WorldWideScience
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Intestinal helminths and protozoa in children in pre-schools in Kafue district, Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most widespread of human infections in developing countries, and children are the most vulnerable. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia, as well as prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths in children attending pre-school or day-care centres in Kafue District, Zambia. Single stool samples were collected from 403 children from 10 pre-schools and Were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears to identify and quantify helminths. A commercial immunofluorescence kit was used to identify Cryptosporidium- and Giardia-positive samples. The overall prevalence of helminth infection was 17.9%. Ascaris lumbricoides was found in 12.0%, hookworm in 8.3%, Taenia spp. in 0.9%, Hymenolepis nano in 0.6% and Schistosoma mansoni in 0.3%. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia was 28.0 and 29.0%, respectively, with more girls infected with Giardia (33.8%) than boys (22.7%) (P = 0.02). Significant differences in infections with A. lumbricoides and Cryptosporidium were observed between the various pre-schools (P <0.001). These findings indicate that intestinal parasites are prevalent in children enrolled in pre-schools in Zambia. Future studies should explore local factors associated with transmission of these infections, and consequently provide the necessary health education to parents and teachers. Crown Copyright (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved.

Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.

2010-01-01

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Floodwaters Renew Zambia's Kafue Wetland  

Science.gov (United States)

Not all floods are unwanted. Heavy rainfall in southern Africa between December 2003 and April 2004 provided central Zambia with floodwaters needed to support the diverse uses of water within the Kafue Flats area. The Kafue Flats are home to about one million people and provide a rich inland fishery, habitat for an array of unique wildlife, and the means for hydroelectricity production. The Flats falls between two dams: Upstream to the west (not visible here) is the Izhi-tezhi, and downstream (middle right of the images) is the Kafue Gorge dam. Since the construction of these dams, the flooded area has been reduced and the timing and intensity of the inundation has changed. During June 2004 an agreement was made with the hydroelectricity company to restore water releases from the dams according to a more natural flooding regime. These images from NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) illustrate surface changes to the wetlands and other surfaces in central Zambia resulting from an unusually lengthy wet season. The Kafue Flats appear relatively dry on July 19, 2003 (upper images), with the Kafue River visible as a slender dark line that snakes from east to west on its way to join the Zambezi (visible in the lower right-hand corner). On July 21, 2004 (lower images), well into the dry season, much of the 6,500-square kilometer area of the Kafue Flats remains inundated. To the east of the Kafue Flats is Lusaka, the Zambian capital, visible as a pale area in the middle right of the picture, north of the river. In the upper portions of these images is the prominent roundish shape of the Lukanga Swamp, another important wetland. The images along the left are natural-color views from MISR's nadir camera, and the images along the right are angular composites in which red band data from MISR's 46o forward, nadir, and 46o backward viewing cameras is displayed as red, green and blue, respectively. In order to preserve brightness variations among the various cameras, the data from each camera were processed identically. Here, color changes indicate surface texture, and are influenced by terrain, vegetation structure, soil type and soil moisture content. Wet surfaces or areas with standing water appear blue in this display because sun glitter makes smooth, wet surfaces look brighter at the backward camera's view angle. Mostly the landscape appears somewhat purple, indicating that most of the surfaces scatter sunlight in both backward and forward directions. Areas that appear with a slight greenish hue can indicate sparce vegetation, since the nadir camera is more likely to sight the gaps between the trees or shrubs, and since vegetation is darker (in the red band) than the underlying soil surface. Areas which preferentially exhibit a red or pink hue correspond with wetland vegetation. The plateau of the Kafue National Park, to the west of Lukanga Swamp, appears brighter in 2004 compared with 2003, which indicates weaker absorption at the red band. Overall, the 2004 image exhibits a subtle blue hue (preference for forward-scattering) compared with 2003, which indicates overall surface changes that may be a result of enhanced surface wetness. The Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82o north and 82o south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 19072 and 24421. The panels cover an area of 235 kilometers x 239 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 100 to 103 within World Reference System-2 path 172. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2004-01-01

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A Brief History of Kafue National Park, Zambia.  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents the first documentation of the history of Zambia's oldest and largest national park: Kafue National Park. The movement of people out of the park is systematically presented. Furthermore, access and resource use and exploitation rights granted to people who lived inside the park are summarised. The paper looks at park administration, wildlife management, tourism and briefly presents areas for future studies.

Mwima, H. K.

2001-01-01

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Modeling flooding patterns in the Kafue Flats, Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kafue Flats is one of the most important wetlands in Zambia. In the early 70's the Kafue Gorge reservoir was built mainly for hydropower production not far downstream the outlet of the Kafue Flats. Only a few years later a dam was constructed upstream the Flats to extend the limited storage of Kafue Gorge. Besides its ecological value the Kafue Flats are also important economically. Around 700 000 people are dependent mainly on fisheries and flood recession agriculture. An increasing number of large irrigation schemes are drawing water from the Kafue river along the wetland. Floodplains in semi-arid and arid areas are often the only source of water supply available throughout the year. They provide numerous economical and ecological services of tremendous value. The ecological uniqueness of many wetlands results largely from a strong seasonality of flooding. As the pressure on water resources grows these natural seasonal patterns are often altered due to water abstractions or the construction of dams. Many efforts have been taken to restore more natural flooding patterns. To assess both, the effects of altered flow regimes and of restoration efforts, a hydrological model reproducing the dynamics of the flooding is required. However, in many cases hydrological modeling of these floodplains is often hampered by the poor availability of data. Data gathering is also limited by the large extent and the limited accessibility of the wetlands. Therefore the application of remote sensing techniques is an attractive approach. The model presented in this study is based on a relatively simple approach which was initially designed for the Okavango Delta. The model is based on the widely used software MODFLOW. However, due to a different environment and technical advances of the software there are some significant differences between the Okavango Delta model and the model presented hereafter. The model is based on MODFLOW 2005 and basically consists of two layers: a subsurface layer, representing the saturated flow in the groundwater, and a surface water layer, representing the flow on the flooded surface. In between these two layers the unsaturated zone is modeled using the kinematic wave approach of the MODFLOW UZF package. To couple the surface water layer and the UZF module, an additional module was developed in order to route excess infiltration water to either the surface layer or a river. Flow in the main river channel of the Kafue is implemented using the stream flow package. Model outputs are calculated on a daily basis. Input data for the model are derived mostly from globally available datasets. Since the purpose of the model is to predict the flooding patterns as accurate as possible, model parameters have to be calibrated against the measured extent of flooding. Images from the ENVISAT ASAR instrument are used to detect flooding patterns. These data provide a good compromise between spatial resolution, spatial coverage and temporal coverage. As additional calibration data measured water levels are available. The calibration is carried out using PEST. This model predictions can serve as a base to provide information on future effects of a changing inflow regime on the ecology as well as on the socio-economic system of the Kafue Flats.

Meier, Philipp; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

2010-05-01

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Remote Sensing of Aquatic Vegetation Coverage in the Kafue River, Zambia and Comparison to Climatic Variables  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kafue River is the longest river in Zambia and is a major tributary of the Zambezi River. It is a vital source of fish, transportation, drinking water, and hydropower for much of Zambia's population, over half of whom live in the Kafue River basin. Like many important water bodies in developing countries the Kafue and its ecosystems face pollution from industrial, mining, agricultural, and domestic/sewage discharge. The Kafue River forms a wide and shallow wetland (the Kafue Flats) during the rainy season (Nov. - Apr.) which serves as habitat for diverse groups of birds and mammals. In recent years the unprecedented emergence of invasive aquatic vegetation such as the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and Salvinia molesta have choked the river, degrading its ability to provide adequate habitat to promote biodiversity, ecosystem services, and hydropower. In addition, these plants provide additional habitat for mosquitoes (vectors for malaria) and aquatic snails (vectors of schistosomiasis). Nutrient-rich effluents are widely believed to contribute to the proliferation and explosive growth of this floating aquatic vegetation. The general methods for managing these aquatic weeds have included mechanical and physical removal, herbicides, and bio-control agents which have had very little impact. However, as in neighboring Lake Victoria, total weed coverage has fluctuated dramatically from year to year making evaluation of the efficacy of management programs difficult. The objectives of this study were to (1) generate the first record of aquatic plant coverage for a section of the Kafue River which is immediately downstream of a sugar plantation (a major source of nitrogen and phosphorus to the river) and (2) determine if plant coverage is correlated with any major climatic (ENSO, temperature, rainfall) or management (introduction of bio-control agents) indices. We utilized remote sensing techniques in conjunction with Landsat 4-5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM imagery for the time range 1990 to 2013 to identify the extent of aquatic vegetation in the dry season for all years available within the time range using spectral data. We derived rainfall for the time period from TRMM data and temperature from MODIS LST data. Overall weed coverage tended to increase from 1990 to 2013. There was no significant correlation between rainfall (as measured by TRMM) and water hyacinth coverage. However there was a significant positive correlation between minimum October temperatures (the warmest month of the year) and weed coverage (exponential fit, R2 = 0.81). There was no indication that the release of bio-control agents reduced weed coverage. Water hyacinth is known to be sensitive to temperature, with cooler temperatures retarding growth. In the Kafue River, aquatic plant coverage varies mainly with October low temperatures indicating an overall control of temperature on weed coverage. Increasing low temperatures in the region would be expected to exacerbate problems associated with aquatic weeds.

Mischler, J. A.; Abdalati, W.; Hussein, K.; Townsend, A. R.

2013-12-01

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Governance issues, potentials and failures of participative collective action in the Kafue Flats, Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fisheries, wildlife and pastures are under massive pressure in the Kafue Flats, a wetland, which is one of the largest floodplains in Southern and Central Africa. This ecosystem which once harboured abundant common-pool resources and which was managed by local common property regimes is now being threatened with overexploitation. The last 30 years however, have witnessed severe pressure and overuse of these commons. A historical and institutional analysis of the situation of common-pool resources indicates that overuse of fisheries and the mismanagement of wildlife goes back to the erosion of traditional institutions by state governance. Institutional weakness resulting from economic decline in the country is of major concern as the institutions can no longer effectively enforce regulations in the area, a situation which has led to a de facto open access constellation for common-pool resources. The paper discusses three cases. The first is the WWF-Wetland Project and the Administrative Management Design (ADMADE initiative which was designed to deal with management of Lochinvar and Blue Lagoon National Parks and the adjacent Game Management Area through the involvement of local chiefs and local communities. The second case refers to the Partners for Wetlands Project, which included local people via their chiefs as well as the public and private sectors from large agricultural enterprises to the eastern side of the Kafue Flats (Mwanachinwala Conservation Area project in Mazabuka. However, both attempts yielded poor results due to misconceptions of traditional representation of local communities and misinterpretation of local economic and political incentives. Although the ADMADE programme appears to be a scaling up case, its implementation continues to receive considerable resistance from opposition leaders of chiefs and later by the chiefs themselves. In the third case, the paper examines the fishery constitutional process which had started in 2004 for creating by-laws based on initiatives of local staff of the Department of Fisheries, local interest groups and researchers. A broad local debate on how to manage the fisheries in a sustainable way and develop locally based by-laws for joint management of fisheries gives good potential for success and appears promising for the future of fisheries in Kafue Flats. Despite many difficulties it is an example of local collective action in order to scale up governance of common-pool resources.

Harry Nixon Chabwela

2010-09-01

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Control of aquatic weeds through pollutant reduction and weed utilization: a weed management approach in the lower Kafue River of Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

The aquatic weed situation in the Kafue River in Zambia continues to be a major challenge to the sustainable utilization of the water resources of the river. The general methods for managing the weeds, especially the water hyacinth, include use of bio-agents, chemicals, mechanical and physical approaches. These have had very little impact. This paper reports on a project that is investigating weed management strategies which involve use of cleaner production (CP) approach and the utilization of the weed for economic purposes. In addition, the ecological implications of these methods are being assessed. Effluent assessments indicated that apart from nitrates and phosphates, other effluent parameters met the Environmental Council of Zambia standards. Results further show that all the 24 areas surveyed for CP have uncontrolled socio-economic activities which generate both point and non-point sources of pollution that enter the water bodies. To minimize pollution, efforts include devising policy and technical strategies with the involvement of the affected riparian community. Production of mushroom by the communities using the water hyacinth substrate has been demonstrated. Up to 2.1 kg of mushroom was harvested from a single flush over a period of 4-5 weeks. Vegetables grown on soils treated with water hyacinth manure performed better than those grown using commercial fertiliser. The economics of the production are however, yet to be confirmed. If weed usage is proven economically and ecologically viable, the riverine community is envisaged to play a big role in aquatic weed management. High numbers of invertebrates known to be sensitive to pollution have been recorded in the weed-infested Kafue River implying that the water is of “good” quality for these aquatic invertebrates. This observed quality of water may be due to water hyacinth playing a role by sieving pollutants from the river.

Sinkala, Thomson; Mwase, Enala T.; Mwala, Mick

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Seasonal prevalence and incidence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis and associated diarrhoea in children attending pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Prevalence, incidence and seasonal variation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis were studied over a 12-month period in 100 children from four pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia. Questionnaire data and a single stool sample were collected monthly from each child. Samples were processed using a commercial kit (Meridian Diagnostics Inc., USA) and oo(cysts) visualised by immunofluorescence microscopy. Cryptosporidium was detected in 30.7% (241/786; 95% CI = 27.5-33.9) while G. duodenalis was detected in 29.0% (228/786; 95% CI = 25.8-32.2). A total of 86% experienced one or more episodes of cryptosporidiosis while 75% had giardiasis. Cumulative incidence per 100 children was 75.4 for Cryptosporidium and 49.0 for G. duodenalis. Both infections were significantly more common in the wet compared to the dry season (34.8%, 162/466 vs. 24.7%, 79/320, P = 0.003 and 35.2%, 164/466 vs. 20.0%, 64/320, P <0.001, respectively). Thus, risk ratios (RR) were 1.41 (95% CI = 1.13-1.77) and 1.76 (95% CI = 1.38-2.27) for Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively. Diarrhoea was significantly associated with cryptosporidiosis (RR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.03-1.47; P = 0.029) but not with giardiasis (RR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.91-1.53; P = 0.26). We conclude that gastro-intestinal protozoal infections are highly prevalent among children attending pre-school in peri-urban Zambia highlighting the need for further studies of risk factors.

Siwila, J.; Phiri, I.G.K.

2011-01-01

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Managing the water quality of the Kafue River  

Science.gov (United States)

Most vital surface water bodies in developing countries are under serious threat of degradation resulting from constant discharge of polluted effluents stemming from industrial, agricultural, mining and domestic/sewage activities. The most affected river systems are those traversing cities and towns in urban areas. The Kafue River in Zambia is one such river system that is threatened with serious degradation and probable loss of biodiversity. Kafue River cuts across the country in a North-South direction, stretches for about 1576 km before draining into the Zambezi River. It covers an area of 152,000 km 2 and generates a mean annual runoff of 350 m 3/s which represents about 12% of the Zambezi’s mean annual runoff at the confluence [Water Resources Development and Vector-borne Diseases in Zambia: Report of a National Seminar held at Kafue Gorge, Zambia, WHO, Geneva, 1995]. The area coverage of the Kafue River Basin (KRB) is approximately 20% of Zambia’s land area (743,000 km 2) and approximately 17% of the Zambezi Basin [Water Resources Use in the Zambezi Basin: Proceedings of a Workshop held at Kasane, Botswana, IUCN, 1993]. More than half of Zambia’s population live in the KRB, of which about 65% are in urban while 35% are in rural areas. Over the years, however, the Kafue River has been receiving all sorts of pollutant and effluents from all sectors of economical development in Zambia that include mining, industrial and agricultural. The continuous discharge of pollutants into the Kafue river has led to the deterioration of the river water quality. The consequences have been heightened eutrophic conditions, increased heavy metal concentration in the river sediments and aquatic life, increased suspended solids, etc. leading to proliferation of Salvinia molesta in some sections of the river, decreased fish catch and fish size and objectionable taste of the Kafue River water. Fishermen along the Chanyanya-Kafue Gorge stretch of the Kafue River have complained about the alleged loss of taste and the decrease in both the fish catch and size in these areas of the Kafue River. The communities along the same stretch have also complained about the objectionable taste of the river water [Report of the Proceedings of the First Multi-sectoral Workshop on the Effects of Environmental Pollution and Degradation on the Kafue River Basin (KRB) on the Community in the Kafue Town Area, AREZ, 2001]. This paper reviews the water quality of the Kafue River resulting from anthropogenic activities and proposes the framework for the sustainable management of river water quality.

Kambole, Michael Sankwe

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Multiple Shocks and Risk Management Strategies among Rural Households in Zambia’s Mazabuka District  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to document the kinds of shocks or set-backs and events that commonly cause households to become poorer or destitute and the kinds of risk management strategies they utilize in order to prevent, mitigate or cope with the shocks. The study was conducted in Magobbo area which is located in Mazabuka District in Zambia’s Southern Province using qualitative research methods and techniques. The results show that the majority Magobbo households face multiple covariant and idiosyncratic shocks which have led to downward economic mobility or increased poverty. Some of the shocks include market access challenges caused by market liberalization policies; increased morbidity and mortality due to the HIV and AIDS pandemic and other diseases; adverse consequences of climate change and deterioration of the natural resources; adverse consequences of family breakdown caused by spousal abandonment, divorce and widowhood. The study results also show that the households practice several coping mechanisms to address shocks and set-backs that affect them. These coping mechanisms include a range of prevention, mitigation and coping strategies.

Thomson Haamutete Kalinda

2014-09-01

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Lymphatic filariasis in Luangwa District, South-East Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Past case reports and recent data from LF mapping surveys indicate that LF occurs in Zambia, but no studies have been carried out to document its epidemiology and health implications. The present study assessed infection, disease, transmission and human perception aspects of LF in an endemic area of Luangwa District, South-East Zambia, as a background for planning and implementation of control. Methods. Two neighbouring rural communities were registered and a questionnaire survey undertaken. Clinical examination, and sampling of blood for circulating filarial antigens (CFA; marker of adult worm infection) and antibodies to Bm14 antigen (marker of exposure to transmission), were carried out during the daytime. Blood from CFA positive individuals was examined for microfilariae (mf) at night. Vector surveys were carried out in selected households, using light traps. Results: 985 individuals aged ? 1 year were registered. The CFA prevalence increased with age from 1.2% in age group 1-14 years to 20.6%in age group 50+ years (overall 8.6%). Wuchereria bancrofti mf were identified in 10.9% of CFA positive individuals (corresponding to a community prevalence of 0.9%). Prevalence and intensity of Bm14 antibodies were much higher in individuals ? 30 years than in younger individuals (57.2 vs. 19.3%; 0.594 vs. 0.241 OD-values). Elephantiasis and hydrocele were well known clinical manifestations in the area, but only one case of hydrocele was detected in the study population. Identified potential vectors were Anopheles funestus and An. gambiae. Conclusion: The study confirmed that LF was endemic in the study communities, but infection and disease prevalence was low. Several indications, including a marked recent decline in CFA prevalence, suggest that transmission in the area is on the decrease, perhaps because of intensive application of malaria control measures targeting the Anopheles vectors. It is recommended that mass drug administration is initiated to accelerate this positive trend of decline in LF transmission in the area. © 2013 Shawa et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Shawa, Sheila Tamara; Mwase, Enala T.

2013-01-01

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The state of HIV sector local governance in Malawi and Zambia: Evidence from five districts  

OpenAIRE

This paper encapsulates the outputs of a Swiss Agency for Development Cooperation (SDC) funded project that aimed to improve the levels of HIV governance at the district level in Malawi and Zambia by encouraging public participation in an effort to more effective use of local resources. The methodology for this project, developed by the Institute for Democracy in Africa (Idasa) and SDC, included a barometer which assessed perceptions of district HIV governance among key stakeholders. Percepti...

Justin Steyn

2014-01-01

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Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis in Traditionally Managed Livestock in Selected Districts of Southern Province of Zambia  

OpenAIRE

A study was performed in 2008 to estimate the prevalence of tuberculosis and brucellosis in traditionally reared cattle of Southern Province in Zambia in four districts. The single comparative intradermal tuberculin test (SCITT) was used to identify TB reactors, and the Rose Bengal test (RBT), followed by confirmation with competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA), was used to test for brucellosis. A total of 459 animals were tested for tuberculosis and 395 for brucellosis. The ...

Muma, J. B.; Syakalima, M.; Munyeme, M.; Zulu, V. C.; Simuunza, M.; Kurata, M.

2013-01-01

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Investigation of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in the Mbala and Kazungula districts of Zambia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute, highly contagious viral infection of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. It is known to be endemic in Zambia, with periodic outbreaks occurring in different geographical areas of the country. This study was conducted to investigate the presence of FMD v [...] irus (FMDV) in reported FMD-suspected cases in cattle from the Kazungula and Mbala districts of Zambia. Sixty epithelial tissues or oesophageal- pharyngeal (OP) scrapings (probang samples) were collected from Mbala (n = 51) and Kazungula (n = 9) and examined for FMDV. The FMDV viral RNA and serotypes were examined by realtime reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and antigen Enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Twenty-two samples (36.7%) were positive for the FMDV genome by qRT-PCR with Cycle threshold (Ct) values ranging from 13 to 31. The FMDV-positive samples from epithelial tissues showed relatively higher Ct values compared to those obtained from OP scrapings, irrespective of geographical location. Forty percent (40%; n = 4) of epithelial tissues from Mbala were serotyped into SAT 2 serotype by antigen ELISA. Kazungula samples were serotyped into SAT 1. These findings indicated that Mbala and Kazungula districts had FMD outbreaks in 2012 that were ascribed to at least FMDV serotype SAT 2 and SAT 1 field strains. Furthermore, regular interaction between buffalos from the Mosi-o Tunya Park and domestic animals from surrounding areas could contribute to the occurrence of regular FMD outbreaks in Kazungula, whilst the uncontrolled animal movements across borders between Mbala and Nsumbawanga could be responsible for disease outbreaks in Mbala. In-depth molecular biological studies, including sequencing and phylogeny of the viruses, should be conducted to elucidate the complex epidemiology of FMD in Zambia, thereby providing valuable information needed for the rational control strategy of FMD in Zambia and neighbouring countries.

Frank, Banda; Christopher J, Kasanga; Raphael, Sallu; Yona, Sinkala; Tingiya W, Sinkombe; Misheck, Mulumba; Mark M, Rweyemamu; Philemon N, Wambura.

2014-02-01

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The state of HIV sector local governance in Malawi and Zambia: Evidence from five districts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper encapsulates the outputs of a Swiss Agency for Development Cooperation (SDC funded project that aimed to improve the levels of HIV governance at the district level in Malawi and Zambia by encouraging public participation in an effort to more effective use of local resources. The methodology for this project, developed by the Institute for Democracy in Africa (Idasa and SDC, included a barometer which assessed perceptions of district HIV governance among key stakeholders. Perceptions were gathered on governance principles of effectiveness, efficiency, rule of law, accountability, participation and equity. The stakeholders ranged from administrators, political representatives, community-based organisations and the private sector on the supply side and citizens on the demand or beneficiary side. The findings of the research indicate specific sector governance issues that may be generalised to governance. Communication and transparency appear to be major issues underpinning the bottlenecks and shortcomings in the HIV sector governance at the district level. Information gaps have given rise to accountability deficits and coordination deficiencies. Addressing these matters would make more effective use of resources and lessen dependence on external funding sources.

Justin Steyn

2014-07-01

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The Paris Declaration in practice: challenges of health sector aid coordination at the district level in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing resources available for and number of partners providing health sector aid have stimulated innovations, notably, the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, which aim to improve aid coordination. In this, one of the first studies to analyse implementation of aid coordination below national level, the aim was to investigate the effect of the Paris Declaration on coordination of health sector aid at the district level in Zambia. Methods The study was carried out in three districts of Zambia. Data were collected via interviews with health centre staff, district managers and officials from the Ministry of Health, and from district action plans, financial reports and accounts, and health centre ledger cards. Four indicators of coordination related to external-partner activity, common arrangements used by external partners and predictability of funding were analysed and assessed in relation to the 2010 targets set by the Paris Declaration. Findings While the activity of external partners at the district level has increased, funding and activities provided by these partners are often not included in local plans. HIV/AIDS support show better integration in planning and implementation at the district level than other support. Regarding common arrangements used for fund disbursement, the share of resources provided as programme-based support is not increasing. The predictability of funds coming from outside the government financing mechanism is low. Conclusion Greater efforts to integrate partners in district level planning and implementation are needed. External partners must improve the predictability of their support and be more proactive in informing the districts about their intended contributions. With the deadline for achieving the targets set by the Paris Declaration fast approaching, it is time for the signatories to accelerate its implementation.

Sundewall Jesper

2009-06-01

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High maternal mortality levels and additional risk from poor accessibility in two districts of northern province, Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two community-based retrospective studies conducted in the northern province of Zambia and a review of mortality data from Kasama General Hospital from 1991 to 1995 confirmed the existence of exceptionally high maternal mortality levels in this area. The sisterhood method was applied to a randomly selected sample of 3123 respondents from Kasama District and 2953 from Kaputa District. The life-time risk of dying from maternal causes was 5.4% in Kasama and 11.0% in Kaputa. The maternal mortality ratio was 764/100,000 live births in Kasama District, 1549/100,000 live births in Kaputa District, and 543/100,000 live births at Kasama District Hospital. 94% of women delivering at the hospital were within two hours' walking distance from the facility. In Kasama District, the population-attributable risk (PAR, "risk in the total population minus risk in the unexposed population") of maternal mortality from poor accessibility (more than 2 hours' walking distance) was 220 maternal deaths/100,000 live births, and the population etiologic fraction (PEF, "PAR/risk in total population") was 29%. In Kaputa District, where there is no hospital, the PAR from poor accessibility was 1006 maternal deaths/100,000 live births and the PEF was 65%. To reduce accessibility-related maternal mortality, both districts have established an ambulance service, set up strategic blood banks, and provided short wave radios to outlying health centers. PMID:9169171

Le Bacq, F; Rietsema, A

1997-04-01

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Classification of the natural vegetation of Mtendere Game Ranch in the Chibombo District of the Central Province, Zambia  

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Full Text Available A phytosociological analysis of the physical environment and the natural plant communities of Mtendere Game Ranch in the Chibombo District of the Central Province of Zambia is presented. A TWINSPAN classification and DECORANA ordination based upon 69 releves revealed three vegetation types, grassland, woodland and thicket, that are subdivided into the following plant communities: Dambo, Munga Woodland, Miombo Woodland, Termitaria and Deciduous Thicket. The natural vegetation of Mtendere Game Ranch is separated into fire management units on the basis of the vegetation types.

M.G. Bingham

1998-02-01

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Estimation of district-level under-5 mortality in Zambia using birth history data, 1980-2010.  

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Birth history data-the primary source of data on under-5 mortality in developing countries-are infrequently used for subnational estimates due to concerns over small sample sizes. In this study we consider different methods for analyzing birth history data in combination with various small area models. We construct a simulation environment to assess the performance of different combinations of birth history methods and small area models in terms of bias, efficiency, and coverage. We find that performance is highly dependent on the birth history method applied and how temporal trends are accounted for. We estimated trends in district-level under-5 mortality in Zambia from 1980 to 2010 using the best-performing model. We find that under-5 mortality is highly variable within Zambia: there was a 1.8-fold difference between the lowest and highest levels in 2010, and declines over the period 1980 to 2010 ranged from less than 5% to more than 50%. PMID:25457599

Dwyer-Lindgren, Laura; Kakungu, Frank; Hangoma, Peter; Ng, Marie; Wang, Haidong; Flaxman, Abraham D; Masiye, Felix; Gakidou, Emmanuela

2014-10-01

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Risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis in selected districts of eastern and southern provinces of Zambia  

OpenAIRE

To determine the risk factors associated with Taenia solium transmission in humans and pigs in the rural areas of Eastern and Southern provinces of Zambia, a questionnaire was administered in 788 households from 155 villages. Pigs were examined from 800 households. Tongue examination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA) for the detection of circulating antigens of T. solium cysticerci were used to measure infection in pigs. A snowballing technique was utilised to select households...

Sikasunge, C. S.; Phiri, I. K.; Phiri, A. M.; Dorny, P.; Siziya, S.; Willingham, A. L.

2007-01-01

21

Impacts of Maize Policy Changes on Small Scale Farmers' Vulnerability to Exploitation in Nyimba District, Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Taking cognisance of the fact that SSFs the major producers of maize in Zambia were most affected by the 1991 agricultural policy reforms, from 2005 onward, the state became very active in the maize market and production systems in order to mitigate their problems. The main objective of this study is to investigate to what extent the maize policy changes have contributed to the SSFs’ vulnerability to exploitation. This information will be of use in the policy formulation process to ensure t...

Njobvu, Idah

2011-01-01

22

Heavy Metal Contaminated Food Crops Irrigated with Wastewater in Peri Urban Areas, Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Studies on peri urban farming in Zambia have not adequately tackled the issues pertaining to heavy metal contaminated wastewater irrigation farming. The study investigated heavy metal contamination of water, soils and crops at two peri urban areas in Zambia. Two study sites were New Farm Extension in Mufulira Town in the Copperbelt Province and Chilumba Gardens in Kafue Town in Lusaka Province. The heavy metals investigated were lead, copper, cobalt, nickel and chromium. These heavy metals we...

Evaristo Mwaba Kapungwe

2013-01-01

23

Relative costs and effectiveness of treating uncomplicated malaria in two rural districts in Zambia: implications for nationwide scale-up of home-based management  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Malaria case management is one of the key strategies to control malaria. Various studies have demonstrated the feasibility of home management of malaria (HMM). However, data on the costs and effectiveness of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and rapid diagnostic tests via HMM is limited. Method Cost-effectiveness of home management versus health facility-based management of uncomplicated malaria in two rural districts in Zambia was analysed from a providers' pers...

Banda Patrick; Chalwe Victor; Moonga Hawela B; Hamainza Busiku; Chanda Pascalina; Pagnoni Franco

2011-01-01

24

A comparative study of the seroprevalence of brucellosis in commercial and small-scale mixed dairy-beef cattle enterprises of Lusaka province and Chibombo district, Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2007 and February 2008 to estimate seroprevalence of brucellosis and identify risk factors associated with Brucella infections in commercial cattle in three districts of Lusaka province (Chongwe, Luangwa, and Kafue; n = 849) and in one rural district from the Central province (n = 48). A total of 897 serum samples were randomly collected from 55 farms along with animal-level data such as sex, age, and parity. Sera were screened for presence of anti-Brucella antibodies using the Rose Bengal test, and positive samples were confirmed using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. At the animal level, seroprevalence was estimated at 7.9% (95% CI = 4.4-11.4%) in the Lusaka province and 18.7% (95% CI = 7.5-29.9%) for Chibombo district. Brucellosis seroprevalence varied according to district, with Chongwe district recording the highest compared to other districts. Seroprevalence also varied according to sex with bulls (n = 96) having higher seroprevalence (12.5%; 95% CI = 3.8-21.1%) compared to females (8.1%; 95% CI = 4.6-11.6). Similarly, seroprevalence varied according to age groups, with the age category 1-4 years recording the highest (10.7%). The study recorded relatively low Brucella seroprevalence in commercial farms in Lusaka, compared to the traditional small-scale farms. We suggest that testing and stamping out of infected animals is likely to improve the situation and significantly reduce the public health risk associated with Brucella infections in animals. PMID:20517646

Chimana, Henry M; Muma, John Bwalya; Samui, Kenny L; Hangombe, Benard M; Munyeme, Musso; Matope, Gift; Phiri, Andrew M; Godfroid, Jacques; Skjerve, Eystein; Tryland, Morten

2010-10-01

25

Condom availability in high risk places and condom use: a study at district level in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies from countries with severe HIV epidemics have found gaps in condom availability, even in places where there is a substantial potential for HIV transmission. Although reported condom use has increased in many African countries, there are often big differences by socioeconomic background. The aim of this study was to assess equity aspects of condom availability and uptake in three African districts to evaluate whether condom programmes are given sufficient priority. Methods Data on condom availability and use was examined in one district in Kenya, one in Tanzania and one in Zambia. The study was based on a triangulation of data collection methods in the three study districts: surveys in venues where people meet new sexual partners, population-based surveys and focus group discussions. The data was collected within an overall study on priority setting in health systems. Results At the time of the survey, condoms were observed in less than half of the high risk venues in two of the three districts and in 60% in the third district. Rural respondents in the population-based surveys perceived condoms to be less available and tended to be less likely to report condom use than urban respondents. Although focus group participants reported that condoms were largely available in their district, they expressed concerns related to the accessibility of free condoms. Conclusion As late as thirty years into the HIV epidemic there are still important gaps in the availability of condoms in places where people meet new sexual partners in these three African districts. Considering that previous studies have found that improved condom availability and accessibility in high risk places have a potential to increase condom use among people with multiple partners, the present study findings indicate that substantial further efforts should be made to secure that condoms are easily accessible in places where sexual relationships are initiated. Although condom distribution in drinking places has been pinpointed in the HIV/AIDS prevention strategies of all the three countries, its priority relative to other HIV/AIDS measures must be reassessed locally, nationally and regionally. In practical terms very clear supply chains of condoms to both formal and informal drinking places could make condom provision better and more reliable.

Sandøy Ingvild

2012-11-01

26

Factors associated with health facility childbirth in districts of Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia : a population based survey  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality continues to be a heavy burden in low and middle income countries where half of all deliveries take place in homes without skilled attendance. The study aimed to investigate the underlying and proximate determinants of health facility childbirth in rural and urban areas of three districts in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia. METHODS: A population-based survey was conducted in 2007 as part of the 'REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems' (REACT) project. Stratified random cluster sampling was used and the data included information on place of delivery and factors that might influence health care seeking behaviour. A total of 1800 women who had childbirth in the previous five years were analysed. The distal and proximate conceptual framework for analysing determinants of maternal mortality was modified for studying factors associated with place of delivery. Socioeconomic position was measured by employing a construct of educational attainment and wealth index. All analyses were stratified by district and urban-rural residence. RESULTS: There were substantial inter-district differences in proportion of health facility childbirth. Facility childbirth was 15, 70 and 37% in the rural areas of Malindi, Mbarali and Kapiri Mposhi respectively, and 57, 75 and 77% in the urban areas of the districts respectively. However, striking socio-economic inequities were revealed regardless of district. Furthermore, there were indications that repeated exposure to ANC services and HIV related counselling and testing were positively associated with health facility deliveries. Perceived distance was negatively associated with facility childbirth in rural areas of Malindi and urban areas of Kapiri Mposhi. CONCLUSION: Strong socio-economic inequities in the likelihood of facility childbirths were revealed in all the districts added to geographic inequities in two of the three districts. This strongly suggests an urgent need to strengthen services targeting disadvantaged and remote populations. The finding of a positive association between HIV counselling/testing and odds in favor of giving birth at a health facility suggests potential positive effects can be achieved by strengthening integrated approaches in maternal health service delivery.

Phiri, Selia Ng'anjo; Kiserud, Torvid

2014-01-01

27

Condom availability in high risk places and condom use : a study at district level in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background A number of studies from countries with severe HIV epidemics have found gaps in condom availability, even in places where there is a substantial potential for HIV transmission. Although reported condom use has increased in many African countries, there are often big differences by socioeconomic background. The aim of this study was to assess equity aspects of condom availability and uptake in three African districts to evaluate whether condom programmes are given sufficient priority. Methods Data on condom availability and use was examined in one district in Kenya, one in Tanzania and one in Zambia. The study was based on a triangulation of data collection methods in the three study districts: surveys in venues where people meet new sexual partners, population-based surveys and focus group discussions. The data was collected within an overall study on priority setting in health systems. Results At the time of the survey, condoms were observed in less than half of the high risk venues in two of the three districts and in 60% in the third district. Rural respondents in the population-based surveys perceived condoms to be less available and tended to be less likely to report condom use than urban respondents. Although focus group participants reported that condoms were largely available in their district, they expressed concerns related to the accessibility of free condoms. Conclusion As late as thirty years into the HIV epidemic there are still important gaps in the availability of condoms in places where people meet new sexual partners in these three African districts. Considering that previous studies have found that improved condom availability and accessibility in high risk places have a potential to increase condom use among people with multiple partners, the present study findings indicate that substantial further efforts should be made to secure that condoms are easily accessible in places where sexual relationships are initiated. Although condom distribution in drinking places has been pinpointed in the HIV/AIDS prevention strategies of all the three countries, its priority relative to other HIV/AIDS measures must be reassessed locally, nationally and regionally. In practical terms very clear supply chains of condoms to both formal and informal drinking places could make condom provision better and more reliable

SandØy, Ingvild Fossgard; Blystad, Astrid

2012-01-01

28

Prevalence of hypertension and its correlates in Lusaka urban district of Zambia: a population based survey  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertension is a leading cause for ill-health, premature mortality and disability. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors for hypertension in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess relationships between hypertension and explanatory variables. Results A total of 1928 individuals participated in the survey, of which 33.0% were males. About a third of the respondents had attained secondary level education (35.8%, and 20.6% of males and 48.6% of females were overweight or obese. The prevalence for hypertension was 34.8% (38.0% of males and 33.3% of females. In multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with hypertension were: age, sex, body mass index, alcohol consumption, sedentary lifestyle, and fasting blood glucose level. Conclusions Health education and structural interventions to promote healthier lifestyles should be encouraged taking into account the observed associations of the modifiable risk factors.

Goma Fastone M

2011-10-01

29

Preliminary evaluation of Community-Led Total Sanitation for the control of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Katete District of Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. It is associated with poor sanitary practices, free-range pig husbandry and lack of disease awareness in endemic communities. A comparative research was conducted with pre and post-intervention assessments in nine villages to evaluate Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) as an intervention measure for the control of porcine cysticercosis in Katete District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. Blood samples were collected from pigs for circulating antigen detection and a questionnaire focused on the household was administered to a total of 153 respondents whose pigs were examined (64 pre-intervention, 89 post-intervention), in order to obtain information on general demographic characteristics, pig husbandry practices, sanitation practices and associated knowledge and awareness of T. solium infections. The first sampling was conducted prior to the implementation of the CLTS and second sampling eight months after triggering of CLTS in the selected villages. A total of 379 pig serum samples were examined using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA to detect T. solium cysticercosis, 104 pre-intervention and 275 post-intervention, of which 14 (13.5%) and 45 (16.4%) were positive, respectively. Wald test p-values were computed to assess significant differences in the variables of interest mentioned above for the pre and post CLTS. The research revealed that CLTS as a control measure did not significantly improve T. solium infections in pigs. The research also revealed that the sanitation practices and awareness of cysticercosis did not change. It is recommended that a longer term evaluation be undertaken when the villages have been declared open defaecation free. In addition, the research recommends that health education, mass drug treatment and pig vaccination be incorporated, as an essential component of prevention and control programmes for T. solium infections. PMID:25591408

Bulaya, Carol; Mwape, Kabemba E; Michelo, Charles; Sikasunge, Chummy S; Makungu, Chitwambi; Gabriel, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Phiri, Isaac K

2015-01-30

30

Combined prevalence of impaired glucose level or diabetes and its correlates in Lusaka urban district, Zambia: a population based survey  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing countries are undergoing an epidemiological transition, from Communicable or Infectious to 'Non-Communicable' diseases (NCDs, such that cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory diseases, cancer, and diabetes were responsible for 60% of all deaths globally in 2005, with more than 75% of these deaths occurring in developing countries. A survey was conducted to determine among other objectives the prevalence of diabetes and its association with physical fitness and biological factors. Methods A cross sectional study utilizing a modified World Health Organization's STEPwise approach to surveillance of NCDs was conducted in Lusaka district, Zambia. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select study participants of age 25 years or older. All eligible members of a household that was selected were invited to participate in the study. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR, and adjusted odds ratios (AOR together with their 95% Confidence Intervals (CI were obtained using Complex samples logistic regression Results A total of 1928 individuals participated in the survey, of which 33.0% were males. About half of the participants were of age 25-34 years (53.2%, and about a third of the respondents had attained secondary level of education (35.8%. The combined prevalence for impaired glucose level or diabetes was 4.0%. Age and mild hypertension were significantly associated with impaired levels of glucose or diabetes. Compared to participants in the age group 25-34 years, older participants were more likely to have impaired glucose level or diabetes (AOR = 2.49 (95%CI [1.35, 2.92] for 35-44 years age group, and AOR = 3.80 (95%CI [2.00, 7.23] for 45 + years age group. Mild hypertension was associated with impaired glucose level or diabetes (AOR = 2.57 (95%CI [1.44, 4.57]. Conclusions The prevalence of diabetes in Lusaka district has not reached an alarming level and it is now that interventions targeting the younger age group 25-34 years should be put in place to curtail the spread of diabetes.

Nsakashalo-Senkwe Mutale

2011-01-01

31

“The problem is ours, it is not CRAIDS’ ”. Evaluating sustainability of Community Based Organisations for HIV/AIDS in a rural district in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background While sustainability of health programmes has been the subject of empirical studies, there is little evidence specifically on the sustainability of Community Based Organisations (CBOs for HIV/AIDS. Debates around optimal approaches in community health have centred on utilitarian versus empowerment approaches. This paper, using the World Bank Multi-Country AIDS Program (MAP in Zambia as a case study, seeks to evaluate whether or not this global programme contributed to the sustainability of CBOs working in the area of HIV/AIDS in Zambia. Lessons for optimising sustainability of CBOs in lower income countries are drawn. Methods In-depth interviews with representatives of all CBOs that received CRAIDS funding (n = 18 and district stakeholders (n= 10 in Mumbwa rural district in Zambia, in 2010; and national stakeholders (n=6 in 2011. Results Funding: All eighteen CBOs in Mumbwa that received MAP funding between 2003 and 2008 had existed prior to receiving MAP grants, some from as early as 1992. This was contrary to national level perceptions that CBOs were established to access funds rather than from the needs of communities. Funding opportunities for CBOs in Mumbwa in 2010 were scarce. Health services: While all CBOs were functioning in 2010, most reported reductions in service provision. Home visits had reduced due to a shortage of food to bring to people living with HIV/AIDS and scarcity of funding for transport, which reduced antiretroviral treatment adherence support and transport of patients to clinics. Organisational capacity and viability: Sustainability had been promoted during MAP through funding Income Generating Activities. However, there was a lack of infrastructure and training to make these sustainable. Links between health facilities and communities improved over time, however volunteers’ skills levels had reduced. Conclusions Whilst the World Bank espoused the idea of sustainability in their plans, it remained on the periphery of their Zambia strategy. Assessments of need on the ground and accurate costings for sustainable service delivery, building on existing community strengths, are needed before projects commence. This study highlights the importance of enabling and building the capacity of existing CBOs and community structures, rather than creating new mechanisms.

Walsh Aisling

2012-11-01

32

Helminths and bot fly larvae of wild ungulates on a game ranch in central province, Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Helminths and bot fly larvae were collected from 11 wild ungulate species on a game ranch in the Central Province of Zambia. New host-parasite records are: Calicophoron sp. from defassa waterbuck Kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa and Kafue lechwe Kobus leche kafuensis; Avitellina centripunctata, Gaigeria pachyscelis and Gedoelstia cristata from tsessebe Damaliscus lunatus lunatus; Cooperia rotundispiculum from common reedbuck Redunca arundinum; Dictyocaulus filaria from greater kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros; Dictyocaulus sp. from tsessebe and defassa waterbuck and Strobiloestrus sp. from sable antelope Hippotragus niger. Most of the other parasites collected are first records for Zambia and thus extend the distribution ranges of several species. PMID:9741058

Zieger, U; Boomker, J; Cauldwell, A E; Horak, I G

1998-06-01

33

Relative costs and effectiveness of treating uncomplicated malaria in two rural districts in Zambia: implications for nationwide scale-up of home-based management  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria case management is one of the key strategies to control malaria. Various studies have demonstrated the feasibility of home management of malaria (HMM. However, data on the costs and effectiveness of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT and rapid diagnostic tests via HMM is limited. Method Cost-effectiveness of home management versus health facility-based management of uncomplicated malaria in two rural districts in Zambia was analysed from a providers' perspective. The sample included 16 community health workers (CHWs and 15 health facilities. The outcome measure was the cost per case appropriately diagnosed and treated. Costs of scaling-up HMM nationwide were estimated based on the CHW utilisation rates observed in the study. Results HMM was more cost effective than facility-based management of uncomplicated malaria. The cost per case correctly diagnosed and treated was USD 4.22 for HMM and USD 6.12 for facility level. Utilization and adherence to diagnostic and treatment guidelines was higher in HMM than at a health facility. Conclusion HMM using ACT and RDTs was more efficient at appropriately diagnosing and treating malaria than the health facility level. Scaling up this intervention requires significant investments.

Banda Patrick

2011-06-01

34

Knowledge and disease management skills of cattle owners on East Coast Fever and Foot and Mouth Disease in Kazungula and Livingstone Districts of Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effective animal disease control and prevention should be based on accurate information from the field. Part of this field information can be obtained from the cattle owners. In order to assess their disease knowledge, a survey focusing on East Coast Fever (ECF and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD was organised among 302 cattle owners from the Kazungula and Livingstone Districts of the Southern Province of Zambia. The cattle owners' level of knowledge of ECF was low (34% with most of those able to describe the disease belonging to the endemic zone where ECF caused high death rates in cattle. A larger proportion of the cattle owners (46% were able to give an adequate description of FMD symptoms. It reached up to 61% in the FMD high-risk zone. Reporting to the animal health service providers appeared to be low. The results of the survey showed that attempts should be made to improve the cattle owners' knowledge and response to important diseases by carrying out more extension and sensitization activities. This is especially so in areas of low infection or where the disease was experienced long time ago.

Chisembele, C.

2005-01-01

35

The accountability for reasonableness approach to guide priority setting in health systems within limited resources : findings from action research at district level in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Priority-setting decisions are based on an important, but not sufficient set of values and thus lead to disagreement on priorities. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) is an ethics-based approach to a legitimate and fair priority-setting process that builds upon four conditions: relevance, publicity, appeals, and enforcement, which facilitate agreement on priority-setting decisions and gain support for their implementation. This paper focuses on the assessment of AFR within the project REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT). METHODS: This intervention study applied an action research methodology to assess implementation of AFR in one district in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia, respectively. The assessments focused on selected disease, program, and managerial areas. An implementing action research team of core health team members and supporting researchers was formed to implement, and continually assess and improve the application of the four conditions. Researchers evaluated the intervention using qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods. RESULTS: The values underlying the AFR approach were in all three districts well-aligned with general values expressed by both service providers and community representatives. There was some variation in the interpretations and actual use of the AFR in the decision-making processes in the three districts, and its effect ranged from an increase in awareness of the importance of fairness to a broadened engagement of health team members and other stakeholders in priority setting and other decision-making processes. CONCLUSIONS: District stakeholders were able to take greater charge of closing the gap between nationally set planning on one hand and the local realities and demands of the served communities on the other within the limited resources at hand. This study thus indicates that the operationalization of the four broadly defined and linked conditions is both possible and seems to be responding to an actual demand. This provides arguments for the continued application and further assessment of the potential of AFR in supporting priority-setting and other decision-making processes in health systems to achieve better agreed and more sustainable health improvements linked to a mutual democratic learning with potential wider implications.

Byskov, Jens; Marchal, Bruno

2014-01-01

36

The accountability for reasonableness approach to guide priority setting in health systems within limited resources - findings from action research at district level in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Priority-setting decisions are based on an important, but not sufficient set of values and thus lead to disagreement on priorities. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) is an ethics-based approach to a legitimate and fair priority-setting process that builds upon four conditions: relevance, publicity, appeals, and enforcement, which facilitate agreement on priority-setting decisions and gain support for their implementation. This paper focuses on the assessment of AFR within the project REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT). METHODS: This intervention study applied an action research methodology to assess implementation of AFR in one district in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia, respectively. The assessments focused on selected disease, program, and managerial areas. An implementing action research team of core health team members and supporting researchers was formed to implement, and continually assess and improve the application of the four conditions. Researchers evaluated the intervention using qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods. RESULTS: The values underlying the AFR approach were in all three districts well-aligned with general values expressed by both service providers and community representatives. There was some variation in the interpretations and actual use of the AFR in the decision-making processes in the three districts, and its effect ranged from an increase in awareness of the importance of fairness to a broadened engagement of health team members and other stakeholders in priority setting and other decision-making processes. CONCLUSIONS: District stakeholders were able to take greater charge of closing the gap between nationally set planning on one hand and the local realities and demands of the served communities on the other within the limited resources at hand. This study thus indicates that the operationalization of the four broadly defined and linked conditions is both possible and seems to be responding to an actual demand. This provides arguments for the continued application and further assessment of the potential of AFR in supporting priority-setting and other decision-making processes in health systems to achieve better agreed and more sustainable health improvements linked to a mutual democratic learning with potential wider implications.

Byskov, Jens; Marchal, Bruno

2014-01-01

37

Medical Pluralism in Zambia:Options for health-seeking or increased dilemmas for People Living with HIV/AIDS. :A Qualitative Study in 6 Districts  

OpenAIRE

This article examines the pathways to health seeking as seen from the lived experiences of people with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Zambia, as they negotiate their livelihoods in pluralistic health care settings. Zambia, together with several countries in sub-Saharan Africa, are undergoing the worst AIDS epidemics in the whole world, with coping mechanisms at national and community levels being stretched to breaking-points. While several studies have specifically documented general experiences of PL...

Nyirenda, Alick

2005-01-01

38

“The problem is ours, it is not CRAIDS’ ”. Evaluating sustainability of Community Based Organisations for HIV/AIDS in a rural district in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background While sustainability of health programmes has been the subject of empirical studies, there is little evidence specifically on the sustainability of Community Based Organisations (CBOs) for HIV/AIDS. Debates around optimal approaches in community health have centred on utilitarian versus empowerment approaches. This paper, using the World Bank Multi-Country AIDS Program (MAP) in Zambia as a case study, seeks to evaluate whether or not this global programme contributed to th...

Walsh Aisling; Mulambia Chishimba; Brugha Ruairi; Hanefeld Johanna

2012-01-01

39

Maternal mortality in rural Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The only prospective population-based study of maternal mortality in rural Zambia recorded a ratio of 889 per 100,000 births, about 8 times higher than that found in an urban hospital-based study. To obtain an accurate assessment of maternal mortality in Zambia's rural Kalabo district, both the sisterhood survey method and a review of hospital data were utilized. The maternal mortality ratio derived from the sisterhood survey (August-September 1994) of 1978 respondents was 1238 per 100,000 live births. Data from Kalabo Hospital on 2474 deliveries during 1990-94 revealed a ratio of 548 per 100,000 live births; however, when the latter ratio was corrected for an additional 15 maternal deaths that were not recorded as such, it rose to 1179 per 100,000 live births. The major causes of the 20 (71%) direct maternal deaths were obstructed labor and sepsis. Substandard hospital care factors (primarily inappropriate choice and/or lack of antibiotics, poor monitoring of vital signs, and poor provision of blood products by the laboratory) contributed to 71% of maternal deaths. Delay in seeking care played a role in 29% of all maternal deaths, and poor accessibility to the hospital was implicated in at least 25% of cases. These findings indicate that maternal mortality in rural Zambia is among the highest in the world. The sisterhood method survey appears to be an efficient indirect means of assessing maternal mortality in rural areas of developing countries. PMID:9292638

Vork, F C; Kyanamina, S; van Roosmalen, J

1997-08-01

40

Country watch. Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Mansa District, Zambia, people are unaware of the risk factors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). To remedy this, the District HIV Prevention and Care Team invited a member of the Positive and Living Squad (PALS), John Luonde, to speak at educational sessions for various target audiences. Goals included providing information, dissipating misinformation, alleviating community fears, and mobilizing people through specific activities that addressed identified needs. The sessions began with the testimony of John Luonde and a simple question and answer period, which were followed by focus groups, often with a video, for more difficult or sensitive topics. Information materials were distributed and a condom demonstration was conducted. Although some institutions initially refused permission because of the holiday season or the possible impact on staff, Luonde returned to cover the missed groups. More than 105 people from 9 sectors of the community participated. Groups that were represented included the Mansa Sports Club, the Mutende Deaf Branch, a factory, the local army and police, and physicians from the Mansa Hospital Board. Questions from the different groups were similar. Participants saw that, although anyone could contract AIDS (the central theme of the project), they could still hope for productive years with proper treatment, self-care, and diet. Most participants wanted to change their sexual behavior and Luonde was asked to return. Women and people with physical disabilities need to be targeted. Although condoms were previously seen as promoting promiscuity, institutions are now requesting their distribution. The team is collaborating with a social marketing organization on condom use promotion. Distribution sites include bars, restaurants, filling stations, supermarkets, and hair dressers. At the request of the community, a meeting was held with the director of the Mansa Hospital Board to develop policy guidelines and to plan sessions on hospital care of persons with HIV and staff attitude toward them. PMID:12288110

Kapyepye, E

1994-01-01

41

Sarcoptes mite epidemiology and treatment in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer calves captured for translocation from the Kafue game management area to game ranches  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In Zambia, translocation of wildlife from National Parks to private owned game ranches demands that only animals free of infectious diseases that could adversely affect the expansion of the wildlife industry should be translocated to game ranches. Sarcoptes mange (Sarcoptes scarbiei has been involved in the reduction of wildlife populations in some species. Results Sarcoptes mange (Sarcoptes scarbiei was detected and eradicated from two herds of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer calves captured in the Kafue GMA in July 2004 and August 2005. The overall prevalence was estimated at 89.5% (77/86. Sex had no influence on the occurrence and severity of the disease. Of the 86 calves used in the study, 72.1% had good body condition scores, 20.9% were fair and 7.0% were poor. Of the 77 infected calves, 53.2% were mildly infected, 28.6% were moderately and 18.2% were severely infected. Body condition score was correlated to the severity of the infection (r = 0.72, p n = 86 at capture. Eradication of Sarcoptes mites from the entire herd using ivermetcin was dependant on the severity of the infection. The overall ability of ivermectin to clear the infection after the first treatment was estimated at 81.8% (n = 77. It increased to 94.8% and 100% after the second and third treatments respectively. Conclusion This is the first report on the epidemiology and treatment of Sarcoptes mange in African buffaloes in Zambia. This study improves our understanding about Sarcoptes scabiei epidemiology and treatment which will have further applications for the safe animal translocation.

Munyeme Musso

2010-06-01

42

Expansion of antiretroviral treatment to rural health centre level by a mobile service in Mumbwa district, Zambia / Élargissement de l'accès au traitement antirétroviral au niveau des centres de santé ruraux grâce à un service mobile dans le district de Mumbwa, Zambie / Expansión del tratamiento antirretroviral a nivel de los centros de salud rurales mediante un servicio móvil en el distrito de Mumbwa, Zambia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish SITUACIÓN: A pesar de los esfuerzos del Gobierno por extender los servicios hasta el nivel de distrito, sigue resultando difícil que las personas con VIH accedan al tratamiento antirretroviral (TAR) en la Zambia rural. Las enérgicas súplicas para ampliar los servicios relacionados con el TAR a los c [...] entros de salud rurales se enfrentan a las dificultades derivadas de la escasez de recursos. ENFOQUE: El equipo de gestión sanitaria en el distrito de Mumbwa introdujo servicios móviles de TAR que hacían uso de recursos humanos y asesoramiento técnico de hospitales de distrito, así como la participación de la comunidad en cuatro centros de salud rurales en el primer trimestre de 2007. Este trabajo aborda el uso de los servicios móviles de TAR en el distrito rural de Mumbwa. MARCO REGIONAL: Mumbwa es un distrito rural con un área de 23 000 km2 y una población de 167 000 habitantes. Antes de la introducción de los servicios móviles, los servicios de TAR se proporcionaban sólo en el Hospital de Distrito de Mumbwa. CAMBIOS IMPORTANTES: Los servicios móviles mejoraron la accesibilidad al TAR, especialmente para usuarios con un mejor estado funcional, es decir, aún capaces de trabajar. Además, estos servicios móviles pueden reducir el número de casos de «pérdidas durante el seguimiento». Esto podría deberse a la mayor implicación de la comunidad y al mejor apoyo ofrecido por estos servicios a los usuarios en las áreas rurales. LECCIONES APRENDIDAS: Estos servicios móviles para el TAR ayudaron a extender los servicios a los centros de salud rurales cuando los recursos fueron limitados, acercándolos lo máximo posible a los lugares donde viven los usuarios. Abstract in english PROBLEM: Despite the Government's effort to expand services to district level, it is still hard for people living with HIV to access antiretroviral treatment (ART) in rural Zambia. Strong demands for expanding ART services at the rural health centre level face challenges of resource shortages. APPRO [...] ACH: The Mumbwa district health management team introduced mobile ART services using human resources and technical support from district hospitals, and community involvement at four rural health centres in the first quarter of 2007. This paper discusses the uptake of the mobile ART services in rural Mumbwa. LOCAL SETTING: Mumbwa is a rural district with an area of 23 000 km² and a population of 167 000. Before the introduction of mobile services, ART services were provided only at Mumbwa District Hospital. RELEVANT CHANGES: The mobile services improved accessibility to ART, especially for clients in better functional status, i.e. still able to work. In addition, these mobile services may reduce the number of cases "lost to follow-up". This might be due to the closer involvement of the community and the better support offered by these services to rural clients. LESSONS LEARNT: These mobile ART services helped expand services to rural health facilities where resources are limited, bringing them as close as possible to where clients live.

Christopher, Dube; Ikuma, Nozaki; Tadao, Hayakawa; Kazuhiro, Kakimoto; Norio, Yamada; James B, Simpungwe.

2010-10-01

43

Zambia Country Background Report  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­?sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change).

Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, SØren

2014-01-01

44

Trypanosoma brucei Infection in asymptomatic greater Kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trypomastogotes of Trypanosoma brucei were detected from 4 asymptomatic kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch located approximately 45 km north east of Lusaka, Zambia. Blood smears examined from 14 wildlife species comprising of the impala (Aepyceros melampus), Kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis), sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), tsessebe (Damaliscus lunatus), warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), puku (Kobus vardoni), zebra (Equus burchelli), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), reedbuck (Redunca arundinum), wilderbeest (Connochaetes taurinus), hartebeest (Alcephelus lichtensteini), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) showed that only the kudu had T. brucei. Although game ranching has emerged to be a successful ex-situ conservation strategy aimed at saving the declining wildlife population in the National Parks, our findings suggest that it has the potential of aiding the re-distribution of animal diseases. Hence, there is a need for augmenting wildlife conservation with disease control strategies aimed at reducing the risk of disease transmission between wildlife and domestic animals. PMID:20333288

Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Munyeme, Musso; Nambota, Andrew; Mutoloki, Stephen; Matandiko, Wigganson

2010-03-01

45

Zambia country study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Zambia Country Study, which was part of the Danida-funded project Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa: Phase 2, aimed at methodological development, national mitigation analysis and institutional capacity building in Zambia. The study comprised the following five elements: Comprehensive evaluation of national social and economic development framework for climate change; Baseline scenario(s) projection(s); Mitigation scenario(s) projection(s); Macro-economic assessment; Implementation Issues. (au) 17 refs.

1999-09-01

46

The Republic of Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1964, at independence, Zambia's economic future looked brighter than that of most other developing countries. Its copper production accounted for 8% of total world production, and only neighboring Zaire outpaced it in the production of cobalt. Its Central Province around Kabwe held rich deposits of both zinc and lead; uranium deposits also had been found, but their projected yield remained undetermined. Since 1974, the decline in the price of copper and the increase in the price of oil have played havoc with Zambia's balance of payments. Copper, which accounted for 40% of the gross national product (GNP) and 98% of all foreign exchange in 1964, shrank to 12% of the GNP in 1978 while still generating most of the foreign exchange. As a result, imports were cut back markedly from $1.5 billion in 1973 to $690 million in 1983. Although this trend is beginning to make a U-turn, Zambia's economic situation is grave. In 1984 the GNP continued to register negative growth and inflation stood at 25%. With its urbanization rate doubling from 21% in 1964 to 43% in 1985, Zambia is now the most urbanized country south of the Sahara. Zambia's 1985 population is estimated to be 6.8 million. Between 1963 and 1969, the average annual population growth rate was 2.5: it was 3.1% between 1969-80. The current birthrate of about 48/1000 is expected to decline only marginally in the next 15 years, but the death rate is declining more rapidly -- from 19/1000 in the late 1960s to 15/1000 in 1985. Life expectancy is expected to rise from the current 51 years to about 58 years. As a result of the high growth rate, Zambia's population is young, with a median age of about 16.3 years. Traditional African values stress the importance of large families. Zambia's total fertility rate was 6.9 in 1985. According to the World Bank, only 1% of married women of childbearing age in 1982 used contraceptives. Although tribal links are weakening, Zambia still counts 73 officially recognized tribes. Together, they speak about 40 different dialects. Zambia now apportions over 15% of its national budget to education. Despite some noticeable progress, the public health structure remains deficient. Principal health problems include malaria, tuberculosis, and, in Northern Province and Luapula Province, sleeping sickness and river blindness. About 2/3 of the labor force, an estimated 2.2 million persons in 1982, still work in agriculture. Female labor force participation is lower in Zambia than in many African nations. PMID:12267904

Hakkert, R; Wieringa, R

1986-05-01

47

Impact assessment of malaria vector control using routine surveillance data in Zambia: implications for monitoring and evaluation  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Malaria vector control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), with pyrethroids and DDT, to reduce malaria transmission has been expansively implemented in Zambia. The impact of these interventions on malaria morbidity and mortality has not previously been formally assessed at the population level in Zambia. Methods The impact of IRS (15 urban districts) and LLINs (15 rural districts) implementation on severe malaria cases, deaths a...

Chanda Emmanuel; Coleman Michael; Kleinschmidt Immo; Hemingway Janet; Hamainza Busiku; Masaninga Freddie; Chanda-Kapata Pascalina; Baboo Kumar S; Dürrheim David N; Coleman Marlize

2012-01-01

48

Rift Valley fever: Real or perceived threat for Zambia?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Zambia was first reported in 1974 during an epizootic of cattle and sheep that occurred in parts of Central, Southern and Copperbelt Provinces. In 1990, the disease was documented in nine districts of the provinces of Zambia. In the last two decades, there have been no rep [...] orts of RVF. This long period without reported clinical disease raises questions as to whether RVF is a current or just a perceived threat. To address this question, World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) disease occurrence data on RVF for the period 2005-2010 in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) was analysed. From the analysis, it was evident that most countries that share a common border with Zambia had reported at least one occurrence of the disease during the period under review. Due to the absence of natural physical barriers between Zambia and most of her neighbours, informal livestock trade and movements is a ubiquitous reality. Analysis of the rainfall patterns also showed that Zambia received rains sufficient to support a mosquito population large enough for high risk of RVF transmission. The evidence of disease occurrence in nearby countries coupled with animal movement, and environmental risk suggests that RVF is a serious threat to Zambia. In conclusion, the current occurrence of RVF in Zambia is unclear, but there are sufficient indications that the magnitude of the circulating infection is such that capacity building in disease surveillance and courses on recognition of the disease for field staff is recommended. Given the zoonotic potential of RVF, these measures are also a prerequisite for accurate assessment of the disease burden in humans.

George, Dautu; Calvin, Sindato; Aaron S., Mweene; Kenny L., Samui; Polly, Roy; Robert, Noad; Janusz, Paweska; Phelix A.O., Majiwa; Antony J., Musoke.

49

Callings, work role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement among teachers in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Our aim in this study was to investigate the relationships among a calling orientation, work role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement of teachers in Zambia. A quantitative approach was followed and a cross-sectional survey was used. The sample (n = 150) included 75 basic and 75 secondary school teachers in the Choma district of Zambia. The Work Role Fit Scale, Work-Life Questionnaire, Psychological Meaningfulness Scale, and Work Engagement Scale were administered. Structural...

Sebastiaan Rothmann; Lukondo Hamukang'andu

2013-01-01

50

Foot and mouth disease in Zambia: Spatial and temporal distributions of outbreaks, assessment of clusters and implications for control  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Zambia has been experiencing low livestock productivity as well as trade restrictions owing to the occurrence of foot and mouth disease (FMD), but little is known about the epidemiology of the disease in these endemic settings. The fundamental questions relate to the spatio-temporal distribution of [...] FMD cases and what determines their occurrence. A retrospective review of FMD cases in Zambia from 1981 to 2012 was conducted using geographical information systems and the SaTScan software package. Information was collected from peer-reviewed journal articles, conference proceedings, laboratory reports, unpublished scientific reports and grey literature. A space-time permutation probability model using a varying time window of one year was used to scan for areas with high infection rates. The spatial scan statistic detected a significant purely spatial cluster around the Mbala-Isoka area between 2009 and 2012, with secondary clusters in Sesheke-Kazungula in 2007 and 2008, the Kafue flats in 2004 and 2005 and Livingstone in 2012. This study provides evidence of the existence of statistically significant FMD clusters and an increase in occurrence in Zambia between 2004 and 2012. The identified clusters agree with areas known to be at high risk of FMD. The FMD virus transmission dynamics and the heterogeneous variability in risk within these locations may need further investigation.

Yona, Sinkala; Martin, Simuunza; John B., Muma; Dirk U., Pfeiffe; Christopher J., Kasanga; Aaron, Mweene.

2014-02-01

51

Novel Arenavirus, Zambia  

OpenAIRE

To investigate arenavirus in Zambia, we characterized virus from the kidneys of 5 arenavirus RNA–positive rodents (Mastomys natalensis) among 263 captured. Full-genome sequences of the viruses suggested that they were new strains similar to Lassa virus–related arenaviruses. Analyzing samples from additional rodents and other species can elucidate epizootiologic aspects of arenaviruses.

Ishii, Akihiro; Thomas, Yuka; Moonga, Ladslav; Nakamura, Ichiro; Ohnuma, Aiko; Hang’ombe, Bernard; Takada, Ayato; Mweene, Aaron; Sawa, Hirofumi

2011-01-01

52

Novel Arenavirus, Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate arenavirus in Zambia, we characterized virus from the kidneys of 5 arenavirus RNA–positive rodents (Mastomys natalensis) among 263 captured. Full-genome sequences of the viruses suggested that they were new strains similar to Lassa virus–related arenaviruses. Analyzing samples from additional rodents and other species can elucidate epizootiologic aspects of arenaviruses. PMID:22000372

Thomas, Yuka; Moonga, Ladslav; Nakamura, Ichiro; Ohnuma, Aiko; Hang’ombe, Bernard; Takada, Ayato; Mweene, Aaron; Sawa, Hirofumi

2011-01-01

53

A qualitative study to identify community structures for management of severe malaria: a basis for introducing rectal artesunate in the under five years children in Nakonde District of Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a serious illness among children aged 5 years and below in Zambia, which carries with it many adverse effects including anemia and high parasites exposure that lead to infant and childhood mortality. Due to poor accessibility to modern health facilities, malaria is normally managed at home using indigenous and cosmopolitan medicines. In view of problems and implications associated with management of severe malaria at home, rectal artesunate is being proposed as a first aid drug to slow down multiplication of parasites in children before accessing appropriate treatment. Methods A qualitative study using standardised in-depth and Focuss Group Discussions (FGDs guides to collect information from four (4 villages in Nakonde district, was conducted between February and March 2004. The guides were administered on 29 key informants living in the community and those whose children were admitted in the health facility. Participants in the 12 FGDs came from the 4 participating villages. Participants and key informants were fathers, younger and older mothers including grandmothers and other influential people at household level. Others were traditional healers, headmen, village secretaries, tradtional birth attendants, church leaders and black smiths. FGDs and interview transcriptions were coded to identify common themes that were related to recognition, classification and naming of malaria illness, care-seeking behaviour and community treatment practices for severe malaria. Results Parental prior knowledge of the disease was important as the majority of informants (23 out of 29 and participants (69 out of 97 mentioned four combined symptoms that were used to recognise severe malaria. The symptoms were excessive body hotness, convulsions, vomiting yellow things and bulging of the fontanelle. On the other hand, all informants mentioned two or more of symptoms associated with severe malaria. In all 12 FGDs, participants reported that treatment of severe malaria commenced with the family and moved into the community as the illness progressed. Although treatment of severe diarrheal effects, were common among the winamwanga, no rectal medicines to treat severe malaria were identified. Apart from the anti-malarial fansidar, which was mentioned by 23 in IDIs and 40 in FGDs, participants and informants also frequently mentioned indigenous medicines provided by healers and other respectable herbalists for repelling evil spirits, once a child had severe malaria. Mothers were the important arms for administration of ant-malarial drugs in the villages. Referrals began with healers to CHWs, where no CHWs existed healers directly referred sick children to the health facility. Conclusion Our findings showed that there is a precedent for rectal application of traditional medicine for childhood illness. Therefore rectal artesunate may be a well-received intervention in Nakonde District, provided effective sensitisation, to mothers and CHWs is given which will strengthen the health care delivery system at community level.

Tuba Mary

2005-03-01

54

Country experience in organizing for quality: Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the activities of the Quality Assurance Program (QAP) within the Central Board of Health (CBH) in Zambia. QAP provides training and technical support to quality assurance (QA) to District Health Management Teams (DHMTs) and health centers. DHMT members were trained as QA facilitators. Training in target districts first addressed the setting and monitoring of standards. Training later focused on development of problem solving capacity. Health providers were trained by central staff to self-assess, to measure performance to agreed standards, and to respond to client-user needs. The Directorate of Monitoring and Evaluation provides training and oversight in QA to the DHMTs and their health centers. Training generally consists of a sensitization workshop, week-long training in dynamic standard setting, 5-day training in development of monitoring indicators at the district and facility level, and 2-week skills training in use of QA tools. CBH monitors quality by quarterly performance audits, supervision visits by DHMTs, and the health management information system (HMIS). The new HMIS was piloted in 15 districts and is being established nationwide. CBH developed a manual of standards for 6 priority health areas: reproductive health and family planning, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases, child health and nutrition, tuberculosis, and water and sanitation. 85 QA teams operate in 90% of the districts. Problem solving methods have led to team building among professionals, increased competence of staff to address problems, and capacity building for management. PMID:12322022

Marquez, L; Madubuike, C

1999-01-01

55

Telemedicine in Primary Health: The Virtual Doctor Project Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract This paper is a commentary on a project application of telemedicine to alleviate primary health care problems in Lundazi district in the Eastern province of Zambia. The project dubbed 'The Virtual Doctor Project' will use hard body vehicles fitted with satellite communication devices and modern medical equipment to deliver primary health care services to some of the neediest areas of the country. The relevance and importance of the project lies in the fact that these areas are hard-t...

Mustarde Paul; Mupela Evans N; Lc, Jones Huw

2011-01-01

56

Barriers to implementation of the HIV guidelines in the IMCI algorithm among IMCI trained health workers in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Zambia adopted integrated management of Childhood illnesses (IMCI) in 1995 and a number of adaptations have been made to the generic WHO/UNICEF IMCI guidelines to better conform to Zambia's health service needs. One significant adaptation is the incorporation of HIV guidelines into the IMCI algorithm. Since 2004, health workers that have undergone IMCI case management training have also received training in HIV assessment. During initial follow-up visits in 11 districts 90...

Kalesha Penny; Mutale Wilbroad; Mugala Nantalile; Sinyinza Elijah

2010-01-01

57

How HIV/AIDS scale-up has impacted on non- HIV priority services in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Much of the debate as to whether or not the scaling up of HIV service delivery in Africa benefits non-HIV priority services has focused on the use of nationally aggregated data. This paper analyses and presents routine health facility record data to show trend correlations across priority services. Methods Review of district office and health facility client records for 39 health facilities in three districts of Zambia, covering four consecutive years (2004-07). Intra-faci...

Brugha Ruairí; Simbaya Joseph; Walsh Aisling; Dicker Patrick; Ndubani Phillimon

2010-01-01

58

Characterization of Maize Producing Households in Southern Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Maize is an important crop in the livelihood of Zambia’s most vulnerable populations. A huge challenge facing most of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA countries like Zambia is to increase maize productivity of smallholder farmers, which has remained very low over the past decades. Through various breeding programmes, more than 50 new maize hybrids and open-pollinated varieties have been developed and provided to the farmers through seed companies and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs. However, the extent to which such varieties have been adopted remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to characterize the maize producing households and to assess adoption of improved maize varieties. Data were collected from randomly selected households in the maize-producing areas of Monze and Kalomo Districts in southern Zambia. Principal Components Analysis (PCA on asset ownership was used to generate a wealth index used to rank the survey households. The results confirm that poorly endowed households, most of whom are female-headed, are far less likely to adopt improved varieties than their well-off counterparts. Important maize variety attributes sought by farmers include early maturity (85% of households, tolerance to water stress (83%, yield potential (79%, pest/disease resistance (56%, better processing quality (56% and cob/grain size (50%. A larger proportion of well endowed households planted improved varieties, compared with their poorly endowed counterparts. These findings suggest that moving the poor households and female-headed households up the wealth ladder poses a considerable challenge and calls for targeting the key factors that could potentially improve their welfare.

Thomson Kalinda

2014-01-01

59

Population genetic analysis and sub-structuring of Theileria parva in the northern and eastern parts of Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Theileriosis, caused by Theileria parva, is an economically important disease in Africa. It is a major constraint to the development of the livestock industry in some parts of eastern, central and southern Africa. In Zambia, theileriosis causes losses of up to 10,000 cattle annually. Methods Cattle blood samples were collected for genetic analysis of Theileria parva from Isoka and Petauke districts in Zambia. Microsatellite analysis was then performed on all Theileria parv...

Muleya Walter; Namangala Boniface; Simuunza Martin; Nakao Ryo; Inoue Noboru; Kimura Takashi; Ito Kimihito; Sugimoto Chihiro; Sawa Hirofumi

2012-01-01

60

Partnerships in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zambian communities in 21 settlements have developed partnerships with District Councils and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) with the aid of the Community Development Programme. A Training Programme for Community Participation in Settlements Improvement was implemented by the government from 1984 to 1994 with the support of the UN Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS) (Habitat). Although seed money for physical settlement improvements was not included, integrating training with the actual process of upgrading enabled the participating communities to make the improvements. The selected communities, with the support of District Council staff, produced project documents to solicit the support of NGOs. The partnerships consisted of three groups; 1) Resident Development Committees, which represented the communities; 2) NGOs; and 3) District Councils. The first group mobilized the communities in the identification of priority needs and in action planning. The second group supplied equipment and funds. The third group provided technical services and created a legal framework in the form of a memorandum of understanding, which was signed by all partners. Sustainability, maintenance, and management of services after the phasing out of NGO support were defined in the memorandum. Schools, clinics, storm-water drainage, and road improvements were some of the benefits obtained from this tripartite partnership. PMID:12293486

Kapopo, R

1996-03-01

61

The impact of a feeder road project on cash crop production in Zambia's Eastern province between 1997 and 2002  

OpenAIRE

This paper investigates the dynamic impacts of rural road improvements on farm productivity and crop choices in Zambia's Eastern Province. There are several channels through which the feeder road improvements impact on farmers. Our aim is to estimate whether the differential outcomes in the five treatment districts and three control districts generated by the expansion of market agricultural activities among small to medium scale farmers could be explained by rural road improvements that took...

Kingombe, Christian K. M.; Di Falco, Salvatore

2012-01-01

62

Nesting patterns of raptors; White backed vulture (Gyps africanus and African fish eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer, in Lochinvar National Park on the kafue flats, Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study assessed the nesting patterns of raptors, Gyps africanus and Haliaeetus vocifer in Lochinvar National Park. The main objective of the study was to determine whether tree species, height, girth size, and habitat influenced raptor’s nest placement within Lochinvar National Park. Two species were selected as indicator species for the raptors. Habitat types and tree species were identified and measurements of tree species with nests measured. It was found that the minimum height of nest placement was 10 meters above ground and Acacia woodland was found to be the most preferred habitat for nest placement. Raptors avoided human disturbance by placing their nests at least 100 meters away from human disturbance and from the National park boundary inwards or abandoning if human encroachment comes close to the nest. More research is required to assess nesting materials used, and to determine whether raptors can swap nets or return to the abandoned nests when human disturbance ceases.

Chansa Chomba

2013-08-01

63

Callings, work role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement among teachers in Zambia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Our aim in this study was to investigate the relationships among a calling orientation, work role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement of teachers in Zambia. A quantitative approach was followed and a cross-sectional survey was used. The sample (n = 150) included 75 basic and 75 sec [...] ondary school teachers in the Choma district of Zambia. The Work Role Fit Scale, Work-Life Questionnaire, Psychological Meaningfulness Scale, and Work Engagement Scale were administered. Structural equation modelling confirmed a model in which a calling orientation impacted psychological meaningfulness and work engagement significantly. A calling orientation impacted work engagement directly, while such work orientation impacted psychological meaningfulness indirectly via work role fit. The results suggest that it is necessary to address the work orientation and work role fit of teachers in Zambia as pathways to psychological meaningfulness and work engagement.These results have implications for the recruitment, selection, training, and development of teachers in Zambia.

Sebastiaan, Rothmann; Lukondo, Hamukang' andu.

64

Spontaneously settled refugees in Northwestern Province, Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) commissioned researchers from the University of Zambia to conduct a socioeconomic survey and census of "spontaneously settled" Zairean and Angolan refugees in the Northwestern Province of Zambia in 1982. The sample consisted of 188 Angolans, 201 Zaireans, and 2 South Africans. The difficulties experienced by refugees in Northwestern Province in achieving integration were related to a combination of factors including the lack of a clear national policy on refugees and refugee status, a national concern for maintaining security, the popular belief that aliens are responsible for an increasing crime rate, the desire by immigration officials for stricter laws to control alien infiltration, conflict between traditional and modern leaders, and Zambia's deteriorating economic situation. In spite of the problems described, the integration of refugees into existing communities is a desirable goal and should be encouraged. One should not assume that self-settling refugees are able to live with ethnic kin, receive assistance and hospitality, and thus are better off than those in camps. The Zambian case provides ample evidence that integration is not easy even with kin support, shared ethnicity, language, and historical connections. Moreover, given the fact that Zambia will continue to receive refugees it is vital that there is a well defined refugee policy and an administrative mechanism for implementing that policy at all levels. This will be particularly important in Zambia as it will undoubtedly continue to receive large influxes of refugees, from countries such as Namibia, Uganda, Angola, Mozambique, and South Africa. PMID:12267853

Freund, P J; Kalumba, K

1986-01-01

65

The burden of knowing: balancing benefits and barriers in HIV testing decisions. a qualitative study from Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Background Client-initiated HIV counselling and testing has been scaled up in many African countries, in the form of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT). Test rates have remained low, with HIV-related stigma being an important barrier to HIV testing. This study explored HIV testing decisions in one rural and one urban district in Zambia with high HIV prevalence and available antiretroviral treatment. Methods Data were collected through 17 in-depth interviews and two focus group...

Jürgensen Marte; Tuba Mary; Fylkesnes Knut; Blystad Astrid

2012-01-01

66

The burden of knowing:balancing benefits and barriers in HIV testing decisions. a qualitative study from Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Background Client-initiated HIV counselling and testing has been scaled up in many African countries, in the form of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT). Test rates have remained low, with HIV-related stigma being an important barrier to HIV testing. This study explored HIV testing decisions in one rural and one urban district in Zambia with high HIV prevalence and available antiretroviral treatment.

Methods Data were coll...

Ju?rgensen, Marte; Tuba, Mary; Fylkesnes, Knut; Blystad, Astrid

2012-01-01

67

Advances in area-wide tsetse control in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Trypanosomosis is one of the major constraints to sustainable agricultural development particularly in the traditional sector, which accounts for about 80% of the national livestock (cattle) in Zambia. The remaining 20% commercially managed herds are located in tsetse free areas. More than five-eighths of Zambia is tsetse infested, and the boundaries of tsetse infestation are not constantly monitored, indicated boundaries are only estimates. In the late 1980's it was reported by Chizyuka and colleagues, that two thirds of the country was infested with tsetse flies and 25% of the traditional herd was at risk of trypanosomosis. Currently Zambia accounts some 2.8 million cattle, a million goats, a marginal number of sheep and 0.5 million pigs. The 1999-2003 Health Statistics Report by the Ministry of Health indicated 83 cases of reported human trypanosomosis, of which 31 were children under five years and 52 were above five years of age. Between January 2003 and 25th August 2003, seven cases of human trypanosomosis have been documented from Nyimba, Luangwa, Mpika, Serenje and Mambwe districts. During the last 15 years Zambia had achieved a lot in terms of tsetse control in the country. Tsetse densities and the disease prevalence were brought down from fly densities as high as 7 fly/trap/day to as low as 0.05 fly/trap/day and trypanosomosis prevalence from as high as 20% to as low as 0% in the tsetse controlled areas. Tsetse have been controlled in approximatelsetse have been controlled in approximately 50,000 km2 under projects funded by different donors in separate areas in Western, Southern, Lusaka and Eastern provinces. In recent years the country has been experiencing re-invasion of the areas that where once cleared. The main specific problems experienced from past control operations under the support of donors (EU, Belgium, the Netherlands) include among others: - Re-invasion of tsetse flies in controlled areas when maintenance activities were relaxed due to insufficient funding and inconsistent release of funds. - High costs of keeping controlled areas free of tsetse indefinitely. Small areas are difficulty to maintain free of tsetse. Management of trypanosomosis in the past decade or so has mainly been by tsetse control using bait technology (targets and treated cattle) and chemotherapy at the farmer level. These activities have been restricted to portions of the western and eastern fly belts and were under the support of donor contributions to improved livestock production in the country. Despite the considerable achievements realised from these vector control interventions, the areas of concern got re-infested with flies from neighboring areas that are not under control. Repeated control of tsetse flies in the same areas has cost Zambia huge amount of money. For example in Western Province the Government is spending about USD175,306 per year over the last 7 years to service a target barrier of 200 km in length (with approximately 6,000 targets), USD13,000 on monitoring and regulation, USD20,000 on tsetse and trypanosomosis surveys and USD 55,466 on salaries and other allowances. Local farmers are using approximately USD20,000 on trypanocides in Senanga and Shangombo districts. Altogether the total expenses per year comes up to approximately USD283,772. - Minimal regional cooperation and collaboration due to varying priorities along border areas Other problems include: - Shortage of trained and specialized manpower after donor withdraws. - Loss of manpower to HIV/AIDS. - Unclearly defined objectives of projects (objectives subject to change). It is against this background that Zambia is advocating for area-wide control of tsetse flies in the country and the region. One of the areas where this concept is being applied is the Kwando-Zambezi region where Namibia, Botswana, Angola and Zambia have common boundaries. All the four countries have agreed to eradicate tsetse in this region starting from May 2005 integrating methods (e.g. odoured baited targets, aerial spray, and SIT). The Pan African Tsetse and Try

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Towards improving hospital performance in Uganda and Zambia: reflections and opportunities for autonomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hospitals have been relatively neglected although their high resource consumption implies that gains from improving the services they deliver may be substantial. Nevertheless, the challenges posed by hospital reforms are great. Hospital autonomy usually consists of both decentralisation, and a greater measure of exposure to market forces. In Uganda and Zambia, more traditional 'decentralisation' of authority to district level authorities includes district hospitals; and some measure of 'autonomy' (known as 'self-accounting status' in Uganda) has been applied to some or all second and third level referral hospitals. The hospital policies pursued in both countries present opportunities to tackle their hospital sectors. In Zambia, purchasing of services means that new incentives and policy mechanisms can come into play. Little advantage has been taken of these opportunities to date. In Uganda, there is no financial link between districts and higher levels of the system, but decentralisation of control over personnel is more advanced. These two components--the alignment of incentives (to promote access and quality for those intended to be covered by the public budget) and the effective decentralisation of control over key resources--seem to us the key tools to address the stubborn problems of hospitals. PMID:12173498

Hanson, Kara; Atuyambe, Lynn; Kamwanga, Jolly; McPake, Barbara; Mungule, Oswald; Ssengooba, Freddie

2002-07-01

69

The Local Social and Environmental Impacts of Smallholder-Based Biofuel Investments in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High oil prices, recent commitments by industrialized countries to enhance the use of renewable energy, and efforts by developing countries to stimulate foreign investment as a pathway to development have fueled high levels of interest in the biofuel sector throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa. Zambia is no exception. A large, land-locked country with high pump prices and vast tracts of land considered by many to be “degraded” or “underutilized,” investor interest in the sector has remained high despite uncertainties associated with unproven feedstocks and market fluctuations. While investment in multiple feedstock and production models may be observed, one of the primary investments has been in jatropha outgrower schemes in which small-scale farmers grow feedstock on contract with domestic and foreign investors. We assess the history and evolution of the largest such scheme in Zambia, as well as the social and environmental impacts in two districts with large numbers of outgrowers. Findings suggest that, although such a production model may hold promise for enhancing rural livelihood benefits from the emerging biofuel sector, to date, small-scale farmers have borne the brunt of the risk and uncertainty that are the trademarks of this emerging industry. We conclude with a discussion of options to minimize forest conversion and protect farmers against high-risk investments, while harnessing the potential of this business model for enhancing rural livelihoods in Zambia and elsewhere.

Davison Gumbo

2011-12-01

70

An Assessment of the Growth Opportunities and Constraints in Zambia’s Cotton Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to assess the major opportunities and constraints in Zambia’s cotton industry. The study found that the cotton sector has considerable potential to contribute to growth and employment in Zambia as it currently accounts for direct and indirect employment of approximately 21% of the population and about 19% of agricultural Gross Domestic Product. The prominence of smallholder farmers in the sector is indicative of the income equity promotion potential of the cotton sector. However, the highly concentrated structure of the sector, with two key players currently accounting for about 80% of the total market share in ginning; the absence of regulatory mechanisms for setting of prices; the openness of the local market to global price fluctuations and the lack of support programmes as compared to competing crops like maize are major impediments to equity promotion in the sector. Overall growth of the cotton sector is also constrained by low productivity arising mostly from poor farming practices. Furthermore, increased production in major world markets due to subsidies and use of bio-technology in cotton production undermine the competitiveness of Zambia’s cotton in international markets. For Zambia to realize the potential of the cotton sector, interventions need to be targeted at raising farm level productivity. The government should also facilitate informed policy debate and development on critical issues such as biotechnology adoption as well as facilitating consensus between cotton buyers and farmers on price setting mechanisms.

Thomson Kalinda

2014-02-01

71

From project aid to sustainable HIV services: a case study from Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sustainable service delivery is a major challenge in the HIV response that is often not adequately addressed in project implementation. Sustainable strategies must be built into project design and implementation to enable HIV efforts to continue long after donor-supported projects are completed. Case description This paper presents the experiences in operational sustainability of Family Health International's Zambia Prevention, Care and Treatment Partnership in Zambia, which is supported by the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief through United States Agency for International Development (October 2004 to September 2009. The partnership worked with Zambia's Ministry of Health to scale up HIV clinical services in five of the country's nine provinces, reaching 35 districts and 219 facilities. It provided technical and financial support from within the ministry's systems and structures. By completion of the project, 10 of the 35 districts had graduated beyond receiving ongoing technical support. Discussion and evaluation By working within the ministry's policies, structures and systems, the partnership was able to increase the ministry's capacity to add a comprehensive HIV service delivery component to its health services. Ministry structures were improved through renovations of health facilities, training of healthcare workers, procurement of essential equipment, and establishment of a quality assurance plan to ensure continued quality of care. The quality assurance tools were implemented by both the ministry and project staff as the foundation for technical graduation. Facilities that met all the quality criteria for more than six months were graduated from project technical support, as were districts where most supported facilities met the criteria. The district health offices then provided ongoing supervision of services. This predetermined "graduation" exit strategy, with buy in of the provincial and district health offices, set the stage for continued delivery of high-quality HIV services. Conclusions Achieving operational sustainability in a resource-limited setting is feasible. Developing and institutionalizing a quality assurance/quality improvement system is the basis on which facilities and districts can move beyond project support and, therefore, sustain services. Quality assurance/quality improvement tools should be based on national standards, and project implementation should use and improve existing health system structures.

Torpey Kwasi

2010-06-01

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Task sharing in Zambia: HIV service scale-up compounds the human resource crisis  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Abstract Background Considerable attention has been given by policy makers and researchers to the human resources for health crisis in Africa. However, little attention has been paid to quantifying health facility-level trends in health worker numbers, distribution and workload, despite growing demands on health workers due to the availability of new funds for HIV\\/AIDS control scale-up. This study analyses and reports trends in HIV and non-HIV ambulatory service workloads on clinical staff in urban and rural district level facilities. Methods Structured surveys of health facility managers, and health services covering 2005-07 were conducted in three districts of Zambia in 2008 (two urban and one rural), to fill this evidence gap. Intra-facility analyses were conducted, comparing trends in HIV and non-HIV service utilisation with staff trends. Results Clinical staff (doctors, nurses and nurse-midwives, and clinical officers) numbers and staff population densities fell slightly, with lower ratios of staff to population in the rural district. The ratios of antenatal care and family planning registrants to nurses\\/nurse-midwives were highest at baseline and increased further at the rural facilities over the three years, while daily outpatient department (OPD) workload in urban facilities fell below that in rural facilities. HIV workload, as measured by numbers of clients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) per facility staff member, was highest in the capital city, but increased rapidly in all three districts. The analysis suggests evidence of task sharing, in that staff designated by managers as ART and PMTCT workers made up a higher proportion of frontline service providers by 2007. Conclusions This analysis of workforce patterns across 30 facilities in three districts of Zambia illustrates that the remarkable achievements in scaling-up HIV\\/AIDS service delivery has been on the back of sustained non-HIV workload levels, increasing HIV workload and stagnant health worker numbers. The findings are based on an analysis of routine data that are available to district and national managers. Mixed methods research is needed, combining quantitative analyses of routine health information with follow-up qualitative interviews, to explore and explain workload changes, and to identify and measure where problems are most acute, so that decision makers can respond appropriately. This study provides quantitative evidence of a human resource crisis in health facilities in Zambia, which may be more acute in rural areas.

Walsh, Aisling

2010-09-17

73

Task sharing in Zambia: HIV service scale-up compounds the human resource crisis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable attention has been given by policy makers and researchers to the human resources for health crisis in Africa. However, little attention has been paid to quantifying health facility-level trends in health worker numbers, distribution and workload, despite growing demands on health workers due to the availability of new funds for HIV/AIDS control scale-up. This study analyses and reports trends in HIV and non-HIV ambulatory service workloads on clinical staff in urban and rural district level facilities. Methods Structured surveys of health facility managers, and health services covering 2005-07 were conducted in three districts of Zambia in 2008 (two urban and one rural, to fill this evidence gap. Intra-facility analyses were conducted, comparing trends in HIV and non-HIV service utilisation with staff trends. Results Clinical staff (doctors, nurses and nurse-midwives, and clinical officers numbers and staff population densities fell slightly, with lower ratios of staff to population in the rural district. The ratios of antenatal care and family planning registrants to nurses/nurse-midwives were highest at baseline and increased further at the rural facilities over the three years, while daily outpatient department (OPD workload in urban facilities fell below that in rural facilities. HIV workload, as measured by numbers of clients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT per facility staff member, was highest in the capital city, but increased rapidly in all three districts. The analysis suggests evidence of task sharing, in that staff designated by managers as ART and PMTCT workers made up a higher proportion of frontline service providers by 2007. Conclusions This analysis of workforce patterns across 30 facilities in three districts of Zambia illustrates that the remarkable achievements in scaling-up HIV/AIDS service delivery has been on the back of sustained non-HIV workload levels, increasing HIV workload and stagnant health worker numbers. The findings are based on an analysis of routine data that are available to district and national managers. Mixed methods research is needed, combining quantitative analyses of routine health information with follow-up qualitative interviews, to explore and explain workload changes, and to identify and measure where problems are most acute, so that decision makers can respond appropriately. This study provides quantitative evidence of a human resource crisis in health facilities in Zambia, which may be more acute in rural areas.

Simbaya Joseph

2010-09-01

74

Social Isolation and Aging in Zambia: Examining the Possible Predictors  

OpenAIRE

This research paper examined social isolation and aging in Zambia by examining possible predictors. The paper produces evidence on risk factors likely to engender social isolation among the elderly population of Zambia. Snowball sampling was undertaken to select 690 adults aged 60 and over in communities as well as those living in homes for the aged. A structured questionnaire was used to solicit information from respondents. Results show that old people in Zambia experience forms of social i...

Christopher Chabila Mapoma; Gift Masaiti

2012-01-01

75

Population genetic analysis and sub-structuring of Theileria parva in the northern and eastern parts of Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Theileriosis, caused by Theileria parva, is an economically important disease in Africa. It is a major constraint to the development of the livestock industry in some parts of eastern, central and southern Africa. In Zambia, theileriosis causes losses of up to 10,000 cattle annually. Methods Cattle blood samples were collected for genetic analysis of Theileria parva from Isoka and Petauke districts in Zambia. Microsatellite analysis was then performed on all Theileria parva positive samples for PCR using a panel of 9 microsatellite markers. Microsatellite data was analyzed using microsatellite toolkit, GenAlEx ver. 6, Fstat ver. 2.9.3.2, and LIAN computer softwares. Results The combined percentage of positive samples in both districts determined by PCR using the p104 gene primers was 54.9% (95% CI: 46.7 – 63.1%, 78/142, while in each district, it was 44.8% (95% CI: 34.8 – 54.8% and 76.1% (95% CI = 63.9 – 88.4% for Isoka and Petauke districts, respectively. We analyzed the population genetic structure of Theileria parva from a total of 61 samples (33 from Isoka and 28 from Petauke using a panel of 9 microsatellite markers encompassing the 4 chromosomes of Theileria parva. Wright’s F index (FST = 0.178 showed significant differentiation between the Isoka and Petauke populations. Linkage disequilibrium was observed when populations from both districts were treated as a single population. When analyzed separately, linkage disequilibrium was observed in Kanyelele and Kalembe areas in Isoka district, Isoka district overall and in Petauke district. Petauke district had a higher multiplicity of infection than Isoka district. Conclusion Population genetic analyses of Theileria parva from Isoka and Petauke districts showed a low level of genotype exchange between the districts, but a high level of genetic diversity within each district population, implying genetic and geographic sub-structuring between the districts. The sub-structuring observed, along with the lack of panmixia in the populations, could have been due to low transmission levels at the time of sampling. However, the Isoka population was less diverse than the Petauke population.

Muleya Walter

2012-11-01

76

Structural adjustment and drought in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

While drought is not uncommon in Zambia, the country is now facing the worst drought in history. The monetary and social costs will be enormous. Although it is too early to measure the economic and social costs of the drought on Zambia, it is obvious that the impact is catastrophic on a country whose economy is under pressure. The drought will affect the structural adjustment programme (SAP) unveiled by the new government which has embraced the market economy. The country has imported, and will continue to import, large quantities of maize and other foodstuffs, a situation likely to strain the balance of payments. Earlier targets with regard to export earnings, reductions in the budget deficit, and GDP growth as contained in the Policy Framework Paper (PFP) are no longer attainable due to the effects of the drought. PMID:7600062

Mulwanda, M

1995-06-01

77

Orthopoxvirus infection among wildlife in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human monkeypox is a viral zoonosis caused by monkeypox virus, an orthopoxvirus (OPXV). The majority of human monkeypox cases have been reported in moist forested regions in West and Central Africa, particularly in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). In this study we investigated zoonotic OPXV infection among wild animals in Zambia, which shares a border with DRC, to assess the geographical distribution of OPXV. We screened for OPXV antibodies in sera from non-human primates (NHPs), rodents and shrews by ELISA, and performed real-time PCR to detect OPXV DNA in spleen samples. Serological analysis indicated that 38 of 259 (14.7?%) rodents, 14 of 42 (33.3?%) shrews and 4 of 188 (2.1?%) NHPs had antibodies against OPXV. The OPXV DNA could not be detected in spleens from any animals tested. Our results indicated that wild animals living in rural human habitation areas of Zambia have been infected with OPXV. PMID:25319753

Orba, Yasuko; Sasaki, Michihito; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Ishii, Akihiro; Thomas, Yuka; Ogawa, Hirohito; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Morikawa, Shigeru; Saijo, Masayuki; Sawa, Hirofumi

2015-02-01

78

The Epidemiology of HIV infection in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Population surveys of health and fertility are an important source of information about demographic trends and their likely impact on the HIV/AIDS epidemic. In contrast to groups sampled at health facilities they can provide nationally and regionally representative estimates of a range of variables. Data on HIV sero-status were collected in the 2001-2 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS) and made available in a separate data file in which HIV status was linked to a ...

Kandala, Ngianga-bakwin; Ji, Chen; Cappuccio, Francesco P.; Stones, William

2008-01-01

79

Syphilis in pregnant women in Zambia.  

OpenAIRE

Because of the high incidence of congenital syphilis at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia, the potential risks of congenital infection and fetal loss due to syphilis were assessed by screening 202 antenatal patients, 340 pregnant women admitted to the hospital whose pregnancies ended in either spontaneous abortion or stillbirth, and 469 consecutive babies delivered at the hospital. Primary serological screening was performed with the rapid plasma reagin test, and reactive sera ...

Ratnam, A. V.; Din, S. N.; Hira, S. K.; Bhat, G. J.; Wacha, D. S.; Rukmini, A.; Mulenga, R. C.

1982-01-01

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Evaluation of some ceramic clays from Zambia  

OpenAIRE

This reports details the technical evaluation of ceramic clays collected during visits to Zambia in 1990 and 1991 by the author (Clive Mitchell). The clay samples included: Choma kaolin (Southern Province), Twapia kaolin (Copperbelt Province), Kapiri Mposhi kaolin (Central Province), Masenche clay (Northern Province), Leula clay, Misenga clay and Chikankata clay (Southern Province). The Choma kaolin was asessed to be an excellent source of ceramic-grade kaolin. The Twapia and Kapiri Mposhi ka...

Mitchell, C. J.

1993-01-01

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A quasi-experimental evaluation of an interpersonal communication intervention to increase insecticide-treated net use among children in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background This paper presents results from an evaluation of the effect of a community health worker (CHW) –based, interpersonal communication campaign (IPC) for increasing insecticide-treated mosquito net (ITN) use among children in Luangwa District, Zambia, an area with near universal coverage of ITNs and moderate to low malaria parasite prevalence. Methods A quasi-experimental community randomized control trial was conducted from 2008 to 2010. CHWs were the unit of randomization...

Keating Joseph; Hutchinson Paul; Miller John M; Bennett Adam; Larsen David A; Hamainza Busiku; Changufu Cynthia; Shiliya Nicholas; Eisele Thomas P

2012-01-01

82

District heating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A series of articles is given on district heating in USSR which includes: E.Ya. Sokolov, Fifty years of Soviet district heating; L.A. Melent'ev, District heating in the power industry of USSR; G.B. Levental et al, District heating using nuclear fuel; L.A. Demina et al, Heat supply sources; I.S. Lanin et al, 50 years of district heating in Leningrad; and N.K. Gromov, District heating in Moscow.

1974-11-01

83

Possibilities of Electoral Reform in Zambia : A Study on Electoral Systems in Zambia and its Consequences  

OpenAIRE

Sammanfattning Denna uppsats tar sin start i valsystem och valreform i Zambia. Demokratisering är ett vanligt tema i Afrika och många länder är i full gång med att befästa sin nyvunna mark. Det demokratiska uppsving som kunde ses i början av 1900-talet följdes i många länder utav ett stillestånd i utvecklingen. På senare år har en tydlig tendens kunnat ses där demokratiseringen på nytt har tagit fart. Som en konsekvens av denna nytända demokratisering i Afrika har frågor krin...

Ekdahl, Oscar

2007-01-01

84

Financial sector reforms and monetary policy reforms in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

ABSTRACT The dissertation comprises four chapters focusing on issues concerning policy re-forms and monetary policy in Zambia. Chapter 1 briefly outlines the theoretical foundations for the reforms undertaken in Zambia since the mid 1980s and the process thereof. The main issues addressed were the removal of interest rate and credit controls, exchange rate devaluation and the use of indirect instruments in implementing monetary policy. Monetary policy also began to focus more on stabili...

Simatele, Munacinga C. H.

2004-01-01

85

Assessing the impact of health financing mechanism in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

An adequately and well-managed financing mechanism of the public health care system has continued to elude many low income countries. Zambia is one of those countries whose health system has continued to struggle with inadequate and inequitably distributed resources. To date, Zambia has recorded slow progress in improving health outcomes, and meeting health targets has raised concerns about the country’s capacity to sustainably finance its health care system, given the limited capacity for ...

Chibuye, J.

2010-01-01

86

Overview of the Current Food Security Crisis in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Zambia was economically prosperous at independence (1964), due to the thriving copper industry. Zambia has the potential to expand agricultural production. However, it is estimated that only 14% of total agricultural land is currently being utilized. Agriculture generates about 22% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and provides direct livelihood to more than 50% of the population. The agricultural sector employs 67% of the labor force and it is the main source of income and provides employment ...

Samatebele, Helen M.

2003-01-01

87

Zambia : the challenge of informing blind and deaf clients  

OpenAIRE

HIV and AIDS in Zambia is a major public and social health issue that demands a multifaceted approach if it is to be tackled successfully. Government, nongovernmental organisations (NGOs) and communities are employing diverse but complementary strategies to mitigate the effects of the disease. This article highlights the information services the Zambia National Library and Cultural Centre for the Blind has for the disabled, specifically those with sight and hearing challenges.

Kanyengo, C. W.

2009-01-01

88

Climate Variability and Gender: Emerging Experiences From Western Zambia  

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Full Text Available Climate change is one of the greatest environmental challenges. It has posed a serious risk to poverty reduction and development, with adverse impacts expected on the environment, food security and natural resources. There is a strong link between gender and climate change and both are considered as cross cutting issues. However, climate variability and gender has been less attended to in terms of linking climate variability to the process of developing relevant environment and natural resource policies for natural resource dependent communities and most literature has lacked a reflection on the participation process of the natural resource dependent communities in the formulation and implementation of these policies especially at the local level and hence this study. This paper uses Sesheke district in Western Zambia and provides a case study of climate variability and genderand relates it to how the livelihoods of natural resource dependent women and men have been affected in the study area. It further reviews the participation of natural resource dependent communities and gender considerations in the formulation of key policies such as the agriculture and environmental policies in the face of climate variability and how these policies have been implemented in practice at the very local level in terms of a gender-responsive funding allocation and disbursement by government for adaptation activities at local level. The study shows that there has been a significant reduction in the annual rainfall from the year 1970 to 2010 and this has affected both men and women by forcing them to adapt to climate variability by using different means. Results show that climate variability has affected rural livelihoods and this has led to particular effects on gender roles. With regards to policy formulation related to agriculture and natural resources, results have shown that whilst the local people were consulted during the formulation of these policies and have taken into consideration the gender dimensions in terms of providing for the active participation of both women and men, the results have revealed an inadequate and unconsolidated approach to the implementation of the policies coupled with gender blind budgeting and poor funding disbursements to the district.

Catherine Lwando

2013-12-01

89

Impact assessment of malaria vector control using routine surveillance data in Zambia: implications for monitoring and evaluation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria vector control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and indoor residual spraying (IRS, with pyrethroids and DDT, to reduce malaria transmission has been expansively implemented in Zambia. The impact of these interventions on malaria morbidity and mortality has not previously been formally assessed at the population level in Zambia. Methods The impact of IRS (15 urban districts and LLINs (15 rural districts implementation on severe malaria cases, deaths and case fatality rates in children below the age of five years were compared. Zambian national Health Management Information System data from 2007 to 2008 were retrospectively analysed to assess the epidemiological impact of the two interventions using odds ratios to compare the pre-scaling up year 2007 with the scaling-up year 2008. Results Overall there were marked reductions in morbidity and mortality, with cases, deaths and case fatality rates (CFR of severe malaria decreasing by 31%, 63% and 62%, respectively between 2007 and 2008. In urban districts with IRS introduction there was a significant reduction in mortality (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.31-0.43, P = 0.015, while the reduction in mortality in rural districts with LLINs implementation was not significant (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.67-1.04, P = 0.666. A similar pattern was observed for case fatality rates with a significant reduction in urban districts implementing IRS (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.33-0.36, P = 0.005, but not in rural districts implementing LLINs (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.91-1.00, P = 0.913. No substantial difference was detected in overall reduction of malaria cases between districts implementing IRS and LLINs (P = 0.933. Conclusion Routine surveillance data proved valuable for determining the temporal effects of malaria control with two strategies, IRS and LLINs on severe malaria disease in different types of Zambian districts. However, this analysis did not take into account the effect of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT, which were being scaled up countrywide in both rural and urban districts.

Chanda Emmanuel

2012-12-01

90

Barriers to implementation of the HIV guidelines in the IMCI algorithm among IMCI trained health workers in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Zambia adopted integrated management of Childhood illnesses (IMCI in 1995 and a number of adaptations have been made to the generic WHO/UNICEF IMCI guidelines to better conform to Zambia's health service needs. One significant adaptation is the incorporation of HIV guidelines into the IMCI algorithm. Since 2004, health workers that have undergone IMCI case management training have also received training in HIV assessment. During initial follow-up visits in 11 districts 90 health workers were assessed in 2007 to determine their adherence to the IMCI algorithm. The assessment showed that 97% of the health workers assessed did not review or mention the HIV guidelines even though they had received HIV training as part of IMCI. This study aimed to explore reasons for non-adherence to HIV guidelines in the IMCI algorithm and make recommendations on how this can be improved. Methods Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to collect information from eligible health workers. Forty (40 health workers were randomly selected from among those who received initial follow-up visits between March 2007 and January 2008. The health workers were selected from eight districts in four provinces of Zambia. Qualitative data was collected using Focus group discussion and key informant interviews Results 83% of the respondents said they had no difficulties in following the HIV adapted IMCI guidelines. 17% said they had difficulties. Of those who admitted having difficulties (60% had difficulties in HIV assessment. Interesting, prompting and focus group discussions revealed that most respondents actually had difficulties in HIV assessment but could not admit it readily. Some barriers that contributed to non-adherence to the guidelines included lack of time due to inadequate staffing, lack of privacy in the health facilities and HIV related stigma from both caregivers and health workers. Frequent use of guidelines and supervision appeared to re-enforce adherence to the guidelines. Conclusion The findings in this study suggest that training in HIV adapted IMCI guidelines is not sufficient to enable health workers to actually use their knowledge in their daily practice. Barriers may exist which prevent them from adhering to the guidelines. Addressing these barriers is critical in increasing the uptake of paediatric ART in Zambia

Kalesha Penny

2010-12-01

91

Forest Conservation and People’s Livelihoods:Explaining Encroachment on Zambia’s Protected Forest Landscapes - The Case Of Mwekera National Forest, Kitwe, Copperbelt  

OpenAIRE

Forest Conservation and People’s Livelihoods: Explaining Encroachment on Zambia’s Protected Forest Landscapes - The Case Of Mwekera National Forest, Kitwe, CopperbeltAbstractThe conflicts between conservation objectives and the livelihood needs of local communities are intricate and difficult to resolve and yet the success of any conservation effort hinges on their solution. This is particularly true in forest conservation in Third World countries like Zambia, where rural populations depe...

Shitima, Mwepya Ephraim

2005-01-01

92

Forest Conservation and People’s Livelihoods: Explaining Encroachment on Zambia’s Protected Forest Landscapes - The Case Of Mwekera National Forest, Kitwe, Copperbelt  

OpenAIRE

Forest Conservation and People’s Livelihoods: Explaining Encroachment on Zambia’s Protected Forest Landscapes - The Case Of Mwekera National Forest, Kitwe, Copperbelt Abstract The conflicts between conservation objectives and the livelihood needs of local communities are intricate and difficult to resolve and yet the success of any conservation effort hinges on their solution. This is particularly true in forest conservation in Third World countries like Zambia, where rural populations de...

Shitima, Mwepya Ephraim

2005-01-01

93

From chloroquine to artemether-lumefantrine: the process of drug policy change in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the recognition that morbidity and mortality due to malaria had dramatically increased in the last three decades, in 2002 the government of Zambia reviewed its efforts to prevent and treat malaria. Convincing evidence of the failing efficacy of chloroquine resulted in the initiation of a process that eventually led to the development and implementation of a new national drug policy based on artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT. Methods All published and unpublished documented evidence dealing with the antimalarial drug policy change was reviewed. These data were supplemented by the authors' observations of the policy change process. The information has been structured to capture the timing of events, the challenges encountered, and the resolutions reached in order to achieve implementation of the new treatment policy. Results A decision was made to change national drug policy to artemether-lumefantrine (AL in the first quarter of 2002, with a formal announcement made in October 2002. During this period, efforts were undertaken to identify funding for the procurement of AL and to develop new malaria treatment guidelines, training materials, and plans for implementation of the policy. In order to avoid a delay in implementation, the policy change decision required a formal adoption within existing legislation. Starting with donated drug, a phased deployment of AL began in January 2003 with initial use in seven districts followed by scaling up to 28 districts in the second half of 2003 and then to all 72 districts countrywide in early 2004. Conclusion Drug policy changes are not without difficulties and demand a sustained international financing strategy for them to succeed. The Zambian experience demonstrates the need for a harmonized national consensus among many stakeholders and a political commitment to ensure that new policies are translated into practice quickly. To guarantee effective policies requires more effort and recognition that this becomes a health system and not a drug issue. This case study attempts to document the successful experience of change to ACT in Zambia and provides a realistic overview of some of the painful experiences and important lessons learnt.

Snow Robert W

2008-01-01

94

A cost-effectiveness analysis of artemether lumefantrine for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity, mortality and non-fatal disability in Zambia, especially among children, pregnant women and the poor. Data gathered by the National Malaria Control Centre has shown that recently observed widespread treatment failure of SP and chloroquine precipitated a surge in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. As a result, the Government has recently replaced chloroquine and SP with combination therapy as first-line treatment for malaria. Despite the acclaimed therapeutic advantages of ACTs over monotherapies with SP and CQ, the cost of ACTs is much greater, raising concerns about affordability in many poor countries such as Zambia. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness analysis of artemether-lumefantrine, a version of ACTs adopted in Zambia in mid 2004. Methods Using data gathered from patients presenting at public health facilities with suspected malaria, the costs and effects of using ACTs versus SP as first-line treatment for malaria were estimated. The study was conducted in six district sites. Treatment success and reduction in demand for second line treatment constituted the main effectiveness outcomes. The study gathered data on the efficacy of, and compliance to, AL and SP treatment from a random sample of patients. Costs are based on estimated drug, labour, operational and capital inputs. Drug costs were based on dosages and unit prices provided by the Ministry of Health and the manufacturer (Norvatis. Findings The results suggest that AL produces successful treatment at less cost than SP, implying that AL is more cost-effective. While it is acknowledged that implementing national ACT program will require considerable resources, the study demonstrates that the health gains (treatment success from every dollar spent are significantly greater if AL is used rather than SP. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is estimated to be US$4.10. When the costs of second line treatment are considered the ICER of AL becomes negative, indicating that there are greater resource savings associated with AL in terms of reduction of costs of complicated malaria treatment. Conclusion This study suggests the decision to adopt AL is justifiable on both economic and public health grounds.

Hawela Moonga

2007-02-01

95

Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

This paper aims to examine the causality relationship between foreign direct investment inflow (FDI) and economic growth (GDPGR) in Zambia using the time-series analyses. All analyses are conducted with the annual data of foreign direct investment and real gross domestic product of Zambia over the years of 1970 and 2011. The results of the ADF unit root test show that the time-series data are non-stationary at levels, but become stationary in the first differences. Besides, the results of the...

Eyup Dogan

2013-01-01

96

Task-shifting: experiences and opinions of health workers in Mozambique and Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the task-shifting taking place in health centres and district hospitals in Mozambique and Zambia. The objectives of this study were to identify the perceived causes and factors facilitating or impeding task-shifting, and to determine both the positive and negative consequences of task-shifting for the service users, for the services and for health workers. Methods Data collection involved individual and group interviews and focus group discussions with health workers from the civil service. Results In both the Republic of Mozambique and the Republic of Zambia, health workers have to practice beyond the traditional scope of their professional practice to cope with their daily tasks. They do so to ensure that their patients receive the level of care that they, the health workers, deem due to them, even in the absence of written instructions. The “out of professional scope” activities consume a significant amount of working time. On occasions, health workers are given on-the-job training to assume new roles, but job titles and rewards do not change, and career progression is unheard of. Ancillary staff and nurses are the two cadres assuming a greater diversity of functions as a result of improvised task-shifting. Conclusions Our observations show that the consequences of staff deficits and poor conditions of work include heavier workloads for those on duty, the closure of some services, the inability to release staff for continuing education, loss of quality, conflicts with patients, risks for patients, unsatisfied staff (with the exception of ancillary staff and hazards for health workers and managers. Task-shifting is openly acknowledged and widespread, informal and carries risks for patients, staff and management.

Ferrinho Paulo

2012-09-01

97

The economic value of an improved malaria treatment programme in Zambia: results from a contingent valuation survey  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Zambia is facing a double crisis of increasing malaria burden and dwindling capacity to deal with the endemic malaria burden. The pursuit of sustainable but equity mechanisms for financing malaria programmes is a subject of crucial policy discussion. This requires that comprehensive accounting of the economic impact of the various malaria programmes. Information on the economic value of programmes is essential in soliciting appropriate funding allocations for malaria control. Aims and objectives This paper specifically seeks to elicit a measure of the economic benefits of an improved malaria treatment programme in Zambia. The paper also studies the equity implications in malaria treatment given that demand or malaria treatment is determined by household socio-economic status. Methods A contingent valuation survey of about 300 Zambian households was conducted in four districts. Willingness-to-pay (WTP was elicited for an improved treatment programme for malaria in order to generate a measure of the economic benefits of the programme. The payment card method was used in eliciting WTP bids. Findings The study reports that malaria treatment has significant economic benefits to society. The total economic benefits of an improved treatment programme were estimated at an equivalent of US$ 77 million per annum, representing about 1.8% of Zambia's GDP. The study also reports the theoretically anticipated association between WTP and several socio-economic factors. Our income elasticity of demand is positive and similar in magnitude to estimates reported in similar studies. Finally, from an equity standpoint, the constraints imposed by income and socio-economic status are discussed.

Rehnberg Clas

2005-12-01

98

Visit to Zambia offers humbling reminder of privileges Canadians enjoy.  

OpenAIRE

McMaster University medical student Dale Needham is spending 6 months in Zambia, where he is focusing on HIV/AIDS research. He describes the home environment of two of his Zambian colleagues, who recently travelled to Vancouver to attend the XI International AIDS Conference.

Needham, D.

1996-01-01

99

Identifying barriers to the availability and use of Magnesium Sulphate Injection in resource poor countries: A case study in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are serious complications of pregnancy and major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. According to systematic reviews and WHO guidelines magnesium sulphate injection (MgSO4 should be the first -line treatment for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Studies have shown that this safe and effective medicine is unavailable and underutilized in many resource poor countries. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to the availability and use of MgSO4 in the Zambian Public Health System. Methods A 'fishbone' (Ishikawa diagram listing probable facilitators to the availability and use of MgSO4 identified from the literature was used to develop an assessment tool. Barriers to availability and use of MgSO4 were assessed at the regulatory/government, supply, procurement, distribution, health facility and health professional levels. The assessment was completed during August 2008 using archival data, and observations at a pragmatic sample of health facilities providing obstetric services in Lusaka District, Zambia. Results The major barrier to the availability of MgSO4 within the public health system in Zambia was lack of procurement by the Ministry of Health. Other barriers identified included a lack of demand by health professionals at the health centre level and a lack of in-service training in the use of MgSO4. Where there was demand by obstetricians, magnesium sulphate injection was being procured from the private sector by the hospital pharmacy despite not being registered and licensed for use for the treatment of severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia by the national Pharmaceutical Regulatory Authority. Conclusions The case study in Zambia highlights the complexities that underlie making essential medicines available and used appropriately. The fishbone diagram is a useful theoretical framework for illustrating the complexity of translating research findings into clinical practice. A better understanding of the supply system and of the pattern of demand for MgSO4 in Zambia should enable policy makers and stakeholders to develop and implement appropriate interventions to improve the availability and use of MgSO4.

Hill Suzanne R

2010-12-01

100

Mapping the geographical distribution of lymphatic filariasis in Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Past case reports have indicated that lymphatic filariasis (LF) occurs in Zambia, but knowledge about its geographical distribution and prevalence pattern, and the underlying potential environmental drivers, has been limited. As a background for planning and implementation of control, a country-wide mapping survey was undertaken between 2003 and 2011. Here the mapping activities are outlined, the findings across the numerous survey sites are presented, and the ecological requirements of the LF distribution are explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Approximately 10,000 adult volunteers from 108 geo-referenced survey sites across Zambia were examined for circulating filarial antigens (CFA) with rapid format ICT cards, and a map indicating the distribution of CFA prevalences in Zambia was prepared. 78% of survey sites had CFA positive cases, with prevalences ranging between 1% and 54%. Most positive survey sites had low prevalence, but six foci with more than 15% prevalence were identified. The observed geographical variation in prevalence pattern was examined in more detail using a species distribution modeling approach to explore environmental requirements for parasite presence, and to predict potential suitable habitats over unsurveyed areas. Of note, areas associated with human modification of the landscape appeared to play an important role for the general presence of LF, whereas temperature (measured as averaged seasonal land surface temperature) seemed to be an important determinant of medium-high prevalence levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: LF was found to be surprisingly widespread in Zambia, although in most places with low prevalence. The produced maps and the identified environmental correlates of LF infection will provide useful guidance for planning and start-up of geographically targeted and cost-effective LF control in Zambia.

Mwase, Enala T; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie

2014-01-01

101

How HIV/AIDS scale-up has impacted on non- HIV priority services in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Much of the debate as to whether or not the scaling up of HIV service delivery in Africa benefits non-HIV priority services has focused on the use of nationally aggregated data. This paper analyses and presents routine health facility record data to show trend correlations across priority services. Methods Review of district office and health facility client records for 39 health facilities in three districts of Zambia, covering four consecutive years (2004-07. Intra-facility analyses were conducted, service and coverage trends assessed and rank correlations between services measured to compare service trends within facilities. Results VCT, ART and PMTCT client numbers and coverage levels increased rapidly. There were some strong positive correlations in trends within facilities between reproductive health services (family planning and antenatal care and ART and PMTCT, with Spearman rank correlations ranging from 0.33 to 0.83. Childhood immunisation coverage also increased. Stock-outs of important drugs for non-HIV priority services were significantly more frequent than were stock-outs of antiretroviral drugs. Conclusions The analysis shows scale-up in reproductive health service numbers in the same facilities where HIV services were scaling up. While district childhood immunisations increased overall, this did not necessarily occur in facility catchment areas where HIV service scale-up occurred. The paper demonstrates an approach for comparing correlation trends across different services, using routine health facility information. Larger samples and explanatory studies are needed to understand the client, facility and health systems factors that contribute to positive and negative synergies between priority services.

Brugha Ruairí

2010-09-01

102

Local problems; local solutions: an innovative approach to investigating and addressing causes of maternal deaths in Zambia's Copperbelt  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality in developing countries is high and international targets for reduction are unlikely to be met. Zambia's maternal mortality ratio was 591 per 100,000 live births according to survey data (2007 while routinely collected data captured only about 10% of these deaths. In one district in Zambia medical staff reviewed deaths occurring in the labour ward but no related recommendations were documented nor was there evidence of actions taken to avert further deaths. The Investigate Maternal Deaths and Act (IMDA approach was designed to address these deficiencies and is comprised of four components; identification of maternal deaths; investigation of factors contributing to the deaths; recommendations for action drawn up by multiple stakeholders and monitoring of progress through existing systems. Methods A pilot was conducted in one district of Zambia. Maternal deaths occurring over a period of twelve months were identified and investigated. Data was collected through in-depth interviews with family, focus group discussions and hospital records. The information was summarized and presented at eleven data sharing meetings to key decision makers, during which recommendations for action were drawn up. An output indicator to monitor progress was included in the routine performance assessment tool. High impact interventions were identified using frequency analysis. Results A total of 56 maternal deaths were investigated. Poor communication, existing risk factors, a lack of resources and case management issues were the broad categories under which contributing factors were assigned. Sixty three recommendations were drawn up by key decision-makers of which two thirds were implemented by the end of the pilot period. Potential high impact actions were related to management of AIDS and pregnancy, human resources, referral mechanisms, birth planning at household level and availability of safe blood. Conclusion In resource constrained settings the IMDA approach promotes the use of existing systems to reduce maternal mortality. In turn the capacity of local health officers to use data to determine, plan and implement relevant interventions that address the local factors contributing to maternal deaths is strengthened. Monitoring actions taken against the defined recommendations within the routine performance assessment ensures sustainability. Suggestions for further research are provided.

Hadley Mary B

2011-05-01

103

Health worker shortages in Zambia: an assessment of government responses.  

Science.gov (United States)

A dire health worker shortage in Zambia's national health programs is adversely impacting the quantity and quality of health care and posing a serious barrier to achieving Millennium Development Goals to improve population health. In 2005, Zambia's Ministry of Health developed a 10-year strategic plan for human resources for health to address the crisis through improved training, hiring, and retention. The plan has neither arrested nor reduced the shortage. We review the causes of the shortage, present results from a health worker survey showing that safe work conditions, manageable workloads, and career advancement opportunities matter more to respondents than financial compensation. We comment on the adequacy of government efforts to address the health worker shortage. PMID:21850054

Gow, Jeff; George, Gavin; Mutinta, Given; Mwamba, Sylvia; Ingombe, Lutungu

2011-11-01

104

Effects of the Maize Input Subsidy Program on Groundnuts Production in Zambia  

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Full Text Available This study uses a three-wave panel dataset from nationally representative surveys by the Central Statistical Office and Cragg's (1971 model for corner-solution problems to determine the effect of the government-sponsored maize input subsidy program on the production of groundnuts in Zambia. The results show that even though the maize subsidy programme, does not significantly affect the smallholder farmer’s decision to participate in groundnuts production, maize subsidies however do significantly influence the proportion of cultivated land area allocated to groundnuts production. This finding confirms that the current high subsidy levels targeted at maize are causing farmers to relocate their productive resources, particularly land, from other cropping enterprises towards maize production. The results also show that land allocation to groundnuts is also influenced by the household's labour endowment, level of activity of the Food Reserve Agency (FRA in the district, the household's access to market information, and the price of groundnuts relative to prices of other related commodities like maize, mixed beans, cowpeas and soyabeans.

Peter Zulu

2014-06-01

105

Review of the malaria epidemiology and trends in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

A comprehensive desk review of malaria trends was conducted between 2000-2010 in Zambia to study malaria epidemiology and trends to guide strategies and approaches for effective malaria control. This review considered data from the National Health Information Management System, Malaria Surveys and Programme Review reports and analyzed malaria in-patient cases and deaths in relation to intervention coverage for all ages. Data showed three distinct epidemiological strata after a notable malaria...

Masaninga, Freddie; Chanda, Emmanuel; Chanda-kapata, Pascalina; Hamainza, Busiku; Masendu, Hieronymo T.; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Kapelwa, Wambinji; Chimumbwa, John; Govere, John; Otten, Mac; Fall, Ibrahima Soce; Babaniyi, Olusegun

2013-01-01

106

Investigating trends in HIV transmission and risk factors in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

The objective of HIV surveillance is to document trends in HIV prevalence and transmission risk in order to make informed policies and to guide prevention and care/treatment programmes. Zambia established a comprehensive HIV surveillance system in 1994 that provides data on prevalence trends in both urban and rural areas based on over 20 sentinel sites using data from antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees. Furthermore, population-based HIV surveys have been conducted regularly since...

Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard

2008-01-01

107

Poverty, inequality and growth in Zambia during the 1990s  

OpenAIRE

Zambia has undergone a dramatic transformation of economic policy during the 1990s. The election in 1991 of the Movement for Multi-party Democracy government saw the introduction of a series of major economic reforms designed to transform the Zambian economy from a relatively inward looking and state dominated economy to a outward oriented economy based upon private enterprise. A sharp stabilization early in the decade was followed by reforms to open the economy to the rest of the world inclu...

Macculloch, Neil; Baulch, Bob; Cherel-robson, Milasoa

2001-01-01

108

Effect of dry season supplementation of Sanga cattle in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Supplementation of lactating Sanga cows in central Zambia with low cost crop residues and urea-mineral licks resulted in significant increases in milk offtake (79%), total daily milk (86%), and daily liveweight gain of their calves (86%). At 1988 market prices the value of the additional milk (ZK54.00) and of liveweight of both cow and calf (ZK189.00) over the 13 weeks exceeded the estimated costs of inputs by ZK180.00. PMID:1858162

Smith, R; Pegram, R G; Burt, S; Killorn, K J; Oosterwijk, G; Paterson, A; Wilsmore, A J

1991-05-01

109

Options for Improving Smallholder Conservation Agriculture in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

This study examined the agronomic practices of smallholder Conservation Agriculture (CA) farmers in Zambia. Questionnaire survey, focus group discussions, key informant interviews, field assessments, desk study and soil analyses were employed to collect data on tillage systems, crop rotations, weed control, soil fertility management, crop residue retention and crop yields. The results showed that weed management, crop residue retention, timely planting and soil fertility management were the m...

Umar, Bridget B.; Aune, Jens B.; Johnsen, Fred H.; Lungu, Obed I.

2011-01-01

110

Innovation District  

Science.gov (United States)

Many cities are working to create innovation districts in the vein of the Silicon Valley and it can be an up-hill battle. Boston is currently working just such a district in its Seaport neighborhood and has been the recent subject of many articles, blog posts, and general discussion. As the city's official website for the district, visitors to this site can learn about physical headquarters in the District Hall building, along with details on long-term strategy, and upcoming events. Some recent posts deal with co-working spaces, networking, and more. In the Resources area visitors can learn about the various innovative businesses that are already in the neighborhood, along with others in and around Boston.

111

Molecular epidemiology of infectious bursal disease virus in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR of 10 infectious bursal disease viruses detected in indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia from 2004 to 2005 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses diverged into two genotypes and belonged to the African very virulent types (VV1 and VV2. In the phylogenetic tree, strains in one genotype clustered in a distinct group and were closely related to some strains isolated in western Africa (VV1, with nucleotide similarities of 95.7%– 96.5%. Strains in the other genotype were clustered within the eastern African VV type (VV2, with nucleotide similarities of 97.3%– 98.5%. Both genotypes were distributed in the southern parts of Zambia and had a unique conserved amino acid substitution at 300 (E?A in addition to the putative virulence marker at positions 222(A, 242(I, 256(I, 294(I and 299(S. These findings represent the first documentation of the existence of the African VV-IBDV variants in both indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia.

Christopher J. Kasanga

2013-10-01

112

Review of the malaria epidemiology and trends in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A comprehensive desk review of malaria trends was conducted between 2000-2010 in Zambia to study malaria epidemiology and trends to guide strategies and approaches for effective malaria control. This review considered data from the National Health Information Management System, Malaria Surveys and Programme Review reports and analyzed malaria in-patient cases and deaths in relation to intervention coverage for all ages. Data showed three distinct epidemiological strata after a notable malaria reduction (66%) in in-patient cases and deaths, particularly between 2000-2008. These changes occurred following the (re-)introduction and expansion of indoor residual spraying up to 90% coverage, scale-up of coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets in household from 50% to 70%, and artemisin-based combination therapy nationwide. However, malaria cases and deaths re-surged, increasing in 2009-2010 in the northern-eastern parts of Zambia. Delays in the disbursement of funds affected the implementation of interventions, which resulted in resurgence of cases and deaths. In spite of a decline in malaria disease burden over the past decade in Zambia, a reversal in impact is notable in the year 2009-2010, signifying that control gains are fragile and must be sustained to eliminate malaria. PMID:23593585

Masaninga, Freddie; Chanda, Emmanuel; Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Hamainza, Busiku; Masendu, Hieronymo T; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Kapelwa, Wambinji; Chimumbwa, John; Govere, John; Otten, Mac; Fall, Ibrahima Soce; Babaniyi, Olusegun

2013-02-01

113

Molecular epidemiology of infectious bursal disease virus in Zambia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR) of 10 infectious bursal disease viruses detected in indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia from 2004 to 2005 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses diverged into two genotypes and belonged to the African very vi [...] rulent types (VV1 and VV2). In the phylogenetic tree, strains in one genotype clustered in a distinct group and were closely related to some strains isolated in western Africa (VV1), with nucleotide similarities of 95.7% - 96.5%. Strains in the other genotype were clustered within the eastern African VV type (VV2), with nucleotide similarities of 97.3% - 98.5%. Both genotypes were distributed in the southern parts of Zambia and had a unique conserved amino acid substitution at 300 (E?A) in addition to the putative virulence marker at positions 222(A), 242(1), 256(1), 294(1) and 299(S). These findings represent the first documentation of the existence of the African VV-IBDV variants in both indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia.

Christopher J., Kasanga; Tsuyoshi, Yamaguchi; Hetron M., Munang' andu; Kenji, Ohya; Hideto, Fukushi.

114

Policy options for the sustainable development of Zambia's electricity sector  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper aims at understanding how Zambia's electricity system would be affected by droughts (due to a dry year) and how the system's adaptive capacity could be improved. Hydropower currently supplies 99% of the total electricity in Zambia, and concerns have been raised because many climate change [...] studies project increased occurrences of dry years in the Southern Africa region. Different economic and climatic scenarios were explored to understand their impact on the development of Zambia's power generation system, and what policies and strategies could be adopted to mitigate these impacts on security of supply and average generation costs, which directly affect the electricity price. The results show that a dry year has significant impact on the average generating cost since hydropower continues to dominate the system. Diversifying the system does not improve the adaptive capacity of the system but only increases the average cost of generating electricity in an average year. The most cost effective way of increasing the system's adaptive capacity is by importing electricity and gradually increasing share of renewable and coal technologies in the system. Further research on how electricity trade in Southern Africa could be enhanced, should be done.

Bernard, Tembo; Bruno, Merven.

2013-05-01

115

Why Context Matters: Understanding the Material Conditions of School-Based Caring in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

This study utilized in-depth interviewing, participant observation, and student diaries completed by participants to examine the quality of teacher-student relationships at a low-cost private school in the townships of Ndola, Zambia. Amidst economic decline and the HIV/AIDS epidemic facing Zambia today, teachers and students developed strong…

Bajaj, Monisha

2009-01-01

116

Strategies for Living with the Challenges of HIV and Antiretroviral Use in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

This study sought to identify strategies for living with the challenges of HIV and antiretroviral (ARV) use among new medication users in urban Zambia. Participants (n = 160) were recruited from urban Lusaka, Zambia. Qualitative Data was drawn from monthly ARV treatment education intervention groups addressing HIV and antiretroviral use. Themes…

Jones, Deborah; Zulu, Isaac; Mumbi, Miriam; Chitalu, Ndashi; Vamos, Szonja; Gomez, Jacqueline; Weiss, Stephen M.

2009-01-01

117

7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43 Section... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked...consignments only. (b) Immature “baby” carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp....

2010-01-01

118

Bismarck in the Bush: Year 12 Write Zambia's History for Zambian Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Peter Gray explains how his Year 12 students came to research and write a resource on the history of Zambia, for history teachers "in" Zambia. The construction of the resource stretched the Year 12 students in new ways: the Internet was useless and there were no easy digests in A-Level textbooks to get them started. They would have to read whole…

Gray, Peter

2011-01-01

119

Personal and Environmental Predictors of the Intention to Use Maternal Healthcare Services in Kalomo, Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Low maternal healthcare service utilization contributes to poor maternal and new born health outcomes in rural Zambia. The purpose of this study was to identify important factors influencing women's intention to use these services in Kalomo, Zambia. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 1007 women of…

Sialubanje, Cephas; Massar, Karlijn; Hamer, Davidson H.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.

2014-01-01

120

Sustainable Tourism in Zambia. How can development of sustainable tourism benefit small-scale tour operators in Zambia?  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether there are positive benefits for small-scale tour operators in Zambia due to the development of sustainable tourism. Since tourism is an important sector in the Zambian economy, and the government encourages self-sustainability which is positive towards poverty alleviation in its communities. The research in this paper addresses the role tourism plays, the nature of tourism resources, its benefits towards poverty alleviation and reforms used in t...

Sibeso Imbula Sveinsson 1970

2013-01-01

121

Investigating groundwater salinity in the Machile-Zambezi Basin (Zambia) with hydrogeophysical methods  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The importance of knowing the current state of groundwater resources cannot be over emphasized in rural areas in the developing countries with limited water resources. As such, innovative geophysical techniques are now part of the norm for quick and effective characterization of groundwater resources worldwide. This thesis presents the application of geo-electrical and electromagnetic methods for the investigation of groundwater salinity in the Machile-Zambezi Basin in south western Zambia, southern central Africa. Aerial and ground based transient electromagnetic measurenments were used to map the spatial distribution of apparent electrical resistivity on a regional scale in order to obtain a regional overview of groundwater salinization based on electrical resistivity correlation. Furthermore, ground based transient electromagnetic soundings and direct current and induced polarization measurements were used to investigate on a local scale, indications of surface water/ groundwater exchange from electrical resistivity anomalies coincident with alluvial fans and flood plains as deduced from the aerial electrical resistivity result. New and innovative geophysical data inversion schemes were also developed and used to gain a better explanation of the data collected. These include a new scheme for the joint inversion of direct current and induced polarization data, and transient electromagnetic data; and a new coupled hydrogeophysical inversion setup to allow for the first time the joint use of direct current and transient electromagnetic data in one optimization. The result from the regional mapping with transient electromagnetic measurenments showed a spatial distribution of electrical resistivity that indicated block faulting in the Machile-Zambezi Basin. Saline groundwater was found to occur predominantly in the low lying graben areas that are essentially an extension of the Palaeo Lake Makgadikgadi system into south western Zambia. In addition, surface water from the Zambezi River was found to interact withsaline aquifers to such an extent that the surficial physical form of alluvial fans and flood plains was visible in the spatial distribution of electrical resistivity from the aerial survey up to a depth of about 40 m. Interpretation of direct current and induced polarization, and transient electromagnetic data using the new joint inversion scheme revealed a fresh water lens overlying the saline aquifer at Kasaya in Kazungula District, Zambia. The freshwater lens appeared to be in hydraulic contact with the Zambezi River where it was thickest (60 m) and had the highest electrical resistivity values (about 200 ?m) which steadily declined to about 30 ?m whereas the thickness reduced to around 22 m at the end of the 6 600 m long transect line measured perpendicular to the Zambezi River towards the North. The distribution of chargeability along the Kasaya transect line was found to be correlated with the distribution of electrical resistivity thus giving a strong indication of the intrusion of fresh surfacewater into a pre-existing saline aquifer. It is postulated that the intrusion of fresh surface water in to the saline aquifer was driven by evapotranspiration. Finally, the new coupled hydrogeophysical inversion approach resulted in sharp estimates of hydrogeological model parameters. This was for a coupled flow and solute transport model setup for the Kasaya transect under the forcing of evapotranspiration. Performance of the coupled hydrogeophysical inversion was better with the inclusion of direct current data in comparison to the use of transient electromagnetic data alone. The broader implications of these findings is that groundwater salinization in the Machile Zambezi Basin is now known to be strongly influenced by the tectonism of the Palaeo Lake Makgadikgadi system and is therefore not expected to increase over time. Rather, surface water tends to interact with the saline aquifers in places to create freshwater lenses that are an important source of clean drinking water. Therefore, the findings of this the

Chongo, Mkhuzo

2015-01-01

122

Coprological survey of alimentary tract parasites in dogs from Zambia and evaluation of a coproantigen assay for canine echinococcosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Faecal samples were collected from the rectum of 540 domestic dogs from four districts (Lusaka, Katete, Petauke and Luangwa) in Zambia between 2005 and 2006 and prevalences of canine alimentary tract parasites were determined by coprological examination. Thirteen different ova and parasites including strongyle (43.3%), Spirocerca lupi (18.7%), taeniid (13.1%), Toxocara canis (7.6%), Sarcocystis sp.* (7.5%), Isospora sp.* (5.7%), Physaloptera sp.* (4.6%), Capillaria sp.* (2.8%), Dipylidium caninum (2.2%), Mesocestoides sp.* (2.0%), Ascaris sp.* (1.7%), Trichuris vulpis* (0.4%) and Schistosoma mansoni* (0.4%) were detected, Ascaris and Schistosoma probably originating from coprophagy. The species with asterisks and later-described Taenia multiceps are for the first time reported from dogs in Zambia. A coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoproAg-ELISA) developed for Echinococcus spp. revealed 43 positive dogs and 37 of these harboured taeniid eggs. From 63 of the 71 taeniid egg-positive samples, eggs and DNA thereof were isolated and subjected to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for differentiating E. granulosus sensu lato, E. multilocularis and Taenia spp. Amplicons indicative for Taenia spp. were obtained from 60 samples. Sequencing of amplicons spanning part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, which was possible with 38 samples, revealed 35 infections with T. hydatigena and 3 with T. multiceps. Therefore, the CoproAg-ELISA showed some positives, but concrete evidence for the existence of canine E. granulosus infection could not be established. Comparison of the results of the CoproAg-ELISA and Taenia species identification indicated that the CoproAg-ELISA cross-reacts with patent infections of T. hydatigena (57%) and T. multiceps (33%). PMID:22185947

Nonaka, N; Nakamura, S; Inoue, T; Oku, Y; Katakura, K; Matsumoto, J; Mathis, A; Chembesofu, M; Phiri, I G K

2011-10-01

123

Vancouver AIDS conference: special report. Zambia criticised for "missed opportunities".  

Science.gov (United States)

Dr. Connie Osborne of the University of Zambia School of Medicine criticized Zambia's government for missing opportunities to strengthen the extent and quality of care provided to people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWA). The government has missed opportunities to get suspected or known PLWA to enter the continuum of care. While HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention have been integrated into all basic health programs, HIV testing is done only in hospitals due to the lack of testing facilities at the program level. Testing, when done, is usually not done properly due to staff shortages, an excessive client load, and/or health personnel burn-out. It is argued that Zambia's health sector reforms fail to address the issue of HIV/AIDS care. Sick PLWA whose serostatus is known to health workers are not exempt from paying user fees at health institutions and most are unable to pay medical insurance. It remains questionable, however, whether exempting such clients from paying user fees would increase their access to effective care. Dr. Osborne noted the case of Kara Counselling, a local nongovernmental organization which has been offering both voluntary counselling and testing since 1993. An HIV test at Kara costs US$0.50. Since January 1996, Kara has tested more than 1000 clients. While approximately 40% of these individuals were found to be HIV-seropositive, only 70 seropositive clients were seen at the counseling service over the same period. Attention needs to be given to this wide gap between client testing and counseling. PMID:12347380

Whiteside, A; Winsbury, R

1996-01-01

124

Knowledge, attitude and compliance with tuberculosis treatment, Lusaka, Zambia  

OpenAIRE

More than 1.5 million TB cases occur in sub-Saharan Africa every year. Lack of compliance to TB treatment has contributed to the steady rise of TB incidence in Zambia. The prevalence of TB was 511 per 100,000 population in 2000. Much of the increase in incidence has been attributed to co-infection with HIV, there are HIV rates of 70-80% in TB patients Objectives: To determine knowledge, attitude and compliance with TB treatment by PTB patients attending chest clinic at a tertiary hospital....

Mweemba, P.; Haruzivishe, C.; Siziya, Seter; Chipimo, Peter Jay; Cristenson, K.; Johansson, E.

2008-01-01

125

Declining economy in Zambia and its impact in food security  

OpenAIRE

Zambia is a landlocked country located in southern central Africa and it is one of the poorest countries in the world and is considered a least developed country. Malnutrition is a chronic and difficult problem in this country. Agriculture is the main occupation and maize is the staple food. About 90% farmers of the country are smallholders, dependent on rain fed agriculture. After independence it was rich in food and could export maize but since 2002 it has to import maize every year. Litera...

Mohajan, Haradhan

2013-01-01

126

Phenotypic characterization of the Barotse and Tonga cattle of Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The Barotse and Tonga are among the known indigenous cattle of Zambia they belong to the Sanga cattle. Barotse cattle are long horned found predominantly in Western Province while Tonga cattle are small framed, medium to short horns with a rudimentary hump found in Southern Province of Zambia. A total of 271 mature Barotse cattle and 268 mature Tonga cattle were included in the morphological characterization study. The aim of the study was to create an understanding of the physical characteristics of the two types of cattle. The comparisons of least - square means on the dimensional measurements between the male and female mature Barotse cattle revealed that males are bigger than females. There were very high significant differences (P < 0.001) in favour of males for withers height, body length, heart girth, head length, head width and horn circumference. In Tonga cattle wither height was highly correlated to rump height, body length, heart girth, and barrel size. Body length was highly correlated to heart girth and barrel size. Barrel size was also very highly correlated (0.834) to the heart girth. The phenotypic characterization of the two cattle groups shows variations in measurements. Preliminary findings on genetic characterization using RAPD markers showed remarkable differences in the two breeds of cattle. A more comprehensive study including the production parameters and genetic variation is ongoing. (author))

127

Persistence of lindane and endosulfan under field conditions in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The persistence of lindane and endosulfan was studied under field conditions in Zambia in 1992 to 1994. Both pesticides dissipated rapidly under field conditions. About 29% and 73% of initial concentration was lost during the first 30 and 60 days after treatment, respectively in 1992. After 180 days, about 11% of the initial concentration was recovered from the soil. In 1993, 40% of initial residues were lost during the first 30 days. At 180 days after spraying, slightly more residues (25% of the initial values) were recovered at this time than in 1992. This indicated a change in the longer term behaviour of lindane in the soil since the calculated half-lives of lindane, covering the shorter term behaviour, were 55-80 days in 1992 and ? 17 days in 1993. In 1994, losses of ?-Endosulfan and ?-Endosulfan were 40% and 37% respectively during the initial 30 days after treatment. A further 25% of ?-Endosulfan and 33% of ?-Endosulfan were lost during the following 30 days. These data allow estimates of the half-lives of ?- and ?-Endosulfan (40 and 38 days) under the field conditions pertaining in Zambia at the time of the trials showing that this compound has only moderate persistence and unlikely to cause long term environmental problems. (author). 7 refs, 8 tabs

128

Child Health Week in Zambia: costs, efficiency, coverage and a reassessment of need.  

Science.gov (United States)

Child Health Weeks (CHWs) are semi-annual, campaign-style, facility- and outreach-based events that provide a package of high-impact nutrition and health services to under-five children. Since 1999, 30% of the 85 countries that regularly implement campaign-style vitamin A supplementation programmes have transformed their programmes into CHW. Using data drawn from districts' budget, expenditures and salary documents, UNICEF's CHW planning and budgeting tool and a special purposive survey, an economic analysis of the June 2010 CHW's provision of measles, vitamin A and deworming was conducted using activity-based costing combined with an ingredients approach. Total CHW costs were estimated to be US$5.7 million per round. Measles accounted for 57%, deworming 22% and vitamin A 21% of total costs. The cost per child was US$0.46. The additional supplies and personnel required to include measles increased total costs by 42%, but reduced the average costs of providing vitamin A and deworming alone, manifesting economies of scope. The average costs of covering larger, more urban populations was less than the cost of covering smaller, more dispersed populations. Provincial-level costs per child served were determined primarily by the number of service sites, not the number of children treated. Reliance on volunteers to provide 60% of CHW manpower enables expanding coverage, shortening the duration of CHWs and reduces costs by one-third. With costs of $1093 per life saved and $45 per disability-adjusted life-year saved, WHO criteria classify Zambia's CHWs as 'very cost-effective'. The continued need for CHWs is discussed. PMID:23242696

Fiedler, John L; Mubanga, Freddie; Siamusantu, Ward; Musonda, Mofu; Kabwe, Kabaso F; Zulu, Charles

2014-01-01

129

77 FR 48498 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

...sanitation, and drainage systems) and architecture...Sanitation [cir] Drainage systems [cir] Engineering and construction companies...Zambia has built a firm foundation for a Compact aimed...sanitation and drainage system that serves this...

2012-08-14

130

From project aid to sustainable HIV services: a case study from Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Introduction Sustainable service delivery is a major challenge in the HIV response that is often not adequately addressed in project implementation. Sustainable strategies must be built into project design and implementation to enable HIV efforts to continue long after donor-supported projects are completed. Case description This paper presents the experiences in operational sustainability of Family Health International's Zambia Prevention, Care and Treatment Partnership in Zambia, w...

Torpey Kwasi; Mwenda Lona; Thompson Catherine; Wamuwi Edgar; van Damme Wim

2010-01-01

131

Task-shifting HIV counselling and testing services in Zambia: the role of lay counsellors  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The human resource shortage in Zambia is placing a heavy burden on the few health care workers available at health facilities. The Zambia Prevention, Care and Treatment Partnership began training and placing community volunteers as lay counsellors in order to complement the efforts of the health care workers in providing HIV counselling and testing services. These volunteers are trained using the standard national counselling and testing curriculum. This study was conducte...

Kapanda Paul; Nyirenda Lameck; Kasonde Prisca; Simumba Caroline; Schwarzwalder Alison; Torpey Kwasi; Sanjana Parsa; Kakungu-Simpungwe Matilda; Kabaso Mushota; Thompson Catherine

2009-01-01

132

Early alcohol use and problem drinking among students in Zambia and Uganda  

OpenAIRE

Excessive alcohol use is a serious public health concern worldwide, but less attention has been given to the prevalence, risk and protective factors, and consequences of early alcohol use in low-income, developing countries. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between early alcohol use, before age 13, and problem drinking among adolescents in Uganda and Zambia. Data from students in Zambia (n=2257; 2004) and Uganda (n=3215; 2003) were obtained from the cross-sectional ...

Kasirye Rogers; Jeremiahs Twa-Twa; George Sikazwe; Nazarius Mbona Tumwesigye; Bina Ali; Jane Palmier; Swahn, Monica H.

2011-01-01

133

Impact of immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on Fournier's gangrene: observations in Zambia.  

OpenAIRE

The results of a prospective study in the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia, on the impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus on the incidence and prognosis of Fournier's gangrene is presented; Zambia has been in the grip of an HIV epidemic since the early 1980s. A total of 10 patients with an average age of 32 years was observed during a 14-month period (March 1992-April 1993); eight patients had associated HIV infection. A contributory factor to the development of Fournier's gangren...

Elem, B.; Ranjan, P.

1995-01-01

134

Taenia solium infections in a rural area of eastern Zambia; a community based study  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis is a parasitic infection occurring in many developing countries. Data on the status of human infections in Zambia is largely lacking. We conducted a community-based study in Eastern Zambia to determine the prevalence of human taeniosis and cysticercosis in a rural community. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Stool and serum samples were collected from willing participants. Geographical references of the participants' households were determined and househo...

Mwape, K. E.; Phiri, I. K.; Praet, N.; Muma, J. B.; Zulu, G.; Den Bossche, P.; Deken, R.; Speybroeck, N.; Dorny, P.; Gabrie?l, S.

2012-01-01

135

Mineralogical appraisal and beneficiation tests on some industrial minerals from Zambia  

OpenAIRE

In March 1990, a visit to Zambia was made by D A Briggs of the Mineralogy and Petrology Group on behalf of the British Geological Survey/Overseas Development Administration project "Minerals for Development". The visit, which was described in Technical Report No. WG/90/15R, aimed to establish contact with the Geological Survey Department and other organisations concerned with minerals in Zambia to offer assistance in the field of mineral resource development. This primarily involv...

Briggs, D. A.; Mitchell, C. J.

1991-01-01

136

A survey on anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep in Lusaka, Zambia  

OpenAIRE

While surveys in Southern Africa indicate anthelmintic resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to be common in small ruminants in South Africa, Kenya and Zimbabwe, there have been no reports of resistance in Zambia. The objective of this study was to determine whether anthelmintic resistance occurs in Zambia, and to obtain information on nematode control practices in the country. During the rainy season six commercial sheep farms were selected in and...

Gabriel, S.; Phiri, I. K.; Dorny, P.; Vercruysse, J.

2001-01-01

137

A survey on anthelminthic resistance in nematode parasites of sheep in Lusaka, Zambia  

OpenAIRE

While surveys in Southern Africa indicate anthelmintic resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to be common in small ruminants in South Africa, Kenya and Zimbabwe there have been no reports of resistance in Zambia. The objective of this study was to determine whether anthelmintic resistance occurs in Zambia, and to obtain information on nematode control practices in the country. During the rainy season six commercial sheep farms were selected in and around Lusaka and Chisamba. Worm control p...

Gabriel, S.; Phiri, I. K.; Dorny, P.; Vercruysse, J.

2001-01-01

138

The reach and impact of social marketing and reproductive health communication campaigns in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Like many sub-Saharan African countries, Zambia is dealing with major health issues, including HIV/AIDS, family planning, and reproductive health. To address reproductive health problems and the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Zambia, several social marketing and health communication programs focusing on reproductive and HIV/AIDS prevention programs are being implemented. This paper describes the reach of these programs and assesses their impact on condom use. Methods This paper asse...

Meekers Dominique; Van Rossem Ronan

2007-01-01

139

Rural electrification in Zambia: A policy and institutional analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating incrar, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the establishment of an independent regulator so as to stimulate private sector participation and efficiency. In addition, a Rural Electrification Fund (REF) and associated administration mechanism was established in 1995. However, RE continued to experience many challenges. In 2003, the government enacted the Rural Electrification Act leading to the establishment of an agency dedicated to RE. This paper analyses the policy, legal and institutional measures implemented in Zambia and assesses their potential or effectiveness to tackle some of the challenges facing RE in the country so as to increase access and affordability. (author)

140

Human impact on Karst: the example of Lusaka (Zambia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lusaka, the capital of Zambia with over 2,000,000 inhabitants, is built on an extensive plateau composed mainly of schists and dolomitic marbles, constituting a very important aquifer that provides the city with almost half of its drinking water needs. Recent demographic growth, leading to uncontrolled urban expansion, and mismanagement of the water resource and of urban waste has lead, in the past 20 years, to an overexploitation of the aquifer and to a generalised water quality depletion, putting in serious danger the future social and economical development of the capital. This third world city has, for these reasons, become a terrifying example of human impact on a vulnerable karst environment, and if no measures will be taken in the very near future, quality of life in the city will be at serious risk.

De Waele Jo

2003-01-01

141

Mapping the Spatial Variability of Soil Acidity in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A common strategy for ameliorating soil acidity is the application of agricultural lime. However, this measure is hampered by the lack of high resolution soil maps that can enable lime application according to the spatial variability of soil pH in an area. Therefore, this study was carried out to map soil acidity in South Eastern Zambia. The objective of the study was to apply geostatistical procedures to mapping soil acidity in the country. Ordinary kriging was performed on a set of 119 soil samples collected from the 0–20 cm soil layer whose pH was determined by the electrometric method. The kriging model that was developed was found to be satisfactory with low prediction errors (root mean square error 0.36. Thus, the map produced could be used to draw up strategies for management of soil acidity in the area.

Lydia M. Chabala

2014-10-01

142

Metallogenesis of the Nkana copper-cobalt South Orebody, Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Central African Copperbelt is one of the largest and richest metallogenic provinces in the world. Despite the many studies, the genesis of the stratiform Cu-Co-mineralization remains a subject of intense discussion. A diagenetic, pre-folding origin is proposed for most ore deposits both in Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, later mineralization and/or remobilization seem to be important in the enrichment of the ores. The geological mapping of the South Orebody mine at Nkana (Zambia) indicates a relation between the mineralization and the host rock but also with compressional deformation. The location of the rich ore bodies generally corresponds with the hinge zones of tight to isoclinal folds and with the contact between the sandstones and conglomerates of the Footwall Sandstone Formation and the overlying organic-rich shales of the Ore Formation. The circulation of the mineralizing/remobilizing fluids through the rocks was facilitated by fracturing, especially in the hinge zones of the folds resulting in a structural permeability. A petrographical study demonstrated that, in addition to disseminated sulphides, three successive vein generations occur at Nkana South Orebody, i.e. layer parallel veins, irregular, crosscutting veins and massive veins. These vein generations respectively formed during the initial phase of basin inversion, the main phase of deformation and a late phase of orogenesis or later extensional tensions. Early diagenetic disseminated framboidal pyrites were replaced by Cu-sulphides. The timing of this replacement could not be constrained. Silicification, K-feldspar alteration, albitization, carbonatization and replacement by anhydrite are the main alteration phases.

Brems, D.; Muchez, Ph.; Sikazwe, O.; Mukumba, W.

2009-10-01

143

Geologic evolution of the neoproterozoic Zambezi orogenic belt in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Neoproterozoic Zambezi belt links with the Mozambique belt, Lufilian arc, and the inland branch of the Damara belt within the regional Pan-African tectonic framework of southern Africa. The belt contains a thick supracrustal sequence deposited on older sialic basement and penetratively deformed with it during Neoproterozoic (Pan-African) orogenesis. In Zambia, where the entire width of the orogen is exposed, local bimodal volcanic rocks at the base of the sequence are overlain by psammites and pelites, which in turn are succeeded by extensive carbonate and calc-silicate rocks. Abundant scapolite in metamorphic assemblages within the belt is taken as evidence for the original presence of evaporites. The nature of the rock types and the inferred stratigraphic sequence are consistent with deposition in an intracontinental rift basin invaded by marine waters. Available isotopic age brackets for the timing of supracrusta deposition show that the basin developed between 880 nad 820 Ma. Main-phase deformation in the belt involved both transcurrent shearing and south- to southwest-vergent thrusting and was associated with predominantly amphibolite-facies regional metamorphism. Mineral assemblages throughout much of the belt in Zambia, together with limited thermobarometric data, indicate typical Barrovian-type intermediate P/T conditions during metamorphism. Eclogites and other high-pressure metamorphic assemblages in parts of the belt, however, provide evidence that significant crustal thickening occurred, presumably in relation to thrusting. Reworked basement and syntectonic granite were subjected to extensive mylonitization related to strike-slip and oblique, reverse-slip shearing. The major orogenic event is dated at c. 820 Ma, based on an igneous age for a sheet-like, syntectonic batholith injected into a transcurrent shear zone within the central part of the belt. Pan-African orogenesis along the Zambezi-Lufilian-Damara trend was diachronous and records closure of intracratonic basins in the Zambezi belt and Lufilian arc, with evidence for the involvement of oceanic lithosphere present only in the Damara belt.

Hanson, Richard E.; Wilson, Terry J.; Munyanyiwa, Hubert

1994-02-01

144

'Big push' to reduce maternal mortality in Uganda and Zambia enhanced health systems but lacked a sustainability plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past decade, "big push" global health initiatives financed by international donors have aimed to rapidly reach ambitious health targets in low-income countries. The health system impacts of these efforts are infrequently assessed. Saving Mothers, Giving Life is a global public-private partnership that aims to reduce maternal mortality dramatically in one year in eight districts in Uganda and Zambia. We evaluated the first six to twelve months of the program's implementation, its ownership by national ministries of health, and its effects on health systems. The project's impact on maternal mortality is not reported here. We found that the Saving Mothers, Giving Life initiative delivered a large "dose" of intervention quickly by capitalizing on existing US international health assistance platforms, such as the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. Early benefits to the broader health system included greater policy attention to maternal and child health, new health care infrastructure, and new models for collaborating with the private sector and communities. However, the rapid pace, external design, and lack of a long-term financing plan hindered integration into the health system and local ownership. Sustaining and scaling up early gains of similar big push initiatives requires longer-term commitments and a clear plan for transition to national control. PMID:24889956

Kruk, Margaret E; Rabkin, Miriam; Grépin, Karen Ann; Austin-Evelyn, Katherine; Greeson, Dana; Masvawure, Tsitsi Beatrice; Sacks, Emma Rose; Vail, Daniel; Galea, Sandro

2014-06-01

145

District heating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The environmental risks and uncertainties of a high-energy future are disturbing and give rise to several reservations concerning the use of fossil fuels. A number of technologies will help to reduce atmospheric pollution. In Denmark special importance is attached to the following: Energy conservation. Efficient energy conversion. Renewable energy sources. District heating, combined production of heat and power. Many agree that district heating (DH), produced by the traditional heat-only plant, and combined heat and power (CHP) have enormous potential when considering thermal efficiency and lowered environmental impacts: The basic technology of each is proven, it would be relatively simple to satisfy a substantial part of the energy demand, and their high efficiencies mean reduced pollution including greenhouse gas emissions. This is especially important in high population density areas - the obviously preferred sites for such energy generation. Compared with individual heating DH can provide a community with an operationally efficient and most often also an economically competitive heat supply. This is particularly true under the circumstances where the DH system is supplied from CHP plants. Their use results in very substantial improvements in overall efficiency. Further environmental improvements arise from the reduced air pollution obtainable in reasonably large CHP plants equipped with flue gas cleaning to remove particles, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen acids. Ass, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen acids. As a consequence of these considerations, DH plays an important role in fulfilling the space and water heating demand in many countries. This is especially the case in Denmark where this technology is utilised to a very great extent. Indeed, DH is one of the reasons why Denmark has relatively good air quality in the cities. (au)

146

The Role of State-business Relations in the Performance of Zambia’s Food Processing Sub-sector  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In ensuring growth and development collaborative State-Business relations (SBRs) matters, and with economic growth comes increasing levels of employment, options for poverty reduction and hence more equitable development. Whereas it is known that SBR matters at a macro-economic level, the concept of SBR has also been employed in a more or less all-encompassing way in the literature. Accordingly, while it is clear that SBRs work, there is lack knowledge about which dimensions of SBRs are the most important. Due to the continued importance of agriculture in many developing countries, processing of the food produced in the sector is a key manufacturing activity of high economic importance to many economies. Ensuring collaborative SBRs in the food processing industry is therefore of interest to growth and development, particularly as it is a sector about which little is known about the role of SBRs. The paper attempts to examine how and why SBRs matter to and influence the growth and performance of local owned firms in the food processing sub-sector in Zambia. In particular, the paper analyses the roles and influence of government regulations and policies compared to those of business associations for the performance of the food processing sector in Zambia. The paper draws on primary data from a survey of firms in the food processing sector which was conducted between 2013 and 2014. It is shown that while the majority of the Zambian food processing firms experienced growth over the last five years, with increased employment and in a number of cases growing earnings, this seems to have happened in spite of a business environment which is not particularly supportive. The firms’ experience is that the SBRs mainly constitute institutional barriers to the performance of firms and highlight that formal government institutions and polices are incapable of assisting the firms and in most cases government institutions formulate and enact insufficient support schemes.

Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, SØren

2014-01-01

147

The role of state- business relations in the performance of Zambia’s food processing sub-sector  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In ensuring growth and development collaborative State-Business relations (SBRs matters, and with economic growth comes increasing levels of employment, options for poverty reduction and hence more equitable development. Whereas it is known that SBR matters at a macro-economic level, the concept of SBR has also been employed in a more or less all-encompassing way in the literature. Accordingly, while it is clear that SBRs work, there is lack knowledge about which dimensions of SBRs are the most important. Due to the continued importance of agriculture in many developing countries, processing of the food produced in the sector is a key manufacturing activity of high economic importance to many economies. Ensuring collaborative SBRs in the food processing industry is therefore of interest to growth and development, particularly as it is a sector about which little is known about the role of SBRs. The paper attempts to examine how and why SBRs matter to and influence the growth and performance of local owned firms in the food processing sub-sector in Zambia. In particular, the paper analyses the roles and influence of government regulations and policies compared to those of business associations for the performance of the food processing sector in Zambia. The paper draws on primary data from a survey of firms in the food processing sector which was conducted between 2013 and 2014. It is shown that while the majority of the Zambian food processing firms experienced growth over the last five years, with increased employment and in a number of cases growing earnings, this seems to have happened in spite of a business environment which is not particularly supportive. The firms’ experience is that the SBRs mainly constitute institutional barriers to the performance of firms and highlight that formal government institutions and polices are incapable of assisting the firms and in most cases government institutions formulate and enact insufficient support schemes.

Hampwaye Godfrey

2014-12-01

148

Moving Towards Inclusive Education Policies and Practices? Basic Education for AIDS Orphans and Other Vulnerable Children in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

The global spread of HIV and AIDS has presented a major threat to development, affecting the health of the poor and many aspects of social and economic development. The greatest impact of the epidemic has been felt in sub-Saharan Africa, and Zambia ranks among the worst hit countries. The Free Basic Education Policy in Zambia upholds the right of…

Robson, Sue; Kanyanta, Sylvester Bonaventure

2007-01-01

149

Declining HIV prevalence among young pregnant women in Lusaka, Zambia / Déclin de la prévalence du VIH chez les jeunes femmes enceintes de Lusaka en Zambie / Disminución de la prevalencia de VIH entre embarazadas jóvenes en Lusaka, Zambia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Desde hace ya muchos años se aplican en Lusaka medidas de prevención de la infección por VIH. Algunos datos recientes parecen indicar que se ha producido una disminución de la seroincidencia de VIH en Zambia y en algunos países vecinos. El objetivo de este estudio fue examinar las tendenci [...] as de la seroprevalencia de VIH entre las mujeres embarazadas y parturientas entre 2002 y 2006. MÉTODOS: Analizamos las tendencias de la seroprevalencia de VIH en Lusaka a partir de dos fuentes: (i) datos prenatales de un programa de prevención de la transmisión del VIH de la madre al niño que abarcaba toda la ciudad, y (ii) datos sobre partos extraídos de dos sistemas anónimos independientes de vigilancia de la sangre de cordón umbilical aplicados en 2003 y de nuevo en 2005-2006, que permitieron obtener y analizar muestras en más del 97% de los nacimientos registrados en el sector público en cada periodo. RESULTADOS: Entre julio de 2002 y diciembre de 2006, el distrito de Lusaka analizó la serología VIH de 243 302 mujeres que recibieron atención prenatal; 54 853 (22,5%) estaban infectadas por el virus. A lo largo de ese periodo, la seroprevalencia de VIH entre las mujeres que recibieron atención prenatal y se sometieron a los análisis disminuyó de forma sostenida del 24,5% en el tercer trimestre de 2002 al 21,4% en el último trimestre de 2006 (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: HIV prevention has been ongoing in Lusaka for many years. Recent reports suggest a possible decline in HIV sero-incidence in Zambia and some neighbouring countries. This study aimed to examine trends in HIV seroprevalence among pregnant and parturient women between 2002 and 2006. METHODS: [...] We analysed HIV seroprevalence trends from two Lusaka sources: (i) antenatal data from a city-wide programme to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission, and (ii) delivery data from two anonymous unlinked cord-blood surveillances performed in 2003 and again in 2005-2006, where specimens from > 97% of public-sector births in each period were obtained and analysed. FINDINGS: Between July 2002 and December 2006, the Lusaka district tested 243 302 antenatal women for HIV; 54 853 (22.5%) were HIV infected. Over this period, the HIV seroprevalence among antenatal attendees who were tested declined steadily from 24.5% in the third quarter of 2002 to 21.4% in the last quarter of 2006 (P

Elizabeth M, Stringer; Namwinga T, Chintu; Jens W, Levy; Moses, Sinkala; Benjamin H, Chi; Jubra, Muyanga; Marc, Bulterys; Maximilian, Bweupe; Karen, Megazzini; Jeffrey SA, Stringer.

2008-09-01

150

Anthelmintic efficacy in captive wild impala antelope (Aepyceros melampus) in Lusaka, Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been an increase in the number of wild ungulates kept in captivity for ecotourism and conservation in Zambia and these animals are susceptible to a number of diseases including gastrointestinal helminth infections. Surveys to determine anthelmintic efficacy to gastrointestinal nematodes in captive-wildlife are not common and there have been no reports of anthelmintic resistance in captive-wildlife in Zambia. This study was carried out to determine the efficacy of the benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole in captive wild impala (Aepyceros melampus) in Zambia. During the month of April 2011, at the end of the rainy season, the faecal egg count reduction test was performed at a private game facility for assessing anthelmintic efficacy of oral fenbendazole and the anthelmintic treatment showed an efficacy of 90%. Haemonchus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. were the predominant genera present before treatment, but Haemonchus spp. larvae were the only genus recovered from the faecal cultures after anthelmintic treatment. This represents the first documentation of anthelmintic treatment failure in captive wild-antelopes in Zambia. It also demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the common traditional practice of deworming captive-wild antelopes at the end of the rainy season due to the rapid re-infection of impala that occurs due to high pasture infectivity. Suggestions on changes to current anthelmintic use/practices that will make them more efficacious and reduce the possibility of development of anthelmintic resistance in captive wild game in Zambia are also made. PMID:22115945

Nalubamba, King S; Mudenda, Ntombi B

2012-05-25

151

Adherence to the Food and Agricultural Organization guidelines on trypanocide usage among cattle farmers in Itezhi tezhi, Central Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trypanocides will continue to play an important role in the control of tsetse fly transmitted trypanosomosis now and in the near future. The drugs are mostly administered by farmers without any veterinary supervision leading to misuse and under dosing of medication, and these could be factors that promote trypanocidal drug resistance (TDR) development. In order to delay or prevent TDR, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) recommended guidelines on trypanocide use. It is not known if these recommended guidelines are adhered to in Itezhi tezhi district of Zambia. A survey was undertaken to examine how socio-economic and environmental factors were associated with adherence to the recommended guidelines on trypanocide use in Itezhi tezhi, Central Zambia. Ninety farmers who use trypanocides were interviewed using a questionnaire to collect their socio-economic characteristics (age, education in years, cattle herd size, competence on trypanocide use and their access to extension on trypanocide use) and trypanocide usage practices while crush pens which they use were stratified according to location, whether in the Game Management Area (GMA) (Mutenda, Itumbi, Kapulwe and Banachoongo) or non-GMA (Iyanda, New Ngoma and Shinampamba) as an environmental factor. Associations and measures of associations to adherence of FAO guidelines were determined. The results showed that 25.6% of the farmers adhered to guidelines by FAO on trypanocide use and that none of the socio-economic factors under investigation were significantly associated with it. Further the farmers that used crush pens that were in the GMA had an 80% reduction in the likelihood of adhering to the FAO guidelines on trypanocide use than those that used crush pens in the non-GMA (AOR 0.20, 95% CI: 0.05-0.81, P=0.02). There was low adherence to the recommended FAO guidelines on trypanocide use and it was associated with the location of the crush pen whether in the GMA or not, as an environmental factor. With farmers in the GMA less likely to adhere to FAO guidelines than those in the non-GMA, we recommend an integrated approach of measures to control trypanosomosis in the GMA of Itezhi tezhi to lessen overuse of trypanocides by the farmers. PMID:25740569

Mbewe, Njelembo J; Sitali, Lungowe; Namangala, Boniface; Michelo, Charles

2015-04-15

152

Regulatory framework, strategy and radioactive waste management in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Zambia is involved in the peaceful application in Nuclear Science and Technology which cover the agriculture, human health, industry, research and education sectors. In the execution of the projects various radioactive sources and radioisotopes are used. The data from the Radiation Protection Board show that there are 136 organizations and 971 Radiation workers benefit from the regulatory control and personnel Dosimetry service that is provided by the Board. The radiation user institutions are broken down as follows: medical (106), industrial (18), research (10) and (2) in teaching. The radioactive waste generated and spent sources are managed, in several ways depending on the type . In addition to radioactive waste generated by various application there are new developments concerning the management of spent sources mainly brought into control by the detection of illicit trade or trafficking activities by the Police, Drug Enforcement Commission, and the vigilant people of the community. The challenge for Zambia is to set-up a Radioactive Waste Management Facility preferably under the National Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research (NISIR). The RPB should legally designate NISIR for this function and assist to have the Government provide support that is required to have an operation and effective facility. One Radioactive Waste Interim Storage Shed at Kalulushi. This shed was put up by a copper mining conglomerate which now has been privatized. It is hoped that this facility can be licensed by Radiation Protection Board to be run by private enterprise for storage of prescribed spent radioactive sources and materials. This shed should be technically competent persons and should have good equipment for the purpose. The application in industry (NDT, mining, radiation sterilization, pipeline and construction, human health (nuclear medicine, radioimmunoassay and radiotherapy practices) and agriculture (use of P-32) required that a National Strategy for the management of the spent radioactive materials and the waste materials from the practices be developed with Radiation Protection Board playing a leading role. The International Atomic Energy Agency will continue to be a major cooperating partner in the development of this capacity through die technical expertise, equipment, technical literature and training fellowships that can be provided through the Technical Cooperation Programme. (author)

153

The Impact of Tuberculosis on Zambia and the Zambian Nursing Workforce  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Zambia, the incidence of tuberculosis (TB has greatly increased in the last 10 years. This article describes Zambia and highlights the country’s use of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals as a framework to guide TB treatment programmes. An overview of TB in Zambia is provided. Data related to TB cases at the county’s main referral hospital, the University Teaching Hospital (UTH, is discussed. Treatment policies and barriers are described. Zambian nurses have been greatly affected by the rise in the morbidity and mortality of nurses with TB. This article explains the impact of TB on the Zambian nursing workforce. Review of Zambian government programmes designed to address this health crisis and targeted interventions to reduce TB among nurses are offered.

Dorothy Chanda

2006-01-01

154

Preliminary investigation of trypanosomosis in exotic dog breeds from Zambia's Luangwa and Zambezi valleys using LAMP.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract. Canine African trypanosomosis (CAT) is rarely reported in the literature. In this preliminary study, we evaluated the performance of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) against microscopy to detect CAT in six exotic dog breeds naturally infected with trypanosomes from Zambia's South Luangwa National Park and Chiawa Game Management Area. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CAT in Zambia. The patients exhibited a variety of aspecific clinical signs. The LAMP did not only confirm all six parasitologically positive CAT cases detected passively between April 2010 and January 2012, but was also critical in trypanosome speciation. According to LAMP, the majority of the dogs had monolytic infections with either Trypanosoma congolense or Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. The LAMP is thus a potential simple and cost-effective tool for trypanosome diagnosis in endemic regions. The rare report of zoonotic trypanosomes in dogs in Zambia has public health implications and justifies further investigations of CAT. PMID:23716412

Namangala, Boniface; Oparaocha, Elizabeth; Kajino, Kiichi; Hayashida, Kyoko; Moonga, Ladslav; Inoue, Noboru; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Sugimoto, Chihiro

2013-07-01

155

Sugar Value Chain in Zambia: An Assessment of the Growth Opportunities and Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to identify the major actors in Zambia’s sugar value chain and to assess the growth opportunities and constraints faced by the sub-sector. The study results show that the sugar sub-sector accounts for about 4% of the Gross Domestic Product and 6% of total national exports in Zambia. The sugar industry in Zambia is a monopolistic market structure dominated by one firm, Zambia Sugar Plc., which contributes over 90% of the total national sugar production. Zambia is one of the lowest cost producers of sugar globally. Growth in the sugar industry therefore holds great prospects for economic diversification and employment creation. Despite being a low cost sugar producer, growth of the sub-sector is constrained by high transaction costs. These include high fuel, electricity, transportation and distribution costs. Legislation on Vitamin A fortification of sugar also increases production costs and is a significant barrier to entry for potential entrants. Moreover, water rights and insecurity associated with customary land tenure have also emerged as major issues requiring attention to enhance investments into the sector. The situation is aggravated by lack of an articulate sugar sector policy to provide strategic guidance for sector development. In order to attract private sector investment and enhance growth; government policy should assure water rights and land tenure security for establishment of sugar plantations. There is also need to clarify government policy on bio-fuels as well as to review the export strategy to reduce dependence on EU markets and explore alternative regional markets.

Thomson Kalinda

2014-01-01

156

Women poverty in Zambia, incidences and causes:a case study of small-scale rural agricultural women of Kalomo district, Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Women poverty debate has been part of the global poverty debates since the 1970s. Many research reports and publication on poverty reveals that women are disproportionary poorer than men (Jazairy et al 1992, World Bank 2000c, Momsen 2004). The incidences of poverty are high among rural women farmers than in urban area. The women poverty differential between rural and urban areas is attributed to the economic activities the said poor are involved in. Women farmers are said to be poor because t...

Siachiyako, Getrude

2006-01-01

157

Uranium mineralization in the Karroo system of Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Karroo geology of Zambia with respect to uranium mineralization is outlined and compared with the sandstone deposits of western United States of America. Whereas numerous uranium anomalies are known in the Karroo System, those of the Escarpment Grit Formation in the mid-Zambezi Valley would appear to be significant. Airborne radiometric survey did not always reflect the mineralization recorded on the ground. Several other Karroo anomalies are still to be traversed. Porosity, permeability, clay traps, micas and reducing lithologies are the major factors controlling mineralization. The present loci of mineralization are a function of the remobilization brought about by fluctuating water table, dip of strata and structure. While most of the deposits contain secondary uranium minerals, pitchblende has been recorded in two areas, and probably reflects the 'primary' ore. The deposits are primarily sheet-like, concordant to discordant units. The source for uranium would appear to be the Katanga and basement rocks to the north-north east and north-west. The results of the last three years of investigation support further work and already a number of low to medium scale deposits have been outlined, thus warranting further intensive large-scale investigation. (author)

158

Proterozoic strata-bound uranium deposits of Zambia and Zaire  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Katanga System, host to uranium and copper mineralisation, is several thousands of metres thick and rests unconformably on an older complex of crystalline rocks and metasediments and is locally covered by Karoo sandstones or Kalahari sands. The deposition of the Katanga System took place during the Late Proterozoic in a wide complex basin extending from Shaba province in Zaire through a large part of Zambia and into eastern Angola. The sediments were affected by different grades of metamorphism, tectonic events, and by thermal events associated with post-tectonic metamorphism. At the base of Katanga system there are 84 known copper deposits and 42 uranium occurrences. It is suggested that all the known uranium and copper occurrences are of an essentially syngenetic sedimentary origin. The mineralisation is found in the Lower Roan Formation near the base of the Katanga System occurring in rocks produced in similar environmental conditions and thus being stratigraphic controlled, however, their areal distribution is localised producing a regional metal zonation. Many of the uranium occurrences have a typical vein aspect. These transgressive relationships are not inconsistent with a syngenetic origin as evidenced by the vein morphology. (author)

159

Theileriosis control modelling (experiences from Southern Province, Zambia).  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of different tick-borne disease control strategies on cattle productivity are simulated based on a 30-year herd projection, calculated by a modified Markov Chain model. Input data can be grouped in technical, economic and epidemiological parameters. The output is a set of economic parameters such as benefit/cost ratio (BCR), net present value (NPV) of the profit, internal rate of return (IRR), total economic cost (TEC) as well as graphs showing animal production over time. Shadow prices are obtained for input and output in kind. Throughout the calculations a distinction is made between transactions in cash and transactions in kind. A case study was run for Southern Province, Zambia, to illustrate the model. Either vector control or treatment, or a combination of these, controls theileriosis at farm level after natural infection. Preventive immunization against the parasite is also possible. Although the calculations are based on a mixture of data obtained from literature, field experience, expert opinion and assumptions, the importance of theileriosis control is clearly indicated. Immunization gives better economic results than chemotherapy. Vector control can only be used as a last resort. PMID:10540313

Penne, K; D'Haese, L

1999-09-01

160

On Intelligent District Heating  

OpenAIRE

Intelligent district heating is the combination of traditional district heating engineering and modern information and communication technology. A district heating systemis a highly complex environment consisting of a large number of distributed entities, and this complexity and geographically dispersed layout suggest that they are suitable for distributed optimization and management. However, this would in practice imply a transition from the classical production-cent...

Johansson, Christian

2014-01-01

161

Extremely Drug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Senftenberg Infections in Patients in Zambia.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Two cases of extremely drug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg isolated from patients in Zambia were investigated by utilizing MIC determinations and whole-genome sequencing. The isolates were resistant to, and harbored genes toward, nine drug classes, including fluoroquinolones and extended-spectrum cephalosporins, contained two plasmid replicons, and differed by 93 single-nucleotide polymorphisms.

Hendriksen, Rene S.; Joensen, Katrine Grimstrup

2013-01-01

162

Factors Contributing to the Failure to Use Condoms among Students in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored factors that may predict condom use among college and high school students in Zambia. Using the Social Cognitive Theory, this study examined the relationship of drinking behaviors, alcohol-sexual expectations, education level, and religion to condom use among 961 students. The results of the study show that condom use was low…

Mbulo, Lazarous; Newman, Ian M.; Shell, Duane F.

2007-01-01

163

Assessment of Dissolved Heavy Metal Pollution in Five Provinces of Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Zambia’s economy is hinged on mining activities with Cu being the main metal. Zn and Pb were mined at one point in Kabwe town. There are also known deposits of Co and Mn. The study focused on comparing heavy metal pollution from different regions across Zambia with a view of determining the impact of the stage of social development and economic activities on the environment. The water analysed was obtained near dump sites,farmlands, pit latrines, water reservoirs or dams, major rivers and small streams that traverse Lusaka city and towns in the Copperbelt,and water from several public taps. Analysis revealed that Mn was the largest pollution factor study areas; groundwater both near illegal dumpsites and on-site sanitation facilities did not reveal any severe pollution problems beyond drinking water permissible values (PV. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA and Pearson correlation (r found a strong correlation between Mn, and the two metals - Cu and Ni at r= 0.632 andr= 0.676 respectively. The other parameters (Cd, Cr, As, Zn & Pb were not a significant factor in explaining the dissolved metal pollution in Zambia.

Kabunga NACHIYUNDE

2013-01-01

164

Using Images to Promote Reflection: An Action Research Study in Zambia and Tanzania  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper focuses on the use of images to promote reflection and analysis of inclusive practices. The image-based work was set in the context of a two-year action research study, which took place in Tanzania and Zambia, 2001-2003, in collaboration with researchers from the Enabling Education Network (EENET), based at the University of…

Miles, Susie; Kaplan, Ian

2005-01-01

165

Un/Doing Gender? A Case Study of School Policy and Practice in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores an attempt to disrupt gender inequality in a unique, low-cost private school in Ndola, Zambia. It examines deliberate school policies aimed at "undoing gender" or fostering greater gender equity. These include efforts to maintain gender parity at all levels of the school and the requirement that both young men and women carry…

Bajaj, Monisha

2009-01-01

166

Resource Utilization and Costs of Care prior to ART Initiation for Pediatric Patients in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Objective. We estimated time to initiation, outpatient resource use, and costs of outpatient care during the 6 months prior to ART initiation for HIV-infected pediatric patients in Zambia. Methods. We enrolled 1,102 children who initiated ART at

Iyer, Hari S.; Scott, Callie A.; Deophine Lembela Bwalya; Gesine Meyer-Rath; Crispin Moyo; Carolyn Bolton Moore; Larson, Bruce A.; Sydney Rosen

2014-01-01

167

Modern Contraceptive and Dual Method Use among HIV-Infected Women in Lusaka, Zambia  

OpenAIRE

HIV-infected women in sub-Saharan Africa are at substantial risk of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Linkages between HIV and reproductive health services are advocated. We describe implementation of a reproductive health counseling intervention in 16 HIV clinics in Lusaka, Zambia. Between November 2009 and ...

Chibwesha, Carla J.; Li, Michelle S.; Matoba, Christine K.; Mbewe, Reuben K.; Chi, Benjamin H.; Stringer, Jeffrey S. A.; Stringer, Elizabeth M.

2011-01-01

168

HIV Testing among Adolescents in Ndola, Zambia: How Individual, Relational, and Environmental Factors Relate to Demand  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined how individual, relational and environmental factors related to adolescent demand for HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). A cross-sectional survey among randomly selected 16-19-year-olds in Ndola, Zambia, covered individual (e.g., HIV knowledge), environmental (e.g., distance), and relational factors (e.g., discussed…

Denison, Julie A.; McCauley, Ann P.; Dunnett-Dagg, Wendy A.; Lungu, Nalakwanji; Sweat, Michael D.

2009-01-01

169

International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) mission to Zambia. The IUREP Orientation Phase mission to Zambia estimates that the Speculative Resources of that country fall within the range of 33 000 and 100 000 tonnes uranium. The majority of these resources are believed to exist in the Karoo sediments. Other potentially favourable geological environments are the Precambrian Katanga sediments, as well as intrusive rocks of different chemical compositions and surficial duricrusts. Previous unofficial estimates of Zambia's Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR) and Estimated Additional Resources (EAR) are considered to be still valid: the total RAR amount to 6 000 tonnes uranium, located in Karoo (4 000 tonnes) and Katanga (2 000 tonnes) sediments, while the EAR are believed to total 4 000 tonnes being found only in Karoo sediments. The mission recommends that approximately US$ 40 million be spent on uranium exploration in Zambia over 10 years. The largest part of this expenditure would be for drilling, while the remainder should be spent on airborne and ground surveys, as well as on interpretative work on previous airborne data, Landsat imageries, etc. (author)

170

Exploring Understandings of Inclusion in Schools in Zambia and Tanzania Using Reflective Writing and Photography  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article I explore insights gained from participating in an exploratory, small-scale study led by the Enabling Education Network (EENET) in 17 schools in northern Zambia and five schools in Tanzania. Facilitating South-based research, while based in a Northern university, raises complex ethical issues about voice and control which are…

Miles, Susie

2011-01-01

171

Role of partnership in enhancing the performance of radiation regulatory authority in Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The National Radiation Infrastructure includes legislation, human resource, technical capacity to execute responsibilities of the regulatory (1). In cases of developing countries like Zambia, special challenges arise in view of the constraints both in terms of human resource and funding. This paper will highlight same measures that may be undertaken to improve the operations of nation radiation protection infrastructure. The measures include collaboration with Science and Technology organisations that have technical capacity, delegation of responsible to key institutions that may have competence and generation of funds through training and provision of reliable quality service. (2). In Zambia, some achievements in this line have been registered by Radiation Protection Board working with the University of Zambia and National Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research (3). Some measures of generation of funds have been done though utilization of the generated remains to be the limiting factor to exploit fully benefits that may arise from the use of the monies generated from services. Partnerships with private sector may be used as regulatory authorities for support to its programme in particular the public awareness campaign. Sponsorship by a Private Cellar Phone Company (Telecel Zambia) and Rotary Club of Lusaka for Radiation Week to Radiation Protection Service under Theme 'Safe Radiation Use' is one such an example. The other opportunity is the technical cooperation with regional and international organisations such as SADC, IAEA, WHO, Interpol, EU and WCO for technical capacity building, human resource development and information access. (author)

172

Inquiry-Based Science Education: A Scenario on Zambia's High School Science Curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is aimed at elucidating the current state of inquiry-based science education (IBSE) in Zambia's high school science curriculum. Therefore, we investigated Zambian teachers' conceptions of inquiry; determined inquiry levels in the national high school science curriculum materials, which include syllabi, textbooks and practical exams; and…

Chabalengula, Vivien M.; Mumba, Frackson

2012-01-01

173

The Information Marketing Concept and the Implementation of National Information Policy (NIP) in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the purpose of a national information policy in general, the process that led to the formation of such a policy in Zambia, and the requirements for its successful implementation. Particular attention is paid to the concept of information marketing. It is argued that such a concept would be an implementation requirement if…

Lundu, Maurice C.

174

Beyond a Learning Society? It Is All to Be Done Again: Zambia and Zimbabwe  

Science.gov (United States)

This article considers the ways in which educators and learning societies in Zambia and Zimbabwe have had to struggle to create independent, democratic and critical curricula in difficult circumstances over the last 50 years in the context of historical shifts in power, a declining British Empire and the re-emergence of reactionary forces at a…

Alexander, David

2006-01-01

175

Sedimentology, hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry of Machile Basin, Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An important environmental problem in arid to semi-arid regions of the world is salinisation of water resources. Moreover, most of these regions are inhabited by poor communities in developing countries, with limited or no financial resources to develop suitable alternatives to meet their basic water needs. With increasing world population and increasing effects of climate change, groundwater resources are seen as a suitable alternative. However, the exploitation of groundwater in these regions requires knowledge of aquifer structure and genesis, and mechanisms that control hydrochemistry. Water resources practioners in arid and semi-arid regions accept that future development of groundwater resources depends largely on the degree and rate of salinisation. This PhD study focuses on investigating the sedimentological and hydro-geochemical conditions that have shaped the groundwater environment in Western Zambia to the present hydrogeology, in particular the origin and dynamics of groundwater salinity. The casestudy is the Machile Basin of south-western Zambia, a semi-arid region on the northern extension of a desiccated lake system – Palaeo-lake Makgadikgadi (PLM), southern Africa. PLM is a palaeo-mega endorheic lake system that was formed due to tectonic disruptions in the Early Pleistocene (speculated at c. 1.4 Ma). The lake has sustained several lake levels, with the highest level at ~995 m above mean sea level (amsl) and became largely desiccated in the Late Pleistocene (probably by c. 500 ka). Methods used in the field and laboratory included: deep borehole drilling, geophysical borehole logging, groundwater table measurements, sediment dating (with optically stimulated luminescence - OSL), mineralogical analysis (XRD and SEM), groundwater tracers (18O, 2H, 3H/3He, 14C), hydrochemistry (including pore-water), cation exchange capacity and sediment dilution experiments. Unconsolidated sediment samples at intermittent depths up to 50 m below ground level (bgl) were retrieved from a 100 m bgl research borehole.Sediment XRD analysis shows that the sediment has predominantly silicate minerals (quartz and feldspars) with whitish nodule like structures detected to be bassanite (dehydrated gypsum), whereas carbonates (calcite and dolomite) were below detection by XRD; a simple acid test, however, validated the presence of carbonates. OSL dating showed that the sediments are old (> 300 ka) and cannot be accurately constrained as the quartz mineral grains are fully or nearly saturated. The sediment pack shows conditions of palaeo-environmental changes of wet and dry conditions (based on microfossils and facies changes) depositing fluvio-lacustrine sediments (sand, silt and clay intercalations); geophysical logging delineated and resolved these sediments well, showing high salinity down to the basement rocks at 100 m bgl. Within the Machile Basin, the groundwater table has a low hydraulic gradient in the central palaeo-lake sediment region, characterized by brackish-saline water, and higher gradients in the fresh water fringe region. The fresh water is typically Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Na-HCO3 dominated due to silicate weathering, whereas, the saline groundwater is Na-SO4-Cl dominated, the result of sustained dedolomitization and ion exchange processes as modelled using the geochemical code PHREEQC. The groundwater ages along a flow line using 14C and 3H/3He are 300 ka), suggesting pluvial climatic recharge process during Late Pleistocene (> 30-20 ka) and Holocene (8-4.5 ka) that induced partial leaching of the sediments. Stable water isotopes (2H and 18O) data suggest that groundwater receives meteoric recharge; however most of this water is lost to evapo-transpiration rendering the saline environment a virtually stagnant groundwater zone without any through flow. Fresh groundwater is therefore hosted in the near-surface zone (such as river channels, palaeo drainages and alluvial deltaic features) within the PLM region. This study supports a tectonically controlled evolution of PLM in which hydrological feedbacks were secondary proces

Banda, Kawawa Eddy

2015-01-01

176

Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes circulating in Ndola, Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is one of the major public health problems in Zambia. However, information about lineages of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC isolates useful for epidemiology investigations is unknown. In this study, we investigated the diversity of MTBC isolates from Ndola, a typical Zambian urbanized city with a documented high HIV prevalence. Methods This was part of a prospective cohort study in subjects with sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB. Spoligotyping was used to genotype the MTBC isolates and establish the circulating lineages. The 15-locus Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units - Variable Number Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR typing was used to study recent transmission. Results A total of 98 different spoligotypes were identified among 273 MTBC isolates. The majority (64.8% of the isolates belonged to 9 known families, while 96 (35.2% of the isolates were orphans. While LAM (41.8% was the largest spoligotype family observed, most of the isolates (87.7% belonging to the SAF1 family, with a significant portion coming from the T (13.6%, and X (5.9% families. A few isolates (3.6% belonged to the CAS, EAI, H, S, X1-LAM9 or U families. MIRU-VNTR typing was highly discriminatory (h = 0.988 among the 156 isolates tested in our sample, and increased the discrimination among 82 SAF1 isolates from 6 to 46 distinct patterns. In addition, 3.2% (5/156 of cases with available MIRU-VNTR results harbored more than one MTBC strain. Conclusions Our findings show a limited diversity of MTBC in Ndola with a high clustering rate (37.7%, which indicates that recent transmission plays an appreciable role in the dynamics of TB disease in this setting. This conclusion emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and timely treatment. The results also confirm that MIRU-VNTR typing is suitable for studying the molecular epidemiology of TB in Ndola.

Mwakazanga David

2010-06-01

177

Brucellosis among smallholder cattle farmers in Zambia: public health significance.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross-sectional study was performed in Southern and Lusaka provinces of Zambia between March and September 2008 to estimate Brucella seroprevalence in cattle kept by smallholder dairy farmers (n = 185). Rose Bengal test (RBT) was used as a screening test followed by confirmation with competitive ELISA (c-ELISA). We investigated 1,323 cattle, of which 383 had a history of receiving vaccination against brucellosis and 36 had a history of abortion. Overall seroprevalence was 6.0% with areas where vaccination was practiced having low seroprevalence. Age was associated with Brucella seropositivity (P = 0.03) unlike cattle breed (P = 0.21) and sex (P = 0.32). At area level, there was a negative correlation (Corr. coeff = -0.74) between percentage of animals with brucellosis vaccination history (vaccination coverage) and level of brucellosis; percentage of animals with history of abortion (Corr. coeff. = -0.82) and brucellosis vaccination coverage. However, a positive correlation existed between brucellosis infection levels with percentage of animals having a history of abortion (Corr. coeff. = 0.72). History of vaccination against brucellosis was positively associated with a positive Brucella result on RBT (P = 0.004) whereby animals with history of vaccination against brucellosis were more likely to give a positive RBT test results (OR = 1.52). However, the results of c-ELISA were independent of history of Brucella vaccination (P = 0.149) but was positively associated with history of abortion (OR = 4.12). Our results indicate a relatively low Brucella seroprevalence in cattle from smallholder dairy farmers and that vaccination was effective in reducing cases of Brucella infections and Brucella-related abortions. Human exposure to Brucella through milk from smallholder farmers could result through milk traded on the informal market since that milk is not processed and there no quality and safety controls. PMID:21947888

Muma, John Bwalya; Pandey, Girja Shankar; Munyeme, Musso; Mumba, Chisoni; Mkandawire, Ethel; Chimana, Henry Mwelwa

2012-04-01

178

News about district heating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following a brief description of national and international experience, the author outlines the market chances of district heating. He then discusses the marketing action required to enable further expansion of district heating as well as the continued need for subsidising district heating because of the low level of energy prices. The technical discussion focusses on the separation of the Graz district heating system from the Mellach district-heating power station as well as on the experience gathered so far with the REFUNA project in Switzerland. (Auth.)

179

The reach and impact of social marketing and reproductive health communication campaigns in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Like many sub-Saharan African countries, Zambia is dealing with major health issues, including HIV/AIDS, family planning, and reproductive health. To address reproductive health problems and the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Zambia, several social marketing and health communication programs focusing on reproductive and HIV/AIDS prevention programs are being implemented. This paper describes the reach of these programs and assesses their impact on condom use. Methods This paper assesses the reach of selected radio and television programs about family planning and HIV/AIDS and of communications about the socially marketed Maximum condoms in Zambia, as well as their impact on condom use, using data from the 2001–2002 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey. To control for self-selection and endogeneity, we use a two-stage regression model to estimate the effect of program exposure on the behavioural outcomes. Results Those who were exposed to radio and television programs about family planning and HIV/AIDS were more likely to have ever used a condom (OR = 1.16 for men and 1.06 for women. Men highly exposed to Maximum condoms social marketing communication were more likely than those with low exposure to the program to have ever used a condom (OR = 1.48, and to have used a condom at their last sexual intercourse (OR = 1.23. Conclusion Findings suggest that the reproductive health and social marketing campaigns in Zambia reached a large portion of the population and had a significant impact on condom use. The results suggest that future reproductive health communication campaigns that invest in radio programming may be more effective than those investing in television programming, and that future campaigns should seek to increase their impact among women, perhaps by focusing on the specific constrains that prevent females from using condoms.

Meekers Dominique

2007-12-01

180

Evaluation of a task-shifting strategy involving peer educators in HIV care and treatment clinics in Lusaka, Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rapid expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART and a shortage of health care workers (HCWs required the implementation of a peer educator (PE model as part of a task-shifting strategy in Lusaka District clinics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient and staff perceptions regarding whether the PE program: a relieved the workload on professional HCWs; and b delivered services of acceptable quality. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered from five primary care clinics delivering ART in Lusaka, Zambia. Closed surveys were conducted with 148 patients receiving ART, 29 PEs, and 53 HCWs. Data was imported into Microsoft Excel to calculate descriptive statistics. Six focus group discussions and eight key informant (KI interviews were conducted, recorded, transcribed, and coded to extract relevant data. Survey results demonstrated that 50 of 53 (96.1% HCWs agreed PEs reduced the amount of counseling duties required of HCWs. HCWs felt that PEs performed as well as HCWs in counseling patients (48 of 53; 90.6% and that having PEs conduct counseling enabled clinical staff to see more patients (44 of 53; 83%. A majority of patients (141 of 148; 95.2% agreed or strongly agreed that PEs were knowledgeable about ART, and 89 of 144 (61.8% expressed a high level of confidence with PEs performing counseling and related tasks. Focus group and KI interviews supported these findings. PEs helped ease the work burden of HCWs and provided effective counseling, education talks, and adherence support to patients in HIV care. Consideration should be given to formalizing their role in the public health sector.

Lonny J. Born

2012-03-01

181

The burden of knowing: balancing benefits and barriers in HIV testing decisions. a qualitative study from Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Client-initiated HIV counselling and testing has been scaled up in many African countries, in the form of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT. Test rates have remained low, with HIV-related stigma being an important barrier to HIV testing. This study explored HIV testing decisions in one rural and one urban district in Zambia with high HIV prevalence and available antiretroviral treatment. Methods Data were collected through 17 in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions with individuals and 10 in-depth interviews with counsellors. Interpretive description methodology was employed to analyse the data. Results 'To know your status' was found to be a highly charged concept yielding strong barriers against HIV testing. VCT was perceived as a diagnostic device and a gateway to treatment for the severely ill. Known benefits of prevention and early treatment were outweighed by a perceived burden of knowing your HIV status related to stigma and fear. The manner in which the VCT services were organised added to this burden. Conclusions This study draws on social stigma theory to enhance the understanding of the continuity of HIV related stigma in the presence of ART, and argues that the burden of knowing an HIV status and the related reluctance to get HIV tested can be understood both as a form of label-avoidance and as strong expressions of the still powerful embodied memories of suffering and death among non-curable AIDS patients over the last decades. Hope lies in the emerging signs of a reduction in HIV related stigma experienced by those who had been tested for HIV. Further research into innovative HIV testing service designs that do not add to the burden of knowing is needed.

Jürgensen Marte

2012-01-01

182

A quasi-experimental evaluation of an interpersonal communication intervention to increase insecticide-treated net use among children in Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents results from an evaluation of the effect of a community health worker (CHW –based, interpersonal communication campaign (IPC for increasing insecticide-treated mosquito net (ITN use among children in Luangwa District, Zambia, an area with near universal coverage of ITNs and moderate to low malaria parasite prevalence. Methods A quasi-experimental community randomized control trial was conducted from 2008 to 2010. CHWs were the unit of randomization. Cross-sectional data were collected from houses in both 2008 and 2010 using simple random sampling of a complete household enumeration of the district. A difference-in -differences approach was used to analyse the data. Results ITN use among children ?2 = 96.3, p 0.05. ITN use also increased among children five to 14?years old from 37% in 2008 to 68% in 2010. There was no indication that the CHW-based intervention activities had a significant effect on increasing ITN use in this context, over and above what is already being done to disseminate information on the importance of using an ITN to prevent malaria infection. Discussion ITN use increased dramatically in the district between 2008 and 2010. It is likely that IPC activities in general may have contributed to the observed increase in ITN use, as the increased observed in this study was far higher than the increase observed between 2008 and 2010 malaria indicator survey (MIS estimates. Contamination across control communities, coupled with linear settlement patterns and subsequent behavioural norms related to communication in the area, likely contributed to the observed increase in net use and null effect in this study.

Keating Joseph

2012-09-01

183

Designing minimum-cost recycling collection points with required throughput : A Minor Field Study in Lusaka, Zambia  

OpenAIRE

This study was performed as a bachelor thesis at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden, in the spring of 2012. The project was carried out as a Minor Field Study in Lusaka, Zambia, in collaboration with Mr. Obert Mambwe at Petrec Zambia Limited. The local waste management in Lusaka suffers from severe overload due to insufficient funds and rapid population growth. This has resulted in the inability to collect approximately fifty percent of the total produced waste, including ...

Berling, Ludvig; Palm, Alexander; Sahlin, Linnea

2012-01-01

184

“ARVs” as Sickness and Medicine: Examining children’s knowledge and experience in the HIV era in urban Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Since the roll out of no cost antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) in health centers in Zambia in 2004, the number of Zambians receiving treatment has substantially increased. While research has addressed adult responses to ARVs in Zambia and elsewhere, there is little known about how children experience and respond to the presence of treatment in their communities and households. The increasing acknowledgement that children provide care and treatment support to people with HIV in their households dem...

Hunleth, Jean

2012-01-01

185

Barriers to the care of HIV-infected children in rural Zambia: a cross-sectional analysis  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Successful antiretroviral treatment programs in rural sub-Saharan Africa may face different challenges than programs in urban areas. The objective of this study was to identify patient characteristics, barriers to care, and treatment responses of HIV-infected children seeking care in rural Zambia. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of HIV-infected children seeking care at Macha Hospital in rural southern Zambia. Information was collected from caretakers and medical records. ...

Hamangaba Francis; Munsanje Bornface; Sutcliffe Catherine G; van Dijk Janneke H; Thuma Philip E; Moss William J.

2009-01-01

186

A Comparative Study of Agricultural Support Institutions in Central Province of Zambia: A Historical and Spatial Analysis  

OpenAIRE

This is a comparative study of agricultural support institutions in Central Province, Zambia focusing on the 1980-90 and 1997-2008 periods. Generally, the study intended to identify the names of agricultural support institutions which existed in Central Province, as a smaller unit, and Zambia in general, and analyze their spatial aspect. In order to achieve this and other goals, the investigation conducted an extensive review of existing literature, old and new maps, distribution of questionn...

Malambo, Augrey H.

2013-01-01

187

“Health regains but livelihoods lag”: findings from a study with people on ART in Zambia and Kenya  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Although ART is increasingly accessible and eases some stresses, it creates other challenges including the importance of food security to enhance ART-effectiveness. This paper explores the role livelihood strategies play in achieving food security and maintaining nutritional status among ART patients in Kenya and Zambia. Ongoing quantitative studies exploring adherence to ART in Mombasa, Kenya (n=118) and in Lusaka, Zambia (n= 375) were used to identify the relationship ...

Samuels, Fiona Amalia; Rutenberg, Naomi

2011-01-01

188

Free primary health care for vulnerable social groups in low income settings :lessons from Malawi and Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Due to the increased burden of poor health on poor and rural households, Malawi and Zambia waived user fees in health. Malawi introduced an Essential Health Package (EHP) in 2004 to address common causes of morbidity and mortality that disproportionately affect the poor. Zambia abolished user fees in health for rural households in 2006. Waving user fees was seen as an effective tool for bridging the socio-economic divide and improving health equity. These policies sought to reduce the nationa...

Cleopas Gabriel, Sambo

2012-01-01

189

Are we together? : A study about the integration of Art and Music within the education in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

The research had an anthropological perspective, regarding the integration of Art and Music in Zambia. By using qualitative interviews and participating observations I collected information about how some teachers in Zambia reflect about the integration of Art and Music. Through the theoretical framework I analyzed the results. The results demonstrated how the teachers were responding due to the curriculum and teacher’s guide but acting differently through the observations. The teacher’s ...

Eckeskog, Hanna

2010-01-01

190

Evaluation of malaria prevention strategies during pregnancy in Ndola, Zambia  

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Full Text Available Background: Malaria in pregnancy is associated with many negative outcomes for the woman,foetus and neonate. Intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp using three doses of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (SP, insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs and indoor residual spray (IRS, constitute the main strategies used to prevent malaria. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of these strategies for the reduction of malaria prevalence in pregnant women.

Methods: A questionnaire on socio-demographic information, history of malaria during current pregnancy and prevention strategies used was administered to 450 consecutive patients admitted into labour wards at three local clinics. From the antenatal cards, information was collected on the last menstrual period, date of each dose of SP taken, gravidity, and HIV status. A blood slide to detect Plasmodium was then collected from each woman after consent.

Results: Of the participants in the study, 2.4% had a positive blood slide at term and 15.8% reported malaria during pregnancy. All the participants took at least one dose of SP with 87.6% completing the stipulated three doses. The mean gestational ages for each dose were 22.1 (SD 4.6, 29.1 (SD 4.4and 34.4 (SD 3.9 weeks for the first, second and third dose respectively. With regard to ITNs, 79.5% had one, but only 74.1% used it regularly. IRS was completed in all three of the clinics’ catchment areas. Only 23.4% used commercial insecticide.

Conclusion: The measured prevalence of malaria at term in Ndola was remarkably low, although the self-reported rate during pregnancy was still high. The national targets for accessing IPTp were exceeded, although the timing of each dose needs to be improved. Access to ITNs was high, but usage needs to increase.

How to cite this article:Mulamba M, Mash B. Evaluation of malaria prevention strategies during pregnancy in Ndola, Zambia. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med.2010; 2(1, Art. #159,5 pages. DOI: 10.4102/phcfm.v2i1.159

Bob Mash

2010-03-01

191

Towards Intelligent District Heating  

OpenAIRE

A district heating system consists of one or more production units supplying energy in the form of heated water through a distribution pipe network to a multitude of consumers. District heating systems come in a range of different forms and sizes; from small independent systems within industrial estates or university campuses to large city-wide systems supplying millions of consumers with heating and hot water. The geographically dispersed layout of district heating sy...

Johansson, Christian

2010-01-01

192

District heating comeback  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author says district heating is making a comeback in rehabilitated cities. The advantages of district heating make it hard to ignore. The author says some of the advantages are: reduced operating and maintenance costs associated with boilers in individual buildings; money is not wasted in excess capacity from in-building boilers; fuel-flexibility; and elimination of emission from individual buildings reduces air pollution. The author gives examples of several U.S. and European cities that are using district heating.

1987-07-01

193

The influence of cultural practices on the HIV and AIDS pandemic in Zambia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Culture plays a significant role in people's lives in Zambia and in Africa as a whole. Consequently, there is a need to take Zambian or African culture seriously in order to look at the salient elements of cultural practices in rites of passage that influence the spread of HIV and AIDS. This article [...] analyses four rites of passage associated with birth, puberty, marriage and death. There are numerous rites of passage in Zambian culture. Some of these rites help to curb the spread of HIV and AIDS, whilst others exacerbate the spread of the virus. Using the Reformed Church in Zambia Bible Study Method of Subgroups, discussions were held that allowed victims of cultural practices to tell their stories using the narrative model. This article sought to shed light on cultural practices that exacerbate HIV and AIDS and more importantly, provide culturally sensitive alternatives to these harmful practices.

194

The Local Social and Environmental Impacts of Smallholder-Based Biofuel Investments in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

High oil prices, recent commitments by industrialized countries to enhance the use of renewable energy, and efforts by developing countries to stimulate foreign investment as a pathway to development have fueled high levels of interest in the biofuel sector throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa. Zambia is no exception. A large, land-locked country with high pump prices and vast tracts of land considered by many to be “degraded” or “underutilized,” investor interest in ...

Davison Gumbo; Schoneveld, George C.; Laura German

2011-01-01

195

A cost-effectiveness analysis of artemether lumefantrine for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity, mortality and non-fatal disability in Zambia, especially among children, pregnant women and the poor. Data gathered by the National Malaria Control Centre has shown that recently observed widespread treatment failure of SP and chloroquine precipitated a surge in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. As a result, the Government has recently replaced chloroquine and SP with combination therapy as first-line treatment for malar...

Hawela Moonga; Sipilanyambe Naawa; Chitah Bona M; Masiye Felix; Chanda Pascalina; Banda Patrick; Okorosobo Tuoyo

2007-01-01

196

Enhancing knowledge retention in higher education: A case of the University of Zambia  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to investigate how knowledge retention may be enhanced at the University of Zambia (UNZA). A quantitative case study design employing a triangulation of data collection methods was used. Data were collected using interviews and questionnaires. Purposive sampling was used to determine participants for the interviews whilst stratified random sampling was employed to select the respondents for the questionnaire. The quantitative and qualitative data that was analyse...

Sitali Wamundila; Patrick Ngulube

2011-01-01

197

An ultrastructural investigation of Argulus personatus Cunnington, 1913 (Crustacea: Branchiura) from Lake Tanganyika, northern Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Sixteen male and one female specimen ofArgulus personatus Cunnington, 1913, were collected from Bathybates ferox Boulenger, 1898, from Lake Tanganyika in northern Zambia. Light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examinations documented a thickening of cuticle located on the dorsal surface between last thoracic segment and abdomen, which was rectangular in shape; a basal section of the pre-oral spine and proboscis ornamented with simple scales; three large simple setae present on the dista...

Ernest H Williams, Jr; Annemarié Avenant-Oldewage; Quinton Tam

2011-01-01

198

Crafting political institutions in Africa: Electoral systems and systems of government in Rwanda and Zambia compared  

OpenAIRE

Scholars of institutional design attribute large importance to the choice of new institutions. The comparative analysis of how Rwanda and Zambia crafted their new electoral systems and the systems of government regards procedural, structural and rational choice variables which may influence the option for particular solutions. External influences and the type of transition are determinants that can decide which actors make their interests prevail. The degree of innovation or conservatism of n...

Stroh, Alexander

2007-01-01

199

The Pluralist Paradox. The Decline of Economic Interest Groups in Zambia in the 1990s  

OpenAIRE

The dilemma facing new democracies attempting to implement political and economic reform simultaneously is that democratisation may undermine economic reform by encouraging political participation and empowering interest groups that are unlikely to benefit from reform. This paper compares interest group - government relations under one-party and multiparty rule in Zambia. Contrary to the assumptions of pluralist theory, the paper argues that the influence of interest groups declined as a resu...

Rakner, Lise

2000-01-01

200

Current climate variability and future climate change: Estimated growth and poverty impacts for Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Economy-wide and hydrological-crop models are combined to estimate and compare the economic impacts of current climate variability and future anthropogenic climate change in Zambia. Accounting for uncertainty, simulation results indicate that, on average, current variability reduces gross domestic product by four percent over a ten-year period and pulls over two percent of the population below the poverty line. Socio-economic impacts are much larger during major drought years, thus underscori...

Thurlow, James; Zhu, Tingju; Diao, Xinshen

2011-01-01

201

Provisioning of Game Meat to Rural Communities as a Benefit of Sport Hunting in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Sport hunting has reportedly multiple benefits to economies and local communities; however, few of these benefits have been quantified. As part of their lease agreements with the Zambia Wildlife Authority, sport hunting operators in Zambia are required to provide annually to local communities free of charge i.e., provision a percentage of the meat obtained through sport hunting. We characterized provisioning of game meat to rural communities by the sport hunting industry in Zambia for three game management areas (GMAs) during 2004–2011. Rural communities located within GMAs where sport hunting occurred received on average > 6,000 kgs per GMA of fresh game meat annually from hunting operators. To assess hunting industry compliance, we also compared the amount of meat expected as per the lease agreements versus observed amounts of meat provisioned from three GMAs during 2007–2009. In seven of eight annual comparisons of these GMAs, provisioning of meat exceeded what was required in the lease agreements. Provisioning occurred throughout the hunting season and peaked during the end of the dry season (September–October) coincident with when rural Zambians are most likely to encounter food shortages. We extrapolated our results across all GMAs and estimated 129,771 kgs of fresh game meat provisioned annually by the sport hunting industry to rural communities in Zambia at an approximate value for the meat alone of >US$600,000 exclusive of distribution costs. During the hunting moratorium (2013–2014), this supply of meat has halted, likely adversely affecting rural communities previously reliant on this food source. Proposed alternatives to sport hunting should consider protein provisioning in addition to other benefits (e.g., employment, community pledges, anti-poaching funds) that rural Zambian communities receive from the sport hunting industry. PMID:25693191

White, Paula A.; Belant, Jerrold L.

2015-01-01

202

Does AIDS-Related Mortality Reduce Per-Capita Household Income? Evidence from Rural Zambia  

OpenAIRE

This paper evaluates the effect of AIDS-related mortality on per-capita incomes of surviving household members, using a large nationally representative sample of rural households from Zambia. To minimize selection bias that may arise because AIDS is likely to be the endogenous outcome of individual behavior, we employ a difference-in-difference propensity score matching estimator. We find that the death of a prime-age member has no significant impact on per-capita household income. This resul...

Thiele, Rainer; Omar Mahmoud, Toman

2010-01-01

203

Clinical and ultrasonographic features of abdominal tuberculosis in HIV positive adults in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis (TB) is difficult, especially so in health care facilities in developing countries where laparoscopy and colonoscopy are rarely available. There is little information on abdominal TB in HIV infection. We estimated the prevalence and clinical features of abdominal (excluding genitourinary) TB in HIV infected adults attending the University Teaching Hospital, Zambia. Methods We screened 5,609 medical inpatients, and those with fever, w...

Vermund Sten H; Zimba Lameck; Mudenda Victor; Zulu Isaac; Gray Sylvia; Sinkala Edford; Drobniewski Francis; Kelly Paul

2009-01-01

204

Contraception and family planning among HIV-seroconcordant and -serodiscordant couples in the US and Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Deborah L Jones1, Olga Villar-Loubet1, Chipepo Kankasa2, Ndashi Chitalu2, Miriam Mumbi2, Stephen M Weiss11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Paediatrics, University of Zambia School of Medicine, Lusaka, ZambiaAbstract: With the advent of antiretroviral therapy, remarkable progress has been made in the reduction of morbidity and mortality associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. As a result, in both the developed and developing world, reproductive decision-making and family planning has re-emerged as an important health issue among HIV-seroconcordant and -serodiscordant couples. This study sought to explore contraceptive attitudes and practices among HIV-seropositive and -serodiscordant couples in the US and Zambia and to compare contraceptive decision-making between seroconcordant and discordant couples. Study results suggest that while most participants expressed a willingness to use protection to prevent pregnancy, the majority were not using protection consistently. Similarly, among seropositive younger men in both the US and Zambia, more men expressed a desire to have children than women of either serostatus group. Study outcomes also suggest that male and female condom use to reduce HIV transmission within couples is limited. Thus, as males are largely the sexual decision makers regarding condom use, women’s attitudes or plans regarding child bearing may be eclipsed by those of their male partners, and recent reductions in provision of female condoms in the developing world may further reduce women’s options to protect themselves and prevent pregnancy. Education and counseling on vertical and horizontal transmission of HIV among both seropositive and serodiscordant couples should be an element of family planning efforts. Conversely, family planning should be a critical element of HIV counseling and testing strategies to realistically respond to the desires of both members of the couple.Keywords: urban, decision-making, condom use, HIV transmission

Deborah L Jones

2010-05-01

205

Suppressed or unsuppressed HIV in adults on antiretroviral therapy in Zambia: who is at risk?  

OpenAIRE

Purpose of the study: To determine factors associated with suppressed or unsuppressed HIV in adults receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Zambia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted between August 2008 and October 2009 in 16 Zambian communities nested within the ZAMSTAR trial [1]. Adult TB cases identified at a TB clinic of each community and their adult household members were invited to participate in the study. A structured interview was used to obtain infor...

Chishinga, N.; Godfrey-faussett, P; Fielding, K.; Grant, A.; Schaap, A.; Ayles, H.

2012-01-01

206

Household lifestyle, energy related practices and perceptions of energy efficiency: Evidence from Kitwe, Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Southern Africa is noted for not only constant power shortages but also poor access to electricity. In Zambia, for example, 75% of the population does not have access to electricity. This is partly because although Zambia has one of the lowest energy tariffs in Southern Africa, when compared with household monthly income, the resource is still reasonably unaffordable. Therefore, there is need to find innovative ways of reducing energy cost. Recent studies have indicated that there are patterns that show that there is a relationship between households’ lifestyles and energy consumption. This means that understanding household lifestyles and how that impacts on energy use would be crucial in helping occupants to change their behaviours. This would result in the minimisation of energy consumption and thus a reduction in energy bills. However, there is a dearth of scholarly literature about households’ lifestyles and their impacts on energy consumption in most developing countries including Zambia. This study investigates the perceptions of different lifestyles on household energy consumption and knowledge about energy efficiency in the city of Kitwe, the second largest city in Zambia. Motivation and barriers to energy efficiency have also been investigated. To achieve this, a mixed research approach was adopted. Firstly, a quantitative closed structured questionnaire instrument was used to collect data from 59 households in Kitwe. Secondly, mini-focus group discussions (average size of 5 ? brought about by the curiosity of residents and hence the contribution as families per household ? were undertaken in the informal settlement. The major findings are that households are generally motivated to implement energy saving strategies like covering pots when cooking, switching off lights in rooms that are not in use and that more information is needed as lack of knowledge and ‘landlord control’ were identified as some of the barriers to energy efficiency.

Lilias Makashini

2014-08-01

207

Determinants of Profit Variability among Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) in developing economies like Zambia are major contributors of livelihood, job creation, poverty reduction, production and distribution of goods and services, and foreign exchange earnings. All these benefits could be realized if firms are profitable. This paper tried to envisage sources of variations in profitability among micro and small enterprises. By conducting an empirical study using 187 micro and small sized firms selected from four sectors: Trading, ...

Yordanos Gebremeskel

2014-01-01

208

Identification of fungal pathogens occurring in eucalypt and pine plantations in Zambia by comparing DNA sequences  

OpenAIRE

Commercial forestry plantations in Zambia were initiated during the 1960s. Since then, very little attention has been given to diseases that impact negatively on the production of these plantations. Recent field surveys have highlighted the occurrence and impact of several diseases. This study was undertaken to determine, to species level, the identity of fungal pathogens associated with diseases of eucalypt and pine plantations in the country. Fungal morphology and DNA sequence data of the i...

Chungu, Donald; Muimba-kankolongo, Ambayeba; Wingfield, Michael J.; Roux, Jolanda

2010-01-01

209

Reclamation of lead/zinc processing wastes at Kabwe, Zambia: A phytogeochemical approach  

OpenAIRE

The lead/zinc mining industry of Kabwe (Central Province of Zambia), in operation from 1906 to 1994, generated metalliferous slag heaps covering an area of over 75 ha. The slag heaps are responsible for aerosol emissions with a high heavy metal content over the mine townships of Kasanda and Chowa, resulting in health risks for the local population. In this phytogeochemical investigation, soil samples showed very high lead, zinc and copper concentrations in topsoil. Plant surveys identified 39...

Leteinturier, B.; Laroche, J.; Matera, J.; Malaisse, Franc?ois

2001-01-01

210

Delayed-type hypersensitivity test for assessing tick-immune status of cattle in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Delayed-type hypersensitivity skin reactions were used to assess the tick resistance status of Tonga calves in Zambia. The antigen used in the tests was a homogenate of unfed nymphal Rhipicephalus appendiculatus which had been shown to give protective immunity in guinea pigs to adult female R appendiculatus. There was a significant negative correlation between the intensity of the reactions and the total number of ticks (Amblyomma variegatum, R appendiculatus, Hyalomma truncatum, Boophilus decoloratus and Rhipicephalus species) on the animals. PMID:2773195

Smith, R E; Mwase, E T; Heller-Haupt, A; Trinder, P K; Pegram, R G; Wilsmore, A J; Varma, M G

1989-06-01

211

Mineralogy and technical appraisal of Kaolinite-bearing rocks from Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Four samples of kaolinite from Central Zambia were collected in April 1990 by D.A. Briggs (Mineralogy and Petrology Report WG/90/15R) in order to characterise them mineralogically and assess their suitability as industrial raw materials, possibly in the manufacture of paper. Other applications such as use in ceramics, as fillers in paint, plastic and rubber, or in agriculture were also to be considered.

Mitchell, C. J.; Briggs, D. A.; Bloodworth, A. J.

1991-01-01

212

Role of non-governmental organisations in basic education policy reform in Lusaka province of Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Through an exploration and analysis of the roles of Non-Government Organisations (NGOs) in education policy reform particularly at the Basic Education level in Zambia, this thesis argues that over the past few decades, NGOs have become increasingly visible. Indeed, since the 1990s, many NGOs supporting education have entered the arena of advocacy and policy dialogue with government; yet the success of internationally recognised goals - such as Education For All (EFA) – seem a...

Mwanza, Peggy

2013-01-01

213

‘It is just culture’ : Eight young people’s perception of the gender roles in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

This study explores eight young people’s perception of the gender roles in Zambia, Lusaka. In this study I have asked the informants to define the genders and the result were that the genders are defined based on the biological sexes. The genders therefore become homogenous based on the male and female sex. The regulations of the genders were traditionally also based on assumed ‘biologically natural characteristics’. As I argue in this study that gender roles are social constructed I al...

Nyman, Mikaela

2013-01-01

214

Zambia's housing scheme of the mid 1990s: Have the poor really been empowered?  

OpenAIRE

Issues of housing are becoming very important as the urban population grows at a very rapid rate, particularly in developing countries. The number of people who are homeless and those living in substandard housing in Zambia is enormous. A home ownership programme through the sale of public rental housing to sitting tenants was seen as one of the strategies under the 1996 National Housing Policy aimed at solving the housing crisis in the country especially among the low-income groups. There ar...

Basila, Christcola

2005-01-01

215

The economic development of the kapenta fishery Lake Kariba (Zimbabwe/Zambia)  

OpenAIRE

Kapenta (Limnothrissa miodon) was introduced from Lake Tanganyika into the man-made Lake Kariba, where it now supports a large and viable fishery for Zimbabwe and Zambia who share the lake. The challenge for this paper has been to investigate whether the viability of the kapenta fishery is dependent upon biological factor or economic parameters. The Pella and Tomlinson surplus production model (Pella and Tomlinson, 1967) was used, and parameterised by historical catch and effor...

Madamombe, Loveness

2002-01-01

216

Supermarkets in the Food Supply Systems in Southern African Development Community: A Case Study of Zambia  

OpenAIRE

This study evaluated how supermarkets procurement practises in the fresh fruits and vegetables (FFV) and processed products such as dairy impact on local producers in Zambia. Data was collected from key informants and secondary sources. The results showed that supermarkets procured approximately 60% of FFV from local farmers, though the bulk of these are from large-scale farms. Products not produced in the host countries were imported from South Africa and other countries. Small-scale farmers...

Emongor, R. A.; Kirsten, J. F.

2006-01-01

217

Supermarkets in the food supply systems in Southern African development community : a case study of Zambia  

OpenAIRE

This study evaluated how supermarkets procurement practices in the fresh fruits and vegetables and processed products such as dairy impact on local producers in Zambia. The results showed that supermarkets procured approximately 60% of FFV from local farmers, though the bulk of these are from large-scale farms. Products not produced in the host countries were imported from South Africa and other countries. Specific constraints on small-scale farmers are discussed. Government involvement in th...

Emongor, Rosemary A.; Kirsten, Johann F.

2006-01-01

218

An Intervention to Decrease Intravaginal Practices in HIV-Infected Women in Zambia: A Pilot Study  

OpenAIRE

Intravaginal practices (IVP) are those in which women introduce products inside the vagina for hygienic, health, or sexuality reasons. IVP are associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) and potentially implicated in HIV transmission. This report presents the results of a pilot study of a behavioral intervention to decrease IVP in HIV-infected women in Zambia. At baseline, all of the enrolled women (n = 40) engaged in IVP and rates of BV were high. Women receiving the intervention reported a dec...

Alcaide, Maria L.; Mumbi, Miriam; Chitalu, Ndashi; Jones, Deborah L.

2013-01-01

219

Ticks (Acarina: Ixodidae) of reptiles from Central, Lusaka and Southern Provinces of Zambia.  

OpenAIRE

During the period 1988-1991, reptiles (23 snakes, 36 tortoises, 25 chameleons and 2 monitor lizards) from Central, Lusaka and Southern Provinces of Zambia were caught and checked for ticks. Only 2 snakes, respectively one Python sebae (Gmelin, 1789) and one Bitis arietans (Merrem, 1820), 8 tortoises, respectively seven Geochelone pardalis (Bell, 1828) and one Kinixys belliana (Gray, 1831) were found infested with a small number of ticks: nymphs and adults of Aponomma latum (Koch, 1844) and Am...

Meneghi, Daniele

1993-01-01

220

Biochar Effect on Maize Yield and Soil Characteristics in Five Conservation Farming Sites in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Biochar addition to agricultural soils can improve soil fertility, with the added bonus of climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. Conservation farming (CF) is precision farming, often combining minimum tillage, crop rotation and residue retention. In the present farmer-led field trials carried out in Zambia, the use of a low dosage biochar combined with CF minimum tillage was tested as a way to increase crop yields. Using CF minimum tillage allows the biochar to be applied to...

Alfred Obia; Jan Mulder; Hale, Sarah E.; Breedveld, Gijs D.; Rutherford, David W.; Magnus Sparrevik; Vanja Alling; Vegard Martinsen; Victor Shitumbanuma; Gerard Cornelissen

2013-01-01

221

The political economy of food price policy: The case of Zambia  

OpenAIRE

The global food price crisis of 2007/08 raised fears about the impacts of higher and more volatile food prices for the poor in Zambia. Like in the past, the implementation of the strategies to deal with the rising food prices, especially for the staple crop maize were delayed due to ineffective response policies, mistrust between government and private sector, protracted discussions, inaction amongst key agriculture stakeholders and rent-seeking behaviour by some. Using the political economy ...

Chapoto, Antony

2012-01-01

222

Smallholder dairy production and markets: a comparison of production systems in Zambia, Kenya and Sri Lanka  

OpenAIRE

Three smallholder dairy production systems in Zambia, Sri Lanka and Kenya are analysed and compared. The focus is on the relationships between the animal production system, the farm household system, and the institutional environment. Attention is given to the valuation of marketed and non-marketed products and the intangible benefits of livestock in insurance, financing and status display. The comprehensive and comparative analysis of the production systems shows the direct relationship betw...

Moll, H. A. J.; Staal, S. J.; Ibrahim, M. N. M.

2007-01-01

223

Structural study and geochronology in the Hook Batholith, Central Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pan-African Hook batholith is emplaced N of the Mwembeshi dislocation, a regional scale structure at the contact between Zambezi Belt and Lufilian Arc in Central Zambia. Exposed over 12000 km2 the batholith is composed mainly of fine-grained and coarse-grained porphyritic granites and leucogranites affected by solid-state deformation along high-strain zones. Two main zones of deformation were investigated - the Itezhi-Tezhi Zone (ITZ) in the SW part of the batholith and the Nalusanga Zone (NZ) to the NE. The 2.5 km wide, N-S trending, subvertical ITZ is a medium-grade, pure shear dominated structure, reflecting probably regional scale E-W shortening. In the central part of the zone, augen-gneiss textures developed. Mineral lineations plunging ~40° S are recorded occasionally. The deformed feldspar porphyroclasts show symmetrical tails and rarely sinistral stair-stepping. In the SE part of the Hook batholith the continuation of the ITZ trends E-W. This orientation can be explained by rotation of the original ITZ trend by N-S shortening that also has been recorded in the siliciclastic metasediments S of the contact. S dipping, up to 15 cm wide thrust zones observed in the ITZ area were probably formed during this tectonic event. The 3 km wide NZ is a subvertical to steeply SSW dipping structure, parallel to the NE contact of the batholith, with well-developed foliation and mineral stretching lineations. Field and microstructural analyses defined the NZ as a medium-grade, non-coaxial, sinistral strike-slip shear zone. The transition from weak foliated granite to S-C mylonites and ultramylonites was observed. The sinistral shearing is consistent with E-W shortening in agreement with the tectonic framework of the ITZ. The low grade metasediments to the E of the granite are folded in N to NNW trending structures also implying E-W shortening. Temperature conditions during the deformation in ITZ and NZ inferred from microstructural analyses are about 500°-550°C. The metamorphism in the country rocks E of the batholith is in the lower greenschist facies indicating that deformation along the ITZ and NZ occurred during the cooling of the granite. U-Pb zircon LA-SF-ICP-MS analyses reveal that the coarse-grained and fine-grained granites in the NE part of the batholith have the same age of 549×2 Ma. The age of an undeformed aplite that truncates the NZ's foliation brackets the strike-slip shearing between 549×2 Ma and 541×3 Ma. In the SE margin of the batholith deformed coarse-grained granite is dated at 544×2 Ma and an undeformed granitic vein gave an age of 543×3 Ma, thus relating the fabric formation to the same time interval. To the SW the deformed granite in the ITZ is dated at 533×3 Ma indicating that the E-W shortening was still active at this time. This study reports two deformational stages recorded in the Hook batholith and its country rocks. E-W shortening folded the sediments form the E margin of the granite and formed the solid-state fabric in the batholith. The following N-S shortening cold be related to the final docking of the Zambezi sequence to the Lufilian Arc along the Mwembeshi dislocation.

Naydenov, K.; Lehmann, J.; Saalmann, K.; Milani, L.; Kinnaird, J.; Charlesworth, G.; Frei, D.

2013-12-01

224

The influence of cultural practices on the HIV and AIDS pandemic in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Culture plays a significant role in people’s lives in Zambia and in Africa as a whole. Consequently, there is a need to take Zambian or African culture seriously in order to look at the salient elements of cultural practices in rites of passage that influence the spread of HIV and AIDS. This article analyses four rites of passage associated with birth, puberty, marriage and death. There are numerous rites of passage in Zambian culture. Some of these rites help to curb the spread of HIV and AIDS, whilst others exacerbate the spread of the virus. Using the Reformed Church in Zambia Bible Study Method of Subgroups, discussions were held that allowed victims of cultural practices to tell their stories using the narrative model. This article sought to shed light on cultural practices that exacerbate HIV and AIDS and more importantly, provide culturally sensitive alternatives to these harmful practices.

How to cite this article: Moyo, N. & Müller, J.C., 2011, ‘The influence of cultural practices on the HIV and AIDS pandemic in Zambia’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 67(3, Art. #770, 5 pages. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v67i3.770

Nolipher Moyo

2011-03-01

225

Evidence of Yersinia pestis DNA from fleas in an endemic plague area of Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia pestis is a bacterium that causes plague which infects a variety of mammals throughout the world. The disease is usually transmitted among wild rodents through a flea vector. The sources and routes of transmission of plague are poorly researched in Africa, yet remains a concern in several sub-Saharan countries. In Zambia, the disease has been reported on annual basis with up to 20 cases per year, without investigating animal reservoirs or vectors that may be responsible in the maintenance and propagation of the bacterium. In this study, we undertook plague surveillance by using PCR amplification of the plasminogen activator gene in fleas. Findings Xenopsylla species of fleas were collected from 83 rodents trapped in a plague endemic area of Zambia. Of these rodents 5 had fleas positive (6.02% for Y. pestis plasminogen activator gene. All the Y. pestis positive rodents were gerbils. Conclusions We conclude that fleas may be responsible in the transmission of Y. pestis and that PCR may provide means of plague surveillance in the endemic areas of Zambia.

Hang'ombe Bernard M

2012-01-01

226

Developing district heating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the Developing district heating project was to bring out the results from international researches concerning district heating and to find the possibilities to apply the results in Finnish district heating business. Altogether 397 researches were evaluated at the grading scale 1-5. The international research field of district heating was charted during the project and at the same time the project determined to which direction the district heating research in Finland should be directed in the near future. The aim of the project was to use the research results to improve the conditions of combined heat and power in district heating production and to create basis to improve the energy efficiency of current energy production systems. In the second part of the research, the pilot part, was examined the profitability of hybrid heating from detached house's, row house's and apartment building's point of view. Also the environmental and cost effects were analysed from community's point of view. Hybrid heating is a combination of two or more different heating systems. In the district heated new row houses and apartment buildings electricity has become a heat source for underfloor heating of wet spaces. In detached and row houses electricity is also used for air conditioner radiators to heat the incoming air. According to this research the use of electric heating in district heated buildings is unprofitable considering the life cycle costs and the environment. The use of electric heating as a parallel form of heating together with district heating causes a remarkable addition to the costs of energy production company and the community. As the need of district heat decreases, the same time the need of electricity increases. Both the electricity lost by this decrease of district heat load and the additional need of electricity must be covered some other way. The hybrid solutions of district heating and electric heating are a threat to efficient cogeneration of district heat and electricity. Further the electricity used to heating must be produced in condensing power plant and usually it's produced by fossil fuels. (orig.)

Maekelae, V.-M.; Myyrylaeinen, A.; Latva, V.; Lintunen, T. (Mikkeli Univ. of Applied Sciences, Business services (Finland))

2009-07-01

227

Bringing indigenous ownership back to the private sector : Chinese investment, populist discourses and contemporary policy making in Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Driven by across-the-board liberalizations and the commodity price boom, Zambia has recently experienced an upsurge in foreign ownership over key parts of its economy. Albeit investors from all over the world have sought to make the most of the current situation in Zambia, Chinese investors have been particularly present in all sectors of the Zambian economy. Foreign ownership, however, is not new to African societies and several African countries pursued indigenisation policies in the wake of independence to bring ownership back to their own citizens. Now indigenisation policies thrive again. This time disguised in terms like empowerment and unequal opportunities but just as politicised as in the 1970s. In light of the current anti-Chinese sentiments in Zambia, this paper seeks to further our understanding of private sector policy making in Zambia. It argues that populist politics, referring to traditional Copperbelt rhetoric, have enforced a role as minority middlemen upon the Chinese investors. This further segregates Chinese investors from other investors and has been a driving force in the anti-Chinese campaign in Zambia. To curb the critique of the growing foreign dominance over the economy, and in particular of the upsurge in Chinese investments, the ruling party has reverted to the use of nationalist policies.

Kragelund, Peter

228

Mobilizing communities to improve maternal health: results of an intervention in rural Zambia / : / Mobiliser les communautes pour ameliorer la sante maternelle: resultats d'une intervention dans les zones rurales de la Zambie / : / : / Movilizacion de las comunidades para mejorar la salud materna: resultados de una intervencion en las zonas rurales de Zambia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Resumen Objetivo Verificar si una intervención comunitaria compleja en las zonas rurales de Zambia mejoró la comprensión sobre salud materna e incrementó el uso de los servicios de salud maternos. Métodos La intervención, dirigida por voluntarios capacitados y la provisión de transporte de emerge [...] ncia, tuvo lugar en seis distritos rurales seleccionados por el Ministerio de Salud de Zambia y consistió en debates comunitarios sobre un embarazo y parto seguros. Los voluntarios trabajaron a través de grupos de acción para una maternidad sin riesgo existentes establecidos por el gobierno. Los indicadores de salud materna en la base de referencia se obtuvieron de las mujeres de los distritos de intervención (n = 1775) y control (n = 1630). Se evaluó el efecto de la intervención en estos indicadores mediante un enfoque de diferencias en diferencias cuasi-experimental que incluyó un emparejamiento por puntaje de propensión y el ajuste por factores de confusión como la educación, la riqueza, la paridad, la edad y la distancia a un centro de atención de salud. Resultados La comparación de diferencias en diferencias mostró que la intervención se asocia a un aumento significativo en los indicadores de salud materna: 14-16 % en el número de mujeres que sabían cuándo debían buscar atención prenatal; 10-15 % en las mujeres que conocían tres señales de peligro obstétricas; 12-19 % en las que utilizaron el transporte de emergencia; 22-24 % en los partos que necesitaron un matrón capacitado, y 16-21 % en los partos en un centro de atención de salud. La tasa de abandono voluntario fue baja. El coste incremental estimado por parto adicional con un matrón capacitado fue de unos 54 dólares de los Estados Unidos, similar al de otras intervenciones relativas a la demanda en los países en desarrollo. Conclusión La intervención comunitaria se asocia con mejoras significativas en el conocimiento de las mujeres sobre la atención prenatal y las señales de peligro obstétricas, el uso del transporte de emergencia y los partos con matrones capacitados. Abstract in english Objective To determine whether a complex community intervention in rural Zambia improved understanding of maternal health and increased use of maternal health-care services. Methods The intervention took place in six rural districts selected by the Zambian Ministry of Health. It involved communit [...] y discussions on safe pregnancy and delivery led by trained volunteers and the provision of emergency transport. Volunteers worked through existing government-established Safe Motherhood Action Groups. Maternal health indicators at baseline were obtained from women in intervention (n?=?1775) and control districts (n?=?1630). The intervention's effect on these indicators was assessed using a quasi-experimental difference-in-difference approach that involved propensity score matching and adjustment for confounders such as education, wealth, parity, age and distance to a health-care facility. Findings The difference-in-difference comparison showed the intervention to be associated with significant increases in maternal health indicators: 14–16% in the number of women who knew when to seek antenatal care; 10–15% in the number who knew three obstetric danger signs; 12–19% in those who used emergency transport; 22–24% in deliveries involving a skilled birth attendant; and 16–21% in deliveries in a health-care facility. The volunteer drop-out rate was low. The estimated incremental cost per additional delivery involving a skilled birth attendant was around 54 United States dollars, comparable to that of other demand-side interventions in developing countries. Conclusion The community intervention was associated with significant improvements in women's knowledge of antenatal care and obstetric danger signs, use of emergency transport and deliveries involving skilled birth attendants.

Tim, Ensor; Cathy, Green; Paula, Quigley; Abdul Razak, Badru; Dynes, Kaluba; Tendayi, Kureya.

2014-01-01

229

Burnout and use of HIV services among health care workers in Lusaka District, Zambia: a cross-sectional study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Well-documented shortages of health care workers in sub-Saharan Africa are exacerbated by the increased human resource demands of rapidly expanding HIV care and treatment programmes. The successful continuation of existing programmes is threatened by health care worker burnout and HIV-related illness. Methods From March to June 2007, we studied occupational burnout and utilization of HIV services among health providers in the Lusaka public health sector. Providers from 13 ...

Quiterio Nicole; Nkhoma Mavis; Ikeda Scott; Chapula Bushimbwa; Kruse Gina R; Pankratz Debra; Mataka Kaluba; Chi Benjamin H; Bond Virginia; Reid Stewart E

2009-01-01

230

Geographical patterns and predictors of malaria risk in Zambia: Bayesian geostatistical modelling of the 2006 Zambia national malaria indicator survey (ZMIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Zambia Malaria Indicator Survey (ZMIS of 2006 was the first nation-wide malaria survey, which combined parasitological data with other malaria indicators such as net use, indoor residual spraying and household related aspects. The survey was carried out by the Zambian Ministry of Health and partners with the objective of estimating the coverage of interventions and malaria related burden in children less than five years. In this study, the ZMIS data were analysed in order (i to estimate an empirical high-resolution parasitological risk map in the country and (ii to assess the relation between malaria interventions and parasitaemia risk after adjusting for environmental and socio-economic confounders. Methods The parasitological risk was predicted from Bayesian geostatistical and spatially independent models relating parasitaemia risk and environmental/climatic predictors of malaria. A number of models were fitted to capture the (potential non-linearity in the malaria-environment relation and to identify the elapsing time between environmental effects and parasitaemia risk. These models included covariates (a in categorical scales and (b in penalized and basis splines terms. Different model validation methods were used to identify the best fitting model. Model-based risk predictions at unobserved locations were obtained via Bayesian predictive distributions for the best fitting model. Results Model validation indicated that linear environmental predictors were able to fit the data as well as or even better than more complex non-linear terms and that the data do not support spatial dependence. Overall the averaged population-adjusted parasitaemia risk was 20.0% in children less than five years with the highest risk predicted in the northern (38.3% province. The odds of parasitaemia in children living in a household with at least one bed net decreases by 40% (CI: 12%, 61% compared to those without bed nets. Conclusions The map of parasitaemia risk together with the prediction error and the population at risk give an important overview of the malaria situation in Zambia. These maps can assist to achieve better resource allocation, health management and to target additional interventions to reduce the burden of malaria in Zambia significantly. Repeated surveys will enable the evaluation of the effectiveness of on-going interventions.

Chizema-Kawesha Elizabeth

2010-02-01

231

Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and albuminuria in rural Zambia : a hospital-based survey  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: To assess albuminuria in rural Zambia among patients with diabetes mellitus only (DM group), hypertension only (HTN group) and patients with combined DM and HTN (DM/HTN group). METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at St. Francis Hospital in the Eastern province of Zambia. Albumin-creatinine ratio in one urine sample was used to assess albuminuria. Other information obtained included age, sex, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c ), random capillary glucose, time since diagnosis, medication and family history of DM or HTN. RESULTS: A total of 193 participants were included (DM group: n = 33; HTN group: n = 92; DM/HTN group: n = 68). The participants in the DM group used insulin more frequently as diabetes medication than the DM/HTN group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the DM group was younger and had lower BMI, WC and BP than the two other groups. In the DM group, HTN group and DM/HTN group, microalbuminuria was found in 12.1%, 19.6% and 29.4% (P = 0.11), and macroalbuminuria was found in 0.0%, 3.3% and 13.2% (P = 0.014), respectively. The urine albumin (P = 0.014) and albumin-creatinine ratio (P = 0.0006) differed between the three groups. CONCLUSION: This hospital-based survey in rural Zambia found a lower frequency of albuminuria among the participants than in previous studies of patients with DM or HTN in urban sub-Saharan Africa.

Rasmussen, Jon B; Thomsen, Jakúp A

2013-01-01

232

Victimization from bullying among school-attending adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among school- attending adolescents, victimization from bullying is associated with anxiety, depression and poor academic performance. There are limited reports on victimization from bullying in Zambia; we therefore conducted this study to determine the prevalence and correlates for victimization from bullying among adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in the country in order to add information on the body of knowledge on victimization from bullying. METHODS: The 2004 Zambia Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS data among adolescents in grades 7 to 10 were obtained from the World Health Organization. We estimated the prevalence of victimization from bullying. We also conducted weighted multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine independent factors associated with victimization from bullying, and report adjusted odds ratios (AOR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI. RESULTS: Of 2136 students who participated in the 2004 Zambia GSHS, 1559 had information on whether they were bullied or not. Of these, 1559 students, 62.8% (60.0% of male and 65.0% of female participants reported having been bullied in the previous 30 days to the survey. We found that respondents of age less than 14 years were 7% (AOR=0.93; 95%CI [0.91, 0.95] less likely to have been bullied compared to those aged 16 years or older. Being a male (AOR=1.07; 95%CI [1.06, 1.09], lonely (AOR=1.24; 95%CI [1.22, 1.26], worried (AOR=1.12; 95%CI [1.11, 1.14], consuming alcohol (AOR=2.59; 95%CI [2.55, 2.64], missing classes (AOR=1.30; 95%CI [1.28, 1.32], and considering attempting suicide (AOR=1.20; 95%CI [1.18, 1.22] were significantly associated with bullying victimization. CONCLUSIONS: Victimization from bullying is prevalent among in-school adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in Zambia, and interventions to curtail it should consider the factors that have been identified in this study.

Emmanuel Rudatsikira

2012-01-01

233

Determinants of self-perceived risk of HIV infection:population-based observations in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Background Perception of risk of HIV infection has been suggested to be an important area of study as it can be an assumed to be an indicator of one’s understanding of susceptibility to HIV infection and a precursor to behavioral change, which could determine future decision making regarding risk taking. Studies that have examined perception of HIV risk and its determinants still remain limited. Zambia is among the worst affected countries by the HIV pandemic in the sub-Sahara African reg...

Mwangala, Sheila Monde

2008-01-01

234

Returns to Schooling in Less Developed Countries: New Evidence from Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In our analysis of returns to schooling in Zambia, we look at the rural and urban population separately, and estimate the returns to schooling in each region based on a selection model in two stages. For urban areas we find that the returns to primary schooling are nil whereas the returns to schooling beyond primary school are higher. For rural areas we find that the returns to primary schooling are positive and no different from the returns to education beyond primary school. Udgivelsesdato: JAN

Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

2001-01-01

235

Prevalence and distribution of HPV genotypes among HIV-infected women in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

We screened 145 HIV-infected non-pregnant women at a tertiary care centre in Lusaka, Zambia. Liquid-based cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping with PGMY09/11 biotinylated primers (Roche Linear Array® HPV genotyping test) maximised sensitivity of cytology and HPV assessments. Among high-risk (HR) types, HPV 52 (37.2%), 58 (24.1%) and 53 (20.7%) were more common overall than HPV 16 (17.2%) and 18 (13.1%) in women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or squamous cell c...

Sahasrabuddhe, V. V.; Mwanahamuntu, M. H.; Vermund, S. H.; Huh, W. K.; Lyon, M. D.; Stringer, J. S. A.; Parham, G. P.

2007-01-01

236

The influence of cultural practices on the HIV and AIDS pandemic in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Culture plays a significant role in people’s lives in Zambia and in Africa as a whole. Consequently, there is a need to take Zambian or African culture seriously in order to look at the salient elements of cultural practices in rites of passage that influence the spread of HIV and AIDS. This article analyses four rites of passage associated with birth, puberty, marriage and death. There are numerous rites of passage in Zambian culture. Some of these rites help to curb the spread of HIV and ...

Nolipher Moyo; Mu?ller, Julian C.

2011-01-01

237

Inconsistencies in age profiles of HIV prevalence: A dynamic model applied to Zambia  

OpenAIRE

A two-sex compartmental model of the dynamics of HIV infection was developed and applied to the case of Zambia. Parameters include age specific rates of fertility, mortality, entry into sexual life, number of partners and age of partners. They were all derived from empirical data from Demographic and Health Surveys, and applied by single year of age. The model was unable to fit age and sex patterns of infection observed in 2001. Current knowledge of HIV transmission does not allow fitting the...

Michel Garenne; Leclerc, Pauline M.

2007-01-01

238

Increased Risk for Severe Malaria in HIV-1–infected Adults, Zambia  

OpenAIRE

To determine whether HIV-1 infection and HIV-1-related immunosuppression were risk factors for severe malaria in adults with some immunity to malaria, we conducted a case-control study in Luanshya, Zambia, during December 2005-March 2007. For each case-patient with severe malaria, we selected 2 matched controls (an adult with uncomplicated malaria and an adult without signs of disease). HIV-1 infection was present in 93% of case-patients, in 52% of controls with uncomplicated malaria, and in ...

Chalwe, V.; Geertruyden, J. P.; Mukwamataba, D.; Menten, J.; Kamalamba, J.; Mulenga, M.; D Alessandro, U.

2009-01-01

239

Doubling the number of health graduates in Zambia: estimating feasibility and costs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ministry of Health (MoH in Zambia is operating with fewer than half of the human resources for health (HRH necessary to meet basic population health needs. Responding urgently to address this HRH crisis, the MoH plans to double the annual number of health training graduates in the next five years to increase the supply of health workers. The feasibility and costs of achieving this initiative, however, are unclear. Methods We determined the feasibility and costs of doubling training institution output through an individual school assessment framework. Assessment teams, comprised of four staff from the MoH and Clinton Health Access Initiative, visited all of Zambia's 39 public and private health training institutions from 17 April to 19 June 2008. Teams consulted with faculty and managers at each training institution to determine if student enrollment could double within five years; an operational planning exercise carried out with school staff determined the investments and additional operating costs necessary to achieve expansion. Cost assumptions were developed using historical cost data. Results The individual school assessments affirmed the MoH's ability to double the graduate output of Zambia's public health training institutions. Lack of infrastructure was determined as a key bottleneck in achieving this increase while meeting national training quality standards. A total investment of US$ 58.8 million is required to meet expansion infrastructure needs, with US$ 35.0 million (59.5% allocated to expanding student accommodation and US$ 23.8 million (40.5% allocated to expanding teaching, studying, office, and dining space. The national number of teaching staff must increase by 363 (111% increase over the next five years. The additional recurring costs, which include salaries for additional teachers and operating expenses for new students, are estimated at US$ 58.0 million over the five-year scale-up period. Total cost of expansion is estimated at US$ 116.8 million over five years. Conclusions Historic underinvestment in training institutions has crippled Zambia's ability to meet expansion ambitions. There must be significant investments in infrastructure and faculty to meet quality standards while expanding training enrollment. Bottom-up planning can be used to translate national targets into costed implementation plans for expansion at each school.

Lee Joanne

2010-09-01

240

Doubling the number of health graduates in Zambia: estimating feasibility and costs  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The Ministry of Health (MoH) in Zambia is operating with fewer than half of the human resources for health (HRH) necessary to meet basic population health needs. Responding urgently to address this HRH crisis, the MoH plans to double the annual number of health training graduates in the next five years to increase the supply of health workers. The feasibility and costs of achieving this initiative, however, are unclear. Methods We determined the feasibility and costs of do...

Lee Joanne; Libetwa Miriam; Kapihya Margaret; Tjoa Aaron; Pattinson Charmaine; McCarthy Elizabeth; Schroder Kate

2010-01-01

241

EDRXF measurements of heavy elements in soil samples from some potentially polluted sites in zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of heavy element levels in top soils collected around four industrial plants and along four highway stretches demonstrated that there was significant pollution only around an abandoned Pb/Zn mine. Sample collection in a rectangular grid encompassing each source sought to depict the spatial extent of pollution. Ascertaining levels of heavy elements in potentially polluted soils in urban areas of Zambia and along major highways was deemed desirable because it is common practice to grow maize and vegetables in lots adjacent to accessible industrial sites and highways. Pb is a heavy element of interest for all sampled sites whose distribution at the abandoned mine ranged from 13 to 2028 ppm

242

The relevance and impact of Ethical Consciousness on Environmental Management in Zambia: A philosophical critique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This dissertation is informed by the need for adequate ethical consciousness in view of the perceived need for public responsibility, cooperation and participation in ensuring sound environmental management. It investigates and critiques the extent to which an adequate range of ethical principles has been incorporated in Zambia's attempts to address environmental issues.The investigation focused on the role of government policy, education system and the mass media in promoting responsible environmental management and practices by raising environmental ethical consciousness. The study confirmed the preponderance of economic utilitarianism with regard to environmental issues. (author)

243

Implementing antiretroviral therapy programs in resource-constrained settings: lessons from Monze, Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the impact of an antiretroviral therapy program on human resource utilization and service delivery in a rural hospital in Monze, Zambia, using qualitative data. We assess project impact on staff capacity utilization, service delivery, and community perception of care. Increased workload resulted in fatigue, low staff morale, and exacerbated critical manpower shortages, but also an increase in users of antiretroviral therapy, improvement in hospital infrastructure and funding, and an overall community satisfaction with service delivery. Integrating HAART programs within existing hospital units and services may be a good alternative to increase overall efficiency. PMID:21368850

Adedimeji, Adebola; Malokota, Oliver; Manafa, Ogenna

2011-05-01

244

Field comparison of OraQuick® ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 antibody test and two blood-based rapid HIV antibody tests in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Zambia’s national HIV testing algorithm specifies use of two rapid blood based antibody assays, Determine®HIV-1/2 (Inverness Medical) and if positive then Uni-GoldTM Recombigen HIV-1/2 (Trinity Biotech). Little is known about the performance of oral fluid based HIV testing in Zambia. The aims of this study are two-fold: 1) to compare the diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) under field conditions of the OraQuick® ADVANCE® Rapid HIV-1/2 (OraSure Technologi...

Zachary Dalila; Mwenge Lawrence; Muyoyeta Monde; Shanaube Kwame; Schaap Albertus; Bond Virginia; Kosloff Barry; de Haas Petra; Ayles Helen

2012-01-01

245

On nuclear district heating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear district heating - a relatively new direction of nuclear power development is considered. Three methods how to organize the centralized district heating from nuclear power sources are discussed. The application of nuclear central heating- and-power plants (NCHPP), the combined generation of heat and electric power by reactors of condensation NPP and the application of nuclear boilers. The first method is the most economic but the most complicated, the third one - the creation of nuclear district heating plants (NDHP) without generation of electricity has a number of design advantages though it lends to a less economic utilization of primary energy. The second method occupies the intermediate position. Main requirements on NDHP (nuclear boiler) safety operation are stated, its flowsheet and a brief description of its reactor plant are given. It is emphasized that the combined generation of heat and electric power by NCHPP is less effective than by fossil fuel CHPP

246

Globalising Accessibility: Drawing on the Experiences of Developed Countries to Enable the Participation of Disabled People in Zambia  

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This paper explores the accessibility situation in a developing country such as Zambia. The global view of accessibility for disabled people is provided to examine the accessibility situation in developed and developing countries, highlighting the role of the environment in achieving rights for disabled people. Recognition of disability rights…

Banda-Chalwe, Martha; Nitz, Jennifer C.; de Jonge, Desleigh

2012-01-01

247

Advancing Cervical Cancer Prevention Initiatives in Resource-Constrained Settings: Insights from the Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Groesbeck Parham and colleagues describe their Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Zambia, which has provided services to over 58,000 women over the past five years, and share lessons learned from the program's implementation and integration with existing HIV/AIDS programs.

Mwanahamuntu, Mulindi H.; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Kapambwe, Sharon; Pfaendler, Krista S.; Chibwesha, Carla; Mkumba, Gracilia; Mudenda, Victor; Hicks, Michael L.; Vermund, Sten H.; Stringer, Jeffrey S. A.; Parham, Groesbeck P.

2011-01-01

248

Factors Associated with School Teachers' Perceived Needs and Level of Adoption of HIV Prevention Education in Lusaka, Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the socio-cultural variables that may influence teachers' adoption of classroom-based HIV/AIDS education within the school setting and among school types in Zambia's Lusaka Province. Method: Mixed methods were used to collect original data. Using semi-structured interviews (n=11) and a survey…

Henning, Margaret; Chi, Chunheui; Khanna, Sunil K.

2011-01-01

249

Unravelling the quality of HIV counselling and testing services in the private and public sectors in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Background Despite the substantial investment for providing HIV counselling and testing (VCT) services in Zambia, there has been little effort to systematically evaluate the quality of VCT services provided by various types of health providers. This study, conducted in 2009, examines VCT in the public and private sectors including private for-profit and NGO/faith-based sectors in Copperbelt and Luapula.

Ron Levey, Ilana; Wang, Wenjuan

2014-01-01

250

Burn prevention in Zambia: a work in progress.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to assess both burn prevention knowledge and the effectiveness of educational intervention in alleviating the current knowledge deficit in Zambian youth. In one rural Zambian district, a burn prevention program was implemented in June 2011. Children at two elementary schools completed a 10-question survey that aimed to assess knowledge regarding burn injuries. After completing the survey, children received a burn and fire safety presentation and a burn prevention coloring book. Children were reassessed in May 2012 using the same survey to determine program efficacy and knowledge retention. Burn knowledge assessments were also completed for children at other schools who did not receive the burn prevention program in 2011. Logistic regression analysis was used for statistical adjustment for confounding variables. Between June 2011 and May 2012, 2747 children from six schools were assessed for their burn knowledge, with 312 of them resurveyed after educational intervention since initial survey. Reassessed children performed significantly better on three questions after controlling for confounders. They did better on five questions but their performance on these failed to achieve statistical significance. Children performed significantly worse on one concept about first aid treatment of a burn. A majority of the children demonstrated knowledge deficit in three concepts, even after educational intervention. There is a large variation in first burn knowledge survey performance of children from different schools, with inconsistency between concepts. With half the questions, knowledge deficit did not improve with advancement in school grade. Low- and moderate-income countries (LMICs) face the largest burns burden. With the lack of adequate burn care facing LMICs, burn injury prevention is of particular importance in those countries. This study shows that burn educational intervention could be effective in reducing burn knowledge deficit; however, the residual deficit posteducation could still be large and potentially contributing to heightened burn injury incidence. Customized and integrated educational programs may be proposed regarding the epidemiological profile of burn knowledge deficit from various schools. This study represents one of the few reports on the effectiveness of a burn prevention program in an LMIC. Future epidemiological data will be needed from nearby healthcare facilities to determine whether this program decreased burn morbidity and mortality at the hospital level. PMID:24043246

Heard, Jason P; Latenser, Barbara A; Liao, Junlin

2013-01-01

251

A Comparative Study of Agricultural Support Institutions in Central Province of Zambia: A Historical and Spatial Analysis  

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Full Text Available This is a comparative study of agricultural support institutions in Central Province, Zambia focusing on the 1980-90 and 1997-2008 periods. Generally, the study intended to identify the names of agricultural support institutions which existed in Central Province, as a smaller unit, and Zambia in general, and analyze their spatial aspect. In order to achieve this and other goals, the investigation conducted an extensive review of existing literature, old and new maps, distribution of questionnaires to informants, interviews, Focus Group Discussions and observations. The main thesis of this study was that agricultural support institutions differed in nature, funding, control and spatiality over different periods in Zambia’s history. The major findings were that both private and government agricultural support institutions existed soon after independence up to 1973 when the Zambian government declared a one party system and thereby nationalizing over 90% of the agricultural industry. Thus, the majority of agricultural support institutions between 1973 and 1990 were government funded, owned and controlled parastatal organizations such as National Agriculture Marketing Board (NAMBOARD, Zambia Cooperative Federation (ZCF and Lima Bank. These institutions had both a regional and national character, and were spatially more widely distributed. After the introduction of multi party politics and liberalization economic policies in 1991, the institutions collapsed due to withdraw of subsidies by government and, new, largely privately owned institutions, emerged such as Miombo and Omnia Fertilizer companies, Maize Research Institute (MRI, among others. Institutions which emerged after 1991 were more limited in distribution but more financially independent and sustainable. However, after 1997, the government intervened in the agricultural industry again by establishing the Food Reserve Agency (FRA and Farmer Input Support Programme (FISP. FRA was the conduit through which government bought crops especially maize while FISP was used to distribute subsidized maize seed and eight bags of chemical fertilizers to selected members of cooperatives. The study concludes that different agricultural support institutions have existed at different periods of Zambia’s history and their spatial distribution has been changing depending on their resource base.

Augrey H. Malambo

2013-06-01

252

The effect of food insecurity on mental health: panel evidence from rural Zambia.  

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A growing number of studies show support for a positive association between food insecurity and poor mental health in developing countries. Few of these studies, however, explore the relationship statistically employing longitudinal data. This study combines ethnography with randomly sampled household-level panel data (two waves) collected in 2009 to examine the association between food insecurity and mental health in rural Zambia. Mental health was measured using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire and food insecurity was assessed utilizing a modified 7-item scale based on local coping strategies used during food shortages. A multilevel linear regression model was employed with repeated measures nested within individuals (N = 280 observations) living in 81 households nested within 16 villages. Regression results confirm the postulated positive association between poor mental health and food insecurity. Food insecurity during the dry season, the time of year in rural Zambia when many households are typically food secure, had a subsequent greater effect on mental health than food insecurity during the rainy season. The difference in the effect was statistically significant at the five-percent level. In a country where mental health care resources are severely lacking, policy and applied efforts aimed at improving access to key agricultural resources, thereby increasing agricultural output, could potentially produce beneficial mental health outcomes. PMID:21852028

Cole, Steven M; Tembo, Gelson

2011-10-01

253

Pregnancy loss: spontaneous and induced abortions among young women in Lusaka, Zambia.  

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An estimated 60% of all adolescent pregnancies in low-income countries are unintended. The present study was carried out at the university hospital in Lusaka, Zambia over a four-month period in 2005. The aim was to explore experiences of pregnancy loss and to ascertain the girl's contraceptive knowledge and use and their partner's involvement in the pregnancy/abortion. Eighty-seven girls aged 13-19 years admitted to hospital for incomplete abortions were interviewed. Of these girls, 53 (61%) had had a spontaneous abortion and 34 (39%) had undergone an unsafe induced abortion. Significantly more girls with an unsafe induced abortion were single, students, had completed more years in school and were in less stable relationships. Girls' overall contraceptive knowledge and use was low and most pregnancies were unplanned. Partners played a decisive role in terminating pregnancy through unsafe induced abortion. Traditional healers, girls themselves and health professionals were the main abortion providers. Young women's health risks due to unprotected sex and lack of contraceptive services should urgently be addressed. The existence of the abortion law and access to emergency contraception should be better publicized in Zambia. PMID:19904649

Dahlbäck, Elisabeth; Maimbolwa, Margaret; Yamba, C Bawa; Kasonka, Lackson; Bergström, Staffan; Ransjö-Arvidson, Anna-Berit

2010-04-01

254

Community attitudes towards childbearing and abortion among HIV-positive women in Nigeria and Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although stigma towards HIV-positive women for both continuing and terminating a pregnancy has been documented, to date few studies have examined relative stigma towards one outcome versus the other. This study seeks to describe community attitudes towards each of two possible elective outcomes of an HIV-positive woman's pregnancy - induced abortion or birth - to determine which garners more stigma and document characteristics of community members associated with stigmatising attitudes towards each outcome. Data come from community-based interviews with reproductive-aged men and women, 2401 in Zambia and 2452 in Nigeria. Bivariate and multivariate analyses revealed that respondents from both countries overwhelmingly favoured continued childbearing for HIV-positive pregnant women, but support for induced abortion was slightly higher in scenarios in which anti-retroviral therapy (ART) was unavailable. Zambian respondents held more stigmatising attitudes towards abortion for HIV-positive women than did Nigerian respondents. Women held more stigmatising attitudes towards abortion for HIV-positive women than men, particularly in Zambia. From a sexual and reproductive health and rights perspective, efforts to assist HIV-positive women in preventing unintended pregnancy and to support them in their pregnancy decisions when they do become pregnant should be encouraged in order to combat the social stigma documented in this paper. PMID:23173695

Kavanaugh, Megan L; Moore, Ann M; Akinyemi, Odunayo; Adewole, Isaac; Dzekedzeke, Kumbutso; Awolude, Olutosin; Arulogun, Oyedunni

2013-01-01

255

Strengthening faculty recruitment for health professions training in basic sciences in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zambia is facing a crisis in its human resources for health, with deficits in the number and skill mix of health workers. The University of Zambia School of Medicine (UNZA SOM) was the only medical school in the country for decades, but recently it was joined by three new medical schools--two private and one public. In addition to expanding medical education, the government has also approved several allied health programs, including pharmacy, physiotherapy, biomedical sciences, and environmental health. This expansion has been constrained by insufficient numbers of faculty. Through a grant from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI), UNZA SOM has been investing in ways to address faculty recruitment, training, and retention. The MEPI-funded strategy involves directly sponsoring a cohort of faculty at UNZA SOM during the five-year grant, as well as establishing more than a dozen new master's programs, with the goal that all sponsored faculty are locally trained and retained. Because the issue of limited basic science faculty plagues medical schools throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, this strategy of using seed funding to build sustainable local capacity to recruit, train, and retain faculty could be a model for the region. PMID:25072591

Simuyemba, Moses; Talib, Zohray; Michelo, Charles; Mutale, Wilbroad; Zulu, Joseph; Andrews, Ben; Nzala, Selestine; Katubulushi, Max; Njelesani, Evariste; Bowa, Kasonde; Maimbolwa, Margaret; Mudenda, John; Mulla, Yakub

2014-08-01

256

Safety and security of radiation sources and radioactive materials: A case of Zambia - least developed country  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Zambia, which is current (1998) classified as a Least Developed Country has applications of nuclear science and technology that cover the medical, industrial, education and research. However, the application is mainly in medical and industry. Through the responsibility of radiation source is within the mandate of the Radiation Protection Board. The aspects involving security fall on different stake holders some that have no technical knowledge on what radiation is about. The stake holders in this category include customs clearing and forwarding agents, state security/defence agencies and the operators. Such a situation demands a national system that should be instituted to meet the safety and security requirements but takes into account the involvement of the diverse stake holders. In addition such system should avoid unnecessary exposure, ensure safety of radioactive materials and sources, detect illicit trade and maintain integrity of such materials or sources. This paper will provide the status on issue in Zambia and the challenges that exist to ensure further development in application of Nuclear Science and Technology (S and T) in the country takes into account the safety and security requirements that avoid deliberate and accidental loss of radiation sources and radioactive materials. The Government has a responsibility to ensure that effective system is established and operated to protect radiation sources and radioactive materials from theft, sabotage and ensure safety. (author)

257

Preferences for hospital quality in Zambia: results from a discrete choice experiment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reports on the results of a discrete choice experiment undertaken in Zambia to assess the factors influencing the demand for hospital care in Zambia, in particular the role of (perceived) quality and trade-offs between price and quality. Valuations of quality were evaluated for the treatment of two acute medical conditions, cerebral malaria in adults and acute pneumonia in children. Marginal utilities and willingness-to-pay for attributes of quality of hospital care were estimated, together with the influence of socioeconomic characteristics on these valuations and the extent of non-linearities in valuations of time and money. We find the technical quality of care, as represented by the thoroughness of examination, to be the most important quality attribute, followed by staff attitudes and drug availability. Valuations of examination thoroughness increase with increasing socioeconomic status. The disutility of cost was found to decrease with higher socioeconomic status, as was the value of drug availability. The implications of the findings for Zambian hospital sector reforms are discussed. PMID:15619273

Hanson, Kara; McPake, Barbara; Nakamba, Pamela; Archard, Luke

2005-07-01

258

How High Poverty Districts Improve.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes results of study of five high-poverty districts' successful efforts to improve academic achievement: Adline Independent School District (Texas), Chula Vista Elementary School District (California), Kent County Public Schools (Maryland), Minneapolis Public Schools (Minnesota), and Providence Public Schools (Rhode Island). Focuses on…

Togneri, Wendy; Anderson, Stephen E.

2003-01-01

259

District Consolidation: Rivals Coming Together  

Science.gov (United States)

District consolidation is a highly emotional process. One key to success is sticking to the facts. In Iowa, school districts facing financial difficulties or enrollment concerns do not have to move directly to consolidation. In many cases, districts begin by developing sharing agreements. These sharing agreements may start with simple sharing of…

Mart, Dan

2011-01-01

260

Harmful lifestyles' clustering among sexually active in-school adolescents in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Zambia. Like many other African nations with high HIV burden, heterosexual intercourse is the commonest mode of HIV spread. The estimation of prevalence and factors associated with sexual intercourse among in-school adolescents has potential to inform public health interventions aimed at reducing the burden of sex-related diseases in Zambia. Methods We carried out secondary analysis of the Zambia Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS 2004; a cross sectional survey that aims to study health-related behaviors among in-school adolescents. We estimated frequencies of relevant socio-demographic variables. The associations between selected explanatory variables and self-reported history of sexual intercourse within the last 12 months were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results Data from 2136 in-school adolescents who participated in the Zambia Global School-Based Health Survey of 2004 were available for analysis. Out of these respondents, 13.4% reported that they had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months prior to the survey; 16.4% and 9.7% among males and females respectively. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, with age less than 15 years as the referent the adjusted odds ratio (AOR of having engaged in sexual intercourse in adolescents of age 15 years, and those aged 16 years or more were 1.06 (95% CI 1.03–1.10 and 1.74 (95% 1.70–1.79 respectively. Compared to adolescents who had no close friends, adolescents who had one close friend were more likely to have had sexual intercourse, AOR = 1.28 (95% CI 1.24–1.32. Compared to adolescents who were not supervised by their parents, adolescents who were rarely or sometimes supervised by their parents were likely to have had sexual intercourse, and adolescents who were most of the time/always supervised by their parents were less likely to have had sexual intercourse; AORs 1.26 (95% CI 1.23–1.26 and 0.92 (95% CI 0.90–0.95 respectively. Compared to adolescents who did not smoke dagga, adolescents who smoked dagga 1 or 2 times, and those who smoked dagga 3 or more times in their lifetime were 70% and 25% more likely to have had sexual intercourse, respectively. Adolescents who drank alcohol in 1 or 2 days, and those who took alcohol in 3 or more days in a month preceding the survey were 12% and 9% more likely to have had sexual intercourse, respectively, compared to adolescents who did not drink alcohol in the 30 days prior to the survey. Furthermore, adolescents who had been drunk 1 or 2 times, and who had been drunk 3 or more times in a life time were 14% and 13% more likely to have had sexual intercourse compared to those who have never been drunk in their lifetime. Conclusion We identified a constellation of potentially harmful behaviours among adolescents in Zambia. Public health interventions aimed at reducing prevalence of sexual intercourse may be designed and implemented in a broader sense having recognized that sexually active adolescents may also be exposed to other problem behaviours.

Rudatsikira Emmanuel

2008-02-01

261

Why Latrines Are Not Used: Communities' Perceptions and Practices Regarding Latrines in a Taenia solium Endemic Rural Area in Eastern Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taenia solium cysticercosis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis occurring in many developing countries. Socio-cultural determinants related to its control remain unclear. Studies in Africa have shown that the underuse of sanitary facilities and the widespread occurrence of free-roaming pigs are the major risk factors for porcine cysticercosis. The study objective was to assess the communities' perceptions, practices and knowledge regarding latrines in a T. solium endemic rural area in Eastern Zambia inhabited by the Nsenga ethno-linguistic group, and to identify possible barriers to their construction and use. A total of 21 focus group discussions on latrine use were organized separately with men, women and children, in seven villages of the Petauke district. The themes covered were related to perceived latrine availability (absence-presence, building obstacles) and perceived latrine use (defecation practices, latrine management, socio-cultural constraints).The findings reveal that latrines were not constructed in every household because of the convenient use of existing latrines in the neighborhood. Latrines were perceived to contribute to good hygiene mainly because they prevent pigs from eating human feces. Men expressed reluctance to abandon the open-air defecation practice mainly because of toilet-associated taboos with in-laws and grown-up children of the opposite gender. When reviewing conceptual frameworks of people's approach to sanitation, we found that seeking privacy and taboos hindering latrine use and construction were mainly explained in our study area by the fact that the Nsenga observe a traditionally matrilineal descent. These findings indicate that in this local context latrine promotion messages should not only focus on health benefits in general. Since only men were responsible for building latrines and mostly men preferred open defecation, sanitation programs should also be directed to men and address related sanitary taboos in order to be effective. PMID:25739017

Thys, Séverine; Mwape, Kabemba E; Lefèvre, Pierre; Dorny, Pierre; Marcotty, Tanguy; Phiri, Andrew M; Phiri, Isaak K; Gabriël, Sarah

2015-02-01

262

African music in music education :an exploration into the teaching of African music in two primary colleges of education in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Western music and African music as a form of indigenous knowledge constitute music education taught in colleges of education in Zambia. Nevertheless, soon after the country’s independence from British rule in 1964, Zambia embarked on curriculum reforms to ensure inclusion of the African indigenous cultures. This was in an effort to transform the colonial school curriculum which was dominated Eurocentric values, beliefs and practices in order to make the education relevant to the Zambian chi...

Musakula, Franklins Mwansa

2014-01-01

263

Estimating loss to follow-up in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy: The effect of the competing risk of death in Zambia and Switzerland  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Loss to follow-up (LTFU) is common in antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes. Mortality is a competing risk (CR) for LTFU; however, it is often overlooked in cohort analyses. We examined how the CR of death affected LTFU estimates in Zambia and Switzerland. METHODS AND FINDINGS: HIV-infected patients aged ?18 years who started ART 2004-2008 in observational cohorts in Zambia and Switzerland were included. We compared standard Kaplan-Meier curves with CR cumulative in...

Scho?ni-affolter, Franziska; Keiser, Olivia; Mwango, Albert; Stringer, Jeffrey; Ledergerber, Bruno; Mulenga, Lloyd; Bucher, Heiner C.; Westfall, Andrew O.; Calmy, Alexandra; Boulle, Andrew; Chintu, Namwinga; Egger, Matthias; Chi, Benjamin H.

2011-01-01

264

INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGES IN AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE:An Exploration into the Integration of Indigenous Knowledges in the Teaching of Agricultural Science in selected Secondary Schools in Zambia.  

OpenAIRE

This thesis explores the integration of indigenous knowledges (IKs) into the teaching of agricultural science as illustrated by the cases of selected secondary schools in the Southern province of Zambia. The need to integrate IKs in agricultural science education in Zambia to reflect the local cultural settings cannot be over emphasised. The agricultural science syllabus in secondary schools is Eurocentric since the current educational policies are situated deeply in Western hegemonic epistem...

Sakayombo, Rosalia

2014-01-01

265

Prevalence and correlates for school truancy among pupils in grades 7-10: results from the 2004 Zambia Global School-based Health Survey  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background There are limited data on the prevalence and associated factors of truancy in southern Africa. Yet truancy should attract the attention of public health professionals, educators and policy makers as it may be associated with adolescent problem behaviours. The objectives of the study were to estimate the prevalence and determine correlates of school truancy among pupils in Zambia. Findings We used data collected in 2004 in the Zambia Global School-based Health Survey. Logis...

Muula Adamson S.; Rudatsikira Emmanuel; Babaniyi Olusegun; Songolo Peter; Siziya Seter

2012-01-01

266

36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.  

Science.gov (United States)

... (b) The Community Development District. (1...comprise the Community Development District are set out...Whalebone Walk. (2) The northern boundary of the communities...the south shore of the Great South Bay. (3...included in the Community Development District with the...

2010-07-01

267

VII international district heating conference  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proceedings of the 7th International District Heating Conference contain the full texts of the 89 presented papers of which 11 fall under the INIS Subject Scope. The conference met in seven sessions and dealt with the following problem areas: design and optimization of systems of district heating, integration of the power system and the district heating systems, cooperation of nuclear and fossil burning sources in district heating systems, the use of specific nuclear power plants for heating purposes, questions of the control of systems of district heating, the development of components of heating networks, the reliability and design of heat supply pipes. (Z.M.)

268

Ubendian basement and its late Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic structural and metamorphic overprint in northeastern Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Palaeoproterozoic basement in the Muyombe and Luwumbu River areas of northeastern Zambia comprises a WNW-ESE (to E-W) trending cordierite-garnet-sillimanite granulite unit with numerous enderbite bodies and an amphibolite-facies migmatite unit. Zircons from a biotite metatonalite intruding the granulites were dated at 1960.7 ± 0.4 Ma, and this is time-equivalent with the Nyika granite in adjacent Malawi. Mesoproterozoic intrusions into this basement are represented by a nepheline syenite at Mivula Hill (zircon age: 1360.1 ± 0.8 Ma) and the porphyritic Ntendele biotite metagranite (zircon age: 1329.1 ± 0.6 Ma). The Ntendele granite attains plutonic dimensions north of Muyombe. The Mesoproterozoic Mafinga Group occurs in two major belts imbricated in the basement, i.e., the Makutu Range belt and Nyika escarpment belt, both trending NE-SW, nearly at right angles to the Ubendian structures in the basement. Numerous smaller tectonic slices of the Mafinga Group, in the Ubendian basement gneisses farther south of the two major belts, document a significant areal extent of this unit. Structures and metamorphic effects (greenschist-facies, biotite ± garnet zone) imprinted in the Mafinga Group rocks correlate with those in the Irumide belt farther west near Isoka and to the north, in the Mafinga Hills. A mylonitic foliation and newly-formed mineral assemblages (biotite zone) in the Ntendele granite correspond to deformation and metamorphism of the Mafinga Group. Mylonitization affecting the basement complex near the Mafinga Group slices resulted in strongly but heterogeneously sheared domains with a corresponding Irumide-age structural and metamorphic overprint. 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of muscovite from mylonitic gneisses derived from basement rocks and from a Mafinga Group phyllite point to closure of the K-Ar system in the interval 860-890 Ma. These early Neoproterozoic ages correlate with published muscovite and biotite K-Ar ages of biotite gneisses and muscovite schists from other parts of the Irumide belt in NE Zambia. They probably indicate slow cooling rates after main Irumide tectonism and associated magmatism around 1015 Ma. The 40Ar/ 39Ar data show that the Muyombe area was not affected by Pan-African thermal overprinting on a regional scale. In view of contrasting relations between the area studied and published results from northern Malawi, where both structural and thermal Pan-African overprints are documented, it is suggested that the NW-SE trending Mugesse shear zone in northern Malawi and along the border with NE Zambia is an important structural boundary separating contrasting crustal domains, i.e. the Ubendian belt, Irumide belt, and East African Orogen.

Vrána, S.; Kachlík, V.; Kröner, A.; Marheine, D.; Seifert, A. V.; Žá?ek, V.; Bab?rek, J.

2004-01-01

269

The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme with Zambia, 1982-1992. Country programme summaries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With $5.5 million of Agency support received, Zambia ranks 33rd among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. More than half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (61%), followed by expert services (25%) and training (14%). Almost all of the resources made available came from the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (93%), with only very small shares provided through extrabudgetary contributions (4%) and assistance in kind (3%). With regard to project disbursements during the past ten years, by sector, the largest areas have been agriculture (33%) and general atomic energy development (23%), followed by industry and hydrology (19%), nuclear raw materials (13%) and nuclear safety (6%)

270

Environmental science-policy interactions : the example of forestry and REDD+ in Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In response to a history of contended and ineffective policy initiatives aimed at arresting environmental problems, scientific knowledge is increasingly called for to inform decision makers in their design of better policy solutions. Based on the rationale that scientific knowledge on the environment is indispensable in environmental policy making, significant human and financial resources are being allocated to activities that are able to generate the required scientific knowledge. However, for many involved in such activities, the question arises: when do policy makers actually listen to science? This PhD thesis contributes to answering this questions; however it does this by questioning the conceptions of science that contribute to political decision-making and by exploring the relationship between scientific knowledge, other types of knowledge and policy. This PhD study employs the REDD+ (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation and enhancement of forest carbon stocks) process and the phenomenon of deforestation in Zambia as research examples. The research was carried out from mid 2008 and to mid 2013 and applies a mixed methods research design. Fieldwork was carried out in Zambia during the period 2009 to 2011 at national policy level and in two field sites in the Copperbelt Province. The empirical substance consists of archival, interview, questionnaire and remote sensing data. The thesis is composed of an introductory chapter and three individual, but thematically and theoretically interlinked scientific papers. The first paper focuses on science-policy interactions seen broadly in the Zambian REDD+ process. The paper proposes five challenges, which should be addressed, among others a need for understanding the relationship between science and policy as a two-sided transaction of knowledge and for recognizing the importance of boundary work. The second paper further explores the conceptualization of science-policy interactions and the implications of boundary work as well as co-production to science-policy interaction. The paper specifically explores how knowledge related to deforestation gets translated across the social boundaries of science and policy through the interwoven processes of knowledge production, circulation, and application. It is demonstrated that production, circulation, and application of deforestation related knowledge is influenced by an epistemic community, which in a current situation of weak and contradictory empirical evidence is able to sustain a deforestation discourse centered on high forest loss and neo-Malthusian causal explanations. The third paper examines how knowing about deforestation is closely linked to issues of framing, discourse, scale, and context; and how it may be difficult to demark scientific knowledge from other types of knowledge. The paper provides suggestion on how national policy makers and policies should deal with the complex issues of knowledge and evidence in relation to deforestation and forest degradation in future REDD+ design and implementation. To curtail potential negative consequences of the identified mode of science-policy interaction in Zambia, the study concludes by making a number of proposals. The proposals are generic in nature and may be found relevant in environmental policy processes outside Zambia.

Kamelarczyk, Kewin Bach Friis

2013-01-01

271

Gwembe Coal Formation, Karoo Supergroup, Mid-Zambezi valley, southern Zambia; a fluvial plain environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Gwembe Coal Formation of Permian age belongs to the Lower Karoo Group of the Karoo Supergroup (Permo-Carboniferous to early Jurassic), which crops out in the mid-Zambezi Valley, southern Zambia. The formation has a maximum thickness of 280 m. It was formed in a fluvial depositional environment in which sandstones, siltstones and mudstones were deposited in channels and flood plains. One sandstone body (A Sandstone) indicates a change in fluvial style from a proximal braided system to a high-sinuosity meandering stream system. The productive coals (Main Seam) with thicknesses from 5 to 12 m were deposited in shallow swampy areas of the flood plain. Peat deposition was interrupted by channel, crevasse channel and splay, levee and overbank deposition. Rootlets observed in basal sandstones indicate an insitu origin for the Main Seam.

Nyambe, I.A.; Dixon, O. (Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1993-03-01

272

Barriers and resources to PMTCT of HIV: Luba-Kasai men's perspective in Lusaka, Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to describe the views of Luba-Kasai (a Congolese tribe) men on barriers inhibiting them from the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV and the resources they need to implement such prevention in Lusaka, Zambia. Twenty-one men were interviewed and the data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The barriers identified in the data were poverty, refugee status, absence of support arrangements, and the working culture in antenatal care, passivity, ignorance, marital disharmony, HIV-related stigma, and cultural characteristics, such as ways of being a man and religious beliefs. The resources were spiritual outlook on life, knowledge of HIV issues, support and availability of advanced health services, and satisfaction of basic needs. Improving male participation in PMTCT in this subpopulation presupposes cooperation between different sectors of society and inspiring trust in antenatal care. PMID:24070641

Auvinen, Jaana; Kylmä, Jari; Välimäki, Maritta; Bweupe, Max; Suominen, Tarja

2013-01-01

273

Growth of the cichlid fish Tylochromis bangwelenis in Lake Bangweulu, Zambia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Growth of the cichlid Tylochromis bangwelensis was assessed by examination of scales from fish collected in Lake Bangweulu, Zambia, in 1972-1973. Discontinuities in circuli that appeared to be valid annuli were observed. They appeared on scales of yearling fish in August--October and on scales of older fish slightly later, apparently in response to changes in lake temperature. Fish reached an average length of 6.8 cm at the end of their first year, and grew 2 to 3 cm in each subsequent year to a maximum age of 7 years. Male T. bangwelensis grew slightly faster than females. A few fish of both sexes matured at a minimum length of 11 to 12 cm at the end of their second year, but most individuals matured one year later.

Griffith, J.S.

1977-03-01

274

Pentecostalism and schisms in the Reformed Church in Zambia (1996-2001): listening to the people  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This article is descriptive in nature and a practical theological assessment of the schisms that took place in the Reformed Church in Zambia (RCZ) between 1996 and 2001. It analyses empirical evidence to find an answer to the question why it happened. Pentecostal or charismatic tendencies have chall [...] enged the long inherited tradition of mainline churches. Subsequently, Pentecostal or charismatic movements have caused intense conflict in the church between the pro-conservatives and pro-Pentecostals. In the RCZ this led to the formation of the Christian Reformed Church (CRC) in 1999 and the Bible Gospel Church in Africa (BIGOCA) in 2001.

Lukas, Soko; H. Jurgens, Hendriks.

275

Chemical composition and crystal structure refinement of schorl from the Lundazi pegmatite field, Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Present work characterizes tourmaline from one of the major pegmatite fields in Zambia - the Lundazi pegmatite belt.
Microprobe analysis gave (wt%): SiO2 34.65, TiO2 0.85, Al2O3 29.80, Fe2O3 4.94, FeO 9.47, MnO 0.29, MgO 4.06, Li2O < 0.01, CaO 0.59, Na2O 2.38, K2O 0.08, F 0.32...

Ondruš P; Vrána S; Mašlá? M

2002-01-01

276

Task-shifting HIV counselling and testing services in Zambia: the role of lay counsellors  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The human resource shortage in Zambia is placing a heavy burden on the few health care workers available at health facilities. The Zambia Prevention, Care and Treatment Partnership began training and placing community volunteers as lay counsellors in order to complement the efforts of the health care workers in providing HIV counselling and testing services. These volunteers are trained using the standard national counselling and testing curriculum. This study was conducted to review the effectiveness of lay counsellors in addressing staff shortages and the provision of HIV counselling and testing services. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by means of semistructured interviews from all active lay counsellors in each of the facilities and a facility manager or counselling supervisor overseeing counseling and testing services and clients. At each of the 10 selected facilities, all counselling and testing record books for the month of May 2007 were examined and any recordkeeping errors were tallied by cadre. Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions with health care workers at each facility. Results Lay counsellors provide counselling and testing services of quality and relieve the workload of overstretched health care workers. Facility managers recognize and appreciate the services provided by lay counsellors. Lay counsellors provide up to 70% of counselling and testing services at health facilities. The data review revealed lower error rates for lay counsellors, compared to health care workers, in completing the counselling and testing registers. Conclusion Community volunteers, with approved training and ongoing supervision, can play a major role at health facilities to provide counselling and testing services of quality, and relieve the burden on already overstretched health care workers. PMID:19480710

Sanjana, Parsa; Torpey, Kwasi; Schwarzwalder, Alison; Simumba, Caroline; Kasonde, Prisca; Nyirenda, Lameck; Kapanda, Paul; Kakungu-Simpungwe, Matilda; Kabaso, Mushota; Thompson, Catherine

2009-01-01

277

Secular trends in pediatric antiretroviral treatment programs in rural and urban Zambia: a retrospective cohort study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2003 pediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART programs have scaled-up in sub-Saharan Africa and should be evaluated to assess progress and identify areas for improvement. We evaluated secular trends in the characteristics and treatment outcomes of children in three pediatric ART clinics in urban and rural areas in Zambia. Methods Routinely collected data were analyzed from three ART programs in rural (Macha and Mukinge and urban (Lusaka Zambia between program implementation and July 2008. Data were obtained from electronic medical record systems and medical record abstraction, and were categorized by year of program implementation. Characteristics of all HIV-infected and exposed children enrolled in the programs and all children initiating treatment were compared by year of implementation. Results Age decreased and immunologic characteristics improved in all groups over time in both urban and rural clinics, with greater improvement observed in the rural clinics. Among children both eligible and ineligible for ART at clinic enrollment, the majority started treatment within a year. A high proportion of children, particularly those ineligible for ART at clinic enrollment, were lost to follow-up prior to initiating ART. Among children initiating ART, clinical and immunologic outcomes after six months of treatment improved in both urban and rural clinics. In the urban clinics, mortality after six months of treatment declined with program duration, and in the rural clinics, the proportion of children defaulting by six months increased with program duration. Conclusions Treatment programs are showing signs of progress in the care of HIV-infected children, particularly in the rural clinics where scale-up increased rapidly over the first three years of program implementation. However, continued efforts to optimize care are needed as many children continue to enroll in ART programs at a late stage of disease and thus are not receiving the full benefits of treatment.

Cotham Matt

2010-07-01

278

Risk factors, healthcare-seeking and sexual behaviour among patients with genital ulcers in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Genital ulcers (GU are associated with an increased risk of HIV transmission. Understanding risk factors for genital ulcers and sexual behaviour patterns after onset of symptoms and health seeking behaviour among GU-patients can provide useful information to aid design effective prevention strategies for genital ulcers. We investigated risk factors of self-reported GUs and care-seeking in the general population, and assessed GU patients regarding past care-seeking, recent sexual behaviour and partner awareness of the disease. Methods We analysed national data on genital ulcers from the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey, and data from a cross-sectional survey of genital ulcer patients from primary health care facilities in Lusaka, Zambia. Results The prevalence of GU in 2007 in the general population of Lusaka was 3.6%. Important predictors for genital ulcers were age 25–29?years, being widowed/separated/divorced and having a high number of life-time sexual partners. No differences in care-seeking were observed by residence, wealth and gender, and 60% of the respondents sought care from public health facilities. Among patients with GUs in Lusaka, 14% sought care >2?weeks after symptom onset. Forty-two percent were not aware of their HIV status, 57% reported sex after onset of symptoms and only 15% reported consistent condom use. Conclusions Low awareness of HIV status despite high probability of being infected and low condom use after onset of genital ulcer symptoms leads to a high potential for transmission to sexual partners. This, combined with the fact that many patients with GUs delayed seeking care, shows a need for awareness campaigns about GUs and the importance of abstinence or use of condoms when experiencing such symptoms.

Makasa Mpundu

2012-06-01

279

Assessing the Consequences of Stigma for Tuberculosis Patients in Urban Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Stigma is one of the many factors hindering tuberculosis (TB) control by negatively affecting hospital delay and treatment compliance. In Zambia, the morbidity and mortality due to TB remains high, despite extended public health attempts to control the epidemic and to diminish stigma. Study Aim To enhance understanding of TB-related stigmatizing perceptions and to describe TB patients’ experiences of stigma in order to point out recommendations to improve TB policy. Methods We conducted a mixed method study at Kanyama clinic and surrounding areas, in Lusaka, Zambia; structured interviews with 300 TB patients, multiple in-depth interviews with 30 TB patients and 10 biomedical health workers, 3 focus group discussions with TB patients and treatment supporters, complemented by participant observation and policy analysis of the TB control program. Predictors of stigma were identified by use of multivariate regression analyses; qualitative analysis of the in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation was used for triangulation of the study findings. Results We focused on the 138/300 patients that described TB-related perceptions and attitudes, of whom 113 (82%) reported stigma. Stigma provoking TB conceptions were associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection, alleged immoral behaviour, (perceived) incurability, and (traditional) myths about TB aetiology. Consequences of stigma prevailed both among children and adults and included low self-esteem, insults, ridicule, discrimination, social exclusion, and isolation leading to a decreased quality of life and social status, non-disclosure, and/or difficulties with treatment compliance and adherence. Women had significantly more stigma-related problems than men. Conclusions The findings illustrate that many TB patients faced stigma-related issues, often hindering effective TB control and suggesting that current efforts to reduce stigma are not yet optimal. The content and implementation of sensitization programs should be improved and more emphasis needs to be placed on women and children. PMID:25806955

Cremers, Anne Lia; de Laat, Myrthe Manon; Kapata, Nathan; Gerrets, Rene; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Grobusch, Martin Peter

2015-01-01

280

Fuel biomass and combustion factors associated with fires in savanna ecosystems of South Africa and Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

Fires are dominant factors in shaping the structure and composition of vegetation in African savanna ecosystems. Emissions such as CO2, NOx, CH4, and other compounds originating from these fires are suspected to contribute substantially to changes in global biogeochemical processes. Limited quantitative data exist detailing characteristics of biomass, burning conditions, and the postfire environment in African savannas. Fourteen test sites, differentiated by distinct burn frequency histories and land-use patterns, were established and burned during August and September 1992 in savanna parklands of South Africa and savanna woodlands of Zambia. Vegetation physiognomy, available fuel loads, the levels of biomass consumed by fire, environmental conditions, and fire behavior are described. In the South African sites, total aboveground fuel loads ranged from 2218 to 5492 kg ha-1 where fire return intervals were 1-4 years and exceeded 7000 kg ha-1 at a site subjected to 38 years of fire exclusion. However, fireline intensity was only 1419 kW m-1 at the fire exclusion site, while ranging from 480 to 6130 kW m-1 among the frequent fire sites. In Zambia, total aboveground fuel loads ranged from 3164 kg ha-1 in a hydromorphic grassland to 7343 kg ha-1 in a fallow shifting cultivation site. Dormant grass and litter constituted 70-98% of the total fuel load among all sites. Although downed woody debris was a relatively minor fuel component at most sites, it constituted 43-57% of the total fuel load in the fire exclusion and shifting cultivation sites. Fire line intensity ranged between 1734 and 4061 kW m-1 among all Zambian sites. Mean grass consumption generally exceeded 95%, while downed woody debris consumption ranged from 3 to 73% at all sites. In tropical savannas and savanna woodlands of southern Africa, differences in environmental conditions, land- use patterns, and fire regimes influence vegetation characteristics and thus influence fire behavior and biomass consumption.

Shea, Ronald W.; Shea, Barbara W.; Kauffman, J. Boone; Ward, Darold E.; Haskins, Craig I.; Scholes, Mary C.

1996-10-01

281

The zoonotic potential of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whilst remarkable progress in elucidating the mechanisms governing interspecies transmission and pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been made, similar studies focusing on low-pathogenic AIVs isolated from the wild waterfowl reservoir are limited. We previously reported that two AIV strains (subtypes H6N2 and H3N8) isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia harbored some amino acid residues preferentially associated with human influenza virus proteins (so-called human signatures) and replicated better in the lungs of infected mice and caused more morbidity than a strain lacking such residues. To further substantiate these observations, we infected chickens and mice intranasally with AIV strains of various subtypes (H3N6, H3N8, H4N6, H6N2, H9N1 and H11N9) isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia. Although some strains induced seroconversion, all of the tested strains replicated poorly and were nonpathogenic for chickens. In contrast, most of the strains having human signatures replicated well in the lungs of mice, and one of these strains caused severe illness in mice and induced lung injury that was characterized by a severe accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. These results suggest that some strains tested in this study may have the potential to infect mammalian hosts directly without adaptation, which might possibly be associated with the possession of human signature residues. Close monitoring and evaluation of host-associated signatures may help to elucidate the prevalence and emergence of AIVs with potential for causing zoonotic infections. PMID:24862188

Simulundu, Edgar; Nao, Naganori; Yabe, John; Muto, Nilton A; Sithebe, Thami; Sawa, Hirofumi; Manzoor, Rashid; Kajihara, Masahiro; Muramatsu, Mieko; Ishii, Akihiro; Ogawa, Hirohito; Mweene, Aaron S; Takada, Ayato

2014-10-01

282

Task-shifting HIV counselling and testing services in Zambia: the role of lay counsellors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The human resource shortage in Zambia is placing a heavy burden on the few health care workers available at health facilities. The Zambia Prevention, Care and Treatment Partnership began training and placing community volunteers as lay counsellors in order to complement the efforts of the health care workers in providing HIV counselling and testing services. These volunteers are trained using the standard national counselling and testing curriculum. This study was conducted to review the effectiveness of lay counsellors in addressing staff shortages and the provision of HIV counselling and testing services. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by means of semistructured interviews from all active lay counsellors in each of the facilities and a facility manager or counselling supervisor overseeing counseling and testing services and clients. At each of the 10 selected facilities, all counselling and testing record books for the month of May 2007 were examined and any recordkeeping errors were tallied by cadre. Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions with health care workers at each facility. Results Lay counsellors provide counselling and testing services of quality and relieve the workload of overstretched health care workers. Facility managers recognize and appreciate the services provided by lay counsellors. Lay counsellors provide up to 70% of counselling and testing services at health facilities. The data review revealed lower error rates for lay counsellors, compared to health care workers, in completing the counselling and testing registers. Conclusion Community volunteers, with approved training and ongoing supervision, can play a major role at health facilities to provide counselling and testing services of quality, and relieve the burden on already overstretched health care workers.

Kapanda Paul

2009-05-01

283

Assessing Zambia's industrial fortification options: getting beyond changes in prevalence and cost-effectiveness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Since fortification of sugar with vitamin A was mandated in 1998, Zambia's fortification program has not changed, while the country remains plagued by high rates ofmicronutrient deficiencies. Objective. To provide evidence-based fortification options with the hope of reinvigorating the Zambian fortification program. Methods. Zambia's 2006 Living Conditions Monitoring Survey is used to estimate the apparent intakes of vitamin A, iron, and zinc, as well as the apparent consumption levels and coverage of four fortification vehicles. Fourteen alternativefoodfortification portfolios are modeled, and their costs, impacts, average cost-effectiveness, and incremental cost-effectiveness are calculated using three alternative impact measures. Results. Alternative impact measures result in different rank orderings of the portfolios. The most cost-effective portfolio is vegetable oil, which has a cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) saved ranging from 12% to 25% of that of sugar, depending on the impact measure used. The public health impact of fortified vegetable oil, however, is relatively modest. Additional criteria beyond cost-effectiveness are introduced and used to rank order the portfolios. The size of the public health impact, the total cost, and the incremental cost-effectiveness of phasing in multiple vehicle portfolios over time are analyzed. Conclusions. Assessing fortification portfolios by measuring changes in the prevalence of inadequate intakes underestimates impact. A more sensitive measure, which also takes into account change in the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) gap, is provided by a dose-response-based approach to estimating the number ofDALYs saved. There exist highly cost-effective fortification intervention portfolios with substantial public health impacts and variable price tags that could help improve Zambians' nutrition status. PMID:24605698

Fiedler, John L; Lividini, Keith; Kabaghe, Gladys; Zulu, Rodah; Tehinse, John; Bermudez, Odilia I; Jallier, Vincent; Guyondet, Christophe

2013-12-01

284

Ecology and phenology of ticks in Zambia: seasonal dynamics on cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of the seasonality and infestation rates of ticks was carried out in 11 cattle herds in different ecological habitats in Zambia between 1980 and 1982. Wherever possible supplementary data were obtained from opportunistic collections from cattle and other hosts. Analysis of over 1000 tick collections from cattle indicated that infestation rates of the most important species, Amblyomma variegatum and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus vary in different ecological habitats: (i) In Western Province, infestations are much lower than elsewhere; (ii) in Central and Southern Provinces, moderate to high infestations occur; and (iii) in Eastern Province, R. appendiculatus numbers are generally low and A. variegatum numbers are moderate. These two species, however, have similar life cycles throughout their range with one generation per year. Larvae occur mainly from March to May, nymphae from May to September, and adults of A. variegatum from October to December and of R. appendiculatus from December to April. Boophilus decoloratus appears to have two to four generations per year but is uncommon during the rainy season. In some areas in central Zambia Rhipicephalus compositus adults are seasonally common in September-October whereas Rhipicephalus evertsi is more or less ubiquitous. Low to moderate infestations of Hyalomma truncatum and Hyalomma rufipes occur in most areas. At least 14 other less common or rare species of Rhipicephalus, Amblyomma, Haemaphysalis and Ixodes were taken infrequently from cattle. These and other host-specific species were also collected from dogs, sheep, various wildlife hosts and the environment. Infestation rates, seasonality and host-relationships of tick species are discussed in relation to their ecology. Relevant biosystematic and disease relationships are reviewed briefly. The baseline data derived from this study are adequate for integrated analysis with those from other ecological and economic investigations to formulate tick control strategies. PMID:3451861

Pegram, R G; Perry, B D; Musisi, F L; Mwanaumo, B

1986-04-01

285

A 12-Month Study of Food Crops Contaminated by Heavy Metals, Lusaka, Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate heavy-metal contamination of irrigation water used for urban agriculture and subsequent contamination of food crops in Chunga, NW Lusaka, the capital of Zambia. Inhabitants of the Chunga area rely on urban agriculture as both a major source of income and food. From August 2004 to July 2005, monthly samples of irrigation water used and edible portions of food crops were taken from a farmer's plot at Chunga. The food crops (cabbage, Chinese cabbage, pumpkin leaves, rape, sweet potato leaves and tomatoes) are grown using irrigation throughout the year. Irrigation water samples and digested food crop samples were analysed using ICP-MS at the Department of Geology, Colgate University, USA for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb, and U. We find heavy-metal concentrations present in both irrigation water and food crop samples. Zambian sample concentrations were compared to Zambian and international legislative and guideline limits for concentrations of heavy metals in industrial effluent, heavy metals in irrigation water and heavy metals in foods. In irrigation water samples recommended national and/or international legislative limits for Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Hg, Pb and U were exceeded. Limits for Hg were exceeded by up to 130 times. There were heavy-metal concentrations above recommended limits in food crops for Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb throughout the different food crops grown and throughout the year. In all 14 samples recommended limits for Cr, Fe and Hg were exceeded. Zambian legislated limits for food crops were exceeded by up to 16 times for Pb and 58 times for Hg. The results of this study show that heavy metal contamination is present in irrigation water used and food crops grown in urban agriculture in Chunga, Lusaka, Zambia. Recommended maximum limits for heavy metals in irrigation water and food are exceeded in some samples indicating there may be a risk to health.

Holden, J. A.; Malamud, B. D.; Chishala, B. H.; Kapungwe, E.; Volk, J.; Harpp, K. S.

2009-04-01

286

75 FR 35778 - Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Commission [Project No. 12745-002] Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...16, 2010. On February 1, 2010, Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District...

2010-06-23

287

Changes in sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators among young people aged 15–24 years in Zambia: An in-depth analysis of the 2001–2002 and 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Surveys  

OpenAIRE

HIV and AIDS still pose a major public health problem to most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Zambia included. The objective of the paper is to determine changes in selected sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators between 2001–2002 and 2007. We used the Demographic and Health Survey Indicators Database for the computation of the selected indicators. We further used STATA 10.0 to compute significance tests to test for statistical difference in the indicators. The results...

Kembo, Joshua

2013-01-01

288

Spatial Aspects of Census Districting  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban districting refers to partitioning of an urban area into smaller regions for a specific application in order to effectively facilitate and enhance the quality of municipal services. Among other considerations, which are imposed by the general problem or the application in hand, several factors in urban districting have spatial aspects, many of which have been disregarded in most of districting plans, and only descriptive measures have been considered. This paper explores the impact of spatial aspects on census districting, as an important urban districting. It proposes an approach that not only considers the workload, as the most effective criterion in census districting, but spatial criteria such as compactness, barriers and travers length are also involved. The implementation results of the proposed approach for a case study have been evaluated and discussed.

Dezyani, S.; Karimipour, F.

2014-10-01

289

Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and R. zambeziensis (Acari: Ixodidae) from Zambia: a molecular reassessment of their species status and identification  

OpenAIRE

The closely related species Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and R. zambeziensis co-occur in a wide area in Zambia. In this area, specimens of both species have been collected on the same individual host at the same time. In addition, specimens that are morphologically intermediate between R. appendiculatus and R. zambeziensis have been found in this area. These observations cast some doubt on the species status of R. appendiculatus and R. zambeziensis. Because the two taxa have varied influences...

Mtambo, J.; Madder, M.; Bortel, W.; Berkvens, D.; Backeljau, T.

2007-01-01

290

Meeting human resources for health staffing goals by 2018: a quantitative analysis of policy options in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The Ministry of Health (MOH) in Zambia is currently operating with fewer than half of the health workers required to deliver basic health services. The MOH has developed a human resources for health (HRH) strategic plan to address the crisis through improved training, hiring, and retention. However, the projected success of each strategy or combination of strategies is unclear. Methods We developed a model to forecast the size of the public sector health workforce in Zambi...

Schroder Kate; Libetwa Miriam; Kapihya Margaret; Tjoa Aaron; Scott Callie; Lee Joanne; McCarthy Elizabeth

2010-01-01

291

Heterogeneity in the trypanosomosis incidence in Zebu cattle of different ages and sex on the platteau of eastern Zambia  

OpenAIRE

On the plateau of eastern Zambia, trypanosomosis is endemic. Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae), the only tsetse species present, is almost entirely dependent on livestock as its source of food with cattle being the most preferred host. To determine if tsetse challenge is distributed equally over the various age categories and sexes within a cattle herd, a longitudinal study of trypanosomosis incidence was conducted during the rainy season. A total of 354 head of cat...

Simukoko, H.; Marcotty, T.; Phiri, I.; Vercruysse, J.; Den Bossche, P.

2007-01-01

292

Heterogeneity in the trypanosomosis incidence in Zebu cattle of different ages and sex on the plateau of eastern Zambia  

OpenAIRE

On the plateau of eastern Zambia, trypanosomosis is endemic. Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood (Diptera: Glossinidae), the only tsetse species present, is almost entirely dependent on livestock as its source of food with cattle being the most preferred host. To determine if tsetse challenge is distributed equally over the various age categories and sexes within a cattle herd, a longitudinal study of trypanosomosis incidence was conducted during the rainy season. A total of 354 head of cat...

Simukoko, H.; Marcotty, T.; Phiri, I.; Vercruysse, J.; Den Bossche, P.

2007-01-01

293

Impact of organizational factors on adherence to laboratory testing protocols in adult HIV care in Lusaka, Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Previous operational research studies have demonstrated the feasibility of large-scale public sector ART programs in resource-limited settings. However, organizational and structural determinants of quality of care have not been studied. Methods We estimate multivariate regression models using data from 13 urban HIV treatment facilities in Zambia to assess the impact of structural determinants on health workers’ adherence to national guidelines for conducting laboratory ...

Deo Sarang; Topp Stephanie M; Westfall Andrew O; Chiko Matimbo M; Wamulume Chibesa S; Morris Mary; Reid Stewart

2012-01-01

294

ZAMSTAR, The Zambia South Africa TB and HIV Reduction study: Design of a 2 × 2 factorial community randomized trial  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background TB and HIV form a deadly synergy in much of the developing world, especially Africa. Interventions to reduce the impact of these diseases at community level are urgently needed. This paper presents the design of a community randomised trial to evaluate the impact of two complex interventions on the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) in high HIV prevalence settings in Zambia and South Africa. Methods The interaction between TB and HIV is reviewed and possible interventions tha...

Hayes Richard J; Beyers Nulda; Sismanidis Charalambos; Ayles Helen M; Godfrey-Faussett Peter

2008-01-01

295

The relationship between individual and neighbourhood socioeconomic factors and HIV prevalence in a national population based survey conducted in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Background: Emerging issues in HIV prevention include the importance of considering underlying social and economic factors at the community and individual level. We examined the associations between individual and neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP) on HIV prevalence in young people in a high HIV prevalence country. Methods: The study re-analysed data from the Zambia Demographic and Health Survey, a cross- sectional nationally representative survey conduc...

Nakazwe, Chola

2012-01-01

296

The distribution of sexually-transmitted Human Papillomaviruses in HIV positive and negative patients in Zambia, Africa  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) are double-stranded DNA viruses, considered to be the primary etiological agents in cervical intraepithelial neoplasias and cancers. Approximately 15–20 of the 40 mucosal HPVs confer a high-risk of progression of lesions to invasive cancer. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of sexually transmitted HPVs in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive and negative patients in Zambia, Africa. The rate of high-risk HPV genotypes worldw...

Hause Lara; Richards Paula J; Lowe John J; Ng'andwe Christopher; Wood Charles; Angeletti Peter C

2007-01-01

297

Research-policy partnerships - experiences of the Mental Health and Poverty Project in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Partnerships are increasingly common in conducting research. However, there is little published evidence about processes in research-policy partnerships in different contexts. This paper contributes to filling this gap by analysing experiences of research-policy partnerships between Ministries of Health and research organisations for the implementation of the Mental Health and Poverty Project in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia. Methods A conceptual framework for und...

Mirzoev Tolib N; Omar Maye A; Green Andrew T; Bird Philippa K; Lund Crick; Ofori-Atta Angela; Doku Victor

2012-01-01

298

Strategies for seed system development in sub-Saharan Africa: a study of Kenya, Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe  

OpenAIRE

Seed systems in Kenya, Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe were studied jointly by ODI, ICRISAT, and national researchers. The study examined various aspects - the nature of seed demand, particularly for new varieties; local-level seed provision and farmer-to-farmer diffusion; the commercial seed sector; community level projects; emergency seed distribution programs; seed policy and regulatory framework; and the role of public-sector research. The study also provides specific recommendations to deve...

Robert Tripp

2006-01-01

299

Addressing the sexual and reproductive health needs of people living with HIV in Zambia : challenges and opportunities  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: With increased access to treatment, people living with HIV (PLWHA) in Zambia have better health status and live longer. This study aims to identify the challenges and opportunities of addressing their sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs within the health system. METHODS: This thesis is a literature review of selected studies to explore the supply and demand-side barriers that PLWHA encounter in accessing SRH services. The Andersen-Newman Behaviour model is used to analyse th...

Mangani, F. D.

2009-01-01

300

"Health regains but livelihoods lag": findings from a study with people on ART in Zambia and Kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although ART is increasingly accessible and eases some stresses, it creates other challenges including the importance of food security to enhance ART-effectiveness. This paper explores the role livelihood strategies play in achieving food security and maintaining nutritional status among ART patients in Kenya and Zambia. Ongoing quantitative studies exploring adherence to ART in Mombasa, Kenya (n=118) and in Lusaka, Zambia (n=375) were used to identify the relationship between BMI and adherence; an additional set of in-depth interviews with people on ART (n=32) and members of their livelihood networks (n=64) were undertaken. Existing frameworks and scales for measuring food security and a positive deviance approach was used to analyse data. Findings show the majority of people on ART in Zambia are food insecure; similarly most respondents in both countries report missing meals. Snacking is important for dietary intake, especially in Kenya. Most food is purchased in both countries. Having assets is key for achieving livelihood security in both Kenya and Zambia. Food supplementation is critical to survival and for developing social capital since most is shared amongst family members and others. Whilst family and friends are key to an individual's livelihood network, often more significant for daily survival is proximity to people and the ability to act immediately, characteristics most often found amongst neighbours and tenants. In both countries findings show that with ART health has rebounded but livelihoods lag. Similarly, in both countries respondents with high adherence and high BMI are more self-reliant, have multiple income sources and assets; those with low adherence and low BMI have more tenuous livelihoods and were less likely to have farms/gardens. Food supplementation is, therefore, not a long-term solution. Building on existing livelihood strategies represents an alternative for programme managers and policy-makers as do other strategies including supporting skills and asset accumulation. PMID:21574075

Samuels, Fiona A; Rutenberg, Naomi

2011-06-01

301

The impact of South African supermarkets on agricultural development in the SADC : a case study in Zambia, Namibia and Botswana  

OpenAIRE

Supermarkets have expanded rapidly in SADC during the last decade, leading to fears that small-scale farmers and food processors could be excluded from access to urban markets. To assess the impact of supermarket chains on various participants in the supply chain, a survey was carried out in Botswana, Namibia and Zambia in 2004, 2005 and 2007. To determine the factors that influence the choice between the supermarket or traditional market channel and the impact of participation in the superma...

Emongor, Rosemary A.; Kirsten, Johann F.

2009-01-01

302

The impact of South African supermarkets on agricultural development in the SADC: a case study in Zambia, Namibia and Botswana  

OpenAIRE

Supermarkets have expanded rapidly in SADC during the last decade, leading to fears that small-scale farmers and food processors could be excluded from access to urban markets. To asses the impact of supermarkets chains on various participants in the supply chain, a survey was carried out in Botswana, Namibia and Zambia in 2004, 2005 and 2007. To dertemine the factors that influence the choice choice between supermarket and traditional market channel the impact of participation in the superma...

Emongor, Rosemary A.; Kirsten, Johann F.

2009-01-01

303

Towards Sustainable Tourism Development in Zambia: Advancing Tourism Planning and Natural Resource Management in Livingstone (Mosi-oa-Tunya) Area  

OpenAIRE

Over the last few decades, development policy has been dominated by mainstream economic theories that focus on economic growth to achieve sustainable development. The pace and scale of tourism growth in Livingstone (Mosi-oa-Tunya) area in Zambia have seen over reliance on natural resource utilisation by mass tourism developments. Compounded by insufficient planning and limited co-ordination and collaboration among the institutions involved in the tourism sector, tourism...

Binyi Liu; Mwanza, Floyd M.

2014-01-01

304

Diarrhea is a Major killer of Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition Admitted to Inpatient Set-up in Lusaka, Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Introduction Mortality of children with Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) in inpatient set-ups in sub-Saharan Africa still remains unacceptably high. We investigated the prevalence and effect of diarrhea and HIV infection on inpatient treatment outcome of children with complicated SAM receiving treatment in inpatient units. Method A cohort of 430 children aged 6-59 months old with complicated SAM admitted to Zambia University Teaching Hospital's stabilization centre from August to Dece...

Mwambazi Mwate; Irena Abel H; Mulenga Veronica

2011-01-01

305

Cost effectiveness of community-based therapeutic care for children with severe acute malnutrition in Zambia: decision tree model  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Children aged under five years with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in Africa and Asia have high mortality rates without effective treatment. Primary care-based treatment of SAM can have good outcomes but its cost effectiveness is largely unknown. Method This study estimated the cost effectiveness of community-based therapeutic care (CTC) for children with severe acute malnutrition in government primary health care centres in Lusaka, Zambia, compared to no care. A decision...

Bachmann Max O

2009-01-01

306

Conservation Agriculture in Zambia: Effects on Selected Soil Properties and Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Soya Beans (Glycine max (L.) Merr)  

OpenAIRE

Conservation agriculture has been promoted in Zambia as a strategy to mitigate some of the negative effects arising from conventional tillage practices. Conservation agriculture offers several potential benefits on soil properties. However, these benefits and impacts vary across agro ecological regions and management practices. This study investigated changes, over time, associated with the practice of conservation agriculture in selected soil chemical, physical and biological properties, inc...

Jane Muchabi; Lungu, Obed I.; Mweetwa, Alice M.

2014-01-01

307

Detection of Babesia spp. in free-ranging Pukus, Kobus vardonii, on a game ranch in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Babesia spp. were detected from 4 asymptomatic pukus captured on a game ranch in central Zambia in October 2008. Blood smears were examined in 4 species of aymptomatic free-ranging antelopes, namely the puku (Kobus vordanii), reedbuck (Redunca arundinum), bushbuck (Tragelaphus sylvaticus), and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), and showed the presence of Babesia parasites only in the puku. In the puku, the prevalence of babesiosis was estimated at 33.3% (n = 12), while the overall prevalence in all examined animals was 8.5% (n = 47). The parasites showed morphological characteristics of paired ring-like stages with the length varying between 1.61 µm and 3.02 µm (mean = 2.12 µm, n = 27; SD = 0.76 µm). Both the infected and non-infected pukus showed good body condition scores (BCS), while the dominant tick species detected from all animals were Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus spp., and Boophilus spp. To our knowledge this is the first report of Babesia spp. infection in pukus in Zambia. These findings suggest that wildlife could play an important role in the epidemiology of babesiosis in Zambia. PMID:22355215

Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Munyeme, Musso; Nambota, Andrew Mubila; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo; Siamudaala, Victor M

2011-12-01

308

Organic petrology, thermal maturity, geology, and petroleum source rock potential of Lower Permian coal, Karoo supersystem, Zambia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports on data concerning organic petrology and thermal maturity of Lower Karoo coal measures (Lower Permian) which are of considerable importance in determining the hydrocarbon potential of sediments in the rift-valley and half-graben complexes of the Luangwa and Zambezi valleys of eastern and southern Zambia, respectively, and in the extensive sedimentary basin developed on relatively stable Precambrian basement in western Zambia, a total area in excess of 3000 km{sup 2}. Samples from seven outcrop and subsurface localities situated in the northeast (northern Luangwa Valley), east (mid-Luangwa Valley), south (mid-Zambezi Valley), and the Western Province of Zambia were studied. The coal measures are from 9 to 280 m thick, but individual coal seams are generally less than 6 m. The coal macerals contain an average of 60% vitrinite and 9% liptinite, enough to have potential to generate hydrocarbon. A few samples contain twice this amount of liptinite. Reflected-light microscopy and the thermal alteration index of spores were used to determine the thermal maturity. The organic matter in samples studied is within the oil generation zone (thermal alteration index 2{minus} to 2+; %R{sub 0} max = 0.5-0.9). The petrological and palynological data indicate that the organic matter consists of Types II (generally approximately 25% in carbonaceous shale samples), III, and IV, indicating source rock potential. Late Karoo ( ) and post-Karoo fault blocks with differential vertical displacements may have produced structural traps suitable for oil and gas accumulation.

Utting, J. (Institute of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology, Calgary, AB (Canada)); Wielens, H. (Unocal Canada Exploration Ltd., 150 6th Av. SW, Calgary, Alberta (CA))

1992-10-01

309

Metal and metalloid contamination in roadside soil and wild rats around a Pb-Zn mine in Kabwe, Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metal (Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni) and metalloid (As) accumulation was studied in roadside soil and wild rat (Rattus sp.) samples from near a Pb-Zn mine (Kabwe, Zambia) and the capital city of Zambia (Lusaka). The concentrations of the seven metals and As in the soil samples and Pb in the rat tissue samples were quantified using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, and As in Kabwe soil were much higher than benchmark values. Geographic Information System analysis indicated the source of metal pollution was mining and smelting activity. Interestingly, the area south of the mine was more highly contaminated even though the prevailing wind flow was westward. Wild rats from Kabwe had much higher tissue concentrations of Pb than those from Lusaka. Their body weight and renal Pb levels were negatively correlated, which suggests that mining activity might affect terrestrial animals in Kabwe. - The area around Kabwe, Zambia is highly polluted with metals and As. Wild rats from this area had high tissue concentrations of Pb and decreased body weight.

310

Nuclear district heating plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Different aspects of nuclear district heating plant (NDHP) use for heat generation in the form of hot water are analyzed. The main NDHP operation peculiarities are considered in brief. The basic requirements for NDHP reactor operation modes are formulated. The principal NDHP flowsheet and its basic equipment are presented and described. A power unit of integral type with 500 MW/430 Gkal/h) low-temperature water-water reactor and 1.5 MPa coolant pressure of the primary circuit is developed. The design peculiarities of this unit, arrangement of the main NDHP vessel and means for providing radiation safety of NDHP personnel and population are described

311

7 CFR 946.31 - Districts.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Adams County not included in either of the South or Quincy Irrigation Districts. (b) District No. 2—The counties of Kittitas, Douglas, Chelan, and Okanogan, plus the Quincy Irrigation District of the Columbia Basin Project, plus the area of...

2010-01-01

312

Districts' Efficiency Evaluated in Report  

Science.gov (United States)

A report from a progressive think tank measuring the "educational productivity" of more than 9,000 school districts around the country says that districts getting the most for their money tend to spend more on teachers and less on administration, partner with their communities to save money, and have school boards willing to make potentially…

Samuels, Christina A.

2011-01-01

313

General problems of district heating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A few reports given on the occasion of the Unichal congress in Paris on the subject 'system problems' are evaluated which deal partly with the whole field of district heating, partly with particular problems of heat production, heat distribution and the application of district heating. (GG/LH)

314

Congressional Districting: A Historical Overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines the controversies and consequences involved in drawing proper districts for federal and state representatives. Discusses the Supreme Court's role in deciding these questions. Provides definitions and related court cases concerning gerrymandering and malapportionment, the two most common abuses of the districting process. (MJP)

Baran, Jan Witold; Cronic, Jason P.

1996-01-01

315

Rural Districts REAP New Money.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP) grants give rural districts a new source of federal funds. REAP has two separate programs that address the specific needs of rural districts. The first is the Small and Rural Schools Achievement Program; the second is the Rural and Low Income Schools Program. Explains the differences in the programs and…

Kusler, Mary Conk

2003-01-01

316

District heating in Switzerland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This survey describes the situation for district heating in Switzerland on the basis of national energy conception. The energy conception of the city of Berne is just being established and concrete proposals for optimal energy supply possibilities are worked out. The nuclear power plant of Muehleberg is proposed as an alternative to the traditional heat plants in the Bernese area. The cost calculations lead to the conclusions that the heat supply from the Muehleberg reactor is economically not attractive, but if the heat is supplied at a lower temperature from the reactor and then elevated to the requested temperature in a refuse incineration plant the nuclear heat supply by Muehleberg seems to become more economical. (M.S.)

317

Nuclear district heating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An economic study of nuclear district heating is concerned with: heat production, its transmission towards the area to be served and the distribution management towards the consumers. Foreign and French assessments show that the high cost of now existing techniques of hot water transport defines the competing limit distance between the site and township to be below some fifty kilometers for the most important townships (provided that the fuel price remain stationary). All studies converge towards the choice of a high transport temperature as soon as the distance is of some twenty kilometers. As for fossile energy saving, some new possibilities appear with process heat reactors; either PWR of about 1000MWth for large townships, or pool-type reactors of about 100MWth when a combination with an industrial steam supply occurs

318

Suppressed or unsuppressed HIV in adults on antiretroviral therapy in Zambia: who is at risk?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose of the study: To determine factors associated with suppressed or unsuppressed HIV in adults receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART in Zambia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted between August 2008 and October 2009 in 16 Zambian communities nested within the ZAMSTAR trial [1]. Adult TB cases identified at a TB clinic of each community and their adult household members were invited to participate in the study. A structured interview was used to obtain information on the participants’ social, demographic and clinical characteristics. Socio-economic position (SEP was measured using household wealth indices used in demographic health surveys. Principal component analysis was used to determine the cut-off for high (wealthy and low (poor SEP. Depression symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D. A cut-off of?22 on the CES-D was used to define current depression [2]. Participants were included in this analysis if they were found to be receiving cART for>90 days at the time of the interview. The outcome was HIV suppression (viral load?300 copies/ml. In both univariable and multivariable analyses, log Poisson regression models with robust standard errors adjusted for the 16 communities were used to calculate the risk ratios (RR, 95% confidence intervals (CI and p-values of factors associated with HIV suppression. In multivariable analysis, each variable was independently assessed for its association with HIV suppression while minimally adjusting for a priori confounders (age, gender and education level. Summary of results: There were 520 patients receiving cART for>90 days. The median age was 35 years (inter-quartile range: 31–41 and 328/520 (63.1% were married (Table.Of the 520 patients, 442 (85.0% had HIV suppression while 78 (15.0% did not. At univariable analysis, having high SEP was negatively associated with HIV suppression while receiving ZDV+3TC+EFV was positively associated with HIV suppression. At multivariable analysis, patients with high SEP were less likely to have HIV suppression than those with low SEP. Conclusions: Patients with high SEP were found to be at risk of having unsuppressed HIV. There is need for targeted interventions that can improve HIV outcomes in this group of patients receiving cART in Zambia.

N Chishinga

2012-11-01

319

Effects of neighbourhood-level educational attainment on HIV prevalence among young women in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigations of the association between socio-economic position indicators and HIV in East, Central and Southern Africa have chiefly focused on factors that pertain to individual-level characteristics. This study investigated the effect of neighbourhood educational attainment on HIV prevalence among young women in selected urban and rural areas in Zambia. Methods This study re-analysed data from a cross-sectional population survey conducted in Zambia in 2003. The analyses were restricted to women aged 15–24 years (n = 1295. Stratified random cluster sampling was used to select 10 urban and 10 rural clusters. A measure for neighbourhood-level educational attainment was constructed by aggregating individual-level years-in-school. Multi-level mixed effects regression models were run to examine the neighbourhood-level educational effect on HIV prevalence after adjusting for individual-level underlying variables (education, currently a student, marital status and selected proximate determinants (ever given birth, sexual activity, lifetime sexual partners. Results HIV prevalence among young women aged 15–24 years was 12.5% in the urban and 6.8% in the rural clusters. Neighbourhood educational attainment was found to be a strong determinant of HIV infection in both urban and rural population, i.e. HIV prevalence decreased substantially by increasing level of neighbourhood education. The likelihood of infection in low vs. high educational attainment of neighbourhoods was 3.4 times among rural women and 1.8 times higher among the urban women after adjusting for age and other individual-level underlying variables, including education. However, the association was not significant for urban young women after this adjustment. After adjusting for level of education in the neighbourhood, the effect of the individual-level education differed by residence, i.e. a strong protective effect among urban women whereas tending to be a risk factor among rural women. Conclusion The findings suggested structural effects on HIV prevalence. Future research should include more detailed mapping of neighbourhood factors of relevance to HIV transmission as part of the effort to better understand the causal mechanisms involved.

Fylkesnes Knut

2009-08-01

320

Rural health centres, communities and malaria case detection in Zambia using mobile telephones: a means to detect potential reservoirs of infection in unstable transmission conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective malaria control depends on timely acquisition of information on new cases, their location and their frequency so as to deploy supplies, plan interventions or focus attention on specific locations appropriately to intervene and prevent an upsurge in transmission. The process is known as active case detection, but because the information is time sensitive, it is difficult to carry out. In Zambia, the rural health services are operating effectively and for the most part are provided with adequate supplies of rapid diagnostic tests (RDT as well as effective drugs for the diagnosis and treatment of malaria. The tests are administered to all prior to treatment and appropriate records are kept. Data are obtained in a timely manner and distribution of this information is important for the effective management of malaria control operations. The work reported here involves combining the process of positive diagnoses in rural health centres (passive case detection to help detect potential outbreaks of malaria and target interventions to foci where parasite reservoirs are likely to occur. Methods Twelve rural health centres in the Choma and Namwala Districts were recruited to send weekly information of rapid malaria tests used and number of positive diagnoses to the Malaria Institute at Macha using mobile telephone SMS. Data were entered in excel, expressed as number of cases per rural health centre and distributed weekly to interested parties. Results These data from each of the health centres which were mapped using geographical positioning system (GPS coordinates were used in a time sensitive manner to plot the patterns of malaria case detection in the vicinity of each location. The data were passed on to the appropriate authorities. The seasonal pattern of malaria transmission associated with local ecological conditions can be seen in the distribution of cases diagnosed. Conclusions Adequate supplies of RDT are essential in health centres and the system can be expanded throughout the country to support strategic targeting of interventions by the National Malaria Control Programme. Participation by the health centre staff was excellent.

Kamanga Aniset

2010-04-01

321

Decline in HIV Prevalence among Young Women in Zambia: National-Level Estimates of Trends Mask Geographical and Socio-Demographic Differences  

OpenAIRE

Background: A decline in HIV incidence has been reported in Zambia and a number of other sub-Saharan countries. The trend of HIV prevalence among young people is a good marker of HIV incidence. In this study, different data sources are used to examine geographical and sub-population group differentials in HIV prevalence trends among men and women aged 15–24 years in Zambia. Design and Methods: We analysed ANC data for women aged 15–24 years from 22 sentinel sites consistently covered in t...

Kayeyi, Nkomba; Fylkesnes, Knut; Michelo, Charles; Makasa, Mpundu; Sandøy, Ingvild

2012-01-01

322

Caught in the Clash amid Customs and Market: A case of the poor and marginalized rural population’s access to land in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

The paper is a case study analyzing the effects of the Zambian Lands Act of 1995. The problem area centers on the question as to why the market-based land reform of 1995 in Zambia has not, despite its purpose, improved the access to land for the poor and marginalized rural population. The ability to acquire land titles in Zambia highly depends on (i) access to knowledge, (ii) legal access, (iii) access through social identity, and (iv) access to authority. The findings of this paper reveal a ...

Stefan Steen Jensen; Peter Skøtt Pedersen; Lasse Frimand Jensen; Jakob Christensen; Stefanie Dorotha Weck

2011-01-01

323

An ultrastructural investigation of Argulus personatus Cunnington, 1913 (Crustacea: Branchiura from Lake Tanganyika, northern Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sixteen male and one female specimen ofArgulus personatus Cunnington, 1913, were collected from Bathybates ferox Boulenger, 1898, from Lake Tanganyika in northern Zambia. Light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM examinations documented a thickening of cuticle located on the dorsal surface between last thoracic segment and abdomen, which was rectangular in shape; a basal section of the pre-oral spine and proboscis ornamented with simple scales; three large simple setae present on the distal end of the basal plate; the dorsal distal end of second podomere of maxillae ornamented with scales resembling those of a fish; second and third podomeres of maxillae ornamented with two types of pectinate scales (with fine bristle-like ends and scales with large pointed ends; the ventral distal end of third and fourth maxillary podomeres bearing large teardrop-shaped scales; a pair of tubular structures present adjacent to the anterior projection; a peg on the fourth pairs of legs of males bearing shallow grooves running irregularly across surface; and an accessory cushion bearing minute projections. These characters differed from the original description of A. personatus and are addressed in a redescription.

Ernest H. Williams, Jr

2011-10-01

324

USING THE INTERNET FOR DEMOCRACY: A STUDY OF SOUTH AFRICA, KENYA AND ZAMBIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For the first time since democracy in the classical Greek sense became practically impossible, the Internet’s networking possibilities are creating opportunities for all citizens to be active engaging participants in democracy. Open communication channels to government and fellow citizens can now be a reality that allows people at all levels of society to form part of a vibrant public sphere by exchanging ideas, sharing experiences, spreading ideologies and news, and comparing agendas. For African countries dealing with unique and increasingly complicated political and socio-economic issues, the Internet provides a platform from which citizens can now address these issues themselves and, in doing so, contribute to a public sphere that strengthens the democratic fibre of their countries. This research posits that the Internet has significant potential to stimulate democratic culture through public discourse and citizen participation. The focus of this study is on finding evidence-based information about the current influence of information and communication technology (ICT usage in South Africa, Kenya and Zambia as representatives of sub-Saharan Africa, and with specific focus on Internet usage through computers and mobile phones. The research also investigates the capacity and opportunity citizens have to successfully integrate ICTs into the accomplishment of self and mutually identified political goals in order to strengthen a broader democratic culture.

Aletta H. Janse van Rensburg

2012-07-01

325

Utilization of Forest Products and Services for Livelihoods among Households in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to document the utilization of forest resources for livelihoods in Zambia based on an analysis of data from the ILUA survey. The analysis of the ILUA data in which households indicated the types of forest products and services they obtained from woodlands in their area show that majority households (25% fetched fuelwood, followed by construction materials such as poles and thatching grass (19%. A good number (16% derived plant foods such as fruits and nuts as well as mushrooms. Equally, a considerable proportion of households (11% were harvesting medicinal plants for household use and sale. Some households were producing charcoal (5%, sawn or industrial timber (5% and wood carvings (4% from the local forests. A number of households also obtained important animal products such as honey and bee wax (4% and game meat and other edible animal products (5%. These results from the ILUA survey clearly show that indigenous forests and woodland resources are important sources of household energy and provide other important livelihood products and services for most rural households These findings also indicate that forests and woodland resources are critical to household food security especially during stressful conditions (drought and floods and they are a “drug store” and ‘insurance” for the rural poor and underscore the need to ensure that these forest resources are sustainably managed.

Thomson Kalinda

2014-02-01

326

Risk reduction among HIV-seroconcordant and -discordant couples: the Zambia NOW2 intervention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heterosexual HIV transmission remains the leading cause of HIV incidence in adult men and women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed whether an HIV risk-reduction intervention would be more likely to increase sexual barrier acceptability and decrease risk behavior when delivered to couples in gender concordant groups or in an individual format. This study also examined the mutual impact of couple members as a source of influence on acceptability, and assessed whether product acceptability, intimate partner violence (IPV), and/or partner communication predicted sexual barrier use. HIV seroconcordant and serodiscordant couples (n=216) were recruited in Lusaka, Zambia, and randomized to a four session gender-concordant intervention. Participants were assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Willingness to use barriers (p=0.012), acceptability (p<0.001), and barrier use (p<0.001) increased over time in both conditions, and were influenced by gender preferences. IPV decreased (p=0.040) and positive communication increased (p<0.001) in both conditions. Individual and gender concordant group sessions achieved similar increases in sexual barrier use following the intervention. Results highlight the influence of partners as well as product acceptability as predictors of sexual barrier use among couples in sub-Saharan Africa. Future prevention studies should consider both product acceptability and partner influence to achieve optimal sexual risk behavior outcomes. PMID:24983201

Jones, Deborah; Kashy, Deborah; Chitalu, Ndashi; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mumbi, Mirriam; Cook, Ryan; Weiss, Stephen

2014-08-01

327

Determinants of Profit Variability among Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs in developing economies like Zambia are major contributors of livelihood, job creation, poverty reduction, production and distribution of goods and services, and foreign exchange earnings. All these benefits could be realized if firms are profitable. This paper tried to envisage sources of variations in profitability among micro and small enterprises. By conducting an empirical study using 187 micro and small sized firms selected from four sectors: Trading, Services, Manufacturing, and Agriculture, the paper analyzed the sources of variations in firm profit across time. The study was made with selected firm-level characteristics like sales, cost, market coverage and perception about the level of competition. The analysis is done by using both descriptive statistics and an Ordered Probit Regression Model. Although measuring profit directly is difficult, alternative variables like changes in sales, revenue, cost, competition and market coverage are used. The estimation result revealed that, among firm effects, variations in sales and market coverage over time are the significant variables that explain variations in firm’s profitability.

Yordanos Gebremeskel

2014-07-01

328

Knowledge and use of modern family planning methods by rural women in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to determine knowledge and use of modem contractive methods among reproductive age group rural women in Zambia. The study is a descriptive cross-sectional study of 105 randomly selected rural women. Data was collected using semi-structured interview schedule and analyzed using EPI Info version 6 statistical packages. The findings revealed that 63% of the respondents were within the age group 21-35 years, 65% were married and 64% were peasant farmers. 90% of the respondents had heard about modem contraceptives and their main source of information was the Health worker (62%. 76% of the respondents stated that modem contraceptive methods could be obtained from public health facilities. 56% of the respondents were currently using modem contraceptive methods and 46% were not using modem contraceptive methods. Reasons for non use of contraceptive methods were religious beliefs (50%, partner disapproval (30% and side effects (20%. The results showed a relationship between educational level and use of contraceptives (Chi-square 7.83, df = 3, P < 0.05 and spouse approval or support of contractive methods and use of contraceptive (Chisquare 5.9, df = 2, P < 0.05. Therefore, efforts to promote modem contraceptive use among the rural women should be intensified to overcome barriers to contraceptive use and should involve men.

C. Mubita-Ngoma

2010-09-01

329

Self-reported poor oral hygiene among in-school adolescents in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental health is a neglected aspect of adolescent health globally but more so in low-income countries. Secondary analysis using the 2004 Zambia Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS was conducted in which we estimated frequencies of relevant socio-demographic variables and explored associations between selected explanatory variables and self-reported poor oral hygiene (not cleaning or brushing teeth within the last 30 days of the completion of questionnaire. Findings Most of the 2257 respondents were males (53.9% and went hungry (82.5%. More than 4 in 10 respondents drank alcohol (42.2% while 37.2% smoked cannabis. Overall 10.0% of the respondents reported to have poor oral hygiene. Male respondents were 7% less likely to report to have poor oral hygiene compared to females. Compared to respondents who never drank alcohol, those who drank alcohol were 27% more likely to report to have poor oral hygiene. Respondents who smoked cannabis were 4% more likely to report to have poor oral hygiene compared to those who did not smoke cannabis. Finally, respondents who went hungry were 35% more likely to report to have poor oral hygiene compared to those who did not go hungry. Conclusions Results from this study indicate that female gender, alcohol drinking, cannabis smoking, and going hungry were associated with self-reported poor oral hygiene. The identification of these factors should guide the design and implementation of programs aimed to improve oral health among adolescents.

Rudatsikira Emmanuel

2011-07-01

330

Spatial Heteogeneity of Methane Ebullition in a Large Tropical Reservoir (Lake Kariba, Zambia/Zimbabwe)  

Science.gov (United States)

While ebullition has the capacity to be a significant methane (CH4) release pathway from reservoirs, it has not been systematically studied in most surveyed systems, due in part to ebullition's high spatiotemporal variability. We hypothesized that CH4 ebullition from littoral areas that are influenced by riverine organic carbon inputs contributes disproportionately to overall CH4 emissions from Lake Kariba (Zambia-Zimbabwe border), one of the world's largest reservoirs. Hydroacoustic measurements and traditional surface chamber surveys revealed substantially higher fluxes in river deltas (~10^3 mg CH4 m-2 d-1) compared to littoral zones with no river input (< 100 mg CH4 m-2 d-1). Hydroacoustic measurements additionally showed that ebullition frequency varied strongly between all sites and that flux events varied over several orders of magnitude (up to 10^5 mg CH4 m-2 d-1) in the ebullition hot spots. An ebullition estimate for the largest subbasin of Lake Kariba was two orders of magnitude more than potential atmospheric CH4 emissions from turbine degassing and surface diffusion combined. Thus, we suggest that CH4 ebullition emissions from river deltas should be explored in greater detail and their contribution included in the CH4 budgets of reservoirs, including even large tropical reservoirs.

Del Sontro, T.; Kunz, M.; Wuest, A.; Wehrli, B.; Senn, D. B.

2011-12-01

331

Supermarkets in the Food Supply Systems in Southern African Development Community: A Case Study of Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study evaluated how supermarkets procurement practises in the fresh fruits and vegetables (FFV and processed products such as dairy impact on local producers in Zambia. Data was collected from key informants and secondary sources. The results showed that supermarkets procured approximately 60% of FFV from local farmers, though the bulk of these are from large-scale farms. Products not produced in the host countries were imported from South Africa and other countries. Small-scale farmers were hindered by constraints such as lack of irrigation and the stringent grades and standards imposed by supermarkets. Supermarkets procure dairy products from large processors. Farmers access supermarkets through dairy processors. Small-scale dairy processors do not access the supermarkets because of high transaction costs and lack of transport. Government involvement in the supply chain in terms of setting policies and regulatory frameworks are important in determining the type of procurement systems that develop and whether local producers especially small-scale farmers and processors access and supply to supermarkets.

R.A. Emongor

2006-01-01

332

Strategies of the poorest in local water conflict and cooperation – Evidence from Vietnam, Bolivia and Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Media stories often speak of a future dominated by large-scale water wars. Rather less attention has been paid to the way water conflicts already play out at local levels and form part of people’s everyday lives. Based on case study studies from Vietnam, Bolivia and Zambia, this paper examines the strategies of poor households in local water conflicts. It is shown how such households may not only engage actively in collaborative water management but may also apply risk aversion strategies when faced with powerful adversaries in conflict situations. It is further shown how dependency relations between poor and wealthy households can reduce the scope of action for the poor in water conflicts. As a result, poor households can be forced to abstain from defending their water resources in order to maintain socio-economic and political ties with the very same households that oppose them in water conflicts. The paper concludes by briefly discussing how the poorest can be supported in local water conflicts. This includes ensuring that alternative spaces for expressing grievances exist and are accessible; facilitating that water sharing agreements and rights are clearly stipulated and monitored; and working beyond water governance to reduce the socio-economic dependency-relations of poor households.

Imasiku Nyambe

2012-02-01

333

Mortality and commercial off-take rates in adult traditional cattle of Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cohort study was conducted in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Zambia to determine cattle mortality and commercial off-take rates among adult cattle as well as factors influencing them. A total of 416 animals from 43 herds were followed up for one year and animals were individually identified and their fate was indicated as sold, slaughtered, dead or present as appropriate. The overall mortality incidence risk was estimated at 7.5%. Cattle in Kazungula were at a greater risk of dying compared to those in Blue Lagoon and Lochnivar. Annual off-take was estimated at 13.7% (8.1-19.3%), unadjusted values, and 16.4% (8.1-24.5%) after adjusting for sampling fraction in primary sampling units (herds) and area stratification. Area variations were observed with Kazungula recording the highest in both instances, which was attributed to a contagious bovine pleural pneumonia (CBPP) outbreak. Herd size and gender were observed to influence cattle mortality rates. Cattle in the middle-sized herds (50-150 cattle) recorded high mortality rates (OR = 3.91) compared to smaller herds (10-50) and so were females compared to males (OR = 4.16). The logistic regression model showed that cattle death was influenced by managerial factors and that off-take rates tend to increase in the face of disease outbreaks. PMID:18949571

Muma, J B; Munyeme, M; Samui, K L; Siamudaala, V; Oloya, J; Mwacalimba, K; Skjerve, E

2009-06-01

334

The Winfrith district gamma survey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the District Gamma Survey carried out around the A.E.E., Winfrith since June, 1959. Its organisation, equipment and techniques are described, and the results obtained up to the 31st December, 1960 are given. (author)

335

Boise geothermal district heating system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

Hanson, P.J.

1985-10-01

336

District heating - A clear trend  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article reviews the District Heating Forum that was held on the 21st of January 2010 in Biel, Switzerland. Under the title 'From a Vision to Practice', the development of district heating systems for the period 2010 - 2030 was discussed. The conclusion reached at the conference is quoted as being that waste heat is a usable form of residual energy and that this energy should not simply be ejected into the environment. State promotion of renewable energy sources is discussed and, in particular, the high interest shown in projects for long and short-distance district heating systems. Developments in Europe and Switzerland and the political general frameworks for the realisation of district heating networks are discussed. Specific examples of such systems that have been implemented are examined. The use of waste heat from nuclear power stations is also discussed

337

Industrial District as a Corporation  

OpenAIRE

This paper provides a comparison study of industrial districts in two European countries, Spain and Sweden, using the conceptual framework of corporation. The relevance of this approach is based on the specific qualities that the industrial districts have, including the preexisting conditions, local traditions, products and production characteristics, marketing strategies, local policies and present challenges. The findings indicate the ways in which different patterns of inter-firm relations...

Mohammady Garfamy, Reza

2011-01-01

338

District heating networks in Switzerland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The actual growth of the district heating market is mainly due to new (smaller) networks and extension of existing older ones. A more dramatic increase could be achieved if the planned inter-regional networks (Transwaal, Warheno and Fola), fed with waste heat from the existing nuclear plants were taken into operation. These networks with a total installed power of over 1 GW are though contested as they would mean an increase of the dependency on nuclear energy. Additionally, fossil fuel prices are today so low, that the economic considerations are making district heating less appealing. However the criteria for district heating as defined in a special study of the Swiss Ministery of Energy. The role of nuclear energy in district heating could increase substantially from actually ca. 8% to an expected share of 30% of the total district heat market if the inter-regional networks already mentioned would go into operation. A more important increase would be possible if new nuclear power plants, nuclear co-generation plants and dedicated district heating reactors could be installed in Switzerland. In order to achieve this, governmental interventions are necessary. (orig./GL)

339

Mixed crop-livestock production systems of smallholder farmers in sub-humid and semi-arid areas of Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Livestock production activities among small-scale farmers of semi-arid (Agro-ecological zone 1) and sub-humid (Agro-ecological zone 2) areas of Zambia are integrated with crop production activities in what is termed as crop/livestock farming system. This is a closed system in which production of one enterprise depends on the other. In Zambia, crop production depends on draught animals for tillage of cropping area, animal manure for fertilisation of crops while livestock depend on crop residues for dry season feeding. Good quality grass is generally available in adequate amounts to support reasonable level of livestock productivity during the rainy season. But livestock rely on low quantity and poor quality, highly fibrous perennial grass from veld and fibrous crop residues during the dry season. These resources are inadequate to support optimum livestock productivity activities. Poor nutrition results in low rates of reproduction and production as well as increased susceptibility to diseases. With the increasing human population cropping land is expanding, leading to increased production of crop residues. This has however, reduced the grazing land available for ruminant production. In Zambia large quantities of crop residues (stovers, husks and straws, legume tops and hulls, sugar cane tops, cassava leaves, potato vines, etc.) are left in the field where they are wasted each year because small-scale farmers lack the knowledge on how best to use them. There is a need to find ways to reverse this situation by adapting known and workable technologies to local conditions and by introducing new approaches for improving the use of crop residues and poor quality fibrous feeds. Efforts should also be made to enlarge feed resource base. The technologies should be simple and effective. In the presence of a dynamic market system, livestock production in a crop/livestock system could be intensified and made profitable for small-scale farmers. (author)

340

Barriers to the care of HIV-infected children in rural Zambia: a cross-sectional analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful antiretroviral treatment programs in rural sub-Saharan Africa may face different challenges than programs in urban areas. The objective of this study was to identify patient characteristics, barriers to care, and treatment responses of HIV-infected children seeking care in rural Zambia. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of HIV-infected children seeking care at Macha Hospital in rural southern Zambia. Information was collected from caretakers and medical records. Results 192 HIV-infected children were enrolled from September 2007 through September 2008, 28% of whom were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART at enrollment. The median age was 3.3 years for children not receiving ART (IQR 1.8, 6.7 and 4.5 years for children receiving ART (IQR 2.7, 8.6. 91% travelled more than one hour to the clinic and 26% travelled more than 5 hours. Most participants (73% reported difficulties accessing the clinic, including insufficient money (60%, lack of transportation (54% and roads in poor condition (32%. The 54 children who were receiving ART at study enrollment had been on ART a median of 8.6 months (IQR: 2.7, 19.5. The median percentage of CD4+ T cells was 12.4 (IQR: 9.2, 18.6 at the start of ART, and increased to 28.6 (IQR: 23.5, 36.1 at the initial study visit. However, the proportion of children who were underweight decreased only slightly, from 70% at initiation of ART to 61% at the initial study visit. Conclusion HIV-infected children in rural southern Zambia have long travel times to access care and may have poorer weight gain on ART than children in urban areas. Despite these barriers, these children had a substantial rise in CD4+ T cell counts in the first year of ART although longer follow-up may indicate these gains are not sustained.

Hamangaba Francis

2009-10-01

341

Nuclear district heating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Major trends in the development of nuclear district heating in the USSR are outlined. The nuclear power sources considered are as follows: nuclear thermoelectric plants (NTP), nuclear distric heating plants (NDH) and nuclear process heat plants (NPH). The NTP are designed for both electric and heat supply of large cities, the NPH-for industrial process heat supply, the steam pressure ranging from 0.12 to 10 MPa, and the NDH-for hot water supply. The NTP, NDH and NPH projects developed nowadays are based on the WWER-500 (1000) reac.tors. Some data on the reduced costs and overall efficiency of the plants in comparison with corresponding fossil-fueled plants are presented. In the European part of the USSR the NTP are economical when constructed in cities with the heat rates above 1700 MJ/s; the NDH and NPH can be competitive against fossil-fueled boilers at the heat rates of populated areas and industrial complexes of 900-1700 MJ/s. If the problems in the development of prestressed reinforced concrete reactor vessels are solved, the competitiveness of the NTP, NDH and NPH might be even higher

342

75 FR 43958 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Commission [Project No. 2299-074] Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...Filed: May 24, 2010. d. Applicant: Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation...

2010-07-27

343

77 FR 16828 - Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hydroelectric Project Project No. 2299-075] Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process...Hydroelectric Project No. 2299-075.\\1\\ Turlock Irrigation District and the Modesto Irrigation...

2012-03-22

344

78 FR 3892 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status  

Science.gov (United States)

...No. UL11-1-000; Project No. 2299-078] Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status On January 9, 2013, the Modesto Irrigation District (Modesto) filed a motion for clarification...

2013-01-17

345

Gender differences in the patterns of Internet use among students : a case study of the University of Zambia  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study is to examine differences in the patterns of Internet use between male and female students at the University of Zambia. The patterns of internet use are examined in terms of the experience, frequency and the place of Internet use. The gender and technology theory has been envisaged as the basic foundation of this study. The theory claims that technologies in general are created by men and thus serve their interests at first. The study was carried out by applying a cr...

Khanal, Shrwan Kumar

2011-01-01

346

The Public-Private Sector Wage Gap in Zambia in the 1990s: A Quantile Regression Approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We investigate the determinants of wages in Zambia and based on the quantile regression approach, we analyze how their effects differ at different points in the wage distribution and over time. We use three cross-sections of Zambian household data from the early nineties, which was a period of economic transition, because items as privatization and deregulation were on the political agenda. The focus is placed on the public-private sector wage gap, and the results show that this gap was relatively favorable for the low-skilled and less favorable for the high-skilled. This picture was further strengthened during the period 1991-1996.

Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael

2001-01-01

347

The Current Availability of Antiepileptic Drugs in Zambia: Implications for the ILAE/WHO “Out of the Shadows” Campaign  

OpenAIRE

Recent concerns regarding antiepileptic drug (AED) availability in Zambia led us to conduct a study in the Lusaka and Southern Provinces to quantify the availability and cost of AEDs and assess determinants. Among 111 pharmacies, almost one-half did not carry AEDs (N = 54; 49.1%). Available AEDs were phenobarbitone (21; 18.9%), carbamazepine (27; 24.3%), valproic acid (4; 3.6%), and phenytoin (3; 2.7%). Adult out-of-pocket monthly costs ranged from US $7 to $30. Pediatric syrups were universa...

Chomba, Elwyn Nachanya; Haworth, Alan; Mbewe, Edward; Atadzhanov, Masharip; Ndubani, Philimon; Kansembe, Henry; Birbeck, Gretchen Lano

2010-01-01

348

Evaluation of a Density-Based Rapid Diagnostic Test for Sickle Cell Disease in a Clinical Setting in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Although simple and low-cost interventions for sickle cell disease (SCD) exist in many developing countries, child mortality associated with SCD remains high, in part, because of the lack of access to diagnostic tests for SCD. A density-based test using aqueous multiphase systems (SCD-AMPS) is a candidate for a low-cost, point-of-care diagnostic for SCD. In this paper, the field evaluation of SCD-AMPS in a large (n?=?505) case-control study in Zambia is described. Of the two variations of...

Kumar, Ashok A.; Chunda-liyoka, Catherine; Hennek, Jonathan W.; Mantina, Hamakwa; Lee, S. Y. Ryan; Patton, Matthew R.; Sambo, Pauline; Sinyangwe, Silvester; Kankasa, Chipepo; Chintu, Chifumbe; Brugnara, Carlo; Stossel, Thomas P.; Whitesides, George M.

2014-01-01

349

"If You Were the Researcher What Would You Research?": Understanding Children's Perspectives on Educational Research in Mongolia and Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper draws on data from a project undertaken with children (N?=?72) in Mongolia and Zambia. The research is distinctive in bringing together diverse children, ranging from those living on the street to those in mainstream education and involving them in discussions about educational research. Being conscious of critiques of adult-initiated…

Morgan, Julia; Sengedorj, Tumendelger

2015-01-01

350

Situation Reports--Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Botswana, Finland, German Federal Republic, Italy, Luxembourg, Mauritania, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Sweden, Tanzania, Yugoslavia, and Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data pertaining to population and family planning in seventeen foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Austria, Belgium, Bolivia, Botswana, Finland, German Federal Republic, Italy, Luxembourg, Mauritania, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Sweden, Tanzania, Yugoslavia, and Zambia. Information is…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

351

Sustainable maize production through leguminous tree and shrub fallows in Eastern Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nitrogen is the major nutrient limiting maize production in Zambia and Southern Africa. Removal of subsidies on manufactured fertilizers made them very expensive and most farmers cannot afford them. Short duration planted fallows using a wide range of leguminous trees have been found to replenish soil fertility and increase subsequent maize yields. Species such as Sesbania sesban, Tephrosia vogelii and Cajanus cajan have been found to be well suited for planted fallow technology. These improved fallow crop rotations are being adopted by small-scale farmers in Eastern Zambia. Since the seminal paper of Kwesiga and Coe, research has been carried out to understand how the planted tree fallows replenish soil fertility and improve maize yields. A wide range of species has been screened as alternatives to Sesbania fallows to overcome limitations of Sesbania such as susceptibility to nematodes and insect pests. Species such as Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala have maintained maize yields of 3 t ha1 over 10 years of cropping when Sesbania fallow yields declined to 1.1 t ha1 after 3 years of cropping. The selection criteria for good fallow species are high biomass production and litterfall. Maize yields after fallows were highly correlated to biomass and litterfall yields. High quality biomass, which is low in lignin and polyphenols and high in N, is needed for higher maize yields. Mixing of Gliricidia and Sesbania fallows resulted in higher maand Sesbania fallows resulted in higher maize yields compared with single species fallows (3.0 vs. 1.8 t ha1). Mechanisms contributing to the efficacy of mixed fallows will be discussed. Pre-season inorganic-N (NO3- + NH4+) was highly correlated with maize yield (r2 = 0.62) and this could be used to select fallow species and management practices. Nutrient budgets of N, P and K over 8 years showed that a positive balance of N and P was maintained for coppicing fallows, while a negative balance of K started from the fourth year onwards on fertilized maize, Gliricidia, Leucaena and Sesbania fallows, emphasising the need to use P and K fertilizers to supplement the N supply from leguminous fallows. Improved fallows increased infiltration, reduced runoff, increased water storage, and reduced soil loss. The biophysical limits of most fallow species and other emerging issues such as pests and diseases, the need to inoculate with rhizobium, the amount of N fixed by different species and provenances and soil acidification under improved fallows are the subjects of further research. Biomass transfer technology using biomass from leguminous trees was evaluated on maize and vegetable production in the dambos (wetlands). Maize and vegetable yields were significantly increased by application of high quality biomass from Gliricidia and Leucaena. However, financial analysis showed that it is not viable to apply biomass on a low value crop like maize, but biomass transfer was economically viable on high value crops such a vegetables. (author)

352

Behavior Change Pathways to Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Narrative Interviews with Circumcision Clients in Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

As an HIV prevention strategy, the scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is underway in 14 countries in Africa. For prevention impact, these countries must perform millions of circumcisions in adolescent and adult men before 2015. Although acceptability of VMMC in the region is well documented and service delivery efforts have proven successful, countries remain behind in meeting circumcision targets. A better understanding of men's VMMC-seeking behaviors and experiences is needed to improve communication and interventions to accelerate uptake. To this end, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 40 clients waiting for surgical circumcision at clinics in Zambia. Based on Stages of Change behavioral theory, men were asked to recount how they learned about adult circumcision, why they decided it was right for them, what they feared most, how they overcame their fears, and the steps they took to make it to the clinic that day. Thematic analysis across all cases allowed us to identify key behavior change triggers while within-case analysis elucidated variants of one predominant behavior change pattern. Major stages included: awareness and critical belief adjustment, norming pressures and personalization of advantages, a period of fear management and finally VMMC-seeking. Qualitative comparative analysis of ever-married and never-married men revealed important similarities and differences between the two groups. Unprompted, 17 of the men described one to four failed prior attempts to become circumcised. Experienced more frequently by older men, failed VMMC attempts were often due to service-side barriers. Findings highlight intervention opportunities to increase VMMC uptake. Reaching uncircumcised men via close male friends and female sex partners and tailoring messages to stage-specific concerns and needs would help accelerate men's movement through the behavior change process. Expanding service access is also needed to meet current demand. Improving clinic efficiencies and introducing time-saving procedures and advance scheduling options should be considered. PMID:25375790

Price, Jessica E.; Phiri, Lyson; Mulenga, Drosin; Hewett, Paul C.; Topp, Stephanie M.; Shiliya, Nicholas; Hatzold, Karin

2014-01-01

353

Assessing the microbiological performance and potential cost of boiling drinking water in urban Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Boiling is the most common method of disinfecting water in the home and the benchmark against which other point-of-use water treatment is measured. In a six-week study in peri-urban Zambia, we assessed the microbiological effectiveness and potential cost of boiling among 49 households without a water connection who reported "always" or "almost always" boiling their water before drinking it. Source and household drinking water samples were compared weekly for thermotolerant coliforms (TTC), an indicator of fecal contamination. Demographics, costs, and other information were collected through surveys and structured observations. Drinking water samples taken at the household (geometric mean 7.2 TTC/100 mL, 95% CI, 5.4-9.7) were actually worse in microbiological quality than source water (geometric mean 4.0 TTC/100 mL, 95% CI, 3.1-5.1) (p water samples were reported to have actually been boiled at the time of collection from the home, suggesting over-reporting and inconsistent compliance. However, these samples were of no higher microbiological quality. Evidence suggests that water quality deteriorated after boiling due to lack of residual protection and unsafe storage and handling. The potential cost of fuel or electricity for boiling was estimated at 5% and 7% of income, respectively. In this setting where microbiological water quality was relatively good at the source, safe-storage practices that minimize recontamination may be more effective in managing the risk of disease from drinking water at a fraction of the cost of boiling. PMID:21650207

Psutka, Rebecca; Peletz, Rachel; Michelo, Sandford; Kelly, Paul; Clasen, Thomas

2011-07-15

354

Attitudes to 'Kaponya Mafumo': the terminators of pregnancy in urban Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a larger study of adolescent sexual and reproductive health in urban Zambia, the issue of unwanted pregnancy and abortion was considered through the examination of the perceptions of both adolescents and adults. Young people rank sexual health as their primary health issue, and sexual behaviour is integrally linked into other aspects of their lives. Pregnancies were deemed to be a common occurrence amongst the adolescents, with an estimated two-thirds of unwanted pregnancies ending in unsafe abortion. The decision to abort is primarily determined by the reaction of the boyfriend and his willingness to accept paternity and the associated financial implications. Other crucial influences are the desire to stay in school and the stigma attached to unwanted pregnancy. The decision-making process regarding the abortion itself is related to the perceived advantages and disadvantages of various service providers. Around 40% of the respondents stated that in the event of an abortion being carried out, it would be performed either by the girl herself or with the assistance of other non-medical personnel. Less popular but still significant are traditional healers and private doctors. Formal health services tend to be rejected due to their poor perception by young people, centred on the lack of privacy and confidentiality, and the de facto illegal nature of abortion itself. The services of nurses are sought, but outside of the clinic setting. The most popular method of self-induced abortion is overdosing on chloroquine. Other methods involve the use of traditional medicines such as various types of roots, as well as more modern methods such as ingesting washing powder. Recommendations for policy-makers concentrate on the improvement of formal, 'youth friendly' health services and the development of appropriate outreach education methods which address specific concerns widely held by young people. PMID:10837042

Webb, D

2000-06-01

355

The dating and interpretation of a Mode 1 site in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Flake based assemblages (Mode 1) comprise the earliest stone technologies known, with well-dated Oldowan sites occurring in eastern Africa between 2.6-1.7 Ma, and in less securely dated contexts in central, southern and northern Africa. Our understanding of the spread and local development of this technology outside East Africa remains hampered by the lack of reliable numerical dating techniques applicable to non-volcanic deposits. This study applied the still relatively new technique of cosmogenic nuclide burial dating (10Be/26Al) to calculate burial ages for fluvial gravels containing Mode 1 artefacts in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. The Manzi River, a tributary of the Luangwa River, has exposed a 4.7 m deep section of fluvial sands with discontinuous but stratified gravel layers bearing Mode 1, possibly Oldowan, artefacts in the basal layers. An unconformity divides the Manzi section, separating Mode 1 deposits from overlying gravels containing Mode 3 (Middle Stone Age) artefacts. No diagnostic Mode 2 (Acheulean) artefacts were found. Cosmogenic nuclide burial dating was attempted for the basal gravels as well as exposure ages for the upper Mode 3 gravels, but was unsuccessful. The complex depositional history of the site prevented the calculation of reliable age models. A relative chronology for the full Manzi sequence was constructed, however, from the magnetostratigraphy of the deposit (N>R>N sequence). Isothermal thermoluminescence (ITL) dating of the upper Mode 3 layers also provided consistent results (78 ka). A coarse but chronologically coherent sequence now exists for the Manzi section with the unconformity separating probable mid- or early Pleistocene deposits below from late Pleistocene deposits above. The results suggest Mode 1 technology in the Luangwa Valley may post-date the Oldowan in eastern and southern Africa. The dating programme has contributed to a clearer understanding of the geomorphological processes that have shaped the valley and structured its archaeological record.

Barham, Lawrence; Phillips, William M.

2011-01-01

356

Creating a Knowledge Translation Platform: nine lessons from the Zambia Forum for Health Research  

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Full Text Available Abstract The concept of the Knowledge Translation Platform (KTP provides cohesion and leadership for national–level knowledge translation efforts. In this review, we discuss nine key lessons documenting the experience of the Zambia Forum for Health Research, primarily to inform and exchange experience with the growing community of African KTPs. Lessons from ZAMFOHR’s organizational development include the necessity of selecting a multi-stakeholder and -sectoral Board of Directors; performing comprehensive situation analyses to understand not only the prevailing research-and-policy dynamics but a precise operational niche; and selecting a leader that bridges the worlds of research and policy. Programmatic lessons include focusing on building the capacity of both policy-makers and researchers; building a database of local evidence and national-level actors involved in research and policy; and catalyzing work in particular issue areas by identifying leaders from the research community, creating policy-maker demand for research evidence, and fostering the next generation by mentoring both up-and-coming researchers and policy–makers. Ultimately, ZAMFOHR’s experience shows that an African KTP must pay significant attention to its organizational details. A KTP must also invest in the skill base of the wider community and, more importantly, of its own staff. Given the very real deficit of research-support skills in most low-income countries – in synthesis, in communications, in brokering, in training – a KTP must spend significant time and resources in building these types of in-house expertise. And lastly, the role of networking cannot be underestimated. As a fully-networked KTP, ZAMFOHR has benefited from the innovations of other KTPs, from funding opportunities and partnerships, and from invaluable technical support from both African and northern colleagues.

Kasonde Joseph M

2012-10-01

357

Gastroenterology training in a resource-limited setting: Zambia, Southern Africa  

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Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate need for and efficacy of a structured gastroenterology didactic session in expanding awareness and understanding of digestive disorders. METHODS: A four-day symposium was developed with didactic sessions (days 1, 2 and practical endoscopy (days 3, 4. Didactic sessions included case presentations highlighting pathophysiology and management. One nurse and four practicing gastroenterologists from the United Kingdom led lectures and supervised workshops with audience participation. Practical endoscopy focused on diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and their application to diagnosis and treatment of ailments of the gastrointestinal tract. Pre- and post-workshop questionnaires were distributed to participants during didactic sessions. A pre-workshop questionnaire gauged expectations and identified objectives to be met at the symposium. Post-workshop questionnaires were administered to assess efficacy of each session. Participants graded sessions from 1 (poor to 5 (excellent on quality of case presentations, knowledge, clarity and mode of presentation. We assessed if time allotted to each topic was sufficient, value of sessions, impact on practice and interest in future symposiums. RESULTS: There were 46 attendees on day 1: 41% undergraduates, 41% residents, 11% consultants and 4% unspecified. Day 2 (a Saturday had 24 participants: 17% undergraduates, 71% residents, 9% consultants, 4% unspecified. Primary pre-workshop symposium expectation was to gain knowledge in: general gastroenterology (55.5%, practical endoscopy (13.8%, pediatric gastroenterology (5%, epidemiology of gastrointestinal disorders specific to Zambia (6%, and interaction with international speakers (6%. The post-symposium questionnaire was answered by 19 participants, of whom 95% felt specific aims were met; all would attend future conferences and recommend to others. CONCLUSION: The beneficial effect of a structured symposium in developing countries warrants further attention as a mechanism to improve disease awareness in areas where resources are limited.

Akwi W Asombang

2013-01-01

358

Bucking social norms: examining anomalous fertility aspirations in the face of HIV in Lusaka, Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In settings of high fertility and high HIV prevalence, individuals are making fertility decisions while simultaneously trying to avoid or manage HIV. We sought to increase our understanding of how individuals dually manage HIV risk while attempting to achieve their fertility goals as part of the project entitled HIV Status and Achieving Fertility Desires conducted in Zambia in 2011. Using multivariate regression to predict fertility patterns based on socio-demographic characteristics for respondents from facility-based and community-based surveys, we employed Anomalous Case Analysis (ACA) whereby in-depth interview respondents were selected from the groups of outliers amongst the survey respondents who reported lower or higher fertility preferences than predicted as well as those who adhered to predicted patterns, and lived in Lusaka (n=45). All of the facility-based respondents were HIV-positive. We utilize the Theory of Conjunctural Action (TCA) to categorize domains of influence on individuals' preferences and behavior. Both community-based and facility-based right-tail respondents (outliers whose fertility intentions indicated that they wanted a/nother child when we predicted that they did not) expressed comparatively less control over their fertility and gave more weight to pressures from others to continue childbearing. Partner communication about fertility desires was greater among left-tail respondents (outliers whose fertility intentions indicated that they did not want a/nother child when we predicted that they did). HIV-positive right-tail respondents were more likely to see anti-retroviral therapies (ARTs) which prevent mother to child transmission of HIV as highly effective, mitigating inhibitions to further childbearing. Drug interactions between ARTs and contraceptives were identified as a limitation to HIV-positive individuals' contraceptive options on both sides of the distribution. Factors that should be taken into account in the future to understand fertility behavior in high HIV-prevalent settings include couples' communication around fertility and perception of the efficacy of ARTs. PMID:25150655

Moore, Ann M; Keogh, Sarah; Kavanaugh, Megan; Bankole, Akinrinola; Mulambia, Chishimba; Mutombo, Namuunda

2014-10-01

359

Reducing uncertainties in global HIV prevalence estimates: the case of Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The premise for using antenatal care (ANC clinic data for estimating HIV prevalence in the general population is the finding from community studies in sub-Saharan Africa that total HIV prevalence in pregnant women attending ANC clinics closely approximate levels in the total general population of both women and men aged 15–49 years. In this study, the validity of national level HIV prevalence estimates for the total general population 15–49 years made from ANC clinic and population survey data was assessed. Methods In 2001–2002, a national population HIV prevalence survey for women 15–49 years and men 15–59 years was conducted in Zambia. In the same period, a national HIV sentinel surveillance survey among pregnant women attending ANC clinics was carried out. Results The ANC HIV prevalence estimates for age-group 15–49 years (rural: 11.5%; 95% CI, 11.2–11.8; urban: 25.4%; 95% CI, 24.8–26.0; adjusted national: 16.9%; 95% CI, 16.6–17.2 were similar to the population survey estimates (rural: 10.8%; 95% CI, 9.6–12.1; urban: 23.2%; 95% CI 20.7–25.6; national: 15.6%; 95% CI, 14.4–16.9. The HIV prevalence urban to rural ratio was 2.2 in ANC and 2.1 in population survey estimates. Conclusion The HIV prevalence estimate for the total general population 15–49 years derived from testing both women and men in the population survey was similar to the estimate derived from testing women attending ANC clinics. It shows that national HIV prevalence estimates for adults aged 15–49 years can also be obtained from ANC HIV sentinel surveillance surveys with good coverage when ANC attendance and fertility are high.

Dzekedzeke Kumbutso

2006-04-01

360

The dating and interpretation of a Mode 1 site in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Flake based assemblages (Mode 1) comprise the earliest stone technologies known, with well-dated Oldowan sites occurring in eastern Africa between ~2.6-1.7 Ma, and in less securely dated contexts in central, southern and northern Africa. Our understanding of the spread and local development of this technology outside East Africa remains hampered by the lack of reliable numerical dating techniques applicable to non-volcanic deposits. This study applied the still relatively new technique of cosmogenic nuclide burial dating ((10)Be/(26)Al) to calculate burial ages for fluvial gravels containing Mode 1 artefacts in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. The Manzi River, a tributary of the Luangwa River, has exposed a 4.7 m deep section of fluvial sands with discontinuous but stratified gravel layers bearing Mode 1, possibly Oldowan, artefacts in the basal layers. An unconformity divides the Manzi section, separating Mode 1 deposits from overlying gravels containing Mode 3 (Middle Stone Age) artefacts. No diagnostic Mode 2 (Acheulean) artefacts were found. Cosmogenic nuclide burial dating was attempted for the basal gravels as well as exposure ages for the upper Mode 3 gravels, but was unsuccessful. The complex depositional history of the site prevented the calculation of reliable age models. A relative chronology for the full Manzi sequence was constructed, however, from the magnetostratigraphy of the deposit (N>R>N sequence). Isothermal thermoluminescence (ITL) dating of the upper Mode 3 layers also provided consistent results (~78 ka). A coarse but chronologically coherent sequence now exists for the Manzi section with the unconformity separating probable mid- or early Pleistocene deposits below from late Pleistocene deposits above. The results suggest Mode 1 technology in the Luangwa Valley may post-date the Oldowan in eastern and southern Africa. The dating programme has contributed to a clearer understanding of the geomorphological processes that have shaped the valley and structured its archaeological record. PMID:21411121

Barham, Lawrence; Phillips, William M; Maher, Barbara A; Karloukovski, Vassil; Duller, Geoff A T; Jain, Mayank; Wintle, Ann G

2011-05-01

361

Escalating Plasmodium falciparum antifolate drug resistance mutations in Macha, rural Zambia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In Zambia the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria is artemisinin combination therapy (ACT, with artemether-lumefantrine currently being used. However, the antifolate regimen, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP, remains the treatment of choice in children weighing less than 5 kg and also in expectant mothers. SP is also the choice drug for intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy and serves as stand-by treatment during ACT stock outs. The current study assessed the status of Plasmodium falciparum point mutations associated with antifolate drug resistance in the area around Macha. Methods A representative sample of 2,780 residents from the vicinity of Macha was screened for malaria by microscopy. At the same time, blood was collected onto filter paper and dried for subsequent P. falciparum DNA analysis. From 188 (6.8% individuals that were thick film-positive, a simple random sub-set of 95 P. falciparum infections were genotyped for DHFR and DHPS antifolate resistance mutations, using nested PCR and allele-specific restriction enzyme digestion. Results Plasmodium falciparum field samples exhibited a high prevalence of antifolate resistance mutations, including the DHFR triple (Asn-108 + Arg-59 + Ile-51 mutant (41.3% and DHPS double (Gly-437 + Glu-540 mutant (16%. The quintuple (DHFR triple + DHPS double mutant was found in 4 (6.5% of the samples. Levels of mutated parasites showed a dramatic escalation, relative to previous surveys since 1988. However, neither of the Val-16 and Thr-108 mutations, which jointly confer resistance to cycloguanil, was detectable among the human infections. The Leu-164 mutation, associated with high grade resistance to both pyrimethamine and cycloguanil, as a multiple mutant with Asn-108, Arg-59 and (or Ile-51, was also absent. Conclusion This study points to escalating levels of P. falciparum antifolate resistance in the vicinity of Macha. Continued monitoring is recommended to ensure timely policy revisions before widespread resistance exacts a serious public health toll.

Rouse Petrica

2008-05-01

362

Development of a curriculum for training in One Health analytical epidemiology at the University of Zambia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Recently, the world has witnessed emergence of novel diseases such as avian influenza, HIV and AIDS, West Nile Virus and Ebola. The evolution of these pathogens has been facilitated mainly by a constantly evolving animal-human interface. Whilst infectious disease control was previously conceptualise [...] d as either public health or animal health related issues, the distinction between disciplinary foci have been blurred by multiple causal factors that clearly traverse traditional disciplinary divides. These multiple evolutionary pressures have included changes in land use, ecosystems, human-livestock-wildlife interactions and antibiotic use, representing novel routes for pathogen emergence. With the growing realisation that pathogens do not respect traditional epistemological divides, the 'One Health' initiative has emerged to advocate for closer collaboration across the health disciplines and has provided a new agenda for health education. Against this background, the One Health Analytical Epidemiology course was developed under the auspices of the Southern African Centre for Infectious Diseases Surveillance by staff from the University of Zambia with collaborators from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and the Royal Veterinary College in London. The course is aimed at equipping scientists with multidisciplinary skill sets to match the contemporary challenges of human, animal and zoonotic disease prevention and control. Epidemiology is an important discipline for both public and animal health. Therefore, this two-year programme has been developed to generate a cadre of epidemiologists with a broad understanding of disease control and prevention and will be able to conceptualise and design holistic programs for informing health and disease control policy decisions.

J.B., Muma; Martin, Simuunza; K., Mwachalimba; M., Munyeme; B., Namangala; C., Hankanga; G., Sijumbila; R. Likwa, Ndonyo; Yona, Sinkala; A., Mwanza; A. Simanyengwe, Mweene.

363

Impacts of Public-Private Partnership on Local Livelihoods and Natural Resource Dynamics: Perceptions from Eastern Zambia  

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Full Text Available This study evaluated the long-term implications of a Public-Private Partnership (PPP on livelihoods and natural resource (NR dynamics under a market-oriented approach to conservation. Drawing examples from the Luangwa Valley in eastern Zambia, the study sought to answer questions on two closely interrelated aspects. These included the contribution of PPP to sustainable livelihoods in and around Protected Areas (PAs and its impacts on natural resources in Game Management Areas (GMAs. Quantitative data were collected from PPP participating and non-PPP households using standardized structured interviews, while qualitative data were obtained from three chiefdoms using semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. Taking the case of Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO in eastern Zambia, results of this study showed that PPP contributed to sustainable livelihoods and overall natural resources management through varied ways. These include promotion of conservation farming, agroforestry, poacher transformation (individuals who have given up poaching due to PPP interventions and provision of markets for the produce of participating households. Further, impacts of PPP on soil fertility, crop, and honey yields were statistically significant (p ? 0.05. A combination of increased crop productivity and household incomes has seen a 40-fold increase in poacher transformation. The results of this study suggest that PPPs, if well-structured, have the potential to address both livelihoods and enterprise needs with an ultimate benefit of promoting both sustainable livelihoods and natural resources management around PAs in tropical Africa.

Muleba Nshimbi

2014-06-01

364

'One health' and development priorities in resource-constrained countries: policy lessons from avian and pandemic influenza preparedness in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

'One World, One Health' has become a key rallying theme for the integration of public health and animal health priorities, particularly in the governance of pandemic-scale zoonotic infectious disease threats. However, the policy challenges of integrating public health and animal health priorities in the context of trade and development issues remain relatively unexamined, and few studies to date have explored the implications of global disease governance for resource-constrained countries outside the main centres of zoonotic outbreaks. This article draws on a policy study of national level avian and pandemic influenza preparedness between 2005 and 2009 across the sectors of trade, health and agriculture in Zambia. We highlight the challenges of integrating disease control interventions amidst trade and developmental realities in resource-poor environments. One Health prioritizes disease risk mitigation, sidelining those trade and development narratives which speak to broader public health concerns. We show how locally important trade and development imperatives were marginalized in Zambia, limiting the effectiveness of pandemic preparedness. Our findings are likely to be generalizable to other resource-constrained countries, and suggest that effective disease governance requires alignment with trade and development sectors, as well as integration of veterinary and public health sectors. PMID:24532120

Mwacalimba, Kennedy Kapala; Green, Judith

2015-03-01

365

Smallholder Farmers’ Responses to Rainfall Variability and Soil Fertility Problems by the Use of Indigenous Knowledge in Chipepo, Southern Zambia  

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Full Text Available The study conducted in Southern Zambia investigated smallholder farmers’ use of indigenous knowledge to respond to rainfall variations and soil fertility problems. Farmer and key informant interviews and observations were employed to collect data. A total of 60 smallholder farmers and 6 key informants were interviewed. Chipepo lies in the low rainfall region of Zambia. Its upland area faces moisture stress and soil fertility problems compared to its valley areas located along tributaries of the Zambezi River. The annual flooding of the tributaries of the Zambezi River along the valley fields results in loss of crop yields. Farmers have responded to problems of low moisture in the upland fields and too much moisture in the river valley fields through crop diversification concentrated on three main food crops namely; maize, sorghum and bulrush millet. These differ not only in their moisture requirements but also in maturity periods. Drought tolerant early maturing crop varieties and off-farm activities enhance their resilience. Maize was planted in river valley fields due to its high water requirements while drought tolerant sorghum and millet were planted on upland fields. The farmers’ knowledge of particular flowering plants helped forecast the onset of rains for purposes of early planting. Farmers with upland fields have adopted indigenous soil classification techniques based on vegetation types, soil colour, and texture and soil workability and utilize particular soils for specific crops. Integrating this indigenous knowledge into modern technologies will enhance smallholder farmers’ resilience when faced with impacts of climate change and variability.

Kabwe Harnadih Mubanga

2014-05-01

366

Monitoring the endangered population of the antelope Kobus leche smithemani (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), in the Bangweulu ecosystem, Zambia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El lechwe negro (Kobus leche smithemani) es un antílope semi-acuático de tamaño medio que en la actualidad se encuentra en la lista roja de la UICN de especies en peligro de extinción y sólo es endémica de la cuenca del Bangweulu de Zambia. Su población ha disminuido considerablemente, de más de 250 [...] 000 a 15 000, debido a las inundaciones que se dieron durante el período 1930-1940, lo que llevó al gobierno de Zambia a declarar todos los hábitats del lechwe negro en áreas protegidas estatales, y a establecer estrategias de administración urgentes necesarias para salvar el resto de la población de la extinción. Utilizando los datos retrospectivos, nuestros resultados muestran que la población ha aumentado de 15 000 animales en 1954 a 55 632 en 2009. La población actual se estima en 34.77% (55 632/160 000) de la capacidad de carga de la cuenca del Bangweulu. Aunque el lechwe Negro es una de las 42 especies que se ofrecen para su utilización consuntiva por la Autoridad de Vida Silvestre de Zambia (ZAWA), sólo el 0.12% y 0.08% de la población actual se ha ofrecido para el safari y la caza residente anual para el período 2005-2009, respectivamente. La utilización de la cuota anual se estima en 67% (n=67) y 81% (n=37) para safari de caza y residente, respectivamente. Por lo tanto, los ingresos totales obtenidos de la utilización del lechwe negro son muy bajos contando sólo el 2.1% de los ingresos totales obtenidos de la utilización de la fauna silvestre. Aunque la tendencia actual de la población está mostrando un incremento unitario de 639 animales por año, está todavía muy por debajo de los niveles ideales para la utilización lucrativa. En este estudio, se demuestra que los cambios ecológicos perjudiciales sobre especies de fauna silvestre, puede conducir a su vulnerabilidad y peligro de extinción, y que la recuperación de su capacidad de carga completa puede exigir una cantidad considerable de tiempo. Abstract in english Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani) is a semi-aquatic medium sized antelope currently enlisted on the IUCN red list of endangered species and is only endemic to the Bangweulu basin of Zambia. Its population has significantly decreased due to floods that took place during the period 1930-1940 from [...] over 250 000-15 000 leading the Zambian government to gazette all habitats of Black lechwe into state protected areas, and to establish urgent management strategies needed to save the remaining population from extinction. Using retrospective data, our findings show that the population has increased from 15 000 animals in 1954 to 55 632 in 2009. The current population is estimated at 34.77% (55 632/160 000) of the carrying capacity of the Bangweulu basin. Although the Black lechwe is one of the 42 species offered for consumptive utilization by the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA), only 0.12% and 0.08% of the current stock was offered for safari and resident hunting annually for the period 2005-2009, respectively. Annual quota utilization were estimated at 67% (n=37) and 81% (n=37) for safari and resident hunting, respectively. Hence, overall income obtained from utilization of Black lechwe is very low accounting for only 2.1% of the total revenue earned from wildlife utilization. Although the current population trend is showing a unit increase of 639 animals per year, it is still far below levels ideal for the lucrative utilization. In this study, we demonstrate that adverse ecological changes on wildlife species, can lead to their vulnerability and danger of extinction, and that their recovery to full carrying capacity may demand a considerable amount of time

Victor M., Siamudaala; Musso, Munyeme; Wigganson, Matandiko; John B, Muma; Hetron M, Munang& #8217; andu.

1631-16-01

367

Congressional District Visits in August  

Science.gov (United States)

In preparation for the U.S. congressional recess, AGU Public Affairs hosted an instructional webinar about meeting with legislators and their staff at their district offices. Congress is on recess, with most members back in their districts to reconnect with their constituents. The August recess is a great opportunity for AGU members to schedule meetings with their legislators to talk about the importance of their research and the value of science funding. In these meetings, members can initiate a connection with their senator or representative that will allow them to build a relationship as a valuable resource.

Hoover, Fushcia

2014-08-01

368

Industrial District as a Corporation  

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Full Text Available This paper provides a comparison study of industrial districts in two European countries, Spain and Sweden, using the conceptual framework of corporation. The relevance of this approach is based on the specific qualities that the industrial districts have, including the preexisting conditions, local traditions, products and production characteristics, marketing strategies, local policies and present challenges. The findings indicate the ways in which different patterns of inter-firm relationships, organization of production and dynamics of local alliances have shaped divergent regional responses to the industrial construction.

Reza MOHAMMADY GARFAMY

2011-03-01

369

Your District Deserves an Audit Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

A school district audit committee has the capacity to unearth pertinent information about the operating efficiency and effectiveness of a school district, as well as providing a more professional audit. (Author/WM)

Schaupp, Frederick W.; Maust, Robert S.

1974-01-01

370

Future Services for District Heating Solutions in Residential Districts  

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Full Text Available The underlying assumption of this study is that in order to retain the competitiveness while reaching for the EU targets regarding low-energy construction, district heating companies need to develop new business and service models. How district heating companies could broaden their perspective and switch to a more service-oriented way of thinking is a key interest of our research. The used methods in our study are house builder interviews and a questionnaire. With the help of these methods we discussed the potential interest in heating related services acquiring a comprehensive understanding of the customer needs. The results indicate the importance of certain criteria when choosing the heating system in households: easiness, comfort and affordability seem to dominate the house builders’ preferences. Also environmental awareness seems to be for many an important factor when making a decision about the heating of the house. Altogether, based on the results of this study, we suggest that the prospects of district heating could benefit from highlighting certain aspects and strengths in the future. District heating companies need to increase flexibility, readiness to adopt new services, to invest in new marketing strategies and improving the communication skills.

Hannele Ahvenniemi

2014-06-01

371

District heating - comparision of prices 2005. District heating in Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This statistics of the VDEW AGFW (Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Waerme- und Heizkraftwirtschaft - e.V.) dates back to 1973. It is based on typical, preset consumption types of domestic and nondomestic buildings. The prices provide an outline of the annual energy cost of district heating in Germany. Price trends are followed by a comparison with the year before. (orig.)

372

The Phantom Mandate: District Capacity for Reform.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nearly every state focuses on implementing standards-based systems but supports educational reform in as many different ways as there are states. An examination of 15 districts located in 13 states suggests, however, that some states and districts have policies and practices in common that support a district's capacity for reform, whether there is…

Florian, Judy; Hange, Jane; Copeland, Glenda

373

Groundwater and geothermal: urban district heating applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes how several cities use groundwater and geothermal energy in district heating systems. It begins with groundwater, introducing the basic technology and techniques of development, and describing two case studies of cities with groundwater-based district heating systems. The second half of the report consists of three case studies of cities with district heating systems using higher temperature geothermal resources.

Mounts, R.; Frazier, A.; Wood, E.; Pyles, O.

1982-01-01

374

Accounting Systems for School Districts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advises careful analysis and improvement of existing school district accounting systems prior to investment in new ones. Emphasizes the importance of attracting and maintaining quality financial staffs, developing an accounting policies and procedures manual, and designing a good core accounting system before purchasing computer hardware and…

Atwood, E. Barrett, Jr.

1983-01-01

375

Community participation in natural resources management: reality or rhetoric? Lessons learnt from the Kasanka Game Management Area (GMA) communities, Serenje District, Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the developing world, the term 'participation' has in recent years become a household word in the same way that 'democracy' or 'gender' have. Development agencies are demanding increased participation in their programmes. The use of the word or its application has become a centre of debate. Due to the difficulties involved in measuring 'participation' or indeed determining levels at which participation should take place, who participates and when, many 'doubting Thomases' have questioned its effectiveness. It has, however been acknowledged in many areas that popular participation changes policies and enhances management and governance. In complex issues of natural resources management, participatory techniques have helped communities develop collective responsibilities towards management of their resources and projects. This paper discusses the complexities of community participation in natural resources management, ranging from interrelations among stakeholders to resource ownership based on the experiences in the Kasanka Game Management Area (KGMA). PMID:15641374

Mutamba, Emmanuel

2004-12-01

376

Options and constraints for breastfeeding in the context of HIV:A study of parents perspective in Lusaka and Kitwe districts, Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Great strides are being made in trying to prevent postnatal Mother to child transmission of HIV AIDS. One of the strategies is through counselling on infant feeding options to HIV mothers, using the UNAIDS/WHO/UNICEF guidelines on infant feeding options. It is not clear how these feeding options and women?s knowledge of HIV transmission through breast milk is influencing mothers with unknown status in their feeding practices. The purpose of the study was to describe perceptions of the comm...

Besa, Eustina Mulenga

2004-01-01

377

Mental distress in the general population in Zambia: Impact of HIV and social factors  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Population level data on mental health from Africa are limited, but available data indicate mental problems to represent a substantial public health problem. The negative impact of HIV on mental health suggests that this could particularly be the case in high prevalence populations. We examined the prevalence of mental distress, distribution patterns and the ways HIV might influence mental health among men and women in a general population. Methods The relationship between HIV infection and mental distress was explored using a sample of 4466 participants in a population-based HIV survey conducted in selected rural and urban communities in Zambia in 2003. The Self-reporting questionnaire-10 (SRQ-10 was used to assess global mental distress. Weights were assigned to the SRQ-10 responses based on DSM IV criteria for depression and a cut off point set at 7/20 for probable cases of mental distress. A structural equation modeling (SEM was established to assess the structural relationship between HIV infection and mental distress in the model, with maximum likelihood ratio as the method of estimation. Results The HIV prevalence was 13.6% vs. 18% in the rural and urban populations, respectively. The prevalence of mental distress was substantially higher among women than men and among groups with low educational attainment vs. high. The results of the SEM showed a close fit with the data. The final model revealed that self-rated health and self perceived HIV risk and worry of being HIV infected were important mediators between underlying factors, HIV infection and mental distress. The effect of HIV infection on mental distress was both direct and indirect, but was particularly strong through the indirect effects of health ratings and self perceived risk and worry of HIV infection. Conclusion These findings suggest a strong effect of HIV infection on mental distress. In this population where few knew their HIV status, this effect was mediated through self-perceptions of health status, found to capture changes in health perceptions related to HIV, and self-perceived risk and worry of actually being HIV infected.

Chipimo Peter J

2009-08-01

378

'Rumours' and clinical trials: a retrospective examination of a paediatric malnutrition study in Zambia, southern Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Many public health researchers conducting studies in resource-constrained settings have experienced negative 'rumours' about their work; in some cases they have been reported to create serious challenges and derail studies. However, what may appear superficially as 'gossip' or 'rumours' can also be regarded and understood as metaphors which represent local concerns. For researchers unaccustomed to having concerns expressed from participants in this manner, possible reactions can be to be unduly perturbed or conversely dismissive. This paper represents a retrospective examination of a malnutrition study conducted by an international team of researchers in Zambia, Southern Africa. The fears of mothers whose children were involved in the study and some of the concerns which were expressed as rumours are also presented. This paper argues that there is an underlying logic to these anxieties and to dismiss them simply as 'rumours' or 'gossip' would be to overlook the historic and socio-economic factors which have contributed to their production. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with the mothers whose children were involved in the study and with the research nurses. Twenty five face-to-face interviews and 2 focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted with mothers. In addition, face-to-face interviews were conducted with research nurses participating in the trial. Results A prominent anxiety expressed as rumours by the mothers whose children were involved in the study was that recruitment into the trial was an indicator that the child was HIV-infected. Other anxieties included that the trial was a disguise for witchcraft or Satanism and that the children's body parts would be removed and sold. In addition, the liquid, milk-based food given to the children to improve their nutrition was suspected of being insufficiently nutritious, thus worsening their condition. The form which these anxieties took, such as rumours related to the stealing of body parts and other anxieties about a stigmatised condition, provide an insight into the historical, socio-economic and cultural influences in such settings. Conclusions Employing strategies to understand local concerns should accompany research aims to achieve optimal success. The concerns raised by the participants we interviewed are not unique to this study. They are produced in countries where the historic, socio-economic and cultural settings communicate anxieties in this format. By examining this study we have shown that by contextualizing these 'rumours', the concerns they express can be constructively addressed and in turn result in the successful conduct of research aims.

Amadi Beatrice

2010-09-01

379

Use of Mutation Breeding Technique in Improving Finger Millet in Northern Zambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many breeders have observed that induced mutation increases genetic variability, and the expose to mutagenic agents increases mutation frequency. Studies have indicated the effect in height reduction, increased yield components,disease resistance, in crop like rice and wheat. A study was conducted in finger millet in thr Northern part of Zambia (Region III), a high rainfall area, aiming at improving finger length, number of fingers till ring capacity in order to increase the yield. the seed of Nyika variety, popular to farmers due to its medium maturity, palm shaped fingers (six fingers on average), and light brown grain. Three quantities of seed were irradiated at 15Kr, 20Kr and 30Kr doses. A dose of 15Kr of gamma rays irradiation continued to create good genetic change in the exposed material. These observations clearly suggest that 15Kr dose of gamma rays is the optimum one to expose/irradiate finger millet to create desired genetic changes. The results of 2000/2001 were not significantly different. However, FMM 165 had better yields (3193 Kg) than FMM 175 in Misamfu, while FMM 175 yielded better (3272 Kg) in Chinsali. During 2001/2002 both FMMs performed well in the national finger number of 10 per head. There were also highly significant differences among finger lengths.FMM 165 had finger length of 10.3 cm. Concerning grain yield FMM 165 and FMM 175 had 3802 and 3864 Kg/ha, respectively, which were above the overall mean 3864 Kg/ha. Grain yield correlated positiv3864 Kg/ha. Grain yield correlated positively with finger number with an r-value of 0.19 and finger length r-value of 0.22 although it was not significant at 1% or 5%. Meanwhile in the advance trial there were significant differences among genotypes in finger number. Both FMMs had 9 fingers above the overall mean of 8.8. In the finger length there were highly significant differences. FMM 175 had a length of 11.5 cm while FMM 165 had 10.4 cm. There were highly significant differences among the genotypes in yield. FMM 165 (4636 Kg) and FMM 175 (4104 Kg/ha) yielded more than the checks (Nyika and Local) 3104 Kg/ha and 2854 Kg/ha respectively. There was some correlation between finger length and finger number with r-value of 0.688, finger number and grain yield with an r-value of 0.187, and finger length and yield r-value of -ve 0.016 but there were not significant at 1% or 5%

380

Medication side effects among people with epilepsy taking phenobarbital in Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phenobarbital remains one of the most widely used antiepileptic drugs worldwide, yet there are limited data regarding side effects associated with its use in routine clinical care settings in low-income countries. Available data suggests that phenobarbital is as effective as other first-line drugs for treating tonic-clonic seizures, but side effect reports differ widely between high and low-income settings. A better understanding of phenobarbital side effect profile and severity in low-income settings is warranted given its role in efforts to decrease the epilepsy treatment gap. We used the Liverpool adverse events profile (LEAP) to assess side effects in consecutive patients with epilepsy on phenobarbital seeking care in rural Zambia. Data regarding age, gender, medication dose, and medication adherence were also collected. T-tests and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used to assess predictors of LEAP score and medication adherence. Thirty-five patients receiving a mean dose of 2.1mg/kg/day (SD: 2.78 mg/kg/day) of phenobarbital were assessed. All participants reported at least one side effect in the previous four weeks with a median of 6 symptoms (IQR: 4-8) and a mean side effects score of 28/76 (SD: 5.38). Over half reported sleepiness and dizziness. Memory problems and depression were also common (both 46%). Total LAEP score was not associated with age (p=0.88), gender (p=0.17), or phenobarbital dose (p=0.13). Medication adherence was not associated with side effects total score (p=0.56). Rural Zambian adults taking phenobarbital at doses recommended by the World Health Organization report a significant number of side effects. The most common side effects reported were similar to those reported in high-income countries. The significant burden of phenobarbital-associated side effects in this African cohort is in contrast to data from non-randomized clinical trials in China that reported phenobarbital to be well-tolerated with few side effects. Additional investigations regarding phenobarbital side effects during routine care in low income settings is warranted. PMID:25219354

Elafros, Melissa A; Bui, Esther; Birbeck, Gretchen L

2014-11-01

381

The geology and geochemistry of the Lumwana Cu (± Co ± U) deposits, NW Zambia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Lumwana Cu (± Co ± U) deposits of NW Zambia are large, tabular, disseminated ore bodies, hosted within the Mwombezhi Dome of the Lufilian Arc. The host rocks to the Lumwana deposits are two mineralogically similar but texturally distinct gneisses, a granitic to pegmatitic gneiss and a banded to augen gneiss which both comprise quartz-feldspar ± biotite ± muscovite ± haematite ± amphibole and intervening quartz-feldspar ± biotite schist. The sulphide ore horizons are typically developed within a biotite-muscovite-quartz-kyanite schist, although mineralization locally occurs within internal gneiss units. Contacts between the ore and host rocks are transitional and characterized by a loss of feldspar. Kinematic indicators, such as S-C fabrics and pressure shadows on porphyroblasts, suggest a top to the north shear sense. The sulphides are deformed by a strong shear fabric, enclosed within kyanite or concentrated into low strain zones and pressure shadows around kyanite porphyroblasts. This suggests that the copper mineralization was introduced either syn- or pre-peak metamorphism. In addition to Cu and Co, the ores are also characterized by enrichments in U, V, Ni, Ba and S and small, discrete zones of uranium mineralization, occur adjacent to the hanging wall and footwall of the copper ore bodies or in the immediate footwall to the copper mineralization. Unlike typical Copperbelt mineralization, unmineralized units show very low background copper values. Whole rock geochemical analyses of the interlayered schist and ore schist, compared to the gneiss, show depletions in Ca, Na and Sr and enrichments in Mg and K, consistent with replacement of feldspar by biotite. The mineral chemistry of muscovite, biotite and chlorite reflect changes in the bulk rock chemistry and show consistent increases in X Mg as the schists develop. ?34S for copper sulphides range from +2.3 ‰ to +18.5 ‰, with pyrite typically restricted to values between +3.9 ‰ and +6.2 ‰. These values are atypical of sulphides precipitated by bacteriogenic sulphate reduction. ?34S data for Chimiwungo (Cu + Co) show a broader range and increased ?34S values compared to the Malundwe (Cu) mineralization. The Lumwana deposits show many characteristics which distinguish them from classical Copperbelt mineralization and which suggests that they are formed by metasomatic alteration, mineralization and shearing of pre-Katangan basement. Although this style of mineralization is reported elsewhere in the Copperbelt, sometimes associated with the more widely reported stratiform ores of the Lower Roan, none of the previously reported occurrences have so far developed the tonnages of ore reported at Lumwana.

Bernau, Robin; Roberts, Stephen; Richards, Mike; Nisbet, Bruce; Boyce, Adrian; Nowecki, James

2013-02-01

382

Validation of the UCLA Child Post traumatic stress disorder-reaction index in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual violence against children is a major global health and human rights problem. In order to address this issue there needs to be a better understanding of the issue and the consequences. One major challenge in accomplishing this goal has been a lack of validated child mental health assessments in low-resource countries where the prevalence of sexual violence is high. This paper presents results from a validation study of a trauma-focused mental health assessment tool - the UCLA Post-traumatic Stress Disorder - Reaction Index (PTSD-RI in Zambia. Methods The PTSD-RI was adapted through the addition of locally relevant items and validated using local responses to three cross-cultural criterion validity questions. Reliability of the symptoms scale was assessed using Cronbach alpha analyses. Discriminant validity was assessed comparing mean scale scores of cases and non-cases. Concurrent validity was assessed comparing mean scale scores to a traumatic experience index. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were run using receiver operating curves. Results Analysis of data from 352 youth attending a clinic specializing in sexual abuse showed that this adapted PTSD-RI demonstrated good reliability, with Cronbach alpha scores greater than .90 on all the evaluated scales. The symptom scales were able to statistically significantly discriminate between locally identified cases and non-cases, and higher symptom scale scores were associated with increased numbers of trauma exposures which is an indication of concurrent validity. Sensitivity and specificity analyses resulted in an adequate area under the curve, indicating that this tool was appropriate for case definition. Conclusions This study has shown that validating mental health assessment tools in a low-resource country is feasible, and that by taking the time to adapt a measure to the local context, a useful and valid Zambian version of the PTSD-RI was developed to detect traumatic stress among youth. This valid tool can now be used to appropriately measure treatment effectiveness, and more effectively and efficiently triage youth to appropriate services.

Cohen Judith A

2011-09-01

383

Lead-acid battery capacity in solar home systems-Field tests and experiences in Lundazi, Zambia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Batteries in solar home systems can cause problems and costs for the users and/or operators of the systems. In Zambia the Lundazi Energy Service Company (LESCO) operates 150 solar home systems on a fee for service basis. The aim of the study was to investigate how the capacity of lead-acid flat plate batteries had changed after one year of operation under real conditions. The results indicate that the batteries capacity has been significantly reduced in comparison to new unused batteries of the same type. Changes in battery management and maintenance, along with additional education of customers on correct use of SHS is advised in order to improve the life span of batteries in practical use. (author)

Gustavsson, Mathias [Human Ecology Section, Goeteborg University, Box 700, SE-405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Mtonga, Daniel [Lundazi Energy Service Company, P.O. Box 530207, Lundazi (Zambia)

2005-11-01

384

The distribution of sexually-transmitted Human Papillomaviruses in HIV positive and negative patients in Zambia, Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Papillomaviruses (HPV are double-stranded DNA viruses, considered to be the primary etiological agents in cervical intraepithelial neoplasias and cancers. Approximately 15–20 of the 40 mucosal HPVs confer a high-risk of progression of lesions to invasive cancer. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of sexually transmitted HPVs in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive and negative patients in Zambia, Africa. The rate of high-risk HPV genotypes worldwide varies within each country. Thus, we sought to investigate the rates of HPV infection in sub-Saharan Africa and the potential role of HIV in affecting the HPV genotype distribution. Methods This retrospective cross-sectional study reports findings on the association and effects of HIV on HPV infections in an existing cohort of patients at University Teaching Hospital (UTH Lusaka, Zambia. The objective of this study was to assess HPV prevalence, genotype distribution and to identify co-factors that influence HPV infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR with two standard consensus primer sets (CpI/II and GP5+/6+ was used to test for the presence of HPV DNA. Primers specific for ?-actin were used to monitor DNA quality. Vaginal lavage samples, collected between 1998-1999 from a total of 70 women, were part of a larger cohort that was also analyzed for HIV and human herpesvirus infection. Seventy of the samples yielded usable DNA. HIV status was determined by two rapid assays, Capillus and Determine. The incidence of HIV and HPV infections and HPV genotype distributions were calculated and statistical significance was determined by Chi-Squared test. Results We determined that most common HPV genotypes detected among these Zambian patients were types 16 and 18 (21.6% each, which is approximately three-fold greater than the rates for HPV16, and ten-fold greater than the rates for HPV18 in the United States. The worldwide prevalence of HPV16 is approximately 14% and HPV18 is 5%. The overall ratio of high-risk (HR to low-risk (LR HPVs in the patient cohort was 69% and 31% respectively; essentially identical to that for the HR and LR distributions worldwide. However, we discovered that HIV positive patients were two-times as likely to have an HR HPV as HIV negative individuals, while the distribution of LR HPVs was unaffected by HIV status. Interestingly, we observed a nine-fold increase in HPV18 infection frequency in HIV positive versus HIV negative individuals. Conclusion The rate of oncogenic HPVs (type 16 and 18 in Zambia was much higher than in the U.S., potentially providing an explanation for the high-rates of cervical cancer in Zambia. Surprisingly, we discovered a strong association between positive HIV status and the prevalence of HR HPVs, and specifically HPV18.

Hause Lara

2007-07-01

385

Struggles over Access and Authority in the Governance of new water resources : evidence from Mali and Zambia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Research on water scarcity in the South has often focused on the impacts of limited water resources for the rural poor, prompted most recently by the climate change debate. Less attention has been drawn to the social and institutional processes surrounding the emergence of new collective water resources, and how this affects authority, access rights and social exclusion in local water governance. The paper addresses this issue through a study of local competition over access to new common-pool water resources in isolated rural areas of Zambia and Mali. In Mali, climate change has led to the sporadic emergence of new natural lakes and ponds in some locations. In Zambia, the development of boreholes has provided access to water resources that were not previously available to local communities. The paper explores how local actors and organizations have sought to assert control over and rights of access to the new water resources. It shows the ways in which this has furthered both conflict and cooperation between the involved actors, and how new rules of access and associated institutional domains have developed. At the same time, however, it also shows how the struggles over access and authority have tended to marginalize the poorest and other user groups from access to the new water resources, by seeking either to monopolize access rights or developing explicit and implicit mechanisms of exclusion. The paper concludes by discussing the implications for water policy and research in terms of the way we understand the development of new water resources in the current context of inequality, water scarcity and climate change.

Cold-Ravnkilde, Signe Marie; Funder, Mikkel

386

Progress made towards enhancement of rheumatology education and practice in Zambia: review of an ILAR-supported project.  

Science.gov (United States)

The burden of non-communicable diseases such as musculoskeletal diseases in the developing world is often overshadowed by the more prevalent infectious diseases. Generally, there is gross underestimation of the burden of rheumatologic disease in the backdrop of scanty or indeed non-existent rheumatology services in these countries. Local studies conducted in the last two decades in Zambia have documented the increasing burden of rheumatologic conditions in the country. There are unfortunately negligible rheumatology services in the country both at tertiary or primary health-care facility levels. There is thus an urgent need to build capacity for these services so as to improve the care and management of rheumatic conditions. Here, we review progress made by an International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR)-supported project that has run for the past 2 years (2012-2013) with the objective of enhancing paediatric and adult rheumatology education and practice so as to stimulate positive change in practice and related care services in Zambia. During this short time of the project, substantial progress has been made in the areas of paediatric and adult rheumatology services enhancement at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka: streamlining of referrals and follow-ups of rheumatology patients, laying foundations for short- and long-term medical education in rheumatology and raising public awareness of rheumatic diseases. The progress made by this grant underscores the suitability of the ILAR mission statement "think global, act local" demonstrating that even with minimum resources and networking, improvement of rheumatology care in developing countries is attainable. PMID:24752350

Chipeta, James; Njobvu, Panganani; McGill, Paul E; Bucala, Richard

2014-10-01

387

Monitoring the endangered population of the antelope Kobus leche smithemani (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), in the Bangweulu Ecosystem, Zambia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani) is a semi-aquatic medium sized antelope currently enlisted on the IUCN red list of endangered species and is only endemic to the Bangweulu basin of Zambia. Its population has significantly decreased due to floods that took place during the period 1930-1940 from over 250 000-15000 leading the Zambian government to gazette all habitats of Black lechwe into state protected areas, and to establish urgent management strategies needed to save the remaining population from extinction. Using retrospective data, our findings show that the population has increased from 15000 animals in 1954 to 55 632 in 2009. The current population is estimated at 34.77% (55 632/160 000) of the carrying capacity of the Bangweulu basin. Although the Black lechwe is one of the 42 species offered for consumptive utilization by the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA), only 0.12% and 0.08% of the current stock was offered for safari and resident hunting annually for the period 2005-2009, respectively. Annual quota utilization were estimated at 67% (n=37) and 81% (n=37) for safari and resident hunting, respectively. Hence, overall income obtained from utilization of Black lechwe is very low accounting for only 2.1% of the total revenue earned from wildlife utilization. Although the current population trend is showing a unit increase of 639 animals per year, it is still far below levels ideal for the lucrative utilization. In this study, we demonstrate that adverse ecological changes on wildlife species, can lead to their vulnerability and danger of extinction, and that their recovery to full carrying capacity may demand a considerable amount of time. PMID:23342517

Siamudaala, Victor M; Munyeme, Musso; Matandiko, Wigganson; Muma, John B; Munang'andu, Hetron M

2012-12-01

388

The district heating reactor THERMOS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on good operational results obtained from 5 French pool-type research reactors the author suggests to use such a type with a power of 100 MW for the production of heat for district heating. The information on engineering data is supplemented by a short discussion of safety aspects. In comparison with conventional heating plants, the advantages of this kind of energy conversion are expecially pointed out. (UA)

389

District heating from nuclear power  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the following aspects of the subject are discussed: developments in long distance heat supply; heat extraction for district heating from a nuclear power plant (live steam; heat extraction from the cross-over line to the low pressure cylinders of the turbine); multi-stage hot water heating; supply from separate back-pressure turbine; high temperature nuclear power plants; fuel economy when using CHP. (U.K.)

390

Nuclear power for district heating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Current district heating trends are towards an increasing use of electricity. This report concerns the evaluation of an alternative means of energy supply - the direct use of thermal energy from CANDU nuclear stations. The energy would be transmitted via a hot fluid in a pipeline over distances of up to 40 km. Advantages of this approach include a high utilization of primary energy, with a consequent reduction in installed capacity, and load flattening due to inherent energy storage capacity and transport delays. Disadvantages include the low load factors for district heating, the high cost of the distribution systems and the necessity for large-scale operation for economic viability. This requirement for large-scale operation from the beginning could cause difficulty in the implementation of the first system. Various approaches have been analysed and costed for a specific application - the supply of energy to a district heating load centre in Toronto from the location of the Pickering reactor station about 40 km away. (author)

391

Central Utah Water Conservancy District  

Science.gov (United States)

The Central Utah Water Conservancy District (CUWCD) is a political subdivision of the State of Utah. It was formally established in 1964 to act as the local entity to contract with the United States of America in connection with the construction, operation, and financing of the Central Utah Project (CUP). The purpose of the CUP is to enable the State of Utah to beneficially use a substantial portion of its allotted share of the Colorado River water under the Colorado River Compact. The District sponsors the CUP which includes five specific units. Each unit consists of a series of dams, pipelines, reservoirs, tunnels, and aqueducts designed to assist in meeting the water needs of all ten counties through approximately the year 2020. The District, primarily a wholesaler of water to other cities and agencies, has the responsibility to plan, design, construct, operate and maintain project facilities, administer the sale and delivery of project water, and repay the federal government the reimbursable costs of the CUP.

392

Kanyakumari district accepts family planning.  

Science.gov (United States)

The people of Kanyakumari District known for their die-hard conservatism, finally seem to have taken to family planning as a way of life. This is borne out by the overwhelming support extended by them to the tubectomy camp organized by the District Family Planning Bureau, Kanyakumari, from 22nd to 27th February 1972. The target of 300 operations set for the camp was exceeded by 99. This is a significant achievement considering the fact that the district consists of only 9 Panchayat Unions covering a vast coastal area with a population of over 1/2 lakhs which is mainly engaged in the fishing industry and is generally not in favor of family planning. The camp provided free food and transport facilities to the patient and the person attending her and a monetary incentive of Rs. 30 per case, besides post-operational care which included periodical home visits by the staff of the Public Health Center for over 3 months. Administration of Vitamin A solution and immunisation of the children of the acceptors and their neighbors constituted an additional feature of this campaign. The effort made by the staff of the Family Planning Department, the Maternity Assistants of the Headquarters Hospital, Nagercoil, where the camp was held, and the Field Publicity Department of the Government of India, were responsible for the success of this campaign. PMID:12332926

1972-04-01

393

The Efficacy of Vectron 20?WP, Etofenprox, for Indoor Residual Spraying in Areas of High Vector Resistance to Pyrethroids and Organochlorines in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

The selection of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors has the potential to compromise any insecticide-based vector control programme. To ensure that the insecticides used for indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated nets in Zambia remain effective and their choice is evidence based, insecticide resistance surveillance and monitoring are essential. This study assessed and compared the residual efficacy of etofenprox (Vectron 20?WP), an ether pyrethroid, at 0.1?g/m2 with pyreth...

Chanda, Emmanuel; Kandyata, Alister; Chanda, Javan; Phiri, Faustina N.; Muzia, Lucy; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa

2012-01-01

394

Hospitalizations and Costs Incurred at the Facility Level after Scale-up of Malaria Control: Pre-Post Comparisons from Two Hospitals in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

There is little evidence on the impact of malaria control on the health system, particularly at the facility level. Using retrospective, longitudinal facility-level and patient record data from two hospitals in Zambia, we report a pre-post comparison of hospital admissions and outpatient visits for malaria and estimated costs incurred for malaria admissions before and after malaria control scale-up. The results show a substantial reduction in inpatient admissions and outpatient visits for mal...

Comfort, Alison B.; Dijk, Janneke H.; Mharakurwa, Sungano; Stillman, Kathryn; Gabert, Rose; Korde, Sonali; Nachbar, Nancy; Derriennic, Yann; Musau, Stephen; Hamazakaza, Petan; Zyambo, Khozya D.; Zyongwe, Nancy M.; Hamainza, Busiku; Thuma, Philip E.

2014-01-01

395

The use of Time Domain Electromagnetic method and Continuous Vertical Electrical Sounding to map groundwater salinity in the Barotse sub-basin, Zambia  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes the results from the application of two geophysical exploration techniques, Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) and Continuous Vertical Electrical Sounding (CVES) that have proved effective in mapping groundwater salinity variations within the sedimentary formations of the Barotse sub basin in the Western Province of Zambia. TDEM was used to map groundwater salinity variations on a regional scale, whereas CVES was used at the local scale to investigate freshwater–saltwat...

Chongo, M.; Wibroe, Johanne; Staal-thomsen, K.; Moses, M.; Nyambe, I. A.; Larsen, F.; Bauer-gottwein, Peter

2011-01-01

396

Local community perception of joint forest management and its implications for forest condition : the cast of Dambwa Forest Reserve in southern Zambia  

OpenAIRE

This study conducted at Dambwa Forest Reserve in Livingstone, Zambia, evaluated the perception of local people about joint management of the forest reserve in the area and if there had been improvements to the livelihoods of the community and the ecological condition of the forest following joint forest management (JFM). Generally, more people (68%) participated in joint forestry management meetings than in forestry activities, such as forest patrol and prescribed early burning, a...

Phiri, M.; Chirwa, Paxie W.; Watts, S.; Syampungani, Stephen

2012-01-01

397

Cost-Effectiveness of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in Preventing HIV-1 Infections in Rural Zambia: A Modeling Study  

OpenAIRE

Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir and emtricitabine effectively prevents new HIV infections. The optimal scenario for implementing PrEP where most infections are averted at the lowest cost is unknown. We determined the impact of different PrEP strategies on averting new infections, prevalence, drug resistance and cost-effectiveness in Macha, a rural setting in Zambia. Methods: A deterministic mathematical model of HIV transmission was constructed using data from t...

Nichols, B. E.; Boucher, C. A. B.; Dijk, F. J. H.; Thuma, P. E.; Nouwen, J. L.; Baltussen, R. M. P. M.; Wijgert, J.; Sloot, P. M. A.; Vijver, D. A. M. C.

2013-01-01

398

Validation of brief screening tools for depressive and alcohol use disorders among TB and HIV patients in primary care in Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background This study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and determine the optimum cut-off scores for clinical use of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) against a reference psychiatric diagnostic interview, in TB and anti-retroviral therapy (ART) patients in primary care in Zambia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in 16 primary level care clinics. Consecutive sampling was used to...

Patel Vikram; Weiss Helen A; Kinyanda Eugene; Chishinga Nathaniel; Ayles Helen; Seedat Soraya

2011-01-01

399

Weight and height z-scores improve after initiating ART among HIV-infected children in rural Zambia: a cohort study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Deficits in growth observed in HIV-infected children in resource-poor settings can be reversed with antiretroviral treatment (ART). However, many of the studies have been conducted in urban areas with older pediatric populations. This study was undertaken to evaluate growth patterns after ART initiation in a young pediatric population in rural Zambia with a high prevalence of undernutrition. Methods Between 2007 and 2009, 193 HIV-infected children were enrolled in a cohort...

Sinywimaanzi Pamela; Hamangaba Francis; Munsanje Bornface; van Dijk Janneke H; Sutcliffe Catherine G; Thuma Philip E; Moss William J.

2011-01-01

400

When knowledge is not power. The integration of traditional midwifery into the health system. The case study of a traditional midwife among the Toka of Zambia  

OpenAIRE

Health is one of the major problems facing most developing countries like Zambia. Poor economies, low funding, shortage of staff, epidemics like AIDS, coupled with poor and sometimes inaccessible facilities make the provision of health difficult. The 1978 Alma Ata conference’s call for health for all seemed a far cry for such countries. But the conference was aware of this problem and thus, its recommendation for the utilization of traditional practitioners in an integrated health system. O...

Phiri, Victoria

2006-01-01