations, is a useful additional diagnostic tool in the management of chronic liver disease

1981-11-21

316

Evolution of anti-corruption journalism in Africa: lessons from Zambia  

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Full Text Available All African countries, where there are functioning states, express a strong desire to curb corruption. The African Union has a convention to prevent and combat corruption. Zambia, under President Levy Mwanawasa, has positioned itself as a leader in Africa's fight against corruption. Last year, former Zambian President Frederick Chiluba was found guilty of grand corruption by a London court in a case brought against him by the Zambian government. There is general agreement that the media plays a significant role in the war against plunder of national resources by African leaders. However, studies that examine exactly how the media influences the decisions and actions of public actors in Africa's anti-corruption agenda are few. This paper aims to fill this gap. The goal is to use the Zambian case to gain a clearer understanding of the evolution of anti-graft journalism in Africa and to derive enduring insights into the relationship between the anti-corruption actions of the state and anti-corruption reporting by the press. Three key questions provide a framework for this investigation: 1 Is the press driving the Zambian government's anti-corruption campaign? 2 Is President Mwanawasa's 'zero-tolerance' campaign self-generated and the press simply following and reporting news events coming out of the bold steps already determined by the government? 3 Is it possible that the press and the state have found common ground and formed an informal but formidable alliance to combat graft?

Isaac Phiri

2011-08-01

317

The Winfrith district gamma survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the District Gamma Survey carried out around the A.E.E., Winfrith since June, 1959. Its organisation, equipment and techniques are described, and the results obtained up to the 31st December, 1960 are given. (author)

1961-01-01

318

Thunderstorms over the Kanto District.  

Science.gov (United States)

The research is a synthetic report on the thunderstorms over the Kanto District, Japan, containing statistical surveys of thunderstorms, the results of special observations of thunderstorms, radar studies of thunderstorms, cloud seeding experiments and th...

H. Hatakeyama S. Kitazawa H. Nojima

1970-01-01

319

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Jodhpur district  

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Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease with a wide geographical distribution in a range of climate and with different epidemiological patterns. In Rajasthan a new endemic zone of the disease has been found at Jodhpur district. The clincial features of 21 smear positive cases of oriental sore from Jodhpur district studied during a period of 1 year have been described. Also the importance of intralesional berberine sulphate in the treatment of oriental sore has been highlighted.

Kalla Gyaneshwar

1996-01-01

320

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Jodhpur district  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease with a wide geographical distribution in a range of climate and with different epidemiological patterns. In Rajasthan a new endemic zone of the disease has been found at Jodhpur district. The clincial features of 21 smear positive cases of oriental sore from Jodhpur district studied during a period of 1 year have been described. Also the importance of intralesional berberine sulphate in the treatment of oriental sore has been highlighted.

Kalla Gyaneshwar; Singhi M

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Barriers to the care of HIV-infected children in rural Zambia: a cross-sectional analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Successful antiretroviral treatment programs in rural sub-Saharan Africa may face different challenges than programs in urban areas. The objective of this study was to identify patient characteristics, barriers to care, and treatment responses of HIV-infected children seeking care in rural Zambia. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of HIV-infected children seeking care at Macha Hospital in rural southern Zambia. Information was collected from caretakers and medical records. Results 192 HIV-infected children were enrolled from September 2007 through September 2008, 28% of whom were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) at enrollment. The median age was 3.3 years for children not receiving ART (IQR 1.8, 6.7) and 4.5 years for children receiving ART (IQR 2.7, 8.6). 91% travelled more than one hour to the clinic and 26% travelled more than 5 hours. Most participants (73%) reported difficulties accessing the clinic, including insufficient money (60%), lack of transportation (54%) and roads in poor condition (32%). The 54 children who were receiving ART at study enrollment had been on ART a median of 8.6 months (IQR: 2.7, 19.5). The median percentage of CD4+ T cells was 12.4 (IQR: 9.2, 18.6) at the start of ART, and increased to 28.6 (IQR: 23.5, 36.1) at the initial study visit. However, the proportion of children who were underweight decreased only slightly, from 70% at initiation of ART to 61% at the initial study visit. Conclusion HIV-infected children in rural southern Zambia have long travel times to access care and may have poorer weight gain on ART than children in urban areas. Despite these barriers, these children had a substantial rise in CD4+ T cell counts in the first year of ART although longer follow-up may indicate these gains are not sustained.

2009-01-01

322

Barriers to the care of HIV-infected children in rural Zambia: a cross-sectional analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful antiretroviral treatment programs in rural sub-Saharan Africa may face different challenges than programs in urban areas. The objective of this study was to identify patient characteristics, barriers to care, and treatment responses of HIV-infected children seeking care in rural Zambia. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of HIV-infected children seeking care at Macha Hospital in rural southern Zambia. Information was collected from caretakers and medical records. Results 192 HIV-infected children were enrolled from September 2007 through September 2008, 28% of whom were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART at enrollment. The median age was 3.3 years for children not receiving ART (IQR 1.8, 6.7 and 4.5 years for children receiving ART (IQR 2.7, 8.6. 91% travelled more than one hour to the clinic and 26% travelled more than 5 hours. Most participants (73% reported difficulties accessing the clinic, including insufficient money (60%, lack of transportation (54% and roads in poor condition (32%. The 54 children who were receiving ART at study enrollment had been on ART a median of 8.6 months (IQR: 2.7, 19.5. The median percentage of CD4+ T cells was 12.4 (IQR: 9.2, 18.6 at the start of ART, and increased to 28.6 (IQR: 23.5, 36.1 at the initial study visit. However, the proportion of children who were underweight decreased only slightly, from 70% at initiation of ART to 61% at the initial study visit. Conclusion HIV-infected children in rural southern Zambia have long travel times to access care and may have poorer weight gain on ART than children in urban areas. Despite these barriers, these children had a substantial rise in CD4+ T cell counts in the first year of ART although longer follow-up may indicate these gains are not sustained.

Hamangaba Francis

2009-10-01

323

Monitoring the endangered population of the antelope Kobus leche smithemani (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), in the Bangweulu ecosystem, Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani) is a semi-aquatic medium sized antelope currently enlisted on the IUCN red list of endangered species and is only endemic to the Bangweulu basin of Zambia. Its population has significantly decreased due to floods that took place during the period 1930-1940 from over 250 000-15 000 leading the Zambian government to gazette all habitats of Black lechwe into state protected areas, and to establish urgent management strategies needed to save the remaining pop...

Siamudaala, Victor M.; Musso Munyeme; Wigganson Matandiko; Muma, John B.; Munang Andu, Hetron M.

2012-01-01

324

Meeting human resources for health staffing goals by 2018: a quantitative analysis of policy options in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ministry of Health (MOH in Zambia is currently operating with fewer than half of the health workers required to deliver basic health services. The MOH has developed a human resources for health (HRH strategic plan to address the crisis through improved training, hiring, and retention. However, the projected success of each strategy or combination of strategies is unclear. Methods We developed a model to forecast the size of the public sector health workforce in Zambia over the next ten years to identify a combination of interventions that would expand the workforce to meet staffing targets. The key forecasting variables are training enrolment, graduation rates, public sector entry rates for graduates, and attrition of workforce staff. We model, using Excel (Office, Microsoft; 2007, the effects of changes in these variables on the projected number of doctors, clinical officers, nurses and midwives in the public sector workforce in 2018. Results With no changes to current training, hiring, and attrition conditions, the total number of doctors, clinical officers, nurses, and midwives will increase from 44% to 59% of the minimum necessary staff by 2018. No combination of changes in staff retention, graduation rates, and public sector entry rates of graduates by 2010, without including training expansion, is sufficient to meet staffing targets by 2018 for any cadre except midwives. Training enrolment needs to increase by a factor of between three and thirteen for doctors, three and four for clinical officers, two and three for nurses, and one and two for midwives by 2010 to reach staffing targets by 2018. Necessary enrolment increases can be held to a minimum if the rates of retention, graduation, and public sector entry increase to 100% by 2010, but will need to increase if these rates remain at 2008 levels. Conclusions Meeting the minimum need for health workers in Zambia this decade will require an increase in health training school enrolment. Supplemental interventions targeting attrition, graduation and public sector entry rates can help close the gap. HRH modelling can help MOH policy makers determine the relative priority and level of investment needed to expand Zambia's workforce to target staffing levels.

Schroder Kate

2010-06-01

325

The Public-Private Sector Wage Gap in Zambia in the 1990s: A Quantile Regression Approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We investigate the determinants of wages in Zambia and based on the quantile regression approach, we analyze how their effects differ at different points in the wage distribution and over time. We use three cross-sections of Zambian household data from the early nineties, which was a period of economic transition, because items as privatization and deregulation were on the political agenda. The focus is placed on the public-private sector wage gap, and the results show that this gap was relatively favorable for the low-skilled and less favorable for the high-skilled. This picture was further strengthened during the period 1991-1996.

Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael

2001-01-01

326

The effect of lindane on non-target fauna in a maize agro-ecosystem in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of lindane on non-target fauna in a maize agro-ecosystem was studied in Zambia in 1992 and 1993. While lindane was effective against the stalk borers, a target pest, it also affected other non-target fauna. Ants, spiders and springtails were significantly reduced. However the effect was only transient and lasted for approximately two months. Lindane appeared to have no real effect on aerial non-target fauna or on soil inhabiting microorganisms. (author). 8 refs, 6 tabs

1997-03-01

327

Disabled education? :a study concerning young adults with physical disabilities and their experiences with school in Livingstone, Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are about one billion people living with a disability in the world today. In Zambia, this number might be closer to two million. People with disabilities in the global South are almost always less likely to be in school, less likely to be employed, and more likely to be subject to economic hardship. The standing national education policy has failed in its aim to secure education for all, especially for children and youths with disabilities. Disability scholars have argued for a more com...

Madsø, Siv-hege

2013-01-01

328

77 FR 4291 - Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Commission [ Project No. 2299-075] Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...into any Order issuing a license. Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation...

2012-01-27

329

77 FR 5507 - Turlock Irrigation District, Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Commission [Project No. 2299-075] Turlock Irrigation District, Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...into any Order issuing a license. Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation...

2012-02-03

330

75 FR 43958 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Commission [Project No. 2299-074] Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...Filed: May 24, 2010. d. Applicant: Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation...

2010-07-27

331

77 FR 16828 - Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hydroelectric Project Project No. 2299-075] Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process...Hydroelectric Project No. 2299-075.\\1\\ Turlock Irrigation District and the Modesto Irrigation...

2012-03-22

332

District heat in the Nordic countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

District heat regulation - in Sweden: New district heat law (2008). The district heat suppliers are instructed to negotiate the price and other terms of delivery with the costumers when requested by the costumers. If the parties are unable to find an agreement, the can have the authorities arbitrate for them. More openness (e.g. annual reports). In Finland: The district heat suppliers decide their own prices. Has to reflect the costs, but allow for district heat expansion and a reasonable profit. Same price for same type of costumers. Regulated by general legislation (competition and consumer protection legislation). In Denmark: Designated areas for district heat and natural gas where electric heating is prohibited. 'Hvile i seg selv' principle. In Norway: District heat concessions are mandatory for installations over 10 MW. The municipality can decide that connection is mandatory, but not use of district heat. District heat price can not exceed electricity price. (AG)

Langseth, Benedicte; Havskjold, Monica

2009-03-15

333

Sustainable maize production through leguminous tree and shrub fallows in Eastern Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nitrogen is the major nutrient limiting maize production in Zambia and Southern Africa. Removal of subsidies on manufactured fertilizers made them very expensive and most farmers cannot afford them. Short duration planted fallows using a wide range of leguminous trees have been found to replenish soil fertility and increase subsequent maize yields. Species such as Sesbania sesban, Tephrosia vogelii and Cajanus cajan have been found to be well suited for planted fallow technology. These improved fallow crop rotations are being adopted by small-scale farmers in Eastern Zambia. Since the seminal paper of Kwesiga and Coe, research has been carried out to understand how the planted tree fallows replenish soil fertility and improve maize yields. A wide range of species has been screened as alternatives to Sesbania fallows to overcome limitations of Sesbania such as susceptibility to nematodes and insect pests. Species such as Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala have maintained maize yields of 3 t ha1 over 10 years of cropping when Sesbania fallow yields declined to 1.1 t ha1 after 3 years of cropping. The selection criteria for good fallow species are high biomass production and litterfall. Maize yields after fallows were highly correlated to biomass and litterfall yields. High quality biomass, which is low in lignin and polyphenols and high in N, is needed for higher maize yields. Mixing of Gliricidia and Sesbania fallows resulted in higher maize yields compared with single species fallows (3.0 vs. 1.8 t ha1). Mechanisms contributing to the efficacy of mixed fallows will be discussed. Pre-season inorganic-N (NO3- + NH4+) was highly correlated with maize yield (r2 = 0.62) and this could be used to select fallow species and management practices. Nutrient budgets of N, P and K over 8 years showed that a positive balance of N and P was maintained for coppicing fallows, while a negative balance of K started from the fourth year onwards on fertilized maize, Gliricidia, Leucaena and Sesbania fallows, emphasising the need to use P and K fertilizers to supplement the N supply from leguminous fallows. Improved fallows increased infiltration, reduced runoff, increased water storage, and reduced soil loss. The biophysical limits of most fallow species and other emerging issues such as pests and diseases, the need to inoculate with rhizobium, the amount of N fixed by different species and provenances and soil acidification under improved fallows are the subjects of further research. Biomass transfer technology using biomass from leguminous trees was evaluated on maize and vegetable production in the dambos (wetlands). Maize and vegetable yields were significantly increased by application of high quality biomass from Gliricidia and Leucaena. However, financial analysis showed that it is not viable to apply biomass on a low value crop like maize, but biomass transfer was economically viable on high value crops such a vegetables. (author)

2008-11-01

334

Situation Reports--Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Botswana, Finland, German Federal Republic, Italy, Luxembourg, Mauritania, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Sweden, Tanzania, Yugoslavia, and Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data pertaining to population and family planning in seventeen foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Botswana, Finland, German Federal Republic, Italy, Luxembourg, Mauritania, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Sweden, Tanzania, Yugoslavia, and Zambia. Information is…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

335

Compensation patterns following occupational injuries in Zambia: results from the 2009 Labour Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational injuries have received limited research attention in the Southern African Development Community. Much of the published data come from South Africa and little has been reported elsewhere within the region. The present study was conducted to estimate the prevalence rates of occupational injuries and compensation; and to determine factors associated with occupational injuries and compensation. Methods Data were obtained from occupational health and injury questions added to the Zambian Labour Force Survey of 2009 by the Work and Health in Southern Africa programme. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the degree of association between demographic, social and economic factors on one hand and injury and compensation on the other. Results Data on 61871 study participants were available for analysis, of whom 4998 (8.1% reported having been injured (10.0% of males, and 6.2% of females due to work in the previous 12 months to the survey. Of those injured, 60.5% reported having stayed away from work as a result. The commonest type of injury was "open wound" (81.6%. Male gender, being married or married before, being a paid employee, working for a private company and household were positively associated with serious injuries. Injuries also varied by geographical area. Factors positively associated with receiving compensation for work-related injuries were: male gender, Copperbelt and North-Western provinces, and unpaid family worker. Employer/self employed and having less than 5 employees in a workplace were negatively associated with compensation. Conclusion The prevalence of reported injury and its association with a significant level of absence from work, indicate that occupational hazards in Zambia have significant health and economic effects. Female workers should equally be compensated for injuries suffered as their male counterparts.

Siziya Seter

2010-09-01

336

The challenge of hospitals in health sector reform: the case of Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zambia underwent a period of health sector reform from 1993 to 1998. The reform attracted substantial support from the World Bank and bilateral donors. While significant achievements were made with respect to decentralization, increased accountability and donor collaboration, the reform stalled in 1998 without having achieved its objectives, largely because of the handling of hospital reform and the civil servants in the health sector. This study was an attempt to analyze this experience with the hospital issue. Service and infrastructure information was collected from all 88 hospitals in the country. Further, information was collected about the social, economic, and political context of the reform. The results show that an historical legacy from the colonial and post-colonial eras has left the country with an expensive and skewed hospital structure that is rapidly deteriorating and very difficult to reform. The referral system is not functioning: higher-level hospitals provide a higher level of care to their immediate catchment populations than is available to the population in general. The reality is thus far from the vision of equity of access to cost-effective quality care. Zambian doctors have either left the country or are concentrated at the highest referral levels in two provinces, leaving the lower levels and most of the country in the hands of expatriate doctors. There are no resources in the government or the private systems to maintain the current hospital infrastructure and things will likely deteriorate unless radical decisions are taken and implemented. The study further shows that the question of hospital reform is a political high-risk zone. If the problems are to be dealt with, the Zambian planners must, together with the politicians, work to create a broad national consensus for understanding the situation, its urgency, and the limited options for forward action. PMID:11772988

Blas, E; Limbambala, M

2001-12-01

337

Assessing the microbiological performance and potential cost of boiling drinking water in urban Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Boiling is the most common method of disinfecting water in the home and the benchmark against which other point-of-use water treatment is measured. In a six-week study in peri-urban Zambia, we assessed the microbiological effectiveness and potential cost of boiling among 49 households without a water connection who reported "always" or "almost always" boiling their water before drinking it. Source and household drinking water samples were compared weekly for thermotolerant coliforms (TTC), an indicator of fecal contamination. Demographics, costs, and other information were collected through surveys and structured observations. Drinking water samples taken at the household (geometric mean 7.2 TTC/100 mL, 95% CI, 5.4-9.7) were actually worse in microbiological quality than source water (geometric mean 4.0 TTC/100 mL, 95% CI, 3.1-5.1) (p < 0.001), although both are relatively low levels of contamination. Only 60% of drinking water samples were reported to have actually been boiled at the time of collection from the home, suggesting over-reporting and inconsistent compliance. However, these samples were of no higher microbiological quality. Evidence suggests that water quality deteriorated after boiling due to lack of residual protection and unsafe storage and handling. The potential cost of fuel or electricity for boiling was estimated at 5% and 7% of income, respectively. In this setting where microbiological water quality was relatively good at the source, safe-storage practices that minimize recontamination may be more effective in managing the risk of disease from drinking water at a fraction of the cost of boiling. PMID:21650207

Psutka, Rebecca; Peletz, Rachel; Michelo, Sandford; Kelly, Paul; Clasen, Thomas

2011-07-15

338

A Bayesian geostatistical Moran Curve model for estimating net changes of tsetse populations in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

For the first time a Bayesian geostatistical version of the Moran Curve, a logarithmic form of the Ricker stock recruitment curve, is proposed that is able to give an estimate of net change in population demographic rates considering components such as fertility and density dependent and density independent mortalities. The method is applied to spatio-temporally referenced count data of tsetse flies obtained from fly-rounds. The model is a linear regression with three components: population rate of change estimated from the Moran curve, an explicit spatio-temporal covariance, and the observation error optimised within a Bayesian framework. The model was applied to the three main climate seasons of Zambia (rainy--January to April, cold-dry--May to August, and hot-dry--September to December) taking into account land surface temperature and (seasonally changing) cattle distribution. The model shows a maximum positive net change during the hot-dry season and a minimum between the rainy and cold-dry seasons. Density independent losses are correlated positively with day-time land surface temperature and negatively with night-time land surface temperature and cattle distribution. The inclusion of density dependent mortality increases considerably the goodness of fit of the model. Cross validation with an independent dataset taken from the same area resulted in a very accurate estimate of tsetse catches. In general, the overall framework provides an important tool for vector control and eradication by identifying vector population concentrations and local vector demographic rates. It can also be applied to the case of sustainable harvesting of natural populations. PMID:24755848

Sedda, Luigi; Mweempwa, Cornelius; Ducheyne, Els; De Pus, Claudia; Hendrickx, Guy; Rogers, David J

2014-01-01

339

Risk factors for subclinical mastitis among HIV-infected and uninfected women in Lusaka, Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Subclinical mastitis, defined as raised milk sodium/potassium (Na/K) ratio, is associated with poor infant growth and, among HIV-infected women, with increased milk HIV viral load. We conducted a longitudinal cohort study in Lusaka, Zambia, in order to investigate the relative importance of several potential causes of subclinical mastitis: maternal infection, micronutrient deficiencies and poor lactation practice. Women (198 HIV-infected, 189 HIV-uninfected) were recruited at 34 weeks' gestation and followed up to 16 weeks postpartum for collection of information on their health, their infant's health, infant growth and infant feeding practices. Milk samples were collected from each breast at 11 postpartum visits and blood at recruitment and 6 weeks postpartum. The geometric mean milk Na/K ratio and the proportion of women with Na/K ratio > 1.0 in one or both breasts were significantly higher among HIV-infected than among uninfected women. Other factors associated with the higher mean Na/K ratio in univariable analyses were primiparity, high maternal alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP) at 6 weeks, maternal overall morbidity and specific breast symptoms, preterm delivery, low infant weight or length, infant thrush and non-exclusive breast feeding. In multivariable analyses, primiparity, preterm delivery, breast symptoms, HIV status and raised AGP were associated with the raised Na/K ratio. Thus the main factors associated with subclinical mastitis that are amenable to intervention are poor maternal overall health and breast health. The impact of improved postpartum health care, especially management of maternal infections and especially in primiparous women, on the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and its consequences requires investigation. PMID:16911016

Kasonka, Lackson; Makasa, Mpundu; Marshall, Tom; Chisenga, Molly; Sinkala, Moses; Chintu, Chifumbe; Kaseba, Christine; Kasolo, Francis; Gitau, Rachel; Tomkins, Andrew; Murray, Susan; Filteau, Suzanne

2006-09-01

340

The incidence of human cysticercosis in a rural community of Eastern Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A community-based longitudinal study was performed in the Eastern Province of Zambia, in which repeated serological samplings were done to determine the incidence of human cysticercosis. Three sampling rounds were carried out at six months intervals. A total of 867 participants presented for all three samplings. All samples were tested for the presence of cysticercus antigens using a monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sero-Ag-ELISA), while a randomly selected sub-sample of 161 samples from each sampling round was tested for specific antibodies using a commercial enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. Stool samples (n?=?226) were also collected during the final round of sampling for taeniosis diagnosis by coprology and coproantigen ELISA. Cysticercosis seroprevalence varied from 12.2% to 14.5% (sero-Ag) and from 33.5% to 38.5% (sero-Ab) during the study period. A taeniosis prevalence of 11.9% was determined. Incidence rates of 6300 (sero-Ag, per 100000 persons-year) and 23600 (sero-Ab, per 100000 persons-year) were determined. Seroreversion rates of 44% for sero-Ag and 38.7% for sero-Ab were recorded over the whole period. In conclusion, this study has shown the dynamic nature of T. solium infections; many of the people at risk become (re)infected due to the high environmental contamination, with a high number turning seronegative within a year after infection. An important number of infections probably never fully establish, leading to transient antibody responses and short-term antigen presence. PMID:23556026

Mwape, Kabemba E; Phiri, Isaac K; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Muma, John B; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Creating a Knowledge Translation Platform: nine lessons from the Zambia Forum for Health Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The concept of the Knowledge Translation Platform (KTP provides cohesion and leadership for national–level knowledge translation efforts. In this review, we discuss nine key lessons documenting the experience of the Zambia Forum for Health Research, primarily to inform and exchange experience with the growing community of African KTPs. Lessons from ZAMFOHR’s organizational development include the necessity of selecting a multi-stakeholder and -sectoral Board of Directors; performing comprehensive situation analyses to understand not only the prevailing research-and-policy dynamics but a precise operational niche; and selecting a leader that bridges the worlds of research and policy. Programmatic lessons include focusing on building the capacity of both policy-makers and researchers; building a database of local evidence and national-level actors involved in research and policy; and catalyzing work in particular issue areas by identifying leaders from the research community, creating policy-maker demand for research evidence, and fostering the next generation by mentoring both up-and-coming researchers and policy–makers. Ultimately, ZAMFOHR’s experience shows that an African KTP must pay significant attention to its organizational details. A KTP must also invest in the skill base of the wider community and, more importantly, of its own staff. Given the very real deficit of research-support skills in most low-income countries – in synthesis, in communications, in brokering, in training – a KTP must spend significant time and resources in building these types of in-house expertise. And lastly, the role of networking cannot be underestimated. As a fully-networked KTP, ZAMFOHR has benefited from the innovations of other KTPs, from funding opportunities and partnerships, and from invaluable technical support from both African and northern colleagues.

Kasonde Joseph M

2012-10-01

342

Patient compliance in the treatment of Burkitt?s lymphoma in rural Zambia: A retrospective study on 80 Burkitt?s lymphoma patients in Katete, Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background : In African settings the treatment results of Burkitt?s lymphoma (BL seem to be less favourable compared with Western settings. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse some factors that affect the treatment of BL. Patients and Methods : Over a 16 year period, data were extracted of 80 patients. Results : Complete remission 5%, very good partial response 35%, partial response 16%, no response 10%, data missing 34%. Of all patients, 56% did have a positive response to treatment. However, 51% of this subgroup of patients did not finish treatment. There was no difference in completion of treatment between patients living in Katete district finishing treatment vs. living outside Katete district (respectively 25% vs. 32%, P = 0.7148. Conclusion: There is potential for higher cure rates for BL in tropical settings if full effort is put into compliance since a majority of patients, even while having a good prognosis, abandon treatment. Large distance to hospital makes no difference in completing the chemotherapy course.

De Boer J

2009-01-01

343

Gastric adenocarcinoma in Zambia: a case-control study of HIV, lifestyle risk factors, and biomarkers of pathogenesis  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide but there are few data from Africa. We have recently observed a trend towards diagnosis in younger patients. Objective To test the hypothesis that HIV may have altered risk factors for acquisition of gastric cancer, in a case-control study in the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia. Methods Cases (n=52) with confirmed gastric adenocarcinoma and controls (n=94) undergoing endoscopy but with no macroscopic gastric pathology. Established risk factors and HIV status were compared. Results HIV status did not differ significantly in cases and controls (Odds Ratio 1·03; 95% CI 0·2–4·3; P=1·00) and seroprevalence in cases was similar to the Zambian population. Smoking, regular alcohol intake, and gastric atrophy were all associated with cancer in univariate and multivariate analysis. H. pylori serology was positive in 84% of patients studied and cagA serology in 66%; neither serological marker was associated with cancer. Atrophy, assessed serologically, was common in cases (57%) and controls (30%). In controls, both smoking and alcohol use were associated with atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia was present in 17% but was not associated with atrophy. Conclusions HIV was not associated with gastric cancer and does not explain the apparent change in age distribution in Zambia. Atrophy was common and was not essential for the development of intestinal metaplasia, suggesting that gastric carcinogenesis in Africa does not always follow the Correa pathway.

Kayamba, Violet; Asombang, Akwi W; Mudenda, Victor; Lisulo, Mpala Mwanza; Sinkala, Edford; Mwanamakondo, Stayner; Mweemba, Isaac; Kelly, Paul

2013-01-01

344

Property grabbing and will writing in Lusaka, Zambia: an examination of wills of HIV-infected cohabiting couples.  

Science.gov (United States)

High rates of HIV and poverty place women in a precarious economic situation in Lusaka, Zambia. Mortality from HIV infection is high, leaving many households single headed and creating almost a half a million orphans. One of the most prevalent forms of gender violence that creates poverty in women is when the male's family claims the property of the deceased from the widow and the children. The Zambia-Emory HIV Research Project collected 184 wills from individuals in monogamous unions where one or both of the individuals were HIV-positive. Despite the fact that many wills specifically stated that their extended family was not allowed to tamper with their possessions in the event of death, property grabbing proved to be a prevalent and difficult issue in Lusaka. In order to improve the lives of widowed women in Lusaka, the government and other civic and non-governmental organisations must inform women of their rights to own and protect their land and other assets in the event of their husbands' death, an issue of increasing importance in the area of HIV/AIDS. PMID:17453571

Mendenhall, E; Muzizi, L; Stephenson, R; Chomba, E; Ahmed, Y; Haworth, A; Allen, S

2007-03-01

345

Life-circumstances, working conditions and HIV risk among street and nightclub-based sex workers in Lusaka, Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The principal objective of this study was to conduct formative research among sex workers in Lusaka, Zambia, to understand how sex workers' perceptions of their personal identity influences safer sex practices. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 sex workers in Lusaka, Zambia, including both nightclub and street-based sex workers. Findings indicate important differences of self perception and identity between nightclub-based sex workers and street-based sex workers. The latter have a professional identity and are willing to be publicly acknowledged as sex workers. This makes it easier for them to convince clients to use condoms. In contrast, nightclub-based sex workers are less likely to wish to be identified as sex workers. They are motivated by the desire to meet a man who will perhaps marry them and change their lives. As a consequence, they do not publicly acknowledge their risk of STI/HIV infection and many go against their better judgement by not using condoms. Factors such as the stigmatization of sex work, the harassment of sex workers and the lack of protection available to them interact with sex workers' perceptions of their personal identities and influence their ability to take precautions during high-risk sexual encounters. PMID:21972903

Agha, Sohail; Chulu Nchima, Mwaba

2004-07-01

346

The impact of solar home systems on rural livelihoods. Experiences from the Nyimba Energy Service Company in Zambia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An Energy Service Company (ESCO) in the town of Nyimba, Zambia, has been operating 100 solar home systems since the year 2000. The company is part of a pilot project implemented by the Government of Zambia with the aim to apply the ESCO concept for diffusion of solar technology. The change in livelihood as a result of the access to electric services has been investigated in a survey. Clients were satisfied with the services they receive, although they are paying more than previously for energy. Light hours did not increase, but the quality of light was improved, enabling activities such as domestic work at night and studying for longer hours. Many of the clients had acquired TV and video, and become part of a more global culture. Appliances for entertainment, such as video and TV, were considered more attractive than productive appliances such as a water pump by many respondents. In some cases also people from households without solar installations benefited from the installations, for instance, children gathering in houses with solar to study at night. (author)

Gustavsson, M. [Goeteborg University (Sweden). Human Ecology Section; Ellegard, A. [Bioquest HB, Vastra Frolunda (Sweden)

2004-06-01

347

Monitoring the endangered population of the antelope Kobus leche smithemani (Artiodactyla: Bovidae, in the Bangweulu ecosystem, Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani is a semi-aquatic medium sized antelope currently enlisted on the IUCN red list of endangered species and is only endemic to the Bangweulu basin of Zambia. Its population has significantly decreased due to floods that took place during the period 1930-1940 from over 250 000-15 000 leading the Zambian government to gazette all habitats of Black lechwe into state protected areas, and to establish urgent management strategies needed to save the remaining population from extinction. Using retrospective data, our findings show that the population has increased from 15 000 animals in 1954 to 55 632 in 2009. The current population is estimated at 34.77% (55 632/160 000 of the carrying capacity of the Bangweulu basin. Although the Black lechwe is one of the 42 species offered for consumptive utilization by the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA, only 0.12% and 0.08% of the current stock was offered for safari and resident hunting annually for the period 2005-2009, respectively. Annual quota utilization were estimated at 67% (n=37 and 81% (n=37 for safari and resident hunting, respectively. Hence, overall income obtained from utilization of Black lechwe is very low accounting for only 2.1% of the total revenue earned from wildlife utilization. Although the current population trend is showing a unit increase of 639 animals per year, it is still far below levels ideal for the lucrative utilization. In this study, we demonstrate that adverse ecological changes on wildlife species, can lead to their vulnerability and danger of extinction, and that their recovery to full carrying capacity may demand a considerable amount of timeEl lechwe negro (Kobus leche smithemani es un antílope semi-acuático de tamaño medio que en la actualidad se encuentra en la lista roja de la UICN de especies en peligro de extinción y sólo es endémica de la cuenca del Bangweulu de Zambia. Su población ha disminuido considerablemente, de más de 250 000 a 15 000, debido a las inundaciones que se dieron durante el período 1930-1940, lo que llevó al gobierno de Zambia a declarar todos los hábitats del lechwe negro en áreas protegidas estatales, y a establecer estrategias de administración urgentes necesarias para salvar el resto de la población de la extinción. Utilizando los datos retrospectivos, nuestros resultados muestran que la población ha aumentado de 15 000 animales en 1954 a 55 632 en 2009. La población actual se estima en 34.77% (55 632/160 000 de la capacidad de carga de la cuenca del Bangweulu. Aunque el lechwe Negro es una de las 42 especies que se ofrecen para su utilización consuntiva por la Autoridad de Vida Silvestre de Zambia (ZAWA, sólo el 0.12% y 0.08% de la población actual se ha ofrecido para el safari y la caza residente anual para el período 2005-2009, respectivamente. La utilización de la cuota anual se estima en 67% (n=67 y 81% (n=37 para safari de caza y residente, respectivamente. Por lo tanto, los ingresos totales obtenidos de la utilización del lechwe negro son muy bajos contando sólo el 2.1% de los ingresos totales obtenidos de la utilización de la fauna silvestre. Aunque la tendencia actual de la población está mostrando un incremento unitario de 639 animales por año, está todavía muy por debajo de los niveles ideales para la utilización lucrativa. En este estudio, se demuestra que los cambios ecológicos perjudiciales sobre especies de fauna silvestre, puede conducir a su vulnerabilidad y peligro de extinción, y que la recuperación de su capacidad de carga completa puede exigir una cantidad considerable de tiempo.

Victor M. Siamudaala

2012-12-01

348

Monitoring the endangered population of the antelope Kobus leche smithemani (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), in the Bangweulu ecosystem, Zambia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish El lechwe negro (Kobus leche smithemani) es un antílope semi-acuático de tamaño medio que en la actualidad se encuentra en la lista roja de la UICN de especies en peligro de extinción y sólo es endémica de la cuenca del Bangweulu de Zambia. Su población ha disminuido considerablemente, de más de 250 [...] 000 a 15 000, debido a las inundaciones que se dieron durante el período 1930-1940, lo que llevó al gobierno de Zambia a declarar todos los hábitats del lechwe negro en áreas protegidas estatales, y a establecer estrategias de administración urgentes necesarias para salvar el resto de la población de la extinción. Utilizando los datos retrospectivos, nuestros resultados muestran que la población ha aumentado de 15 000 animales en 1954 a 55 632 en 2009. La población actual se estima en 34.77% (55 632/160 000) de la capacidad de carga de la cuenca del Bangweulu. Aunque el lechwe Negro es una de las 42 especies que se ofrecen para su utilización consuntiva por la Autoridad de Vida Silvestre de Zambia (ZAWA), sólo el 0.12% y 0.08% de la población actual se ha ofrecido para el safari y la caza residente anual para el período 2005-2009, respectivamente. La utilización de la cuota anual se estima en 67% (n=67) y 81% (n=37) para safari de caza y residente, respectivamente. Por lo tanto, los ingresos totales obtenidos de la utilización del lechwe negro son muy bajos contando sólo el 2.1% de los ingresos totales obtenidos de la utilización de la fauna silvestre. Aunque la tendencia actual de la población está mostrando un incremento unitario de 639 animales por año, está todavía muy por debajo de los niveles ideales para la utilización lucrativa. En este estudio, se demuestra que los cambios ecológicos perjudiciales sobre especies de fauna silvestre, puede conducir a su vulnerabilidad y peligro de extinción, y que la recuperación de su capacidad de carga completa puede exigir una cantidad considerable de tiempo. Abstract in english Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani) is a semi-aquatic medium sized antelope currently enlisted on the IUCN red list of endangered species and is only endemic to the Bangweulu basin of Zambia. Its population has significantly decreased due to floods that took place during the period 1930-1940 from [...] over 250 000-15 000 leading the Zambian government to gazette all habitats of Black lechwe into state protected areas, and to establish urgent management strategies needed to save the remaining population from extinction. Using retrospective data, our findings show that the population has increased from 15 000 animals in 1954 to 55 632 in 2009. The current population is estimated at 34.77% (55 632/160 000) of the carrying capacity of the Bangweulu basin. Although the Black lechwe is one of the 42 species offered for consumptive utilization by the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA), only 0.12% and 0.08% of the current stock was offered for safari and resident hunting annually for the period 2005-2009, respectively. Annual quota utilization were estimated at 67% (n=37) and 81% (n=37) for safari and resident hunting, respectively. Hence, overall income obtained from utilization of Black lechwe is very low accounting for only 2.1% of the total revenue earned from wildlife utilization. Although the current population trend is showing a unit increase of 639 animals per year, it is still far below levels ideal for the lucrative utilization. In this study, we demonstrate that adverse ecological changes on wildlife species, can lead to their vulnerability and danger of extinction, and that their recovery to full carrying capacity may demand a considerable amount of time

Victor M., Siamudaala; Musso, Munyeme; Wigganson, Matandiko; John B, Muma; Hetron M, Munang& #8217; andu.

349

District heating - comparision of prices 2005. District heating in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This statistics of the VDEW AGFW (Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Waerme- und Heizkraftwirtschaft - e.V.) dates back to 1973. It is based on typical, preset consumption types of domestic and nondomestic buildings. The prices provide an outline of the annual energy cost of district heating in Germany. Price trends are followed by a comparison with the year before. (orig.)

2006-04-01

350

New district heating initiatives in the UK  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although the extent of district heating remains small in the UK there have nevertheless been important developments arising from both grant funding and policy initiatives. This paper reviews several prominent UK district heating schemes

Aguilo-Rullan, Antonio; Williams, Jonathan

2008-09-15

351

7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.  

Science.gov (United States)

...production area are hereby initially established: District No. 1 (Emmett, Payette, Weiser Area): All territory within the boundaries of Washington, Payette and Gem Counties, in Idaho. District No. 2 (Oregon Slope):...

2009-01-01

352

Understanding organizational culture in district offices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ABSTRACT Interest in the purpose and function of district offices has grown extensively in research on educational change over the past decade. The emphasis on educational performance and under-performance has shifted from schools and school principals to district offices and district officials. The study outlines the nature of the organizational culture (OC) as found in two differently-performing (low and high performing) district offices. The case studies explored the reasons for s...

Smith, Chesterton Earle

2013-01-01

353

Nation, Districts Step up Safety  

Science.gov (United States)

President Barack Obama's announcement last week of a wide-ranging anti-violence plan in response to the Newtown, Connecticut, school shootings comes as many districts are adopting new and sometimes dramatic measures--including arming teachers and volunteers--intended to prevent similar tragedies in their own schools. School safety experts warn…

Shah, Nirvi

2013-01-01

354

Groundwater and geothermal: urban district heating applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes how several cities use groundwater and geothermal energy in district heating systems. It begins with groundwater, introducing the basic technology and techniques of development, and describing two case studies of cities with groundwater-based district heating systems. The second half of the report consists of three case studies of cities with district heating systems using higher temperature geothermal resources.

Mounts, R.; Frazier, A.; Wood, E.; Pyles, O.

1982-01-01

355

36 CFR 27.3 - Seashore District.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Description. The Seashore District shall include all...bylaws for the Seashore District shall be consistent...objectives and purposes of the Act of August 7, 1961...situated within this District shall be permitted...provisions designed to preserve the seashore...

2010-07-01

356

Validation of the UCLA Child Post traumatic stress disorder-reaction index in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual violence against children is a major global health and human rights problem. In order to address this issue there needs to be a better understanding of the issue and the consequences. One major challenge in accomplishing this goal has been a lack of validated child mental health assessments in low-resource countries where the prevalence of sexual violence is high. This paper presents results from a validation study of a trauma-focused mental health assessment tool - the UCLA Post-traumatic Stress Disorder - Reaction Index (PTSD-RI in Zambia. Methods The PTSD-RI was adapted through the addition of locally relevant items and validated using local responses to three cross-cultural criterion validity questions. Reliability of the symptoms scale was assessed using Cronbach alpha analyses. Discriminant validity was assessed comparing mean scale scores of cases and non-cases. Concurrent validity was assessed comparing mean scale scores to a traumatic experience index. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were run using receiver operating curves. Results Analysis of data from 352 youth attending a clinic specializing in sexual abuse showed that this adapted PTSD-RI demonstrated good reliability, with Cronbach alpha scores greater than .90 on all the evaluated scales. The symptom scales were able to statistically significantly discriminate between locally identified cases and non-cases, and higher symptom scale scores were associated with increased numbers of trauma exposures which is an indication of concurrent validity. Sensitivity and specificity analyses resulted in an adequate area under the curve, indicating that this tool was appropriate for case definition. Conclusions This study has shown that validating mental health assessment tools in a low-resource country is feasible, and that by taking the time to adapt a measure to the local context, a useful and valid Zambian version of the PTSD-RI was developed to detect traumatic stress among youth. This valid tool can now be used to appropriately measure treatment effectiveness, and more effectively and efficiently triage youth to appropriate services.

Cohen Judith A

2011-09-01

357

Lactation-associated postpartum weight changes among HIV-infected women in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background There are concerns about effects of lactation on postpartum weight changes among HIV-infected women because low weight may increase risks of HIV-related disease progression. Methods This analysis of postpartum maternal weight change is based on a trial evaluating the effects of shortened breastfeeding on postpartum mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Lusaka, Zambia, in which 958 HIV-infected women were randomized to breastfeed for a short duration (4 months) or for a duration of their own informed choosing (median 16 months). Among 768 women who met inclusion criteria, we compared across the two groups change in weight (kg) and the percent underweight [body mass index (BMI) <18.5] through 24 months. We also examined the effect of breastfeeding in two high-risk groups: those with low BMI and those with low CD4 counts. Results Overall, women in the long-duration group gained less weight compared with those in the short-duration group from 4–24 months {1.0 kg [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.3–1.7] vs 2.3 kg (95% CI: 1.6–2.9), P = 0.01}. No association was found between longer breastfeeding and being underweight (odds ratio 1.1; 95% CI: 0.8–1.6; P = 0.40). Effects of lactation in underweight women and women with low CD4 counts were similar to the effects in women with higher BMI and higher CD4 counts. Women with low baseline BMI tended to gain more weight from 4 to 24 months than those with higher BMI, regardless of breastfeeding duration (2.1 kg, 95% CI: 1.3–2.9; P < 0.01). Conclusions In this study of HIV-infected breastfeeding women in a low-resource setting, the average change in weight from 4 to 24 months postpartum was a net gain rather than loss. Although longer duration breastfeeding was associated with less weight gain, breastfeeding duration was not associated with being underweight (BMI < 18.5). Weight change associated with longer breastfeeding may be metabolically regulated so that women with low BMI and at risk of wasting are protected from excess weight loss.

Murnane, Pamela M; Arpadi, Stephen M; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mwiya, Mwiya; Kasonde, Prisca; Thea, Donald M; Aldrovandi, Grace M; Kuhn, Louise

2010-01-01

358

Use of Mutation Breeding Technique in Improving Finger Millet in Northern Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many breeders have observed that induced mutation increases genetic variability, and the expose to mutagenic agents increases mutation frequency. Studies have indicated the effect in height reduction, increased yield components,disease resistance, in crop like rice and wheat. A study was conducted in finger millet in thr Northern part of Zambia (Region III), a high rainfall area, aiming at improving finger length, number of fingers till ring capacity in order to increase the yield. the seed of Nyika variety, popular to farmers due to its medium maturity, palm shaped fingers (six fingers on average), and light brown grain. Three quantities of seed were irradiated at 15Kr, 20Kr and 30Kr doses. A dose of 15Kr of gamma rays irradiation continued to create good genetic change in the exposed material. These observations clearly suggest that 15Kr dose of gamma rays is the optimum one to expose/irradiate finger millet to create desired genetic changes. The results of 2000/2001 were not significantly different. However, FMM 165 had better yields (3193 Kg) than FMM 175 in Misamfu, while FMM 175 yielded better (3272 Kg) in Chinsali. During 2001/2002 both FMMs performed well in the national finger number of 10 per head. There were also highly significant differences among finger lengths.FMM 165 had finger length of 10.3 cm. Concerning grain yield FMM 165 and FMM 175 had 3802 and 3864 Kg/ha, respectively, which were above the overall mean 3864 Kg/ha. Grain yield correlated positively with finger number with an r-value of 0.19 and finger length r-value of 0.22 although it was not significant at 1% or 5%. Meanwhile in the advance trial there were significant differences among genotypes in finger number. Both FMMs had 9 fingers above the overall mean of 8.8. In the finger length there were highly significant differences. FMM 175 had a length of 11.5 cm while FMM 165 had 10.4 cm. There were highly significant differences among the genotypes in yield. FMM 165 (4636 Kg) and FMM 175 (4104 Kg/ha) yielded more than the checks (Nyika and Local) 3104 Kg/ha and 2854 Kg/ha respectively. There was some correlation between finger length and finger number with r-value of 0.688, finger number and grain yield with an r-value of 0.187, and finger length and yield r-value of -ve 0.016 but there were not significant at 1% or 5%

2002-11-11

359

Remotely-sensed, nocturnal, dew point correlates with malaria transmission in Southern Province, Zambia: a time-series study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Plasmodium falciparum transmission has decreased significantly in Zambia in the last decade. The malaria transmission is influenced by environmental variables. Incorporation of environmental variables in models of malaria transmission likely improves model fit and predicts probable trends in malaria disease. This work is based on the hypothesis that remotely-sensed environmental factors, including nocturnal dew point, are associated with malaria transmission and sustain foci of transmission during the low transmission season in the Southern Province of Zambia. Methods Thirty-eight rural health centres in Southern Province, Zambia were divided into three zones based on transmission patterns. Correlations between weekly malaria cases and remotely-sensed nocturnal dew point, nocturnal land surface temperature as well as vegetation indices and rainfall were evaluated in time-series analyses from 2012 week 19 to 2013 week 36. Zonal as well as clinic-based, multivariate, autoregressive, integrated, moving average (ARIMAX) models implementing environmental variables were developed to model transmission in 2011 week 19 to 2012 week 18 and forecast transmission in 2013 week 37 to week 41. Results During the dry, low transmission season significantly higher vegetation indices, nocturnal land surface temperature and nocturnal dew point were associated with the areas of higher transmission. Environmental variables improved ARIMAX models. Dew point and normalized differentiated vegetation index were significant predictors and improved all zonal transmission models. In the high-transmission zone, this was also seen for land surface temperature. Clinic models were improved by adding dew point and land surface temperature as well as normalized differentiated vegetation index. The mean average error of prediction for ARIMAX models ranged from 0.7 to 33.5%. Forecasts of malaria incidence were valid for three out of five rural health centres; however, with poor results at the zonal level. Conclusions In this study, the fit of ARIMAX models improves when environmental variables are included. There is a significant association of remotely-sensed nocturnal dew point with malaria transmission. Interestingly, dew point might be one of the factors sustaining malaria transmission in areas of general aridity during the dry season.

2014-01-01

360

Perceptions of HIV-related health services in Zambia for people with disabilities who are HIV-positive  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Despite the emerging body of literature on increased vulnerability to HIV among people with disabilities (PWDs), there is a dearth of evidence related to experiences of PWDs who have become HIV-positive. This priority was identified by a disability advocacy organization in Lusaka, Zambia, where the prevalence of HIV and of disability is each approximately 15%. The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions and experiences of HIV-related health services for PWDs who are also living with HIV in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods This qualitative, interpretive study involved in-depth, semi-structured, one-on-one interviews with two groups of participants in Lusaka, Zambia: 21 PWDs who had become HIV-positive, and 11 people working in HIV and/or disability. PWDs had physical, hearing, visual and/or intellectual impairments. Interviews were conducted in English, Nyanja, Bemba or Zambian sign language. Descriptive and thematic analyses were conducted by a multidisciplinary, international research team. Results Participants described their experiences with HIV-related health services in terms of the challenges they faced. In particular, they encountered three main challenges while seeking care and treatment: (1) disability-related discrimination heightened when seeking HIV services, (2) communication barriers and related concerns with confidentiality, and (3) movement and mobility challenges related to seeking care and collecting antiretroviral therapy. These experiences were further shaped by participants’ profound concerns about poverty and unmet basic needs. Discussion This study demonstrates how PWDs who are HIV-positive have the same HIV care, treatment and support needs as able-bodied counterparts, but face avoidable barriers to care. Many challenges mirror concerns identified with HIV prevention, suggesting that efforts to promote inclusion and reduce stigma could have widespread benefits. Conclusions Despite the growing body of literature on increased risk of exposure to HIV among HIV-negative PWDs, this is the first published study to examine perceptions of testing, treatment and other HIV services for PWDs who have become HIV-positive. Findings reveal far-reaching opportunities for improving the quality of care for this population.

Nixon, Stephanie A; Cameron, Cathy; Hanass-Hancock, Jill; Simwaba, Phillimon; Solomon, Patricia E; Bond, Virginia A; Menon, Anitha; Richardson, Emma; Stevens, Marianne; Zack, Elisse

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Outcomes of a remote, decentralized health center-based HIV/AIDS antiretroviral program in Zambia, 2003 to 2007.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross-sectional study of patients living with HIV/ AIDS treated during 2003 to 2007 in decentralized, rural health centers in Zambia was performed to measure virological outcomes after 12 months of antiretroviral therapy and identify factors associated with virological failure. Data from 228 patients who started antiretroviral therapy >12 months prior were analyzed. In all, 93% received stavudine + lamivudine + nevirapine regimens, and median antiretroviral therapy duration was 23.5 months (interquartile range 20-28). Of the 205 patients tested for viral load, 177 (86%) had viral load 1000 copies/mL) was 8.9% at 24 months and 19.6% at 32 months. Predictors for virological failure were 12 months showed that positive health outcomes are achievable. PMID:19211930

Elema, Riekje; Mills, Clair; Yun, Oliver; Lokuge, Kamalini; Ssonko, Charles; Nyirongo, Nashiola; Mtonga, Velepi; Zulu, Henry; Tu, David; Verputten, Meggy; O'Brien, Daniel P

2009-01-01

362

Lead-acid battery capacity in solar home systems-Field tests and experiences in Lundazi, Zambia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Batteries in solar home systems can cause problems and costs for the users and/or operators of the systems. In Zambia the Lundazi Energy Service Company (LESCO) operates 150 solar home systems on a fee for service basis. The aim of the study was to investigate how the capacity of lead-acid flat plate batteries had changed after one year of operation under real conditions. The results indicate that the batteries capacity has been significantly reduced in comparison to new unused batteries of the same type. Changes in battery management and maintenance, along with additional education of customers on correct use of SHS is advised in order to improve the life span of batteries in practical use. (author)

Gustavsson, Mathias [Human Ecology Section, Goeteborg University, Box 700, SE-405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Mtonga, Daniel [Lundazi Energy Service Company, P.O. Box 530207, Lundazi (Zambia)

2005-11-01

363

An occurrence of stomach impaction in ostriches (Struthio camelus) on a farm in Zambia associated with high mortality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fifty-one ostriches (Struthio camelus), 6 weeks old, were imported from Namibia and introduced onto a farm in Zambia. Soon after introduction, most of the birds manifested clinical symptoms such as anorexia and diarrhea and 19 birds died within 1 week. The proventriculus and gizzard in the 4 dead birds were full of solid masses of lucerne hay mixed with maize and consequently the gizzard was extremely impacted by them. Neither pathogenic bacteria nor parasites were detected from the autopsied birds and 8 fecal samples. After diagnosis, the ostrich feed was improved and a demulcent was given immediately; then all ostriches that remained on the farm recovered. In conclusion, these data confirmed that the present case was stomach impaction in ostriches. PMID:7999912

Sato, Y; Yasuda, J; Sinsungwe, H; Chimana, H; Sato, G

1994-08-01

364

Energy SMEs in sub-Saharan Africa: Outcomes, barriers and prospects in Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the findings of research into the main outcomes of government and donor-backed efforts to promote small and medium-sized energy businesses (energy SMEs) in sub-Saharan Africa. The research follows an outcome analysis methodology. The focus is on four countries: Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia and primarily on UNEP's AREED programme (2002-2012). This research focuses on the 'contributing factors' - a deliberately broader term that incorporates the internal 'success factors' - for energy SMEs, about which much has already been written. Indeed, the research findings presented in this report reaffirm most of what has been concluded in previous studies. These studies identified the lack of access to affordable finance as being the predominant, persistent, barrier to establishing and scaling up a commercially viable energy SME sector, emphasising the lack of strong policy support from governments, poor business skills capacity and the high cost of many RETs as related cause-and-effect barriers. While these issues continue to characterise, to a greater or lesser extent, the energy SMEs sectors in the countries studied for this research, it is more relevant to revisit the main assumption behind AREED and other donor-backed programmes designed to promote energy SMEs. The assumption is that the solution to the aforementioned barriers would be overcome by a 'demonstration effect' whereby successful energy SMEs, supported by donor-backed programmes, influence the commercial financial sector to invest in energy SMEs, thus triggering a virtuous circle of growth and profitability. Experiences drawn from a decade of AREED support across four of the project countries reveal both the presence (Ghana, Senegal) and absence, or weak presence, of this demonstration effect (Tanzania, Zambia). This is a central question, and one which was not the focus of previous research, presumably because the answer was not fully apparent prior to 2006 when the last substantial work was conducted. (LN)

Haselip, J.A.; Desgain, D.; Mackenzie, G.A.

2013-05-15

365

Struggles over Access and Authority in the Governance of new water resources : evidence from Mali and Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Research on water scarcity in the South has often focused on the impacts of limited water resources for the rural poor, prompted most recently by the climate change debate. Less attention has been drawn to the social and institutional processes surrounding the emergence of new collective water resources, and how this affects authority, access rights and social exclusion in local water governance. The paper addresses this issue through a study of local competition over access to new common-pool water resources in isolated rural areas of Zambia and Mali. In Mali, climate change has led to the sporadic emergence of new natural lakes and ponds in some locations. In Zambia, the development of boreholes has provided access to water resources that were not previously available to local communities. The paper explores how local actors and organizations have sought to assert control over and rights of access to the new water resources. It shows the ways in which this has furthered both conflict and cooperation between the involved actors, and how new rules of access and associated institutional domains have developed. At the same time, however, it also shows how the struggles over access and authority have tended to marginalize the poorest and other user groups from access to the new water resources, by seeking either to monopolize access rights or developing explicit and implicit mechanisms of exclusion. The paper concludes by discussing the implications for water policy and research in terms of the way we understand the development of new water resources in the current context of inequality, water scarcity and climate change.

Cold-Ravnkilde, Signe Marie; Funder, Mikkel

366

`WORSE THAN HIV' OR `NOT AS SERIOUS AS OTHER DISEASES'? CONCEPTUALIZATION OF CERVICAL CANCER AMONG NEWLY SCREENED WOMEN IN ZAMBIA  

Science.gov (United States)

Invasive cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide, with approximately 85% of the disease burden occurring in developing countries. To date, there have been few systematic efforts to document African women's conceptualization of cervical cancer after participation in a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA)-based “see and treat” cervical cancer prevention program. In this study, conducted between September, 2009-July, 2010, focus groups and in-depth interviews were conducted with 60 women who had recently undergone cervical cancer screening at a government-operated primary health care clinic in Lusaka, Zambia. Interviewers elicited participants' causal representations of cervical cancer, associated physical signs and symptoms, perceived physical and psychological effects, and social norms regarding the disease. The lay model of illness causation portrayed by participants after recent exposure to program promotion messages departed in several ways from causal models described in other parts of the world. However, causal conceptualizations included both lay and biomedical elements, suggesting a possible shift from a purely traditional causal model to one that incorporates both traditional concepts and recently promoted biomedical concepts. Most, but not all, women still equated cervical cancer with death, and perceived it to be a highly stigmatized disease in Zambia because of its anatomic location, dire natural course, connections to socially-condemned behaviors, and association with HIV/AIDS. No substantive differences of disease conceptualization existed according to HIV serostatus, though HIV positive women acknowledged that their immune status makes them more aware of their health and more likely to seek medical attention. Further attention should be dedicated to the processes by which women incorporate new knowledge into their representations of cervical cancer.

White, Heather L.; Mulambia, Chishimba; Sinkala, Moses; Mwanahamuntu, Mulindi H.; Parham, Groesbeck P.; Moneyham, Linda; Grimley, Diane M.; Chamot, Eric

2012-01-01

367

'Worse than HIV' or 'not as serious as other diseases'? Conceptualization of cervical cancer among newly screened women in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Invasive cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide, with approximately 85% of the disease burden occurring in developing countries. To date, there have been few systematic efforts to document African women's conceptualization of cervical cancer after participation in a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA)-based "see and treat" cervical cancer prevention program. In this study, conducted between September, 2009-July, 2010, focus groups and in-depth interviews were conducted with 60 women who had recently undergone cervical cancer screening at a government-operated primary health care clinic in Lusaka, Zambia. Interviewers elicited participants' causal representations of cervical cancer, associated physical signs and symptoms, perceived physical and psychological effects, and social norms regarding the disease. The lay model of illness causation portrayed by participants after recent exposure to program promotion messages departed in several ways from causal models described in other parts of the world. However, causal conceptualizations included both lay and biomedical elements, suggesting a possible shift from a purely traditional causal model to one that incorporates both traditional concepts and recently promoted biomedical concepts. Most, but not all, women still equated cervical cancer with death, and perceived it to be a highly stigmatized disease in Zambia because of its anatomic location, dire natural course, connections to socially-condemned behaviors, and association with HIV/AIDS. No substantive differences of disease conceptualization existed according to HIV serostatus, though HIV positive women acknowledged that their immune status makes them more aware of their health and more likely to seek medical attention. Further attention should be dedicated to the processes by which women incorporate new knowledge into their representations of cervical cancer. PMID:22459188

White, Heather L; Mulambia, Chishimba; Sinkala, Moses; Mwanahamuntu, Mulindi H; Parham, Groesbeck P; Moneyham, Linda; Grimley, Diane M; Chamot, Eric

2012-05-01

368

District heating from nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A thermal reactor district heating system, the Safe Environmentally Clean Urban Reactor (Secure), is described. The design of the core, cooling system and waste treatment are discussed and the operation of the system considered. The system, designed to produce 200 MW heating for a city of between 50,000 and 100,000 inhabitants, is compared to the similar French Thermos project. (U.K.)

1981-01-01

369

Nuclear power for district heating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current district heating trends are towards an increasing use of electricity. This report concerns the evaluation of an alternative means of energy supply - the direct use of thermal energy from CANDU nuclear stations. The energy would be transmitted via a hot fluid in a pipeline over distances of up to 40 km. Advantages of this approach include a high utilization of primary energy, with a consequent reduction in installed capacity, and load flattening due to inherent energy storage capacity and transport delays. Disadvantages include the low load factors for district heating, the high cost of the distribution systems and the necessity for large-scale operation for economic viability. This requirement for large-scale operation from the beginning could cause difficulty in the implementation of the first system. Various approaches have been analysed and costed for a specific application - the supply of energy to a district heating load centre in Toronto from the location of the Pickering reactor station about 40 km away. (author)

1975-01-01

370

Making the cut: evidence-based lessons for improving the informed consent process for voluntary medical male circumcision in Swaziland and Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The informed consent (IC) process for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) was evaluated in Zambia and Swaziland as VMMC programs scaled up. In-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with clients 1 week after surgery to explore understanding of IC and gauge how expectations of MC surgery compared to actual experiences. In Zambia, key opinion leaders (KOLs) were also interviewed. Some clients equated written IC with releasing the clinic from liability. Most clients felt well prepared for the procedure, although many were surprised by the level of pain experienced during anesthesia and postsurgery. Clients were highly motivated to adhere to wound care, but some were overwhelmed by extensive instructions. Adolescents described barriers to accessing follow-up care and the need for support in overcoming adult gatekeepers. KOLs indicated that IC is not well understood in poorly educated communities. Results led to concrete programmatic changes, including revised patient education materials and more effective anesthesia for longer-lasting pain relief. PMID:24694330

Schenk, Katie D; Friedland, Barbara A; Sheehy, Meredith; Apicella, Louis; Hewett, Paul C

2014-04-01

371

Health inequities, environmental insecurity and the attainment of the millennium development goals in sub-Saharan Africa: the case study of Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a series of 8 goals and 18 targets aimed at ending extreme poverty by 2015, and there are 48 quantifiable indicators for monitoring the process. Most of the MDGs are health or health-related goals. Though the MDGs might sound ambitious, it is imperative that the world, and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, wake up to the persistent and unacceptably high rates of extreme poverty that populations live in, and find lasting solutions to age-old problems. Extreme poverty is a cause and consequence of low income, food insecurity and hunger, education and gender inequities, high disease burden, environmental degradation, insecure shelter, and lack of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. It is also directly linked to unsound governance and inequitable distribution of public wealth. While many regions in the world will strive to attain the MDGs by 2015, most of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa, with major human development challenges associated with socio-economic disparities, will not. Zambia's MDG progress reports of 2003 and 2005 show that despite laudable political commitment and some advances made towards achieving universal primary education, gender equality, improvement of child health and management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, it is not likely that Zambia will achieve even half of the goals. Zambia's systems have been weakened by high disease burden and excess mortality, natural and man-made environmental threats and some negative effects of globalization such as huge external debt, low world prices for commodities and the human resource "brain drain", among others. Urgent action must follow political will, and some tried and tested strategies or "quick wins" that have been proven to produce high positive impact in the short term, need to be rapidly embarked upon by Zambia and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa if they are to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. PMID:16968967

Anyangwe, Stella C E; Mtonga, Chipayeni; Chirwa, Ben

2006-09-01

372

Methods and Baseline Results of a Repeated Cross-Sectional Survey to Assess the Public Health Impact of Antiretroviral Therapy in Lusaka, Zambia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although the individual-level impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is well documented, there are few available data describing the public health impact of services for persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus in resource-constrained settings. We describe the methods and baseline results of a household survey that assessed the population-level impact of the national program for HIV care in Zambia and treatment in the city of Lusaka. The survey was timed with the staggered expansion...

Giganti, Mark J.; Levy, Jens W.; Banda, Yolan; Kusanthan, Thankian; Sinkala, Moses; Stringer, Jeffrey S. A.; Chi, Benjamin H.

2010-01-01

373

Antimicrobial Resistance in Human and Animal Pathogens in Zambia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Mozambique and Tanzania: An Urgent Need of a Sustainable Surveillance System.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A review of the published and unpublished literature on bacterial resistance in human and animals was performed. Sixty-eight articles/reports from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Mozambique, Tanzania and Zambia were reviewed. The majority of these articles were from Tanzania. There is an increasing trend in the incidence of antibiotic resistance; of major concern is the increase in multidrug- resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholera, non...

2013-01-01

374

Expanding Water Service Delivery through Partnership between Water Utility and Small Scale Water Providers in Lusaka, Zambia : A Case of Lusaka's Peri-Urban Areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Zambia is a highly urbanized country with 60% of its urban population residing in low cost areas also called peri-urban, slum or informal settlements. The increase in urban population attributed to rapid migration and urbanization due to political and economic changes has taken a toll on service provision as the infrastructure development and service provision has failed to meet the demand. For the 33 peri-urban areas in Lusaka, the water supply and sanitation has been poor, inadequate and un...

Mwandu Siyeni, Yvonne

2008-01-01

375

Expanding Water Service Delivery through Partnership between Water Utility and Small Scale Water Providers in Lusaka, Zambia : A Case of Lusaka’s Peri-Urban Areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Zambia is a highly urbanized country with 60% of its urban population residing in low cost areas also called peri-urban, slum or informal settlements. The increase in urban population attributed to rapid migration and urbanization due to political and economic changes has taken a toll on service provision as the infrastructure development and service provision has failed to meet the demand. For the 33 peri-urban areas in Lusaka, the water supply and sanitation has been poor, inadequate and un...

Mwandu Siyeni, Yvonne

2008-01-01

376

How informed are clients who consent? A mixed-method evaluation of comprehension among clients of male circumcision services in Zambia and Swaziland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Comprehension is fundamental for informed consent--an individual's right to choose a medical procedure, such as male circumcision (MC). Because optimal benefits depend on post-surgical behaviors, comprehension is particularly critical for MC programs. We evaluated clients' comprehension of MC's risks and benefits, wound care instructions, and risk reduction post-MC using a true/false test (n = 1181) and 92 semi-structured interviews (SSIs) in Zambia and Swaziland. Most participants (89% Zambia, 93% Swaziland) passed the true/false test, although adolescents scored lower (significantly so in Swaziland) than adults and one-third (including nearly half of adolescents in Zambia) said MC has no risks. SSIs indicated confusion between "risk" of adverse surgical outcomes and reduced "risk" of HIV; most respondents acknowledged the 6 week abstinence period post-MC, yet few said resuming sex early increases HIV risk. Providers should distinguish between surgical "risks" and reduced HIV "risk," and emphasize that HIV risk increases with sex before complete healing. PMID:23392912

Friedland, Barbara A; Apicella, Louis; Schenk, Katie D; Sheehy, Meredith; Hewett, Paul C

2013-07-01

377

Thermodynamic calculation of a district energy cycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a calculation model for a nuclear district energy circuit. Such a circuit means the combination of a steam reforming plant with heat supply from a high-temperature nuclear reactor and a methanation plant with heat production for district heating or electricity production. The model comprises thermodynamic calculations for the endothermic methane reforming reaction as well as the exothermic CO-hydrogenation in adiabatic reactors and allows the optimization of the district energy circuit under consideration. (orig.)

1975-01-01

378

77 FR 21556 - Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project: Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2299-075] Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project: Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Supplement to Notice of Study Dispute Resolution Technical Conference On March 16,...

2012-04-10

379

District's Workforce: Annual Report Required by the District of Columbia Retirement Reform Act.  

Science.gov (United States)

An enrolled actuary was engaged by the District of Columbia Retirement Board to (1) determine the 1990 disability retirement rate for District police officers and firefighters hired before February 15, 1980; (2) determine if that rate exceeded eight-tenth...

1991-01-01

380

AGRICULTURAL LANDUSE PATTERN IN JALNA DISTRICT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agriculture is a main primary activity across world. It is also a prime source of food. Agricultural productivity plays an important role in the development of agriculture sector. Agriculture productivity depends upon the landuse pattern. Most of developed countries has systematic and progressive pattern of agricultural landuse. Considering this importance, researcher has tried to assess the agricultural landuse pattern in Jalna district. Crop combination regions in Jalna district for year 198085 to 2000-05. This is normal year for agricultural phenomenon in this district. The crop data has been computed with the help of wevears technique of crop combination. Jalna district occupies central part of Maharastra state.

Sakhare Shivkanya Nagnath

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
381

District Fiscal Policy and Student Achievement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available School restructuring raises questions about the role of school districts in improving student learning. Centralization by state governments and decentralization to individual schools as proposed in systemic reform leave districts' role unsettled. Empirical research on the district role in the context of ongoing reform is inadequate. This analysis of combined data from the NAEP and the Common Core of Data (CCD was intended to address the issue. We analyzed 1990, 1992, and 1996 NAEP 8th grade mathematics national assessment data in combination with CCD data of corresponding years to examine the extent to which student achievement was related to districts' control over instructional expenditure, adjusting for relevant key factors at both district and student levels. Upon sample modification, we used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM to estimate the relationships of student achievement to two district fiscal policy indictors, current expenditure per pupil (CEPP and districts' discretionary rates for instructional expenditure (DDR. Net of relevant district factors, DDR was found unrelated to districts' average 8th grade math performance. The null effect was consistent in the analysis of the combined NAEP-CCD data for 1990, 1992, and 1996. In contrast, CEPP was found related to higher math performance in a modest yet fairly consistent way. Future research may be productive to separately study individual states and integrate the findings onto the national level.

Gary G. Huang

2002-09-01

382

1995 annual conference Canadian District Energy Association  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

District heating involves the production of heat at a central source and its subsequent distribution to individual customers in rural or urban areas, using a series of supply and return pipes. The use of district energy could represent a great opportunity for sustainable use of energy. District heating has experienced steady growth for several years because of the concern for the environment and the technological advances in the field. The system is meant to provide an environmentally sound means of distributing heat within city boundaries. This conference highlighted some recent progress in district heat technology, accompanied by wide ranging discussion of the benefits of the system.

NONE

1995-12-31

383

Rehabilitation of district heating networks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Often the choice is between reparation or exchange of a damaged section of the network. If the exchange is based on the wrong assumptions, large sections of undamaged pipelines could be removed. Most important for the district heating company is to decide which strategy to use for the future exchange of the pipelines. Whichever strategy used, it has to based on an assessment of the network and/or assumptions based on that assessment. The question if it is possible extend the life span of the pipelines arises. What is the most economical choice, the exchange or the renovation. (au)

Ottosson, Peter [AaF-Energikonsult Syd AB (Sweden)

1996-11-01

384

District heating comes to town  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book describes the challenge of building a complex technology, namely district heating. The complexity is not primarily of a technical nature, instead the complexity lies in achieving the cooperation and coordination of many diverse actors - politicians, engineers, apartment owners, industrial leaders and others - whose active participation is crucial to establishing the system. The story concerns a town in Sweden (Mjoelby) that succeeded in the challenge of shaping a district heating system. In the turbulent environment of the 1970s and 1980s, this was not an easy task. It placed considerable demands upon the organizational capacity of the system-builders. The author discusses the intertwined technical, economic and institutional issues that were entailed in the process of forming the system, drawing upon concepts from recent social science research on technical systems. Based on this analysis, she also addresses the more generalized question of what it takes to introduce and shape a grid-based energy system and other, similar systems. 232 refs., 35 figs.

Summerton, J.

1992-01-01

385

Retention in care, resource utilization, and costs for adults receiving antiretroviral therapy in Zambia: a retrospective cohort study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Of the estimated 800,000 adults living with HIV in Zambia in 2011, roughly half were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). As treatment scale up continues, information on the care provided to patients after initiating ART can help guide decision-making. We estimated retention in care, the quantity of resources utilized, and costs for a retrospective cohort of adults initiating ART under routine clinical conditions in Zambia. Methods Data on resource utilization (antiretroviral [ARV] and non-ARV drugs, laboratory tests, outpatient clinic visits, and fixed resources) and retention in care were extracted from medical records for 846 patients who initiated ART at ?15 years of age at six treatment sites between July 2007 and October 2008. Unit costs were estimated from the provider’s perspective using site- and country-level data and are reported in 2011 USD. Results Patients initiated ART at a median CD4 cell count of 145 cells/?L. Fifty-nine percent of patients initiated on a tenofovir-containing regimen, ranging from 15% to 86% depending on site. One year after ART initiation, 75% of patients were retained in care. The average cost per patient retained in care one year after ART initiation was $243 (95% CI, $194-$293), ranging from $184 (95% CI, $172-$195) to $304 (95% CI, $290-$319) depending on site. Patients retained in care one year after ART initiation received, on average, 11.4 months’ worth of ARV drugs, 1.5 CD4 tests, 1.3 blood chemistry tests, 1.4 full blood count tests, and 6.5 clinic visits with a doctor or clinical officer. At all sites, ARV drugs were the largest cost component, ranging from 38% to 84% of total costs, depending on site. Conclusions Patients initiate ART late in the course of disease progression and a large proportion drop out of care after initiation. The quantity of resources utilized and costs vary widely by site, and patients utilize a different mix of resources under routine clinical conditions than if they were receiving fully guideline-concordant care. Improving retention in care and guideline concordance, including increasing the use of tenofovir in first-line ART regimens, may lead to increases in overall treatment costs.

2014-01-01

386

Efficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets in use in Macha, Zambia, against the local Anopheles arabiensis population  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The mosquito Anopheles arabiensis is the primary vector of Plasmodium falciparum in Macha, Zambia. A major portion of Zambia's current malaria control programme relies on long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs and indoor residual spraying (IRS with insecticides. Currently, the efficacy of these measures against An. arabiensis in Macha is unknown, and previous data has shown that An. arabiensis has continued to feed on human hosts, despite high ITN coverage. It is possible that this could be due to either decreased efficacy of ITNs in used in Macha, or pyrethroid resistance in the vector. Methods F1 offspring of field-collected adult An. arabiensis were tested for insecticide resistance, using CDC bottle bioassays and deltamethrin ITN susceptibility assays. The mosquitoes were characterized for the knock-down resistance (kdr allele by PCR. LLINs that had been in use for two years in nearby villages were collected and tested for residual deltamethrin concentration and net quality, and were used in bioassays against susceptible colonized Anopheles gambiae s.s. Keele. Additionally, a survey on ITN use and care was conducted among LLIN owners. Results In the F1 An. arabiensis field population, low levels of resistance to DDT and deltamethrin-treated net material were detected by bioassay, although the knock-down resistance (kdr allele not present in the population. ITN evaluations revealed high variability in residual deltamethrin concentration, quality of the nets, and mosquito mortality in bioassays. Mortality against An. gambiae s.s. in bioassays was correlated with residual deltamethrin concentration, which was dependent upon the number of washes each net had received. Conclusions Proper LLIN care was a strong determinant of LLIN efficacy, indicating that education on the importance of LLIN use and care is key when distributing nets. As there is little insecticide resistance in the local vector population, degradation of LLINs most likely allowed for continued human feeding by An. arabiensis. Continued monitoring and assessment of both the vector population and the efficacy of LLINs in use is necessary in order to appropriately modify vector control operations and prevent the development of pyrethroid resistance.

Norris Douglas E

2011-08-01

387

Chemical composition and crystal structure refinement of schorl from the Lundazi pegmatite field, Zambia  

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Full Text Available Present work characterizes tourmaline from one of the major pegmatite fields in Zambia - the Lundazi pegmatite belt.
Microprobe analysis gave (wt%: SiO2 34.65, TiO2 0.85, Al2O3 29.80, Fe2O3 4.94, FeO 9.47, MnO 0.29, MgO 4.06, Li2O < 0.01, CaO 0.59, Na2O 2.38, K2O 0.08, F 0.32, H2O+ 3.24, B2O3 10.32, O=F -0.14, totalling 100.45. The empirical formula, calculated on the basis of 31 (O, OH, F per formula unit gives: (Na0.78Ca0.11K0.02 ?0.09?1.00 (Fe2+1.33Fe3+0.63Mg0.61Ti0.11Mn0.04 ?0.12?3.00 (Al5.59Mg2+0.41?6.00 [(Si5.84Al0.16?6.00O18.00](BO33.00(OH3.00[(OH0.64O019F0.17]?1.00 resulting in simplified formula: Na(Fe2+, Fe3+, Mg3(Al,Mg6(Si6O18(BO33.00(OH3.00 (OH, O, F. Analysis of Mossbauer spectra confirms both Fe2+ and Fe3+ in the Y site; Fe3+/Fe2+ is 0.47. The water was determinate using Karl Fischer titration, B2O3 was calculated to stoichiometry. Refined crystal structure data (atomic coordinates, inter-atomic distances and angles are in agreement with data for schorl. Mean polyhedron distances are (Å: X-O 2.646, Y-O 2.078, Z-O 1.939, Si-O 1.644, B1-O 1.382. The refined unit-cell parameters are: a = 15.9856 (2, c = 7.1892 (1 Å, V = 1591.00(4 Å3, space group is R3 m, Z=3. Dm = 3.18(1 g/cm3, Dx = 3.195(2 g/cm3. Streak is light grey, lustre is glassy. Pleochroism in powder mounts: ? = light brownish red, ? = dark bluish grey (thin fragments, ? = strong brownish red, ? = opaque (thick fragments. The studied sample belongs to hydroxy-tourmaline subgroup with 19 atomic % of oxy subgroup (Fe3+/Fe2+ = 0.47 in the Y site and ratio O/(OH- = 0.30 in the W site.

Ondruš P

2002-03-01

388

Suppressed or unsuppressed HIV in adults on antiretroviral therapy in Zambia: who is at risk?  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose of the study To determine factors associated with suppressed or unsuppressed HIV in adults receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Zambia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted between August 2008 and October 2009 in 16 Zambian communities nested within the ZAMSTAR trial [1]. Adult TB cases identified at a TB clinic of each community and their adult household members were invited to participate in the study. A structured interview was used to obtain information on the participants’ social, demographic and clinical characteristics. Socio-economic position (SEP) was measured using household wealth indices used in demographic health surveys. Principal component analysis was used to determine the cut-off for high (wealthy) and low (poor) SEP. Depression symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D). A cut-off of?22 on the CES-D was used to define current depression [2]. Participants were included in this analysis if they were found to be receiving cART for>90 days at the time of the interview. The outcome was HIV suppression (viral load?300 copies/ml). In both univariable and multivariable analyses, log Poisson regression models with robust standard errors adjusted for the 16 communities were used to calculate the risk ratios (RR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) and p-values of factors associated with HIV suppression. In multivariable analysis, each variable was independently assessed for its association with HIV suppression while minimally adjusting for a priori confounders (age, gender and education level). Summary of results There were 520 patients receiving cART for>90 days. The median age was 35 years (inter-quartile range: 31–41) and 328/520 (63.1%) were married (Table). HIV suppression HIV suppression vs. no suppression n=520 Yes No Unadjusted Adjusted N (column %) N (row %) N (row %) RR (95% CI) p-value RR (95% CI) p-value Age group, years 16 to 25 47 (9.0) 39 (83.0) 8 (17.0) 1 26 to 35 220 (42.3) 183 (83.2) 37 (16.8) 1.00 (0.85–1.18) 0.976 36 to 45 187 (36.0) 162 (86.6) 25 (13.4) 1.04 (0.91–1.20) 0.541 Above 45 66 (12.7) 58 (87.9) 8 (12.1) 1.06 (0.90–1.25) 0.503 Gender Men 204 (39.2) 169 (82.8) 35 (17.2) 1 Women 316 (60.8) 273 (86.4) 43 (13.6) 1.04 (0.97–1.12) 0.261 Education level None/Primary 241 (46.3) 200 (83.0) 41 (17.0) 1 Secondary 279 (53.7) 242 (86.7) 37 (13.3) 1.05 (0.95–1.15) 0.358 Socio-economic position (SEP) Low 287 (55.2) 252 (87.8) 35 (12.2) 1 1 High 220 (42.3) 177 (80.5) 43 (19.5) 0.92 (0.86–0.98) 0.009 0.90 (0.84 – 0.96) 0.001 Missing 13 (2.5) 12 (92.3) 1 (7.7) Type of cART Tenofovir (TDF)+emtricitabine (FTC)+nevirapine (NVP) 61 (11.7) 48 (78.7) 13 (21.3) 1 1 TDF+FTC+efavirenz (EFV) 182 (35.0) 154 (84.6) 28 (15.4) 1.08 (0.95–1.22) 0.26 1.09 (0.96–1.25) 0.187 Stavudine (d4T)+lamivudine (3TC)+NVP 197 (37.9) 168 (85.3) 29 (14.7) 1.08 (0.97–1.21) 0.158 1.05 (0.94–1.18) 0.379 Zidovudine (ZDV)+3TC+EFV 78 (15.0) 70 (89.7) 8 (10.3) 1.14 (1.01–1.28) 0.027 1.11 (0.99–1.25) 0.071 Missing 2 (0.4) 2 (100.0) 0 (0.0) History of tuberculosis No 108 (20.8) 92 (85.2) 16 (14.8) 1 1 Yes 412 (79.2) 350 (85.0) 62 (15.0) 1.00 (0.89–1.11) 0.961 1.01 (0.91–1.13) 0.818 Current depression No 416 (80.0) 355 (85.3) 61 (14.7) 1 1 Yes 77 (14.8) 63 (81.8) 14 (18.2) 0.96 (0.84–1.09) 0.523 0.96 (0.84–1.09) 0.493 Missing 27 (5.2) 24 (88.9) 3 (11.1) Of the 520 patients, 442 (85.0%) had HIV suppression while 78 (15.0%) did not. At univariable analysis, having high SEP was negatively associated with HIV suppression while receiving ZDV+3TC+EFV was positively associated with HIV suppression. At multivariable analysis, patients with high SEP were less likely to have HIV suppression than those with low SEP. Conclusions Patients with high SEP were found to be at risk of having unsuppressed HIV. There is need for targeted interventions that can improve HIV outcomes in this group of patients receiving cART in Zam

Chishinga, N; Godfrey-Faussett, P; Fielding, K; Grant, A; Schaap, A; Ayles, H

2012-01-01

389

Rural Districts Bolster Choices with Online Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

All schools can benefit from giving students the option of online learning, but for many rural schools, online learning is a lifeline. In the past two years, Lane Education Service District in Oregon, USA, has developed online resources for 14 Lane County school districts, which vary in size from 170 students to as many as 17,000. Many of the…

Brown, Don

2012-01-01

390

1 District, 1 Set of Math Goals  

Science.gov (United States)

In March 2008, teachers and leaders of the mathematics programs grades 6-12 in the Clark County School District (Las Vegas, Nevada) found themselves under the urgent spotlight of failed expectations. District leaders and teachers had been bold enough to create highstakes, districtwide common assessment semester exams in five subject areas of…

Kanold, Timothy; Ebert, Jhone

2010-01-01

391

Charleston County School District (CCSD) Reading Policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

This brief two-page policy statement presents the Charleston County (South Carolina) School District Board of Trustees reading policy. It begins by noting that the district will emphasize early literacy development, reading across the content areas, and interventions for struggling readers, and that schools shall be responsible for designing and…

Charleston County School District, North Charleston, SC.

392

District-Charter Collaborations on the Rise  

Science.gov (United States)

The Synergy Charter Academy, one of three charter schools in the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD), used to occupy a cramped church space in south LA. Despite the facilities challenges, its more than 300 K students have generally scored in the top 10% on statewide tests in reading and math over the past seven years. When the district

Finkel, Ed

2011-01-01

393

Rural Districts Finally Reap Federal Favor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes key provisions of two recent federal program for rural schools: The Rural and Small Schools Achievement Program for rural districts with fewer than 600 students and the Rural and Low Income School Program for larger, high-poverty rural districts. (PKP)

Kusler, Mary

2002-01-01

394

District heating today and in the future  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Existing and projected district heating in Switzerland, with and without power generation, is reviewed with detailed tables and diagrams. Particular reference is made to the system using the Beznau 1 and 2 nuclear power plants. Topics discussed include: heat sources; district heating networks; energy accounting; development potential in Switzerland; possibilities for environmental pollution reduction. (F.Q.)

1982-03-16

395

Sparse district-heating in Sweden  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a review of the sparse district-heating research programme undertaken in Sweden between 2002 and 2006. The goal of the programme was to increase the future competitiveness for district heat in low heat density areas, e.g., suburban single-family houses and small villages. Such areas are unfavourable, since revenues from heat sold are low compared with the investment cost for the local distribution network. In Sweden, district heat has a dominant position in the heat market for residential and service-sector buildings. In order for the business to grow, it is necessary to increase the rate of expansion in the detached-house segment. This is why the programme was initiated. The extent of the programme was set at EUR 3.6 million with equal financing from the Swedish District-Heating Association and the Swedish Energy-Agency. The research was carried out in three phases: a state of the art survey; a development phase focused on productivity gains where new research on both technology and customer interaction was performed; and finally a demonstration phase where new methods were tested in full-scale field operation. The programme has shown that the Swedish district-heating industry needs to adjust in order to reach a higher profitability for sparse district-heating investments. Tradition from large-scale high-density district heating is hard to scale to fit sparse district-heating systems. For example, the construction becomes very labour intensive and the industry is weak when it comes to market-oriented business logic, sales and private customer interaction. Innovation seems to be a way forward and active management of innovations is a way to create increased value of the investments. Other keys to improving the profitability of sparse district-heating investments are more efficient working routines (resulting in higher productivity) and revised ways of customer communications. These seem more important than increasing efficiency in district-heating technology. (author)

Nilsson, Stefan Forsaeus [SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Building Technology and Mechanics, P.O. Box 24036, SE-400 22 Goeteborg (Sweden); Reidhav, Charlotte [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Lygnerud, Kristina [Goeteborg University, School of Business, Economics and Law, Department of Business Administration, P.O. Box 610, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); Werner, Sven [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

2008-07-15

396

Strategies for seed system development in sub-Saharan Africa: a study of Kenya, Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe  

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Full Text Available Seed systems in Kenya, Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe were studied jointly by ODI, ICRISAT, and national researchers. The study examined various aspects - the nature of seed demand, particularly for new varieties; local-level seed provision and farmer-to-farmer diffusion; the commercial seed sector; community level projects; emergency seed distribution programs; seed policy and regulatory framework; and the role of public-sector research. The study also provides specific recommendations to develop the seed sector. For example, public research programs must invest more heavily in variety promotion and production of breeder and foundation seed. Seed certification should be made voluntary, and variety registration simplified. Emergency seed programs should pay greater attention to variety adaptation and seed quality; and should support local seed enterprises, not compete with them. Seed companies should strengthen their retail networks. NGO seed projects should consider marketing and sustainability issues more carefully. Donor-funded projects, which currently operate in isolation from each other, must be integrated into a coherent, long-term, nationally-directed seed strategy.

Robert Tripp

2006-08-01

397

Prolonged breast-feeding and mortality up to two years post-partum among HIV-positive women in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background A previously reported association between prolonged lactation and maternal mortality has generated concern that breast-feeding may be detrimental for HIV-positive women. Methods As part of a trial conducted in Lusaka, Zambia, 653 HIV-positive women were randomly assigned either to a counseling program that encouraged abrupt cessation of breast-feeding at 4 months (group A) or to a program that encouraged prolonged breast-feeding for the duration of the woman’s own informed choice (group B). We examined whether mortality up to 2 years post-partum increased with breast-feeding for a longer duration. Results There was no difference in mortality 12 months after delivery between 326 HIV-positive women randomly assigned to short breast-feeding [group A: 4.93%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.42–7.46] versus 327 women assigned to long breast-feeding (group B: 4.89%; 95% CI, 2.38–7.40). Analysis based on actual practice, rather than random assignment, also demonstrated no increased mortality due to breast-feeding. Conclusions Although HIV-related mortality was high in this cohort of untreated HIV-positive women, prolonged lactation was not associated with increased mortality.

Kuhn, Louise; Kasonde, Prisca; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Semrau, Katherine; Vwalika, Cheswa; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Aldrovandi, Grace M.; Thea, Donald M.

2005-01-01

398

Early Weaning Increases Diarrhea Morbidity and Mortality Among Uninfected Children Born to HIV-infected Mothers in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background.?Early weaning may reduce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission but may have deleterious consequences for uninfected children. Here we evaluate effects of early weaning on diarrhea morbidity and mortality of uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers. Methods.?HIV-infected women in Lusaka, Zambia, were randomly assigned to breastfeeding for 4 months only or to continue breastfeeding until the mother decided to stop. Replacement and complementary foods were provided and all women were counseled around feeding and hygiene. Diarrhea morbidity and mortality were assessed in 618 HIV-uninfected singletons alive and still breastfeeding at 4 months. Intent-to-treat analyses and comparisons based on actual feeding practices were conducted using regression methods. Results.?Between 4 and 6 months, diarrheal episodes were 1.8-fold (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3–2.4) higher in the short compared with long breastfeeding group. Associations were stronger based on actual feeding practices and persisted after adjustment for confounding. At older ages, only more severe outcomes, including diarrhea-related hospitalization or death (relative hazard [RH], 3.2, 95% CI, 2.1–5.1 increase 4–24 months), were increased among weaned children. Conclusions.?Continued breastfeeding is associated with reduced risk of diarrhea-related morbidity and mortality among uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers in this low-resource setting despite provision of replacement and complementary food and counseling. ?Clinical Trials Registration.?NCT00310726.

Fawzy, Ashraf; Arpadi, Stephen; Kankasa, Chipepo; Sinkala, Moses; Mwiya, Mwiya; Thea, Donald M.; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

2011-01-01

399

Agricultural Production Assets Transfer and Poverty Upward Mobility in Isolated Areas of Zambia: A Domestic Life Cycle Perspective  

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Full Text Available In Zambia poverty mitigation programmes based on agricultural production assets transfer constitute social protection and have been implemented to help the poor change their experiences of poverty and transform their social economic relationships. The effect of these programmes in realizing substantial poverty upward mobility has however been hindered by a myriad of factors including failure to understand the poor’s poverty situation and consequently misdirecting the poverty interventions. This study aims at clarifying changes in experiences of poverty due to agricultural production assets transfer, and identify potential intrinsic household attributes that could influence effective agricultural assets utilization among households within domestic life cycle stages. Participatory poverty profiling and rapid appraisals were done to respectively identify poverty perceptions and experiences, and elicit household attributes perceived to influence effective asset utilization. Data was collected from 150 randomly selected households. Results indicate that agricultural production assets transfer to poor rural households can help mitigate their poverty, but movement out of poverty does not spontaneously cover all poverty dimensions, and could be affected by intrinsic attributes of a household. Thus, anti-poverty programmes should pay enough attention not only to community age stratification but also to intrinsic household attributes and basic need areas which may respond most to interventions among the domestic life cycle stages.

Martin W. Muyunda

2013-06-01

400