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Sample records for kafue district zambia

  1. Intestinal helminths and protozoa in children in pre-schools in Kafue district, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.

    2010-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most widespread of human infections in developing countries, and children are the most vulnerable. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia, as well as prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths in children attending pre-school or day-care centres in Kafue District, Zambia. Single stool samples were collected from 403 children from 10 pre-schools and Were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears to identify and quantify helminths. A commercial immunofluorescence kit was used to identify Cryptosporidium- and Giardia-positive samples. The overall prevalence of helminth infection was 17.9%. Ascaris lumbricoides was found in 12.0%, hookworm in 8.3%, Taenia spp. in 0.9%, Hymenolepis nano in 0.6% and Schistosoma mansoni in 0.3%. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia was 28.0 and 29.0%, respectively, with more girls infected with Giardia (33.8%) than boys (22.7%) (P = 0.02). Significant differences in infections with A. lumbricoides and Cryptosporidium were observed between the various pre-schools (P <0.001). These findings indicate that intestinal parasites are prevalent in children enrolled in pre-schools in Zambia. Future studies should explore local factors associated with transmission of these infections, and consequently provide the necessary health education to parents and teachers. Crown Copyright (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved.

  2. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic animals in peri-urban communities of Kafue district, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.

    2013-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important parasites infecting a wide range of domestic animals worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites in different domestic animals living in close contact with humans within rural/semiurban communities in Kafue district in Zambia. A single faecal sample per animal was collected from pigs, goats, dogs, ducks, chickens and pigeons and analysed by Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia immunofluorescence antibody assay for the simultaneous detection of these parasites. The faecal consistency was noted and scored as non-diarrhoeic or diarrhoeic. A total of 236 samples were collected. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in pigs (11.5%, 17/148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), ducks (10.0%; 3/30) and chickens (14.3%; 2/14) while Giardia cysts were detected in pigs (8.1%; 12/148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), dogs (25.0%; 5/20) and ducks (6.7%; 2/30). Diarrhoea was not associated with either infection. Age was also not associated with either infection except in dogs where Giardia infection was only detected in animals aged less than six months (p=0.009). It is concluded from this study that Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites are prevalent among domestic animals reared within communities in Kafue district thereby constituting a potential source for zoonotic infections.

  3. Floodwaters Renew Zambia's Kafue Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Not all floods are unwanted. Heavy rainfall in southern Africa between December 2003 and April 2004 provided central Zambia with floodwaters needed to support the diverse uses of water within the Kafue Flats area. The Kafue Flats are home to about one million people and provide a rich inland fishery, habitat for an array of unique wildlife, and the means for hydroelectricity production. The Flats falls between two dams: Upstream to the west (not visible here) is the Izhi-tezhi, and downstream (middle right of the images) is the Kafue Gorge dam. Since the construction of these dams, the flooded area has been reduced and the timing and intensity of the inundation has changed. During June 2004 an agreement was made with the hydroelectricity company to restore water releases from the dams according to a more natural flooding regime. These images from NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) illustrate surface changes to the wetlands and other surfaces in central Zambia resulting from an unusually lengthy wet season. The Kafue Flats appear relatively dry on July 19, 2003 (upper images), with the Kafue River visible as a slender dark line that snakes from east to west on its way to join the Zambezi (visible in the lower right-hand corner). On July 21, 2004 (lower images), well into the dry season, much of the 6,500-square kilometer area of the Kafue Flats remains inundated. To the east of the Kafue Flats is Lusaka, the Zambian capital, visible as a pale area in the middle right of the picture, north of the river. In the upper portions of these images is the prominent roundish shape of the Lukanga Swamp, another important wetland. The images along the left are natural-color views from MISR's nadir camera, and the images along the right are angular composites in which red band data from MISR's 46o forward, nadir, and 46o backward viewing cameras is displayed as red, green and blue, respectively. In order to preserve brightness variations among the various cameras, the data from each camera were processed identically. Here, color changes indicate surface texture, and are influenced by terrain, vegetation structure, soil type and soil moisture content. Wet surfaces or areas with standing water appear blue in this display because sun glitter makes smooth, wet surfaces look brighter at the backward camera's view angle. Mostly the landscape appears somewhat purple, indicating that most of the surfaces scatter sunlight in both backward and forward directions. Areas that appear with a slight greenish hue can indicate sparce vegetation, since the nadir camera is more likely to sight the gaps between the trees or shrubs, and since vegetation is darker (in the red band) than the underlying soil surface. Areas which preferentially exhibit a red or pink hue correspond with wetland vegetation. The plateau of the Kafue National Park, to the west of Lukanga Swamp, appears brighter in 2004 compared with 2003, which indicates weaker absorption at the red band. Overall, the 2004 image exhibits a subtle blue hue (preference for forward-scattering) compared with 2003, which indicates overall surface changes that may be a result of enhanced surface wetness. The Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82o north and 82o south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 19072 and 24421. The panels cover an area of 235 kilometers x 239 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 100 to 103 within World Reference System-2 path 172. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  4. A Brief History of Kafue National Park, Zambia.

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    H.K. Mwima

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first documentation of the history of Zambia's oldest and largest national park: Kafue National Park. The movement of people out of the park is systematically presented. Furthermore, access and resource use and exploitation rights granted to people who lived inside the park are summarised. The paper looks at park administration, wildlife management, tourism and briefly presents areas for future studies.

  5. Modeling flooding patterns in the Kafue Flats, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Philipp; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang

    2010-05-01

    The Kafue Flats is one of the most important wetlands in Zambia. In the early 70's the Kafue Gorge reservoir was built mainly for hydropower production not far downstream the outlet of the Kafue Flats. Only a few years later a dam was constructed upstream the Flats to extend the limited storage of Kafue Gorge. Besides its ecological value the Kafue Flats are also important economically. Around 700 000 people are dependent mainly on fisheries and flood recession agriculture. An increasing number of large irrigation schemes are drawing water from the Kafue river along the wetland. Floodplains in semi-arid and arid areas are often the only source of water supply available throughout the year. They provide numerous economical and ecological services of tremendous value. The ecological uniqueness of many wetlands results largely from a strong seasonality of flooding. As the pressure on water resources grows these natural seasonal patterns are often altered due to water abstractions or the construction of dams. Many efforts have been taken to restore more natural flooding patterns. To assess both, the effects of altered flow regimes and of restoration efforts, a hydrological model reproducing the dynamics of the flooding is required. However, in many cases hydrological modeling of these floodplains is often hampered by the poor availability of data. Data gathering is also limited by the large extent and the limited accessibility of the wetlands. Therefore the application of remote sensing techniques is an attractive approach. The model presented in this study is based on a relatively simple approach which was initially designed for the Okavango Delta. The model is based on the widely used software MODFLOW. However, due to a different environment and technical advances of the software there are some significant differences between the Okavango Delta model and the model presented hereafter. The model is based on MODFLOW 2005 and basically consists of two layers: a subsurface layer, representing the saturated flow in the groundwater, and a surface water layer, representing the flow on the flooded surface. In between these two layers the unsaturated zone is modeled using the kinematic wave approach of the MODFLOW UZF package. To couple the surface water layer and the UZF module, an additional module was developed in order to route excess infiltration water to either the surface layer or a river. Flow in the main river channel of the Kafue is implemented using the stream flow package. Model outputs are calculated on a daily basis. Input data for the model are derived mostly from globally available datasets. Since the purpose of the model is to predict the flooding patterns as accurate as possible, model parameters have to be calibrated against the measured extent of flooding. Images from the ENVISAT ASAR instrument are used to detect flooding patterns. These data provide a good compromise between spatial resolution, spatial coverage and temporal coverage. As additional calibration data measured water levels are available. The calibration is carried out using PEST. This model predictions can serve as a base to provide information on future effects of a changing inflow regime on the ecology as well as on the socio-economic system of the Kafue Flats.

  6. Remote Sensing of Aquatic Vegetation Coverage in the Kafue River, Zambia and Comparison to Climatic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischler, J. A.; Abdalati, W.; Hussein, K.; Townsend, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Kafue River is the longest river in Zambia and is a major tributary of the Zambezi River. It is a vital source of fish, transportation, drinking water, and hydropower for much of Zambia's population, over half of whom live in the Kafue River basin. Like many important water bodies in developing countries the Kafue and its ecosystems face pollution from industrial, mining, agricultural, and domestic/sewage discharge. The Kafue River forms a wide and shallow wetland (the Kafue Flats) during the rainy season (Nov. - Apr.) which serves as habitat for diverse groups of birds and mammals. In recent years the unprecedented emergence of invasive aquatic vegetation such as the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and Salvinia molesta have choked the river, degrading its ability to provide adequate habitat to promote biodiversity, ecosystem services, and hydropower. In addition, these plants provide additional habitat for mosquitoes (vectors for malaria) and aquatic snails (vectors of schistosomiasis). Nutrient-rich effluents are widely believed to contribute to the proliferation and explosive growth of this floating aquatic vegetation. The general methods for managing these aquatic weeds have included mechanical and physical removal, herbicides, and bio-control agents which have had very little impact. However, as in neighboring Lake Victoria, total weed coverage has fluctuated dramatically from year to year making evaluation of the efficacy of management programs difficult. The objectives of this study were to (1) generate the first record of aquatic plant coverage for a section of the Kafue River which is immediately downstream of a sugar plantation (a major source of nitrogen and phosphorus to the river) and (2) determine if plant coverage is correlated with any major climatic (ENSO, temperature, rainfall) or management (introduction of bio-control agents) indices. We utilized remote sensing techniques in conjunction with Landsat 4-5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM imagery for the time range 1990 to 2013 to identify the extent of aquatic vegetation in the dry season for all years available within the time range using spectral data. We derived rainfall for the time period from TRMM data and temperature from MODIS LST data. Overall weed coverage tended to increase from 1990 to 2013. There was no significant correlation between rainfall (as measured by TRMM) and water hyacinth coverage. However there was a significant positive correlation between minimum October temperatures (the warmest month of the year) and weed coverage (exponential fit, R2 = 0.81). There was no indication that the release of bio-control agents reduced weed coverage. Water hyacinth is known to be sensitive to temperature, with cooler temperatures retarding growth. In the Kafue River, aquatic plant coverage varies mainly with October low temperatures indicating an overall control of temperature on weed coverage. Increasing low temperatures in the region would be expected to exacerbate problems associated with aquatic weeds.

  7. Heavy Metal Contaminated Water, Soils and Crops in Peri Urban Wastewater Irrigation Farming in Mufulira and Kafue Towns in Zambia

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    Evaristo Mwaba Kapungwe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although research on peri urban arable farming had been conducted in Zambia, the concerns related to heavy metal contaminated wastewater use in crop farming in peri urban areas were inadequately tackled. The study investigated heavy metal contamination of water, soils and crops at two study sites in Zambia. The two study sites were New Farm Extension in Mufulira and Chilumba Gardens in Kafue. Heavy metals comprising chromium (Cr, cobalt (Co, copper (Cu, lead (Pb and nickel (Ni were investigated due to: (i their presence in wastewater used to irrigate crops which were found to be higher than acceptable limits; (ii their potential negative effects on human health when ingested in large quantities; (iii their implications on the livelihoods of people. Samples of water, soil and crops were collected and analysed for lead, copper, chromium, cobalt and nickel using the Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS. The data on heavy metals was analysed using mean, standard error and T-test. The results indicated that heavy metals were present in the water, soil and crops at the two study sites and exceeded acceptable limits. It can be argued that wastewater, soil and crops were contaminated with heavy metals at the two peri-urban areas in Zambia. The study highlighted the problem of heavy metal contaminated crops consumed by peri urban population. The information this study can be used in the planning and development of safe agricultural farming systems in peri urban areas in Zambia.

  8. Governance issues, potentials and failures of participative collective action in the Kafue Flats, Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Harry Nixon Chabwela; Tobias Haller

    2010-01-01

    Fisheries, wildlife and pastures are under massive pressure in the Kafue Flats, a wetland, which is one of the largest floodplains in Southern and Central Africa. This ecosystem which once harboured abundant common-pool resources and which was managed by local common property regimes is now being threatened with overexploitation. The last 30 years however, have witnessed severe pressure and overuse of these commons. A historical and institutional analysis of the situation of common-pool resou...

  9. Sero-prevalences of selected cattle diseases in the Kafue Flats of Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Meneghi, Daniele

    1991-01-01

    Sera from five traditionally managed herds grazing in the Kafue flats were tested for antibodies to bovine viral diarrhoea-mucosal disease (BVD-MD), parainfluenza 3 (PI3), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis-infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IBR-IPV), bovine adenovirus 3 (BAV3) and Bluetongue (BT). The sero-prevalences of the first four diseases were respectively 76.2, 94.4, 42.1 and 87.4%. Five samples (2.3%) gave doubtful reactions for BT. Prevalences of 28.5% for brucellosis, 14% for Rift ...

  10. Governance issues, potentials and failures of participative collective action in the Kafue Flats, Zambia

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    Harry Nixon Chabwela

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries, wildlife and pastures are under massive pressure in the Kafue Flats, a wetland, which is one of the largest floodplains in Southern and Central Africa. This ecosystem which once harboured abundant common-pool resources and which was managed by local common property regimes is now being threatened with overexploitation. The last 30 years however, have witnessed severe pressure and overuse of these commons. A historical and institutional analysis of the situation of common-pool resources indicates that overuse of fisheries and the mismanagement of wildlife goes back to the erosion of traditional institutions by state governance. Institutional weakness resulting from economic decline in the country is of major concern as the institutions can no longer effectively enforce regulations in the area, a situation which has led to a de facto open access constellation for common-pool resources. The paper discusses three cases. The first is the WWF-Wetland Project and the Administrative Management Design (ADMADE initiative which was designed to deal with management of Lochinvar and Blue Lagoon National Parks and the adjacent Game Management Area through the involvement of local chiefs and local communities. The second case refers to the Partners for Wetlands Project, which included local people via their chiefs as well as the public and private sectors from large agricultural enterprises to the eastern side of the Kafue Flats (Mwanachinwala Conservation Area project in Mazabuka. However, both attempts yielded poor results due to misconceptions of traditional representation of local communities and misinterpretation of local economic and political incentives. Although the ADMADE programme appears to be a scaling up case, its implementation continues to receive considerable resistance from opposition leaders of chiefs and later by the chiefs themselves. In the third case, the paper examines the fishery constitutional process which had started in 2004 for creating by-laws based on initiatives of local staff of the Department of Fisheries, local interest groups and researchers. A broad local debate on how to manage the fisheries in a sustainable way and develop locally based by-laws for joint management of fisheries gives good potential for success and appears promising for the future of fisheries in Kafue Flats. Despite many difficulties it is an example of local collective action in order to scale up governance of common-pool resources.

  11. River-floodplain exchange and its effects on the fluvial oxygen regime in a large tropical river system (Kafue Flats, Zambia)

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    Zurbrügg, Roland; Wamulume, Jason; Kamanga, Romas; Wehrli, Bernhard; Senn, David B.

    2012-09-01

    Hydrological exchange between a river and its floodplain plays a critical role in maintaining key ecosystem services like habitat formation, nutrient transformation, and flood attenuation. We studied the spatial and temporal patterns of river-floodplain exchange in the Kafue Flats, a 6500-km2, dam-impacted floodplain ecosystem in Zambia. In addition, we characterized the effects of floodplain runoff on river biogeochemistry and assessed dam-related changes in the hydrological regime. The basic flood pulse concept poorly describes conditions in the Kafue Flats. Instead, high resolution measurements of discharge and tracers (specific conductivity,?18O-H2O) along 410 km of river revealed substantial spatial variations in both the magnitude and direction of river-floodplain exchange. During peak discharge, a river channel constriction, 230 km into the floodplain, diverted as much as 80% of the river's ˜700 m3 s-1discharge into the floodplain. As a net result, >80% of the water exiting the Kafue Flats via the river, either passed through the floodplain or originated from precipitation on the floodplain. This floodplain-derived water had a strong impact on river water quality, resulting in a seasonally recurring sharp decline in dissolved oxygen levels to bank overflow and floodplain inflows were a sustained pattern during the wet season. However, lateral exchange over an annual cycle has been reduced by as much as 50% due to dam operation.

  12. Control of aquatic weeds through pollutant reduction and weed utilization: a weed management approach in the lower Kafue River of Zambia

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    Sinkala, Thomson; Mwase, Enala T.; Mwala, Mick

    The aquatic weed situation in the Kafue River in Zambia continues to be a major challenge to the sustainable utilization of the water resources of the river. The general methods for managing the weeds, especially the water hyacinth, include use of bio-agents, chemicals, mechanical and physical approaches. These have had very little impact. This paper reports on a project that is investigating weed management strategies which involve use of cleaner production (CP) approach and the utilization of the weed for economic purposes. In addition, the ecological implications of these methods are being assessed. Effluent assessments indicated that apart from nitrates and phosphates, other effluent parameters met the Environmental Council of Zambia standards. Results further show that all the 24 areas surveyed for CP have uncontrolled socio-economic activities which generate both point and non-point sources of pollution that enter the water bodies. To minimize pollution, efforts include devising policy and technical strategies with the involvement of the affected riparian community. Production of mushroom by the communities using the water hyacinth substrate has been demonstrated. Up to 2.1 kg of mushroom was harvested from a single flush over a period of 4-5 weeks. Vegetables grown on soils treated with water hyacinth manure performed better than those grown using commercial fertiliser. The economics of the production are however, yet to be confirmed. If weed usage is proven economically and ecologically viable, the riverine community is envisaged to play a big role in aquatic weed management. High numbers of invertebrates known to be sensitive to pollution have been recorded in the weed-infested Kafue River implying that the water is of “good” quality for these aquatic invertebrates. This observed quality of water may be due to water hyacinth playing a role by sieving pollutants from the river.

  13. Comparative Intradermal Tuberculin Testing of Free-Ranging African Buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) Captured for Ex Situ Conservation in the Kafue Basin Ecosystem in Zambia.

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    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Matandiko, Wigganson; Nambota, Andrew; Muma, John Bwalya; Mweene, Aaron Simanyengwe; Munyeme, Musso

    2011-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) in some National Parks in Southern Africa, whilst no studies have been conducted on BTB on buffalo populations in Zambia. The increased demand for ecotourism and conservation of the African buffalo on private owned game ranches has prompted the Zambian Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) and private sector in Zambia to generate a herd of "BTB-free buffaloes" for ex situ conservation. In the present study, 86 African buffaloes from four different herds comprising a total of 530 animals were investigated for the presence of BTB for the purpose of generating "BTB free" buffalo for ex-situ conservation. Using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) the BTB status at both individual animal and herd level was estimated to be 0.0% by the CIDT technique. Compared to Avian reactors only, a prevalence of 5.8% was determined whilst for Bovine-only reactors a prevalence of 0.0% was determined. These results suggest the likelihood of buffalo herds in the Kafue National Park being free of BTB. PMID:21776347

  14. Seasonal prevalence and incidence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis and associated diarrhoea in children attending pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I.G.K.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence, incidence and seasonal variation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis were studied over a 12-month period in 100 children from four pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia. Questionnaire data and a single stool sample were collected monthly from each child. Samples were processed using a commercial kit (Meridian Diagnostics Inc., USA) and oo(cysts) visualised by immunofluorescence microscopy. Cryptosporidium was detected in 30.7% (241/786; 95% CI = 27.5-33.9) while G. duodenalis was detected in 29.0% (228/786; 95% CI = 25.8-32.2). A total of 86% experienced one or more episodes of cryptosporidiosis while 75% had giardiasis. Cumulative incidence per 100 children was 75.4 for Cryptosporidium and 49.0 for G. duodenalis. Both infections were significantly more common in the wet compared to the dry season (34.8%, 162/466 vs. 24.7%, 79/320, P = 0.003 and 35.2%, 164/466 vs. 20.0%, 64/320, P <0.001, respectively). Thus, risk ratios (RR) were 1.41 (95% CI = 1.13-1.77) and 1.76 (95% CI = 1.38-2.27) for Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively. Diarrhoea was significantly associated with cryptosporidiosis (RR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.03-1.47; P = 0.029) but not with giardiasis (RR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.91-1.53; P = 0.26). We conclude that gastro-intestinal protozoal infections are highly prevalent among children attending pre-school in peri-urban Zambia highlighting the need for further studies of risk factors.

  15. Multidimensional welfare in districts of Zambia: A first order dominance approach

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    Masumbu, Gibson; Mahrt, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we make welfare comparisons among districts of Zambia using multidimensional well-being indicators observed at the household level using the first order dominance approach developed by Arndt et al. in 2012. This approach allows welfare comparisons without making any assumptions about the relative importance of the indicators. Analysis of the 2010 Census of Population and Housing data has generated information on the poverty status of provinces and districts in Zambia and has ran...

  16. Investigating effects of parasite infection on body condition of the Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis in the Kafue basin

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    Nambota Andrew M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche Kafuensis, a medium-sized semi-aquatic antelope, is endemic to the Kafue basin of Zambia. The population of the Kafue lechwe has significantly dropped in the last decades leading to its subsequent inclusion on the red list of endangered species. In order to save the remaining population from extinction, it has become increasingly important that the impact of parasite infection and infestation on the Kafue lechwe is investigated. Findings Endoparasites accounted for the majority of parasites observed from a study of 40 Kafue lechwe occurring in the the Kafue basin. Amphistoma spp. were present in all animals examined, while Fasciola gigantica had a prevalence rate of 0.525 (95% CI: 0.36 to 0.69 and species of Schistosoma 0.3 (95% CI: 0.15 to 0.45. Among the ectoparasites, Strobiloestrous vanzyli, had a prevalence rate of 0.15 (95% CI: 0.03 to 0.27, while Rhipicephalus appendiculatus had a prevalence of 0.075 (3/40. Our findings indicate that body condition was not influenced by the parasitic infestation in Kafue lechwe. There was no association between sex and parasitic burden (odds ratio = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.8-1.3. However, an association between age and parasitic burden was observed as older animals above 15 years were more likely to get parasite infections than those aged between 1-5 years (odds ratio = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4. Conclusion Overall, there was no evidence that parasitic infections and infestations adversely affected the lechwe population on the Kafue basin. These findings indicate that ecto- and endo-parasite infestation might not play a significant role in reducing the Kafue lechwe population on the Kafue basin.

  17. Lymphatic filariasis in Luangwa District, South-East Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shawa, Sheila Tamara; Mwase, Enala T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Past case reports and recent data from LF mapping surveys indicate that LF occurs in Zambia, but no studies have been carried out to document its epidemiology and health implications. The present study assessed infection, disease, transmission and human perception aspects of LF in an endemic area of Luangwa District, South-East Zambia, as a background for planning and implementation of control. Methods. Two neighbouring rural communities were registered and a questionnaire survey undertaken. Clinical examination, and sampling of blood for circulating filarial antigens (CFA; marker of adult worm infection) and antibodies to Bm14 antigen (marker of exposure to transmission), were carried out during the daytime. Blood from CFA positive individuals was examined for microfilariae (mf) at night. Vector surveys were carried out in selected households, using light traps. Results: 985 individuals aged ? 1 year were registered. The CFA prevalence increased with age from 1.2% in age group 1-14 years to 20.6%in age group 50+ years (overall 8.6%). Wuchereria bancrofti mf were identified in 10.9% of CFA positive individuals (corresponding to a community prevalence of 0.9%). Prevalence and intensity of Bm14 antibodies were much higher in individuals ? 30 years than in younger individuals (57.2 vs. 19.3%; 0.594 vs. 0.241 OD-values). Elephantiasis and hydrocele were well known clinical manifestations in the area, but only one case of hydrocele was detected in the study population. Identified potential vectors were Anopheles funestus and An. gambiae. Conclusion: The study confirmed that LF was endemic in the study communities, but infection and disease prevalence was low. Several indications, including a marked recent decline in CFA prevalence, suggest that transmission in the area is on the decrease, perhaps because of intensive application of malaria control measures targeting the Anopheles vectors. It is recommended that mass drug administration is initiated to accelerate this positive trend of decline in LF transmission in the area. © 2013 Shawa et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  18. The state of HIV sector local governance in Malawi and Zambia: Evidence from five districts

    OpenAIRE

    Justin Steyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper encapsulates the outputs of a Swiss Agency for Development Cooperation (SDC) funded project that aimed to improve the levels of HIV governance at the district level in Malawi and Zambia by encouraging public participation in an effort to more effective use of local resources. The methodology for this project, developed by the Institute for Democracy in Africa (Idasa) and SDC, included a barometer which assessed perceptions of district HIV governance among key stakeholders. Percepti...

  19. Investigation of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in the Mbala and Kazungula districts of Zambia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Frank, Banda; Christopher J, Kasanga; Raphael, Sallu; Yona, Sinkala; Tingiya W, Sinkombe; Misheck, Mulumba; Mark M, Rweyemamu; Philemon N, Wambura.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute, highly contagious viral infection of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. It is known to be endemic in Zambia, with periodic outbreaks occurring in different geographical areas of the country. This study was conducted to investigate the presence of FMD v [...] irus (FMDV) in reported FMD-suspected cases in cattle from the Kazungula and Mbala districts of Zambia. Sixty epithelial tissues or oesophageal- pharyngeal (OP) scrapings (probang samples) were collected from Mbala (n = 51) and Kazungula (n = 9) and examined for FMDV. The FMDV viral RNA and serotypes were examined by realtime reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and antigen Enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Twenty-two samples (36.7%) were positive for the FMDV genome by qRT-PCR with Cycle threshold (Ct) values ranging from 13 to 31. The FMDV-positive samples from epithelial tissues showed relatively higher Ct values compared to those obtained from OP scrapings, irrespective of geographical location. Forty percent (40%; n = 4) of epithelial tissues from Mbala were serotyped into SAT 2 serotype by antigen ELISA. Kazungula samples were serotyped into SAT 1. These findings indicated that Mbala and Kazungula districts had FMD outbreaks in 2012 that were ascribed to at least FMDV serotype SAT 2 and SAT 1 field strains. Furthermore, regular interaction between buffalos from the Mosi-o Tunya Park and domestic animals from surrounding areas could contribute to the occurrence of regular FMD outbreaks in Kazungula, whilst the uncontrolled animal movements across borders between Mbala and Nsumbawanga could be responsible for disease outbreaks in Mbala. In-depth molecular biological studies, including sequencing and phylogeny of the viruses, should be conducted to elucidate the complex epidemiology of FMD in Zambia, thereby providing valuable information needed for the rational control strategy of FMD in Zambia and neighbouring countries.

  20. The state of HIV sector local governance in Malawi and Zambia: Evidence from five districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Steyn

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper encapsulates the outputs of a Swiss Agency for Development Cooperation (SDC funded project that aimed to improve the levels of HIV governance at the district level in Malawi and Zambia by encouraging public participation in an effort to more effective use of local resources. The methodology for this project, developed by the Institute for Democracy in Africa (Idasa and SDC, included a barometer which assessed perceptions of district HIV governance among key stakeholders. Perceptions were gathered on governance principles of effectiveness, efficiency, rule of law, accountability, participation and equity. The stakeholders ranged from administrators, political representatives, community-based organisations and the private sector on the supply side and citizens on the demand or beneficiary side. The findings of the research indicate specific sector governance issues that may be generalised to governance. Communication and transparency appear to be major issues underpinning the bottlenecks and shortcomings in the HIV sector governance at the district level. Information gaps have given rise to accountability deficits and coordination deficiencies. Addressing these matters would make more effective use of resources and lessen dependence on external funding sources.

  1. Re-assessing community-directed treatment: evidence from Mazabuka District, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halwindi, H; Magnussen, P; Siziya, S; Meyrowitsch, D W; Olsen, A

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional surveys with carers, health workers, community drug distributors (CDDs) and neighbourhood health committees were conducted to identify factors associated with utilization of community-directed treatment (ComDT) of soil-transmitted helminths in children aged 12-59 months in Mazabuka district, Zambia. The surveys took place in December 2006 and December 2007. In addition child treatment records were reviewed. The factors that were found to be significantly associated (p < 0.05) with treatment of children by the CDDs were: (1) the perception of soil-transmitted helminth infections as having significant health importance, (2) the community-based decision to launch and subsequently implement ComDT, (3) the use of the door-to-door method of drug distribution, (4) CDDs being visited by a supervisor, (5) CDDs receiving assistance in mobilizing community members for treatment, (6) CDDs having access to a bicycle and (7) CDDs having received assistance in collecting drugs from the health centre. Despite the effectiveness of ComDT in raising treatment coverage there are factors in the implementation process that will still affect whether children and their carers utilize the ComDT approach. Identification and understanding of these factors is paramount to achieving the desired levels of utilization of such interventions. PMID:24830775

  2. Re-assessing community-directed treatment : evidence from Mazabuka district, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halwindi, H.; Magnussen, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional surveys with carers, health workers, community drug distributors (CDDs) and neighbourhood health committees were conducted to identify factors associated with utilization of community-directed treatment (ComDT) of soil-transmitted helminths in children aged 12-59 months in Mazabuka district, Zambia. The surveys took place in December 2006 and December 2007. In addition child treatment records were reviewed. The factors that were found to be significantly associated (p<0.05) with treatment of children by the CDDs were: (1) the perception of soil-transmitted helminth infections as having significant health importance, (2) the community-based decision to launch and subsequently implement ComDT, (3) the use of the door-to-door method of drug distribution, (4) CDDs being visited by a supervisor, (5) CDDs receiving assistance in mobilizing community members for treatment, (6) CDDs having access to a bicycle and (7) CDDs having received assistance in collecting drugs from the health centre. Despite the effectiveness of ComDT in raising treatment coverage there are factors in the implementation process that will still affect whether children and their carers utilize the ComDT approach. Identification and understanding of these factors is paramount to achieving the desired levels of utilization of such interventions. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2014.

  3. Finding parasites and finding challenges: improved diagnostic access and trends in reported malaria and anti-malarial drug use in Livingstone district, Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Masaninga Freddie; Sekeseke-Chinyama Masela; Malambo Thindo; Moonga Hawela; Babaniyi Olusegun; Counihan Helen; Bell David

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Understanding the impact of malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) use on management of acute febrile disease at a community level, and on the consumption of anti-malarial medicines, is critical to the planning and success of scale-up to universal parasite-based diagnosis by health systems in malaria-endemic countries. Methods A retrospective study of district-wide community-level RDT introduction was conducted in Livingstone District, Zambia, to assess the impact of this pro...

  4. Increased fairness in priority setting processes within the health sector : the case of Kapiri-Mposhi District, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zulu, Joseph M.; Michelo, Charles

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The challenge of priority setting (PS) in health care within contexts of severe resource limitations has continued to receive attention. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) has emerged as a useful framework to guide the implementation of PS processes. In 2006, the AFR approach to enhance legitimate and fair PS was introduced by researchers and decision makers within the health sector in the EU funded research project entitled 'Response to Accountable priority setting for Trust in health systems' (REACT). The project aimed to strengthen fairness and accountability in the PS processes of health systems at district level in Zambia, Tanzania and Kenya. This paper focuses on local perceptions and practices of fair PS (baseline study) as well as at the evolution of such perceptions and practices in PS following an AFR based intervention (evaluation study), carried out at district level in Kapiri-Mposhi District in Zambia. METHODS: Data was collected using in depth interviews (IDIs), focus group discussions (FGDs) and review of documents from national to district level. The study population for this paper consisted of health related stakeholders employed in the district administration, in non-governmental organizations (NGO) and in health facilities. RESULTS: During the baseline study, concepts of legitimacy and fairness in PS processes were found to be grounded in local values of equity and impartiality. Government and other organizational strategies strongly supported devolution of PS and decision making procedures. However, important gaps were identified in terms of experiences of stakeholder involvement and fairness in PS processes in practice. The evaluation study revealed that a transformation of the views and methods regarding fairness in PS processes was ongoing in the study district, which was partly attributed to the AFR based intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings suggest that increased attention was given to fairness in PS processes at district level. The changes were linked to a number of simultaneous factors among them the concepts introduced by the present project with its emphasis on fairness and enhanced participation. A responsive leadership that was increasingly accountable to its operational staff and communities emerged as one of the key elements in driving the processes forward.

  5. Impacts of Maize Policy Changes on Small Scale Farmers' Vulnerability to Exploitation in Nyimba District, Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Njobvu, Idah

    2011-01-01

    Taking cognisance of the fact that SSFs the major producers of maize in Zambia were most affected by the 1991 agricultural policy reforms, from 2005 onward, the state became very active in the maize market and production systems in order to mitigate their problems. The main objective of this study is to investigate to what extent the maize policy changes have contributed to the SSFs’ vulnerability to exploitation. This information will be of use in the policy formulation process to ensure tha...

  6. A Review of Bovine Tuberculosis in the Kafue Basin Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Musso Munyeme; Hetron Mweemba Munang'andu

    2011-01-01

    The Kafue basin ecosystem is the only remaining natural habitat for the endangered Kafue lechwe antelope (Kobus leche Kafuensis). However, hydroelectricity power production, large-scale sugar plantations, commercial fishing and increasing livestock production are threatening its natural existence and sustainability. Further, increasing human settlements within and around the Kafue basin have resulted in decreased grazing grounds for the Kafue lechwe antelopes despite a corresponding increase ...

  7. Heavy Metal Contaminated Food Crops Irrigated with Wastewater in Peri Urban Areas, Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Evaristo Mwaba Kapungwe

    2013-01-01

    Studies on peri urban farming in Zambia have not adequately tackled the issues pertaining to heavy metal contaminated wastewater irrigation farming. The study investigated heavy metal contamination of water, soils and crops at two peri urban areas in Zambia. Two study sites were New Farm Extension in Mufulira Town in the Copperbelt Province and Chilumba Gardens in Kafue Town in Lusaka Province. The heavy metals investigated were lead, copper, cobalt, nickel and chromium. These heavy metals we...

  8. Relative costs and effectiveness of treating uncomplicated malaria in two rural districts in Zambia: implications for nationwide scale-up of home-based management

    OpenAIRE

    Banda Patrick; Chalwe Victor; Moonga Hawela B; Hamainza Busiku; Chanda Pascalina; Pagnoni Franco

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria case management is one of the key strategies to control malaria. Various studies have demonstrated the feasibility of home management of malaria (HMM). However, data on the costs and effectiveness of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and rapid diagnostic tests via HMM is limited. Method Cost-effectiveness of home management versus health facility-based management of uncomplicated malaria in two rural districts in Zambia was analysed from a providers' pers...

  9. Trypanosoma brucei Infection in Asymptomatic Greater Kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a Game Ranch in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Munang Andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Munyeme, Musso; Nambota, Andrew; Mutoloki, Stephen; Matandiko, Wigganson

    2010-01-01

    Trypomastogotes of Trypanosoma brucei were detected from 4 asymptomatic kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch located approximately 45 km north east of Lusaka, Zambia. Blood smears examined from 14 wildlife species comprising of the impala (Aepyceros melampus), Kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis), sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), tsessebe (Damaliscus lunatus), warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), puku (Kobus vardoni), zebra (Equus burchelli), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), bu...

  10. Condom availability in high risk places and condom use : a study at district level in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SandØy, Ingvild Fossgard; Blystad, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    Background A number of studies from countries with severe HIV epidemics have found gaps in condom availability, even in places where there is a substantial potential for HIV transmission. Although reported condom use has increased in many African countries, there are often big differences by socioeconomic background. The aim of this study was to assess equity aspects of condom availability and uptake in three African districts to evaluate whether condom programmes are given sufficient priority. Methods Data on condom availability and use was examined in one district in Kenya, one in Tanzania and one in Zambia. The study was based on a triangulation of data collection methods in the three study districts: surveys in venues where people meet new sexual partners, population-based surveys and focus group discussions. The data was collected within an overall study on priority setting in health systems. Results At the time of the survey, condoms were observed in less than half of the high risk venues in two of the three districts and in 60% in the third district. Rural respondents in the population-based surveys perceived condoms to be less available and tended to be less likely to report condom use than urban respondents. Although focus group participants reported that condoms were largely available in their district, they expressed concerns related to the accessibility of free condoms. Conclusion As late as thirty years into the HIV epidemic there are still important gaps in the availability of condoms in places where people meet new sexual partners in these three African districts. Considering that previous studies have found that improved condom availability and accessibility in high risk places have a potential to increase condom use among people with multiple partners, the present study findings indicate that substantial further efforts should be made to secure that condoms are easily accessible in places where sexual relationships are initiated. Although condom distribution in drinking places has been pinpointed in the HIV/AIDS prevention strategies of all the three countries, its priority relative to other HIV/AIDS measures must be reassessed locally, nationally and regionally. In practical terms very clear supply chains of condoms to both formal and informal drinking places could make condom provision better and more reliable

  11. Factors associated with health facility childbirth in districts of Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia : a population based survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phiri, Selia Ng'anjo; Kiserud, Torvid

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality continues to be a heavy burden in low and middle income countries where half of all deliveries take place in homes without skilled attendance. The study aimed to investigate the underlying and proximate determinants of health facility childbirth in rural and urban areas of three districts in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia. METHODS: A population-based survey was conducted in 2007 as part of the 'REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems' (REACT) project. Stratified random cluster sampling was used and the data included information on place of delivery and factors that might influence health care seeking behaviour. A total of 1800 women who had childbirth in the previous five years were analysed. The distal and proximate conceptual framework for analysing determinants of maternal mortality was modified for studying factors associated with place of delivery. Socioeconomic position was measured by employing a construct of educational attainment and wealth index. All analyses were stratified by district and urban-rural residence. RESULTS: There were substantial inter-district differences in proportion of health facility childbirth. Facility childbirth was 15, 70 and 37% in the rural areas of Malindi, Mbarali and Kapiri Mposhi respectively, and 57, 75 and 77% in the urban areas of the districts respectively. However, striking socio-economic inequities were revealed regardless of district. Furthermore, there were indications that repeated exposure to ANC services and HIV related counselling and testing were positively associated with health facility deliveries. Perceived distance was negatively associated with facility childbirth in rural areas of Malindi and urban areas of Kapiri Mposhi. CONCLUSION: Strong socio-economic inequities in the likelihood of facility childbirths were revealed in all the districts added to geographic inequities in two of the three districts. This strongly suggests an urgent need to strengthen services targeting disadvantaged and remote populations. The finding of a positive association between HIV counselling/testing and odds in favor of giving birth at a health facility suggests potential positive effects can be achieved by strengthening integrated approaches in maternal health service delivery.

  12. Condom availability in high risk places and condom use: a study at district level in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandøy Ingvild

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies from countries with severe HIV epidemics have found gaps in condom availability, even in places where there is a substantial potential for HIV transmission. Although reported condom use has increased in many African countries, there are often big differences by socioeconomic background. The aim of this study was to assess equity aspects of condom availability and uptake in three African districts to evaluate whether condom programmes are given sufficient priority. Methods Data on condom availability and use was examined in one district in Kenya, one in Tanzania and one in Zambia. The study was based on a triangulation of data collection methods in the three study districts: surveys in venues where people meet new sexual partners, population-based surveys and focus group discussions. The data was collected within an overall study on priority setting in health systems. Results At the time of the survey, condoms were observed in less than half of the high risk venues in two of the three districts and in 60% in the third district. Rural respondents in the population-based surveys perceived condoms to be less available and tended to be less likely to report condom use than urban respondents. Although focus group participants reported that condoms were largely available in their district, they expressed concerns related to the accessibility of free condoms. Conclusion As late as thirty years into the HIV epidemic there are still important gaps in the availability of condoms in places where people meet new sexual partners in these three African districts. Considering that previous studies have found that improved condom availability and accessibility in high risk places have a potential to increase condom use among people with multiple partners, the present study findings indicate that substantial further efforts should be made to secure that condoms are easily accessible in places where sexual relationships are initiated. Although condom distribution in drinking places has been pinpointed in the HIV/AIDS prevention strategies of all the three countries, its priority relative to other HIV/AIDS measures must be reassessed locally, nationally and regionally. In practical terms very clear supply chains of condoms to both formal and informal drinking places could make condom provision better and more reliable.

  13. Application of Data-Driven Evidential Belief Functions to Prospectivity Mapping for Aquamarine-Bearing Pegmatites, Lundazi District, Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case application of data-driven estimation of evidential belief functions (EBFs) is demonstrated to prospectivity mapping in Lundazi district (eastern Zambia). Spatial data used to represent recognition criteria of prospectivity for aquamarine-bearing pegmatites include mapped granites, mapped faults/fractures, mapped shear zones, and radioelement concentration ratios derived from gridded airborne radiometric data. Data-driven estimates EBFs take into account not only (a) spatial association between an evidential map layer and target deposits but also (b) spatial relationships between classes of evidences in an evidential map layer. Data-driven estimates of EBFs can indicate which spatial data provide positive or negative evidence of prospectivity. Data-driven estimates of EBFs of only spatial data providing positive evidence of prospectivity were integrated according to Dempster's rule of combination. Map of integrated degrees of belief was used to delineate zones of relative degress of prospectivity for aquamarine-bearing pegmatites. The predictive map has at least 85% prediction rate and at least 79% success rate of delineating training and validation deposits, respectively. The results illustrate usefulness of data-driven estimation of EBFs in GIS-based predictive mapping of mineral prospectivity. The results also show usefulness of EBFs in managing uncertainties associated with evidential maps

  14. Malaria Infection and Anemia Prevalence in Zambia's Luangwa District: An Area of Near-Universal Insecticide-Treated Mosquito Net Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Eisele, Thomas P.; Miller, John M.; Moonga, Hawela B.; Hamainza, Busiku; Hutchinson, Paul; Keating, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    We examined the relationship between insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs), malaria parasite infection, and severe anemia prevalence in children in Luangwa District, Zambia, an area with near-universal ITN coverage, at the end of the 2008 and 2010 malaria transmission seasons. Malaria parasite infection prevalence among children < 5 years old was 9.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.0–11.4%) over both survey years. Prevalence of severe anemia among children 6–59 months old was 6.9% (...

  15. Helminths and bot fly larvae of wild ungulates on a game ranch in Central Province, Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Zieger, U.; Boomker, Jacob Diederik Frederik; Cauldwell, A. E.; Horak, Ivan Gerard

    1998-01-01

    Helminths and bot fly larvae were collected from 11 wild ungulate species on a game ranch in the Central Province of Zambia. New host-parasite records are: Calicophoron sp. from defassa waterbuck Kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa and Kafue lechwe Kobus leche kafuensis; Avitellina centripunctata, Gaigeria pachyscelis and Gedoelstia cristata from tsessebe Damaliscus lunatus lunatus; Cooperia rotundispiculum from common reedbuck Redunca arundinum; Dictyocaulus filaria from greater kudu ...

  16. Feed the Future Zambia: Baseline Household Survey

    US Agency for International Development — The Zambia Population-Based Survey (PBS) provides a comprehensive assessment of the current status of agriculture and food security in five districts ? Chipata,...

  17. Helminths and bot fly larvae of wild ungulates on a game ranch in central province, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieger, U; Boomker, J; Cauldwell, A E; Horak, I G

    1998-06-01

    Helminths and bot fly larvae were collected from 11 wild ungulate species on a game ranch in the Central Province of Zambia. New host-parasite records are: Calicophoron sp. from defassa waterbuck Kobus ellipsiprymnus defassa and Kafue lechwe Kobus leche kafuensis; Avitellina centripunctata, Gaigeria pachyscelis and Gedoelstia cristata from tsessebe Damaliscus lunatus lunatus; Cooperia rotundispiculum from common reedbuck Redunca arundinum; Dictyocaulus filaria from greater kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros; Dictyocaulus sp. from tsessebe and defassa waterbuck and Strobiloestrus sp. from sable antelope Hippotragus niger. Most of the other parasites collected are first records for Zambia and thus extend the distribution ranges of several species. PMID:9741058

  18. Finding parasites and finding challenges: improved diagnostic access and trends in reported malaria and anti-malarial drug use in Livingstone district, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaninga Freddie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the impact of malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT use on management of acute febrile disease at a community level, and on the consumption of anti-malarial medicines, is critical to the planning and success of scale-up to universal parasite-based diagnosis by health systems in malaria-endemic countries. Methods A retrospective study of district-wide community-level RDT introduction was conducted in Livingstone District, Zambia, to assess the impact of this programmed on malaria reporting, incidence of mortality and on district anti-malarial consumption. Results Reported malaria declined from 12,186 cases in the quarter prior to RDT introduction in 2007 to an average of 12.25 confirmed and 294 unconfirmed malaria cases per quarter over the year to September 2009. Reported malaria-like fever also declined, with only 4,381 RDTs being consumed per quarter over the same year. Reported malaria mortality declined to zero in the year to September 2009, and all-cause mortality declined. Consumption of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT dropped dramatically, but remained above reported malaria, declining from 12,550 courses dispensed by the district office in the quarter prior to RDT implementation to an average of 822 per quarter over the last year. Quinine consumption in health centres also declined, with the district office ceasing to supply due to low usage, but requests for sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP rose to well above previous levels, suggesting substitution of ACT with this drug in RDT-negative cases. Conclusions RDT introduction led to a large decline in reported malaria cases and in ACT consumption in Livingstone district. Reported malaria mortality declined to zero, indicating safety of the new diagnostic regime, although adherence and/or use of RDTs was still incomplete. However, a deficiency is apparent in management of non-malarial fever, with inappropriate use of a low-cost single dose drug, SP, replacing ACT. While large gains have been achieved, the full potential of RDTs will only be realized when strategies can be put in place to better manage RDT-negative cases.

  19. A review of bovine tuberculosis in the kafue basin ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyeme, Musso; Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba

    2011-01-01

    The Kafue basin ecosystem is the only remaining natural habitat for the endangered Kafue lechwe antelope (Kobus leche Kafuensis). However, hydroelectricity power production, large-scale sugar plantations, commercial fishing and increasing livestock production are threatening its natural existence and sustainability. Further, increasing human settlements within and around the Kafue basin have resulted in decreased grazing grounds for the Kafue lechwe antelopes despite a corresponding increase in cattle population sharing the same pasture. Baseline epidemiological data have persistently reported findings of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in both wild and domestic animals, although these have been deficient in terms of describing direct evidence in the role of either lechwe antelopes or cattle in the reported observations. Despite the current literature being deficient in establishing the casual role and transmission patterns of BTB, a bimodal route of infection at the livestock/wildlife interface has been postulated. Likewise, it is not known how much of (BTB) has the potential of causing disease in humans. This paper, seeks to underline those aspects that need further research and update available data on BTB in the Kafue basin with regards to the prevalence, distribution, risk factors, threats on wildlife conservation, livestock production, public health implications, and possible mitigatory measures. PMID:21547232

  20. Knowledge and disease management skills of cattle owners on East Coast Fever and Foot and Mouth Disease in Kazungula and Livingstone Districts of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisembele, C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective animal disease control and prevention should be based on accurate information from the field. Part of this field information can be obtained from the cattle owners. In order to assess their disease knowledge, a survey focusing on East Coast Fever (ECF and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD was organised among 302 cattle owners from the Kazungula and Livingstone Districts of the Southern Province of Zambia. The cattle owners' level of knowledge of ECF was low (34% with most of those able to describe the disease belonging to the endemic zone where ECF caused high death rates in cattle. A larger proportion of the cattle owners (46% were able to give an adequate description of FMD symptoms. It reached up to 61% in the FMD high-risk zone. Reporting to the animal health service providers appeared to be low. The results of the survey showed that attempts should be made to improve the cattle owners' knowledge and response to important diseases by carrying out more extension and sensitization activities. This is especially so in areas of low infection or where the disease was experienced long time ago.

  1. The accountability for reasonableness approach to guide priority setting in health systems within limited resources : findings from action research at district level in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, Jens; Marchal, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Priority-setting decisions are based on an important, but not sufficient set of values and thus lead to disagreement on priorities. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) is an ethics-based approach to a legitimate and fair priority-setting process that builds upon four conditions: relevance, publicity, appeals, and enforcement, which facilitate agreement on priority-setting decisions and gain support for their implementation. This paper focuses on the assessment of AFR within the project REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT). METHODS: This intervention study applied an action research methodology to assess implementation of AFR in one district in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia, respectively. The assessments focused on selected disease, program, and managerial areas. An implementing action research team of core health team members and supporting researchers was formed to implement, and continually assess and improve the application of the four conditions. Researchers evaluated the intervention using qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods. RESULTS: The values underlying the AFR approach were in all three districts well-aligned with general values expressed by both service providers and community representatives. There was some variation in the interpretations and actual use of the AFR in the decision-making processes in the three districts, and its effect ranged from an increase in awareness of the importance of fairness to a broadened engagement of health team members and other stakeholders in priority setting and other decision-making processes. CONCLUSIONS: District stakeholders were able to take greater charge of closing the gap between nationally set planning on one hand and the local realities and demands of the served communities on the other within the limited resources at hand. This study thus indicates that the operationalization of the four broadly defined and linked conditions is both possible and seems to be responding to an actual demand. This provides arguments for the continued application and further assessment of the potential of AFR in supporting priority-setting and other decision-making processes in health systems to achieve better agreed and more sustainable health improvements linked to a mutual democratic learning with potential wider implications.

  2. Condom availability in high risk places and condom use: a study at district level in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Sandøy Ingvild; Blystad Astrid; Shayo Elizabeth H; Makundi Emmanuel; Michelo Charles; Zulu Joseph; Byskov Jens

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background A number of studies from countries with severe HIV epidemics have found gaps in condom availability, even in places where there is a substantial potential for HIV transmission. Although reported condom use has increased in many African countries, there are often big differences by socioeconomic background. The aim of this study was to assess equity aspects of condom availability and uptake in three African districts to evaluate whether condom programmes are given sufficien...

  3. Medical Pluralism in Zambia:Options for health-seeking or increased dilemmas for People Living with HIV/AIDS. :A Qualitative Study in 6 Districts

    OpenAIRE

    Nyirenda, Alick

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the pathways to health seeking as seen from the lived experiences of people with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Zambia, as they negotiate their livelihoods in pluralistic health care settings. Zambia, together with several countries in sub-Saharan Africa, are undergoing the worst AIDS epidemics in the whole world, with coping mechanisms at national and community levels being stretched to breaking-points. While several studies have specifically documented general experiences of PL...

  4. Detection of Theileria parva antibodies in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the livestock-wildlife interface areas of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Matandiko, Wigganson; Mulumba, Misheck; Nambota, Andrew; Munyeme, Musso; Mutoloki, Stephen; Nonga, Hezron

    2009-12-01

    A serolocigical survey was conducted for the detection of Theileria parva antibodies in 176 African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer) sampled between 1996 and 2005 in livestock-wildlife interface areas of Zambia. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus species, and Amblyomma variegatum were the most abundant tick species identified on buffaloes. T. parva sero-positives were reported in buffaloes sampled from game management areas at Mlanga and Nanzhila bordering the Kafue National Parks and in the Lochnivar National Park while buffaloes sampled from Lower Zambezi National Park were sero-negative. Given that Game Management Areas serve as interface areas that permit the co-existence of livestock and wildlife in similar ecological habitats our findings suggest that buffaloes could play a significant role in the epidemiology of theileriosis in livestock-wildlife interface areas. Thus far, the disease has only been reported in livestock and is herein being reported in the African buffalo for the first time in Zambia. PMID:19733007

  5. Expansion of antiretroviral treatment to rural health centre level by a mobile service in Mumbwa district, Zambia / Élargissement de l'accès au traitement antirétroviral au niveau des centres de santé ruraux grâce à un service mobile dans le district de Mumbwa, Zambie / Expansión del tratamiento antirretroviral a nivel de los centros de salud rurales mediante un servicio móvil en el distrito de Mumbwa, Zambia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Christopher, Dube; Ikuma, Nozaki; Tadao, Hayakawa; Kazuhiro, Kakimoto; Norio, Yamada; James B, Simpungwe.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available SITUACIÓN: A pesar de los esfuerzos del Gobierno por extender los servicios hasta el nivel de distrito, sigue resultando difícil que las personas con VIH accedan al tratamiento antirretroviral (TAR) en la Zambia rural. Las enérgicas súplicas para ampliar los servicios relacionados con el TAR a los c [...] entros de salud rurales se enfrentan a las dificultades derivadas de la escasez de recursos. ENFOQUE: El equipo de gestión sanitaria en el distrito de Mumbwa introdujo servicios móviles de TAR que hacían uso de recursos humanos y asesoramiento técnico de hospitales de distrito, así como la participación de la comunidad en cuatro centros de salud rurales en el primer trimestre de 2007. Este trabajo aborda el uso de los servicios móviles de TAR en el distrito rural de Mumbwa. MARCO REGIONAL: Mumbwa es un distrito rural con un área de 23 000 km2 y una población de 167 000 habitantes. Antes de la introducción de los servicios móviles, los servicios de TAR se proporcionaban sólo en el Hospital de Distrito de Mumbwa. CAMBIOS IMPORTANTES: Los servicios móviles mejoraron la accesibilidad al TAR, especialmente para usuarios con un mejor estado funcional, es decir, aún capaces de trabajar. Además, estos servicios móviles pueden reducir el número de casos de «pérdidas durante el seguimiento». Esto podría deberse a la mayor implicación de la comunidad y al mejor apoyo ofrecido por estos servicios a los usuarios en las áreas rurales. LECCIONES APRENDIDAS: Estos servicios móviles para el TAR ayudaron a extender los servicios a los centros de salud rurales cuando los recursos fueron limitados, acercándolos lo máximo posible a los lugares donde viven los usuarios. Abstract in english PROBLEM: Despite the Government's effort to expand services to district level, it is still hard for people living with HIV to access antiretroviral treatment (ART) in rural Zambia. Strong demands for expanding ART services at the rural health centre level face challenges of resource shortages. APPRO [...] ACH: The Mumbwa district health management team introduced mobile ART services using human resources and technical support from district hospitals, and community involvement at four rural health centres in the first quarter of 2007. This paper discusses the uptake of the mobile ART services in rural Mumbwa. LOCAL SETTING: Mumbwa is a rural district with an area of 23 000 km² and a population of 167 000. Before the introduction of mobile services, ART services were provided only at Mumbwa District Hospital. RELEVANT CHANGES: The mobile services improved accessibility to ART, especially for clients in better functional status, i.e. still able to work. In addition, these mobile services may reduce the number of cases "lost to follow-up". This might be due to the closer involvement of the community and the better support offered by these services to rural clients. LESSONS LEARNT: These mobile ART services helped expand services to rural health facilities where resources are limited, bringing them as close as possible to where clients live.

  6. Zambia Country Background Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, SØren

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­?sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change).

  7. Zambia country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    The Zambia Country Study, which was part of the Danida-funded project Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa: Phase 2, aimed at methodological development, national mitigation analysis and institutional capacity building in Zambia. The study comprised the following five elements: Comprehensive evaluation of national social and economic development framework for climate change; Baseline scenario(s) projection(s); Mitigation scenario(s) projection(s); Macro-economic assessment; Implementation Issues. (au) 17 refs.

  8. Private sector involvement in the control of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in the Kazungula district of Zambia benefitted the community and the control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muuka, Geoffrey Munkombwe; Songolo, Nadi; Kabilika, Swithine; Fandamu, Paul; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Scacchia, Massimo

    2013-03-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a disease of economic importance that is widely distributed in sub-Saharan African and contributes significantly to cattle morbidity and mortality. Lack of resources to implement eradication measures has led to the disease becoming endemic in most areas in sub-Saharan Africa where governments have little resources and the majority of the people are poor. Usually, control and eradication of such diseases as CBPP is treated as a public good by governments and to achieve this, governments are usually assisted by nongovernment organisations, bilateral government programmes and international donors. The private sector, which usually is companies that run businesses to make profit, although not very well established in sub-Saharan Africa could play a big role in the eradication of CBPP in the region. This could play a dual role of promoting investment and also eradicate livestock diseases which have proved a menace in the livestock sector. This paper highlights the role played by the private sector in the control of CBPP in Zambia. PMID:23334379

  9. Trypanosoma brucei Infection in asymptomatic greater Kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor; Munyeme, Musso; Nambota, Andrew; Mutoloki, Stephen; Matandiko, Wigganson

    2010-03-01

    Trypomastogotes of Trypanosoma brucei were detected from 4 asymptomatic kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on a game ranch located approximately 45 km north east of Lusaka, Zambia. Blood smears examined from 14 wildlife species comprising of the impala (Aepyceros melampus), Kafue lechwe (kobus leche kafuensis), sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), tsessebe (Damaliscus lunatus), warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), puku (Kobus vardoni), zebra (Equus burchelli), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), reedbuck (Redunca arundinum), wilderbeest (Connochaetes taurinus), hartebeest (Alcephelus lichtensteini), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) showed that only the kudu had T. brucei. Although game ranching has emerged to be a successful ex-situ conservation strategy aimed at saving the declining wildlife population in the National Parks, our findings suggest that it has the potential of aiding the re-distribution of animal diseases. Hence, there is a need for augmenting wildlife conservation with disease control strategies aimed at reducing the risk of disease transmission between wildlife and domestic animals. PMID:20333288

  10. Sarcoptes mite epidemiology and treatment in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer calves captured for translocation from the Kafue game management area to game ranches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munyeme Musso

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Zambia, translocation of wildlife from National Parks to private owned game ranches demands that only animals free of infectious diseases that could adversely affect the expansion of the wildlife industry should be translocated to game ranches. Sarcoptes mange (Sarcoptes scarbiei has been involved in the reduction of wildlife populations in some species. Results Sarcoptes mange (Sarcoptes scarbiei was detected and eradicated from two herds of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer calves captured in the Kafue GMA in July 2004 and August 2005. The overall prevalence was estimated at 89.5% (77/86. Sex had no influence on the occurrence and severity of the disease. Of the 86 calves used in the study, 72.1% had good body condition scores, 20.9% were fair and 7.0% were poor. Of the 77 infected calves, 53.2% were mildly infected, 28.6% were moderately and 18.2% were severely infected. Body condition score was correlated to the severity of the infection (r = 0.72, p n = 86 at capture. Eradication of Sarcoptes mites from the entire herd using ivermetcin was dependant on the severity of the infection. The overall ability of ivermectin to clear the infection after the first treatment was estimated at 81.8% (n = 77. It increased to 94.8% and 100% after the second and third treatments respectively. Conclusion This is the first report on the epidemiology and treatment of Sarcoptes mange in African buffaloes in Zambia. This study improves our understanding about Sarcoptes scabiei epidemiology and treatment which will have further applications for the safe animal translocation.

  11. Rift Valley fever: Real or perceived threat for Zambia?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    George, Dautu; Calvin, Sindato; Aaron S., Mweene; Kenny L., Samui; Polly, Roy; Robert, Noad; Janusz, Paweska; Phelix A.O., Majiwa; Antony J., Musoke.

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Zambia was first reported in 1974 during an epizootic of cattle and sheep that occurred in parts of Central, Southern and Copperbelt Provinces. In 1990, the disease was documented in nine districts of the provinces of Zambia. In the last two decades, there have been no rep [...] orts of RVF. This long period without reported clinical disease raises questions as to whether RVF is a current or just a perceived threat. To address this question, World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) disease occurrence data on RVF for the period 2005-2010 in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) was analysed. From the analysis, it was evident that most countries that share a common border with Zambia had reported at least one occurrence of the disease during the period under review. Due to the absence of natural physical barriers between Zambia and most of her neighbours, informal livestock trade and movements is a ubiquitous reality. Analysis of the rainfall patterns also showed that Zambia received rains sufficient to support a mosquito population large enough for high risk of RVF transmission. The evidence of disease occurrence in nearby countries coupled with animal movement, and environmental risk suggests that RVF is a serious threat to Zambia. In conclusion, the current occurrence of RVF in Zambia is unclear, but there are sufficient indications that the magnitude of the circulating infection is such that capacity building in disease surveillance and courses on recognition of the disease for field staff is recommended. Given the zoonotic potential of RVF, these measures are also a prerequisite for accurate assessment of the disease burden in humans.

  12. Heavy Metal Contaminated Food Crops Irrigated with Wastewater in Peri Urban Areas, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaristo Mwaba Kapungwe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies on peri urban farming in Zambia have not adequately tackled the issues pertaining to heavy metal contaminated wastewater irrigation farming. The study investigated heavy metal contamination of water, soils and crops at two peri urban areas in Zambia. Two study sites were New Farm Extension in Mufulira Town in the Copperbelt Province and Chilumba Gardens in Kafue Town in Lusaka Province. The heavy metals investigated were lead, copper, cobalt, nickel and chromium. These heavy metals were found to be higher than acceptable limits in wastewater used to irrigate crops and there are potential human health risks associated with consumption of heavy metal contaminated food crops which have implications on the livelihoods of people. Samples of water, soil and crops were collected and analysed for lead (Pb, copper (Cu, chromium (Cr, cobalt (Co and nickel (Ni using the Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS. The data on heavy metals was analysed using mean, standard error and T-test. The results indicated that the levels of heavy metals in wastewater, soil and food crops were above acceptable limits at two study sites. It can be concluded that there was heavy metal contamination of wastewater, soil and food crops at the two peri-urban areas in Zambia. The study highlighted the actual levels of heavy metal contaminant uptake in food crops consumed by the peri urban population. The information from this study can be used by the relevant authorities to develop appropriate measures for monitoring and control of heavy metal contamination in wastewater irrigation farming systems in peri urban areas inZambia.

  13. Callings, work role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement among teachers in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastiaan Rothmann; Lukondo Hamukang'andu

    2013-01-01

    Our aim in this study was to investigate the relationships among a calling orientation, work role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement of teachers in Zambia. A quantitative approach was followed and a cross-sectional survey was used. The sample (n = 150) included 75 basic and 75 secondary school teachers in the Choma district of Zambia. The Work Role Fit Scale, Work-Life Questionnaire, Psychological Meaningfulness Scale, and Work Engagement Scale were administered. Structural...

  14. Perception of cattle farmers of the efficacy of east coast fever immunization in Southern Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    P. Fandamu; Thys, E.; L. Duchateau; Berkvens, D.

    2006-01-01

    A study using a structured questionnaire was conducted to assess the perception of cattle farmers of the efficacy of East Coast fever (ECF) immunization in southern Zambia. One hundred and seventy-nine farmers from five districts in southern Zambia were interviewed. The majority of farmers (85%) perceived ECF immunization as being very effective and about half of them (51.4%) preferred immunization to other ECF control strategies. The study showed that the number of calves immunized was stron...

  15. Fairness and legitimacy of decisions during delivery of malaria services and ITN interventions in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Bloch Paul; Sandoy Ingvild F; Tuba Mary; Byskov Jens

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and the second leading cause of mortality in Zambia. Perceptions of fairness and legitimacy of decisions relating to treatment of malaria cases within public health facilities and distribution of ITNs were assessed in a district in Zambia. The study was conducted within the framework of REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT), a north-south collaborative action research study, which evaluates th...

  16. Foot and mouth disease in Zambia: Spatial and temporal distributions of outbreaks, assessment of clusters and implications for control

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yona, Sinkala; Martin, Simuunza; John B., Muma; Dirk U., Pfeiffe; Christopher J., Kasanga; Aaron, Mweene.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Zambia has been experiencing low livestock productivity as well as trade restrictions owing to the occurrence of foot and mouth disease (FMD), but little is known about the epidemiology of the disease in these endemic settings. The fundamental questions relate to the spatio-temporal distribution of [...] FMD cases and what determines their occurrence. A retrospective review of FMD cases in Zambia from 1981 to 2012 was conducted using geographical information systems and the SaTScan software package. Information was collected from peer-reviewed journal articles, conference proceedings, laboratory reports, unpublished scientific reports and grey literature. A space-time permutation probability model using a varying time window of one year was used to scan for areas with high infection rates. The spatial scan statistic detected a significant purely spatial cluster around the Mbala-Isoka area between 2009 and 2012, with secondary clusters in Sesheke-Kazungula in 2007 and 2008, the Kafue flats in 2004 and 2005 and Livingstone in 2012. This study provides evidence of the existence of statistically significant FMD clusters and an increase in occurrence in Zambia between 2004 and 2012. The identified clusters agree with areas known to be at high risk of FMD. The FMD virus transmission dynamics and the heterogeneous variability in risk within these locations may need further investigation.

  17. Callings, work role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement among teachers in Zambia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sebastiaan, Rothmann; Lukondo, Hamukang' andu.

    Full Text Available Our aim in this study was to investigate the relationships among a calling orientation, work role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement of teachers in Zambia. A quantitative approach was followed and a cross-sectional survey was used. The sample (n = 150) included 75 basic and 75 sec [...] ondary school teachers in the Choma district of Zambia. The Work Role Fit Scale, Work-Life Questionnaire, Psychological Meaningfulness Scale, and Work Engagement Scale were administered. Structural equation modelling confirmed a model in which a calling orientation impacted psychological meaningfulness and work engagement significantly. A calling orientation impacted work engagement directly, while such work orientation impacted psychological meaningfulness indirectly via work role fit. The results suggest that it is necessary to address the work orientation and work role fit of teachers in Zambia as pathways to psychological meaningfulness and work engagement.These results have implications for the recruitment, selection, training, and development of teachers in Zambia.

  18. Treatment of paediatric malaria during a period of drug transition to artemether-lumefantrine in Zambia: cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Zurovac, D.; Ndhlovu, M.; Rowe, Ak; Hamer, Dh; Thea, Dm; Snow, Rw

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate treatment practices for uncomplicated malaria after the policy change from chloroquine to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and to artemether-lumefantrine in Zambia. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. SETTING: Outpatient departments of all government and mission facilities in four districts in Zambia. PARTICIPANTS: 944 children with uncomplicated malaria seen by 103 health workers at 94 health facilities. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Antimalarial prescriptions in accordance with nationa...

  19. Population genetic analysis and sub-structuring of Theileria parva in the northern and eastern parts of Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Muleya Walter; Namangala Boniface; Simuunza Martin; Nakao Ryo; Inoue Noboru; Kimura Takashi; Ito Kimihito; Sugimoto Chihiro; Sawa Hirofumi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Theileriosis, caused by Theileria parva, is an economically important disease in Africa. It is a major constraint to the development of the livestock industry in some parts of eastern, central and southern Africa. In Zambia, theileriosis causes losses of up to 10,000 cattle annually. Methods Cattle blood samples were collected for genetic analysis of Theileria parva from Isoka and Petauke districts in Zambia. Microsatellite analysis was then performed on all Theileria parv...

  20. Zambia : long-term generation expansion study - executive summary.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Buehring, W.; Veselka, T.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-02-28

    The objective of this study is to analyze possible long-term development options of the Zambian electric power system in the period up to 2015. The analysis involved the hydro operations studies of the Zambezi river basin and the systems planning studies for the least-cost generation expansion planning. Two well-known and widely accepted computer models were used in the analysis: PC-VALORAGUA model for the hydro operations and optimization studies and the WASP-III Plus model for the optimization of long-term system development. The WASP-III Plus model is a part of the Argonne National Laboratory's Energy and Power Evaluation Model (ENPEP). The analysis was conducted in close collaboration with the Zambia Electricity Supply Corporation (ZESCO). On the initiative from The World Bank, the sponsor of the study, ZESCO formed a team of experts that participated in the analysis and were trained in the use of computer models. Both models were transferred to ZESCO free of charge and installed on several computers in the ZESCO corporate offices in Lusaka. In September-October 1995, two members of the ZESCO National Team participated in a 4-week training course at Argonne National Laboratory near Chicago, U.S.A., focusing on the long-term system expansion planning using the WASP and VALORAGUA models. The hydropower operations studies were performed for the whole Zambezi river basin, including the full installation of the Kariba power station, and the Cahora Bassa hydro power station in Mozambique. The analysis also included possible future projects such as Itezhi-Tezhi, Kafue Gorge Lower, and Batoka Gorge power stations. As hydropower operations studies served to determine the operational characteristics of the existing and future hydro power plants, it was necessary to simulate the whole Zambezi river basin in order to take into account all interactions and mutual influences between the hydro power plants. In addition, it allowed for the optimization of reservoir management and optimization of hydro cascades, resulting in the better utilization of available hydro potential. Numerous analyses were performed for different stages of system development. These include system configurations that correspond to years 1997, 2001, 2015 and 2020. Additional simulations were performed in order to determine the operational parameters of the three existing hydro power stations Victoria Falls, Kariba, and Kafue Gorge Upper, that correspond to the situation before and after their rehabilitation. The rehabilitation works for these three major power stations, that would bring their operational parameters and availability back to the design level, are planned to be carried out in the period until 2000. The main results of the hydro operations studies are presented in Table ES-1. These results correspond to VALORAGUA simulations of system configurations in the years 2001 and 2015. The minimum, average, and maximum electricity generation is based on the simulation of monthly water inflows that correspond to the chronological series of unregulated water inflows at each hydro profile in the period from April 1961 to March 1990. The recommended hydrology dataset provided in the Hydrology Report of the SADC Energy Project AAA 3.8 was used for this study.

  1. Foreign aid and democratic consolidation in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Rakner, Lise

    2012-01-01

    The study examines Zambia's evolving aid relationship in relation to the country's democratic trajectory. The impact of aid in terms of democratic consolidation is linked to the development of the party system, the efficacy of key democratic institutions, and accountability in relation to tolerance of participation by the media and civil society in the political process. The study suggests that there are many good reasons for so-called traditional donors to phase out aid to Zambia. Zambia has...

  2. Jatropha – Zambia’s first Bio-diesel Feedstock

    OpenAIRE

    Mundike, Jhonnah

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to highlight and bring out the main environmental,economic and social impacts of the fast developing Jatropha industry in Zambia. Thestudy addressed key issues related with the Jatropha cultivation, processing and use of bio-diesel and its by-products. Each of the stages of Jatropha cultivation, conversiontechnology and the ultimate use of bio-diesel, glycerine and seedcake were related to the environmental, economic and social impacts. Jatropha based bio-diesel ...

  3. Winds of change in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, V

    1992-05-01

    Participants at a 2-day workshop on AIDS in Zambia concluded that women must openly discuss high-risk sexual behavior with their partners, if they are to protect themselves and their children. Entitled "Basic facts about AIDS," the workshop identified marital infidelity as the greatest source of risk. Last year, a study revealed that, on average, men and women in Zambia had 2-3 sexual partners outside marriage. Demographic and cultural factors also contribute to the spread of AIDS. Zambia's sexually active population is large, since people marry at a very young age. The traditional practice of "dry sex" -- intercourse that involves male penetration of a tight, dry vagina -- causes internal abrasions, thereby facilitating the transmission of HIV. Even traditional sex education undermines efforts to control the spread of AIDS, since "bamachimbusas" (traditional sex educators) counsel girls to be subservient to their husbands and "never say no." Boys receive no sex education at all. Meanwhile, Zambia faces an alarming HIV and AIDS trend, according to statistics collected by the Society for Women and AIDS (SWAAZ): in 1991, 12.5% of blood donors in Lusaka and 7.5% of donors nationwide were infected with HIV; infection among pregnant urban women ranged from 25-29%; 21% of malnourished children and 32% of children with tuberculosis are infected. Furthermore, it is estimated that by 1990, the AIDS epidemic had already orphaned 80,000 children. By the year 2000, it is believed that 1/2 million children will have lost at least one parent to the disease. PMID:12317434

  4. The impact of a feeder road project on cash crop production in Zambia's Eastern province between 1997 and 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Kingombe, Christian K. M.; Di Falco, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic impacts of rural road improvements on farm productivity and crop choices in Zambia's Eastern Province. There are several channels through which the feeder road improvements impact on farmers. Our aim is to estimate whether the differential outcomes in the five treatment districts and three control districts generated by the expansion of market agricultural activities among small to medium scale farmers could be explained by rural road improvements that took...

  5. Telemedicine in Primary Health: The Virtual Doctor Project Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustarde Paul

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper is a commentary on a project application of telemedicine to alleviate primary health care problems in Lundazi district in the Eastern province of Zambia. The project dubbed 'The Virtual Doctor Project' will use hard body vehicles fitted with satellite communication devices and modern medical equipment to deliver primary health care services to some of the neediest areas of the country. The relevance and importance of the project lies in the fact that these areas are hard-to-reach due to rugged natural terrain and have very limited telecommunications infrastructure. The lack of these and other basic services makes it difficult for medical personnel to settle in these areas, which leads to an acute shortage of medical personnel. We comment on this problem and how it is addressed by 'The Virtual Doctor Project', emphasizing that while the telemedicine concept is not new in sub-Saharan Africa, the combination of mobility and connectivity to service a number of villages 'on the go' is an important variation in the shift back to the 1978 Alma Ata principles of the United Nations World Health Organization [WHO]. This overview of the Virtual Doctor Project in Zambia provides insight into both the potential for ICT, and the problems and limitations that any "real-world" articulation of this technology must confront.

  6. Kitwe City Council: SINPA - Zambia final seminar

    OpenAIRE

    Nkonkomalimba, M.

    2002-01-01

    The following report gives the proceedings of the final workshop for the SINPA-Zambia Project held at The Ibis Gardens on the 8-9th April 2002. Four key objectives were expected to be met at the end of SINPA – Zambia Project. These are: • Improved capacity of the Kitwe City Council staff in strategic areas; • Capacity building institutions (CBIs) specifically, CBU start running activities relevant to local government and its partners; • Improvement of linkages betwee...

  7. The University of Zambia School Teaching Experience: Is It Effective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Chomba Manchishi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Teaching practice exercises serve the purpose of orienting the teacher into real classroom situations where the novice puts his or her skills into practice. Education students at the University of Zambia (UNZA go through the school teaching experience after their third year of study. This comes after they have arguably completed enough content and methodology courses to teach. The purpose of this study was to establish the effectiveness of the UNZA school teaching experience. The research instruments used were interview guides, observation checklists, and focus group discussions. The respondents included 80 serving teachers, 80 student teachers, and 10 head teachers drawn from 10 high schools in the Lusaka District. In addition, 10 lecturers from UNZA were also sampled. The findings revealed that the design and delivery of the UNZA student teaching experience was not effective.

  8. Traditional Irrigation Practices, High Crop Diversification and Multiple Agricultural Cycles in Wastewater Irrigation Farming in Peru Urban Areas, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaristo Mwaba Kapungwe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies conducted on peri urban wastewater irrigation agriculture in Zambia have not adequately tackled issues pertaining to farmer managed irrigation systems in heavy metal contaminated wastewater irrigation farming.The study focused on characteristics of farmer managed irrigation systems in wastewater irrigation farming contaminated with heavy metals at New Farm in Mufulira and Chilumba Gardens in Kafue. The study objectives were to ascertain the nature of irrigation practices and types of crops grown at the two study sites in Zambia. It was hypothesised that: (i the nature of irrigation practices and types of crops were not significantly different at the two study sites in different seasons. (ii the agro-ecological factors did not significantly influence the nature of irrigation practices and types of crops. The method comprised observation of sources of water supply, methods of irrigation and types of crops grown coupled with agro-ecological factors such as soil, slope and drainage at field plots located at regular intervals along transects established in the stratified sampling zones. The results indicated that farmer managed irrigation systems at the two study sites were characterised by multiple sources of water supply, multiple methods of irrigation, relatively high number of crops per study site equivalent to twenty types of crops grown per study site and relatively high number of crops per field plot ranging from one crop to ten crops per field plot coupled with multiple cycles of agricultural practices. The nature of irrigation practices and types of crops were influenced by a combination of agro-ecological factors. In conclusion, the farmer managed irrigation systems in wastewater irrigation farming were characterised by traditional irrigation practices, high crop diversification and multiple cycles of agricultural practices which were typical of traditional farmer managed irrigation systems. It can be argued that the crop cultivators have adapted the rural traditional irrigation systems’ practices to the peri urban wastewater irrigation systems in Zambia which confirmed the findings from other studies in developing countries. The study findings will be used to select and implement appropriate agricultural practices which can mitigate the negative effects of heavy metal contamination.

  9. Modeling climate change induced hydrological extremes in the Kafue River Basin in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngongondo, C.; Li, L.; Gong, L.; Xu, C.-Y.

    2012-04-01

    Climate change impact projections in southern Africa suggest significant declines in flows in the major river basins. However, impacts of climate change on hydrological extremes (floods) in the region remain a grey area despite the threat they pose to human life and property. In this study, the impacts of climate change on extreme flows in the upper Kafue River basin, a major tributary of the Zambezi River, were investigated. Catchment hydrography was determined using the Hydro1k at a spatial resolution of 1 km resulting in an approximate registered area of 23,000 km2. The daily global WASMOD-M model was calibrated and validated during 1971 to 2001 with the WATCH Forcing Data (WFD) against observed discharge at Machiya gauging station from the Gridded River Discharge Data Centre(GRDC). Future climate change scenarios for extreme flows were derived by forcing the model with outputs from three GCM's (ECHAM, CMCC3 and IPSL) under the IPCC's SRES A2 and B1 scenarios from 2020 to 2100 at daily timescale. During calibration and validation, the NS coefficient value was above 0.80 and the Pearson correlation coefficient between observed and simulated flows of 0.9, suggesting acceptable model performance. Current and future extremes for each scenario were analyzed using the Peak Over Threshold (POT) analysis fitted to the Generalised Pareto Distribution (GPA), which provided less RMSE values as compared to Annual Maximum Series (AMS) fitted to the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution. The results show considerable departures from the reference period extremes for most of GCM scenarios considered, with both the A2 and B1 scenarios of the IPSL resulting in higher projected flows as compared to the other two models. On average, floods with return periods T=5,10,50,100,1000 years increased from Q (m3 s-1) = 626.6, 673.9, 767.1, 802.3, 903.7 during the reference period to Q (m3s-1) = 793.5, 873.4, 1046.2, 1119.2, 1364.8 respectively. The approach in our study has a strong potential for similar assessments in other parts of this data scarce region.

  10. Advances in area-wide tsetse control in Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Trypanosomosis is one of the major constraints to sustainable agricultural development particularly in the traditional sector, which accounts for about 80% of the national livestock (cattle) in Zambia. The remaining 20% commercially managed herds are located in tsetse free areas. More than five-eighths of Zambia is tsetse infested, and the boundaries of tsetse infestation are not constantly monitored, indicated boundaries are only estimates. In the late 1980's it was reported by Chizyuka and colleagues, that two thirds of the country was infested with tsetse flies and 25% of the traditional herd was at risk of trypanosomosis. Currently Zambia accounts some 2.8 million cattle, a million goats, a marginal number of sheep and 0.5 million pigs. The 1999-2003 Health Statistics Report by the Ministry of Health indicated 83 cases of reported human trypanosomosis, of which 31 were children under five years and 52 were above five years of age. Between January 2003 and 25th August 2003, seven cases of human trypanosomosis have been documented from Nyimba, Luangwa, Mpika, Serenje and Mambwe districts. During the last 15 years Zambia had achieved a lot in terms of tsetse control in the country. Tsetse densities and the disease prevalence were brought down from fly densities as high as 7 fly/trap/day to as low as 0.05 fly/trap/day and trypanosomosis prevalence from as high as 20% to as low as 0% in the tsetse controlled areas. Tsetse have been controlled in approximatelsetse have been controlled in approximately 50,000 km2 under projects funded by different donors in separate areas in Western, Southern, Lusaka and Eastern provinces. In recent years the country has been experiencing re-invasion of the areas that where once cleared. The main specific problems experienced from past control operations under the support of donors (EU, Belgium, the Netherlands) include among others: - Re-invasion of tsetse flies in controlled areas when maintenance activities were relaxed due to insufficient funding and inconsistent release of funds. - High costs of keeping controlled areas free of tsetse indefinitely. Small areas are difficulty to maintain free of tsetse. Management of trypanosomosis in the past decade or so has mainly been by tsetse control using bait technology (targets and treated cattle) and chemotherapy at the farmer level. These activities have been restricted to portions of the western and eastern fly belts and were under the support of donor contributions to improved livestock production in the country. Despite the considerable achievements realised from these vector control interventions, the areas of concern got re-infested with flies from neighboring areas that are not under control. Repeated control of tsetse flies in the same areas has cost Zambia huge amount of money. For example in Western Province the Government is spending about USD175,306 per year over the last 7 years to service a target barrier of 200 km in length (with approximately 6,000 targets), USD13,000 on monitoring and regulation, USD20,000 on tsetse and trypanosomosis surveys and USD 55,466 on salaries and other allowances. Local farmers are using approximately USD20,000 on trypanocides in Senanga and Shangombo districts. Altogether the total expenses per year comes up to approximately USD283,772. - Minimal regional cooperation and collaboration due to varying priorities along border areas Other problems include: - Shortage of trained and specialized manpower after donor withdraws. - Loss of manpower to HIV/AIDS. - Unclearly defined objectives of projects (objectives subject to change). It is against this background that Zambia is advocating for area-wide control of tsetse flies in the country and the region. One of the areas where this concept is being applied is the Kwando-Zambezi region where Namibia, Botswana, Angola and Zambia have common boundaries. All the four countries have agreed to eradicate tsetse in this region starting from May 2005 integrating methods (e.g. odoured baited targets, aerial spray, and SIT). The Pan African Tsetse and Try

  11. From targeted exemptions to user fee abolition in health care: experience from rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiye, Felix; Chitah, Bona M; McIntyre, Diane

    2010-08-01

    Poor access to health care is one of the greatest impediments to improved health in Africa. In Zambia, user fees are considered to be partly responsible for substantial disparities in access to health care. When the Government introduced user fees in 1993, considerable concern was expressed about the adverse effects on utilisation and access. A national exemption policy was designed to protect the poorest sections of the population. However, this was largely ineffective in reaching the majority of the eligible population. On January 13th, 2006, the President of Zambia announced a policy to abolish user fees at primary health care facilities in designated rural districts. This was a major policy shift from targeted exemptions to free primary health care across the board. This study reviewed the performance of free health care in Zambia, following 15 months of implementation. Using a comprehensive national facility-based dataset, we found that utilisation increased among the rural population aged at least five years by 55%. Importantly, utilisation increases were greatest in the districts with the highest levels of poverty and material deprivation. Further, our patient exit interview survey at facilities in two rural districts reveals that although there is some evidence of a strain on drug supplies, perceptions of quality of health care remain fairly positive. This is in contrast to the experience in other countries that have removed user fees. Our findings strongly suggest that fee removal is more effective than fragmented efforts to target exemptions to certain groups in providing protection against the financial consequences of using health services. PMID:20542363

  12. The Local Social and Environmental Impacts of Smallholder-Based Biofuel Investments in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davison Gumbo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available High oil prices, recent commitments by industrialized countries to enhance the use of renewable energy, and efforts by developing countries to stimulate foreign investment as a pathway to development have fueled high levels of interest in the biofuel sector throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa. Zambia is no exception. A large, land-locked country with high pump prices and vast tracts of land considered by many to be “degraded” or “underutilized,” investor interest in the sector has remained high despite uncertainties associated with unproven feedstocks and market fluctuations. While investment in multiple feedstock and production models may be observed, one of the primary investments has been in jatropha outgrower schemes in which small-scale farmers grow feedstock on contract with domestic and foreign investors. We assess the history and evolution of the largest such scheme in Zambia, as well as the social and environmental impacts in two districts with large numbers of outgrowers. Findings suggest that, although such a production model may hold promise for enhancing rural livelihood benefits from the emerging biofuel sector, to date, small-scale farmers have borne the brunt of the risk and uncertainty that are the trademarks of this emerging industry. We conclude with a discussion of options to minimize forest conversion and protect farmers against high-risk investments, while harnessing the potential of this business model for enhancing rural livelihoods in Zambia and elsewhere.

  13. An Assessment of the Growth Opportunities and Constraints in Zambia’s Cotton Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Kalinda

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to assess the major opportunities and constraints in Zambia’s cotton industry. The study found that the cotton sector has considerable potential to contribute to growth and employment in Zambia as it currently accounts for direct and indirect employment of approximately 21% of the population and about 19% of agricultural Gross Domestic Product. The prominence of smallholder farmers in the sector is indicative of the income equity promotion potential of the cotton sector. However, the highly concentrated structure of the sector, with two key players currently accounting for about 80% of the total market share in ginning; the absence of regulatory mechanisms for setting of prices; the openness of the local market to global price fluctuations and the lack of support programmes as compared to competing crops like maize are major impediments to equity promotion in the sector. Overall growth of the cotton sector is also constrained by low productivity arising mostly from poor farming practices. Furthermore, increased production in major world markets due to subsidies and use of bio-technology in cotton production undermine the competitiveness of Zambia’s cotton in international markets. For Zambia to realize the potential of the cotton sector, interventions need to be targeted at raising farm level productivity. The government should also facilitate informed policy debate and development on critical issues such as biotechnology adoption as well as facilitating consensus between cotton buyers and farmers on price setting mechanisms.

  14. Livestock sector in Zambia: Opportunities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambia is endowed with a vast feed resource base for animal production purposes. However, the feed resource base is not fully utilised and this is manifested by low livestock productivity. The quality and production levels of animal products depend largely on the quality and quantity of feed, which is fed to the livestock. Among the constraints limiting livestock productivity in Zambia, insufficient and low quality of veld grass, particularly during the long dry season (March-November) is responsible for low production levels and poor reproductive performance in ruminants. The problem of inadequate veld grass can be overcome by feeding crop residues which are in abundance during the dry season. Zambia produces large quantities of sugarcane tops, bagasse and straws from maize, sorghum, wheat, millet and rice. These could sustain livestock productivity if supplemented with protein sources or treated with urea. Despite the production of large quantities of crop residues, these are wasted by burning or get destroyed by termites. There is a need, therefore, to develop feeding systems based on crop residues which are compatible with the farming systems in Zambia and to promote such feeding systems. (author)

  15. Genetic variation in Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Acari: Ixodidae) from Zambia: correlating genetic and ecological variation with Rhipicephalus appendiculatus from eastern and southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtambo, Jupiter; Madder, Maxime; Van Bortel, Wim; Geysen, Dirk; Berkvens, Dirk; Backeljau, Thierry

    2007-12-01

    Based on their ecology, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks from eastern and southern Africa have been divided into three groups. We investigated how two geographic genetically differentiated stocks of R. appendiculatus from the southern and the eastern provinces of Zambia, representing two ecological groups, i.e., southern African and transition groups, respectively, genetically compare to stocks from east Africa (Rwanda) and southern Africa (Zimbabwe and South Africa). The ITS2 and two mitochondrial genes segments, 12s rDNA and COI, were used in the investigations. The ITS2 tree did not show support for differentiation into any groups, while the two mitochondrial genes trees (12s rDNA and COI) showed two genetically differentiated groups: an east African genetic group which included specimens from Rwanda and the plateau area of the eastern province of Zambia, and a southern African genetic group represented by specimens from South Africa, Zimbabwe and specimens collected on the fringes of the eastern province plateau in the Nyimba district of Zambia. This suggests that the two geographically differentiated stocks of the southern and eastern provinces of Zambia might be part of two wider geographic genetically differentiated R. appendiculatus groups that extend beyond Zambia. Stocks of "transition" ecology (eastern province) belong to the east African genetic group and the differences in ecology within this genetic grouping may be due to genetic polymorphism, phenotypic plasticity, and other local factors. PMID:18260504

  16. Task sharing in Zambia: HIV service scale-up compounds the human resource crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simbaya Joseph

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable attention has been given by policy makers and researchers to the human resources for health crisis in Africa. However, little attention has been paid to quantifying health facility-level trends in health worker numbers, distribution and workload, despite growing demands on health workers due to the availability of new funds for HIV/AIDS control scale-up. This study analyses and reports trends in HIV and non-HIV ambulatory service workloads on clinical staff in urban and rural district level facilities. Methods Structured surveys of health facility managers, and health services covering 2005-07 were conducted in three districts of Zambia in 2008 (two urban and one rural, to fill this evidence gap. Intra-facility analyses were conducted, comparing trends in HIV and non-HIV service utilisation with staff trends. Results Clinical staff (doctors, nurses and nurse-midwives, and clinical officers numbers and staff population densities fell slightly, with lower ratios of staff to population in the rural district. The ratios of antenatal care and family planning registrants to nurses/nurse-midwives were highest at baseline and increased further at the rural facilities over the three years, while daily outpatient department (OPD workload in urban facilities fell below that in rural facilities. HIV workload, as measured by numbers of clients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT per facility staff member, was highest in the capital city, but increased rapidly in all three districts. The analysis suggests evidence of task sharing, in that staff designated by managers as ART and PMTCT workers made up a higher proportion of frontline service providers by 2007. Conclusions This analysis of workforce patterns across 30 facilities in three districts of Zambia illustrates that the remarkable achievements in scaling-up HIV/AIDS service delivery has been on the back of sustained non-HIV workload levels, increasing HIV workload and stagnant health worker numbers. The findings are based on an analysis of routine data that are available to district and national managers. Mixed methods research is needed, combining quantitative analyses of routine health information with follow-up qualitative interviews, to explore and explain workload changes, and to identify and measure where problems are most acute, so that decision makers can respond appropriately. This study provides quantitative evidence of a human resource crisis in health facilities in Zambia, which may be more acute in rural areas.

  17. Task sharing in Zambia: HIV service scale-up compounds the human resource crisis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Aisling

    2010-09-17

    Abstract Background Considerable attention has been given by policy makers and researchers to the human resources for health crisis in Africa. However, little attention has been paid to quantifying health facility-level trends in health worker numbers, distribution and workload, despite growing demands on health workers due to the availability of new funds for HIV\\/AIDS control scale-up. This study analyses and reports trends in HIV and non-HIV ambulatory service workloads on clinical staff in urban and rural district level facilities. Methods Structured surveys of health facility managers, and health services covering 2005-07 were conducted in three districts of Zambia in 2008 (two urban and one rural), to fill this evidence gap. Intra-facility analyses were conducted, comparing trends in HIV and non-HIV service utilisation with staff trends. Results Clinical staff (doctors, nurses and nurse-midwives, and clinical officers) numbers and staff population densities fell slightly, with lower ratios of staff to population in the rural district. The ratios of antenatal care and family planning registrants to nurses\\/nurse-midwives were highest at baseline and increased further at the rural facilities over the three years, while daily outpatient department (OPD) workload in urban facilities fell below that in rural facilities. HIV workload, as measured by numbers of clients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) per facility staff member, was highest in the capital city, but increased rapidly in all three districts. The analysis suggests evidence of task sharing, in that staff designated by managers as ART and PMTCT workers made up a higher proportion of frontline service providers by 2007. Conclusions This analysis of workforce patterns across 30 facilities in three districts of Zambia illustrates that the remarkable achievements in scaling-up HIV\\/AIDS service delivery has been on the back of sustained non-HIV workload levels, increasing HIV workload and stagnant health worker numbers. The findings are based on an analysis of routine data that are available to district and national managers. Mixed methods research is needed, combining quantitative analyses of routine health information with follow-up qualitative interviews, to explore and explain workload changes, and to identify and measure where problems are most acute, so that decision makers can respond appropriately. This study provides quantitative evidence of a human resource crisis in health facilities in Zambia, which may be more acute in rural areas.

  18. SAFARI 2000 Atmospheric Aerosol Measurements, Hand-held Hazemeters, Zambia

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In conjunction with the AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) participation in SAFARI 2000, the USDA Forest Service deployed handheld hazemeters in western Zambia from...

  19. Productive Potential, Market Access and Smallholder Livestock Production: Evidence from southern Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelson Tembo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses household data collected from livestock-rearing communities in 3 districts inSouthern Province of Zambia and corner-solution econometric models to measure the effectof productive potential and market access on livestock production. We also test for theexistence of heterogeneous effects across agro-ecological regions, livestock species andpoverty levels. To the best of our knowledge, no study has done this before. The findingsidentify the need for policies and interventions that are aimed at strengtheninglivestock-based livelihood systems to be responsive to not only the target groups but alsoproductive potential and market access characteristics of the communities in which they live.The livestock systems inherent in the various districts and communities also need to beexplicitly taken into account.

  20. Evaluation of some ceramic clays from Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    This reports details the technical evaluation of ceramic clays collected during visits to Zambia in 1990 and 1991 by the author (Clive Mitchell). The clay samples included: Choma kaolin (Southern Province), Twapia kaolin (Copperbelt Province), Kapiri Mposhi kaolin (Central Province), Masenche clay (Northern Province), Leula clay, Misenga clay and Chikankata clay (Southern Province). The Choma kaolin was asessed to be an excellent source of ceramic-grade kaolin. The Twapia and Kapiri Mposhi ka...

  1. Population genetic analysis and sub-structuring of Theileria parva in the northern and eastern parts of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muleya Walter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theileriosis, caused by Theileria parva, is an economically important disease in Africa. It is a major constraint to the development of the livestock industry in some parts of eastern, central and southern Africa. In Zambia, theileriosis causes losses of up to 10,000 cattle annually. Methods Cattle blood samples were collected for genetic analysis of Theileria parva from Isoka and Petauke districts in Zambia. Microsatellite analysis was then performed on all Theileria parva positive samples for PCR using a panel of 9 microsatellite markers. Microsatellite data was analyzed using microsatellite toolkit, GenAlEx ver. 6, Fstat ver. 2.9.3.2, and LIAN computer softwares. Results The combined percentage of positive samples in both districts determined by PCR using the p104 gene primers was 54.9% (95% CI: 46.7 – 63.1%, 78/142, while in each district, it was 44.8% (95% CI: 34.8 – 54.8% and 76.1% (95% CI = 63.9 – 88.4% for Isoka and Petauke districts, respectively. We analyzed the population genetic structure of Theileria parva from a total of 61 samples (33 from Isoka and 28 from Petauke using a panel of 9 microsatellite markers encompassing the 4 chromosomes of Theileria parva. Wright’s F index (FST = 0.178 showed significant differentiation between the Isoka and Petauke populations. Linkage disequilibrium was observed when populations from both districts were treated as a single population. When analyzed separately, linkage disequilibrium was observed in Kanyelele and Kalembe areas in Isoka district, Isoka district overall and in Petauke district. Petauke district had a higher multiplicity of infection than Isoka district. Conclusion Population genetic analyses of Theileria parva from Isoka and Petauke districts showed a low level of genotype exchange between the districts, but a high level of genetic diversity within each district population, implying genetic and geographic sub-structuring between the districts. The sub-structuring observed, along with the lack of panmixia in the populations, could have been due to low transmission levels at the time of sampling. However, the Isoka population was less diverse than the Petauke population.

  2. Underperformance of African Protected Area Networks and the Case for New Conservation Models: Insights from Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsey, Peter A.; Nyirenda, Vincent R.; Barnes, Jonathan I.; Becker, Matthew S.; Mcrobb, Rachel; Tambling, Craig J.; Taylor, W. Andrew; Watson, Frederick G.; T’sas-rolfes, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Many African protected areas (PAs) are not functioning effectively. We reviewed the performance of Zambia’s PA network and provide insights into how their effectiveness might be improved. Zambia’s PAs are under-performing in ecological, economic and social terms. Reasons include: a) rapidly expanding human populations, poverty and open-access systems in Game Management Areas (GMAs) resulting in widespread bushmeat poaching and habitat encroachment; b) underfunding of the Zambia Wildlife A...

  3. Developing a strategic marketing plan for the Zambia Tourism Board in China

    OpenAIRE

    Kasongo, Mulenga Ablbertina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to research how the Zambian Government through the use of the Zambia ?Tourist Board can increase awareness of Zambia’s various tourist attractions, its geographical position, and ?differentiate the country from its competitors as an African tourist destination.? The research information was collected by studying theories related to marketing planning. Personal ?interviews with Chinese visitors in Zambia, members of staff at the Zambia Tourism Board,...

  4. Further evidence for geographic differentiation in R. appendiculatus (Acari: Ixodidae) from Eastern and Southern provinces of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtambo, Jupiter; Madder, Maxime; Van Bortel, Wim; Chaka, George; Berkvens, Dirk; Backeljau, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    Studies in the biology, ecology and behaviour of R. appendiculatus in Zambia have shown considerable variation within and between populations often associated with their geographical origin. We studied variation in the mitochondrial COI (mtCOI) gene of adult R. appendiculatus ticks originating from the Eastern and Southern provinces of Zambia. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks from the two provinces were placed into two groups on the mtCOI sequence data tree. One group comprised all haplotypes of specimens from the Eastern province plateau districts of Chipata and Petauke. The second group consisted of a single haplotype of specimens from the Southern province districts and Nyimba, an Eastern province district on the fringes of the valley. This variation provides additional evidence to the earlier observations in the 12S rDNA and ITS2 data for the geographic subdivision of R. appendiculatus from Southern province and Eastern province plateau. The geographic subdivision further corresponds with differences in body size and diapause between R. appendiculatus from these geographic areas. The possible implications of these findings on the epidemiology of East Coast fever (ECF) the disease for which R. appendiculatus is one of the vectors are discussed. PMID:17340215

  5. District heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The papers presented at this meeting dealt with an international comparison of district heating, the Swiss district heating network, political aspects of nuclear district heating, nuclear and non-nuclear sources for district heating. 17 figs., 6 tabs

  6. Development of radiation protection infrastructure in Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive materials have been in use in Zambia for a long time and its applications are non-military and mostly are used in medicine, research, teaching and industry. Radioactive waste management practices have been confined mainly to collection and storage of radioactive wastes in temporal storage facilities or strong rooms. With the proposed establishment of the Radiotherapy Centre, the increase of radioactive materials in the country's hospitals, research centres and industries, the volume and types of radioactive wastes on the whole is expected to increase requiring a well defined radiation infrastructure. (author)

  7. Effectiveness of participatory breeding and variety selection for sorghum technology adoption in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Mbulwe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Participatory breeding and variety selection has been proposed as an effective way of disseminating improved technologies to farmers for social-economic benefits. As a result the Sorghum and Millets Improvement Programme (SMIP, of the Zambia Agriculture Research Institution (ZARI, in collaboration with the farming systems scientists at Mansa Research Station, in Luapula Province tested the effectiveness of this methodology. The effectiveness of this method was evaluated based on the number of farmers rating new improved agriculture technologies favourably and willing to adopt the improved technologies after being exposed to participatory breeding. An on-farm participatory sorghum variety demonstration trial was conducted during the 2011/2012 rainy season in Zambia, Milenge district, of the Luapula province. The trial consisted of 12 improved sorghum germplasm lines of which six were hybrids and six were varieties developed by SMIP. The germplasm was evaluated by the farmers, extension and research staff on farm. The germplasm was evaluated for its value for cultivation and use. The methodology that was used is called participatory breeding which is part of the broader concept of participatory rural extension and the Innovative Platform for Technology Adoption (IPTA advocated by the Forum for Agriculture Research in Africa. The results of the methodology indicated that this methodology is effective if farmers are committed and good agriculture policies are in place. When farmers feel part of the developmental process, it is easier for them to adopt improved technologies.

  8. Diagnostic approaches to malaria in Zambia, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukonka, Victor M; Chanda, Emmanuel; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Elbadry, Maha A; Wamulume, Pauline K; Mwanza-Ingwe, Mercy; Lubinda, Jailos; Laytner, Lindsey A; Zhang, Wenyi; Mushinge, Gabriel; Haque, Ubydul

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is an important health burden in Zambia with proper diagnosis remaining as one of the biggest challenges. The need for reliable diagnostics is being addressed through the introduction of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). However, without sufficient laboratory amenities in many parts of the country, diagnosis often still relies on non-specific, clinical symptoms. In this study, geographical information systems were used to both visualize and analyze the spatial distribution and the risk factors related to the diagnosis of malaria. The monthly reported, district-level number of malaria cases from January 2009 to December 2014 were collected from the National Malaria Control Center (NMCC). Spatial statistics were used to reveal cluster tendencies that were subsequently linked to possible risk factors, using a non-spatial regression model. Significant, spatio-temporal clusters of malaria were spotted while the introduction of RDTs made the number of clinically diagnosed malaria cases decrease by 33% from 2009 to 2014. The limited access to road network(s) was found to be associated with higher levels of malaria, which can be traced by the expansion of health promotion interventions by the NMCC, indicating enhanced diagnostic capability. The capacity of health facilities has been strengthened with the increased availability of proper diagnostic tools and through retraining of community health workers. To further enhance spatial decision support systems, a multifaceted approach is required to ensure mobilization and availability of human, infrastructural and technological resources. Surveillance based on standardized geospatial or other analytical methods should be used by program managers to design, target, monitor and assess the spatio-temporal dynamics of malaria diagnostic resources country-wide. PMID:26054519

  9. Assessing the impact of health financing mechanism in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Chibuye, J.

    2010-01-01

    An adequately and well-managed financing mechanism of the public health care system has continued to elude many low income countries. Zambia is one of those countries whose health system has continued to struggle with inadequate and inequitably distributed resources. To date, Zambia has recorded slow progress in improving health outcomes, and meeting health targets has raised concerns about the country’s capacity to sustainably finance its health care system, given the limited capacity for ...

  10. Financial sector reforms and savings mobilization in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Maimbo, Samuel Munzele; Mavrotas, George

    2003-01-01

    The paper explores the relationship between financial sector reforms and savings mobilization in Zambia. Although there exists an extensive literature on financial sector development and savings levels in developing countries, there does not seem to exist satisfactory work on the above nexus for sub-Saharan African countries, particularly Zambia. Along these lines, the paper examines the linkages between the financial reforms of the early 1990s and savings mobilization. It considers the chara...

  11. The Mesoproterozoic Irumide belt of Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, B.; Kampunzu, A. B.; Mapani, B. S. E.; Tembo, F.

    2006-09-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Irumide belt is a northeast-trending structural province stretching from central Zambia to the Zambia-Tanzania border and northern Malawi. Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic transcurrent shear zones within reactivated parts of the Palaeoproterozoic Ubendian belt define its northeastern limit. The northwestern margin is defined by the largely undeformed basement lithologies of the Bangweulu block. An intensely folded and sheared zone at the southeastern margin of the Mporokoso Group sedimentary depocentre on the Bangweulu block, interpreted to have developed above a thrust at the basement-cover interface, indicates that far-field effects of the Irumide Orogen also affected the southeastern part of the Bangweulu block sedimentary cover. To the west and southwest, Irumide and basement lithologies were reworked by the Damara-Lufilian-Zambezi Orogen within the Neoproterozoic Zambezi and Lufilian belts. The Choma-Kalomo block, previously regarded as the southwesterly continuation of the Irumide belt, is a distinct Mesoproterozoic province, while a succession of structurally juxtaposed tectonic terranes in eastern Zambia record a deformation event related to the Irumide Orogen. The lithological units identified in the Irumide belt include: (1) limited Neoarchaean rocks emplaced between 2.73 and 2.61 Ga and representing the oldest rocks in the Bangweulu block; (2) ca. 2.05-1.85 Ga volcano-plutonic complexes and gneisses representing the most important components in the Bangweulu block; (3) an extensive quartzite-metapelite succession with minor carbonate forming the Muva Supergroup, and deposited at ca. 1.85 Ga; (4) granitoids emplaced between 1.65 and 1.55 Ga; (5) a minor suite of anorogenic plutons (nepheline syenite and biotite granite) restricted to the far northeastern Irumide belt and emplaced between 1.36 and 1.33 Ga; (6) voluminous syn- to post-kinematic Irumide granitoids emplaced between 1.05 and 0.95 Ga. Crustal shortening and thickening in the Irumide belt are shown by northwestward-directed thrusts and related folds and metamorphic parageneses recording a clockwise medium-pressure/medium-temperature P- T- t path. Metamorphic grades range from greenschist facies in the foreland to the northwest to upper amphibolite facies in the southeast, with local granulites. Peak metamorphism is diachronous across the belt and bracketed between 1.05 in the southeast and 1.02 Ga in the northwest.

  12. Can family planning outreach bridge the urban-rural divide in Zambia?

    OpenAIRE

    Speizer Ilene S; White Justin S

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Zambia experienced declining aggregate fertility and increasing aggregate contraceptive use from 1990 to 2000. Yet, in rural Zambia, progress in family planning has lagged far behind the advances made in Zambia's urban areas. The contraceptive prevalence rate in Lusaka and other urban areas outstripped the rate in rural Zambia by nearly 25 percentage points (41.2 percent versus 16.6 percent) in 2001. The total fertility rate varied between urban and rural areas by 2.5 chil...

  13. Growth and Competitiveness of Non-Traditional Agricultural Exports in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Chibamba Mwansakilwa; Gelson Tembo; Johnny Mugisha

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the determinants of growth and competitiveness of Zambia’s flower exports to three main export destinations—the Netherlands, the UK and Germany—using annual time series data from 1990 to 2010. Acknowledging that time series data are often nonstationary, leading to misleading economic analyses, the study employs cointegration and error correction models to establish factors of conditions growth and competitiveness of Zambia’s flower exports. The...

  14. Health and agricultural productivity: Evidence from Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Günther; Masiye, Felix

    2015-07-01

    We evaluate the productivity effects of investment in preventive health technology through a randomized controlled trial in rural Zambia. In the experiment, access to subsidized bed nets was randomly assigned at the community level; 516 farmers were followed over a one-year farming period. We find large positive effects of preventative health investment on productivity: among farmers provided with access to free nets, harvest value increased by US$ 76, corresponding to about 14.7% of the average output value. While only limited information was collected on farming inputs, shifts in the extensive and the intensive margins of labor supply appear to be the most likely mechanism underlying the productivity improvements observed. PMID:25966452

  15. Legislative Districts - House Districts

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer represents the Arkansas State House of Representatives district boundaries adopted by the Arkansas Board of Apportionment on July 29, 2011. The Board of...

  16. Barriers to implementation of the HIV guidelines in the IMCI algorithm among IMCI trained health workers in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalesha Penny

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zambia adopted integrated management of Childhood illnesses (IMCI in 1995 and a number of adaptations have been made to the generic WHO/UNICEF IMCI guidelines to better conform to Zambia's health service needs. One significant adaptation is the incorporation of HIV guidelines into the IMCI algorithm. Since 2004, health workers that have undergone IMCI case management training have also received training in HIV assessment. During initial follow-up visits in 11 districts 90 health workers were assessed in 2007 to determine their adherence to the IMCI algorithm. The assessment showed that 97% of the health workers assessed did not review or mention the HIV guidelines even though they had received HIV training as part of IMCI. This study aimed to explore reasons for non-adherence to HIV guidelines in the IMCI algorithm and make recommendations on how this can be improved. Methods Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to collect information from eligible health workers. Forty (40 health workers were randomly selected from among those who received initial follow-up visits between March 2007 and January 2008. The health workers were selected from eight districts in four provinces of Zambia. Qualitative data was collected using Focus group discussion and key informant interviews Results 83% of the respondents said they had no difficulties in following the HIV adapted IMCI guidelines. 17% said they had difficulties. Of those who admitted having difficulties (60% had difficulties in HIV assessment. Interesting, prompting and focus group discussions revealed that most respondents actually had difficulties in HIV assessment but could not admit it readily. Some barriers that contributed to non-adherence to the guidelines included lack of time due to inadequate staffing, lack of privacy in the health facilities and HIV related stigma from both caregivers and health workers. Frequent use of guidelines and supervision appeared to re-enforce adherence to the guidelines. Conclusion The findings in this study suggest that training in HIV adapted IMCI guidelines is not sufficient to enable health workers to actually use their knowledge in their daily practice. Barriers may exist which prevent them from adhering to the guidelines. Addressing these barriers is critical in increasing the uptake of paediatric ART in Zambia

  17. The Determinants and Extent of Crop Diversification Among Smallholder Farmers: A Case Study of Southern Province Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Kiru Sichoongwe; Lawrence Mapemba; Gelson Tembo; Davies Ng’ong’ola

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is vital to Zambia’s economic development and is a mainstay for the livelihoods of a large proportion of the population. Agricultural production is mainly dependent on rain-fed hoe cultivation with maize as the principal staple food crop. About 18 percent of national maize production comes from Zambia’s Southern province. In order to improve food security and minimize risks associated with heavy dependence on maize, the government of Zambia has been promoting crop diversificat...

  18. The epidemiology of HIV infection in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandala, N-B; Ji, C; Cappuccio, P F; Stones, R W

    2008-08-01

    Population surveys of health and fertility are an important source of information about demographic trends and their likely impact on the HIV/AIDS epidemic. In contrast to groups sampled at health facilities they can provide nationally and regionally representative estimates of a range of variables. Data on HIV-sero-status were collected in the 2001 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS) and made available in a separate data file in which HIV status was linked to a very limited set of demographic variables. We utilized this data set to examine associations between HIV prevalence, gender, age and geographical location. We applied the generalized geo-additive semi-parametric model as an alternative to the common linear model, in the context of analyzing the prevalence of HIV infection. This model enabled us to account for spatial auto-correlation, non-linear, location effects on the prevalence of HIV infection at the disaggregated provincial level (nine provinces) and assess temporal and geographical variation in the prevalence of HIV infection, while simultaneously controlling for important risk factors. Of the overall sample of 3950, 54% was female. The overall HIV-positivity rate was 565 (14.3%). The mean age at HIV diagnosis for male was 30.3 (SD=11.2) and 27.7 (SD=9.3) for female respectively. Lusaka and Copperbelt have the first and second highest prevalence of AIDS/HIV (marginal odds ratios of 3.24 and 2.88, respectively) but when the younger age of the urban population and the spatial auto-correlation was taken into account, Lusaka and Copperbelt were no longer among the areas with the highest prevalence. Non-linear effects of age at HIV diagnosis are also discussed and the importance of spatial residual effects and control of confounders on the prevalence of HIV infection. The study was conducted to assess the spatial pattern and the effect of confounding risk factors on AIDS/HIV prevalence and to develop a means of adjusting estimates of AIDS/HIV prevalence on the important risk factors. Controlling for important risk factors, such as geographical location (spatial auto-correlation), age structure of the population and gender, gave estimates of prevalence that are statistically robust. Researchers should be encouraged to use all available information in the data to account for important risk factors when reporting AIDS/HIV prevalence. Where this is not possible, correction factors should be applied, particularly where estimates of AIDS/HIV prevalence are pooled in systematic reviews. Our maps can be used for policy planning and management of AIDS/HIV in Zambia. PMID:18608086

  19. A cost-effectiveness analysis of artemether lumefantrine for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawela Moonga

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity, mortality and non-fatal disability in Zambia, especially among children, pregnant women and the poor. Data gathered by the National Malaria Control Centre has shown that recently observed widespread treatment failure of SP and chloroquine precipitated a surge in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. As a result, the Government has recently replaced chloroquine and SP with combination therapy as first-line treatment for malaria. Despite the acclaimed therapeutic advantages of ACTs over monotherapies with SP and CQ, the cost of ACTs is much greater, raising concerns about affordability in many poor countries such as Zambia. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness analysis of artemether-lumefantrine, a version of ACTs adopted in Zambia in mid 2004. Methods Using data gathered from patients presenting at public health facilities with suspected malaria, the costs and effects of using ACTs versus SP as first-line treatment for malaria were estimated. The study was conducted in six district sites. Treatment success and reduction in demand for second line treatment constituted the main effectiveness outcomes. The study gathered data on the efficacy of, and compliance to, AL and SP treatment from a random sample of patients. Costs are based on estimated drug, labour, operational and capital inputs. Drug costs were based on dosages and unit prices provided by the Ministry of Health and the manufacturer (Norvatis. Findings The results suggest that AL produces successful treatment at less cost than SP, implying that AL is more cost-effective. While it is acknowledged that implementing national ACT program will require considerable resources, the study demonstrates that the health gains (treatment success from every dollar spent are significantly greater if AL is used rather than SP. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is estimated to be US$4.10. When the costs of second line treatment are considered the ICER of AL becomes negative, indicating that there are greater resource savings associated with AL in terms of reduction of costs of complicated malaria treatment. Conclusion This study suggests the decision to adopt AL is justifiable on both economic and public health grounds.

  20. Patterns of Rift Valley fever activity in Zambia.

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, F. G.; Kilelu, E.; Linthicum, K. J.; Pegram, R. G.

    1992-01-01

    An hypothesis that there was an annual emergence of Rift Valley fever virus in Zambia, during or after the seasonal rains, was examined with the aid of sentinel cattle. Serum samples taken during 1974 and 1978 showed evidence of epizootic Rift Valley fever in Zambia, with more than 80% positive. A sentinel herd exposed from 1982 to 1986 showed that some Rift Valley fever occurred each year. This was usually at a low level, with 3-8% of the susceptible cattle seroconverting. In 1985-6 more tha...

  1. From chloroquine to artemether-lumefantrine: the process of drug policy change in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snow Robert W

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the recognition that morbidity and mortality due to malaria had dramatically increased in the last three decades, in 2002 the government of Zambia reviewed its efforts to prevent and treat malaria. Convincing evidence of the failing efficacy of chloroquine resulted in the initiation of a process that eventually led to the development and implementation of a new national drug policy based on artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT. Methods All published and unpublished documented evidence dealing with the antimalarial drug policy change was reviewed. These data were supplemented by the authors' observations of the policy change process. The information has been structured to capture the timing of events, the challenges encountered, and the resolutions reached in order to achieve implementation of the new treatment policy. Results A decision was made to change national drug policy to artemether-lumefantrine (AL in the first quarter of 2002, with a formal announcement made in October 2002. During this period, efforts were undertaken to identify funding for the procurement of AL and to develop new malaria treatment guidelines, training materials, and plans for implementation of the policy. In order to avoid a delay in implementation, the policy change decision required a formal adoption within existing legislation. Starting with donated drug, a phased deployment of AL began in January 2003 with initial use in seven districts followed by scaling up to 28 districts in the second half of 2003 and then to all 72 districts countrywide in early 2004. Conclusion Drug policy changes are not without difficulties and demand a sustained international financing strategy for them to succeed. The Zambian experience demonstrates the need for a harmonized national consensus among many stakeholders and a political commitment to ensure that new policies are translated into practice quickly. To guarantee effective policies requires more effort and recognition that this becomes a health system and not a drug issue. This case study attempts to document the successful experience of change to ACT in Zambia and provides a realistic overview of some of the painful experiences and important lessons learnt.

  2. Task-shifting: experiences and opinions of health workers in Mozambique and Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrinho Paulo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the task-shifting taking place in health centres and district hospitals in Mozambique and Zambia. The objectives of this study were to identify the perceived causes and factors facilitating or impeding task-shifting, and to determine both the positive and negative consequences of task-shifting for the service users, for the services and for health workers. Methods Data collection involved individual and group interviews and focus group discussions with health workers from the civil service. Results In both the Republic of Mozambique and the Republic of Zambia, health workers have to practice beyond the traditional scope of their professional practice to cope with their daily tasks. They do so to ensure that their patients receive the level of care that they, the health workers, deem due to them, even in the absence of written instructions. The “out of professional scope” activities consume a significant amount of working time. On occasions, health workers are given on-the-job training to assume new roles, but job titles and rewards do not change, and career progression is unheard of. Ancillary staff and nurses are the two cadres assuming a greater diversity of functions as a result of improvised task-shifting. Conclusions Our observations show that the consequences of staff deficits and poor conditions of work include heavier workloads for those on duty, the closure of some services, the inability to release staff for continuing education, loss of quality, conflicts with patients, risks for patients, unsatisfied staff (with the exception of ancillary staff and hazards for health workers and managers. Task-shifting is openly acknowledged and widespread, informal and carries risks for patients, staff and management.

  3. The economic value of an improved malaria treatment programme in Zambia: results from a contingent valuation survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehnberg Clas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zambia is facing a double crisis of increasing malaria burden and dwindling capacity to deal with the endemic malaria burden. The pursuit of sustainable but equity mechanisms for financing malaria programmes is a subject of crucial policy discussion. This requires that comprehensive accounting of the economic impact of the various malaria programmes. Information on the economic value of programmes is essential in soliciting appropriate funding allocations for malaria control. Aims and objectives This paper specifically seeks to elicit a measure of the economic benefits of an improved malaria treatment programme in Zambia. The paper also studies the equity implications in malaria treatment given that demand or malaria treatment is determined by household socio-economic status. Methods A contingent valuation survey of about 300 Zambian households was conducted in four districts. Willingness-to-pay (WTP was elicited for an improved treatment programme for malaria in order to generate a measure of the economic benefits of the programme. The payment card method was used in eliciting WTP bids. Findings The study reports that malaria treatment has significant economic benefits to society. The total economic benefits of an improved treatment programme were estimated at an equivalent of US$ 77 million per annum, representing about 1.8% of Zambia's GDP. The study also reports the theoretically anticipated association between WTP and several socio-economic factors. Our income elasticity of demand is positive and similar in magnitude to estimates reported in similar studies. Finally, from an equity standpoint, the constraints imposed by income and socio-economic status are discussed.

  4. Visit to Zambia offers humbling reminder of privileges Canadians enjoy.

    OpenAIRE

    Needham, D.

    1996-01-01

    McMaster University medical student Dale Needham is spending 6 months in Zambia, where he is focusing on HIV/AIDS research. He describes the home environment of two of his Zambian colleagues, who recently travelled to Vancouver to attend the XI International AIDS Conference.

  5. Identifying barriers to the availability and use of Magnesium Sulphate Injection in resource poor countries: A case study in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Suzanne R

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are serious complications of pregnancy and major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. According to systematic reviews and WHO guidelines magnesium sulphate injection (MgSO4 should be the first -line treatment for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Studies have shown that this safe and effective medicine is unavailable and underutilized in many resource poor countries. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to the availability and use of MgSO4 in the Zambian Public Health System. Methods A 'fishbone' (Ishikawa diagram listing probable facilitators to the availability and use of MgSO4 identified from the literature was used to develop an assessment tool. Barriers to availability and use of MgSO4 were assessed at the regulatory/government, supply, procurement, distribution, health facility and health professional levels. The assessment was completed during August 2008 using archival data, and observations at a pragmatic sample of health facilities providing obstetric services in Lusaka District, Zambia. Results The major barrier to the availability of MgSO4 within the public health system in Zambia was lack of procurement by the Ministry of Health. Other barriers identified included a lack of demand by health professionals at the health centre level and a lack of in-service training in the use of MgSO4. Where there was demand by obstetricians, magnesium sulphate injection was being procured from the private sector by the hospital pharmacy despite not being registered and licensed for use for the treatment of severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia by the national Pharmaceutical Regulatory Authority. Conclusions The case study in Zambia highlights the complexities that underlie making essential medicines available and used appropriately. The fishbone diagram is a useful theoretical framework for illustrating the complexity of translating research findings into clinical practice. A better understanding of the supply system and of the pattern of demand for MgSO4 in Zambia should enable policy makers and stakeholders to develop and implement appropriate interventions to improve the availability and use of MgSO4.

  6. Mapping the geographical distribution of lymphatic filariasis in Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mwase, Enala T; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Past case reports have indicated that lymphatic filariasis (LF) occurs in Zambia, but knowledge about its geographical distribution and prevalence pattern, and the underlying potential environmental drivers, has been limited. As a background for planning and implementation of control, a country-wide mapping survey was undertaken between 2003 and 2011. Here the mapping activities are outlined, the findings across the numerous survey sites are presented, and the ecological requirements of the LF distribution are explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Approximately 10,000 adult volunteers from 108 geo-referenced survey sites across Zambia were examined for circulating filarial antigens (CFA) with rapid format ICT cards, and a map indicating the distribution of CFA prevalences in Zambia was prepared. 78% of survey sites had CFA positive cases, with prevalences ranging between 1% and 54%. Most positive survey sites had low prevalence, but six foci with more than 15% prevalence were identified. The observed geographical variation in prevalence pattern was examined in more detail using a species distribution modeling approach to explore environmental requirements for parasite presence, and to predict potential suitable habitats over unsurveyed areas. Of note, areas associated with human modification of the landscape appeared to play an important role for the general presence of LF, whereas temperature (measured as averaged seasonal land surface temperature) seemed to be an important determinant of medium-high prevalence levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: LF was found to be surprisingly widespread in Zambia, although in most places with low prevalence. The produced maps and the identified environmental correlates of LF infection will provide useful guidance for planning and start-up of geographically targeted and cost-effective LF control in Zambia.

  7. Harmful lifestyles' clustering among sexually active in-school adolescents in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel; Kazembe Lawrence N; Muula Adamson S; Siziya Seter

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background HIV is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Zambia. Like many other African nations with high HIV burden, heterosexual intercourse is the commonest mode of HIV spread. The estimation of prevalence and factors associated with sexual intercourse among in-school adolescents has potential to inform public health interventions aimed at reducing the burden of sex-related diseases in Zambia. Methods We carried out secondary analysis of the Zambia Global School-Based Heal...

  8. 77 FR 66797 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Executive-Led...Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department...States Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration, U.S....

  9. 77 FR 48498 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Executive-Led...Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department...States Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration, U.S....

  10. 77 FR 60966 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Executive-Led...Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department...States Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration, U.S....

  11. The University of Zambia School Teaching Experience: Is It Effective?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Chomba Manchishi; David Sani Mwanza

    2014-01-01

    Teaching practice exercises serve the purpose of orienting the teacher into real classroom situations where the novice puts his or her skills into practice. Education students at the University of Zambia (UNZA) go through the school teaching experience after their third year of study. This comes after they have arguably completed enough content and methodology courses to teach. The purpose of this study was to establish the effectiveness of the UNZA school teaching experience. The research in...

  12. Determinants of Smallholder Farmers’ Access to Agricultural Finance in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Sebatta; Mukata Wamulume; Chibamba Mwansakilwa

    2014-01-01

    Smallholder farmers in Zambia face many challenges in accessing financial services including limited access to financial markets. Despite the numerous reforms undertaken by the Government and the donor community, including financial sector reforms, many rural farmers have remained in poverty with limited capacity to access safety nets like loans to militate against hunger and disease. This paper set out to find out factors that affect smallholders’ decision to access rural finance and the i...

  13. Review of the malaria epidemiology and trends in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Masaninga, Freddie; Chanda, Emmanuel; Chanda-kapata, Pascalina; Hamainza, Busiku; Masendu, Hieronymo T.; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Kapelwa, Wambinji; Chimumbwa, John; Govere, John; Otten, Mac; Fall, Ibrahima Soce; Babaniyi, Olusegun

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive desk review of malaria trends was conducted between 2000-2010 in Zambia to study malaria epidemiology and trends to guide strategies and approaches for effective malaria control. This review considered data from the National Health Information Management System, Malaria Surveys and Programme Review reports and analyzed malaria in-patient cases and deaths in relation to intervention coverage for all ages. Data showed three distinct epidemiological strata after a notable malaria...

  14. Investigating trends in HIV transmission and risk factors in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard

    2008-01-01

    The objective of HIV surveillance is to document trends in HIV prevalence and transmission risk in order to make informed policies and to guide prevention and care/treatment programmes. Zambia established a comprehensive HIV surveillance system in 1994 that provides data on prevalence trends in both urban and rural areas based on over 20 sentinel sites using data from antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees. Furthermore, population-based HIV surveys have been conducted regularly since...

  15. Theileria parva epidemics: a case study in eastern Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Billiouw, M.; Vercruysse, J.; Marcotty, T.; Speybroeck, N.; Chaka, G.; Berkvens, D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the follow-up of three sentinel herds between 1994 and 2000 during an East Coast fever (ECF) epidemic in eastern Zambia. The animals of the sentinel herds were closely monitored clinically and serologically together with detailed Rhipicephalus appendiculatus counts. Peaks of disease incidence occurred in the rainy season (December-February) and the dry months of May-July with nymph-to-adult tick transmission dominating the infection dynamics. A second wave o...

  16. A sero-epidemiological study of bovine cysticercosis in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Dorny, P.; Phiri, I.; Gabriel, S.; Speybroeck, N.; Vercruysse, J.

    2002-01-01

    A sero-epidemiological study of Taenia saginata cysticercosis was carried out in adult cattle in Zambia to determine the prevalence and study the influence of the farming system on the infection rate. Serum samples were examined for circulating parasite antigen by a monoclonal-based sandwich ELISA. Thirty-eight of 628 serum samples were found positive (prevalence 6.1%). Cysticercosis was significantly more prevalent in feedlots and in traditional farming systems than in dairy farms. It is sug...

  17. Maternity care in Zambia : With special reference to social support

    OpenAIRE

    Maimbolwa, Margaret C

    2004-01-01

    The Zambian woman starts childbearing early and gives birth to an average of 5.9 children during her reproductive period. The already high levels of maternal deaths are increasing in Zambia. Only 43 per cent of the women deliver with the assistance of a skilled attendant. Maternity care is in focus in this thesis because of the crucial impact it may have on childbearing women and their newborns' health. The aim of this thesis is to describe prevalent maternity care routines...

  18. Effects of the Maize Input Subsidy Program on Groundnuts Production in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Zulu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study uses a three-wave panel dataset from nationally representative surveys by the Central Statistical Office and Cragg's (1971 model for corner-solution problems to determine the effect of the government-sponsored maize input subsidy program on the production of groundnuts in Zambia. The results show that even though the maize subsidy programme, does not significantly affect the smallholder farmer’s decision to participate in groundnuts production, maize subsidies however do significantly influence the proportion of cultivated land area allocated to groundnuts production. This finding confirms that the current high subsidy levels targeted at maize are causing farmers to relocate their productive resources, particularly land, from other cropping enterprises towards maize production. The results also show that land allocation to groundnuts is also influenced by the household's labour endowment, level of activity of the Food Reserve Agency (FRA in the district, the household's access to market information, and the price of groundnuts relative to prices of other related commodities like maize, mixed beans, cowpeas and soyabeans.

  19. Policy options for the sustainable development of Zambia's electricity sector

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bernard, Tembo; Bruno, Merven.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at understanding how Zambia's electricity system would be affected by droughts (due to a dry year) and how the system's adaptive capacity could be improved. Hydropower currently supplies 99% of the total electricity in Zambia, and concerns have been raised because many climate change [...] studies project increased occurrences of dry years in the Southern Africa region. Different economic and climatic scenarios were explored to understand their impact on the development of Zambia's power generation system, and what policies and strategies could be adopted to mitigate these impacts on security of supply and average generation costs, which directly affect the electricity price. The results show that a dry year has significant impact on the average generating cost since hydropower continues to dominate the system. Diversifying the system does not improve the adaptive capacity of the system but only increases the average cost of generating electricity in an average year. The most cost effective way of increasing the system's adaptive capacity is by importing electricity and gradually increasing share of renewable and coal technologies in the system. Further research on how electricity trade in Southern Africa could be enhanced, should be done.

  20. Geophysical and geochemical characterisation of groundwater resources in Western Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chongo, Mkhuzo; Banda, Kawawa Eddy

    Zambia’s rural water supply system depends on groundwater resources to a large extent. However, groundwater resources are variable in both quantity and quality across the country and a national groundwater resources assessment and mapping program is presently not in place. In the Machile area in South-Western Zambia, groundwater quality problems are particularly acute. Saline groundwater occurrence is widespread and affects rural water supply, which is mainly based on shallow groundwater abstraction using hand pumps. This study has mapped groundwater quality variations in the Machile area using both ground-based and airborne geophysical methods as well as extensive water quality sampling. The occurrence of saline groundwater follows a clear spatial pattern and appears to be related to the palaeo Lake Makgadikgadi, whose northernmost extension reached into the Machile area. Because the lake was a closed endorheic system over at least parts of its geologic history, evapo-concentration caused high lake water salinity and deposition of saline sediments. Those saline sediments are presently exposed at the land surface. Surface water – groundwater interaction as well as local recharge from precipitation has formed limited freshwater reservoirs in a generally saline area, which need to be sustainably managed. We will present initial results from the geophysical and geochemical surveys conducted over the past few years. We will interpret these findings in terms of the geologic history of Southern Africa and link them to Lake Palaeo Makgadikgadi. Finally, we will discuss implications for sustainable groundwater resources management in the area.

  1. Molecular epidemiology of infectious bursal disease virus in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Kasanga

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR of 10 infectious bursal disease viruses detected in indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia from 2004 to 2005 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses diverged into two genotypes and belonged to the African very virulent types (VV1 and VV2. In the phylogenetic tree, strains in one genotype clustered in a distinct group and were closely related to some strains isolated in western Africa (VV1, with nucleotide similarities of 95.7%– 96.5%. Strains in the other genotype were clustered within the eastern African VV type (VV2, with nucleotide similarities of 97.3%– 98.5%. Both genotypes were distributed in the southern parts of Zambia and had a unique conserved amino acid substitution at 300 (E?A in addition to the putative virulence marker at positions 222(A, 242(I, 256(I, 294(I and 299(S. These findings represent the first documentation of the existence of the African VV-IBDV variants in both indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia.

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43 Section... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked...consignments only. (b) Immature “baby” carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp....

  3. Strategies for Living with the Challenges of HIV and Antiretroviral Use in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah; Zulu, Isaac; Mumbi, Miriam; Chitalu, Ndashi; Vamos, Szonja; Gomez, Jacqueline; Weiss, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to identify strategies for living with the challenges of HIV and antiretroviral (ARV) use among new medication users in urban Zambia. Participants (n = 160) were recruited from urban Lusaka, Zambia. Qualitative Data was drawn from monthly ARV treatment education intervention groups addressing HIV and antiretroviral use. Themes…

  4. In Search of the Lost Tongue: Prospects for Mother Tongue Education in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Felix

    1996-01-01

    Discusses problems associated with the implementation of mother tongue education in Zambia. Focus is on the sociolinguistic situation, language policy after independence, sociolinguistic implications, language use in different domains, language use and ethnic identity in Zambia, Kenya, and Tanzania, prospects for mother tongue education; bilingual…

  5. Sustainable Tourism in Zambia. How can development of sustainable tourism benefit small-scale tour operators in Zambia?

    OpenAIRE

    Sibeso Imbula Sveinsson 1970

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine whether there are positive benefits for small-scale tour operators in Zambia due to the development of sustainable tourism. Since tourism is an important sector in the Zambian economy, and the government encourages self-sustainability which is positive towards poverty alleviation in its communities. The research in this paper addresses the role tourism plays, the nature of tourism resources, its benefits towards poverty alleviation and reforms used in t...

  6. Investigating groundwater salinity in the Machile-Zambezi Basin (Zambia) with hydrogeophysical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chongo, Mkhuzo

    2015-01-01

    The importance of knowing the current state of groundwater resources cannot be over emphasized in rural areas in the developing countries with limited water resources. As such, innovative geophysical techniques are now part of the norm for quick and effective characterization of groundwater resources worldwide. This thesis presents the application of geo-electrical and electromagnetic methods for the investigation of groundwater salinity in the Machile-Zambezi Basin in south western Zambia, southern central Africa. Aerial and ground based transient electromagnetic measurenments were used to map the spatial distribution of apparent electrical resistivity on a regional scale in order to obtain a regional overview of groundwater salinization based on electrical resistivity correlation. Furthermore, ground based transient electromagnetic soundings and direct current and induced polarization measurements were used to investigate on a local scale, indications of surface water/ groundwater exchange from electrical resistivity anomalies coincident with alluvial fans and flood plains as deduced from the aerial electrical resistivity result. New and innovative geophysical data inversion schemes were also developed and used to gain a better explanation of the data collected. These include a new scheme for the joint inversion of direct current and induced polarization data, and transient electromagnetic data; and a new coupled hydrogeophysical inversion setup to allow for the first time the joint use of direct current and transient electromagnetic data in one optimization. The result from the regional mapping with transient electromagnetic measurenments showed a spatial distribution of electrical resistivity that indicated block faulting in the Machile-Zambezi Basin. Saline groundwater was found to occur predominantly in the low lying graben areas that are essentially an extension of the Palaeo Lake Makgadikgadi system into south western Zambia. In addition, surface water from the Zambezi River was found to interact withsaline aquifers to such an extent that the surficial physical form of alluvial fans and flood plains was visible in the spatial distribution of electrical resistivity from the aerial survey up to a depth of about 40 m. Interpretation of direct current and induced polarization, and transient electromagnetic data using the new joint inversion scheme revealed a fresh water lens overlying the saline aquifer at Kasaya in Kazungula District, Zambia. The freshwater lens appeared to be in hydraulic contact with the Zambezi River where it was thickest (60 m) and had the highest electrical resistivity values (about 200 ?m) which steadily declined to about 30 ?m whereas the thickness reduced to around 22 m at the end of the 6 600 m long transect line measured perpendicular to the Zambezi River towards the North. The distribution of chargeability along the Kasaya transect line was found to be correlated with the distribution of electrical resistivity thus giving a strong indication of the intrusion of fresh surfacewater into a pre-existing saline aquifer. It is postulated that the intrusion of fresh surface water in to the saline aquifer was driven by evapotranspiration. Finally, the new coupled hydrogeophysical inversion approach resulted in sharp estimates of hydrogeological model parameters. This was for a coupled flow and solute transport model setup for the Kasaya transect under the forcing of evapotranspiration. Performance of the coupled hydrogeophysical inversion was better with the inclusion of direct current data in comparison to the use of transient electromagnetic data alone. The broader implications of these findings is that groundwater salinization in the Machile Zambezi Basin is now known to be strongly influenced by the tectonism of the Palaeo Lake Makgadikgadi system and is therefore not expected to increase over time. Rather, surface water tends to interact with the saline aquifers in places to create freshwater lenses that are an important source of clean drinking water. Therefore, the findings of this the

  7. Innovation District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many cities are working to create innovation districts in the vein of the Silicon Valley and it can be an up-hill battle. Boston is currently working just such a district in its Seaport neighborhood and has been the recent subject of many articles, blog posts, and general discussion. As the city's official website for the district, visitors to this site can learn about physical headquarters in the District Hall building, along with details on long-term strategy, and upcoming events. Some recent posts deal with co-working spaces, networking, and more. In the Resources area visitors can learn about the various innovative businesses that are already in the neighborhood, along with others in and around Boston.

  8. Quality of antenatal care in Zambia: a national assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyei Nicholas N A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antenatal care (ANC is one of the recommended interventions to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality. Yet in most Sub-Saharan African countries, high rates of ANC coverage coexist with high maternal and neonatal mortality. This disconnect has fueled calls to focus on the quality of ANC services. However, little conceptual or empirical work exists on the measurement of ANC quality at health facilities in low-income countries. We developed a classification tool and assessed the level of ANC service provision at health facilities in Zambia on a national scale and compared this to the quality of ANC received by expectant mothers. Methods We analysed two national datasets with detailed antenatal provider and user information, the 2005 Zambia Health Facility Census and the 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS, to describe the level of ANC service provision at 1,299 antenatal facilities in 2005 and the quality of ANC received by 4,148 mothers between 2002 and 2007. Results We found that only 45 antenatal facilities (3% fulfilled our developed criteria for optimum ANC service, while 47% of facilities provided adequate service, and the remaining 50% offered inadequate service. Although 94% of mothers reported at least one ANC visit with a skilled health worker and 60% attended at least four visits, only 29% of mothers received good quality ANC, and only 8% of mothers received good quality ANC and attended in the first trimester. Conclusions DHS data can be used to monitor “effective ANC coverage” which can be far below ANC coverage as estimated by current indicators. This “quality gap” indicates missed opportunities at ANC for delivering effective interventions. Evaluating the level of ANC provision at health facilities is an efficient way to detect where deficiencies are located in the system and could serve as a monitoring tool to evaluate country progress.

  9. Declining economy in Zambia and its impact in food security

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2013-01-01

    Zambia is a landlocked country located in southern central Africa and it is one of the poorest countries in the world and is considered a least developed country. Malnutrition is a chronic and difficult problem in this country. Agriculture is the main occupation and maize is the staple food. About 90% farmers of the country are smallholders, dependent on rain fed agriculture. After independence it was rich in food and could export maize but since 2002 it has to import maize every year. Litera...

  10. Child Labour or School Attendance? Evidence from Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate what affects school attendance and child labour in an LDC, using data for Zambia. Since the data come from a household survey with information on all household members, it allows us to take account of unobserved household effects by introducing household specific effects in a logit model. The empirical analysis suggests that both economic and sociological variables are important determinants for the choice between school attendance and child labour. In particular, we find some support for the hypothesis that poverty forces households to keep their children away from school.

  11. Persistence of lindane and endosulfan under field conditions in Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The persistence of lindane and endosulfan was studied under field conditions in Zambia in 1992 to 1994. Both pesticides dissipated rapidly under field conditions. About 29% and 73% of initial concentration was lost during the first 30 and 60 days after treatment, respectively in 1992. After 180 days, about 11% of the initial concentration was recovered from the soil. In 1993, 40% of initial residues were lost during the first 30 days. At 180 days after spraying, slightly more residues (25% of the initial values) were recovered at this time than in 1992. This indicated a change in the longer term behaviour of lindane in the soil since the calculated half-lives of lindane, covering the shorter term behaviour, were 55-80 days in 1992 and ? 17 days in 1993. In 1994, losses of ?-Endosulfan and ?-Endosulfan were 40% and 37% respectively during the initial 30 days after treatment. A further 25% of ?-Endosulfan and 33% of ?-Endosulfan were lost during the following 30 days. These data allow estimates of the half-lives of ?- and ?-Endosulfan (40 and 38 days) under the field conditions pertaining in Zambia at the time of the trials showing that this compound has only moderate persistence and unlikely to cause long term environmental problems. (author). 7 refs, 8 tabs

  12. e-Government for Development Information Exchange (DIE): Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bwalya Kelvin

    In most parts of the world, political systems which utilize authoritative rule and mostly employ top-down decision-making processes are slowly transcending towards democratic norms. Information Technology Systems have been identified and adopted as one of the most efficient vehicles for appropriate, transparent and inclusive / participatory decision making. Zambia has shown a higher propensity to indigenous knowledge systems which are full of inefficiencies, a lot of red tape in public service delivery, and prone to corrupt practices. Despite that being the case, it is slowly trying to implement e-government. The adoption of e-government promises a sharp paradigm shift where public institutions will be more responsive and transparent, promote efficient PPP (Public Private Partnerships), and empower citizens by making knowledge and other resources more directly accessible. This paper examines three cases from Zambia where ICT in support of e-government has been implemented for Development Information Exchange (DIE) - knowledge-based decision making. The paper also assesses the challenges, opportunities, and issues together with e-government adoption criteria regarding successful encapsulation of e-government into the Zambian contextual environment. I propose a conceptual model which offers balanced e-government adoption criteria involving a combination of electronic and participatory services. This conceptual e-government adoption model can later be replicated to be used at the Southern African Development Community (SADC) level given the similarity in the contextual environment.

  13. Child Health Week in Zambia: costs, efficiency, coverage and a reassessment of need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, John L; Mubanga, Freddie; Siamusantu, Ward; Musonda, Mofu; Kabwe, Kabaso F; Zulu, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Child Health Weeks (CHWs) are semi-annual, campaign-style, facility- and outreach-based events that provide a package of high-impact nutrition and health services to under-five children. Since 1999, 30% of the 85 countries that regularly implement campaign-style vitamin A supplementation programmes have transformed their programmes into CHW. Using data drawn from districts' budget, expenditures and salary documents, UNICEF's CHW planning and budgeting tool and a special purposive survey, an economic analysis of the June 2010 CHW's provision of measles, vitamin A and deworming was conducted using activity-based costing combined with an ingredients approach. Total CHW costs were estimated to be US$5.7 million per round. Measles accounted for 57%, deworming 22% and vitamin A 21% of total costs. The cost per child was US$0.46. The additional supplies and personnel required to include measles increased total costs by 42%, but reduced the average costs of providing vitamin A and deworming alone, manifesting economies of scope. The average costs of covering larger, more urban populations was less than the cost of covering smaller, more dispersed populations. Provincial-level costs per child served were determined primarily by the number of service sites, not the number of children treated. Reliance on volunteers to provide 60% of CHW manpower enables expanding coverage, shortening the duration of CHWs and reduces costs by one-third. With costs of $1093 per life saved and $45 per disability-adjusted life-year saved, WHO criteria classify Zambia's CHWs as 'very cost-effective'. The continued need for CHWs is discussed. PMID:23242696

  14. ‘Donors go home’ : Non-traditional state actors and the creation of development space in Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The international development arena is currently subject to major changes in the geographies of power. In this article I analyse how and to what extent the (re)entry on the development scene of China, India and Brazil, together with increasing prices for primary commodities and improved access to international finance, has affected Zambia’s political leverage to set, implement and fund its own developmental policies. I argue that, while real changes in external financial flows comparable to aid from these non-traditional state actors are still small, these actors’ experience is providing Zambia with an alternative development model that combines purposive state intervention with market-based economic growth and integration into world markets. While Zambia may be taking the first steps in strengthening its ‘sovereign frontier’, the extent of this movement is still small and its development outcomes are far from assured.

  15. Tuberculosis patients’ experiences of participating ina DOTS program in the Copperbelt province of Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Holm, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Copperbelt province of Zambia Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious public health problem in Zambia. The long treatment (DOTS) patients have to undergo is challenging, and poor communication between TB patients and health workers in the DOTS program is in the literature described as a barrier to treatment adherence. There is little research on how patients experience participating in a DOTS program and on what the TB patients perceive as good and poor communication. More knowledge is ...

  16. Socio-cultural factors surrounding mental distress during the perinatal period in Zambia: a qualitative investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Mwape Lonia; McGuinness Teena M; Dixey Rachael; Johnson Sally E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The presence of mental distress during pregnancy and after childbirth imposes detrimental developmental and health consequences for families in all nations. In Zambia, the Ministry of Health (MoH) has proposed a more comprehensive approach towards mental health care, recognizing the importance of the mental health of women during the perinatal period. Aim The study explores factors contributing to mental distress during the perinatal period of motherhood in Zambia. Methods...

  17. Preliminary Investigation of Trypanosomosis in Exotic Dog Breeds from Zambia's Luangwa and Zambezi Valleys Using LAMP

    OpenAIRE

    Namangala, Boniface; Oparaocha, Elizabeth; Kajino, Kiichi; Hayashida, Kyoko; Moonga, Ladslav; Inoue, Noboru; SUZUKI, Yasuhiko; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2013-01-01

    Canine African trypanosomosis (CAT) is rarely reported in the literature. In this preliminary study, we evaluated the performance of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) against microscopy to detect CAT in six exotic dog breeds naturally infected with trypanosomes from Zambia's South Luangwa National Park and Chiawa Game Management Area. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CAT in Zambia. The patients exhibited a variety of aspecific clinical signs. The LAMP did not only con...

  18. Victimization from bullying among school-attending adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Rudatsikira; Seter Siziya; Adamson Sinjani Muula

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Among school- attending adolescents, victimization from bullying is associated with anxiety, depression and poor academic performance. There are limited reports on victimization from bullying in Zambia; we therefore conducted this study to determine the prevalence and correlates for victimization from bullying among adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in the country in order to add information on the body of knowledge on victimization from bullying. METHODS: The 2004 Zambia Global Scho...

  19. Early alcohol use and problem drinking among students in Zambia and Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kasirye Rogers; Jeremiahs Twa-Twa; George Sikazwe; Nazarius Mbona Tumwesigye; Bina Ali; Jane Palmier; Monica H. Swahn

    2011-01-01

    Excessive alcohol use is a serious public health concern worldwide, but less attention has been given to the prevalence, risk and protective factors, and consequences of early alcohol use in low-income, developing countries. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between early alcohol use, before age 13, and problem drinking among adolescents in Uganda and Zambia. Data from students in Zambia (n=2257; 2004) and Uganda (n=3215; 2003) were obtained from the cross-sectional ...

  20. Health Worker Satisfaction and Motivation: An Empirical Study of Incomes, Allowances and Working Conditions in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff Gow; Gavin George; Sylvia Mwamba; Lutangu Ingombe; Given Mutinta

    2012-01-01

    Health worker salaries in Zambia are low by any standard. In recent times there have been real reductions in thesalaries of health workers. This has resulted in significant attrition in the public sector as health workers areattracted to the private sector or leave Zambia entirely, leaving a large deficit in public sector health workers. Inthis study we examine the relationship between health worker incomes and their satisfaction and motivation.Cross-sectional data collection was undertaken u...

  1. An investigation of the amount and environmental Impact of chemical fertilizers and pesticides running off from commercial and traditional farmlands in the upper Kaleya catchment, Mazabuka, Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the amount of and impact of fertiliser loading into the upper Kaleya river of Mazabuka district in Southern Province of Zambia. It provides an opportunity to evaluate water quality associated with nutrient and pesticide use, due to prominence of intensive agriculture in the area. Storm water runoff of fertilizers and pesticides applied on farmlands have appeared to be the predominant source of nutrients and contaminants affecting surface water quality in upper Kaleya River, a factor very much dependent on land use in the catchment.The study concluded that upper Kaleya River is polluted from the application of fertilizers and pesticides used by farmers and that more long term studies are required to evaluate environmental effects of fertilizers and pesticide use in order to provide assessments of pollution and and for developing cost effective pollution control and monitoring programmes

  2. Rural electrification in Zambia: A policy and institutional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating incrar, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the establishment of an independent regulator so as to stimulate private sector participation and efficiency. In addition, a Rural Electrification Fund (REF) and associated administration mechanism was established in 1995. However, RE continued to experience many challenges. In 2003, the government enacted the Rural Electrification Act leading to the establishment of an agency dedicated to RE. This paper analyses the policy, legal and institutional measures implemented in Zambia and assesses their potential or effectiveness to tackle some of the challenges facing RE in the country so as to increase access and affordability

  3. Rural electrification in Zambia: A policy and institutional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating incrar, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the establishment of an independent regulator so as to stimulate private sector participation and efficiency. In addition, a Rural Electrification Fund (REF) and associated administration mechanism was established in 1995. However, RE continued to experience many challenges. In 2003, the government enacted the Rural Electrification Act leading to the establishment of an agency dedicated to RE. This paper analyses the policy, legal and institutional measures implemented in Zambia and assesses their potential or effectiveness to tackle some of the challenges facing RE in the country so as to increase access and affordability. (author)

  4. A study of malnourished children in children's hospital Lusaka (Zambia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A A; Gupta, B M

    1979-01-01

    The parents of 200 malnourished childred referred and admitted over the July-December 1976 period to the nutrition wing of the Children's University Teaching Hospital, Zambia, were interviewed in an effort to understand the home environment of malnourished children in Lusaka, Zambia. The 1974 incidence of malnutrition in Zambia was about 23% with higher prevalences of marasmus and moderate malnutrition. There were 9.4% severly malnourished children admitted in 1976 as compared with less than 1% in 1971. Many of these children were admitted very late in a hypothermic shocked state which is directly responsible for the increasing incidence of mortality over these years. Plasma or blood transfusion is a standard procedure in all shocked cases of kwashiorkor, yet many of the children still die within 24 hours of admission. Malnutrition incidence was found to be closely linked to the rise in price index. The majority of the children were admitted from the rainy months November to March, the time associated with a higher incidence of gastroenteritis, respiratory infections, and measles. 88% of the children were between 1-3 years old. Marasmus (33.5%) and marasmic kwashiorkor (40.5%) were more frequent. 63% of the malnourished childred had attended the child health clinics in their infancy and were immunized but discontinued attendance one vaccination was completed. The problem of malnutrition was in the toddler age group. 86% of the childred came from urban slums and periurban areas; 83% were from unitary families, living in 1 or 2 bedroom houses with no separate provision for a kitchen. Rural families (14%) were living as joint families. 32% of the children were from large families. 52% of the parents were employed as casual laborers and earning under US $35 per month. There were only 10 families with earnings in excess of US $125 per month and only 8 had good sources of income from farms. As many as 68.5% children were experiencing 1 or more adverse factors which contributed to their present condition. Almost half of the mothers were pregnant or carrying a young child. An alcoholic family, divorce, or separation of parents was frequently observed. Separation from the mother was marked by a deterioration in the health of the children. Only 4 divorced mothers were working to support the family. The remainder were dependent on their parents. 53% of mothers were favorable to family spacing if properly motiavated. A social rehabilitation program should meaningfully involve the family unit. Parental responsibilities must be propagated. Family spacing with health education programs is vital in the improvement of child care. PMID:260744

  5. Possibilities and constraints in implementing wind energy in Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1989 the first activities concerning wind energy started in Zambia, resulting in a wind energy project of the Department of Energy. The first phase of this project was the set up of an appropriate technology test site. It included the fabrication of a CWD 2740 wind pump, adapted to local circumstances. The total costs of the manufacture of the complete system was approximately US$ 8,000 (of which 60% are labor cost), while an imported system would cost between US$ 2,000 and US$ 4,000. The second phase will focus on possible commercialization of wind energy. The major constraints for implementation of wind energy are: 1. inadequate provision of funds, caused by short sighted policy makers having not a clear policy regarding the utilization of wind energy; 2. high costs of windmills, especially when these are manufactured locally; 3. lack of trained and skilled manpower to provide backup and effective maintenance service of windmills in the field

  6. Mapping the Spatial Variability of Soil Acidity in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia M. Chabala

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A common strategy for ameliorating soil acidity is the application of agricultural lime. However, this measure is hampered by the lack of high resolution soil maps that can enable lime application according to the spatial variability of soil pH in an area. Therefore, this study was carried out to map soil acidity in South Eastern Zambia. The objective of the study was to apply geostatistical procedures to mapping soil acidity in the country. Ordinary kriging was performed on a set of 119 soil samples collected from the 0–20 cm soil layer whose pH was determined by the electrometric method. The kriging model that was developed was found to be satisfactory with low prediction errors (root mean square error 0.36. Thus, the map produced could be used to draw up strategies for management of soil acidity in the area.

  7. Human impact on Karst: the example of Lusaka (Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Waele Jo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Lusaka, the capital of Zambia with over 2,000,000 inhabitants, is built on an extensive plateau composed mainly of schists and dolomitic marbles, constituting a very important aquifer that provides the city with almost half of its drinking water needs. Recent demographic growth, leading to uncontrolled urban expansion, and mismanagement of the water resource and of urban waste has lead, in the past 20 years, to an overexploitation of the aquifer and to a generalised water quality depletion, putting in serious danger the future social and economical development of the capital. This third world city has, for these reasons, become a terrifying example of human impact on a vulnerable karst environment, and if no measures will be taken in the very near future, quality of life in the city will be at serious risk.

  8. Agricultural Development in Zambia : The Role of the Foodprocessing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, SØren; Hampwaye, Godfrey

    2014-01-01

    Food processing is important to the Zambian economy and entails a set of options for local firms to grow and create employment given the growth potential the country possesses in agriculture. This policy brief summarizes the findings of a study of 38 Zambian owned firms in the food processing industry. The study, which is the first of its kind in Zambia, reveals that a major part of the interviewed firms find that they have performed above industry average the last five years. A minor part states performance below industry average. Close to 80% of the firms views government and business associations to provide insufficient support to the sector. In conclusion, various ways forward are suggested.

  9. Child spacing and contraception among the poor in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayan K Pillai

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vijayan K Pillai1, Rashmi Gupta21School of Social Work, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, USA; 2Department of Social Work, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA, USAAbstract: For decades, family planning programs have targeted women in developing countries. These programs bestow a great deal of autonomy on women with respect to fertility decision making. It is well known that a number of close relatives in multigenerational and extended family systems influence women’s fertility decisions with respect to child spacing and contraceptive use. One approach toward a systematic study of fertility decision making is to explicitly consider the husband’s influences on fertility decision making. This study examines the effects of a selected number of factors on the desired birth interval lengths. We interviewed husbands and wives separately from 165 randomly selected households from two poor neighborhoods in the city of Kitwe, Zambia. Three ordinal birth interval groups were obtained for both husbands and wives separately. The effect of selected factors on the likelihood of influencing the three groups was examined using ordinal logistic regression methods. Data from husbands and wives were analyzed separately. Qualitative methods such as semistructured interviews were used to gather extensive information on the various factors that husbands and wives perceive to influence their child spacing decisions. We found differences in accounts with respect to child spacing between husbands and wives, likely due to a lack of communication. A gender-sensitive approach is necessary to promote spacing methods among poor couples in Zambia.Keywords: child spacing, contraceptive use, correspondence analysis, couple decision making

  10. 'Big push' to reduce maternal mortality in Uganda and Zambia enhanced health systems but lacked a sustainability plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Margaret E; Rabkin, Miriam; Grépin, Karen Ann; Austin-Evelyn, Katherine; Greeson, Dana; Masvawure, Tsitsi Beatrice; Sacks, Emma Rose; Vail, Daniel; Galea, Sandro

    2014-06-01

    In the past decade, "big push" global health initiatives financed by international donors have aimed to rapidly reach ambitious health targets in low-income countries. The health system impacts of these efforts are infrequently assessed. Saving Mothers, Giving Life is a global public-private partnership that aims to reduce maternal mortality dramatically in one year in eight districts in Uganda and Zambia. We evaluated the first six to twelve months of the program's implementation, its ownership by national ministries of health, and its effects on health systems. The project's impact on maternal mortality is not reported here. We found that the Saving Mothers, Giving Life initiative delivered a large "dose" of intervention quickly by capitalizing on existing US international health assistance platforms, such as the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. Early benefits to the broader health system included greater policy attention to maternal and child health, new health care infrastructure, and new models for collaborating with the private sector and communities. However, the rapid pace, external design, and lack of a long-term financing plan hindered integration into the health system and local ownership. Sustaining and scaling up early gains of similar big push initiatives requires longer-term commitments and a clear plan for transition to national control. PMID:24889956

  11. The Role of State-business Relations in the Performance of Zambia’s Food Processing Sub-sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, SØren

    2014-01-01

    In ensuring growth and development collaborative State-Business relations (SBRs) matters, and with economic growth comes increasing levels of employment, options for poverty reduction and hence more equitable development. Whereas it is known that SBR matters at a macro-economic level, the concept of SBR has also been employed in a more or less all-encompassing way in the literature. Accordingly, while it is clear that SBRs work, there is lack knowledge about which dimensions of SBRs are the most important. Due to the continued importance of agriculture in many developing countries, processing of the food produced in the sector is a key manufacturing activity of high economic importance to many economies. Ensuring collaborative SBRs in the food processing industry is therefore of interest to growth and development, particularly as it is a sector about which little is known about the role of SBRs. The paper attempts to examine how and why SBRs matter to and influence the growth and performance of local owned firms in the food processing sub-sector in Zambia. In particular, the paper analyses the roles and influence of government regulations and policies compared to those of business associations for the performance of the food processing sector in Zambia. The paper draws on primary data from a survey of firms in the food processing sector which was conducted between 2013 and 2014. It is shown that while the majority of the Zambian food processing firms experienced growth over the last five years, with increased employment and in a number of cases growing earnings, this seems to have happened in spite of a business environment which is not particularly supportive. The firms’ experience is that the SBRs mainly constitute institutional barriers to the performance of firms and highlight that formal government institutions and polices are incapable of assisting the firms and in most cases government institutions formulate and enact insufficient support schemes.

  12. The role of state- business relations in the performance of Zambia’s food processing sub-sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hampwaye Godfrey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In ensuring growth and development collaborative State-Business relations (SBRs matters, and with economic growth comes increasing levels of employment, options for poverty reduction and hence more equitable development. Whereas it is known that SBR matters at a macro-economic level, the concept of SBR has also been employed in a more or less all-encompassing way in the literature. Accordingly, while it is clear that SBRs work, there is lack knowledge about which dimensions of SBRs are the most important. Due to the continued importance of agriculture in many developing countries, processing of the food produced in the sector is a key manufacturing activity of high economic importance to many economies. Ensuring collaborative SBRs in the food processing industry is therefore of interest to growth and development, particularly as it is a sector about which little is known about the role of SBRs. The paper attempts to examine how and why SBRs matter to and influence the growth and performance of local owned firms in the food processing sub-sector in Zambia. In particular, the paper analyses the roles and influence of government regulations and policies compared to those of business associations for the performance of the food processing sector in Zambia. The paper draws on primary data from a survey of firms in the food processing sector which was conducted between 2013 and 2014. It is shown that while the majority of the Zambian food processing firms experienced growth over the last five years, with increased employment and in a number of cases growing earnings, this seems to have happened in spite of a business environment which is not particularly supportive. The firms’ experience is that the SBRs mainly constitute institutional barriers to the performance of firms and highlight that formal government institutions and polices are incapable of assisting the firms and in most cases government institutions formulate and enact insufficient support schemes.

  13. Impact of the large-scale deployment of artemether/lumefantrine on the malaria disease burden in Africa: case studies of South Africa, Zambia and Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Karen I; Chanda, Pascalina; Ab Barnabas, Gebre

    2009-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most significant causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Every year, nearly one million deaths result from malaria infection. Malaria can be controlled in endemic countries by using artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in combination with indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). At least 40 malaria-endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa now recommend the use of ACT as first-line treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria as a cornerstone of their malaria case management. The scaling up of malaria control strategies in Zambia has dramatically reduced the burden of malaria. Zambia was the first African country to adopt artemether/lumefantrine (AL; Coartem) as first-line therapy in national malaria treatment guidelines in 2002. Further, the vector control with IRS and ITNs was also scaled up. By 2008, the rates of in-patient malaria cases and deaths decreased by 61% and 66%, respectively, compared with the 2001-2002 reference period. Treatment with AL as first-line therapy against a malaria epidemic in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa, in combination with strengthening of vector control, caused the number of malaria-related outpatient cases and hospital admissions to each fall by 99% from 2001 to 2003, and malaria-related deaths decreased by 97% over the same period. A prospective study also showed that gametocyte development was prevented in all patients receiving AL. This reduction in malaria morbidity has been sustained over the past seven years. AL was introduced as first-line anti-malarial treatment in 2004 in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. During a major malaria epidemic from May-October 2005, the district in which local community health workers were operating had half the rate of malaria-related deaths compared with the district in which AL was only available in state health facilities. Over the two-year study period, the community-based deployment of AL significantly lowered the risk of malaria-specific mortality by 37%. Additionally, the malaria parasite reservoir was three-fold lower in the intervention district than in the control district during the 2005 high-transmission season. Artemisinin-based combination therapy has made a substantial contribution to reducing the burden of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:19818175

  14. Anthelmintic efficacy in captive wild impala antelope (Aepyceros melampus) in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalubamba, King S; Mudenda, Ntombi B

    2012-05-25

    There has been an increase in the number of wild ungulates kept in captivity for ecotourism and conservation in Zambia and these animals are susceptible to a number of diseases including gastrointestinal helminth infections. Surveys to determine anthelmintic efficacy to gastrointestinal nematodes in captive-wildlife are not common and there have been no reports of anthelmintic resistance in captive-wildlife in Zambia. This study was carried out to determine the efficacy of the benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole in captive wild impala (Aepyceros melampus) in Zambia. During the month of April 2011, at the end of the rainy season, the faecal egg count reduction test was performed at a private game facility for assessing anthelmintic efficacy of oral fenbendazole and the anthelmintic treatment showed an efficacy of 90%. Haemonchus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. were the predominant genera present before treatment, but Haemonchus spp. larvae were the only genus recovered from the faecal cultures after anthelmintic treatment. This represents the first documentation of anthelmintic treatment failure in captive wild-antelopes in Zambia. It also demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the common traditional practice of deworming captive-wild antelopes at the end of the rainy season due to the rapid re-infection of impala that occurs due to high pasture infectivity. Suggestions on changes to current anthelmintic use/practices that will make them more efficacious and reduce the possibility of development of anthelmintic resistance in captive wild game in Zambia are also made. PMID:22115945

  15. Adherence to the Food and Agricultural Organization guidelines on trypanocide usage among cattle farmers in Itezhi tezhi, Central Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbewe, Njelembo J; Sitali, Lungowe; Namangala, Boniface; Michelo, Charles

    2015-04-15

    Trypanocides will continue to play an important role in the control of tsetse fly transmitted trypanosomosis now and in the near future. The drugs are mostly administered by farmers without any veterinary supervision leading to misuse and under dosing of medication, and these could be factors that promote trypanocidal drug resistance (TDR) development. In order to delay or prevent TDR, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) recommended guidelines on trypanocide use. It is not known if these recommended guidelines are adhered to in Itezhi tezhi district of Zambia. A survey was undertaken to examine how socio-economic and environmental factors were associated with adherence to the recommended guidelines on trypanocide use in Itezhi tezhi, Central Zambia. Ninety farmers who use trypanocides were interviewed using a questionnaire to collect their socio-economic characteristics (age, education in years, cattle herd size, competence on trypanocide use and their access to extension on trypanocide use) and trypanocide usage practices while crush pens which they use were stratified according to location, whether in the Game Management Area (GMA) (Mutenda, Itumbi, Kapulwe and Banachoongo) or non-GMA (Iyanda, New Ngoma and Shinampamba) as an environmental factor. Associations and measures of associations to adherence of FAO guidelines were determined. The results showed that 25.6% of the farmers adhered to guidelines by FAO on trypanocide use and that none of the socio-economic factors under investigation were significantly associated with it. Further the farmers that used crush pens that were in the GMA had an 80% reduction in the likelihood of adhering to the FAO guidelines on trypanocide use than those that used crush pens in the non-GMA (AOR 0.20, 95% CI: 0.05-0.81, P=0.02). There was low adherence to the recommended FAO guidelines on trypanocide use and it was associated with the location of the crush pen whether in the GMA or not, as an environmental factor. With farmers in the GMA less likely to adhere to FAO guidelines than those in the non-GMA, we recommend an integrated approach of measures to control trypanosomosis in the GMA of Itezhi tezhi to lessen overuse of trypanocides by the farmers. PMID:25740569

  16. California Political Districts

    California Department of Resources — This is a series of district layers pertaining to California'spolitical districts, that are derived from the California State Senateand State Assembly information....

  17. “All for some”: water inequity in Zambia and Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Peter B.

    In southern Africa, gross disparities in access to water are symptomatic of the overall uneven pattern of development. Despite post-independence egalitarian rhetoric, in countries such as Zambia and Zimbabwe inappropriate models (piped house connections in the urban areas, high technology irrigation schemes in the agricultural sector), combined with weak macro-economies and poorly formulated sectoral policies have actually exacerbated the disparities. Zero or very low tariffs have played a major role in this. Although justified as being consistent with water’s special status, inadequate tariffs in fact serve to undermine any programme of making water accessible to all. This has led to a narrowing of development options, resulting in exclusivist rather than inclusivist development, and stagnation rather than dynamism. A major part of the explanation for perpetuation of such unsatisfactory outcomes is the existence of political interest groups who benefit from the status quo. The first case study in the paper involves urban water consumers in Zambia, where those with piped water connections seek to continue the culture of low tariffs which is by now deeply embedded. The result is that the water supply authorities (in this case the newly formed, but still politically constrained ‘commercialised utilities’) are unable even to maintain adequate supplies to the piped customers, let alone extend service to the peri-urban dwellers, 56% of whom do not have access to safe water. The paper outlines some modest, workable principles to achieve universal, affordable access to water in the urban areas, albeit through a mix of service delivery mechanisms. In a second case study of rural productive water in Zimbabwe, the reasons for only 2% of the rural subsistence farming households being involved in formal small-scale irrigation schemes 20 years after independence are explored. Again, a major part of the explanation lies in government pursuing a water delivery model which is not affordable or sustainable on a wide scale. Its provision, via substantial capital and recurrent subsidies, for a small group has a large opportunity cost for society as a whole. The small-scale irrigators have a vested interest in ensuring that the subsidies are maintained, but in the process continue to absorb a disproportionate amount of resources which could be used for development elsewhere. By choosing simpler, cheaper water technologies, and assisting farmers with growing and marketing high value crops, the resources could instead be used to benefit a much larger proportion of households. With well designed programmes aimed at achieving equity, large numbers of subsistence farmers could improve their incomes and start working their way out of poverty.

  18. Regulatory framework, strategy and radioactive waste management in Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Zambia is involved in the peaceful application in Nuclear Science and Technology which cover the agriculture, human health, industry, research and education sectors. In the execution of the projects various radioactive sources and radioisotopes are used. The data from the Radiation Protection Board show that there are 136 organizations and 971 Radiation workers benefit from the regulatory control and personnel Dosimetry service that is provided by the Board. The radiation user institutions are broken down as follows: medical (106), industrial (18), research (10) and (2) in teaching. The radioactive waste generated and spent sources are managed, in several ways depending on the type . In addition to radioactive waste generated by various application there are new developments concerning the management of spent sources mainly brought into control by the detection of illicit trade or trafficking activities by the Police, Drug Enforcement Commission, and the vigilant people of the community. The challenge for Zambia is to set-up a Radioactive Waste Management Facility preferably under the National Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research (NISIR). The RPB should legally designate NISIR for this function and assist to have the Government provide support that is required to have an operation and effective facility. One Radioactive Waste Interim Storage Shed at Kalulushi. This shed was put up by a copper mining conglomerate which now has been privatized. It is hoped that this facility can be licensed by Radiation Protection Board to be run by private enterprise for storage of prescribed spent radioactive sources and materials. This shed should be technically competent persons and should have good equipment for the purpose. The application in industry (NDT, mining, radiation sterilization, pipeline and construction, human health (nuclear medicine, radioimmunoassay and radiotherapy practices) and agriculture (use of P-32) required that a National Strategy for the management of the spent radioactive materials and the waste materials from the practices be developed with Radiation Protection Board playing a leading role. The International Atomic Energy Agency will continue to be a major cooperating partner in the development of this capacity through die technical expertise, equipment, technical literature and training fellowships that can be provided through the Technical Cooperation Programme. (author)

  19. Preliminary investigation of trypanosomosis in exotic dog breeds from Zambia's Luangwa and Zambezi valleys using LAMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namangala, Boniface; Oparaocha, Elizabeth; Kajino, Kiichi; Hayashida, Kyoko; Moonga, Ladslav; Inoue, Noboru; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2013-07-01

    Abstract. Canine African trypanosomosis (CAT) is rarely reported in the literature. In this preliminary study, we evaluated the performance of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) against microscopy to detect CAT in six exotic dog breeds naturally infected with trypanosomes from Zambia's South Luangwa National Park and Chiawa Game Management Area. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CAT in Zambia. The patients exhibited a variety of aspecific clinical signs. The LAMP did not only confirm all six parasitologically positive CAT cases detected passively between April 2010 and January 2012, but was also critical in trypanosome speciation. According to LAMP, the majority of the dogs had monolytic infections with either Trypanosoma congolense or Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. The LAMP is thus a potential simple and cost-effective tool for trypanosome diagnosis in endemic regions. The rare report of zoonotic trypanosomes in dogs in Zambia has public health implications and justifies further investigations of CAT. PMID:23716412

  20. Sugar Value Chain in Zambia: An Assessment of the Growth Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Kalinda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to identify the major actors in Zambia’s sugar value chain and to assess the growth opportunities and constraints faced by the sub-sector. The study results show that the sugar sub-sector accounts for about 4% of the Gross Domestic Product and 6% of total national exports in Zambia. The sugar industry in Zambia is a monopolistic market structure dominated by one firm, Zambia Sugar Plc., which contributes over 90% of the total national sugar production. Zambia is one of the lowest cost producers of sugar globally. Growth in the sugar industry therefore holds great prospects for economic diversification and employment creation. Despite being a low cost sugar producer, growth of the sub-sector is constrained by high transaction costs. These include high fuel, electricity, transportation and distribution costs. Legislation on Vitamin A fortification of sugar also increases production costs and is a significant barrier to entry for potential entrants. Moreover, water rights and insecurity associated with customary land tenure have also emerged as major issues requiring attention to enhance investments into the sector. The situation is aggravated by lack of an articulate sugar sector policy to provide strategic guidance for sector development. In order to attract private sector investment and enhance growth; government policy should assure water rights and land tenure security for establishment of sugar plantations. There is also need to clarify government policy on bio-fuels as well as to review the export strategy to reduce dependence on EU markets and explore alternative regional markets.

  1. Impact of Minimum Tillage and Crop Rotation as Climate Change Adaptation Strategies on Farmer Welfare in Smallholder Farming Systems of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Kuntashula

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, climate change is currently recognized as one of the major challenges to increased food production. The agriculture sector is the main source of livelihoods, growth and foreign exchange earnings in many developing countries including Zambia. However, it is also a sector that is mostly vulnerable to effects of climate change. Smallholder farmers in Zambia have been adopting agricultural related adaptation strategies including minimum tillage and crop rotation to mitigate effects of climate change. There has been contentious debate on whether the two strategies (that are elements of conservation farming increase crop yields and incomes. Available literature heavily relies on biophysical experiments and show contradictions in the ability of these strategies to improve crop yields. Taking cognizance of the differences in socioeconomic circumstances of the farmers, the purpose of this study was to estimate the impact of minimum tillage and crop rotation on maize yields and incomes for farmers adopting the strategies. The study used cross sectional data collected in 2012/13 from 1231 households across six districts of Zambia and applied propensity score matching techniques and Heckman’s selection estimators to account for observed and unobserved heterogeneity between the adopters and non-adopters. The results showed that about 12 and 19% of the farmers have adopted minimum tillage and crop rotation respectively. The strategies improved on-farm maize productivity by about 26% to 38% for minimum tillage and 21% to 24% for crop rotation. Minimum tillage also improved total household maize production. On the other hand crop rotation did not significantly improve total maize production and gross income from the crop. This could reflect the small proportions of areas allocated to legumes versus the areas subsequently allocated to the maize crop during crop rotation. The impact of crop rotation on the staple maize crop could be boosted by encouraging farmers to increase the areas allocated to legumes. The legumes portfolio in the government sponsored input support programme should be increased. The results from this study generally confirm the potential direct role of agricultural related climate change adaptation strategies in improving crop productivity levels in small holder farming systems.

  2. The threat of illicit trafficking in an under-resourced country: The case of Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From July 1995 to January 2005, five cases of attempted illicit trafficking of spent radioactive materials have been reported and investigated in Zambia. In all five cases, monetary gain was the motivation. The paper describes factors contributing to the vulnerability of Zambia to illicit trafficking of nuclear material, including the consequences of an unstable economy, the involvement of international institutions in Government funding policies, inadequate training or remuneration of personnel and inadequate equipment. To raise awareness among policy makers and the public, a six-pronged strategy is suggested. (author)

  3. Introduction and development of competitive football in Zambia (1930-1969):a historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Chipande, Hikabwa Decius

    2009-01-01

    This thesis will attempt to explore and analyse the diffusion and development of football in Zambia. It will look at how football, a game which was played by the colonialists was introduced and became a popular sport among the local people. The main focus in this study is on the important directions of football development in Zambia from 1930 to the late1960’s. There are periods in this study that will be covered less thoroughly, due to the scarcity of sources, however, I believe that the s...

  4. Coal prospects in Botswana, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Namibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-01

    Increasing demand for coal in Asia is stimulating interest in the potentially large coal resources in Southern African countries such as Botswana, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Namibia. These countries have been slow to utilise their coal as local demand has been limited and the means to export coal has been inadequate. The governments in these regions are now recognising coal as a strategically important commodity, capable of earning foreign revenue but also adding value to the economy by generating much needed electricity. This report looks in turn at the role of coal in the energy economies of each of these countries. As in most emerging economies, the provision of a reliable and cost-effective supply of electricity to industries and people is essential for economic growth and the welfare of communities. Demand for Africa's mineral commodities such as diamonds and copper is driving a massive need for electricity and coal will play a major role. Not only does the mining industry need power, but with these growing industries come communities and commerce which are also in need of energy.

  5. An intervention to increase the condom supply in rural zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenfeld, David

    2014-09-01

    More than US$800 million per year is spent on programs in low- and middle-income countries to increase demand for condoms, yet in rural areas of Africa condoms are often distributed for free only by regional health clinics that may be located far from home. Anecdotal evidence suggests that limited supply, resulting primarily from long travel times to acquire condoms, is a major barrier to use. This study investigates the potential unmet demand for condoms in rural sub-Saharan Africa. I provide empirical evidence of the importance of supply effects, based on an evaluation of a distribution program in which nine agents were enlisted to sell condoms across 92 rural villages in Zambia. I find that the number of individuals acquiring condoms tripled and the number of condoms distributed rose by more than 250 percent. The study demonstrates that individuals in poor rural areas are willing to pay for condoms and provides a model whereby public health goods can be acquired through market forces without the government incurring large costs and without detracting from public health services. PMID:25207498

  6. Proterozoic strata-bound uranium deposits of Zambia and Zaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Katanga System, host to uranium and copper mineralisation, is several thousands of metres thick and rests unconformably on an older complex of crystalline rocks and metasediments and is locally covered by Karoo sandstones or Kalahari sands. The deposition of the Katanga System took place during the Late Proterozoic in a wide complex basin extending from Shaba province in Zaire through a large part of Zambia and into eastern Angola. The sediments were affected by different grades of metamorphism, tectonic events, and by thermal events associated with post-tectonic metamorphism. At the base of Katanga system there are 84 known copper deposits and 42 uranium occurrences. It is suggested that all the known uranium and copper occurrences are of an essentially syngenetic sedimentary origin. The mineralisation is found in the Lower Roan Formation near the base of the Katanga System occurring in rocks produced in similar environmental conditions and thus being stratigraphic controlled, however, their areal distribution is localised producing a regional metal zonation. Many of the uranium occurrences have a typical vein aspect. These transgressive relationships are not inconsistent with a syngenetic origin as evidenced by the vein morphology. (author)

  7. Uranium mineralization in the Karroo system of Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Karroo geology of Zambia with respect to uranium mineralization is outlined and compared with the sandstone deposits of western United States of America. Whereas numerous uranium anomalies are known in the Karroo System, those of the Escarpment Grit Formation in the mid-Zambezi Valley would appear to be significant. Airborne radiometric survey did not always reflect the mineralization recorded on the ground. Several other Karroo anomalies are still to be traversed. Porosity, permeability, clay traps, micas and reducing lithologies are the major factors controlling mineralization. The present loci of mineralization are a function of the remobilization brought about by fluctuating water table, dip of strata and structure. While most of the deposits contain secondary uranium minerals, pitchblende has been recorded in two areas, and probably reflects the 'primary' ore. The deposits are primarily sheet-like, concordant to discordant units. The source for uranium would appear to be the Katanga and basement rocks to the north-north east and north-west. The results of the last three years of investigation support further work and already a number of low to medium scale deposits have been outlined, thus warranting further intensive large-scale investigation. (author)

  8. Options for Improving Smallholder Conservation Agriculture in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget. B. Umar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the agronomic practices of smallholder Conservation Agriculture (CA farmers in Zambia. Questionnaire survey, focus group discussions, key informant interviews, field assessments, desk study and soil analyses were employed to collect data on tillage systems, crop rotations, weed control, soil fertility management, crop residue retention and crop yields. The results showed that weed management, crop residue retention, timely planting and soil fertility management were the most challenging for CA farmers especially those without reliable access to oxen. Crop residue retention conflicted with the socio-cultural practices of the communities and was hardly practised while crop rotation seemed difficult in light of the dominance of maize cultivation and the lack of markets for crop legumes. Possible options for improving smallholder CA systems were greater integration of livestock, correct herbicide application, market provision for crop legumes, farmer training in agri-business and better access to agricultural credit and subsidized inputs. CA promoters must incorporate the farmers’ local cultural contexts in order to better address the challenges associated with adopting CA.

  9. Women poverty in Zambia, incidences and causes:a case study of small-scale rural agricultural women of Kalomo district, Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Siachiyako,Getrude

    2006-01-01

    Women poverty debate has been part of the global poverty debates since the 1970s. Many research reports and publication on poverty reveals that women are disproportionary poorer than men (Jazairy et al 1992, World Bank 2000c, Momsen 2004). The incidences of poverty are high among rural women farmers than in urban area. The women poverty differential between rural and urban areas is attributed to the economic activities the said poor are involved in. Women farmers are said to be poor because t...

  10. Sedimentology, hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry of Machile Basin, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banda, Kawawa Eddy

    2015-01-01

    An important environmental problem in arid to semi-arid regions of the world is salinisation of water resources. Moreover, most of these regions are inhabited by poor communities in developing countries, with limited or no financial resources to develop suitable alternatives to meet their basic water needs. With increasing world population and increasing effects of climate change, groundwater resources are seen as a suitable alternative. However, the exploitation of groundwater in these regions requires knowledge of aquifer structure and genesis, and mechanisms that control hydrochemistry. Water resources practioners in arid and semi-arid regions accept that future development of groundwater resources depends largely on the degree and rate of salinisation. This PhD study focuses on investigating the sedimentological and hydro-geochemical conditions that have shaped the groundwater environment in Western Zambia to the present hydrogeology, in particular the origin and dynamics of groundwater salinity. The casestudy is the Machile Basin of south-western Zambia, a semi-arid region on the northern extension of a desiccated lake system – Palaeo-lake Makgadikgadi (PLM), southern Africa. PLM is a palaeo-mega endorheic lake system that was formed due to tectonic disruptions in the Early Pleistocene (speculated at c. 1.4 Ma). The lake has sustained several lake levels, with the highest level at ~995 m above mean sea level (amsl) and became largely desiccated in the Late Pleistocene (probably by c. 500 ka). Methods used in the field and laboratory included: deep borehole drilling, geophysical borehole logging, groundwater table measurements, sediment dating (with optically stimulated luminescence - OSL), mineralogical analysis (XRD and SEM), groundwater tracers (18O, 2H, 3H/3He, 14C), hydrochemistry (including pore-water), cation exchange capacity and sediment dilution experiments. Unconsolidated sediment samples at intermittent depths up to 50 m below ground level (bgl) were retrieved from a 100 m bgl research borehole.Sediment XRD analysis shows that the sediment has predominantly silicate minerals (quartz and feldspars) with whitish nodule like structures detected to be bassanite (dehydrated gypsum), whereas carbonates (calcite and dolomite) were below detection by XRD; a simple acid test, however, validated the presence of carbonates. OSL dating showed that the sediments are old (> 300 ka) and cannot be accurately constrained as the quartz mineral grains are fully or nearly saturated. The sediment pack shows conditions of palaeo-environmental changes of wet and dry conditions (based on microfossils and facies changes) depositing fluvio-lacustrine sediments (sand, silt and clay intercalations); geophysical logging delineated and resolved these sediments well, showing high salinity down to the basement rocks at 100 m bgl. Within the Machile Basin, the groundwater table has a low hydraulic gradient in the central palaeo-lake sediment region, characterized by brackish-saline water, and higher gradients in the fresh water fringe region. The fresh water is typically Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Na-HCO3 dominated due to silicate weathering, whereas, the saline groundwater is Na-SO4-Cl dominated, the result of sustained dedolomitization and ion exchange processes as modelled using the geochemical code PHREEQC. The groundwater ages along a flow line using 14C and 3H/3He are 300 ka), suggesting pluvial climatic recharge process during Late Pleistocene (> 30-20 ka) and Holocene (8-4.5 ka) that induced partial leaching of the sediments. Stable water isotopes (2H and 18O) data suggest that groundwater receives meteoric recharge; however most of this water is lost to evapo-transpiration rendering the saline environment a virtually stagnant groundwater zone without any through flow. Fresh groundwater is therefore hosted in the near-surface zone (such as river channels, palaeo drainages and alluvial deltaic features) within the PLM region. This study supports a tectonically controlled evolution of PLM in which hydrological feedbacks were secondary proces

  11. Health Worker Satisfaction and Motivation: An Empirical Study of Incomes, Allowances and Working Conditions in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Gow

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Health worker salaries in Zambia are low by any standard. In recent times there have been real reductions in thesalaries of health workers. This has resulted in significant attrition in the public sector as health workers areattracted to the private sector or leave Zambia entirely, leaving a large deficit in public sector health workers. Inthis study we examine the relationship between health worker incomes and their satisfaction and motivation.Cross-sectional data collection was undertaken using both quantitative and qualitative methods. A refined surveyinstrument was used for the quantitative data method. Document review (past and current records was employedfor the qualitative method. Data was collected in three regions that represent extremes in overall remunerationand benefits. Lusaka represented the favourable area while Monze and Nyimba represented less favourable areasfor study in Zambia.There are hefty disparities between different health workers. There are also enormous salary differentials for thesame workers between the public and private sectors. These salary differentials explain the experience of publicto private “traffic” of health workers as well as casual private sector work by public sector health workers. Inaddition, there are negligible efforts by government to reduce the benefits gaps among key public health cadres.The low incomes received by public health workers in Zambia have many negative implications: it begetsabsenteeism, results in low output, poor quality health care, and the departure of health workers to the privatesector and overseas.

  12. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) orientation phase mission summary report: Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) mission to Zambia. The IUREP Orientation Phase mission to Zambia estimates that the Speculative Resources of that country fall within the range of 33 000 and 100 000 tonnes uranium. The majority of these resources are believed to exist in the Karoo sediments. Other potentially favourable geological environments are the Precambrian Katanga sediments, as well as intrusive rocks of different chemical compositions and surficial duricrusts. Previous unofficial estimates of Zambia's Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR) and Estimated Additional Resources (EAR) are considered to be still valid: the total RAR amount to 6 000 tonnes uranium, located in Karoo (4 000 tonnes) and Katanga (2 000 tonnes) sediments, while the EAR are believed to total 4 000 tonnes being found only in Karoo sediments. The mission recommends that approximately US$ 40 million be spent on uranium exploration in Zambia over 10 years. The largest part of this expenditure would be for drilling, while the remainder should be spent on airborne and ground surveys, as well as on interpretative work on previous airborne data, Landsat imageries, etc. (author)

  13. Un/Doing Gender? A Case Study of School Policy and Practice in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Monisha

    2009-01-01

    This article explores an attempt to disrupt gender inequality in a unique, low-cost private school in Ndola, Zambia. It examines deliberate school policies aimed at "undoing gender" or fostering greater gender equity. These include efforts to maintain gender parity at all levels of the school and the requirement that both young men and women carry…

  14. Developing a Nutrition and Health Education Program for Primary Schools in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Jane; Muehlhoff, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    School-based health and nutrition interventions in developing countries aim at improving children's nutrition and learning ability. In addition to the food and health inputs, children need access to education that is relevant to their lives, of good quality, and effective in its approach. Based on evidence from the Zambia Nutrition Education in…

  15. Role of partnership in enhancing the performance of radiation regulatory authority in Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Radiation Infrastructure includes legislation, human resource, technical capacity to execute responsibilities of the regulatory (1). In cases of developing countries like Zambia, special challenges arise in view of the constraints both in terms of human resource and funding. This paper will highlight same measures that may be undertaken to improve the operations of nation radiation protection infrastructure. The measures include collaboration with Science and Technology organisations that have technical capacity, delegation of responsible to key institutions that may have competence and generation of funds through training and provision of reliable quality service. (2). In Zambia, some achievements in this line have been registered by Radiation Protection Board working with the University of Zambia and National Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research (3). Some measures of generation of funds have been done though utilization of the generated remains to be the limiting factor to exploit fully benefits that may arise from the use of the monies generated from services. Partnerships with private sector may be used as regulatory authorities for support to its programme in particular the public awareness campaign. Sponsorship by a Private Cellar Phone Company (Telecel Zambia) and Rotary Club of Lusaka for Radiation Week to Radiation Protection Service under Theme 'Safe Radiation Use' is one such an example. The other opportunity is the technical cooperation with regional and international organisations such as SADC, IAEA, WHO, Interpol, EU and WCO for technical capacity building, human resource development and information access. (author)

  16. Implementing Educational Policies in Zambia. World Bank Discussion Papers No. 90. Africa Technical Department Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achola, Paul Pius Waw

    At the time of independence from Britain in 1964, the educational system in Zambia was, as elsewhere in Africa, racially segregated and heavily biased against Africans. This paper briefly reviews the situation at independence before enumerating post-independence educational policy landmarks through both acts of Parliament and national development…

  17. Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes circulating in Ndola, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwakazanga David

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is one of the major public health problems in Zambia. However, information about lineages of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC isolates useful for epidemiology investigations is unknown. In this study, we investigated the diversity of MTBC isolates from Ndola, a typical Zambian urbanized city with a documented high HIV prevalence. Methods This was part of a prospective cohort study in subjects with sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB. Spoligotyping was used to genotype the MTBC isolates and establish the circulating lineages. The 15-locus Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units - Variable Number Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR typing was used to study recent transmission. Results A total of 98 different spoligotypes were identified among 273 MTBC isolates. The majority (64.8% of the isolates belonged to 9 known families, while 96 (35.2% of the isolates were orphans. While LAM (41.8% was the largest spoligotype family observed, most of the isolates (87.7% belonging to the SAF1 family, with a significant portion coming from the T (13.6%, and X (5.9% families. A few isolates (3.6% belonged to the CAS, EAI, H, S, X1-LAM9 or U families. MIRU-VNTR typing was highly discriminatory (h = 0.988 among the 156 isolates tested in our sample, and increased the discrimination among 82 SAF1 isolates from 6 to 46 distinct patterns. In addition, 3.2% (5/156 of cases with available MIRU-VNTR results harbored more than one MTBC strain. Conclusions Our findings show a limited diversity of MTBC in Ndola with a high clustering rate (37.7%, which indicates that recent transmission plays an appreciable role in the dynamics of TB disease in this setting. This conclusion emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and timely treatment. The results also confirm that MIRU-VNTR typing is suitable for studying the molecular epidemiology of TB in Ndola.

  18. The reach and impact of social marketing and reproductive health communication campaigns in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meekers Dominique

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Like many sub-Saharan African countries, Zambia is dealing with major health issues, including HIV/AIDS, family planning, and reproductive health. To address reproductive health problems and the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Zambia, several social marketing and health communication programs focusing on reproductive and HIV/AIDS prevention programs are being implemented. This paper describes the reach of these programs and assesses their impact on condom use. Methods This paper assesses the reach of selected radio and television programs about family planning and HIV/AIDS and of communications about the socially marketed Maximum condoms in Zambia, as well as their impact on condom use, using data from the 2001–2002 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey. To control for self-selection and endogeneity, we use a two-stage regression model to estimate the effect of program exposure on the behavioural outcomes. Results Those who were exposed to radio and television programs about family planning and HIV/AIDS were more likely to have ever used a condom (OR = 1.16 for men and 1.06 for women. Men highly exposed to Maximum condoms social marketing communication were more likely than those with low exposure to the program to have ever used a condom (OR = 1.48, and to have used a condom at their last sexual intercourse (OR = 1.23. Conclusion Findings suggest that the reproductive health and social marketing campaigns in Zambia reached a large portion of the population and had a significant impact on condom use. The results suggest that future reproductive health communication campaigns that invest in radio programming may be more effective than those investing in television programming, and that future campaigns should seek to increase their impact among women, perhaps by focusing on the specific constrains that prevent females from using condoms.

  19. The burden of knowing: balancing benefits and barriers in HIV testing decisions. a qualitative study from Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgensen Marte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Client-initiated HIV counselling and testing has been scaled up in many African countries, in the form of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT. Test rates have remained low, with HIV-related stigma being an important barrier to HIV testing. This study explored HIV testing decisions in one rural and one urban district in Zambia with high HIV prevalence and available antiretroviral treatment. Methods Data were collected through 17 in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions with individuals and 10 in-depth interviews with counsellors. Interpretive description methodology was employed to analyse the data. Results 'To know your status' was found to be a highly charged concept yielding strong barriers against HIV testing. VCT was perceived as a diagnostic device and a gateway to treatment for the severely ill. Known benefits of prevention and early treatment were outweighed by a perceived burden of knowing your HIV status related to stigma and fear. The manner in which the VCT services were organised added to this burden. Conclusions This study draws on social stigma theory to enhance the understanding of the continuity of HIV related stigma in the presence of ART, and argues that the burden of knowing an HIV status and the related reluctance to get HIV tested can be understood both as a form of label-avoidance and as strong expressions of the still powerful embodied memories of suffering and death among non-curable AIDS patients over the last decades. Hope lies in the emerging signs of a reduction in HIV related stigma experienced by those who had been tested for HIV. Further research into innovative HIV testing service designs that do not add to the burden of knowing is needed.

  20. Zambia's participation in past CTBTO activities and the upgrading of AS119 and N192: Experiences and the way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation briefly describes the Zambian Seisimic Network (ZSN), Zambia's participation in past CTBTO activities and upgrading of AS119 and N192. It goes on to describe various experiences encountered and makes some suggestions for future considerations

  1. Efficacy of long-lasting insecticidal nets in use in Macha, Zambia, against the local Anopheles arabiensis population

    OpenAIRE

    Norris Douglas E; Norris Laura C

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The mosquito Anopheles arabiensis is the primary vector of Plasmodium falciparum in Macha, Zambia. A major portion of Zambia's current malaria control programme relies on long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) with insecticides. Currently, the efficacy of these measures against An. arabiensis in Macha is unknown, and previous data has shown that An. arabiensis has continued to feed on human hosts, despite high ITN coverage. It is p...

  2. Seasonality, Blood Feeding Behavior, and Transmission of Plasmodium Falciparum by Anopheles Arabiensis after an Extended Drought In Southern Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    KENT, REBEKAH J.; Thuma, Philip E.; Mharakurwa, Sungano; Norris, Douglas E

    2007-01-01

    Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum is hyperendemic in southern Zambia. However, no data on the entomologic aspects of malaria transmission have been published from Zambia in more than 25 years. We evaluated seasonal malaria transmission by Anopheles arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. and characterized the blood feeding behavior of An. arabiensis in two village areas. Transmission during the 2004–2005 rainy season was nearly zero because of widespread drought. During 2005–2006, the estimated ...

  3. Spatial and Temporal Genetic Structure of Anopheles arabiensis in Southern Zambia over Consecutive Wet and Drought Years

    OpenAIRE

    KENT, REBEKAH J.; Mharakurwa, Sungano; Norris, Douglas E

    2007-01-01

    No studies have addressed the spatial complexity of Anopheles arabiensis populations in Zambia or the effects of drought on the genetic structure of this species. We genotyped approximately 420 An. arabiensis at 12 microsatellite loci representing 18 collections from the Southern Province of Zambia. Collections spanned three transmission seasons and covered a wet year–drought year–wet year cycle. Anopheles arabiensis within the 2,000 km2 of the Macha study region were panmictic, with high gen...

  4. A Qualitative Assessment of the Risk of Introducing Peste des Petits Ruminants into Northern Zambia from Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    R. Chazya; Muma, J. B.; Mwacalimba, K. K.; Karimuribo, E.; Mkandawire, E.; Simuunza, M.

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative risk assessment was performed to evaluate the risk of introducing Peste des petits ruminants virus into northern Zambia from Tanzania via live goat trade. Data was collected during a mission to Tanzania and northern Zambia and also from literature and interviews with experts. The risk of PPRV introduction was evaluated as a function of the probability of hazard (PPRV) release, exposure of susceptible hosts, and the consequences of spread using the following parameters: prevalenc...

  5. A Comparative Study of Agricultural Support Institutions in Central Province of Zambia: A Historical and Spatial Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Malambo, Augrey H.

    2013-01-01

    This is a comparative study of agricultural support institutions in Central Province, Zambia focusing on the 1980-90 and 1997-2008 periods. Generally, the study intended to identify the names of agricultural support institutions which existed in Central Province, as a smaller unit, and Zambia in general, and analyze their spatial aspect. In order to achieve this and other goals, the investigation conducted an extensive review of existing literature, old and new maps, distribution of questionn...

  6. Smallholder Farmers’ Responses to Rainfall Variability and Soil Fertility Problems by the Use of Indigenous Knowledge in Chipepo, Southern Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Kabwe Harnadih Mubanga; Bridget Bwalya Umar

    2014-01-01

    The study conducted in Southern Zambia investigated smallholder farmers’ use of indigenous knowledge to respond to rainfall variations and soil fertility problems. Farmer and key informant interviews and observations were employed to collect data. A total of 60 smallholder farmers and 6 key informants were interviewed. Chipepo lies in the low rainfall region of Zambia. Its upland area faces moisture stress and soil fertility problems compared to its valley areas located along tributaries of...

  7. Designing minimum-cost recycling collection points with required throughput : A Minor Field Study in Lusaka, Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Berling, Ludvig; Palm, Alexander; Sahlin, Linnea

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed as a bachelor thesis at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden, in the spring of 2012. The project was carried out as a Minor Field Study in Lusaka, Zambia, in collaboration with Mr. Obert Mambwe at Petrec Zambia Limited. The local waste management in Lusaka suffers from severe overload due to insufficient funds and rapid population growth. This has resulted in the inability to collect approximately fifty percent of the total produced waste, including ...

  8. Texas Disaster Districts

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A polygon shapefile of the 24 Disaster Districts in Texas. Disaster districts are emergency operation areas created by Executive Order from the Governor's Office....

  9. State Water Districts

    California Department of Resources — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  10. Legislative Districts - 1990

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Each coverage contains a COVER-ID field that defines the House or Senate district number. Kansas House and Senate districts were created by the Legislative Research...

  11. District nurse training

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Arnold; Freeling, Paul; Owen, John, 1560-1622

    1980-01-01

    Training for district nursing is being reviewed. By 1981 district nurses will have a new administrative structure, a new curriculum, and a new examination. Training for nursing, like that for general practice, is to become mandatory. The history of the development of district nurse training is briefly described.

  12. News about district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a brief description of national and international experience, the author outlines the market chances of district heating. He then discusses the marketing action required to enable further expansion of district heating as well as the continued need for subsidising district heating because of the low level of energy prices. The technical discussion focusses on the separation of the Graz district heating system from the Mellach district-heating power station as well as on the experience gathered so far with the REFUNA project in Switzerland. (Auth.)

  13. Social indicators and physical abuse of women by intimate partners: a study of women in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okenwa, Leah; Lawoko, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Intimate partner physical abuse (IPPA) of women is a societal problem with sinister implications on health. IPPA has been integrally linked to social status though the direction of association remains elusive, not the least in sub-Saharan Africa. This article investigated the association between IPPA and social status of women in Zambia. Data comprising 3,969 currently partnered women were retrieved from the 2001 Zambian Demographic and Health Survey and analyzed using chi-square test and logistic regression. IPPA augmented with low education, income-generating activity, access to information, autonomy over household health issues, and having tolerant attitudes toward IPPA. Tolerant attitude toward IPPA and illiteracy were independent risk factors for IPPA. Educational interventions are recommended to prevent IPPA in Zambia. PMID:20514821

  14. The influence of cultural practices on the HIV and AIDS pandemic in Zambia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nolipher, Moyo; Julian C., M& #252; ller.

    Full Text Available Culture plays a significant role in people's lives in Zambia and in Africa as a whole. Consequently, there is a need to take Zambian or African culture seriously in order to look at the salient elements of cultural practices in rites of passage that influence the spread of HIV and AIDS. This article [...] analyses four rites of passage associated with birth, puberty, marriage and death. There are numerous rites of passage in Zambian culture. Some of these rites help to curb the spread of HIV and AIDS, whilst others exacerbate the spread of the virus. Using the Reformed Church in Zambia Bible Study Method of Subgroups, discussions were held that allowed victims of cultural practices to tell their stories using the narrative model. This article sought to shed light on cultural practices that exacerbate HIV and AIDS and more importantly, provide culturally sensitive alternatives to these harmful practices.

  15. Antiretroviral therapy in Zambia: colours, 'spoiling', 'talk' and the meaning of antiretrovirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, Lynette Louise; Bond, Virginia A

    2008-12-01

    We examine responses to the roll-out of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) in Zambia in 2004, focusing on material features of the drugs (colour, shape, size, origin), 'spoiling' (concern about toxicity, side effects of the drugs) and rumours ('talk' about the drugs). Data consists of interviews with 10 people living with HIV and 21 healthcare practitioners. We found that the colour symbolism of 'traditional medicine' has some influence on ideas about ARVs, suggesting possible 'meaning responses' that could affect treatment outcomes. Respondents also become concerned when colours, shapes and side effects differ from expectations. 'Talk' about ARVs concerns risks of medication, sustainability of treatment programmes and people's feelings of vulnerability within larger socio-economic contexts in which countries like Zambia are disadvantaged. Understanding the associations that pharmaceuticals evoke can improve treatment programmes by elucidating public and patient concerns and sensitising healthcare professionals to the historical and political circumstances that condition the 'meaning' of ARVs. PMID:18952338

  16. Mental health policy process: a comparative study of Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Kigozi Fred; Flisher Alan J; Mirzoev Tolib; Bird Philippa K; Green Andrew T; Omar Maye A; Lund Crick; Mwanza Jason; Ofori-Atta Angela L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Mental illnesses are increasingly recognised as a leading cause of disability worldwide, yet many countries lack a mental health policy or have an outdated, inappropriate policy. This paper explores the development of appropriate mental health policies and their effective implementation. It reports comparative findings on the processes for developing and implementing mental health policies in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia as part of the Mental Health and Poverty P...

  17. Current climate variability and future climate change: Estimated growth and poverty impacts for Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Thurlow, James; Zhu, Tingju; DIAO, Xinshen

    2011-01-01

    Economy-wide and hydrological-crop models are combined to estimate and compare the economic impacts of current climate variability and future anthropogenic climate change in Zambia. Accounting for uncertainty, simulation results indicate that, on average, current variability reduces gross domestic product by four percent over a ten-year period and pulls over two percent of the population below the poverty line. Socio-economic impacts are much larger during major drought years, thus underscori...

  18. To examine approaches to learning to read in the second language in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Chibamba, Robert T.

    1989-01-01

    This project seeks to examine approaches to learning to read in a second language in Zambia where there is a rich variety of mother tongues, but English is chosen for instruction as one language which all pupils will have in common. The project will be particularly concerned with helping practicing and student teachers to apply ideas based on teaching reading in English as the mother tongue to the problem of teaching reading in English as a second language.

  19. Management of pulmonary tuberculosis patients in an urban setting in Zambia: a patient's perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Shamputa Isdore; Kapata Nathan; Khondowe Shepherd; Vereecken Kim; Mwakazanga David; Mulenga Chanda; Meulemans Herman; Rigouts Leen

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Zambia continues to grapple with a high tuberculosis (TB) burden despite a long running Directly Observed Treatment Short course programme. Understanding issues that affect patient adherence to treatment programme is an important component in implementation of a successful TB control programme. We set out to investigate pulmonary TB patient's attitudes to seek health care, assess the care received from government health care centres based on TB patients' reports, and to se...

  20. Between Opportunities and Risks : Adolescent sexual and reproductive health in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlbäck, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a dynamic period in life with both opportunities and risks related to the culturally constructed gender norms. Many adolescents in sub-Saharan countries, Zambia included, lack control over their own sexual and reproductive lives, due to factors such as gender inequality, poverty, and sociocultural and religious norms. Aim The aim of this thesis was to explore, from a gender perspective, how sexuality and reproduction are conceptualised and communic...

  1. Aspects of productivity of traditionally managed Barotse cattle in the Western Province of Zambia.

    OpenAIRE

    Klink, E. G. M.

    1994-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, traditionally managed livestock is important because of the provision of draught power and manure, the provision of security and investment possibilities, for the provision of meat and milk, and for social purposes (eg. brideprice, gifts). In the Western Province of Zambia, cattle are the only livestock of significance. The soils of the province virtually entirely consist of Kalahari sands, that are not very suitable for crop production, but with a good suitability for ...

  2. Exchange Rate Volatility and Non-Traditional Exports Performance: Zambia, 1965–1999

    OpenAIRE

    Musonda, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    This study estimated an error correction model of the impact of real effective exchange rate volatility on the performance of non-traditional exports for Zambia between 1965 and 1999. Using a generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH) measure of real exchange rate volatility, the findings show that exchange rate volatility depresses exports in both the short run and the long run. The results also suggest that supportive macroeconomic factors are important in enhancing n...

  3. Effects of the Maize Input Subsidy Program on Groundnuts Production in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Zulu; Thomson Kalinda; Gelson Tembo

    2014-01-01

    This study uses a three-wave panel dataset from nationally representative surveys by the Central Statistical Office and Cragg's (1971) model for corner-solution problems to determine the effect of the government-sponsored maize input subsidy program on the production of groundnuts in Zambia. The results show that even though the maize subsidy programme, does not significantly affect the smallholder farmer’s decision to participate in groundnuts production, maize subsidies however do signifi...

  4. Biochar Effect on Maize Yield and Soil Characteristics in Five Conservation Farming Sites in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Alfred Obia; Jan Mulder; Hale, Sarah E.; Breedveld, Gijs D.; Rutherford, David W.; Magnus Sparrevik; Vanja Alling; Vegard Martinsen; Victor Shitumbanuma; Gerard Cornelissen

    2013-01-01

    Biochar addition to agricultural soils can improve soil fertility, with the added bonus of climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. Conservation farming (CF) is precision farming, often combining minimum tillage, crop rotation and residue retention. In the present farmer-led field trials carried out in Zambia, the use of a low dosage biochar combined with CF minimum tillage was tested as a way to increase crop yields. Using CF minimum tillage allows the biochar to be applied to...

  5. Household lifestyle, energy related practices and perceptions of energy efficiency: Evidence from Kitwe, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilias Makashini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa is noted for not only constant power shortages but also poor access to electricity. In Zambia, for example, 75% of the population does not have access to electricity. This is partly because although Zambia has one of the lowest energy tariffs in Southern Africa, when compared with household monthly income, the resource is still reasonably unaffordable. Therefore, there is need to find innovative ways of reducing energy cost. Recent studies have indicated that there are patterns that show that there is a relationship between households’ lifestyles and energy consumption. This means that understanding household lifestyles and how that impacts on energy use would be crucial in helping occupants to change their behaviours. This would result in the minimisation of energy consumption and thus a reduction in energy bills. However, there is a dearth of scholarly literature about households’ lifestyles and their impacts on energy consumption in most developing countries including Zambia. This study investigates the perceptions of different lifestyles on household energy consumption and knowledge about energy efficiency in the city of Kitwe, the second largest city in Zambia. Motivation and barriers to energy efficiency have also been investigated. To achieve this, a mixed research approach was adopted. Firstly, a quantitative closed structured questionnaire instrument was used to collect data from 59 households in Kitwe. Secondly, mini-focus group discussions (average size of 5 ? brought about by the curiosity of residents and hence the contribution as families per household ? were undertaken in the informal settlement. The major findings are that households are generally motivated to implement energy saving strategies like covering pots when cooking, switching off lights in rooms that are not in use and that more information is needed as lack of knowledge and ‘landlord control’ were identified as some of the barriers to energy efficiency.

  6. ‘It is just culture’ : Eight young people’s perception of the gender roles in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Nyman, Mikaela

    2013-01-01

    This study explores eight young people’s perception of the gender roles in Zambia, Lusaka. In this study I have asked the informants to define the genders and the result were that the genders are defined based on the biological sexes. The genders therefore become homogenous based on the male and female sex. The regulations of the genders were traditionally also based on assumed ‘biologically natural characteristics’. As I argue in this study that gender roles are social constructed I al...

  7. HIV Testing and Tolerance to Gender Based Violence: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Gari, Sara; Malungo, Jacob R. S.; Martin-Hilber, Adriane; Musheke, Maurice; Schindler, Christian; Merten, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of social relations and gender-based conflicts on the uptake of HIV testing in the South and Central provinces of Zambia. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study of 1716 randomly selected individuals. Associations were examined using mixed-effect multivariable logistic regression. A total of 264 men (64%) and 268 women (56%) had never tested for HIV. The strongest determinants for not being tested were disruptive couple relationships (OR?=?2.48 ...

  8. Exploring Children's Lived School Experiences in Zambia : Negotiating School Social Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Mwinsa, Mapoma Grant

    2013-01-01

    Just like other parts of the world, schools in Zambia are, by and large, expected to be spaces for children to socialize and acquire knowledge and skills. However, the school practices in most parts of the world suggest that school spaces are 'ideal spaces for children's training' and 'preparation for the future'. They are seen as places that keep children away from danger and misdemeanor. In view of the foregoing, the aim of this thesis was to explores children's lived school experiences and...

  9. Characterisation of the Wildlife Reservoir Community for Human and Animal Trypanosomiasis in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Neil E.; Mubanga, Joseph; Fevre, Eric M.; Picozzi, Kim; Eisler, Mark C.; Thomas, Robert; Welburn, Susan C.

    2011-01-01

    Animal and human trypanosomiasis are constraints to both animal and human health in Sub-Saharan Africa, but there is little recent evidence as to how these parasites circulate in natural hosts in natural ecosystems. A cross-sectional survey of trypanosome prevalence in 418 wildlife hosts was conducted in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia, from 2005 to 2007. The overall prevalence in all species was 13.9%. Infection was significantly more likely to be detected in waterbuck, lion, greater kudu and bus...

  10. Challenges in implementing the 2006 World Health Organization HIV and infant feeding recommendations in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Sikazwe, C.M.S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) HIV and infant feeding recommendations have not been effectively implemented in Zambia. OBJECTIVES: To describe the adaption and adoption of WHO HIV and infant feeding recommendations; to explore best practices to improve program implementation; to identify and critically analyse key factors influencing program implementation; to formulate recommendations for Ministry of Health and key actors to optimize infant feeding practices. METHODS: Litera...

  11. The Local Social and Environmental Impacts of Smallholder-Based Biofuel Investments in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Davison Gumbo; Schoneveld, George C.; Laura German

    2011-01-01

    High oil prices, recent commitments by industrialized countries to enhance the use of renewable energy, and efforts by developing countries to stimulate foreign investment as a pathway to development have fueled high levels of interest in the biofuel sector throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa. Zambia is no exception. A large, land-locked country with high pump prices and vast tracts of land considered by many to be “degraded” or “underutilized,” investor interest in ...

  12. The transfer of East Coast fever immunisation to veterinary paraprofessionals in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Marcotty, T.; Chaka, G.; Brandt, J.; Berkvens, D.; Thys, E.; Mulumba, M.; Mataa, L.; Den Bossche, P.

    2008-01-01

    In eastern Zambia, immunisation by ‘infection and treatment’ is the main method used to control East Coast fever, an acute and lethal cattle disease. This service, which requires a stringent cold chain, used to be free of charge. When a minimal user fee was introduced, attendance dropped drastically. Consequently, this complex immunisation programme was transferred to veterinary paraprofessionals working on their own account, with the aim of boosting a more sustainable distribution of ...

  13. A cost-effectiveness analysis of artemether lumefantrine for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Hawela Moonga; Sipilanyambe Naawa; Chitah Bona M; Masiye Felix; Chanda Pascalina; Banda Patrick; Okorosobo Tuoyo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity, mortality and non-fatal disability in Zambia, especially among children, pregnant women and the poor. Data gathered by the National Malaria Control Centre has shown that recently observed widespread treatment failure of SP and chloroquine precipitated a surge in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. As a result, the Government has recently replaced chloroquine and SP with combination therapy as first-line treatment for malar...

  14. Enhancing knowledge retention in higher education: A case of the University of Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Sitali Wamundila; Patrick Ngulube

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how knowledge retention may be enhanced at the University of Zambia (UNZA). A quantitative case study design employing a triangulation of data collection methods was used. Data were collected using interviews and questionnaires. Purposive sampling was used to determine participants for the interviews whilst stratified random sampling was employed to select the respondents for the questionnaire. The quantitative and qualitative data that was analyse...

  15. Farm Productivity and Market Structure. Evidence From Cotton Reforms in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Brambilla, Irene; Porto, Guido G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the impacts of cotton marketing reforms on farm productivity, a key element for poverty alleviation, in rural Zambia. The reforms comprised the elimination of the Zambian cotton marketing board that was in place since 1977. Following liberalization, the sector adopted an outgrower scheme, whereby firms provided extension services to farmers and sold inputs on loans that were repaid at the time of harvest. There are two distinctive phases of the reforms: a failure of th...

  16. Provisioning of game meat to rural communities as a benefit of sport hunting in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Paula A; Belant, Jerrold L

    2015-01-01

    Sport hunting has reportedly multiple benefits to economies and local communities; however, few of these benefits have been quantified. As part of their lease agreements with the Zambia Wildlife Authority, sport hunting operators in Zambia are required to provide annually to local communities free of charge i.e., provision a percentage of the meat obtained through sport hunting. We characterized provisioning of game meat to rural communities by the sport hunting industry in Zambia for three game management areas (GMAs) during 2004-2011. Rural communities located within GMAs where sport hunting occurred received on average > 6,000 kgs per GMA of fresh game meat annually from hunting operators. To assess hunting industry compliance, we also compared the amount of meat expected as per the lease agreements versus observed amounts of meat provisioned from three GMAs during 2007-2009. In seven of eight annual comparisons of these GMAs, provisioning of meat exceeded what was required in the lease agreements. Provisioning occurred throughout the hunting season and peaked during the end of the dry season (September-October) coincident with when rural Zambians are most likely to encounter food shortages. We extrapolated our results across all GMAs and estimated 129,771 kgs of fresh game meat provisioned annually by the sport hunting industry to rural communities in Zambia at an approximate value for the meat alone of >US$600,000 exclusive of distribution costs. During the hunting moratorium (2013-2014), this supply of meat has halted, likely adversely affecting rural communities previously reliant on this food source. Proposed alternatives to sport hunting should consider protein provisioning in addition to other benefits (e.g., employment, community pledges, anti-poaching funds) that rural Zambian communities receive from the sport hunting industry. PMID:25693191

  17. Legislative Districts - House Districts - Secretary of State

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer represents the Arkansas State House of Representatives district boundaries adopted by the Arkansas Board of Apportionment on July 29, 2011. The Board of...

  18. Environmental impact assessment of the charcoal production and utilization system in central Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is the outcome of the Zambia Charcoal Utilization Programme, which is based on cooperation that started in 1989 between the Department of Energy, Ministry of Energy and Water Development (then Ministry of Power, Transport and Communications) and the Stockholm Environmental Institute (SEI). The programme, which is funded by the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA), consists of a number of studies focusing on different aspects of the wood and charcoal industry in Zambia. Selection of this energy system for detailed study was based on the fact that wood provides the largest contribution to total energy supply in Zambia, and the fact that wood is a renewable resource that could be exploited on a sustainable basis if properly managed. The studies therefore range from those that look at sustainability of the natural forests exploited for charcoal, to those that deal with transportation and health aspects of charcoal production and use. The present report focuses on the environmental and socio-economic effects of charcoal production and use. 72 refs., 20 figs., 38 tabs

  19. Lusaka, Zambia, during SAFARI-2000: Convergence of local and imported ozone pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Freiman, M. Tal; Phahlane, N. Agnes; Coetzee, Gert J. R.

    2002-10-01

    In August and September, throughout south central Africa, seasonal clearing of dry vegetation and other fire-related activities lead to intense smoke haze and ozone formation. The first ozone soundings in the heart of the southern African burning region were taken at Lusaka, Zambia (15.5S, 28E) in early September 2000. Maximum surface ozone was over 90 ppbv and column tropospheric ozone exceeded 50 DU. These values are higher than concurrent measurements over Nairobi (1S, 38E) and Irene (25S, 28E, near Pretoria). At least 30% of Lusaka surface ozone appears to be from local sources. A layer at 800-500 hPa has ozone >120 ppbv and originates from trans-boundary recirculation. Starting out over Zambia, Angola, and Namibia, ozone-rich air travels east to the Indian Ocean, before heading back toward Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Zambia. Thus, Lusaka collects local and imported pollution, consistent with its location within the southern African gyre.

  20. Evidence of Yersinia pestis DNA from fleas in an endemic plague area of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang'ombe Bernard M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia pestis is a bacterium that causes plague which infects a variety of mammals throughout the world. The disease is usually transmitted among wild rodents through a flea vector. The sources and routes of transmission of plague are poorly researched in Africa, yet remains a concern in several sub-Saharan countries. In Zambia, the disease has been reported on annual basis with up to 20 cases per year, without investigating animal reservoirs or vectors that may be responsible in the maintenance and propagation of the bacterium. In this study, we undertook plague surveillance by using PCR amplification of the plasminogen activator gene in fleas. Findings Xenopsylla species of fleas were collected from 83 rodents trapped in a plague endemic area of Zambia. Of these rodents 5 had fleas positive (6.02% for Y. pestis plasminogen activator gene. All the Y. pestis positive rodents were gerbils. Conclusions We conclude that fleas may be responsible in the transmission of Y. pestis and that PCR may provide means of plague surveillance in the endemic areas of Zambia.

  1. Notes from the field: severe environmental contamination and elevated blood lead levels among children - Zambia, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravanos, Jack; Fuller, Richard; Robinson, Stephan

    2014-11-01

    Lead poisoning can have devastating health consequences, especially for children, with childhood lead exposure estimated to contribute to 600,000 new cases globally of children with intellectual disabilities every year. Lead exposure is entirely preventable, yet is estimated to account for 0.6% of the global burden of disease, with the highest burden in developing regions. Kabwe, the second largest city in Zambia with a population of approximately 203,000, is located in Zambia's Copperbelt. During 1904-1994, lead mining and smelting operations contaminated the soil in residential areas, but no extensive environmental health assessment was completed. In 2003, the World Bank funded the Copperbelt Environmental Project to assist the Government of Zambia in addressing environmental health problems related to the mining sector. Components of the project included removal of mining waste materials, soil remediation, resident evacuation, and treatment of lead-exposed children. During July 22-28, 2014, a team from PureEarth/Blacksmith Institute, the City University of New York School of Public Health, and Green Cross Switzerland conducted extensive surface soil testing and blood lead testing of children in six communities adjacent to the now-closed Kabwe mines and smelters. PMID:25375074

  2. Underperformance of African Protected Area Networks and the Case for New Conservation Models: Insights from Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Peter A.; Nyirenda, Vincent R.; Barnes, Jonathan I.; Becker, Matthew S.; McRobb, Rachel; Tambling, Craig J.; Taylor, W. Andrew; Watson, Frederick G.; t’Sas-Rolfes, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Many African protected areas (PAs) are not functioning effectively. We reviewed the performance of Zambia’s PA network and provide insights into how their effectiveness might be improved. Zambia’s PAs are under-performing in ecological, economic and social terms. Reasons include: a) rapidly expanding human populations, poverty and open-access systems in Game Management Areas (GMAs) resulting in widespread bushmeat poaching and habitat encroachment; b) underfunding of the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) resulting in inadequate law enforcement; c) reliance of ZAWA on extracting revenues from GMAs to cover operational costs which has prevented proper devolution of user-rights over wildlife to communities; d) on-going marginalization of communities from legal benefits from wildlife; e) under-development of the photo-tourism industry with the effect that earnings are limited to a fraction of the PA network; f) unfavourable terms and corruption which discourage good practice and adequate investment by hunting operators in GMAs; g) blurred responsibilities regarding anti-poaching in GMAs resulting in under-investment by all stakeholders. The combined effect of these challenges has been a major reduction in wildlife densities in most PAs and the loss of habitat in GMAs. Wildlife fares better in areas with investment from the private and/or NGO sector and where human settlement is absent. There is a need for: elevated government funding for ZAWA; greater international donor investment in protected area management; a shift in the role of ZAWA such that they focus primarily on national parks while facilitating the development of wildlife-based land uses by other stakeholders elsewhere; and new models for the functioning of GMAs based on joint-ventures between communities and the private and/or NGO sector. Such joint-ventures should provide defined communities with ownership of land, user-rights over wildlife and aim to attract long-term private/donor investment. These recommendations are relevant for many of the under-funded PAs occurring in other African countries. PMID:24847712

  3. Bringing indigenous ownership back to the private sector : Chinese investment, populist discourses and contemporary policy making in Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    Driven by across-the-board liberalizations and the commodity price boom, Zambia has recently experienced an upsurge in foreign ownership over key parts of its economy. Albeit investors from all over the world have sought to make the most of the current situation in Zambia, Chinese investors have been particularly present in all sectors of the Zambian economy. Foreign ownership, however, is not new to African societies and several African countries pursued indigenisation policies in the wake of independence to bring ownership back to their own citizens. Now indigenisation policies thrive again. This time disguised in terms like empowerment and unequal opportunities but just as politicised as in the 1970s. In light of the current anti-Chinese sentiments in Zambia, this paper seeks to further our understanding of private sector policy making in Zambia. It argues that populist politics, referring to traditional Copperbelt rhetoric, have enforced a role as minority middlemen upon the Chinese investors. This further segregates Chinese investors from other investors and has been a driving force in the anti-Chinese campaign in Zambia. To curb the critique of the growing foreign dominance over the economy, and in particular of the upsurge in Chinese investments, the ruling party has reverted to the use of nationalist policies.

  4. Mobilizing communities to improve maternal health: results of an intervention in rural Zambia / : / Mobiliser les communautes pour ameliorer la sante maternelle: resultats d'une intervention dans les zones rurales de la Zambie / : / : / Movilizacion de las comunidades para mejorar la salud materna: resultados de una intervencion en las zonas rurales de Zambia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tim, Ensor; Cathy, Green; Paula, Quigley; Abdul Razak, Badru; Dynes, Kaluba; Tendayi, Kureya.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Objetivo Verificar si una intervención comunitaria compleja en las zonas rurales de Zambia mejoró la comprensión sobre salud materna e incrementó el uso de los servicios de salud maternos. Métodos La intervención, dirigida por voluntarios capacitados y la provisión de transporte de emerge [...] ncia, tuvo lugar en seis distritos rurales seleccionados por el Ministerio de Salud de Zambia y consistió en debates comunitarios sobre un embarazo y parto seguros. Los voluntarios trabajaron a través de grupos de acción para una maternidad sin riesgo existentes establecidos por el gobierno. Los indicadores de salud materna en la base de referencia se obtuvieron de las mujeres de los distritos de intervención (n = 1775) y control (n = 1630). Se evaluó el efecto de la intervención en estos indicadores mediante un enfoque de diferencias en diferencias cuasi-experimental que incluyó un emparejamiento por puntaje de propensión y el ajuste por factores de confusión como la educación, la riqueza, la paridad, la edad y la distancia a un centro de atención de salud. Resultados La comparación de diferencias en diferencias mostró que la intervención se asocia a un aumento significativo en los indicadores de salud materna: 14-16 % en el número de mujeres que sabían cuándo debían buscar atención prenatal; 10-15 % en las mujeres que conocían tres señales de peligro obstétricas; 12-19 % en las que utilizaron el transporte de emergencia; 22-24 % en los partos que necesitaron un matrón capacitado, y 16-21 % en los partos en un centro de atención de salud. La tasa de abandono voluntario fue baja. El coste incremental estimado por parto adicional con un matrón capacitado fue de unos 54 dólares de los Estados Unidos, similar al de otras intervenciones relativas a la demanda en los países en desarrollo. Conclusión La intervención comunitaria se asocia con mejoras significativas en el conocimiento de las mujeres sobre la atención prenatal y las señales de peligro obstétricas, el uso del transporte de emergencia y los partos con matrones capacitados. Abstract in english Objective To determine whether a complex community intervention in rural Zambia improved understanding of maternal health and increased use of maternal health-care services. Methods The intervention took place in six rural districts selected by the Zambian Ministry of Health. It involved communit [...] y discussions on safe pregnancy and delivery led by trained volunteers and the provision of emergency transport. Volunteers worked through existing government-established Safe Motherhood Action Groups. Maternal health indicators at baseline were obtained from women in intervention (n?=?1775) and control districts (n?=?1630). The intervention's effect on these indicators was assessed using a quasi-experimental difference-in-difference approach that involved propensity score matching and adjustment for confounders such as education, wealth, parity, age and distance to a health-care facility. Findings The difference-in-difference comparison showed the intervention to be associated with significant increases in maternal health indicators: 14–16% in the number of women who knew when to seek antenatal care; 10–15% in the number who knew three obstetric danger signs; 12–19% in those who used emergency transport; 22–24% in deliveries involving a skilled birth attendant; and 16–21% in deliveries in a health-care facility. The volunteer drop-out rate was low. The estimated incremental cost per additional delivery involving a skilled birth attendant was around 54 United States dollars, comparable to that of other demand-side interventions in developing countries. Conclusion The community intervention was associated with significant improvements in women's knowledge of antenatal care and obstetric danger signs, use of emergency transport and deliveries involving skilled birth attendants.

  5. Geographical patterns and predictors of malaria risk in Zambia: Bayesian geostatistical modelling of the 2006 Zambia national malaria indicator survey (ZMIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chizema-Kawesha Elizabeth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Zambia Malaria Indicator Survey (ZMIS of 2006 was the first nation-wide malaria survey, which combined parasitological data with other malaria indicators such as net use, indoor residual spraying and household related aspects. The survey was carried out by the Zambian Ministry of Health and partners with the objective of estimating the coverage of interventions and malaria related burden in children less than five years. In this study, the ZMIS data were analysed in order (i to estimate an empirical high-resolution parasitological risk map in the country and (ii to assess the relation between malaria interventions and parasitaemia risk after adjusting for environmental and socio-economic confounders. Methods The parasitological risk was predicted from Bayesian geostatistical and spatially independent models relating parasitaemia risk and environmental/climatic predictors of malaria. A number of models were fitted to capture the (potential non-linearity in the malaria-environment relation and to identify the elapsing time between environmental effects and parasitaemia risk. These models included covariates (a in categorical scales and (b in penalized and basis splines terms. Different model validation methods were used to identify the best fitting model. Model-based risk predictions at unobserved locations were obtained via Bayesian predictive distributions for the best fitting model. Results Model validation indicated that linear environmental predictors were able to fit the data as well as or even better than more complex non-linear terms and that the data do not support spatial dependence. Overall the averaged population-adjusted parasitaemia risk was 20.0% in children less than five years with the highest risk predicted in the northern (38.3% province. The odds of parasitaemia in children living in a household with at least one bed net decreases by 40% (CI: 12%, 61% compared to those without bed nets. Conclusions The map of parasitaemia risk together with the prediction error and the population at risk give an important overview of the malaria situation in Zambia. These maps can assist to achieve better resource allocation, health management and to target additional interventions to reduce the burden of malaria in Zambia significantly. Repeated surveys will enable the evaluation of the effectiveness of on-going interventions.

  6. Increased fairness in priority setting processes within the health sector : the case of Kapiri-Mposhi District, Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Zulu, Joseph M.; Michelo, Charles; Msoni, Carol; Hurtig, Anna-karin; Byskov, Jens; Blystad, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    Background: The challenge of priority setting (PS) in health care within contexts of severe resource limitations has continued to receive attention. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) has emerged as a useful framework to guide the implementation of PS processes. In 2006, the AFR approach to enhance legitimate and fair PS was introduced by researchers and decision makers within the health sector in the EU funded research project entitled 'Response to Accountable priority setting for Trust...

  7. Increased fairness in priority setting processes within the health sector:the case of Kapiri-Mposhi District, Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Zulu, Joseph; Michelo, Charles; Msoni, Carol; Hurtig, Anna-karin; Byskov, Jens; Blystad, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    Background: The challenge of priority setting (PS) in health care within contexts of severe resource limitations has continued to receive attention. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) has emerged as a useful framework to guide the implementation of PS processes. In 2006, the AFR approach to enhance legitimate and fair PS was introduced by researchers and decision makers within the health sector in the EU funded research project entitled ‘Response to Accountable priority s...

  8. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and albuminuria in rural Zambia : a hospital-based survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon B; Thomsen, Jakúp A

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess albuminuria in rural Zambia among patients with diabetes mellitus only (DM group), hypertension only (HTN group) and patients with combined DM and HTN (DM/HTN group). METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at St. Francis Hospital in the Eastern province of Zambia. Albumin-creatinine ratio in one urine sample was used to assess albuminuria. Other information obtained included age, sex, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c ), random capillary glucose, time since diagnosis, medication and family history of DM or HTN. RESULTS: A total of 193 participants were included (DM group: n = 33; HTN group: n = 92; DM/HTN group: n = 68). The participants in the DM group used insulin more frequently as diabetes medication than the DM/HTN group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the DM group was younger and had lower BMI, WC and BP than the two other groups. In the DM group, HTN group and DM/HTN group, microalbuminuria was found in 12.1%, 19.6% and 29.4% (P = 0.11), and macroalbuminuria was found in 0.0%, 3.3% and 13.2% (P = 0.014), respectively. The urine albumin (P = 0.014) and albumin-creatinine ratio (P = 0.0006) differed between the three groups. CONCLUSION: This hospital-based survey in rural Zambia found a lower frequency of albuminuria among the participants than in previous studies of patients with DM or HTN in urban sub-Saharan Africa.

  9. Early alcohol use and problem drinking among students in Zambia and Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasirye Rogers

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Excessive alcohol use is a serious public health concern worldwide, but less attention has been given to the prevalence, risk and protective factors, and consequences of early alcohol use in low-income, developing countries. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between early alcohol use, before age 13, and problem drinking among adolescents in Uganda and Zambia. Data from students in Zambia (n=2257; 2004 and Uganda (n=3215; 2003 were obtained from the cross-sectional Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS. The self-administered questionnaires were completed by students primarily 13 to 16 years of age. Multiple statistical models were computed using logistic regression analyses to test the associations between early alcohol initiation and problem drinking, while controlling for possible confounding factors (e.g., current alcohol use, bullying victimization, sadness, lack of friends, missing school, lack of parental monitoring, and drug use. Results show that early alcohol initiation was associated with problem drinking in both Zambia (AOR=1.28; 95% CI:1.02-1.61 and Uganda (AOR=1.48; 95% CI: 1.11- 1.98 among youth after controlling for demographic characteristics, risky behaviors, and other possible confounders.The study shows that there is a significant association between alcohol initiation before 13 years of age and problem drinking among youth in these two countries. These findings underscore the need for interventions and strict alcohol controls as an important policy strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth.

  10. The influence of cultural practices on the HIV and AIDS pandemic in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Nolipher Moyo; Mu?ller, Julian C.

    2011-01-01

    Culture plays a significant role in people’s lives in Zambia and in Africa as a whole. Consequently, there is a need to take Zambian or African culture seriously in order to look at the salient elements of cultural practices in rites of passage that influence the spread of HIV and AIDS. This article analyses four rites of passage associated with birth, puberty, marriage and death. There are numerous rites of passage in Zambian culture. Some of these rites help to curb the spread of HIV and ...

  11. Seeking markets and resources : State-driven Chinese and Indian investments in Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter; Hampwaye, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    Processes of globalisation are currently changing the global activity of multinational companies (MNCs). ‘Emerging’ MNCs are competing with ‘conventional’ MNCs when investing in new markets. This article sets out to analyse the motives and strategies of Chinese and Indian MNCs investing in Zambia. It argues that despite the different home-country contexts of these investments, emerging MNCs depict differences as well as similarities. Moreover, the article maintains that existing theories explaining international production provide a suitable framework to understand ‘emerging’ patterns, but that more emphasis must be placed on the home and host contexts and how institutional features impact investment decisions.

  12. Determinants of self-perceived risk of HIV infection:population-based observations in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Mwangala, Sheila Monde

    2008-01-01

    Background Perception of risk of HIV infection has been suggested to be an important area of study as it can be an assumed to be an indicator of one’s understanding of susceptibility to HIV infection and a precursor to behavioral change, which could determine future decision making regarding risk taking. Studies that have examined perception of HIV risk and its determinants still remain limited. Zambia is among the worst affected countries by the HIV pandemic in the sub-Sahara African reg...

  13. A Stochastic Frontier Analysis of Technical Efficiency of Maize Production Under Minimum Tillage in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ng'ombe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Minimum tillage and other conservation agriculture practices are not only associated with income gains but are also claimed to be the panacea to the declining agricultural productivity and soil degradation problems in Africa and across the world. The few studies on technical efficiency related to the agricultural sector performance in Zambia have not attempted to determine how technically efficient smallholder farmers that produce maize under minimum tillage are. This study used stochastic frontier analysis based on both the half-normal and exponential model distributions on 2008 cross-sectional nationally representative data of 160 smallholder maize farm households that adopted minimum tillage in Zambia. Results indicate that maize farmers face increasing returns to scale (1.074 implying that there were opportunities for them to improve their technical efficiency as they were operating in stage I of their production functions. The half-normal and exponential model distributions indicate average technical efficiency scores of 60 and 71.7 percent, respectively. Their respective lowest efficiency scores were 9.3 and 8.5 percent. The highest efficiency scores for the half-normal and exponential model distributions were 89.3 and 90.9 percent. Maximum likelihood estimation results show that marital status, level of education of household head, square of household size, off farm income, agro-ecological region III, distance to vehicular road and access to loans are statistically significant factors that affect technical efficiency of smallholder maize farmers that practice minimum tillage in Zambia. The study calls for increased infrastructural development through construction of improved road network, schools and colleges in remote areas as a means to increasing accesss to knowledge and other agricultural services in order to enhance their technical efficiency levels. It also recommends promotion of minimum tillage practices in recommended agro-ecological regions to improve their technical efficiency. The study further acclaims for increased access to loans by smallholder maize farmers that practice minimum tillage as this would in one way induce them to invest in improved varieties and equipment that would help enhance their technical efficiency in Zambia.

  14. Tuber production and fire-resistance in Lycopodium carolinianum L. in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kona?

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal periodicity of Lycopodium carolinianum L. var. tuberosum (Welw. et A. Braun ex Kuhn Nessel in a dambo grassland in the Central Province of Zambia is described. Cauline tubers were formed on the apices of the creeping stems at the end of each growing season. Because of the downward curving of their initials the tubers became buried c. l cm underground. They were often the only parts of the plant which survived the grass fires occurring each year in the dry season. Hence, L. carolinianum var. tuberosum is a facultative geophyte in which the original, most probably xerophytic, adaptations became an effective means of protection against fire.

  15. Knowledge and use of modern family planning methods by rural women in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Mubita-ngoma, C.; Chongo Kadantu, M.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to determine knowledge and use of modem contractive methods among reproductive age group rural women in Zambia. The study is a descriptive cross-sectional study of 105 randomly selected rural women. Data was collected using semi-structured interview schedule and analyzed using EPI Info version 6 statistical packages. The findings revealed that 63% of the respondents were within the age group 21-35 years, 65% were married and 64% were peasant farmers. 90% of the r...

  16. Biochar Effect on Maize Yield and Soil Characteristics in Five Conservation Farming Sites in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Obia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochar addition to agricultural soils can improve soil fertility, with the added bonus of climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. Conservation farming (CF is precision farming, often combining minimum tillage, crop rotation and residue retention. In the present farmer-led field trials carried out in Zambia, the use of a low dosage biochar combined with CF minimum tillage was tested as a way to increase crop yields. Using CF minimum tillage allows the biochar to be applied to the area where most of the plant roots are present and mirrors the fertilizer application in CF practices. The CF practice used comprised manually hoe-dug planting 10-L sized basins, where 10%–12% of the land was tilled. Pilot trials were performed with maize cob biochar and wood biochar on five soils with variable physical/chemical characteristics. At a dosage as low as 4 tons/ha, both biochars had a strong positive effect on maize yields in the coarse white aeolian sand of Kaoma, West-Zambia, with yields of 444% ± 114% (p = 0.06 and 352% ± 139% (p = 0.1 of the fertilized reference plots for maize and wood biochar, respectively. Thus for sandy acidic soils, CF and biochar amendment can be a promising combination for increasing harvest yield. Moderate but non-significant effects on yields were observed for maize and wood biochar in a red sandy clay loam ultisol east of Lusaka, central Zambia (University of Zambia, UNZA, site with growth of 142% ± 42% (p > 0.2 and 131% ± 62% (p > 0.2 of fertilized reference plots, respectively. For three other soils (acidic and neutral clay loams and silty clay with variable cation exchange capacity, CEC, no significant effects on maize yields were observed (p > 0.2. In laboratory trials, 5% of the two biochars were added to the soil samples in order to study the effect of the biochar on physical and chemical soil characteristics. The large increase in crop yield in Kaoma soil was tentatively explained by a combination of an increased base saturation (from <50% to 60%–100% and cation exchange capacity (CEC; from 2–3 to 5–9 cmol/kg and increased plant-available water (from 17% to 21% as well as water vapor uptake (70 mg/g on maize cob biochar at 50% relative humidity.

  17. Prevalence and distribution of HPV genotypes among HIV-infected women in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Sahasrabuddhe, V V; Mwanahamuntu, M H; Vermund, S.H.; Huh, W K; Lyon, M D; Stringer, J S A; Parham, G P

    2007-01-01

    We screened 145 HIV-infected non-pregnant women at a tertiary care centre in Lusaka, Zambia. Liquid-based cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping with PGMY09/11 biotinylated primers (Roche Linear Array® HPV genotyping test) maximised sensitivity of cytology and HPV assessments. Among high-risk (HR) types, HPV 52 (37.2%), 58 (24.1%) and 53 (20.7%) were more common overall than HPV 16 (17.2%) and 18 (13.1%) in women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or squamous cell c...

  18. Associations between household responsibilities and academic competencies in the context of education accessibility in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Reich, Jodi; Hein, Sascha; Krivulskaya, Suzanna; Hart, Lesley; Gumkowski, Nina; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between education and socioeconomic status has been demonstrated in studies of the developed and the developing world, yet there are communities in which schooling is either not available to all children or not a preferred activity for all children. In this study, we investigated the differences between children in-school and out-of-school in rural and peri-urban communities of Zambia. As expected, we found that the children in-school performed higher in domains of adaptive b...

  19. Victimization from bullying among school-attending adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Rudatsikira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among school- attending adolescents, victimization from bullying is associated with anxiety, depression and poor academic performance. There are limited reports on victimization from bullying in Zambia; we therefore conducted this study to determine the prevalence and correlates for victimization from bullying among adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in the country in order to add information on the body of knowledge on victimization from bullying. METHODS: The 2004 Zambia Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS data among adolescents in grades 7 to 10 were obtained from the World Health Organization. We estimated the prevalence of victimization from bullying. We also conducted weighted multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine independent factors associated with victimization from bullying, and report adjusted odds ratios (AOR and their 95% confidence intervals (CI. RESULTS: Of 2136 students who participated in the 2004 Zambia GSHS, 1559 had information on whether they were bullied or not. Of these, 1559 students, 62.8% (60.0% of male and 65.0% of female participants reported having been bullied in the previous 30 days to the survey. We found that respondents of age less than 14 years were 7% (AOR=0.93; 95%CI [0.91, 0.95] less likely to have been bullied compared to those aged 16 years or older. Being a male (AOR=1.07; 95%CI [1.06, 1.09], lonely (AOR=1.24; 95%CI [1.22, 1.26], worried (AOR=1.12; 95%CI [1.11, 1.14], consuming alcohol (AOR=2.59; 95%CI [2.55, 2.64], missing classes (AOR=1.30; 95%CI [1.28, 1.32], and considering attempting suicide (AOR=1.20; 95%CI [1.18, 1.22] were significantly associated with bullying victimization. CONCLUSIONS: Victimization from bullying is prevalent among in-school adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in Zambia, and interventions to curtail it should consider the factors that have been identified in this study.

  20. Effects of endosulfan on a maize agro-ecosystem in Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of endosulfan on non-target fauna in a maize agro-ecosystem was studied in Zambia in 1994 and 1995. Endosulfan was well tolerated by a number of beneficial arthropods such as spiders, coccinelids, carabids and ants. Springtails were significantly reduced. However the effect was only transient and lasted for at most eight weeks. While endosulfan was effective against the target pest (stalk borers) it appeared to have no real effect on the soil inhabiting microorganisms. (author). 6 refs, 6 tabs

  1. The relevance and impact of Ethical Consciousness on Environmental Management in Zambia: A philosophical critique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation is informed by the need for adequate ethical consciousness in view of the perceived need for public responsibility, cooperation and participation in ensuring sound environmental management. It investigates and critiques the extent to which an adequate range of ethical principles has been incorporated in Zambia's attempts to address environmental issues.The investigation focused on the role of government policy, education system and the mass media in promoting responsible environmental management and practices by raising environmental ethical consciousness. The study confirmed the preponderance of economic utilitarianism with regard to environmental issues. (author)

  2. Nuclear district heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Sweden district heating is based on petroleum. However, petroleum shortage requires its substitution by other energy resources. In this paper the nuclear district heating plant SECURE, (ASEA-ATOM BWR) is discussed. Its construction and characteristics are detailed in the frame of a survey of recent trends in constructing district heating plants. Economic as well as environmental aspects are discussed based on the characteristics of the reactor, operating at 400 MW. The long-term supply of fuel is also mentioned as an important criterion. (Sz.J.)

  3. NM School District Boundaries

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The dataset represents the boundaries of all public school districts in the state of New Mexico. The source for the data layer is the New Mexico Public Education...

  4. Administrative Ranger District Boundaries

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the boundary that encompasses a Ranger District. This map service provides display, identification, and analysis tools for...

  5. Groundwater Managment Districts

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...

  6. Information Processing, Evaluation, and Utilization: The Role of Academic Libraries in Research and Development (R&D) in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundu, Maurice C.

    1985-01-01

    Analyzes and applies Bettman's information processing theory of consumer choice to information processing, evaluation, and utilization by academic libraries in Zambia to support research and development activities. Certain Zambian cultural and sociopsychological aspects and attitudes that could affect the evaluation and utilization of information…

  7. Factors Associated with School Teachers' Perceived Needs and Level of Adoption of HIV Prevention Education in Lusaka, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Margaret; Chi, Chunheui; Khanna, Sunil K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the socio-cultural variables that may influence teachers' adoption of classroom-based HIV/AIDS education within the school setting and among school types in Zambia's Lusaka Province. Method: Mixed methods were used to collect original data. Using semi-structured interviews (n=11) and a survey…

  8. A qualitative assessment of the risk of introducing peste des petits ruminants into northern zambia from Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazya, R; Muma, J B; Mwacalimba, K K; Karimuribo, E; Mkandawire, E; Simuunza, M

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative risk assessment was performed to evaluate the risk of introducing Peste des petits ruminants virus into northern Zambia from Tanzania via live goat trade. Data was collected during a mission to Tanzania and northern Zambia and also from literature and interviews with experts. The risk of PPRV introduction was evaluated as a function of the probability of hazard (PPRV) release, exposure of susceptible hosts, and the consequences of spread using the following parameters: prevalence of infection, volume of trade, C-ELISA and quarantine screening missing an infected animal, PPRV viability (remaining infective) in transit, and the virus potential for infection. The magnitude of the consequences was derived from the probability of transmission and spread and the impact of PPRV introduction and establishment. Accordingly, the probability of occurrence of PPRV in northern Zambia from Tanzania was rated as "high" and the economic consequences were also rated as "high." Finally, the overall risk of introducing PPRV into northern Zambia from Tanzania at the time of the assessment was rated "high." It was concluded that import of goats and sheep be prohibited until efficient and adequate measures to reduce the risk have been put in place. PMID:24558632

  9. Globalising Accessibility: Drawing on the Experiences of Developed Countries to Enable the Participation of Disabled People in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda-Chalwe, Martha; Nitz, Jennifer C.; de Jonge, Desleigh

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the accessibility situation in a developing country such as Zambia. The global view of accessibility for disabled people is provided to examine the accessibility situation in developed and developing countries, highlighting the role of the environment in achieving rights for disabled people. Recognition of disability rights…

  10. District heating; Stadsverwarming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-15

    By request of the Dutch Lower House the Netherlands Court of Audit examined the profitability or loss-making of district heating projects between 2001 and 2003. District heating supplies heat to consumers for heating their houses and providing warm tap water. The heat is supplied via warm water that runs through a network of pipes. In the Netherlands, about 250,000 households use district heating. The request by the Dutch Lower House to conduct research on district heating coheres with the initiative District Heating Bill. The bill aims to legally guarantee the supply and affordability of heat for consumers of district heating. [mk]. [Dutch] Op verzoek van de Tweede Kamer heeft de Algemene Rekenkamer onderzoek gedaan naar de winst- of verliesgevendheid van stadsverwarmingsprojecten in de jaren 2001-2003. Stadsverwarming is de levering van warmte aan consumenten om (woon)ruimtes te verwarmen en voor warm kraanwater te zorgen. De warmte wordt geleverd via warm water dat door een netwerk van leidingen stroomt. In Nederland maken ongeveer 250 000 huishoudens gebruik van stadsverwarming. Het verzoek van de Tweede Kamer om onderzoek te doen naar stadsverwarming hangt samen met het initiatiefwetsvoorstel Warmtewet. Het wetsvoorstel beoogt de levering en betaalbaarheid van warmte voor de consumenten van stadsverwarming wettelijk te garanderen.

  11. A Comparative Study of Agricultural Support Institutions in Central Province of Zambia: A Historical and Spatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augrey H. Malambo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a comparative study of agricultural support institutions in Central Province, Zambia focusing on the 1980-90 and 1997-2008 periods. Generally, the study intended to identify the names of agricultural support institutions which existed in Central Province, as a smaller unit, and Zambia in general, and analyze their spatial aspect. In order to achieve this and other goals, the investigation conducted an extensive review of existing literature, old and new maps, distribution of questionnaires to informants, interviews, Focus Group Discussions and observations. The main thesis of this study was that agricultural support institutions differed in nature, funding, control and spatiality over different periods in Zambia’s history. The major findings were that both private and government agricultural support institutions existed soon after independence up to 1973 when the Zambian government declared a one party system and thereby nationalizing over 90% of the agricultural industry. Thus, the majority of agricultural support institutions between 1973 and 1990 were government funded, owned and controlled parastatal organizations such as National Agriculture Marketing Board (NAMBOARD, Zambia Cooperative Federation (ZCF and Lima Bank. These institutions had both a regional and national character, and were spatially more widely distributed. After the introduction of multi party politics and liberalization economic policies in 1991, the institutions collapsed due to withdraw of subsidies by government and, new, largely privately owned institutions, emerged such as Miombo and Omnia Fertilizer companies, Maize Research Institute (MRI, among others. Institutions which emerged after 1991 were more limited in distribution but more financially independent and sustainable. However, after 1997, the government intervened in the agricultural industry again by establishing the Food Reserve Agency (FRA and Farmer Input Support Programme (FISP. FRA was the conduit through which government bought crops especially maize while FISP was used to distribute subsidized maize seed and eight bags of chemical fertilizers to selected members of cooperatives. The study concludes that different agricultural support institutions have existed at different periods of Zambia’s history and their spatial distribution has been changing depending on their resource base.

  12. Safety and security of radiation sources and radioactive materials: A case of Zambia - least developed country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Zambia, which is current (1998) classified as a Least Developed Country has applications of nuclear science and technology that cover the medical, industrial, education and research. However, the application is mainly in medical and industry. Through the responsibility of radiation source is within the mandate of the Radiation Protection Board. The aspects involving security fall on different stake holders some that have no technical knowledge on what radiation is about. The stake holders in this category include customs clearing and forwarding agents, state security/defence agencies and the operators. Such a situation demands a national system that should be instituted to meet the safety and security requirements but takes into account the involvement of the diverse stake holders. In addition such system should avoid unnecessary exposure, ensure safety of radioactive materials and sources, detect illicit trade and maintain integrity of such materials or sources. This paper will provide the status on issue in Zambia and the challenges that exist to ensure further development in application of Nuclear Science and Technology (S and T) in the country takes into account the safety and security requirements that avoid deliberate and accidental loss of radiation sources and radioactive materials. The Government has a responsibility to ensure that effective system is established and operated to protect radiation sources and radioactive materials from theft, sabotage and ensure safety. (author)

  13. Should I stay or should I go? Rural youth employment in Uganda and Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, SØren Bech Pilgaard; Birch-Thomsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the employment strategies of young people in selected rural areas of Zambia and Uganda, with a focus on the opportunities and constraints that they face. It investigates mobility patterns to determine what motivates some youth to stay, while others choose to migrate to urban areas. Quantitative and qualitative data are drawn on to analyse the role of exogenous and endogenous support for young entrepreneurs. The findings indicate that agriculture plays a major role as a source of livelihood for rural youth and, in combination with other economic activities, provides a more resilient livelihood than a single enterprise strategy. The importance of an enabling environment, personal skills and favourable market conditions are also highlighted. The question of whether young people remain in or leave rural areas is shown to vary between the Ugandan and Zambian contexts. In Uganda, a significant proportion of the youth, especially young men, migrate to urban areas, whereas in Zambia, almost all the young people have chosen to remain in the rural area, where they consider their prospects of success to be greater than if they were to migrate elsewhere.

  14. Lusaka, Zambia during SAFARI-2000: A Collection Point for Ozone Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Freiman, M. Tal; Phahlane, N. Agnes; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In August and September, throughout south central Africa, seasonal clearing of dry vegetation and other fire-related activities lead to intense smoke haze and ozone formation. The first ozone soundings in the heart of the southern African burning region were taken at Lusaka, Zambia (155 deg S, 28 deg E) in early September 2000. Over 90 ppbv ozone was recorded at the surface (1.3 km elevation) and column tropospheric ozone was greater than 50 DU during a stagnant period. These values are much higher than concurrent measurements over Nairobi (1 deg S, 38 deg E) and Irene (25 deg S, 28 deg E, near Pretoria). The heaviest ozone pollution layer (800-500 hPa) over Lusaka is due to recirculated trans-boundary ozone. Starting out over Zambia, Angola, and Namibia, ozone heads east to the Indian Ocean, before turning back over Mozambique and Zimbabwe, heading toward Lusaka. Thus, Lusaka is a collection point for pollution, consistent with a picture of absolutely stable layers recirculating in a gyre over southern Africa.

  15. Strengthening faculty recruitment for health professions training in basic sciences in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simuyemba, Moses; Talib, Zohray; Michelo, Charles; Mutale, Wilbroad; Zulu, Joseph; Andrews, Ben; Nzala, Selestine; Katubulushi, Max; Njelesani, Evariste; Bowa, Kasonde; Maimbolwa, Margaret; Mudenda, John; Mulla, Yakub

    2014-08-01

    Zambia is facing a crisis in its human resources for health, with deficits in the number and skill mix of health workers. The University of Zambia School of Medicine (UNZA SOM) was the only medical school in the country for decades, but recently it was joined by three new medical schools--two private and one public. In addition to expanding medical education, the government has also approved several allied health programs, including pharmacy, physiotherapy, biomedical sciences, and environmental health. This expansion has been constrained by insufficient numbers of faculty. Through a grant from the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI), UNZA SOM has been investing in ways to address faculty recruitment, training, and retention. The MEPI-funded strategy involves directly sponsoring a cohort of faculty at UNZA SOM during the five-year grant, as well as establishing more than a dozen new master's programs, with the goal that all sponsored faculty are locally trained and retained. Because the issue of limited basic science faculty plagues medical schools throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, this strategy of using seed funding to build sustainable local capacity to recruit, train, and retain faculty could be a model for the region. PMID:25072591

  16. Harmful lifestyles' clustering among sexually active in-school adolescents in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Zambia. Like many other African nations with high HIV burden, heterosexual intercourse is the commonest mode of HIV spread. The estimation of prevalence and factors associated with sexual intercourse among in-school adolescents has potential to inform public health interventions aimed at reducing the burden of sex-related diseases in Zambia. Methods We carried out secondary analysis of the Zambia Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS 2004; a cross sectional survey that aims to study health-related behaviors among in-school adolescents. We estimated frequencies of relevant socio-demographic variables. The associations between selected explanatory variables and self-reported history of sexual intercourse within the last 12 months were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results Data from 2136 in-school adolescents who participated in the Zambia Global School-Based Health Survey of 2004 were available for analysis. Out of these respondents, 13.4% reported that they had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months prior to the survey; 16.4% and 9.7% among males and females respectively. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, with age less than 15 years as the referent the adjusted odds ratio (AOR of having engaged in sexual intercourse in adolescents of age 15 years, and those aged 16 years or more were 1.06 (95% CI 1.03–1.10 and 1.74 (95% 1.70–1.79 respectively. Compared to adolescents who had no close friends, adolescents who had one close friend were more likely to have had sexual intercourse, AOR = 1.28 (95% CI 1.24–1.32. Compared to adolescents who were not supervised by their parents, adolescents who were rarely or sometimes supervised by their parents were likely to have had sexual intercourse, and adolescents who were most of the time/always supervised by their parents were less likely to have had sexual intercourse; AORs 1.26 (95% CI 1.23–1.26 and 0.92 (95% CI 0.90–0.95 respectively. Compared to adolescents who did not smoke dagga, adolescents who smoked dagga 1 or 2 times, and those who smoked dagga 3 or more times in their lifetime were 70% and 25% more likely to have had sexual intercourse, respectively. Adolescents who drank alcohol in 1 or 2 days, and those who took alcohol in 3 or more days in a month preceding the survey were 12% and 9% more likely to have had sexual intercourse, respectively, compared to adolescents who did not drink alcohol in the 30 days prior to the survey. Furthermore, adolescents who had been drunk 1 or 2 times, and who had been drunk 3 or more times in a life time were 14% and 13% more likely to have had sexual intercourse compared to those who have never been drunk in their lifetime. Conclusion We identified a constellation of potentially harmful behaviours among adolescents in Zambia. Public health interventions aimed at reducing prevalence of sexual intercourse may be designed and implemented in a broader sense having recognized that sexually active adolescents may also be exposed to other problem behaviours.

  17. The Influence of Distance and Level of Care on Delivery Place in Rural Zambia: A Study of Linked National Data in a Geographic Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrysch, Sabine; Cousens, Simon; Cox, Jonathan; Campbell, Oona M R

    2011-01-01

    Using linked national data in a geographic information system system, Sabine Gabrysch and colleagues investigate the effects of distance to care and level of care on women's use of health facilities for delivery in rural Zambia.

  18. African music in music education :an exploration into the teaching of African music in two primary colleges of education in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Musakula, Franklins Mwansa

    2014-01-01

    Western music and African music as a form of indigenous knowledge constitute music education taught in colleges of education in Zambia. Nevertheless, soon after the country’s independence from British rule in 1964, Zambia embarked on curriculum reforms to ensure inclusion of the African indigenous cultures. This was in an effort to transform the colonial school curriculum which was dominated Eurocentric values, beliefs and practices in order to make the education relevant to the Zambian chi...

  19. INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGES IN AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE:An Exploration into the Integration of Indigenous Knowledges in the Teaching of Agricultural Science in selected Secondary Schools in Zambia.

    OpenAIRE

    Sakayombo, Rosalia

    2014-01-01

    This thesis explores the integration of indigenous knowledges (IKs) into the teaching of agricultural science as illustrated by the cases of selected secondary schools in the Southern province of Zambia. The need to integrate IKs in agricultural science education in Zambia to reflect the local cultural settings cannot be over emphasised. The agricultural science syllabus in secondary schools is Eurocentric since the current educational policies are situated deeply in Western hegemonic epistem...

  20. Unified School Districts, Census 2000

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The New Mexico 2000 Unified School Districts layer was derived from the TIGER Line files from the US Census Bureau. The districts are clipped to the state...

  1. Cities and district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the development in the market for crude energy, district heating has earnt a special position in the discussion of the fuel economy. Its wide extension requires decisions in a multi-dimensional area of basic community well-being. After the analysis of relevant partial factors and the solutions which are found, the question remains open of how the inherent economic efficiency of district heating, within the framework of the energy supply through lines, can be protected from the danger of dumping, which can be mobilised at any time, from crude oil producers. To close this gap must be treated as an urgent problem for today's energy policy. (orig.)

  2. Chemical composition and crystal structure refinement of schorl from the Lundazi pegmatite field, Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Ondruš P; Vrána S; Mašlá? M

    2002-01-01

    Present work characterizes tourmaline from one of the major pegmatite fields in Zambia - the Lundazi pegmatite belt.
    Microprobe analysis gave (wt%): SiO2 34.65, TiO2 0.85, Al2O3 29.80, Fe2O3 4.94, FeO 9.47, MnO 0.29, MgO 4.06, Li2O < 0.01, CaO 0.59, Na2O 2.38, K2O 0.08, F 0.32...

  3. Environmental science-policy interactions : the example of forestry and REDD+ in Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamelarczyk, Kewin Bach Friis

    2013-01-01

    In response to a history of contended and ineffective policy initiatives aimed at arresting environmental problems, scientific knowledge is increasingly called for to inform decision makers in their design of better policy solutions. Based on the rationale that scientific knowledge on the environment is indispensable in environmental policy making, significant human and financial resources are being allocated to activities that are able to generate the required scientific knowledge. However, for many involved in such activities, the question arises: when do policy makers actually listen to science? This PhD thesis contributes to answering this questions; however it does this by questioning the conceptions of science that contribute to political decision-making and by exploring the relationship between scientific knowledge, other types of knowledge and policy. This PhD study employs the REDD+ (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation and enhancement of forest carbon stocks) process and the phenomenon of deforestation in Zambia as research examples. The research was carried out from mid 2008 and to mid 2013 and applies a mixed methods research design. Fieldwork was carried out in Zambia during the period 2009 to 2011 at national policy level and in two field sites in the Copperbelt Province. The empirical substance consists of archival, interview, questionnaire and remote sensing data. The thesis is composed of an introductory chapter and three individual, but thematically and theoretically interlinked scientific papers. The first paper focuses on science-policy interactions seen broadly in the Zambian REDD+ process. The paper proposes five challenges, which should be addressed, among others a need for understanding the relationship between science and policy as a two-sided transaction of knowledge and for recognizing the importance of boundary work. The second paper further explores the conceptualization of science-policy interactions and the implications of boundary work as well as co-production to science-policy interaction. The paper specifically explores how knowledge related to deforestation gets translated across the social boundaries of science and policy through the interwoven processes of knowledge production, circulation, and application. It is demonstrated that production, circulation, and application of deforestation related knowledge is influenced by an epistemic community, which in a current situation of weak and contradictory empirical evidence is able to sustain a deforestation discourse centered on high forest loss and neo-Malthusian causal explanations. The third paper examines how knowing about deforestation is closely linked to issues of framing, discourse, scale, and context; and how it may be difficult to demark scientific knowledge from other types of knowledge. The paper provides suggestion on how national policy makers and policies should deal with the complex issues of knowledge and evidence in relation to deforestation and forest degradation in future REDD+ design and implementation. To curtail potential negative consequences of the identified mode of science-policy interaction in Zambia, the study concludes by making a number of proposals. The proposals are generic in nature and may be found relevant in environmental policy processes outside Zambia.

  4. Livelihood Activities and the Role of Livestock in Smallholder Farming Communities of Southern Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelson Tembo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study represents one of the first comprehensive mixed-methods studies on the livelihood activities and the position of livestock in the hierarchy of these activities among households in livestock-rearing communities of southern Zambia. The results identify livestock as the most important source of income and the second most important source of livelihood in general. Seasonality analysis also shows that livestock is very important in mitigating against hunger during lean periods between November and March. The study also identifies the richer households as the ones that benefit the most from livestock as a source of income. Policy and other interventions need to recognize not only the relative standing of livestock in these communities but also the fact that the livestock sub-sector is not the same to all rural households.

  5. Secular trends in pediatric antiretroviral treatment programs in rural and urban Zambia: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotham Matt

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2003 pediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART programs have scaled-up in sub-Saharan Africa and should be evaluated to assess progress and identify areas for improvement. We evaluated secular trends in the characteristics and treatment outcomes of children in three pediatric ART clinics in urban and rural areas in Zambia. Methods Routinely collected data were analyzed from three ART programs in rural (Macha and Mukinge and urban (Lusaka Zambia between program implementation and July 2008. Data were obtained from electronic medical record systems and medical record abstraction, and were categorized by year of program implementation. Characteristics of all HIV-infected and exposed children enrolled in the programs and all children initiating treatment were compared by year of implementation. Results Age decreased and immunologic characteristics improved in all groups over time in both urban and rural clinics, with greater improvement observed in the rural clinics. Among children both eligible and ineligible for ART at clinic enrollment, the majority started treatment within a year. A high proportion of children, particularly those ineligible for ART at clinic enrollment, were lost to follow-up prior to initiating ART. Among children initiating ART, clinical and immunologic outcomes after six months of treatment improved in both urban and rural clinics. In the urban clinics, mortality after six months of treatment declined with program duration, and in the rural clinics, the proportion of children defaulting by six months increased with program duration. Conclusions Treatment programs are showing signs of progress in the care of HIV-infected children, particularly in the rural clinics where scale-up increased rapidly over the first three years of program implementation. However, continued efforts to optimize care are needed as many children continue to enroll in ART programs at a late stage of disease and thus are not receiving the full benefits of treatment.

  6. Testing the Validity and Reliability of the Shame Questionnaire among Sexually Abused Girls in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulos, Lynn T. M.; Murray, Laura K.; Kane, Jeremy C.; Skavenski van Wyk, Stephanie; Chomba, Elwyn; Cohen, Judith; Imasiku, Mwiya; Semrau, Katherine; Unick, Jay; Bolton, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the current study is to test the validity and reliability of the Shame Questionnaire among traumatized girls in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods The Shame Questionnaire was validated through both classical test and item response theory methods. Internal reliability, criterion validity and construct validity were examined among a sample of 325 female children living in Zambia. Sub-analyses were conducted to examine differences in construct validity among girls who reported sexual abuse and girls who did not. Results All girls in the sample were sexually abused, but only 61.5% endorsed or reported that sexual abuse had occurred. Internal consistency was very good among the sample with alpha = .87. Criterion validity was demonstrated through a significant difference of mean Shame Questionnaire scores between girls who experienced 0–1 trauma events and more than one traumatic event, with higher mean Shame Questionnaire scores among girls who had more than one traumatic event (p = .004 for 0–1 compared to 2 and 3 events and p = .016 for 0–1 compared to 4+ events). Girls who reported a history of witnessing or experiencing physical abuse had a significantly higher mean Shame Questionnaire score than girls who did not report a history of witnessing or experiencing physical abuse (pmean Shame Questionnaire score between girls who reported a sexual abuse history and girls who did not. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a two-factor model of the Shame Questionnaire, with an experience of shame dimension and an active outcomes of shame dimension. Item response theory analysis indicated adequate overall item fit. Results also indicate potential differences in construct validity between girls who did and did not endorse sexual abuse. Conclusions This study suggests the general utility of the Shame Questionnaire among Zambian girls and demonstrates the need for more psychometric studies in low and middle income countries. PMID:25879658

  7. Mental health policy process: a comparative study of Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kigozi Fred

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental illnesses are increasingly recognised as a leading cause of disability worldwide, yet many countries lack a mental health policy or have an outdated, inappropriate policy. This paper explores the development of appropriate mental health policies and their effective implementation. It reports comparative findings on the processes for developing and implementing mental health policies in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia as part of the Mental Health and Poverty Project. Methods The study countries and respondents were purposively selected to represent different levels of mental health policy and system development to allow comparative analysis of the factors underlying the different forms of mental health policy development and implementation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Data analysis was guided by conceptual framework that was developed for this purpose. A framework approach to analysis was used, incorporating themes that emerged from the data and from the conceptual framework. Results Mental health policies in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia are weak, in draft form or non-existent. Mental health remained low on the policy agenda due to stigma and a lack of information, as well as low prioritisation by donors, low political priority and grassroots demand. Progress with mental health policy development varied and respondents noted a lack of consultation and insufficient evidence to inform policy development. Furthermore, policies were poorly implemented, due to factors including insufficient dissemination and operationalisation of policies and a lack of resources. Conclusions Mental health policy processes in all four countries were inadequate, leading to either weak or non-existent policies, with an impact on mental health services. Recommendations are provided to strengthen mental health policy processes in these and other African countries.

  8. An Appraisal of Forest Resources in Zambia using the Integrated Land Use Assessment (ILUA Survey Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Kalinda

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to appraise or assess the status of forests and woodland resources in Zambia based on an analysis of data from the Integrated Land Use Assessment (ILUA survey. An attempt was made to provide fresh estimates of the forest biomass and growing stock and other indicators which have the potential to inform policy and decision-making on forest resources and land use in Zambia. The findings show that approximately 49,968,170 ha or about 66% of the land is under forest cover. Over two thirds of the forests are located on customary land. The total above ground and below ground forest biomass over all land uses is estimated at 5.5 billion metric tonnes. The findings indicate that with the current wood stocking estimated at 2.95 billion cubic metres and with proper management, this is sufficient to meet the country’s current and future demand for forest products. The findings also indicate that most of the country’s forests are in good condition and the rates of deforestation are quite modest. Only 5% of the total forests are severely degraded and over 63% of the forests are in good condition. Given that more than two-thirds of all forests are located in customary land and are not formally managed, it is recommended that government should bring more forests under formal management and more importantly devolve and share some forest rights and responsibilities over public forests with local communities, user-groups and the private sector.

  9. A 12-Month Study of Food Crops Contaminated by Heavy Metals, Lusaka, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, J. A.; Malamud, B. D.; Chishala, B. H.; Kapungwe, E.; Volk, J.; Harpp, K. S.

    2009-04-01

    We investigate heavy-metal contamination of irrigation water used for urban agriculture and subsequent contamination of food crops in Chunga, NW Lusaka, the capital of Zambia. Inhabitants of the Chunga area rely on urban agriculture as both a major source of income and food. From August 2004 to July 2005, monthly samples of irrigation water used and edible portions of food crops were taken from a farmer's plot at Chunga. The food crops (cabbage, Chinese cabbage, pumpkin leaves, rape, sweet potato leaves and tomatoes) are grown using irrigation throughout the year. Irrigation water samples and digested food crop samples were analysed using ICP-MS at the Department of Geology, Colgate University, USA for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb, and U. We find heavy-metal concentrations present in both irrigation water and food crop samples. Zambian sample concentrations were compared to Zambian and international legislative and guideline limits for concentrations of heavy metals in industrial effluent, heavy metals in irrigation water and heavy metals in foods. In irrigation water samples recommended national and/or international legislative limits for Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Hg, Pb and U were exceeded. Limits for Hg were exceeded by up to 130 times. There were heavy-metal concentrations above recommended limits in food crops for Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb throughout the different food crops grown and throughout the year. In all 14 samples recommended limits for Cr, Fe and Hg were exceeded. Zambian legislated limits for food crops were exceeded by up to 16 times for Pb and 58 times for Hg. The results of this study show that heavy metal contamination is present in irrigation water used and food crops grown in urban agriculture in Chunga, Lusaka, Zambia. Recommended maximum limits for heavy metals in irrigation water and food are exceeded in some samples indicating there may be a risk to health.

  10. Pribram uranium district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pribram is one of the largest and richest vein uranium districts in the world. The Pribram district has accounted for about 60 percent of Czechoslovakia's total uranium production. The Pribram uranium district is located about 60 kilometers southwest of Prague, in Cezechslovakia's central Bohemia region. This district contains perigranitic, monometallic, vein-type uranium deposits. The deposits are within a northeast-southwest elongated area, about 20 kilometers long and 1-2 kilometers wide, located between Oboriste in the northeast and Tresko in the southwest. Several thousand veins have been discovered; about 1,600 have been mined. Most of the veins are grouped in clusters, which are intense accumulations of veins paralleling or intersecting each other within a narrow segment. Until this year, all uranium production was exported to the USSR, with only the amount required for Czechoslovakia's nuclear power stations being returned (as fabricated fuel). Most of Czechoslovakia's present and future uranium production will come from sandstone deposits in the North Bohemian Cretaceous Basin, such as Hamr and Straz

  11. An investigation into the way African Traditional Religion as a form of Indigenous Knowledge is taught in the two Senior Secondary School Religious Education Syllabuses in Zambia :a case of two Schools in Southern Province in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Muma, Patrick Chota

    2013-01-01

    African Traditional Religion, ATR, forms part of African Indigenous Knowledge. The two senior secondary school Religious Education syllabuses in Zambia have a component of African traditional religion or beliefs which the learners are supposed to understand and compare with other religious traditions in the syllabuses. The other religions in the syllabuses are Christianity, Hinduism and Islam. This study sets out to explore how ATR is actually taught and learned in class so as to ascertain wh...

  12. VII international district heating conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of the 7th International District Heating Conference contain the full texts of the 89 presented papers of which 11 fall under the INIS Subject Scope. The conference met in seven sessions and dealt with the following problem areas: design and optimization of systems of district heating, integration of the power system and the district heating systems, cooperation of nuclear and fossil burning sources in district heating systems, the use of specific nuclear power plants for heating purposes, questions of the control of systems of district heating, the development of components of heating networks, the reliability and design of heat supply pipes. (Z.M.)

  13. Targeting condom distribution at high risk places increases condom utilization-evidence from an intervention study in Livingstone, Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Sandøy Ingvild; Zyaambo Cosmas; Michelo Charles; Fylkesnes Knut

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The PLACE-method presumes that targeting HIV preventive activities at high risk places is effective in settings with major epidemics. Livingstone, Zambia, has a major HIV epidemic despite many preventive efforts in the city. A baseline survey conducted in 2005 in places where people meet new sexual partners found high partner turnover and unprotected sex to be common among guests. In addition, there were major gaps in on-site condom availability. This study aimed to assess...

  14. Changing individual-level risk factors for malaria with declining transmission in southern Zambia: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Sutcliffe Catherine G; Kobayashi Tamaki; Hamapumbu Harry; Shields Timothy; Kamanga Aniset; Mharakurwa Sungano; Thuma Philip E; Glass Gregory; Moss William J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria elimination will require that both symptomatic- and asymptomatic-infected persons be identified and treated. However, well-characterized, individual-level risk factors for malaria may not be valid in regions with declining malaria transmission. Changes in individual-level correlates of malaria infection were evaluated over three years in a region of declining malaria transmission in southern Zambia. Methods Malaria surveys were conducted in two study areas within t...

  15. Towards Sustainable Tourism Development in Zambia: Advancing Tourism Planning and Natural Resource Management in Livingstone (Mosi-oa-Tunya) Area

    OpenAIRE

    Binyi Liu; Floyd M. Mwanza

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few decades, development policy has been dominated by mainstream economic theories that focus on economic growth to achieve sustainable development. The pace and scale of tourism growth in Livingstone (Mosi-oa-Tunya) area in Zambia have seen over reliance on natural resource utilisation by mass tourism developments. Compounded by insufficient planning and limited co-ordination and collaboration among the institutions involved in the tourism sector, tourism...

  16. Agricultural Production Assets Transfer and Poverty Upward Mobility in Isolated Areas of Zambia: A Domestic Life Cycle Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Muyunda, Martin W.

    2013-01-01

    In Zambia poverty mitigation programmes based on agricultural production assets transfer constitute social protection and have been implemented to help the poor change their experiences of poverty and transform their social economic relationships. The effect of these programmes in realizing substantial poverty upward mobility has however been hindered by a myriad of factors including failure to understand the poor’s poverty situation and consequently misdirecting the poverty interventions. ...

  17. Detection of Babesia spp. in Free-Ranging Pukus, Kobus vardonii, on a Game Ranch in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Munang Andu, Hetron Mweemba; Munyeme, Musso; Nambota, Andrew Mubila; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo; Siamudaala, Victor M.

    2011-01-01

    Babesia spp. were detected from 4 asymptomatic pukus captured on a game ranch in central Zambia in October 2008. Blood smears were examined in 4 species of aymptomatic free-ranging antelopes, namely the puku (Kobus vordanii), reedbuck (Redunca arundinum), bushbuck (Tragelaphus sylvaticus), and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), and showed the presence of Babesia parasites only in the puku. In the puku, the prevalence of babesiosis was estimated at 33.3% (n=12), while the overall prevalence in a...

  18. Safety of artemether-lumefantrine in pregnant women with malaria: results of a prospective cohort study in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Manyando Christine; Mkandawire Rhoda; Puma Lwipa; Sinkala Moses; Mpabalwani Evans; Njunju Eric; Gomes Melba; Ribeiro Isabela; Walter Verena; Virtanen Mailis; Schlienger Raymond; Cousin Marc; Chipimo Miriam; Sullivan Frank M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Safety data regarding exposure to artemisinin-based combination therapy in pregnancy are limited. This prospective cohort study conducted in Zambia evaluated the safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in pregnant women with malaria. Methods Pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were assigned to groups based on the drug used to treat their most recent malaria episode (AL vs. sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, SP). Safety was assessed using standard and pregnancy-specific para...

  19. Paediatric malaria case-management with artemether-lumefantrine in Zambia: a repeat cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Chanda Pascalina; Hamer Davidson H.; Sipilanyambe Nawa; Ndhlovu Mickey; Zurovac Dejan; Simon Jon L; Snow Robert W

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Zambia was the first African country to change national antimalarial treatment policy to artemisinin-based combination therapy – artemether-lumefantrine. An evaluation during the early implementation phase revealed low readiness of health facilities and health workers to deliver artemether-lumefantrine, and worryingly suboptimal treatment practices. Improvements in the case-management of uncomplicated malaria two years after the initial evaluation and three years after t...

  20. Progress made towards enhancement of rheumatology education and practice in Zambia: review of an ILAR-supported project

    OpenAIRE

    Chipeta, James; Njobvu, Panganani; McGill, Paul E.; Bucala, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The burden of non-communicable diseases such as musculoskeletal diseases in the developing world is often overshadowed by the more prevalent infectious diseases. Generally, there is gross underestimation of the burden of rheumatologic disease in the backdrop of scanty or indeed non-existent rheumatology services in these countries. Local studies conducted in the last two decades in Zambia have documented the increasing burden of rheumatologic conditions in the country. There are unfortunately...

  1. An Evaluation of the Performance and Acceptability of Three LED Fluorescent Microscopes in Zambia: Lessons Learnt for Scale-Up

    OpenAIRE

    Turnbull, Eleanor R.; Kaunda, Kaunda; Harris, Jennifer B.; Kapata, Nathan; Muvwimi, Mweemba W.; Kruuner, Annika; Henostroza, German; Stewart E Reid

    2011-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends the roll-out of light-emitting diode (LED) fluorescent microscopes (FM) as an alternative to light microscopes in resource-limited settings. We evaluated the acceptability and performance of three LED FMs after a short orientation among laboratory technicians from government health centers in Zambia. Sixteen technicians with varied light microscopy experience were oriented to FMs and divided into groups; each group read a different set of 40 slides on ...

  2. Strategies for seed system development in sub-Saharan Africa: a study of Kenya, Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Tripp

    2006-01-01

    Seed systems in Kenya, Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe were studied jointly by ODI, ICRISAT, and national researchers. The study examined various aspects - the nature of seed demand, particularly for new varieties; local-level seed provision and farmer-to-farmer diffusion; the commercial seed sector; community level projects; emergency seed distribution programs; seed policy and regulatory framework; and the role of public-sector research. The study also provides specific recommendations to deve...

  3. Cost effectiveness of community-based therapeutic care for children with severe acute malnutrition in Zambia: decision tree model

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann Max O

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Children aged under five years with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in Africa and Asia have high mortality rates without effective treatment. Primary care-based treatment of SAM can have good outcomes but its cost effectiveness is largely unknown. Method This study estimated the cost effectiveness of community-based therapeutic care (CTC) for children with severe acute malnutrition in government primary health care centres in Lusaka, Zambia, compared to no care. A decision...

  4. Transmission of Theileria parva in the traditional farming sector in the Southern Province of Zambia during 1997-1998

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mulumba; Speybroeck, N.; Berkvens, D. L.; Geysen, D. M.; Brandt, J. R. A.

    2001-01-01

    The incidence of first contact with the protozoan Theileria parva was determined in two traditional cattle herds in the Southern Province of Zambia during a period of average rainfall in 1997 and 1998, following a drought in the previous two years. Compared to that period, there was a marked increase in the number of rainy season first contacts attributable to transmission by Rhipicephalus appendiceulatus adults. However, there were still more dry season contacts that resulted from nymphal tr...

  5. Detection of Babesia spp. in free-ranging Pukus, Kobus vardonii, on a game ranch in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Munyeme, Musso; Nambota, Andrew Mubila; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo; Siamudaala, Victor M

    2011-12-01

    Babesia spp. were detected from 4 asymptomatic pukus captured on a game ranch in central Zambia in October 2008. Blood smears were examined in 4 species of aymptomatic free-ranging antelopes, namely the puku (Kobus vordanii), reedbuck (Redunca arundinum), bushbuck (Tragelaphus sylvaticus), and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), and showed the presence of Babesia parasites only in the puku. In the puku, the prevalence of babesiosis was estimated at 33.3% (n = 12), while the overall prevalence in all examined animals was 8.5% (n = 47). The parasites showed morphological characteristics of paired ring-like stages with the length varying between 1.61 µm and 3.02 µm (mean = 2.12 µm, n = 27; SD = 0.76 µm). Both the infected and non-infected pukus showed good body condition scores (BCS), while the dominant tick species detected from all animals were Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus spp., and Boophilus spp. To our knowledge this is the first report of Babesia spp. infection in pukus in Zambia. These findings suggest that wildlife could play an important role in the epidemiology of babesiosis in Zambia. PMID:22355215

  6. 75 FR 35778 - Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ...Commission [Project No. 12745-002] Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...16, 2010. On February 1, 2010, Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District...

  7. 33 CFR 1.01-50 - Delegation to District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District. 1.01-50 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...District Commander, Seventeenth Coast Guard District. The Commandant...

  8. 7 CFR 917.14 - District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...subdivisions of the State of California: (a) North Sacramento Valley District includes...of Madera County, Fresno County, and Mono County. (o) Tulare District includes...County, and Los Angeles County. (s) North Bay District includes and consists...

  9. District heating from Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The district heating system of Greater Stockholm must be based on other energy sources than oil. Two alternatives are assessed, namely heat from Forsmark or a coal fueled plant in the region of Stockholm. Forsmark 3 can produce both electricity and heat from the year 1988 on. The capacity can be increased by coal fueled blocks. For low electricity use, 115 TWh in the year 1990, the Forsmark alternative will be profitable. The alternative will be profitable. The alternative with a fossile fuelled plant will be profitable when planning for high consumption of electricity, 125 TWh. The Forsmark alternative means high investments and the introduction of new techniques. (G.B.)

  10. The Impact of Central Bank's intervention in the foreign exchange market on the Exchange Rate: The case of Zambia (1995-2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Mwansa, Katwamba

    2009-01-01

    The central bank of Zambia called Bank of Zambia (BOZ) has, like many other central banks in both developing and developed economies, been from time to time intervening in the foreign exchange market by either purchasing or selling foreign exchange (mainly United States of America Dollars) to the market. Central banks have given a myriad of reasons for this particular behaviour. Chief among these and which is the focus of this paper is to smooth volatility or reverse a trend of the domestic c...

  11. Caught in the Clash amid Customs and Market: A case of the poor and marginalized rural population’s access to land in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Steen Jensen; Peter Skøtt Pedersen; Lasse Frimand Jensen; Jakob Christensen; Stefanie Dorotha Weck

    2011-01-01

    The paper is a case study analyzing the effects of the Zambian Lands Act of 1995. The problem area centers on the question as to why the market-based land reform of 1995 in Zambia has not, despite its purpose, improved the access to land for the poor and marginalized rural population. The ability to acquire land titles in Zambia highly depends on (i) access to knowledge, (ii) legal access, (iii) access through social identity, and (iv) access to authority. The findings of this paper reveal a ...

  12. Decline in HIV Prevalence among Young Women in Zambia:National-Level Estimates of Trends Mask Geographical and Socio-Demographic Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Kayeyi, Nkomba; Fylkesnes, Knut; Michelo, Charles Cheembo; Makasa, Mpundu; Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard

    2012-01-01

    Background: A decline in HIV incidence has been reported in Zambia and a number of other sub-Saharan countries. The trend of HIV prevalence among young people is a good marker of HIV incidence. In this study, different data sources are used to examine geographical and sub-population group differentials in HIV prevalence trends among men and women aged 15–24 years in Zambia.

    Design and Methods: We analysed ANC data for women aged 15–24 years from 22 sentinel sites consis...

  13. Assessing cultural factors influencing choice of business entry mode in a developing country: Case Biolan Group and Global Dry Toilet Association of Finland in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Kortelainen, Sirpa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis was to find out and analyse the key factors in Zambian culture and business culture that influence choice of business entry method for dry toilet market in Zambia. The other aim was to find the most suitable entry mode for a developing country, in this case Zambia. The thesis is a case study and it was commissioned by The Global Dry Toilet As-sociation of Finland who is seeking business possibilities with Biolan Group in the region. The research method appli...

  14. REDD herring : epistemic community control of the production, circulation and application of deforestation knowledge in Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamelarczyk, Kewin Bach Friis; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    To enhance understanding of environmental science–policy interactions, this study analyses how environmental knowledge is produced, circulated, and applied in the Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD +) programme in Zambia. Data are drawn from interviews with key actors in the REDD + process and an extensive critical review of policy documents and deforestation estimates. We find that research over the past 50 years has not resulted in accurate estimates of forest cover and deforestation rates, nor have major deforestation drivers been convincingly documented. Estimates are difficult to compare due to inconsistent use of key terms, methodological pluralism and differences in social framing. We argue that an epistemic community is able to influence production, circulation, and application of deforestation related knowledge. Furthermore, in a situation of weak and contradictory empirical evidence, this community is arguably able to sustain a deforestation discourse centred on high forest loss and neo-Malthusian causal explanations. This is done through mechanisms making it difficult to separate facts from politics, e.g. by black boxing the origin and units of measure of deforestation estimates. We argue that this makes it more difficult to realise positive outcomes through REDD + implementation.

  15. The verification of seasonal precipitation forecasts for early warning in Zambia and Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyvärinen, O.; Mtilatila, L.; Pilli-Sihvola, K.; Venäläinen, A.; Gregow, H.

    2015-04-01

    We assess the probabilistic seasonal precipitation forecasts issued by Regional Climate Outlook Forum (RCOF) for the area of two southern African countries, Malawi and Zambia from 2002 to 2013. The forecasts, issued in August, are of rainy season rainfall accumulations in three categories (above normal, normal, and below normal), for early season (October-December) and late season (January-March). As observations we used in-situ observations and interpolated precipitation products from Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP), Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC), and Climate Prediction Centre (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP). Differences between results from different data products are smaller than confidence intervals calculated by bootstrap. We focus on below normal forecasts as they were deemed to be the most important for society. The well-known decomposition of Brier score into three terms (Reliability, Resolution, and Uncertainty) shows that the forecasts are rather reliable or well-calibrated, but have a very low resolution; that is, they are not able to discriminate different events. The forecasts also lack sharpness as forecasts for one category are rarely higher than 40 % or less than 25 %. However, these results might be unnecessarily pessimistic, because seasonal forecasts have gone through much development during the period when the forecasts verified in this paper were issued, and forecasts using current methodology might have performed better.

  16. Consequences of infections for three-month length increment in young children in rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautvast, J L; Tolboom, J J; Willems, J L; Mwela, C M; Monnens, L A

    2000-03-01

    It was the aim of this study to describe the relationship of infections with subsequent 3-mo length increment in children below 2 y of age in rural Zambia. Children aged 6-9 mo ('infants'; n = 84) and 14-20 mo ('toddlers'; n = 81) attending Mother-and-Child Health clinics, were included and followed up after 3.0 mo (min-max; 2.1-3.7 mo). Anthropometric measurements were taken at each visit. At baseline, C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), retinol and malaria parasitaemia were assessed. Length increment during the 3.0+/-0.5 mo was 1.0+/-0.5 cm/mo for infants and 0.6+/-0.4 cm/mo for toddlers; 50-71% of the children showed increased acute phase proteins, 79-83% had malaria parasitaemia and 55-64% had low serum retinol concentrations. In the total group of children, serum AGP concentrations (r = -0.18; p = 0.03) and serum CRP concentrations (r = -0.15; p = 0.05) showed a negative relation with length increment. After correcting for micronutrient status, dietary intake and maternal height, results of multiple regression analyses showed that the relation between serum AGP concentration and subsequent length increment remained significant. We conclude that, within the multifactorial model, presence of infections in these Zambian children contributes to the short-term retardation of linear growth. PMID:10772277

  17. Farmers perceptions on dual-purpose sorghum and it’s potential in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chikuta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Food feed crops play a cardinal role in mixed crop-livestock production systems yet views of farmers on their usage are limited. Farmers’ perceptions in predominant sorghum growing areas of Zambia were solicited on socio-economic factors affecting sorghum production, awareness and willingness to adopt dual-purpose sorghum cultivars for food and feed. Preferred traits of a “model” dual-purpose cultivar were identified. The aim of the study was to generate information that would support the genetic improvement of dual-purpose sorghum. Questionnaires were used to generate this information. Results showed that less than 50% of sorghum growing SSFs had limited knowledge on the use of sorghum to produce feed silage; however, there was full awareness among the LSFs. Among other traits, farmers’ “ideal” variety should combine high grain yield potential (100 % with high biomass (100 % of LSFs and 80 % of SSFs and high stem sugar content (100 % of LSF and 70 % of SSFs. All the SSFs and 20 % of the LSFs indicated that adequate production could be hampered by low grain yield, poor access to improved seed and unavailability of farmers’- preferred cultivars.

  18. Stratigraphy and palynostratigraphy, Karoo Supergroup (Permian and Triassic), mid-Zambezi Valley, southern Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyambe, Imasiku A.; Utting, John

    1997-05-01

    The Karoo Supergroup outcropst in the mid-Zambezi Valley, southern Zambia. It is underlain by the Sinakumbe Group of Ordovician to Devonian age. The Lower Karoo Group (Late Carboniferous to Permian age) consists of the basal Siankondobo Sandstone Formation, which comprises three facies, overlain by the Gwembe Coal Formation with its economically important coal deposits, in turn overlain by the Madumabisa Mudstone Formation which consists of lacustrine mudstone, calcilutite, sandstone, and concretionary calcareous beds. The Upper Karoo Group (Triassic to Early Jurassic) is sub-divided into the coarsely arenaceous Escarpment Grit, overlain by the fining upwards Interbedded Sandstone and Mudstone, Red Sandstone; and Batoka Basalt Formations. Palynomorph assemblages suggest that the Siankondobo Sandstone Formation is Late Carboniferous (Gzhelian) to Early Permian (Asselian to Early Sakmarian) in age, the Gwembe Coal Formation Early Permian (Artinskian to Kungurian), the Madumabisa Mudstone Late Permian (Tatarian), and the Interbedded Sandstone and Mudstone Early or Middle Triassic (Late Scythian or Anisian). The marked quantitative variations in the assemblages are due partly to age differences, but they also reflect vegetational differences resulting from different paleoclimates and different facies. The low thermal maturity of the formations (Thermal Alteration Index 2) suggests that the rocks are oil prone. However, the general scarcity of amorphous kerogen, such as the alga Botryococcus sp., and the low proportion of exinous material, indicates a low potential for liquid hydrocarbons. Gas may have been generated, particularly in the coal seams of the Gwembe Coal Formation, that are more deeply buried.

  19. Self-reported poor oral hygiene among in-school adolescents in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental health is a neglected aspect of adolescent health globally but more so in low-income countries. Secondary analysis using the 2004 Zambia Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS was conducted in which we estimated frequencies of relevant socio-demographic variables and explored associations between selected explanatory variables and self-reported poor oral hygiene (not cleaning or brushing teeth within the last 30 days of the completion of questionnaire. Findings Most of the 2257 respondents were males (53.9% and went hungry (82.5%. More than 4 in 10 respondents drank alcohol (42.2% while 37.2% smoked cannabis. Overall 10.0% of the respondents reported to have poor oral hygiene. Male respondents were 7% less likely to report to have poor oral hygiene compared to females. Compared to respondents who never drank alcohol, those who drank alcohol were 27% more likely to report to have poor oral hygiene. Respondents who smoked cannabis were 4% more likely to report to have poor oral hygiene compared to those who did not smoke cannabis. Finally, respondents who went hungry were 35% more likely to report to have poor oral hygiene compared to those who did not go hungry. Conclusions Results from this study indicate that female gender, alcohol drinking, cannabis smoking, and going hungry were associated with self-reported poor oral hygiene. The identification of these factors should guide the design and implementation of programs aimed to improve oral health among adolescents.

  20. Efficiency and emission characteristics of two Zambia cookstoves using charcoal and coal briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaoma, J.; Kasali, G. [National Council for Scientific Research. Building and Industrial Minerals Research Labs. (Zambia); Ellegaard, A. [ed.] [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1994-10-01

    The emission characteristics of charcoal and coal briquettes in two Zambia household cookstoves were evaluated using an improved chamber method. The two domestic appliances were the traditional mbaula and the newly developed ceramic stove, referred to as the clay stove. Emission factors for pollutants, burn rate and thermal efficiency were monitored. The pollutants tested were carbon monoxide (CO), respirable suspended particulates (RSP), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) and sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}). Results showed high CO levels with charcoal in both stoves. However, coal briquettes emitted more sulphur, RSP and NO{sub x} than charcoal in both stoves, a reflection of the physico-chemical features of the briquettes. Furthermore, the concentration of pollutants during combustion in the test room were usually in excess if international indoor standards. Both appliances exhibited similar energy efficiencies from the combustion of charcoal, whereas the clay stove performed better with coal briquettes than with charcoal. The results also showed that there is room for improvement especially in the design of the ceramic stove and the quality of coal briquettes. 16 refs., 6 figs., 18 tabs

  1. Knowledge and use of modern family planning methods by rural women in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mubita-Ngoma

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to determine knowledge and use of modem contractive methods among reproductive age group rural women in Zambia. The study is a descriptive cross-sectional study of 105 randomly selected rural women. Data was collected using semi-structured interview schedule and analyzed using EPI Info version 6 statistical packages. The findings revealed that 63% of the respondents were within the age group 21-35 years, 65% were married and 64% were peasant farmers. 90% of the respondents had heard about modem contraceptives and their main source of information was the Health worker (62%. 76% of the respondents stated that modem contraceptive methods could be obtained from public health facilities. 56% of the respondents were currently using modem contraceptive methods and 46% were not using modem contraceptive methods. Reasons for non use of contraceptive methods were religious beliefs (50%, partner disapproval (30% and side effects (20%. The results showed a relationship between educational level and use of contraceptives (Chi-square 7.83, df = 3, P < 0.05 and spouse approval or support of contractive methods and use of contraceptive (Chisquare 5.9, df = 2, P < 0.05. Therefore, efforts to promote modem contraceptive use among the rural women should be intensified to overcome barriers to contraceptive use and should involve men.

  2. Knowledge and use of modern family planning methods by rural women in Zambia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C, Mubita-Ngoma; M, Chongo Kadantu.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to determine knowledge and use of modern contractive methods among reproductive age group rural women in Zambia. The study is a descriptive cross-sectional study of 105 randomly selected rural women. Data was collected using semi-structured interview schedule and analyz [...] ed using EPI Info version 6 statistical packages. The findings revealed that 63% of the respondents were within the age group 21-35 years, 65% were married and 64% were peasant farmers. 90% of the respondents had heard about modern contraceptives and their main source of information was the Health worker (62%). 76% of the respondents stated that modern contraceptive methods could be obtained from public health facilities. 56% of the respondents were currently using modem contraceptive methods and 46% were not using modern contraceptive methods. Reasons for non use of contraceptive methods were religious beliefs (50%), partner disapproval (30%) and side effects (20%). The results showed a relationship between educational level and use of contraceptives (Chi-square 7.83, df = 3, P

  3. Supermarkets in the Food Supply Systems in Southern African Development Community: A Case Study of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Emongor

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated how supermarkets procurement practises in the fresh fruits and vegetables (FFV and processed products such as dairy impact on local producers in Zambia. Data was collected from key informants and secondary sources. The results showed that supermarkets procured approximately 60% of FFV from local farmers, though the bulk of these are from large-scale farms. Products not produced in the host countries were imported from South Africa and other countries. Small-scale farmers were hindered by constraints such as lack of irrigation and the stringent grades and standards imposed by supermarkets. Supermarkets procure dairy products from large processors. Farmers access supermarkets through dairy processors. Small-scale dairy processors do not access the supermarkets because of high transaction costs and lack of transport. Government involvement in the supply chain in terms of setting policies and regulatory frameworks are important in determining the type of procurement systems that develop and whether local producers especially small-scale farmers and processors access and supply to supermarkets.

  4. With time comes increased loads-An analysis of solar home system use in Lundazi, Zambia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Mathias [Human Ecology Section, Goeteborg University, Box 700, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2007-04-15

    Solar energy can bring a number of electric services to the user but also puts up a number of limitations in terms of usage. The design of the system will affect the output from the system as well as the technical life. This article is based on a case-study of a photovoltaic-Energy Service Company (PV-ESCO) project company in Lundazi, Zambia. The solar technology has enabled clients to improve light quality in their houses or shops, which is the most valued benefit according to clients. Clients to the ESCO have acquired a number of electric appliances since they received the service. Radio cassette players are commonly found in households both with and without solar services, while TV sets has been acquired first after they have received this service. To the clients the solar services have resulted in an improvement of the living standards. Energy use and charge was logged during a six-month period. Average usage range from 10 to 14Ah/day. The load is concentrated to mornings and evenings, but the possibility to access energy services, such as light during the night, is appreciated by the clients. The average energy output from the solar module is 14.5Ah/day. Increased panel effect, change of the cutting points of the regulator and improve the users knowledge on proper operation of the system are options to tackle the situation of increased loads put on the system. (author)

  5. USING THE INTERNET FOR DEMOCRACY: A STUDY OF SOUTH AFRICA, KENYA AND ZAMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aletta H. Janse van Rensburg

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available For the first time since democracy in the classical Greek sense became practically impossible, the Internet’s networking possibilities are creating opportunities for all citizens to be active engaging participants in democracy. Open communication channels to government and fellow citizens can now be a reality that allows people at all levels of society to form part of a vibrant public sphere by exchanging ideas, sharing experiences, spreading ideologies and news, and comparing agendas. For African countries dealing with unique and increasingly complicated political and socio-economic issues, the Internet provides a platform from which citizens can now address these issues themselves and, in doing so, contribute to a public sphere that strengthens the democratic fibre of their countries. This research posits that the Internet has significant potential to stimulate democratic culture through public discourse and citizen participation. The focus of this study is on finding evidence-based information about the current influence of information and communication technology (ICT usage in South Africa, Kenya and Zambia as representatives of sub-Saharan Africa, and with specific focus on Internet usage through computers and mobile phones. The research also investigates the capacity and opportunity citizens have to successfully integrate ICTs into the accomplishment of self and mutually identified political goals in order to strengthen a broader democratic culture.

  6. Cultural and health beliefs of pregnant women in Zambia regarding pregnancy and child birth

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Namakau C., M' soka; Langalibalele H., Mabuza; Deidre, Pretorius.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health beliefs related to pregnancy and childbirth exist in various cultures globally. Healthcare practitioners need to be aware of these beliefs so as to contextualise their practice in their communities OBJECTIVES: To explore the health beliefs regarding pregnancy and childbirth of wom [...] en attending the antenatal clinic at Chawama Health Center in Lusaka Zambia METHOD: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional survey of women attending antenatal care (n = 294) who were selected by systematic sampling. A researcher-administered questionnaire was used for data collection RESULTS: Results indicated that women attending antenatal care at Chawama Clinic held certain beliefs relating to diet, behaviour and the use of medicinal herbs during pregnancy and post-delivery. The main beliefs on diet related to a balanced diet, eating of eggs, okra, bones, offal, sugar cane, alcohol consumption and salt intake. The main beliefs on behaviour related to commencement of antenatal care, daily activities, quarrels, bad rituals, infidelity and the use of condoms during pregnancy. The main beliefs on the use of medicinal herbs were on their use to expedite the delivery process, to assist in difficult deliveries and for body cleansing following a miscarriage CONCLUSION: Women attending antenatal care at the Chawama Clinic hold a number of beliefs regarding pregnancy and childbirth. Those beliefs that are of benefit to the patients should be encouraged with scientific explanations, whilst those posing a health risk should be discouraged respectfully

  7. Evolution of anti-corruption journalism in Africa: lessons from Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Phiri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available All African countries, where there are functioning states, express a strong desire to curb corruption. The African Union has a convention to prevent and combat corruption. Zambia, under President Levy Mwanawasa, has positioned itself as a leader in Africa's fight against corruption. Last year, former Zambian President Frederick Chiluba was found guilty of grand corruption by a London court in a case brought against him by the Zambian government. There is general agreement that the media plays a significant role in the war against plunder of national resources by African leaders. However, studies that examine exactly how the media influences the decisions and actions of public actors in Africa's anti-corruption agenda are few. This paper aims to fill this gap. The goal is to use the Zambian case to gain a clearer understanding of the evolution of anti-graft journalism in Africa and to derive enduring insights into the relationship between the anti-corruption actions of the state and anti-corruption reporting by the press. Three key questions provide a framework for this investigation: 1 Is the press driving the Zambian government's anti-corruption campaign? 2 Is President Mwanawasa's 'zero-tolerance' campaign self-generated and the press simply following and reporting news events coming out of the bold steps already determined by the government? 3 Is it possible that the press and the state have found common ground and formed an informal but formidable alliance to combat graft?

  8. Mixed crop-livestock production systems of smallholder farmers in sub-humid and semi-arid areas of Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock production activities among small-scale farmers of semi-arid (Agro-ecological zone 1) and sub-humid (Agro-ecological zone 2) areas of Zambia are integrated with crop production activities in what is termed as crop/livestock farming system. This is a closed system in which production of one enterprise depends on the other. In Zambia, crop production depends on draught animals for tillage of cropping area, animal manure for fertilisation of crops while livestock depend on crop residues for dry season feeding. Good quality grass is generally available in adequate amounts to support reasonable level of livestock productivity during the rainy season. But livestock rely on low quantity and poor quality, highly fibrous perennial grass from veld and fibrous crop residues during the dry season. These resources are inadequate to support optimum livestock productivity activities. Poor nutrition results in low rates of reproduction and production as well as increased susceptibility to diseases. With the increasing human population cropping land is expanding, leading to increased production of crop residues. This has however, reduced the grazing land available for ruminant production. In Zambia large quantities of crop residues (stovers, husks and straws, legume tops and hulls, sugar cane tops, cassava leaves, potato vines, etc.) are left in the field where they are wasted each year because small-scale farmers lack the knowledge on how best to use them. There is a need to find ways to reverse this situation by adapting known and workable technologies to local conditions and by introducing new approaches for improving the use of crop residues and poor quality fibrous feeds. Efforts should also be made to enlarge feed resource base. The technologies should be simple and effective. In the presence of a dynamic market system, livestock production in a crop/livestock system could be intensified and made profitable for small-scale farmers. (author)

  9. The Socioeconomic status of children with epilepsy in Zambia: Implications for long-term health and well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Chomba, Elwyn; Haworth, Alan; Atadzhanov, Masharip; Mbewe, Edward; BIRBECK, GRETCHEN L

    2008-01-01

    Epilepsy is a highly stigmatized disorder in Zambia. Adult studies indicated that adults with epilepsy in many regions have significantly lower socioeconomic status (SES) than their peers. We conducted a case-control study of Zambian children with epilepsy (CWE) to assess the SES of CWE. 98 child pairs were recruited (n=196), mean age 10.8 yrs, 59.7% male. The comparison group’s medical conditions included asthma (54.0%), rheumatic heart disease (26.6%), type 1 diabetes (14.2%), and hypertens...

  10. Disabled education? :a study concerning young adults with physical disabilities and their experiences with school in Livingstone, Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Madsø, Siv-Hege

    2013-01-01

    There are about one billion people living with a disability in the world today. In Zambia, this number might be closer to two million. People with disabilities in the global South are almost always less likely to be in school, less likely to be employed, and more likely to be subject to economic hardship. The standing national education policy has failed in its aim to secure education for all, especially for children and youths with disabilities. Disability scholars have argued for a more com...

  11. The effect of lindane on non-target fauna in a maize agro-ecosystem in Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of lindane on non-target fauna in a maize agro-ecosystem was studied in Zambia in 1992 and 1993. While lindane was effective against the stalk borers, a target pest, it also affected other non-target fauna. Ants, spiders and springtails were significantly reduced. However the effect was only transient and lasted for approximately two months. Lindane appeared to have no real effect on aerial non-target fauna or on soil inhabiting microorganisms. (author). 8 refs, 6 tabs

  12. The Public-Private Sector Wage Gap in Zambia in the 1990s: A Quantile Regression Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the determinants of wages in Zambia and based on the quantile regression approach, we analyze how their effects differ at different points in the wage distribution and over time. We use three cross-sections of Zambian household data from the early nineties, which was a period of economic transition, because items as privatization and deregulation were on the political agenda. The focus is placed on the public-private sector wage gap, and the results show that this gap was relatively favorable for the low-skilled and less favorable for the high-skilled. This picture was further strengthened during the period 1991-1996.

  13. Nuclear district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An economic study of nuclear district heating is concerned with: heat production, its transmission towards the area to be served and the distribution management towards the consumers. Foreign and French assessments show that the high cost of now existing techniques of hot water transport defines the competing limit distance between the site and township to be below some fifty kilometers for the most important townships (provided that the fuel price remain stationary). All studies converge towards the choice of a high transport temperature as soon as the distance is of some twenty kilometers. As for fossile energy saving, some new possibilities appear with process heat reactors; either PWR of about 1000MWth for large townships, or pool-type reactors of about 100MWth when a combination with an industrial steam supply occurs

  14. District heating goes new ways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews the papers presented at the first of a series of conferences on the topic of district heating that was held in Zurich, Switzerland at the beginning of 2002. The article summarises the contributions presented at the conference, which was dedicated to district heating strategies. The role of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy is discussed and the extent of district heating use in Switzerland is compared with the situation in other countries, e.g. Denmark. Sociological and economical aspects of district heating projects are discussed and the important role played by district heating in the reduction of CO2 emissions is looked at. The various district heating networks to be found in the city of Zurich are briefly described and future heat-generation options, including biomass and fuel-cell-based combined heat and power installations are discussed. A wood-fired system in Porrentruy, Switzerland, is presented as an example of a biomass-based district heating system

  15. 2006 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: North District

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the Southwest Florida Water Management District's FY2006 Digital Orthophoto (B089) and LiDAR...

  16. Sustainable maize production through leguminous tree and shrub fallows in Eastern Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen is the major nutrient limiting maize production in Zambia and Southern Africa. Removal of subsidies on manufactured fertilizers made them very expensive and most farmers cannot afford them. Short duration planted fallows using a wide range of leguminous trees have been found to replenish soil fertility and increase subsequent maize yields. Species such as Sesbania sesban, Tephrosia vogelii and Cajanus cajan have been found to be well suited for planted fallow technology. These improved fallow crop rotations are being adopted by small-scale farmers in Eastern Zambia. Since the seminal paper of Kwesiga and Coe, research has been carried out to understand how the planted tree fallows replenish soil fertility and improve maize yields. A wide range of species has been screened as alternatives to Sesbania fallows to overcome limitations of Sesbania such as susceptibility to nematodes and insect pests. Species such as Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala have maintained maize yields of 3 t ha1 over 10 years of cropping when Sesbania fallow yields declined to 1.1 t ha1 after 3 years of cropping. The selection criteria for good fallow species are high biomass production and litterfall. Maize yields after fallows were highly correlated to biomass and litterfall yields. High quality biomass, which is low in lignin and polyphenols and high in N, is needed for higher maize yields. Mixing of Gliricidia and Sesbania fallows resulted in higher maand Sesbania fallows resulted in higher maize yields compared with single species fallows (3.0 vs. 1.8 t ha1). Mechanisms contributing to the efficacy of mixed fallows will be discussed. Pre-season inorganic-N (NO3- + NH4+) was highly correlated with maize yield (r2 = 0.62) and this could be used to select fallow species and management practices. Nutrient budgets of N, P and K over 8 years showed that a positive balance of N and P was maintained for coppicing fallows, while a negative balance of K started from the fourth year onwards on fertilized maize, Gliricidia, Leucaena and Sesbania fallows, emphasising the need to use P and K fertilizers to supplement the N supply from leguminous fallows. Improved fallows increased infiltration, reduced runoff, increased water storage, and reduced soil loss. The biophysical limits of most fallow species and other emerging issues such as pests and diseases, the need to inoculate with rhizobium, the amount of N fixed by different species and provenances and soil acidification under improved fallows are the subjects of further research. Biomass transfer technology using biomass from leguminous trees was evaluated on maize and vegetable production in the dambos (wetlands). Maize and vegetable yields were significantly increased by application of high quality biomass from Gliricidia and Leucaena. However, financial analysis showed that it is not viable to apply biomass on a low value crop like maize, but biomass transfer was economically viable on high value crops such a vegetables. (author)

  17. Trend analysis of rainfall in the headstreams of the Zambezi River Basin in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampata, J. M.; Parida, B. P.; Moalafhi, D. B.

    Changes in catchment response as a result of climate change and/or variability continue to be of concern to hydrologists and water managers and thus identification and study of changes in rainfall as a major input into the hydrologic system remains pivotal in water resources management and planning for reliable input into modelling catchment response systems. An attempt has been made in this study to analyse long-term rainfall data obtained from five rain gauges (Kabompo, Kasempa, Mwinilunga, Mongu and Kaoma) located in the headstream regions of the Zambezi river basin in Zambia and to determine if these time series belonged to similar regime, have had any significant trends and if there was any homogeneity in trends among stations. To detect change in regime, the data were separately subjected to intervention analysis (using Cumulative Summation or CUSUM technique) and step change analysis (using rank-sum test) and subsequently the trend in each of the time series were determined using Mann-Kendall-statistic. The analyses undertaken to identify possibility of any intervention due to either natural and/or man-made causes, through the CUSUM technique, did not show signs of any major interventions except for Mongu station, where a change in regime was observed around 1980. This was even confirmed through step change analysis using the rank-sum test. Though the five stations showed marginal downward trends, these were not significant. Even, the test of homogeneity in trends observed at different stations showed homogeneity between them. Based on these findings, it was concluded that the rainfall data in the entire sub-basin belonged to a similar climate regime and the rainfall data for the entire period could be used for developing rainfall-response relationship except for Mongu, where the time series from 1981 onwards appear to have been subjected human/instrumental errors and needs to be investigated and updated.

  18. Compensation patterns following occupational injuries in Zambia: results from the 2009 Labour Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siziya Seter

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational injuries have received limited research attention in the Southern African Development Community. Much of the published data come from South Africa and little has been reported elsewhere within the region. The present study was conducted to estimate the prevalence rates of occupational injuries and compensation; and to determine factors associated with occupational injuries and compensation. Methods Data were obtained from occupational health and injury questions added to the Zambian Labour Force Survey of 2009 by the Work and Health in Southern Africa programme. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the degree of association between demographic, social and economic factors on one hand and injury and compensation on the other. Results Data on 61871 study participants were available for analysis, of whom 4998 (8.1% reported having been injured (10.0% of males, and 6.2% of females due to work in the previous 12 months to the survey. Of those injured, 60.5% reported having stayed away from work as a result. The commonest type of injury was "open wound" (81.6%. Male gender, being married or married before, being a paid employee, working for a private company and household were positively associated with serious injuries. Injuries also varied by geographical area. Factors positively associated with receiving compensation for work-related injuries were: male gender, Copperbelt and North-Western provinces, and unpaid family worker. Employer/self employed and having less than 5 employees in a workplace were negatively associated with compensation. Conclusion The prevalence of reported injury and its association with a significant level of absence from work, indicate that occupational hazards in Zambia have significant health and economic effects. Female workers should equally be compensated for injuries suffered as their male counterparts.

  19. Development of a curriculum for training in One Health analytical epidemiology at the University of Zambia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.B., Muma; Martin, Simuunza; K., Mwachalimba; M., Munyeme; B., Namangala; C., Hankanga; G., Sijumbila; R. Likwa, Ndonyo; Yona, Sinkala; A., Mwanza; A. Simanyengwe, Mweene.

    Full Text Available Recently, the world has witnessed emergence of novel diseases such as avian influenza, HIV and AIDS, West Nile Virus and Ebola. The evolution of these pathogens has been facilitated mainly by a constantly evolving animal-human interface. Whilst infectious disease control was previously conceptualise [...] d as either public health or animal health related issues, the distinction between disciplinary foci have been blurred by multiple causal factors that clearly traverse traditional disciplinary divides. These multiple evolutionary pressures have included changes in land use, ecosystems, human-livestock-wildlife interactions and antibiotic use, representing novel routes for pathogen emergence. With the growing realisation that pathogens do not respect traditional epistemological divides, the 'One Health' initiative has emerged to advocate for closer collaboration across the health disciplines and has provided a new agenda for health education. Against this background, the One Health Analytical Epidemiology course was developed under the auspices of the Southern African Centre for Infectious Diseases Surveillance by staff from the University of Zambia with collaborators from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and the Royal Veterinary College in London. The course is aimed at equipping scientists with multidisciplinary skill sets to match the contemporary challenges of human, animal and zoonotic disease prevention and control. Epidemiology is an important discipline for both public and animal health. Therefore, this two-year programme has been developed to generate a cadre of epidemiologists with a broad understanding of disease control and prevention and will be able to conceptualise and design holistic programs for informing health and disease control policy decisions.

  20. The dating and interpretation of a Mode 1 site in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barham, Lawrence; Phillips, William M.

    2011-01-01

    Flake based assemblages (Mode 1) comprise the earliest stone technologies known, with well-dated Oldowan sites occurring in eastern Africa between 2.6-1.7 Ma, and in less securely dated contexts in central, southern and northern Africa. Our understanding of the spread and local development of this technology outside East Africa remains hampered by the lack of reliable numerical dating techniques applicable to non-volcanic deposits. This study applied the still relatively new technique of cosmogenic nuclide burial dating (10Be/26Al) to calculate burial ages for fluvial gravels containing Mode 1 artefacts in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. The Manzi River, a tributary of the Luangwa River, has exposed a 4.7 m deep section of fluvial sands with discontinuous but stratified gravel layers bearing Mode 1, possibly Oldowan, artefacts in the basal layers. An unconformity divides the Manzi section, separating Mode 1 deposits from overlying gravels containing Mode 3 (Middle Stone Age) artefacts. No diagnostic Mode 2 (Acheulean) artefacts were found. Cosmogenic nuclide burial dating was attempted for the basal gravels as well as exposure ages for the upper Mode 3 gravels, but was unsuccessful. The complex depositional history of the site prevented the calculation of reliable age models. A relative chronology for the full Manzi sequence was constructed, however, from the magnetostratigraphy of the deposit (N>R>N sequence). Isothermal thermoluminescence (ITL) dating of the upper Mode 3 layers also provided consistent results (78 ka). A coarse but chronologically coherent sequence now exists for the Manzi section with the unconformity separating probable mid- or early Pleistocene deposits below from late Pleistocene deposits above. The results suggest Mode 1 technology in the Luangwa Valley may post-date the Oldowan in eastern and southern Africa. The dating programme has contributed to a clearer understanding of the geomorphological processes that have shaped the valley and structured its archaeological record.

  1. Property grabbing and will writing in Lusaka, Zambia: an examination of wills of HIV-infected cohabiting couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, E; Muzizi, L; Stephenson, R; Chomba, E; Ahmed, Y; Haworth, A; Allen, S

    2007-03-01

    High rates of HIV and poverty place women in a precarious economic situation in Lusaka, Zambia. Mortality from HIV infection is high, leaving many households single headed and creating almost a half a million orphans. One of the most prevalent forms of gender violence that creates poverty in women is when the male's family claims the property of the deceased from the widow and the children. The Zambia-Emory HIV Research Project collected 184 wills from individuals in monogamous unions where one or both of the individuals were HIV-positive. Despite the fact that many wills specifically stated that their extended family was not allowed to tamper with their possessions in the event of death, property grabbing proved to be a prevalent and difficult issue in Lusaka. In order to improve the lives of widowed women in Lusaka, the government and other civic and non-governmental organisations must inform women of their rights to own and protect their land and other assets in the event of their husbands' death, an issue of increasing importance in the area of HIV/AIDS. PMID:17453571

  2. Smallholder Farmers’ Responses to Rainfall Variability and Soil Fertility Problems by the Use of Indigenous Knowledge in Chipepo, Southern Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabwe Harnadih Mubanga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study conducted in Southern Zambia investigated smallholder farmers’ use of indigenous knowledge to respond to rainfall variations and soil fertility problems. Farmer and key informant interviews and observations were employed to collect data. A total of 60 smallholder farmers and 6 key informants were interviewed. Chipepo lies in the low rainfall region of Zambia. Its upland area faces moisture stress and soil fertility problems compared to its valley areas located along tributaries of the Zambezi River. The annual flooding of the tributaries of the Zambezi River along the valley fields results in loss of crop yields. Farmers have responded to problems of low moisture in the upland fields and too much moisture in the river valley fields through crop diversification concentrated on three main food crops namely; maize, sorghum and bulrush millet. These differ not only in their moisture requirements but also in maturity periods. Drought tolerant early maturing crop varieties and off-farm activities enhance their resilience. Maize was planted in river valley fields due to its high water requirements while drought tolerant sorghum and millet were planted on upland fields. The farmers’ knowledge of particular flowering plants helped forecast the onset of rains for purposes of early planting. Farmers with upland fields have adopted indigenous soil classification techniques based on vegetation types, soil colour, and texture and soil workability and utilize particular soils for specific crops. Integrating this indigenous knowledge into modern technologies will enhance smallholder farmers’ resilience when faced with impacts of climate change and variability.

  3. The impact of solar home systems on rural livelihoods. Experiences from the Nyimba Energy Service Company in Zambia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, M. [Goeteborg University (Sweden). Human Ecology Section; Ellegard, A. [Bioquest HB, Vastra Frolunda (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    An Energy Service Company (ESCO) in the town of Nyimba, Zambia, has been operating 100 solar home systems since the year 2000. The company is part of a pilot project implemented by the Government of Zambia with the aim to apply the ESCO concept for diffusion of solar technology. The change in livelihood as a result of the access to electric services has been investigated in a survey. Clients were satisfied with the services they receive, although they are paying more than previously for energy. Light hours did not increase, but the quality of light was improved, enabling activities such as domestic work at night and studying for longer hours. Many of the clients had acquired TV and video, and become part of a more global culture. Appliances for entertainment, such as video and TV, were considered more attractive than productive appliances such as a water pump by many respondents. In some cases also people from households without solar installations benefited from the installations, for instance, children gathering in houses with solar to study at night. (author)

  4. 'One health' and development priorities in resource-constrained countries: policy lessons from avian and pandemic influenza preparedness in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwacalimba, Kennedy Kapala; Green, Judith

    2015-03-01

    'One World, One Health' has become a key rallying theme for the integration of public health and animal health priorities, particularly in the governance of pandemic-scale zoonotic infectious disease threats. However, the policy challenges of integrating public health and animal health priorities in the context of trade and development issues remain relatively unexamined, and few studies to date have explored the implications of global disease governance for resource-constrained countries outside the main centres of zoonotic outbreaks. This article draws on a policy study of national level avian and pandemic influenza preparedness between 2005 and 2009 across the sectors of trade, health and agriculture in Zambia. We highlight the challenges of integrating disease control interventions amidst trade and developmental realities in resource-poor environments. One Health prioritizes disease risk mitigation, sidelining those trade and development narratives which speak to broader public health concerns. We show how locally important trade and development imperatives were marginalized in Zambia, limiting the effectiveness of pandemic preparedness. Our findings are likely to be generalizable to other resource-constrained countries, and suggest that effective disease governance requires alignment with trade and development sectors, as well as integration of veterinary and public health sectors. PMID:24532120

  5. How Does Structure Affect Industrial Districts Innovation?

    OpenAIRE

    Gabaldón Estevan, Daniel; Fernández De Lucio, Ignacio; Tortajada Esparza, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    This research explores the innovation capacity of the two most important ceramic tile industrial districts in Europe, the Italian (Sassuolo) and the Spanish (Castellon) districts, following the Regional Innovation Systems and the Industrial Districts theoretical approaches. In both districts innovation is to play a definitive role in allowing companies to maintain their competitiveness in a globalising market. Our analysis shows i) a similar level of competition within the districts of both c...

  6. The Winfrith district gamma survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the District Gamma Survey carried out around the A.E.E., Winfrith since June, 1959. Its organisation, equipment and techniques are described, and the results obtained up to the 31st December, 1960 are given. (author)

  7. Boise geothermal district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  8. Monitoring the endangered population of the antelope Kobus leche smithemani (Artiodactyla: Bovidae, in the Bangweulu ecosystem, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Siamudaala

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani is a semi-aquatic medium sized antelope currently enlisted on the IUCN red list of endangered species and is only endemic to the Bangweulu basin of Zambia. Its population has significantly decreased due to floods that took place during the period 1930-1940 from over 250 000-15 000 leading the Zambian government to gazette all habitats of Black lechwe into state protected areas, and to establish urgent management strategies needed to save the remaining population from extinction. Using retrospective data, our findings show that the population has increased from 15 000 animals in 1954 to 55 632 in 2009. The current population is estimated at 34.77% (55 632/160 000 of the carrying capacity of the Bangweulu basin. Although the Black lechwe is one of the 42 species offered for consumptive utilization by the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA, only 0.12% and 0.08% of the current stock was offered for safari and resident hunting annually for the period 2005-2009, respectively. Annual quota utilization were estimated at 67% (n=37 and 81% (n=37 for safari and resident hunting, respectively. Hence, overall income obtained from utilization of Black lechwe is very low accounting for only 2.1% of the total revenue earned from wildlife utilization. Although the current population trend is showing a unit increase of 639 animals per year, it is still far below levels ideal for the lucrative utilization. In this study, we demonstrate that adverse ecological changes on wildlife species, can lead to their vulnerability and danger of extinction, and that their recovery to full carrying capacity may demand a considerable amount of timeEl lechwe negro (Kobus leche smithemani es un antílope semi-acuático de tamaño medio que en la actualidad se encuentra en la lista roja de la UICN de especies en peligro de extinción y sólo es endémica de la cuenca del Bangweulu de Zambia. Su población ha disminuido considerablemente, de más de 250 000 a 15 000, debido a las inundaciones que se dieron durante el período 1930-1940, lo que llevó al gobierno de Zambia a declarar todos los hábitats del lechwe negro en áreas protegidas estatales, y a establecer estrategias de administración urgentes necesarias para salvar el resto de la población de la extinción. Utilizando los datos retrospectivos, nuestros resultados muestran que la población ha aumentado de 15 000 animales en 1954 a 55 632 en 2009. La población actual se estima en 34.77% (55 632/160 000 de la capacidad de carga de la cuenca del Bangweulu. Aunque el lechwe Negro es una de las 42 especies que se ofrecen para su utilización consuntiva por la Autoridad de Vida Silvestre de Zambia (ZAWA, sólo el 0.12% y 0.08% de la población actual se ha ofrecido para el safari y la caza residente anual para el período 2005-2009, respectivamente. La utilización de la cuota anual se estima en 67% (n=67 y 81% (n=37 para safari de caza y residente, respectivamente. Por lo tanto, los ingresos totales obtenidos de la utilización del lechwe negro son muy bajos contando sólo el 2.1% de los ingresos totales obtenidos de la utilización de la fauna silvestre. Aunque la tendencia actual de la población está mostrando un incremento unitario de 639 animales por año, está todavía muy por debajo de los niveles ideales para la utilización lucrativa. En este estudio, se demuestra que los cambios ecológicos perjudiciales sobre especies de fauna silvestre, puede conducir a su vulnerabilidad y peligro de extinción, y que la recuperación de su capacidad de carga completa puede exigir una cantidad considerable de tiempo.

  9. Monitoring the endangered population of the antelope Kobus leche smithemani (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), in the Bangweulu ecosystem, Zambia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Victor M., Siamudaala; Musso, Munyeme; Wigganson, Matandiko; John B, Muma; Hetron M, Munang& #8217; andu.

    1631-16-01

    Full Text Available El lechwe negro (Kobus leche smithemani) es un antílope semi-acuático de tamaño medio que en la actualidad se encuentra en la lista roja de la UICN de especies en peligro de extinción y sólo es endémica de la cuenca del Bangweulu de Zambia. Su población ha disminuido considerablemente, de más de 250 [...] 000 a 15 000, debido a las inundaciones que se dieron durante el período 1930-1940, lo que llevó al gobierno de Zambia a declarar todos los hábitats del lechwe negro en áreas protegidas estatales, y a establecer estrategias de administración urgentes necesarias para salvar el resto de la población de la extinción. Utilizando los datos retrospectivos, nuestros resultados muestran que la población ha aumentado de 15 000 animales en 1954 a 55 632 en 2009. La población actual se estima en 34.77% (55 632/160 000) de la capacidad de carga de la cuenca del Bangweulu. Aunque el lechwe Negro es una de las 42 especies que se ofrecen para su utilización consuntiva por la Autoridad de Vida Silvestre de Zambia (ZAWA), sólo el 0.12% y 0.08% de la población actual se ha ofrecido para el safari y la caza residente anual para el período 2005-2009, respectivamente. La utilización de la cuota anual se estima en 67% (n=67) y 81% (n=37) para safari de caza y residente, respectivamente. Por lo tanto, los ingresos totales obtenidos de la utilización del lechwe negro son muy bajos contando sólo el 2.1% de los ingresos totales obtenidos de la utilización de la fauna silvestre. Aunque la tendencia actual de la población está mostrando un incremento unitario de 639 animales por año, está todavía muy por debajo de los niveles ideales para la utilización lucrativa. En este estudio, se demuestra que los cambios ecológicos perjudiciales sobre especies de fauna silvestre, puede conducir a su vulnerabilidad y peligro de extinción, y que la recuperación de su capacidad de carga completa puede exigir una cantidad considerable de tiempo. Abstract in english Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani) is a semi-aquatic medium sized antelope currently enlisted on the IUCN red list of endangered species and is only endemic to the Bangweulu basin of Zambia. Its population has significantly decreased due to floods that took place during the period 1930-1940 from [...] over 250 000-15 000 leading the Zambian government to gazette all habitats of Black lechwe into state protected areas, and to establish urgent management strategies needed to save the remaining population from extinction. Using retrospective data, our findings show that the population has increased from 15 000 animals in 1954 to 55 632 in 2009. The current population is estimated at 34.77% (55 632/160 000) of the carrying capacity of the Bangweulu basin. Although the Black lechwe is one of the 42 species offered for consumptive utilization by the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA), only 0.12% and 0.08% of the current stock was offered for safari and resident hunting annually for the period 2005-2009, respectively. Annual quota utilization were estimated at 67% (n=37) and 81% (n=37) for safari and resident hunting, respectively. Hence, overall income obtained from utilization of Black lechwe is very low accounting for only 2.1% of the total revenue earned from wildlife utilization. Although the current population trend is showing a unit increase of 639 animals per year, it is still far below levels ideal for the lucrative utilization. In this study, we demonstrate that adverse ecological changes on wildlife species, can lead to their vulnerability and danger of extinction, and that their recovery to full carrying capacity may demand a considerable amount of time

  10. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Jodhpur district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalla Gyaneshwar

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease with a wide geographical distribution in a range of climate and with different epidemiological patterns. In Rajasthan a new endemic zone of the disease has been found at Jodhpur district. The clincial features of 21 smear positive cases of oriental sore from Jodhpur district studied during a period of 1 year have been described. Also the importance of intralesional berberine sulphate in the treatment of oriental sore has been highlighted.

  11. 76 FR 20971 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Intent To File License...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ...Commission [Project No. 2299-075] Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Intent To File License...February 10, 2011. d. Submitted By: Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation...

  12. 77 FR 4291 - Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ...Commission [ Project No. 2299-075] Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...into any Order issuing a license. Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation...

  13. 77 FR 5507 - Turlock Irrigation District, Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ...Commission [Project No. 2299-075] Turlock Irrigation District, Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...into any Order issuing a license. Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation...

  14. 78 FR 3892 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ...No. UL11-1-000; Project No. 2299-078] Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status On January 9, 2013, the Modesto Irrigation District (Modesto) filed a motion for clarification...

  15. 77 FR 16828 - Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ...Hydroelectric Project Project No. 2299-075] Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process...Hydroelectric Project No. 2299-075.\\1\\ Turlock Irrigation District and the Modesto Irrigation...

  16. 75 FR 43958 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ...Commission [Project No. 2299-074] Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...Filed: May 24, 2010. d. Applicant: Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation...

  17. 46 CFR 42.05-25 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District...Section 42.05-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...This Subchapter § 42.05-25 Coast Guard District Commander or...

  18. 46 CFR 50.10-5 - Coast Guard District Commander or District Commander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coast Guard District Commander or District...Section 50.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...This Subchapter § 50.10-5 Coast Guard District Commander or...

  19. 77 FR 63326 - Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ...Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland Management District for the next 15 years...the System, consistent with sound principles of fish and wildlife management, conservation, legal...

  20. Nuclear district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major trends in the development of nuclear district heating in the USSR are outlined. The nuclear power sources considered are as follows: nuclear thermoelectric plants (NTP), nuclear distric heating plants (NDH) and nuclear process heat plants (NPH). The NTP are designed for both electric and heat supply of large cities, the NPH-for industrial process heat supply, the steam pressure ranging from 0.12 to 10 MPa, and the NDH-for hot water supply. The NTP, NDH and NPH projects developed nowadays are based on the WWER-500 (1000) reac.tors. Some data on the reduced costs and overall efficiency of the plants in comparison with corresponding fossil-fueled plants are presented. In the European part of the USSR the NTP are economical when constructed in cities with the heat rates above 1700 MJ/s; the NDH and NPH can be competitive against fossil-fueled boilers at the heat rates of populated areas and industrial complexes of 900-1700 MJ/s. If the problems in the development of prestressed reinforced concrete reactor vessels are solved, the competitiveness of the NTP, NDH and NPH might be even higher

  1. Certification of district heating substations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-01-15

    These Technical Regulations, F:103-6, have been produced and published by the Swedish District Heating Association in conjunction with manufacturers. Approved testing is part of the process of obtaining certification for a district heating substation. In addition, the process includes a review of documentation and of the manufacturer's production inspection procedures. A certified unit fulfils the requirements set out in the Association's document F:101, General Technical Requirements. Until further notice, the Association has selected SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden for certification of district heating substations. Certification means that the quality and function/performance of a prefabricated district heating substation have been examined and approved. Certification test method F:103-6 includes both static and dynamic tests and inspections. Detailed information on the district heating substation and its properties is given in the certification test reports. The unique feature of this certification is that the test reports are in the public domain. This is possible because the Association has full right of insight into the certification process, and because testing is performed in accordance with test programmes and procedures decided by the Association. In this document (F: 103-6), the Association specifies what is to be reported when SP carries out inspections at the manufacturer's premises. This can include details of claims lodged with the manufacturer and/or non-compliances with the required specification of the district heating substation. Such cases will be considered by a Certification Panel. Test reports and certificates provide information on the district heating substation's properties and performance, which can be used when assessing the substations. The technical tests do not address the long-term properties of substations, but SP's inspection specifically includes visual examination and application of its experience of such equipment, to identify potential technical weaknesses that could present an increased risk of leakage or malfunctions during the unit's life

  2. Assessing administrative capacity and costs of cash transfer schemes in Zambia: Implications for rollout

    OpenAIRE

    Chiwele, Dennis Kaputo

    2010-01-01

    [Background] The Ministry of Community Development and Social Services (MCDSS) has taken the decision to rollout in 2009 a national social cash transfer scheme (SCTS) to cover the whole country by 2012. Thus far, social cash transfer schemes are being piloted in five districts in Southern and Eastern Provinces. The schemes are using structures created for the implementation of the Public Welfare Assistance System (PWAS) which rise from community level all the way to the national level. The ad...

  3. Validation of the UCLA Child Post traumatic stress disorder-reaction index in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Judith A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual violence against children is a major global health and human rights problem. In order to address this issue there needs to be a better understanding of the issue and the consequences. One major challenge in accomplishing this goal has been a lack of validated child mental health assessments in low-resource countries where the prevalence of sexual violence is high. This paper presents results from a validation study of a trauma-focused mental health assessment tool - the UCLA Post-traumatic Stress Disorder - Reaction Index (PTSD-RI in Zambia. Methods The PTSD-RI was adapted through the addition of locally relevant items and validated using local responses to three cross-cultural criterion validity questions. Reliability of the symptoms scale was assessed using Cronbach alpha analyses. Discriminant validity was assessed comparing mean scale scores of cases and non-cases. Concurrent validity was assessed comparing mean scale scores to a traumatic experience index. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were run using receiver operating curves. Results Analysis of data from 352 youth attending a clinic specializing in sexual abuse showed that this adapted PTSD-RI demonstrated good reliability, with Cronbach alpha scores greater than .90 on all the evaluated scales. The symptom scales were able to statistically significantly discriminate between locally identified cases and non-cases, and higher symptom scale scores were associated with increased numbers of trauma exposures which is an indication of concurrent validity. Sensitivity and specificity analyses resulted in an adequate area under the curve, indicating that this tool was appropriate for case definition. Conclusions This study has shown that validating mental health assessment tools in a low-resource country is feasible, and that by taking the time to adapt a measure to the local context, a useful and valid Zambian version of the PTSD-RI was developed to detect traumatic stress among youth. This valid tool can now be used to appropriately measure treatment effectiveness, and more effectively and efficiently triage youth to appropriate services.

  4. Use of Mutation Breeding Technique in Improving Finger Millet in Northern Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many breeders have observed that induced mutation increases genetic variability, and the expose to mutagenic agents increases mutation frequency. Studies have indicated the effect in height reduction, increased yield components,disease resistance, in crop like rice and wheat. A study was conducted in finger millet in thr Northern part of Zambia (Region III), a high rainfall area, aiming at improving finger length, number of fingers till ring capacity in order to increase the yield. the seed of Nyika variety, popular to farmers due to its medium maturity, palm shaped fingers (six fingers on average), and light brown grain. Three quantities of seed were irradiated at 15Kr, 20Kr and 30Kr doses. A dose of 15Kr of gamma rays irradiation continued to create good genetic change in the exposed material. These observations clearly suggest that 15Kr dose of gamma rays is the optimum one to expose/irradiate finger millet to create desired genetic changes. The results of 2000/2001 were not significantly different. However, FMM 165 had better yields (3193 Kg) than FMM 175 in Misamfu, while FMM 175 yielded better (3272 Kg) in Chinsali. During 2001/2002 both FMMs performed well in the national finger number of 10 per head. There were also highly significant differences among finger lengths.FMM 165 had finger length of 10.3 cm. Concerning grain yield FMM 165 and FMM 175 had 3802 and 3864 Kg/ha, respectively, which were above the overall mean 3864 Kg/ha. Grain yield correlated positiv3864 Kg/ha. Grain yield correlated positively with finger number with an r-value of 0.19 and finger length r-value of 0.22 although it was not significant at 1% or 5%. Meanwhile in the advance trial there were significant differences among genotypes in finger number. Both FMMs had 9 fingers above the overall mean of 8.8. In the finger length there were highly significant differences. FMM 175 had a length of 11.5 cm while FMM 165 had 10.4 cm. There were highly significant differences among the genotypes in yield. FMM 165 (4636 Kg) and FMM 175 (4104 Kg/ha) yielded more than the checks (Nyika and Local) 3104 Kg/ha and 2854 Kg/ha respectively. There was some correlation between finger length and finger number with r-value of 0.688, finger number and grain yield with an r-value of 0.187, and finger length and yield r-value of -ve 0.016 but there were not significant at 1% or 5%

  5. Community case management of malaria using ACT and RDT in two districts in Zambia: achieving high adherence to test results using community health workers

    OpenAIRE

    Chalwe Victor; Moonga Hawela B; Hamainza Busiku; Chanda Pascalina; Pagnoni Franco

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Access to prompt and effective treatment is a cornerstone of the current malaria control strategy. Delays in starting appropriate treatment is a major contributor to malaria mortality. WHO recommends home management of malaria using artemisininbased combination therapy (ACT) and Rapid Diagnostic tests (RDTs) as one of the strategies for improving access to prompt and efective malaria case management. Methods A prospective evaluation of the effectiveness of using community ...

  6. Rotavirus landscape in Africa-Towards prevention and control: A report of the 8th African rotavirus symposium, Livingstone, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Cheryl; Mwenda, Jason; Chilengi, Roma

    2015-06-26

    The 8th African Rotavirus Symposium was held in Livingstone, Zambia from the 12-13 June 2014. Over 130 delegates from 35 countries - 28 from African nations - participated in this symposium, which included scientists, clinicians, immunisation managers, public health officials, policymakers and vaccine manufacturers. The theme for the symposium was Rotavirus Landscape in Africa-Towards Prevention and Control. At the time of the symposium, a total of 21 African countries had introduced the rotavirus vaccine into their national immunisation schedules. This meeting was particularly timely and relevant to review early data on vaccine adoption and impact from these countries. The concluding panel discussion proposed several recommendations for areas of focus moving forward in rotavirus advocacy and research. PMID:25957665

  7. The distribution of sexually-transmitted Human Papillomaviruses in HIV positive and negative patients in Zambia, Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hause Lara

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Papillomaviruses (HPV are double-stranded DNA viruses, considered to be the primary etiological agents in cervical intraepithelial neoplasias and cancers. Approximately 15–20 of the 40 mucosal HPVs confer a high-risk of progression of lesions to invasive cancer. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of sexually transmitted HPVs in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive and negative patients in Zambia, Africa. The rate of high-risk HPV genotypes worldwide varies within each country. Thus, we sought to investigate the rates of HPV infection in sub-Saharan Africa and the potential role of HIV in affecting the HPV genotype distribution. Methods This retrospective cross-sectional study reports findings on the association and effects of HIV on HPV infections in an existing cohort of patients at University Teaching Hospital (UTH Lusaka, Zambia. The objective of this study was to assess HPV prevalence, genotype distribution and to identify co-factors that influence HPV infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR with two standard consensus primer sets (CpI/II and GP5+/6+ was used to test for the presence of HPV DNA. Primers specific for ?-actin were used to monitor DNA quality. Vaginal lavage samples, collected between 1998-1999 from a total of 70 women, were part of a larger cohort that was also analyzed for HIV and human herpesvirus infection. Seventy of the samples yielded usable DNA. HIV status was determined by two rapid assays, Capillus and Determine. The incidence of HIV and HPV infections and HPV genotype distributions were calculated and statistical significance was determined by Chi-Squared test. Results We determined that most common HPV genotypes detected among these Zambian patients were types 16 and 18 (21.6% each, which is approximately three-fold greater than the rates for HPV16, and ten-fold greater than the rates for HPV18 in the United States. The worldwide prevalence of HPV16 is approximately 14% and HPV18 is 5%. The overall ratio of high-risk (HR to low-risk (LR HPVs in the patient cohort was 69% and 31% respectively; essentially identical to that for the HR and LR distributions worldwide. However, we discovered that HIV positive patients were two-times as likely to have an HR HPV as HIV negative individuals, while the distribution of LR HPVs was unaffected by HIV status. Interestingly, we observed a nine-fold increase in HPV18 infection frequency in HIV positive versus HIV negative individuals. Conclusion The rate of oncogenic HPVs (type 16 and 18 in Zambia was much higher than in the U.S., potentially providing an explanation for the high-rates of cervical cancer in Zambia. Surprisingly, we discovered a strong association between positive HIV status and the prevalence of HR HPVs, and specifically HPV18.

  8. Lead-acid battery capacity in solar home systems-Field tests and experiences in Lundazi, Zambia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Mathias [Human Ecology Section, Goeteborg University, Box 700, SE-405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Mtonga, Daniel [Lundazi Energy Service Company, P.O. Box 530207, Lundazi (Zambia)

    2005-11-01

    Batteries in solar home systems can cause problems and costs for the users and/or operators of the systems. In Zambia the Lundazi Energy Service Company (LESCO) operates 150 solar home systems on a fee for service basis. The aim of the study was to investigate how the capacity of lead-acid flat plate batteries had changed after one year of operation under real conditions. The results indicate that the batteries capacity has been significantly reduced in comparison to new unused batteries of the same type. Changes in battery management and maintenance, along with additional education of customers on correct use of SHS is advised in order to improve the life span of batteries in practical use. (author)

  9. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1996

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  10. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1992

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  11. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1995

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  12. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1994

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  13. 7 CFR 920.12 - District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...the following boundaries: The area west of the Feather River; north of the Butte/Sutter county line; east of Pennington and...Monterey. (f) District 6 shall include the counties of Mono, Mariposa, Madera, Fresno and Kings. (g) District...

  14. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1993

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  15. Southwest Florida Water Management District

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mission of the Southwest Florida Water Management District is to manage the water and water-related resources within its boundaries. Central to the mission is maintaining the balance between the water needs of current and future users while protecting and maintaining the natural systems that provide the District with its existing and future water supply. The website includes an Information and Education page, which offers activities, newsletters, virtual field trips, and other resources for K-12 students and teachers. Also provided on the site are various datasets, brochures, publications, reports, textual references and links.

  16. Improving district heating in Kiev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The district heating modernisation project currently under way in Kiev, the capital of the Ukraine, is the largest project of its type financed by the World Bank. The budget for the five-year project is some USD 250 million of which USD 200 million is financed by the World Bank loan. The target of the project is to improve the city's district heating system, which is owned and operated by Kyivenergo. Consultancy services for the Project Implementation Unit are being provided by Electrowatt-Ekono and financed by the Finnish government

  17. Industrial District as a Corporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza MOHAMMADY GARFAMY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comparison study of industrial districts in two European countries, Spain and Sweden, using the conceptual framework of corporation. The relevance of this approach is based on the specific qualities that the industrial districts have, including the preexisting conditions, local traditions, products and production characteristics, marketing strategies, local policies and present challenges. The findings indicate the ways in which different patterns of inter-firm relationships, organization of production and dynamics of local alliances have shaped divergent regional responses to the industrial construction.

  18. Monitoring the endangered population of the antelope Kobus leche smithemani (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), in the Bangweulu Ecosystem, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siamudaala, Victor M; Munyeme, Musso; Matandiko, Wigganson; Muma, John B; Munang'andu, Hetron M

    2012-12-01

    Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani) is a semi-aquatic medium sized antelope currently enlisted on the IUCN red list of endangered species and is only endemic to the Bangweulu basin of Zambia. Its population has significantly decreased due to floods that took place during the period 1930-1940 from over 250 000-15000 leading the Zambian government to gazette all habitats of Black lechwe into state protected areas, and to establish urgent management strategies needed to save the remaining population from extinction. Using retrospective data, our findings show that the population has increased from 15000 animals in 1954 to 55 632 in 2009. The current population is estimated at 34.77% (55 632/160 000) of the carrying capacity of the Bangweulu basin. Although the Black lechwe is one of the 42 species offered for consumptive utilization by the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA), only 0.12% and 0.08% of the current stock was offered for safari and resident hunting annually for the period 2005-2009, respectively. Annual quota utilization were estimated at 67% (n=37) and 81% (n=37) for safari and resident hunting, respectively. Hence, overall income obtained from utilization of Black lechwe is very low accounting for only 2.1% of the total revenue earned from wildlife utilization. Although the current population trend is showing a unit increase of 639 animals per year, it is still far below levels ideal for the lucrative utilization. In this study, we demonstrate that adverse ecological changes on wildlife species, can lead to their vulnerability and danger of extinction, and that their recovery to full carrying capacity may demand a considerable amount of time. PMID:23342517

  19. Energy SMEs in sub-Saharan Africa: Outcomes, barriers and prospects in Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselip, J.A.; Desgain, D.; Mackenzie, G.A.

    2013-05-15

    This report presents the findings of research into the main outcomes of government and donor-backed efforts to promote small and medium-sized energy businesses (energy SMEs) in sub-Saharan Africa. The research follows an outcome analysis methodology. The focus is on four countries: Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia and primarily on UNEP's AREED programme (2002-2012). This research focuses on the 'contributing factors' - a deliberately broader term that incorporates the internal 'success factors' - for energy SMEs, about which much has already been written. Indeed, the research findings presented in this report reaffirm most of what has been concluded in previous studies. These studies identified the lack of access to affordable finance as being the predominant, persistent, barrier to establishing and scaling up a commercially viable energy SME sector, emphasising the lack of strong policy support from governments, poor business skills capacity and the high cost of many RETs as related cause-and-effect barriers. While these issues continue to characterise, to a greater or lesser extent, the energy SMEs sectors in the countries studied for this research, it is more relevant to revisit the main assumption behind AREED and other donor-backed programmes designed to promote energy SMEs. The assumption is that the solution to the aforementioned barriers would be overcome by a 'demonstration effect' whereby successful energy SMEs, supported by donor-backed programmes, influence the commercial financial sector to invest in energy SMEs, thus triggering a virtuous circle of growth and profitability. Experiences drawn from a decade of AREED support across four of the project countries reveal both the presence (Ghana, Senegal) and absence, or weak presence, of this demonstration effect (Tanzania, Zambia). This is a central question, and one which was not the focus of previous research, presumably because the answer was not fully apparent prior to 2006 when the last substantial work was conducted. (LN)

  20. Struggles over Access and Authority in the Governance of new water resources : evidence from Mali and Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cold-Ravnkilde, Signe Marie; Funder, Mikkel

    Research on water scarcity in the South has often focused on the impacts of limited water resources for the rural poor, prompted most recently by the climate change debate. Less attention has been drawn to the social and institutional processes surrounding the emergence of new collective water resources, and how this affects authority, access rights and social exclusion in local water governance. The paper addresses this issue through a study of local competition over access to new common-pool water resources in isolated rural areas of Zambia and Mali. In Mali, climate change has led to the sporadic emergence of new natural lakes and ponds in some locations. In Zambia, the development of boreholes has provided access to water resources that were not previously available to local communities. The paper explores how local actors and organizations have sought to assert control over and rights of access to the new water resources. It shows the ways in which this has furthered both conflict and cooperation between the involved actors, and how new rules of access and associated institutional domains have developed. At the same time, however, it also shows how the struggles over access and authority have tended to marginalize the poorest and other user groups from access to the new water resources, by seeking either to monopolize access rights or developing explicit and implicit mechanisms of exclusion. The paper concludes by discussing the implications for water policy and research in terms of the way we understand the development of new water resources in the current context of inequality, water scarcity and climate change.

  1. Future Services for District Heating Solutions in Residential Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannele Ahvenniemi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The underlying assumption of this study is that in order to retain the competitiveness while reaching for the EU targets regarding low-energy construction, district heating companies need to develop new business and service models. How district heating companies could broaden their perspective and switch to a more service-oriented way of thinking is a key interest of our research. The used methods in our study are house builder interviews and a questionnaire. With the help of these methods we discussed the potential interest in heating related services acquiring a comprehensive understanding of the customer needs. The results indicate the importance of certain criteria when choosing the heating system in households: easiness, comfort and affordability seem to dominate the house builders’ preferences. Also environmental awareness seems to be for many an important factor when making a decision about the heating of the house. Altogether, based on the results of this study, we suggest that the prospects of district heating could benefit from highlighting certain aspects and strengths in the future. District heating companies need to increase flexibility, readiness to adopt new services, to invest in new marketing strategies and improving the communication skills.

  2. Understanding organizational culture in district offices

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Chesterton Earle

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Interest in the purpose and function of district offices has grown extensively in research on educational change over the past decade. The emphasis on educational performance and under-performance has shifted from schools and school principals to district offices and district officials. The study outlines the nature of the organizational culture (OC) as found in two differently-performing (low and high performing) district offices. The case studies explored the reasons for s...

  3. Sharing Local Revenue: One District's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, David S.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of U.S. school districts are considered independent and have taxing authority; the remaining districts rely on revenue and budgetary approval from their local government. In the latter case, localities often use some form of negotiated process to determine the amount of revenue their school districts will receive. Typically, a…

  4. School District Leadership: Systems, Strategies, and Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovash, Lynne A.

    2009-01-01

    The researcher studied eight Minnesota school district leadership systems, strategies, and structures and the effect on student achievement. Quantitative research methods were used to collect data from the eight Minnesota school districts. The population included eight northwestern Minnesota public school districts identified for "Needing…

  5. The Relationship between Student Achievement, School District Economies of Scale, School District Size, and Student Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Randy

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between student achievement, school district economies of scale, school district size and student socioeconomic status were measured for 131 school districts in the state of Oregon. Data for school districts ranging in size from districts with around 300 students to districts with more than 40,000 students were collected for…

  6. Rural health centres, communities and malaria case detection in Zambia using mobile telephones: a means to detect potential reservoirs of infection in unstable transmission conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Kamanga Aniset; Moono Petros; Stresman Gillian; Mharakurwa Sungano; Shiff Clive

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Effective malaria control depends on timely acquisition of information on new cases, their location and their frequency so as to deploy supplies, plan interventions or focus attention on specific locations appropriately to intervene and prevent an upsurge in transmission. The process is known as active case detection, but because the information is time sensitive, it is difficult to carry out. In Zambia, the rural health services are operating effectively and for the most ...

  7. A Review of Ecological Factors Associated with the Epidemiology of Wildlife Trypanosomiasis in the Luangwa and Zambezi Valley Ecosystems of Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    King Shimumbo Nalubamba; Musso Munyeme; Andu, Hetron Mweemba Munang Amp X.; Victor Siamudaala

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosomiasis has been endemic in wildlife in Zambia for more than a century. The disease has been associated with neurological disorders in humans. Current conservation strategies by the Zambian government of turning all game reserves into state-protected National Parks (NPs) and game management areas (GMAs) have led to the expansion of the wildlife and tsetse population in the Luangwa and Zambezi valley ecosystem. This ecological niche lies in the common tsetse fly belt that harbors the h...

  8. Analysis of Anopheles arabiensis Blood Feeding Behavior in Southern Zambia during the Two Years after Introduction of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets

    OpenAIRE

    FORNADEL, CHRISTEN M.; Norris, Laura C; GLASS, GREGORY E.; Norris, Douglas E

    2010-01-01

    Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes are the primary vector responsible for Plasmodium falciparum transmission in Macha, Zambia. Because insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) have the potential to alter host feeding behavior, the extent of the zoophilic and exophagic tendencies of the vector was evaluated during the two rainy seasons after ITN introduction. Centers for Disease Control light traps, paired indoor/outdoor human landing catches, and outdoor cattle-baited collections were used to assess ...

  9. Pesticide residues in adipose tissue from hippopotami (Hippopotamus amphibius L living in and adjacent to the Luangwa River Zambia : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Musonda

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of organochlorines (OCs such as organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls were measured in adipose tissue collected from 14 male hippopotami at Mfuwe in the southern part of the Luangwa National Park, Zambia. The samples contained low levels of OCs, and the concentrations of OCs were comparable to or lower than reported for wild herbivores studied in other parts of the world.

  10. Lion Hunting and Trophy Quality Records in Zambia for the Period 1967-2000: Will the Trends in Trophy Size Drop as Lion Population Declines?

    OpenAIRE

    Chansa Chomba; Ramadhani Senzota; Harry Chabwela; Vincent Nyirenda

    2014-01-01

    Data on lion skull measurements taken were collected and analyzed to determine trends in trophy size as an indicator of population size, and area of origin among the concessioned hunting areas in Zambia for the period 1967-2000. A comparison of trophy quality was also made with Tanzania and Zimbabwe which were the other two key sources of lion trophies in Africa. It was assumed that a comprehensive analysis of lion trophy sizes obtained from trophy hunting would be used...

  11. Competition with Charters Motivates Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Marc J.; Lueken, Martin F.; Egalite, Anna J.

    2013-01-01

    Proponents of market-based education reform often argue that introducing charter schools and other school choice policies creates a competitive dynamic that will prompt low-performing districts to improve their practice. Rather than simply providing an alternative to neighborhood public schools for a handful of students, the theory says, school…

  12. Topotaxial reactions during the genesis of oriented rutile/hematite intergrowths from Mwinilunga (Zambia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re?nik, Aleksander; Stankovi?, Nadežda; Daneu, Nina

    2015-02-01

    Oriented rutile/hematite intergrowths from Mwinilunga in Zambia were investigated by electron microscopy methods in order to resolve the complex sequence of topotaxial reactions. The specimens are composed of up to several-centimeter-large euhedral hematite crystals covered by epitaxially grown reticulated rutile networks. Following a top-down analytical approach, the samples were studied from their macroscopic crystallographic features down to subnanometer-scale analysis of phase compositions and occurring interfaces. Already, a simple morphological analysis indicates that rutile and hematite are met near the orientation relationship. However, a more detailed structural analysis of rutile/hematite interfaces using electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has shown that the actual relationship between the rutile and hosting hematite is in fact . The intergrowth is dictated by the formation of equilibrium interfaces leading to 12 possible directions of rutile exsolution within a hematite matrix and 144 different incidences between the intergrown rutile crystals. Analyzing the potential rutile-rutile interfaces, these could be classified into four classes: (1) non-crystallographic contacts at 60° and 120°, (2) {101} twins with incidence angles of 114.44° and their complementaries at 65.56°, (3) {301} twins at 54.44° with complementaries at 125.56° and (4) low-angle tilt boundaries at 174.44° and 5.56°. Except for non-crystallographic contacts, all other rutile-rutile interfaces were confirmed in Mwinilunga samples. Using a HRTEM and high-angle annular dark-field scanning TEM methods combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, we identified remnants of ilmenite lamellae in the vicinity of rutile exsolutions, which were an important indication of the high-T formation of the primary ferrian-ilmenite crystals. Another type of exsolution process was observed in rutile crystals, where hematite precipitates topotaxially exsolved from Fe-rich parts of rutile through intermediate Guinier-Preston zones, characterized by tripling the {101} rutile reflections. Unlike rutile exsolutions in hematite, hematite exsolutions in rutile form equilibrium interfaces. The overall composition of our samples indicates that the ratio between ilmenite and hematite in parent ferrian-ilmenite crystals was close to Ilm67Hem33, typical for Fe-Ti-rich differentiates of mafic magma. The presence of ilmenite lamellae indicates that the primary solid solution passed the miscibility gap at 900 °C. Subsequent exsolution processes were triggered by surface oxidation of ferrous iron and remobilization of cations within the common oxygen sublattice. Based on nanostructural analysis of the samples, we identified three successive exsolution processes: (1) exsolution of ilmenite lamellae from the primary ferrian-ilmenite crystals, (2) exsolution of rutile lamellae from ilmenite and (3) exsolution of hematite precipitates from Fe-rich rutile lamellae. All observed topotaxial reactions appear to be a combined function of temperature and oxygen fugacity, fO2.

  13. Geothermal district piping - A primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K.

    1989-11-01

    Transmission and distribution piping constitutes approximately 40 -60% of the capital costs of typical geothermal district heating systems. Selections of economical piping suitable for the fluid chemistry is critical. Presently, most piping (56%) in geothermal systems is of asbestos cement construction. Some fiberglass (19%) and steel (19%) is also in use. Identification of an economical material to replace asbestos cement is important to future project development. By providing information on relative costs, purchase considerations, existing material performance and new products, this report seeks to provide a background of information to the potential pipe purchaser. A brief discussion of the use of uninsulated piping in geothermal district heating systems is also provided. 5 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  14. District heating from nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermal reactor district heating system, the Safe Environmentally Clean Urban Reactor (Secure), is described. The design of the core, cooling system and waste treatment are discussed and the operation of the system considered. The system, designed to produce 200 MW heating for a city of between 50,000 and 100,000 inhabitants, is compared to the similar French Thermos project. (U.K.)

  15. Gains in awareness, ownership and use of insecticide-treated nets in Nigeria, Senegal, Uganda and Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin M Celeste

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In April 2000, the Roll Back Malaria (RBM "Abuja Summit" set a target of having at least 60% of pregnant women and children under five use insecticide-treated nets (ITNs. Thereafter, programmes were implemented to create demand, reduce taxes and tariffs, spur the commercial market, and reach vulnerable populations with subsidized ITNs. Using national ITN monitoring data from the USAID-sponsored AED/NetMark project, this article examines the extent to which these activities were successful in increasing awareness, ownership, and use of nets and ITNs. Methods A series of surveys with standardized sampling and measurement methods was used to compare four countries at two points in time. Surveys were conducted in 2000 and again in 2004 (Nigeria, Senegal, Zambia or 2006 (Uganda. They contained questions permitting classification of each net as untreated, ever-treated or currently-treated (an ITN. Household members as well as nets owned were enumerated so that households, household members, and nets could be used as units of analysis. Several measures of net/ITN ownership, plus RBM ITN use indicators, were calculated. The results show the impact of ITN activities before the launch of massive free net distribution programmes. Results In 2000, treated nets were just being introduced to the public, but four to six years later the awareness of ITNs was nearly universal in all countries but Nigeria, where awareness increased from 7% to 60%. By any measure, there were large increases in ownership of nets, especially treated nets, in all countries. All countries but Nigeria made commensurate gains in the proportion of under-fives sleeping under a net/ITN, and in all countries the proportion of pregnant women sleeping under a net/ITN increased greatly. Conclusion A mix of demand creation, a strengthened commercial sector, reduced taxes and tariffs, and programmes making ITNs available at reduced prices resulted in impressive gains in awareness, ownership, and use of nets and ITNs in Nigeria, Senegal, Zambia, and Uganda between 2000 and 2004–2006. None of the countries reached the ambitious Abuja targets for ITN use, but they made substantial progress towards them.

  16. Identifying malaria vector breeding habitats with remote sensing data and terrain-based landscape indices in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiff Clive

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria, caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in southern Zambia. In the Mapanza Chiefdom, where transmission is seasonal, Anopheles arabiensis is the dominant malaria vector. The ability to predict larval habitats can help focus control measures. Methods A survey was conducted in March-April 2007, at the end of the rainy season, to identify and map locations of water pooling and the occurrence anopheline larval habitats; this was repeated in October 2007 at the end of the dry season and in March-April 2008 during the next rainy season. Logistic regression and generalized linear mixed modeling were applied to assess the predictive value of terrain-based landscape indices along with LandSat imagery to identify aquatic habitats and, especially, those with anopheline mosquito larvae. Results Approximately two hundred aquatic habitat sites were identified with 69 percent positive for anopheline mosquitoes. Nine species of anopheline mosquitoes were identified, of which, 19% were An. arabiensis. Terrain-based landscape indices combined with LandSat predicted sites with water, sites with anopheline mosquitoes and sites specifically with An. arabiensis. These models were especially successful at ruling out potential locations, but had limited ability in predicting which anopheline species inhabited aquatic sites. Terrain indices derived from 90 meter Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital elevation data (DEM were better at predicting water drainage patterns and characterizing the landscape than those derived from 30 m Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER DEM. Conclusions The low number of aquatic habitats available and the ability to locate the limited number of aquatic habitat locations for surveillance, especially those containing anopheline larvae, suggest that larval control maybe a cost-effective control measure in the fight against malaria in Zambia and other regions with seasonal transmission. This work shows that, in areas of seasonal malaria transmission, incorporating terrain-based landscape models to the planning stages of vector control allows for the exclusion of significant portions of landscape that would be unsuitable for water to accumulate and for mosquito larvae occupation. With increasing free availability of satellite imagery such as SRTM and LandSat, the development of satellite imagery-based prediction models is becoming more accessible to vector management coordinators.

  17. Changing individual-level risk factors for malaria with declining transmission in southern Zambia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutcliffe Catherine G

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria elimination will require that both symptomatic- and asymptomatic-infected persons be identified and treated. However, well-characterized, individual-level risk factors for malaria may not be valid in regions with declining malaria transmission. Changes in individual-level correlates of malaria infection were evaluated over three years in a region of declining malaria transmission in southern Zambia. Methods Malaria surveys were conducted in two study areas within the catchment area of Macha Hospital, Zambia in 2007 and 2008/2009. A random sample of households was identified from a digitized satellite image of the study areas. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted approximately five times throughout the year in each of the two study areas. During study visits, adults and caretakers of children were administered questionnaires and a blood sample was obtained for a rapid diagnostic test (RDT for malaria. Results In the 2007 study area, 330 individuals were surveyed. 40.9% of participants lived in a household with at least one insecticide-treated bed net (ITN; however, only 45.2% reported sleeping under the ITN. 23.9% of participants were RDT positive. Correlates of RDT positivity included younger age, the presence of symptoms, testing during the rainy season, using an open water source, and not sleeping under an ITN. In the 2008 study area, 435 individuals were surveyed. 77.0% of participants lived in a household with at least one ITN; however, only 56.4% reported sleeping under the ITN. 8.1% of participants were RDT positive. RDT positivity was negatively correlated with the presence of symptoms within the last two weeks but positively correlated with documented fever. In 2009, 716 individuals were surveyed in the same area as 2008. 63.7% of participants lived in a household with at least one ITN; however, only 57.7% reported sleeping under the ITN. 1.5% of participants were RDT positive. Only self-reported fever was significantly correlated with RDT positivity. Conclusions With declining malaria prevalence, few individual-level characteristics were correlated with RDT positivity. This lack of correlation with individual characteristics hampers identification of individuals infected with malaria. Strategies based on ecological or environmental risk factors may be needed to target control efforts and achieve further reductions and elimination.

  18. Chemical composition and crystal structure refinement of schorl from the Lundazi pegmatite field, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondruš P

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Present work characterizes tourmaline from one of the major pegmatite fields in Zambia - the Lundazi pegmatite belt.
    Microprobe analysis gave (wt%: SiO2 34.65, TiO2 0.85, Al2O3 29.80, Fe2O3 4.94, FeO 9.47, MnO 0.29, MgO 4.06, Li2O < 0.01, CaO 0.59, Na2O 2.38, K2O 0.08, F 0.32, H2O+ 3.24, B2O3 10.32, O=F -0.14, totalling 100.45. The empirical formula, calculated on the basis of 31 (O, OH, F per formula unit gives: (Na0.78Ca0.11K0.02 ?0.09?1.00 (Fe2+1.33Fe3+0.63Mg0.61Ti0.11Mn0.04 ?0.12?3.00 (Al5.59Mg2+0.41?6.00 [(Si5.84Al0.16?6.00O18.00](BO33.00(OH3.00[(OH0.64O019F0.17]?1.00 resulting in simplified formula: Na(Fe2+, Fe3+, Mg3(Al,Mg6(Si6O18(BO33.00(OH3.00 (OH, O, F. Analysis of Mossbauer spectra confirms both Fe2+ and Fe3+ in the Y site; Fe3+/Fe2+ is 0.47. The water was determinate using Karl Fischer titration, B2O3 was calculated to stoichiometry. Refined crystal structure data (atomic coordinates, inter-atomic distances and angles are in agreement with data for schorl. Mean polyhedron distances are (Å: X-O 2.646, Y-O 2.078, Z-O 1.939, Si-O 1.644, B1-O 1.382. The refined unit-cell parameters are: a = 15.9856 (2, c = 7.1892 (1 Å, V = 1591.00(4 Å3, space group is R3 m, Z=3. Dm = 3.18(1 g/cm3, Dx = 3.195(2 g/cm3. Streak is light grey, lustre is glassy. Pleochroism in powder mounts: ? = light brownish red, ? = dark bluish grey (thin fragments, ? = strong brownish red, ? = opaque (thick fragments. The studied sample belongs to hydroxy-tourmaline subgroup with 19 atomic % of oxy subgroup (Fe3+/Fe2+ = 0.47 in the Y site and ratio O/(OH- = 0.30 in the W site.

  19. 77 FR 21556 - Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project: Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ...Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2299-075] Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project: Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Supplement to Notice of Study Dispute Resolution Technical Conference On March 16,...

  20. A good year for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Norway, high prices on electric power have caused economic progress for the district heating companies. The price of district heating is determined by the prices of power and fuel oil. However, the government wants to remove the tax on electricity to the industry, which is the district heating companies' major group of customers, along with public buildings. This is likely to entail a great loss of income

  1. Sustainable Land Use Evaluation in Wanzhou District

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Wang; Changquan Wang; Bing Li; Wanqiu Wang

    2011-01-01

    The use of Wanzhou District Chongqing City Yearbook in 2001-2008 and other relevant information, based on the present strategic situation of Wanzhou District Chongqing city, the paper constructs the evaluation index system for land sustainable utilization and sets up the comprehensive evaluation model using linear weighting technology to evaluate the land sustainable utilization state during 2001--2008 of Wanzhou District Chongqing city. The result showed that the total level of land sustaina...

  2. Embedded Agents for District Heating Management

    OpenAIRE

    Davidsson, Paul; Wernstedt, Fredrik

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the applicability of multi-agent systems as a control approach for district heating systems. The consumers, i.e., the heat exchange systems, in current district heating systems are purely reactive devices without communication capabilities. In this work, the possibilities of a new type of heat exchanger system that has an open software environment and communication capabilities are explored. Operators of district heating systems have several, often confl...

  3. District heating systems in hard competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents a review of various contributions presented at a conference of the Swiss association of district heating systems professionals. District heating systems are discussed that form the backbones of systems that distribute heat generated using renewable energy resources such as refuse incineration, waste heat and geothermal energy as well as from thermal power stations and combined heat and power units. Marketing topics, climate protection and, in particular, the proposed carbon dioxide levy are dealt with in the contributions. Details of the CO2 legislation are discussed and various details that concern district heating are examined. As an example, the successful district heating system in Riehen, Switzerland, is described

  4. Modelling of the District Heating System's Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigants, Girts; Blumberga, Dagnija; V?gants, ?irts; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2011-01-01

    The development of a district heating systems calculation model means improvement in the energy efficiency of a district heating system, which makes it possible to reduce the heat losses, thus positively affecting the tariffs on thermal energy. In this paper, a universal approach is considered, based on which the optimal flow and temperature conditions in a district heating system network could be calculated. The optimality is determined by the least operational costs. The developed calculation model has been tested on the Ludza district heating system based on the technical parameters of this system.

  5. One Approach to Increasing Revenues for Your School District. (A Small School District's Successful Struggle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Richard J.

    In 1983, Channahon School District 17 in Illinois was $1.3 million in debt. Real estate taxes constituted the school district's chief source of revenue, but because the state's oil industry kept its assessed valuations below the actual value of its property through the use of experts and lawyers, the school district was denied much of its income.…

  6. From Districts to Schools: The Distribution of Resources across Schools in Big City School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Ross; Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Stiefel, Leanna; Amor, Hella Bel Hadj

    2007-01-01

    While the distribution of resources across school districts is well studied, relatively little attention has been paid to how resources are allocated to individual schools inside those districts. This paper explores the determinants of resource allocation across schools in large districts based on factors that reflect differential school costs or…

  7. Urban and Rural Ozone Pollution Over Lusaka (Zambia, 15.5S, 25E) During SAFARI-2000 (September 2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Herman, J. R.; Witte, J. C.; Phahlane, A.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Mukula, C.; Hudson, R. D.; Frolov, A. D.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In early September, throughout south central Africa, seasonal clearing of dry vegetation and the production of charcoal for cooking leads to intense smoke haze and ozone formation. Ozone soundings made over Lusaka during a six-day period in early September 2000 recorded layers of high ozone (greater than 125 ppbv at 5 km) during two stagnant periods, interspersed by a frontal passage that reduced boundary layer ozone by 30 percent. Smoke aerosol column variations aloft and total ozone were monitored by a sun photometer. During the 6-day measurement period, surface ozone concentrations ranged from 50-95 ppbv and integrated tropospheric ozone from the soundings was 39- 54 Dobson Units (note 1.3 km elevation at the launch site). High ozone concentrations above the mixed and inversion layers were advected from rural burning regions in western Zambia where SAFARI aircraft and ground-based instruments observed intense biomass fires and elevated aerosol and trace gas amounts. TOMS tropospheric ozone and smoke aerosols products show the distribution of biomass burning and associated pollution throughout southern Africa in September 2000. Animations of satellite images and trajectories confirm pollutant recirculation over south central African fires, exit of ozone from Mozambique and Tanzania to the Indian Ocean and the characteristic buildup of tropospheric ozone over the Atlantic from western African outflow.

  8. Urban and Rural Ozone Collect over Lusaka (Zambia, 15.5 S, 28 E) during SAFARI-2000 (September 2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Freiman, M. Tai; Phalane, N. Agnes; Coetzee, Gert J. R.

    2002-01-01

    In early September, throughout south central Africa, seasonal clearing of dry vegetation and the production of charcoal for cooking leads to intense smoke haze and ozone formation. Ozone soundings made over Lusaka in early September 2000 recorded layers of high ozone (greater than 125 ppbv at 5 km) during two stagnant periods, broken by a frontal passage that reduced boundary layer ozone by 30%. During the 6-day measurement period, surface ozone concentrations ranged from 50-95 ppbv and integrated tropospheric ozone from the soundings was 39-54 Dobson Units (note 1.3 km elevation at the launch site). A stable layer of high ozone at 2-5 km was advected from rural burning regions in western Zambia and neighboring countries, making Lusaka a collection point for transboundary pollution. This is confirmed by trajectories that show ozone leaving Angola, Namibia, Botswana and South Africa before heading toward the Indian Ocean and returning to Lusaka via Mozambique and Zimbabwe. Ozone in the mixed layer at Lusaka is heavily influenced by local sources.

  9. Sedimentology of the Madumabisa Mudstone Formation (Late Permian), Lower Karoo Group, mid-Zambezi Valley Basin, southern Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyambe, Imasiku A.; Dixon, Owen

    2000-04-01

    Sediments of the Upper Carboniferous to Lower Jurassic Karoo Supergroup (˜ 4.5 km thick) were deposited in the mid-Zambezi Valley Basin, southern Zambia. The Upper Palæozoic Lower Karoo Group in this area ends with a Late Permian sedimentary unit called the Madumabisa Mudstone Formation. The formation is 700 m thick and comprises four lithofacies grouped into two facies assemblages, collectively interpreted as lacustrine deposits. Sediments of a massive mudrock facies assemblage were deposited from suspension, probably from sediment-laden rivers entering a lake. Concretionary calcilutite beds probably mark the positions of palæosediment-water interfaces where calcite was precipitated. A laminated mudrock facies assemblage is attributed to lacustrine deposition from inflowing rivers at the lake margins and shallow parts of the lake. Repeated thickening-upward cycles are evidence of upward shallowing, interrupted by events of more abrupt deepening. Sandstone interbeds are interpreted as fluvial deposits laid down during low lake stands, with cross-lamination and asymmetrical ripples indicating current rather than wave deposition. A fossil assemblage of ostracods, bivalves, gastropods, fish scales, the alga Botryococcus sp. and fossil burrows is consistent with a lacustrine origin for the formation.

  10. The effect of sunlight on the survival of salmonella species from the poultry production chain environment in Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the effect of simulated sunlight on the survival of Salmonella isolates on surfaces under both clean and dirty conditions. Isolates from Zambia were compared to a strain of S. Enteritidis with known characteristics, which was isolated from poultry in the UK. Cells were suspended in 20 ?l droplets on stainless steel surfaces and placed in an incubator maintained at 25 deg. C and a relative humidity of between 50 and 70%. Survival after a period of 12 h light and 12 h dark or 24 h dark was measured. Differences were analysed for significance using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results show there were a significantly higher number of cells surviving on surfaces after 24 h in the dark when compared to that of populations exposed to a 12 h light/ 12 h dark cycle. Significantly more cells also survived exposure to sunlight under dirty than clean conditions. Under field conditions exposure of contaminated surfaces to sunlight could be used in place of chemical methods of control as a cheaper way to reduce Salmonella contamination of surfaces

  11. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and R. zambeziensis (Acari: Ixodidae) from Zambia: a molecular reassessment of their species status and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtambo, J; Madder, M; Van Bortel, W; Berkvens, D; Backeljau, T

    2007-01-01

    The closely related species Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and R. zambeziensis co-occur in a wide area in Zambia. In this area, specimens of both species have been collected on the same individual host at the same time. In addition, specimens that are morphologically intermediate between R. appendiculatus and R. zambeziensis have been found in this area. These observations cast some doubt on the species status of R. appendiculatus and R. zambeziensis. Because the two taxa have varied influences on the epidemiology of East Coast fever (ECF), a cattle disease for which they act as vectors, it is essential that their taxonomic status is clarified and their identification is accurate. Therefore a phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences of the ITS2 and a fragment of the mitochondrial 12S rDNA was performed to reassess the specific status of both taxa. This revealed two well supported clades coinciding with R. appendiculatus and R. zambeziensis as two separate species. In order to facilitate species identification a PCR-RFLP diagnostic assay was developed based on BauI digestion of the ITS2 gene. This assay produced clear diagnostic banding patterns for the two species and is applicable over a wide range of both species' distribution. PMID:17288005

  12. Comparison of Male and Female Differences in Emotional Intelligence Among Trained Univerisities Athletes of Lusaka Province, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathivanan D & Clement chileshe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available (Palmer and Stough 2001 defined as Emotional intelligence as ‘the capacity to deal effectively with one’s own and others’ emotions ’Previous empirical studies in this area have indicated that the construct of emotional intelligence provides an athlete with an understanding of their specific emotional competencies, and therefore a better understanding and awareness of how to use emotions in sport. The comparison of the study is to attempt and examine the differences between female and male athletes of Lusaka Province with respect to their emotional intelligence in the selected variables such as Self-awareness, Self-regulation, Motivation, Empathy, Social skills.It was assumed that female athletes would have high emotional intelligence as compared to the male athletes. “Emotional Intelligence Test” developed by Dr. N. K. Chadha (1998 was applied on all of the participants of the study (i.e. 30 female and 40 male athletes.Were selected random for this study Statistical analysis by computation of “t-test” revealed a significant difference in the emotional intelligence of female and male athletes of Lusaka Province. The results confirmed the hypothesis differences in relation to emotional intelligence, findings of the current study indicate that females are more emotionally intelligent than male athletes. The higher level of emotional intelligence of female than male in Lusaka Province are explained in terms of traditional trends, pattern of society and social roles assigned to male and female with respect to African culture in Zambia.

  13. Strategies for seed system development in sub-Saharan Africa: a study of Kenya, Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Tripp

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed systems in Kenya, Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe were studied jointly by ODI, ICRISAT, and national researchers. The study examined various aspects - the nature of seed demand, particularly for new varieties; local-level seed provision and farmer-to-farmer diffusion; the commercial seed sector; community level projects; emergency seed distribution programs; seed policy and regulatory framework; and the role of public-sector research. The study also provides specific recommendations to develop the seed sector. For example, public research programs must invest more heavily in variety promotion and production of breeder and foundation seed. Seed certification should be made voluntary, and variety registration simplified. Emergency seed programs should pay greater attention to variety adaptation and seed quality; and should support local seed enterprises, not compete with them. Seed companies should strengthen their retail networks. NGO seed projects should consider marketing and sustainability issues more carefully. Donor-funded projects, which currently operate in isolation from each other, must be integrated into a coherent, long-term, nationally-directed seed strategy.

  14. 13 CFR 304.3 - District modification and termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false District modification and termination. 304.3 Section 304.3 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DISTRICTS § 304.3 District modification and termination....

  15. Hastings Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1977

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Hastings Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments for the 1977 calendar year. The report begins by giving District...

  16. Rehabilitation of district heating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosson, Peter [AaF-Energikonsult Syd AB (Sweden)

    1996-11-01

    Often the choice is between reparation or exchange of a damaged section of the network. If the exchange is based on the wrong assumptions, large sections of undamaged pipelines could be removed. Most important for the district heating company is to decide which strategy to use for the future exchange of the pipelines. Whichever strategy used, it has to based on an assessment of the network and/or assumptions based on that assessment. The question if it is possible extend the life span of the pipelines arises. What is the most economical choice, the exchange or the renovation. (au)

  17. The dearth of the rights of HIV-positive employees in Zambia: A case comment on Stanley Kangaipe and Another v Attorney-General

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mumba, Malila.

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen increased human rights litigation in Southern Africa in the areas of HIV and AIDS. Unfortunately, there has been virtually no litigation around the many human rights issues involving HIV and AIDS in Zambia. This has resulted in a virtual absence of relevant domestic jurisprude [...] nce around issues involving human rights and HIV and AIDS. The contribution comments on the first-ever successfully-litigated case in this area in Zambia. The case of Kangaipe v Attorney-General necessitates commentary because for the first time a Zambian court added its voice to the chorus of recent obiter dicta from several jurisdictions in the African region which declared that HIV testing without consent is a violation of human rights as set out in international human rights treaties and other normative instruments. The article argues that the Kangaipe case has contributed to the expanding frontiers of human rights litigation in Zambia, particularly as far as HIV and AIDS are concerned, and that it was the perfect opportunity for the Zambian courts to develop and refine problems related to the applicability of local and foreign authorities. Regrettably, the court failed to exploit fully these opportunities. The article shows that, while some aspects of the approach by the court in Kangaipe are encouraging in principle, on balance the protection of the rights of people living with HIV and AIDS in an employment setting remains contingent on an innovative and activist approach by a trial court. Obstacles faced by practitioners in such cases remain considerable.

  18. Can combination prevention strategies reduce HIV transmission in generalized epidemic settings in Africa? The HPTN 071 (PopART) study plan in South Africa and Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    STEN H. VERMUND; Fidler, Sarah J.; Ayles, Helen; Beyers, Nulda; Hayes, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    The HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) is conducting the HPTN 071(PopART) study in 21 communities in Zambia and South Africa with support from a consortium of funders. HPTN 071(PopART) is a community-randomized trial of a combination prevention strategy to reduce HIV incidence in the context of the generalized epidemic of southern Africa. The full PopART intervention strategy is anchored in home-based HIV testing and facilitated linkage of HIV-infected persons to care through community heal...

  19. Health Inequities, Environmental Insecurity and the Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case Study of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Chirwa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs are a series of 8 goals and 18 targets aimed at ending extreme poverty by 2015, and there are 48 quantifiable indicators for monitoring the process. Most of the MDGs are health or health-related goals. Though the MDGs might sound ambitious, it is imperative that the world, and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, wake up to the persistent and unacceptably high rates of extreme poverty that populations live in, and find lasting solutions to age-old problems. Extreme poverty is a cause and consequence of low income, food insecurity and hunger, education and gender inequities, high disease burden, environmental degradation, insecure shelter, and lack of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. It is also directly linked to unsound governance and inequitable distribution of public wealth. While many regions in the world will strive to attain the MDGs by 2015, most of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa, with major human development challenges associated with socio-economic disparities, will not. Zambia’s MDG progress reports of 2003 and 2005 show that despite laudable political commitment and some advances made towards achieving universal primary education, gender equality, improvement of child health and management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, it is not likely that Zambia will achieve even half of the goals. Zambia’s systems have been weakened by high disease burden and excess mortality, natural and man-made environmental threats and some negative effects of globalization such as huge external debt, low world prices for commodities and the human resource “brain drain”, among others. Urgent action must follow political will, and some tried and tested strategies or “quick wins” that have been proven to produce high positive impact in the short term, need to be rapidly embarked upon by Zambia and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa if they are to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

  20. District Awards for Teacher Excellence: Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Since 2008 Texas's District Awards for Teacher Excellence (D.A.T.E.) program has provided grants to districts for the implementation of locally designed incentive pay plans. The 2010-11 school year is the third year of the D.A.T.E. incentive pay plans with approximately $197 million in annual state funding. This research brief summarizes the key…

  1. Grantmaking to School Districts: Lessons for Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Julia; Weiss, Heather; Harris, Erin; Little, Priscilla M. D.

    2010-01-01

    This brief offers lessons and best practices from foundations across the country on grantmaking to school districts. It offers advice to foundations that are considering school district investments for the first time. It also offers a useful "check" to more experienced foundations that want to examine their thinking and approaches against the…

  2. School Districts Try a New Tack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, James A., Jr., Battaglia, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Politicians are increasingly pressuring school districts to improve instruction while holding down costs. To achieve this aim, western New York school districts are experimenting with mutual gains bargaining, an alternative negotiation process based on Roger Fisher and William Ury's 1991 book "Getting to Yes." Instead of bargaining from stated set…

  3. Superintendent Leadership: Focusing on District Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tanya A.; Adams, Jeffery S.; Smith, Dwayne E.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a problem-based learning project focusing on superintendent leadership and stakeholder influence of school district culture. Current research findings suggest the importance of superintendent leadership in assessing, influencing, and enhancing school district culture. Multiple scholars wrote literature in the area of…

  4. School Dropouts in Rural Colorado School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombari, Martin; Andrews, Alex; Gallinati, Tina

    2009-01-01

    Dropouts from rural school districts have not received the same scrutiny as given to those from urban ones. The reasons behind this lack of knowledge about the experience of rural school districts with dropouts are unclear. The purpose of the present study was to begin to close this knowledge gap. A first major study of rural dropouts in the…

  5. Rural Districts Bolster Choices with Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Don

    2012-01-01

    All schools can benefit from giving students the option of online learning, but for many rural schools, online learning is a lifeline. In the past two years, Lane Education Service District in Oregon, USA, has developed online resources for 14 Lane County school districts, which vary in size from 170 students to as many as 17,000. Many of the…

  6. Louisiana State Senate Districts from LEGIS source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [la_senate_districts_LEGIS_2003

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Louisiana State Senate Districts. The district boundaries are the result of legislative acts and redistricting. Reapportionment (redistricting) occurs during the...

  7. Geochemistry, mineralogy and environmental impact of precipitated efflorescent salts at the Kabwe Cu-Co chemical leaching plant in Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? Efflorescent salts of Cu and Co precipitate at Kabwe site in Zambia during long-term dry period. ? They comprise an assemblage of Cu and Co minerals, some of them are very exotic in nature. ? Evaporation experiment in laboratory gave more hydrated forms of minerals found in the field. ? During rainy period, efflorescent salts dissolve with resulting high metals and acid pulse. ? During on-going climatic change, environmental impact may become more serious. - Abstract: Precipitated efflorescent salts in Cu-Co chemical leaching plant wastes in Kabwe, Zambia, have been studied using XRF analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, and evaporation experiments combined with geochemical modeling. Field samples of efflorescent salts contained up to 14.32 wt% Cu and 1.42 wt% Co. In the field, the principal minerals in the salts were gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O), moorhouseite (Co0.6Ni0.3Mn0.12+(SO4).6H2O), bloedite (Na2Mg(SO4)2.4H2O), starkeyite (MgSO4.4H2O), chalcanthite (CuSO4.5H2O) and kroehnkite (Na2Cu(SO4)2.2H2O). In the evaporation experiment, gypsum precipitated in the first and second evaporation steps, chalcanthite and bieberite (CoSO4.7H2O), started to precipiub>2O), started to precipitate in Step 3, after evaporation of 60% of water, and maximum amounts of Cu and Co sulfate salts accumulated in Step 4 after precipitation of 80% of water. Epsomite (MgSO4.7H2O), and hexahydrite (MgSO4.6H2O), precipitated only after evaporation of 97.5% of water in Step 5. Presence of chalcanthite, bloedite, and kroehnkite in precipitates of Step 4 was also confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Magnesium and Na content in Cu and Co-sulfate phases gradually increased with evaporation progress, e.g. bieberite was replaced by Co-bloedite and chalcanthite was replaced by kroehnkite in later stages of evaporation. The precipitation order was consistent with results of geochemical modeling. The principal difference between field data and data obtained in the evaporation experiment was the presence of less hydrated sulfate phases in the field, which can be explained by different time scales available for evaporation and consecutive dehydration. Dissolution experiments using efflorescent salts collected in the field indicated fast dissolution with an instantaneous drop in pH to about 4.0 and a very fast increase of dissolved species concentrations. Such behavior may have a serious environmental impact at the beginning of the rainy period in November and December, when seepage through the impoundment dam was recorded. The wastes at the Kabwe site represent a long-term source of contamination, which may be especially significant as a consequence of on-going climatic change with increasing intensity of precipitation.

  8. Energy SMEs in sub-Saharan Africa: Outcomes, barriers and prospects in Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselip, James Arthur; Desgain, Denis DR

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the findings of research into the main outcomes of government and donor-backed efforts to promote small and medium-sized energy businesses (energy SMEs) in sub-Saharan Africa. The research follows an outcome analysis methodology. The focus is on four countries: Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia and primarily on UNEP’s AREED programme (2002-2012). This research focuses on the ‘contributing factors’ – a deliberately broader term that incorporates the internal ‘success factors’ – for energy SMEs, about which much has already been written. Indeed, the research findings presented in this report reaffirm most of what has been concluded in previous studies, including Kolominskas (2003); Mehlwana (2003); Denton (2006) and Napier-Moore (2006). These studies identified the lack of access to affordable finance as the being the predominant, persistent, barrier to establishing and scaling up a commercially viable energy SME sector, emphasising the lack of strong policy support from governments, poor business skills capacity and the high cost of many RETs as related cause-and-effect barriers. While these issues continue to characterise, to a greater or lesser extent, the energy SMEs sectors in the countries studied for this research, it is more relevant to revisit the main assumption behind AREED and other donor-backed programmes designed to promote energy SMEs. The assumption is that the solution to the aforementioned barriers would be overcome by a ‘demonstration effect’ whereby successful energy SMEs, supported by donor-backed programmes, influence the commercial financial sector to invest in energy SMEs, thus triggering a virtuous circle of growth and profitability. Experiences drawn from a decade of AREED support across four of the project countries reveal both the presence (Ghana, Senegal) and absence, or weak presence, of this demonstration effect (Tanzania, Zambia). This is a central question, and one which was not the focus of previous research, presumably because the answer was not fully apparent prior to 2006 when the last substantial work was conducted. Where there is an absence, or weak presence, of a demonstration effect a number of explanatory factors can be identified. These include, inter alia, the lack of an entrepreneurial culture; an SME ‘dependency syndrome’ perpetuated by grant-based support from governments and donor agencies; persistent shortcomings in business skills capacity; lack of clearly defined markets; demand-side barriers to purchase relatively high capital-intense energy products. Where numerous energy SMEs are in operation and thus where a valid demonstration effect can be identified, there is a perceived paradox that serves to undermine commercial interest in investing in energy SMEs. The paradox is that the donor-supported businesses that were issued with concessional and/or flexible loans serve to demonstrate that these businesses depend upon such concessional terms, i.e., that they could not survive in ‘the real world’. While this assumption is widely regarded as self-evident by private investors, there are in fact other, more concrete, factors that act to undermine the demonstration effect. These include, inter alia, relatively high transaction costs of investing in SMEs; the inherently complicated nature of energy sector SMEs with longer supply chains and slower pay-back periods for capital-intensive technologies such as solar PV; rigid rules regarding the need to secure collateral. These factors can be understood as structural issues that conspire to increase the financial risk of investing in energy SMEs and thus are not the product of ignorance on the behalf of the banking sector. In the countries studied for this research, these factors are compounded by the high opportunity costs for banks where higher rates of return can be secured from investing in high-turnover businesses, for example those trading in high-volume, perishable goods. There is also a more general challenge faced by a range of SME entrepreneurs where such individuals and busi

  9. Counselor and client perspectives of Trauma-focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for children in Zambia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Laura K; Skavenski, Stephanie; Michalopoulos, Lynn M; Bolton, Paul A; Bass, Judith K; Familiar, Itziar; Imasiku, Mwiya; Cohen, Judith

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Zambian counselors, children, and caregivers' perceptions of an evidence-based treatment (EBT) for trauma (Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy [TF-CBT]) utilized in Zambia to address mental health problems in children. Semistructured interviews were conducted with local counselors trained in TF-CBT (N = 19; 90% of those trained; 12 female) and children/caregivers who had received TF-CBT in a small feasibility study (N = 18; 86% of the children and N = 16; 76% of the caregivers) who completed TF-CBT (total completed; N = 21). Each client was asked six open-ended questions, and domain analysis was used to explore the data. Counselors were positive about the program, liked the structure and flexibility, reported positive changes in their clients, and discussed the cultural adaptation around activities and language. Counselors stated the training was too short, and the supervision was necessary. Challenges included client engagement and attendance, availability of location, funding, and a lack of community understanding of "therapy." Children and caregivers stated multiple positive changes they attributed to TF-CBT, such as better family communication, reduction of problem behaviors, and ability to speak about the trauma. They recommended continuing the program. This study brings a critical examination of providers' and clients' perspectives of the implementation of an EBT for children in a low-resource setting. Clinical implications include changing implementation methods based on responses. Research implications include future study directions such as an effectiveness trial of TF-CBT and an examination of implementation factors. PMID:24400677

  10. Safety of artemether-lumefantrine in pregnant women with malaria: results of a prospective cohort study in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manyando Christine

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safety data regarding exposure to artemisinin-based combination therapy in pregnancy are limited. This prospective cohort study conducted in Zambia evaluated the safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL in pregnant women with malaria. Methods Pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were assigned to groups based on the drug used to treat their most recent malaria episode (AL vs. sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, SP. Safety was assessed using standard and pregnancy-specific parameters. Post-delivery follow-up was six weeks for mothers and 12 months for live births. Primary outcome was perinatal mortality (stillbirth or neonatal death within seven days after birth. Results Data from 1,001 pregnant women (AL n = 495; SP n = 506 and 933 newborns (AL n = 466; SP n = 467 showed: perinatal mortality (AL 4.2%; SP 5.0%, comprised of early neonatal mortality (each group 2.3%, stillbirths (AL 1.9%; SP 2.7%; preterm deliveries (AL 14.1%; SP 17.4% of foetuses; and gestational age-adjusted low birth weight (AL 9.0%; SP 7.7%. Infant birth defect incidence was 1.8% AL and 1.6% SP, excluding umbilical hernia. Abortions prior to antenatal care could not be determined: abortion occurred in 4.5% of women treated with AL during their first trimester; none were reported in the 133 women exposed to SP and/or quinine during their first trimester. Overall development (including neurological assessment was similar in both groups. Conclusions These data suggest that exposure to AL in pregnancy, including first trimester, is not associated with particular safety risks in terms of perinatal mortality, malformations, or developmental impairment. However, more data are required on AL use during the first trimester.

  11. Diarrhea is a Major killer of Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition Admitted to Inpatient Set-up in Lusaka, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwambazi Mwate

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mortality of children with Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM in inpatient set-ups in sub-Saharan Africa still remains unacceptably high. We investigated the prevalence and effect of diarrhea and HIV infection on inpatient treatment outcome of children with complicated SAM receiving treatment in inpatient units. Method A cohort of 430 children aged 6-59 months old with complicated SAM admitted to Zambia University Teaching Hospital's stabilization centre from August to December 2009 were followed. Data on nutritional status, socio-demographic factors, and admission medical conditions were collected up on enrollment. T-test and chi-square tests were used to compare difference in mean or percentage values. Logistic regression was used to assess risk of mortality by admission characteristics. Results Majority, 55.3% (238/430 were boys. The median age of the cohort was 17 months (inter-quartile range, IQR 12-22. Among the children, 68.9% (295/428 had edema at admission. The majority of the children, 67.3% (261/388, presented with diarrhea; 38.9% (162/420 tested HIV positive; and 40.5% (174/430 of the children died. The median Length of stay of the cohort was 9 days (IQR, 5-14 days; 30.6% (53/173 of the death occurred within 48 hours of admission. Children with diarrhea on admission had two and half times higher odds of mortality than those without diarrhea; Adjusted OR = 2.5 (95% CI 1.50-4.09, P Conclusion Diarrhea is a major cause of complication in children with severe acute malnutrition. Under the current standard management approach, diarrhea in children with SAM was found to increase their odds of death substantially irrespective of other factors.

  12. Associations of advertisement-promotion-sponsorship-related factors with current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulu Richard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Tobacco use is the leading cause of noncommunicable disease morbidity and mortality. Most smokers initiate the smoking habit as adolescents or young adults. Methods : Survey data from the 2007 Lusaka (Zambia Global Youth Tobacco Survey were used to estimate the prevalence of current cigarette smoking and assess whether exposure to pro-tobacco media and perception of the potential harm of secondhand smoke are associated with adolescents? smoking. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the associations. Results : Altogether, 2378 students, of whom 56.8% were females, participated in the study. Overall, 10.5% of the students (9.3% among males and 12.1% among females smoked cigarettes in the 30 days prior to the survey. Students who favored banning smoking in public places were 33% (OR = 0.67; 95% CI [0.47, 0.96] less likely to smoke cigarettes compared to those who were not in favor of the ban. Seeing actors smoking in TV shows, videos or movies was positively associated with smoking (OR = 1.90; 95% CI [1.26, 2.88]. However, possessing an item with a cigarette brand logo on it, seeing advertisements of cigarettes on billboards and being ever offered a free cigarette by a cigarette sales representative were negatively associated with smoking (OR=0.39, 95% CI [0.26, 0.58]; OR=0.63, 95% CI [0.43, 0.92]; and OR=0.43, 95% CI [0.29, 0.65], respectively. Conclusion : Findings from this study indicate that TV advertisement-promotion-sponsorship was positively associated with smoking, while it was the opposite with other forms of advertisement; there is a need for further studies.

  13. Counselor and Participant Perspectives of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Children in Zambia: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Laura K.; Skavenski, Stephanie; Michalopoulos, Lynn M.; Bolton, Paul A.; Bass, Judith K.; Familiar, Itziar; Imasiku, Mwiya; Cohen, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study examined Zambian counselors, children, and caregivers' perceptions of an evidence-based treatment (EBT) for trauma (Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, TF-CBT) utilized in Zambia to address mental health problems in children. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local counselors trained in TF-CBT (N=19; 90% of those trained; 12 Female) and children/caregivers who had received TF-CBT in a small feasibility study (N=18; 86% of the children and N=16; 76% of the caregivers) who completed TF-CBT (Total completed; N=21). Each client was asked six open-ended questions, and domain analysis was used to explore the data. Results Counselors were positive about the program, liked the structure and flexibility, reported positive changes in their clients, and discussed the cultural adaptation around activities and language. Counselors stated the training was too short, and the supervision was necessary. Challenges included client engagement and attendance, availability of location, funding, and a lack of community understanding of “therapy.” Children and caregivers stated multiple positive changes they attributed to TF-CBT, such as better family communication, reduction of problem behaviors, and ability to speak about the trauma. They recommended continuing the program. Conclusion This study brings a critical examination of providers' and clients' perspectives of the implementation of an EBT for children in a low-resource setting. Clinical implications include changing implementation methods based on responses. Research implications include future study directions such as an effectiveness trial of TF-CBT and an examination of implementation factors. PMID:24400677

  14. Prevalence and source of trypanosome infections in field-captured vector flies (Glossina pallidipes) in southeastern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekata, Hirohisa; Konnai, Satoru; Simuunza, Martin; Chembensofu, Mwelwa; Kano, Rika; Witola, William H; Tembo, Mwase E; Chitambo, Harrison; Inoue, Noboru; Onuma, Misao; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2008-09-01

    The prevalence of trypanosome infections in tsetse flies, Glossina pallidipes, collected from Chiawa and Chakwenga in Zambia with endemic trypanosomosis was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Out of the 550 G. pallidipes, 58 (10.5%) flies were found to harbor trypanosome DNA. Infection rates of tsetse with Trypanosoma vivax universal, Trypanosoma congolense savannah, T. congolense forest and T. congolense kilifi were 4.2% (23/550), 4.7% (26/550), 1.1% (6/550) and 1.6% (9/550), respectively. To determine the mammalian hosts of T. congolense and T. vivax infections from the tsetse flies, mammalian mitochondrion DNA of blood meal in these flies were analyzed by PCR and subsequent gene sequence analysis of the amplicons. Sequence analysis showed the presence of cytochrome b gene (cyt b) of 7 different mammalian species such as human, elephant, buffalo, goat, warthog, greater kudu and cattle. Goats which were main livestock in these areas were further examined to know the extent of its contribution in spreading the infection. We examined the prevalence of trypanosome infections in the domestic goat population in 6 settlements in Chiawa alone. Of the 86 goats sampled, 4 (4.6%), 5 (5.8%), 4 (4.6%) and 4 (4.6%) were positive for T. vivax universal, T. congolense savannah, forest and kilifi, respectively. These findings showed that the host-source of trypanosome infections in vector fly give a vital information about spread of infection. The result of this study will certainly contribute in elucidating more the epidemiology of trypanosomosis. PMID:18840966

  15. Genetic diversity in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) accessions of Zambia as revealed by simple sequence repeats (SSR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng'uni, Dickson; Geleta, Mulatu; Bryngelsson, Tomas

    2011-04-01

    Twenty seven accessions of sorghum conserved in the national gene bank of Zambia, representing two of the three agroecological regions of the country, were investigated using simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers in order to determine the extent and distribution of its genetic diversity. We used 10 microsatellite primer-pairs, which generated 2-9 alleles per locus and a total of 44 alleles across the 27 accessions. The observed heterozygosity (Ho(P) ) among the accessions ranged from 0 to 0.19 with an average of 0.04 whereas the average expected heterozygosity (He(P) ) among accessions was 0.07 in line with the fact that sorghum is predominately inbreeder. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 82% of the total genetic variation was attributable to the genetic variation among accessions (F(ST) = 0.824; p < 0.001) whereas the genetic variation within accessions accounted for 18% of the total genetic variation. AMOVA on sorghum accessions grouped based on four ethnic groups (Soli, Chikunda, Lozi and Tonga) associated with collection sites revealed a highly significant variation among groups (23%; p < 0.001). Although cluster analysis grouped most accessions according to their sites of collection, some accessions that originated from the same site were placed under different clusters. In addition to the extent and pattern of genetic diversity, consideration should also be given to other factors such as ecogeographic and ethnic differences when sampling sorghum genetic resources for rational and efficient conservation and utilization in the breeding program. PMID:21561449

  16. Cost effectiveness of community-based therapeutic care for children with severe acute malnutrition in Zambia: decision tree model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachmann Max O

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children aged under five years with severe acute malnutrition (SAM in Africa and Asia have high mortality rates without effective treatment. Primary care-based treatment of SAM can have good outcomes but its cost effectiveness is largely unknown. Method This study estimated the cost effectiveness of community-based therapeutic care (CTC for children with severe acute malnutrition in government primary health care centres in Lusaka, Zambia, compared to no care. A decision tree model compared the costs (in year 2008 international dollars and outcomes of CTC to a hypothetical 'do-nothing' alternative. The primary outcomes were mortality within one year, and disability adjusted life years (DALYs after surviving one year. Outcomes and health service costs of CTC were obtained from the CTC programme, local health services and World Health Organization (WHO estimates of unit costs. Outcomes of doing nothing were estimated from published African cohort studies. Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were done. Results The mean cost of CTC per child was $203 (95% confidence interval (CI $139–$274, of which ready to use therapeutic food (RUTF cost 36%, health centre visits cost 13%, hospital admissions cost 17% and technical support while establishing the programme cost 34%. Expected death rates within one year of presentation were 9.2% with CTC and 20.8% with no treatment (risk difference 11.5% (95% CI 0.4–23.0%. CTC cost $1760 (95% CI $592–$10142 per life saved and $ 53 (95% CI $18–$306 per DALY gained. CTC was at least 80% likely to be cost effective if society was willing to pay at least $88 per DALY gained. Analyses were most sensitive to assumptions about mortality rates with no treatment, weeks of CTC per child and costs of purchasing RUTF. Conclusion CTC is relatively cost effective compared to other priority health care interventions in developing countries, for a wide range of assumptions.

  17. District heating in Italy: Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European Communities energy policies are taking effect as district heating through cogeneration with gas turbines is proving to be a cost effective option for energy conservation and air pollution abatement. This paper examines the progress that is being made in the key urban centers of northern Italy in the diffusion of this innovative space heating/power generation technique. In this regard, reference is made to the targeted objectives of the Italian National Energy Plan. Some indications are given as to the reductions in air pollution being achieved through the implementation of Government strategies aimed at using energy saving cogeneration systems and natural gas as a clean, efficient and relatively cheap energy alternative to fuel oil for space heating

  18. Performance analysis of hybrid district heating system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikulandric, Robert; Kraja?i?, Goran

    2013-01-01

    District heating system could contribute to more efficient heat generation through cogeneration power plants or waste heat utilization facilities and to increase of renewable energy sources share in total energy consumption. In the most developed EU countries, renewable energy sources have been more extensively used in district heating systems either separately or as a supplement to traditional fossil fuels in order to achieve national energy policy objectives. However, they are still facing problems such as high intermittences, high energy production costs and low load factors as well as problems related to transportation, storage and environmental impacts of biomass and waste utilisation. Implementation of heat storages in district heating systems could contribute to integration of intermittent energy sources. Hybridisation of heat production facility combines two or more different energy sources that can complement each other on daily and yearly basis and reduce negative aspects of particular energy source utilisation. In district heating systems, hybridisation could be performed through utilisation of renewable and non-renewable energy sources. Potential of fuel and emission reduction could reach up to 20% with utilisation of solar energy as supplement energy source in traditional fossil fuel based district heating systems. In this work, the performance of hybrid district energy system for a particular location will be analysed. For performance analysis, mathematical model that combines different energy sources for heat production will be used. The work has been carried out in scope of 4th Generation District Heating Technologies and Systems project.

  19. Molecular epidemiology of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in the straw-colored fruit bat (Eidolon helvum) migrating to Zambia from the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hirohito; Koizumi, Nobuo; Ohnuma, Aiko; Mutemwa, Alisheke; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Takada, Ayato; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Kida, Hiroshi; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2015-06-01

    The role played by bats as a potential source of transmission of Leptospira spp. to humans is poorly understood, despite various pathogenic Leptospira spp. being identified in these mammals. Here, we investigated the prevalence and diversity of pathogenic Leptospira spp. that infect the straw-colored fruit bat (Eidolon helvum). We captured this bat species, which is widely distributed in Africa, in Zambia during 2008-2013. We detected the flagellin B gene (flaB) from pathogenic Leptospira spp. in kidney samples from 79 of 529 E. helvum (14.9%) bats. Phylogenetic analysis of 70 flaB fragments amplified from E. helvum samples and previously reported sequences, revealed that 12 of the fragments grouped with Leptospira borgpetersenii and Leptospira kirschneri; however, the remaining 58 flaB fragments appeared not to be associated with any reported species. Additionally, the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rrs) amplified from 27 randomly chosen flaB-positive samples was compared with previously reported sequences, including bat-derived Leptospira spp. All 27 rrs fragments clustered into a pathogenic group. Eight fragments were located in unique branches, the other 19 fragments were closely related to Leptospira spp. detected in bats. These results show that rrs sequences in bats are genetically related to each other without regional variation, suggesting that Leptospira are evolutionarily well-adapted to bats and have uniquely evolved in the bat population. Our study indicates that pathogenic Leptospira spp. in E. helvum in Zambia have unique genotypes. PMID:25791930

  20. Field validation and use of the antigen-ELISA to monitor the effectiveness of a tsetse and trypanosomiasis control campaign in the Gwembe valley, Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monoclonal antibody-based antigen-detection enzyme immunoassay (Ag-ELISA) for the diagnosis of the three major tsetse - transmitted trypanosome species which infect cattle was evaluated in areas in Zambia in which bovine trypanosomiasis is endemic. Two hundred and thirty eight (23.4%) of 1015 sera examined were positive for circulating antigens whereas only 88 (8.6%) had demonstrable parasitaemia as revealed by the buffy coat technique (BCT). With both techniques, the predominant trypanosome species detected was T. congolense. Many animals were shown by Ag-ELISA to carry mixed infections with 2 or 3 species of trypanosomes, whilst only one mixed infection was identified using the BCT. The Ag-ELISA was subsequently used to monitor the effectiveness of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control measures implemented by the Regional Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Control Programme (RTTCP) in the Gwembe Valley, Zambia, an area declared free from tsetse flies. Five sentinel herds of 20 cattle were screened monthly for the presence of trypanosomes using the BCT and Ag-ELISA. Sampling was carried out for 12 months. No trypanosomes were detected by use of BCT, in contrast, 10% of the animals showed presence of circulating trypanosomal antigen. A number of antigenaemic animals treated with diminazene aceturate (Berenil) subsequently became negative. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  1. Effective team management by district nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Julie

    2004-12-01

    This article considers the key role played by the district nurse in managing the district nursing team in order to provide high quality health care. It considers how the district nurse can use key managerial roles (interpersonal, informational and decision-making) in order to ensure unity within the team. The importance of shared goals and trust to achieve unity is explored and a strategy for managing conflict is discussed. Finally, the article suggests a set of ground rules which could be used to facilitate effective team working. PMID:15655486

  2. 32 CFR 1651.4 - Review by district appeal board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Review by district appeal board. 1651.4 Section 1651.4 National Defense...SERVICE SYSTEM CLASSIFICATION BY DISTRICT APPEAL BOARD § 1651.4 Review by district appeal board. (a) An appeal to the district...

  3. The Federated District--A Planning Model for Rural Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sederberg, Charles H.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the federated school district, a cooperative organizational alternative for low enrollment rural districts facing enrollment decline or fiscal exigency. Describes district characteristics: local elementary schools, small regional high schools, a governing assembly, and a multiple district administrative system. Includes a planning model…

  4. Environmental quality in districts; 1 : 2 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pursuing the action of stress factors and the prevailing representation of the ecologically important elements, the districts of Slovakia can be classified into 17 categories, which include the districts with moderate occurrence of stress phenomena and the districts with very high representation of eco-stabilising elements, but also districts with extreme occurrence of stress phenomena and scarce representation of eco-stabilising elements. The character of the map is that of orientation, as it offers the possibility to identify the most problematic districts in terms of environmental quality, the districts requiring completion of eco-stabilising elements, the relatively not stressed districts, etc. (author)

  5. Malaria in Wanokaka and Loli sub-districts, West Sumba District, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Syafruddin D

    2006-01-01

    Malaria has long been known as one of the major public health problems in West Sumba District, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. To obtain baseline data for establishment of a suitable malaria control program in the area, malariometric surveys were conducted in two sub-districts, Wanokaka and Loli, during the periods of January, May, and August 2005. The survey included three selected villages in each sub-district, and blood smear analyses of 701, 921, and 894 randomly selected subjects...

  6. Industrial districts structure and chances for innovation: an empirical experience

    OpenAIRE

    Gabaldón Estevan, Daniel; Fernández De Lucio, Ignacio; Tortajada Esparza, Enrique

    2005-01-01

    This research, following the Regional Innovation Systems and the Industrial Districts theoretical approaches, explores the innovation capacity of the two most important ceramic tile industrial districts in Europe, the Italian district (Sassuolo) and the Spanish district (Castellon). In both districts innovation is to play a definitive role in allowing companies to maintain their competitiveness in a globalising market. Our analysis shows: Firstly, a similar level of competition within the dis...

  7. 7 CFR 932.121 - Producer districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...counties of Alpine, Tuolumne, Stanislaus, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, and all counties north thereof. (b) District 2 shall include the counties of Mono, Mariposa, Merced, San Benito, Monterey and all counties south thereof. [70...

  8. Industrialization of districts; 1 : 2 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Size (number of workers in 1997) and structure of industry in the districts of Slovakia are represented. The degree of industrialisation expresses the share of workers in industry of the total number of economically active population. (authors)

  9. Administrative Ranger District Boundaries (With Regions Table)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the boundary that encompasses a Ranger District. This map service provides display, identification, and analysis tools for...

  10. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2004

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2004 calendar year. This annual narrative report for Windom...

  11. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2006

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2006 calendar year. This annual narrative report for Windom...

  12. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2007

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2007 calendar year. This annual narrative report for Windom...

  13. 7 CFR 982.31 - Grower districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables...Board shall give consideration to (1) the relative importance of production in each district and the...

  14. GROWTH OF GRAPEVINE CULTIVTION IN SANGLI DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gade A. D.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sangli district is leading in area under fruit crops in the Maharashtra. The major fruits are grown in district i.e grapes, pomegranate, mango, sapota (chikoo, guava, jackfruit, banana and pineapple. Apart from fruit crops, grapevine is one of the main fruit crops of cropping pattern of Sangli District. As such Tasgaon, Miraj, KawatheMahankal, Palus, Walwa, Khanapur and Kadegaon leading in grapevine cultivation Jat and Atpadi tahsils in pomegranate. Apart from fruit crops, grapevine is one of the main fruit crops of cropping pattern of Sangli District. At the beginning of 20thcenturyKirloskar brother was at first planted grape (Bhokri in Kirloskar industry area in Sangli district. After that 1958, Shri Anna Pachure cultivated grape verities of Bhokri and Phakadi at Nandare in Tasgaon tahsil. Although grapevine cultivation was practiced since 1960, its scientific cultivation started from 1972. Besides the efforts made by innovative farmers in the region, favorable climatic condition, efficient and reliable marketing organizations are also some of the other contributing factors responsible for widespread and growth in area under grapevine of the region. The successful experiment of grapevine cultivation of Sangli district can be considered as an ideal way for the dry area of country where similar type of geographical condition. In 2013-14 there are 300069 hectare areas are under the grapevine cultivation in Sangli district. The increase grape cultivated area and growth of grape processing industry has manifold effects on socio-economic conditions in the district. In the present research paper, focused on understand the growth and spatial distribution of grapevine cultivation. For these, 2001 to 2014 the forty years period are selected to understand the growth and spatial distribution.

  15. Gothenburg, the city of district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gothenburg, Sweden, is internationally known for its district heating system. The development began in the 1950s and still proceeds at a high pace. The concentration is now on single-family houses. Two thirds of the district heating in Gothenburg comes from industrial waste heat, combined power and heating, incineration of waste and discharge systems. Most of the last third comes from natural gas that is used in the heat stations. Oil accounts for two or three per cent

  16. District heating in sequential energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? European excess heat recovery and utilisation by district heat distribution. ? Heat recovery in district heating systems – a structural energy efficiency measure. ? Introduction of new theoretical concepts to express excess heat recovery. ? Fourfold potential for excess heat utilisation in EU27 compared to current levels. ? Large scale excess heat recovery – a collaborative challenge for future Europe. -- Abstract: Increased recovery of excess heat from thermal power generation and industrial processes has great potential to reduce primary energy demands in EU27. In this study, current excess heat utilisation levels by means of district heat distribution are assessed and expressed by concepts such as recovery efficiency, heat recovery rate, and heat utilisation rate. For two chosen excess heat activities, current average EU27 heat recovery levels are compared to currently best Member State practices, whereby future potentials of European excess heat recovery and utilisation are estimated. The principle of sequential energy supply is elaborated to capture the conceptual idea of excess heat recovery in district heating systems as a structural and organisational energy efficiency measure. The general conditions discussed concerning expansion of heat recovery into district heating systems include infrastructure investments in district heating networks, collaboration agreements, maintained value chains, policy support, world market energy prices, allocation of synergy benefits, and local initiatives. The main conclusion from this study is that a future fourfold increase of current EU27 excess heat utilisation by means of district heat distribution to residential and service sectors is conceived as plausible if applying best Member State practice. This estimation is higher than the threefold increase with respect to direct feasible distribution costs estimated by the same authors in a previous study. Hence, no direct barriers appear with respect to available heat sources or feasible distribution costs for expansion of district heating within EU27.

  17. Conventional and advanced district energy systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mirandola, Alberto; Arnas, O?zer; Lazzaretto, Andrea; Weber, Ce?line; Favrat, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    District energy systems have the potential to decrease the CO2 emissions linked to energy services (heating, hot water, cooling and electricity), thanks to the implementation of large polygeneration energy conversion technologies, connected to a group of buildings over a network. To transfer the energy from the large polygeneration energy conversion technologies to the users, conventional district energy systems use water as energy transfer medium with often two independent supply and return ...

  18. Quality indicators for district heating networks

    OpenAIRE

    Pacot, Pierre-emmanuel; Reiter, Sigrid

    2011-01-01

    District heating networks are very common energy systems all over the world but only few studies have been carried out to assess their performances through quality indicators. These indicators express district heating performances through different points of view. Four ones are developed in this study: energy sources, efficiencies, heat delivering equipments characteristics and environmental efficiency as a sum up. First, the only energy indicator generally used is the primary energy fact...

  19. Social Development Disparities among Districts of Punjab

    OpenAIRE

    Awan, Masood Sarwar; Aslam, Muhammad Amir; Waqas, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Cessation of disparities and attainment of balanced development is conceived as the outline policy of every state. Therefore, this paper aims to expose inter-district gaps and disparities of Punjab. Drawing on the multidimensional nature of social development ranging from human development indicators of health, education and social services, this paper comparatively analyze the entire districts of Punjab, and rank them in social development index by using the factor analysis technique on the ...

  20. Dual energy use systems: District heating survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    The current status of and problems facing district heating systems operated by electric utilities were identified. The technical and economic factors which can affect the present and future success of district heating systems in the United States were evaluated. A survey of 59 district heating electric utilities was conducted to determine the current status of the industry. Questions developed to obtain data on technical, economic, regulator, and marketing factors were included in the survey. Literature on district heating in the U.S. and abroad was collected from governments, industry and foreign sources and reviewed to aid in evaluating the current and future potential of the industry. Interviews were held with executives of 16 utilities that operate district heating systems in order to determine corporate attitudes. A summary of the literature obtained is provided. Survey results are tabulated and described. The interviews and survey data were used to compile 10 case studies of utilities operating district heating systems under a braod range of circumstances.

  1. District heating substations - design and installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-12-15

    These technical regulations for district heating substations are sector-wide regulations for the Swedish district heating sector, describing the design, installation, use and maintenance of substations. If a district heating substation is to operate in the best possible way, the building's space heating and domestic hot water systems must comply with the requirements in these regulations and with those issued by public authorities. These regulations also describe aspects that must be considered when substations need to be replaced. The use then of correct values for the building energy requirements ensures that the new substation will be properly matched to its duties. These regulations are intended for use by: - those responsible for contacts between the district heating supplier and the customer. - those who own, operate and/or administer a building or facility that is heated by district heating. - those who design, manufacture, purchase, test or install substations. It is recommended that enquiries should refer to the Swedish District Heating Association's technical regulations when specifying requirements. The procurement criteria described in these regulations should be applied when evaluating tenders

  2. The ReDistricting Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Southern California

    The Redistricting Game is designed to educate, engage, and empower citizens around the issue of political redistricting. Currently, the political system in most states allows the state legislators themselves to draw the lines. This system is subject to a wide range of abuses and manipulations that encourage incumbents to draw districts which protect their seats rather than risk an open contest.By exploring how the system works, as well as how open it is to abuse, The Redistricting Game allows players to experience the realities of one of the most important (yet least understood) aspects of our political system. The game provides a basic introduction to the redistricting system, allows players to explore the ways in which abuses can undermine the system, and provides info about reform initiatives - including a playable version of the Tanner Reform bill to demonstrate the ways that the system might be made more consistent with tenets of good governance. Beyond playing the game, the web site for The Redistricting Game provides a wealth of information about redistricting in every state as well as providing hands-on opportunities for civic engagement and political action.

  3. School Districts, School districts as well as attendance boundaries areas defined by each school district and provided to us., Published in 2007, Johnson County AIMS.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This School Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'School districts as well as attendance boundaries...

  4. Targeting condom distribution at high risk places increases condom utilization-evidence from an intervention study in Livingstone, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandøy Ingvild

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The PLACE-method presumes that targeting HIV preventive activities at high risk places is effective in settings with major epidemics. Livingstone, Zambia, has a major HIV epidemic despite many preventive efforts in the city. A baseline survey conducted in 2005 in places where people meet new sexual partners found high partner turnover and unprotected sex to be common among guests. In addition, there were major gaps in on-site condom availability. This study aimed to assess the impact of a condom distribution and peer education intervention targeting places where people meet new sexual partners on condom use and sexual risk taking among people socializing there. Methods The 2005 baseline survey assessed the presence of HIV preventive activities and sexual risk taking in places where people meet new sexual partners in Livingstone. One township was selected for a non-randomised intervention study on condom distribution and peer education in high risk venues in 2009. The presence of HIV preventive activities in the venues during the intervention was monitored by an external person. The intervention was evaluated after one year with a follow-up survey in the intervention township and a comparison township. In addition, qualitative interviews and focus group discussions were conducted. Results Young people between 17-32 years of age were recruited as peer educators, and 40% were females. Out of 72 persons trained before the intervention, 38 quit, and another 11 had to be recruited. The percentage of venues where condoms were reported to always be available at least doubled in both townships, but was significantly higher in the intervention vs. the control venues in both surveys (84% vs. 33% in the follow-up. There was a reduction in reported sexual risk taking among guests socializing in the venues in both areas, but reporting of recent condom use increased more among people interviewed in the intervention (57% to 84% than in the control community (55% to 68%. Conclusions It is likely that the substantial increase in reported condom use in the intervention venues was partially due to the condom distribution and peer education intervention targeting these places. However, substantial changes were observed also in the comparison community over the five year period, and this indicates that major changes had occurred in overall risk taking among people socializing in venues where people meet new sexual partners in Livingstone. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01423357.

  5. Spatial and temporal variation of CO2 efflux along a disturbance gradient in a miombo woodland in Western Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. L. Kutsch

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide efflux from the soil surface was measured over a period of several weeks within a heterogeneous Brachystegia spp. dominated miombo woodland in Western Zambia. The objectives were to examine spatial and temporal variation of soil respiration along a disturbance gradient from a protected forest reserve to a cut, burned, and grazed area outside, and to relate the flux to various abiotic and biotic drivers. The highest daily mean fluxes (around 12 ?mol m?2 s?1 were measured in the protected forest in the wet season and lowest daily mean fluxes (around 1 ?mol m?2 s?1 in the most disturbed area during the dry season. Diurnal variation of soil respiration was closely correlated with soil temperature. The combination of soil water content and soil temperature was found to be the main driving factor at seasonal time scale. There was a 75% decrease in soil CO2 efflux during the dry season and a 20% difference in peak soil respiratory flux measured in 2008 and 2009. Spatial variation of CO2 efflux was positively related to total soil carbon content in the undisturbed area but not at the disturbed site. Coefficients of variation of efflux rates between plots decreased towards the core zone of the protected forest reserve. Normalized soil respiration values did not vary significantly along the disturbance gradient. Spatial variation of respiration did not show a clear distinction between the disturbed and undisturbed sites and was neither explained by soil carbon nor leaf area index. In contrast, within plot variability of soil respiration was explained by soil organic carbon content. Three different approaches to calculate total ecosystem respiration (Reco from eddy covariance measurements were compared to two bottom-up estimates of Reco obtained from chambers measurements of soil- and leaf respiration which differed in the consideration of spatial heterogeneity. The consideration of spatial variability resulted only in small changes of Reco when compared to simple averaging. Total ecosystem respiration at the plot scale, obtained by eddy covariance differed by up to 25% in relation to values calculated from the soil- and leaf chamber efflux measurements but without showing a clear trend.

  6. Spatial and temporal variation of CO2 efflux along a disturbance gradient in a miombo woodland in Western Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Mukelabai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide efflux from the soil surface was measured over a period of several weeks within a heterogeneous Brachystegia spp. dominated miombo woodland in Western Zambia. The objectives were to examine spatial and temporal variation of soil respiration along a disturbance gradient from a protected forest reserve to a cut, burned, and grazed area outside, and to relate the flux to various abiotic and biotic drivers. The highest daily mean fluxes (around 12 ?mol CO2 m?2 s?1 were measured in the protected forest in the wet season and lowest daily mean fluxes (around 1 ?mol CO2 m?2 s?1 in the most disturbed area during the dry season. Diurnal variation of soil respiration was closely correlated with soil temperature. The combination of soil water content and soil temperature was found to be the main driving factor at seasonal time scale. There was a 75% decrease in soil CO2 efflux during the dry season and a 20% difference in peak soil respiratory flux measured in 2008 and 2009. Spatial variation of CO2 efflux was positively related to total soil carbon content in the undisturbed area but not at the disturbed site. Coefficients of variation of efflux rates between plots decreased towards the core zone of the protected forest reserve. Normalized soil respiration values did not vary significantly along the disturbance gradient. Spatial variation of respiration did not show a clear distinction between the disturbed and undisturbed sites and could not be explained by variables such as leaf area index. In contrast, within plot variability of soil respiration was explained by soil organic carbon content. Three different approaches to calculate total ecosystem respiration (Reco from eddy covariance measurements were compared to two bottom-up estimates of Reco obtained from chambers measurements of soil- and leaf respiration which differed in the consideration of spatial heterogeneity. The consideration of spatial variability resulted only in small changes of Reco when compared to simple averaging. Total ecosystem respiration at the plot scale, obtained by eddy covariance differed by up to 25% in relation to values calculated from the soil- and leaf chamber efflux measurements but without showing a clear trend.

  7. The Livingstone Museum and its role in postcolonial Zambia, 1964-2006 / Die Livingstone Museum en sy rol in postkoloniale Zambie, 1964-2006

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Friday, Mufuzi.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The first article on the Livingstone Museum, published last year in Historia, demonstrated that the Museum was originally established as a tool to exhibit African material culture in order to provide evidence to the rest of the world of the superiority of European culture compared to African culture [...] . The article argued that this was because European settlers saw the need to legitimise colonial rule in the territory; colonial officials felt that the "civilising" effect of European culture was necessary to rescue Africans from their "primitive" way of life. This piece examines the Livingstone Museum and the role it played in independent Zambia, from 1964 to 2006. With the aid of temporary and permanent exhibitions mounted at the institution during this period, the article postulates that in the same vein as the colonial administration, the postcolonial government also used the Museum as a tool to promote its political agenda. Its main objective was to reverse the negative image that the Zambian culture and history had been accorded in the colonial period. The Museum was used as an ally by the nationalist government to promote national unity and patriotism, which had been undermined during the colonial era. In order to achieve this objective, the Museum staged exhibitions that glorified the African people and their culture at the expense of other racial groups that had emerged following colonial rule, such as Europeans and Indians. This article advances the thesis that contrary to the slogan "one Zambia one Nation", advanced by politicians after the attainment of independence (with the aim of creating a Zambian society in which all racial groups live in harmony) the Livingstone Museum's presentations in postcolonial Zambia were not balanced but were decidedly Afrocentric. In other words, postcolonial Livingstone Museum was also guilty of racial prejudice - the very same offence of which the colonial Museum was accused when they mounted their Eurocentric presentations. In practical terms, the Museum's exhibitions in each period reflected the current political dispensation. They were Eurocentric in the colonial period and Afrocentric in the postcolonial period. Nevertheless, the Museum does offer a platform, an educational centre through which both Zambian and foreign visitors are able to learn the country's culture, history, natural history and it indicates the path that the Zambian people have traversed from pre-colonial times to the present. Above all, it has kept alive the rich Zambian historical and cultural heritage.

  8. Exploring Superintendent Leadership in Smaller Urban Districts: Does District Size Influence Superintendent Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.; Nayfack, Michelle B.; Wohlstetter, Priscilla

    2009-01-01

    Much of the existing literature on urban school reform focuses on how the relatively small number of our nation's largest urban districts are approaching school reform with these objectives in mind. However, does smaller district size have any bearing, direct or indirect, on the nature of superintendent leadership? The authors' exploratory…

  9. How Does District Principal Evaluation Affect Learning-Centered Principal Leadership? Evidence from Michigan School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Youngs, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study used Hierarchical Multivariate Linear models to investigate relationships between principals' behaviors and district principal evaluation purpose, focus, and assessed leadership activities in 13 school districts in Michigan. The study found that principals were more likely to engage in learning-centered leadership behaviors when the…

  10. Economic, Sociological and Demographic Characteristics of Oregon School Districts and Their Relationship to District Financial Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farner, Frank

    This statistical report presents raw data and analyses in three parts: (1) a compendium of census data by district boundaries; (2) statistical analyses of all variables, including means, standard deviations, and ranges; and (3) relationship analyses among all variables, census and school districts. Included in the appendix are a list of school…

  11. Intra-District Resource Allocation and Criteria Used for Student Based Funding in Urban School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloo, Peter Mangla

    2011-01-01

    Resource allocation to school sites in public school districts is inequitable. While Student Based Funding (SBF) has been implemented in several major urban school districts, there are few empirical studies about how SBF policies are derived and implemented. Current efforts to align resources with student need are hindered by a lack of systematic,…

  12. Sustainability Profile for Urban Districts in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

      The paper concerns the development of sustainability profiles for districts in Copenhagen. This work is currently being carried out by the Danish Building Research Institute, the Technical University of Copenhagen, and the municipality of Copenhagen. The aim of the project is to develop a first model for sustainability profiles for districts in Copenhagen that includes environmental, social and environmental indicators. The work is strongly inspired by the Dutch model 'DPL' (Dutch acronym for Duurzaamheid Prestatie voor een Locatie, ‘Sustainability-Profile for Districts'), which has been quite successful in the Netherlands. The developer of DPL, IVAM Environmental Research, is consultant for the project.      The concept of DPL is that the tool ".. assesses in a clear and transparent way the spatial plan for a district on sustainability, based on the information from the urban plan. It so helps urban designers to creatively improve the sustainable performance of a district" (Kortman et al, 2001). Compared to other tools for assessing urban sustainability, DPL represents a simple and flexible approach. The idea is to use a limited number of indicators based on already collected data. Once the data-collection has been completed, it is easy to repeat it, hence enabling a continuous monitoring of the district. The flexibility of DPL is that it accepts the use of alternative data if the requested data are not available, and also allows new indicators to be included, if they are of special interest of the municipality. This allows a DPL-assessment to be carried out rather smoothly, and thus increase the use amongst municipalities. The DPL-assessment does not provide any 'scientific' correctness, but must be seen as a model open for interpretations and discussions of the local sustainability.      Applying the model on urban districts in Copenhagen has implied some changes of indicators. This has, however, also enabled an elaboration of profiles for all 10 districts in Copenhagen, an instant benchmarking between the districts, and comparative analysis of the indicators.      The paper will discuss and argue for the choice of model in relation to general experiences on using tools for assessment of urban sustainability, and describe the chosen indicators. The experiences and results derived from the profiles so far will be discussed, as well as strengths, weaknesses and possible improvements of the model. Finally, potential uses of the tool will be considered in relation to ongoing projects and planning initiatives in Copenhagen.

  13. Domestic and international district energy success stories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortum is a leading Nordic energy company that is increasingly focusing on the provision of heat supply from waste energy and renewables. This power point presentation gave an outline of Fortum's involvement in district energy projects in Sweden. Details of Fortum's heating distribution, power and electricity sales were presented, as well as a chart of share performance to 2006. A chart of Swedish electricity production from 1970 to 2003 was provided, in addition to energy input sources for district heating from 1970-2003. Details of the Hammarby eco-cycle model were presented, as well as issues concerning the use of bio-gas for stoves and vehicles. An outline of the Hammarby heat plant was presented, with details of heat pumps, bio-oil boilers, electric boilers, and heat production data. Issues concerning district cooling for commercial customers were reviewed. A bio-fuel district energy plant in Stockholm was discussed, as well as issues concerning the transportation of biofuel by sea and rail. Electric energy savings due to the use of district cooling were evaluated. Details of new gas works facilities in Hjorthagen were presented, as well as details of a proposed terminal in Nynashamn which will interact with a natural gas system. tabs., figs

  14. HIV infection and domestic smoke exposure, but not human papillomavirus, are risk factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Zambia: a case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayamba, Violet; Bateman, Allen C; Asombang, Akwi W; Shibemba, Aaron; Zyambo, Kanekwa; Banda, Themba; Soko, Rose; Kelly, Paul

    2015-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that esophageal cancer occurs in younger adults in sub-Saharan Africa than in Europe or North America. The burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also high in this region. We postulated that HIV and human papillomavirus (HPV) infections might contribute to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) risk. This was a case–control study based at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. Cases were patients with confirmed OSCC and controls had completely normal upper endoscopic evaluations. A total of 222 patients were included to analyze the influence of HIV infection; of these, 100 patients were used to analyze the influence of HPV infection, alcohol, smoking, and exposure to wood smoke. The presence of HIV infection was determined using antibody kits, and HPV infection was detected by polymerase chain reaction. HIV infection on its own conferred increased risk of developing OSCC (odds ratio [OR] 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0–5.1; P = 0.03). The OR was stronger when only people under 60 years were included (OR 4.3; 95% CI 1.5–13.2; P = 0.003). Cooking with charcoal or firewood, and cigarette smoking, both increased the odds of developing OSCC ([OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.4–9.3; P = 0.004] and [OR 9.1; 95% CI 3.0–30.4; P < 0.001], respectively). There was no significant difference in HPV detection or alcohol intake between cases and controls. We conclude that HIV infection and exposure to domestic and cigarette smoke are risk factors for OSCC, and HPV immunization unlikely to reduce OSCC incidence in Zambia. PMID:25641622

  15. HIV infection and domestic smoke exposure, but not human papillomavirus, are risk factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Zambia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayamba, Violet; Bateman, Allen C; Asombang, Akwi W; Shibemba, Aaron; Zyambo, Kanekwa; Banda, Themba; Soko, Rose; Kelly, Paul

    2015-04-01

    There is emerging evidence that esophageal cancer occurs in younger adults in sub-Saharan Africa than in Europe or North America. The burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also high in this region. We postulated that HIV and human papillomavirus (HPV) infections might contribute to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) risk. This was a case-control study based at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. Cases were patients with confirmed OSCC and controls had completely normal upper endoscopic evaluations. A total of 222 patients were included to analyze the influence of HIV infection; of these, 100 patients were used to analyze the influence of HPV infection, alcohol, smoking, and exposure to wood smoke. The presence of HIV infection was determined using antibody kits, and HPV infection was detected by polymerase chain reaction. HIV infection on its own conferred increased risk of developing OSCC (odds ratio [OR] 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-5.1; P = 0.03). The OR was stronger when only people under 60 years were included (OR 4.3; 95% CI 1.5-13.2; P = 0.003). Cooking with charcoal or firewood, and cigarette smoking, both increased the odds of developing OSCC ([OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.4-9.3; P = 0.004] and [OR 9.1; 95% CI 3.0-30.4; P < 0.001], respectively). There was no significant difference in HPV detection or alcohol intake between cases and controls. We conclude that HIV infection and exposure to domestic and cigarette smoke are risk factors for OSCC, and HPV immunization unlikely to reduce OSCC incidence in Zambia. PMID:25641622

  16. Weight and height z-scores improve after initiating ART among HIV-infected children in rural Zambia: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinywimaanzi Pamela

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deficits in growth observed in HIV-infected children in resource-poor settings can be reversed with antiretroviral treatment (ART. However, many of the studies have been conducted in urban areas with older pediatric populations. This study was undertaken to evaluate growth patterns after ART initiation in a young pediatric population in rural Zambia with a high prevalence of undernutrition. Methods Between 2007 and 2009, 193 HIV-infected children were enrolled in a cohort study in Macha, Zambia. Children were evaluated every 3 months, at which time a questionnaire was administered, height and weight were measured, and blood specimens were collected. Weight- and height-for-age z-scores were constructed from WHO growth standards. All children receiving ART at enrollment or initiating ART during the study were included in this analysis. Linear mixed effects models were used to model trajectories of weight and height-for-age z-scores. Results A high proportion of study children were underweight (59% and stunted (72% at treatment initiation. Improvements in both weight- and height-for-age z-scores were observed, with weight-for-age z-scores increasing during the first 6 months of treatment and then stabilizing, and height-for-age z-scores increasing consistently over time. Trajectories of weight-for-age z-scores differed by underweight status at treatment initiation, with children who were underweight experiencing greater increases in z-scores in the first 6 months of treatment. Trajectories of height-for-age z-scores differed by age, with children older than 5 years of age experiencing smaller increases over time. Conclusions Some of the effects of HIV on growth were reversed with ART initiation, although a high proportion of children remained underweight and stunted after two years of treatment. Partnerships between treatment and nutrition programs should be explored so that HIV-infected children can receive optimal nutritional support.

  17. HIV infection and domestic smoke exposure, but not human papillomavirus, are risk factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Zambia: a case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is emerging evidence that esophageal cancer occurs in younger adults in sub-Saharan Africa than in Europe or North America. The burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also high in this region. We postulated that HIV and human papillomavirus (HPV) infections might contribute to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) risk. This was a case–control study based at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. Cases were patients with confirmed OSCC and controls had completely normal upper endoscopic evaluations. A total of 222 patients were included to analyze the influence of HIV infection; of these, 100 patients were used to analyze the influence of HPV infection, alcohol, smoking, and exposure to wood smoke. The presence of HIV infection was determined using antibody kits, and HPV infection was detected by polymerase chain reaction. HIV infection on its own conferred increased risk of developing OSCC (odds ratio [OR] 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0–5.1; P = 0.03). The OR was stronger when only people under 60 years were included (OR 4.3; 95% CI 1.5–13.2; P = 0.003). Cooking with charcoal or firewood, and cigarette smoking, both increased the odds of developing OSCC ([OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.4–9.3; P = 0.004] and [OR 9.1; 95% CI 3.0–30.4; P < 0.001], respectively). There was no significant difference in HPV detection or alcohol intake between cases and controls. We conclude that HIV infection and exposure to do risk factors for OSCC, and HPV immunization unlikely to reduce OSCC incidence in Zambia

  18. Characteristics of uranium districts of the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium deposits are discovered in 15 ore districts of the Russian Federation. They are subdivided into four groups: Streltsovsky district with existing production centre, Stavropolsky district with depleted deposits, three prospective districts and ten reserve districts. The overview of new data on these districts is presented. Streltsovsky district with Priargunsky Production Centre include 19 molybdenum-uranium deposits of structure-bound volcanic type in caldera. The main activities in Stavropolsky district with two depleted uranium deposits are connected with restoration works and wastes rehabilitation. Except Streltsovsky district there are no more deposits in the Russian Federation prepared for uranium production. At the same time some uranium deposits of Vitimsky, Zauralsky, and West-Siberian districts are prospective for new development of production centres. They belong to the sandstone type, related to paleovalley or basal channel, and are suitable for ISL operation. The deposits of the other districts are considered to be reserve and considered unprofitable for uranium production at present and in the nearest future. The biggest of them is Aldansky district with gold-uranium deposits in potassium metasomatites in areas of Mesozoic activation of Archean cratons. Central Transbaikalsky, Yeniseisky, Yergeninsky, Onezhsky, Ladozhsky, Bureinsky, Khankaisky, Volgo-Uralsky reserve districts include mainly small-size deposits of vein, volcanic, surficial and metasomatite types with low uranium grades. (author)

  19. Sustainable Land Use Evaluation in Wanzhou District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of Wanzhou District Chongqing City Yearbook in 2001-2008 and other relevant information, based on the present strategic situation of Wanzhou District Chongqing city, the paper constructs the evaluation index system for land sustainable utilization and sets up the comprehensive evaluation model using linear weighting technology to evaluate the land sustainable utilization state during 2001--2008 of Wanzhou District Chongqing city. The result showed that the total level of land sustainable utilization was at basic sustainable stage from 2001 to 2008, the level of economic viability feasibility and social acceptability were the highest, the ecology and civilization were at second place, and then the productivity level of resource was the lowest and decreasing year by year. According to the results, many suggestions such as control population growth and environmental pollution should be put forward strictly in order to safeguard the land ecological environment.

  20. Fourth conference of the Swiss District Heating Association - Who knows the advantages of district heating?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive article discusses the possibilities and advantages offered by the increased use of district heating systems in Switzerland. Comparisons are made between the use of district heating in Switzerland and in Denmark, where almost the half of heating requirements are met by district heating systems. The article summarises the contributions presented at the conference by various experts from Switzerland and abroad, including energy and climate-change expert H.U. von Weizsaecker. Topics covered range from dwindling oil resources, global warming and energy prognoses to the price and availability of fossil resources in general. Arguments in favour of district heating systems are presented. Also, the external costs of various forms of energy are discussed, as are strategies for the promotion of district heating systems. The role to be played by district heating systems in bridging the gap between fossil fuels and the use of renewable energy sources is examined and the use of wood-fired district heating systems is looked at

  1. 13 CFR 305.5 - Project administration by District Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Project administration by District Organization... ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PUBLIC WORKS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT...Projects § 305.5 Project administration by District...

  2. 33 CFR 67.50-45 - Thirteenth Coast Guard District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Thirteenth Coast Guard District. 67.50-45 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...Regulations § 67.50-45 Thirteenth Coast Guard District. (a)...

  3. 33 CFR 67.50-35 - Eleventh Coast Guard District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Eleventh Coast Guard District. 67.50-35 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...Regulations § 67.50-35 Eleventh Coast Guard District. (a)...

  4. 33 CFR 67.50-5 - First Coast Guard District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false First Coast Guard District. 67.50-5 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...Regulations § 67.50-5 First Coast Guard District. (a)...

  5. 33 CFR 67.50-50 - Seventeenth Coast Guard District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Seventeenth Coast Guard District. 67.50-50 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... § 67.50-50 Seventeenth Coast Guard District. (a)...

  6. 33 CFR 67.50-30 - Ninth Coast Guard District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Ninth Coast Guard District. 67.50-30 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...Regulations § 67.50-30 Ninth Coast Guard District. (a)...

  7. 33 CFR 67.50-25 - Eighth Coast Guard District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Eighth Coast Guard District. 67.50-25 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...Regulations § 67.50-25 Eighth Coast Guard District. (a)...

  8. 33 CFR 67.50-20 - Seventh Coast Guard District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Seventh Coast Guard District. 67.50-20 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...Regulations § 67.50-20 Seventh Coast Guard District. (a)...

  9. 33 CFR 67.50-15 - Fifth Coast Guard District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Fifth Coast Guard District. 67.50-15 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...Regulations § 67.50-15 Fifth Coast Guard District. (a)...

  10. Corrosion Fatigue in District Heating Water Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maahn, Ernst Emanuel

    1996-01-01

    Three candidate materials for construction of buffer tanks for district heating water have been tested for corrosion fatigue properties in a district heating water environment. The investigation included Slow Strain Rate Testing of plain tensile specimens, crack initiation testing by corrosion fatigue of plain tensile specimens and crack growth rate determination for Compact Tensile Specimens under corrosion fatigue conditions. The three materials are equal with respect to stress corrosion sensibility and crack initiation. Crack growth rate is increased with a factor of 4-6 relative to an inert environment at same temperature (90C) with a tendency of higher crack growth rate for the steel with the highest strength.

  11. Nuclear power plant in the Oslofjord district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrophysical investigations made in order to evaluate the suitability of the waters adjacent to two prospective nuclear power plant sites in the Outer Oslofjord district are summarised. The evaluation of the diffusion and dilution of releases of 200 and 100 m3/s heated by 100Cin this area is also presented. The effects of an intake in the Haaoeyfjord basin is also considered. The conclusions are presented in a collective report for all prospective sites 'Thermal power plants in the Oslofjord district, recipient evaluations' (Termiske kraftverk i Oslofjordomraadet, resipientvurderinger) published by Fiskeridirektoratets Havforskningsinstitutt, Norsk Institutt for Vannforskning and Vassdrags- og Havnelaboratoriet, dated November 1975. (JIW)

  12. Hydrogen fuelled busses for the Brussels district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is of utmost importance that the Brussels district promotes the use of hydrogen as laternate fuel, not only to help clean the city's air but also to help clean the heads of the city's Eurocrats in the Hydrogen Energy Process. The main objective of the present R and D task 'Hydrogen Fuelled Buses for the Brussels District' is to investigate how the Brussels citizens perceive alternatives for their public transport system and to investigate investment, operation and energy costs of an hydrogen bus line based on articulated buses. (orig.)

  13. Agreement of 22 September 1994 between the Republic of Zambia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Zambia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 8 June 1994 and signed in Vienna on 22 September 1994. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Article 24, on 22 September 1994

  14. Assessment of the therapeutic efficacy of a paediatric formulation of artemether-lumefantrine (Coartesiane®) for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum in children in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Kango Mabvuto; Hawela Moonga; Chanda Pascalina; Sipilanyambe Naawa

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Sentinel site surveillance of antimalarials by in-vivo therapeutic efficacy studies in Zambia is one of the key activities ear-marked for monitoring and evaluation. The studies are conducted annually in order to provide timely and reliable information on the status of the recommended regimens for malaria case management. The findings of the therapeutic efficacy of an artemisinin-based combination therapy of pediatric artemether-lumefantrine (Coartesiane®) are reported. Me...

  15. Use of the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis comorbidity and multidrug-resistant TB in obstetrics and gynaecology inpatient wards at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, M.; O Grady, J.; Zumla, A.; Chilukutu, L.; Tembo, J.; Cheelo, B.; Kapata, N.; Mwaba, P.; Ahmed, Y.; Sinyangwe, S.; Maeurer, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: In high-tuberculosis (TB)-endemic countries, comorbidity of pulmonary TB in hospitalised patients with non-communicable diseases is well documented. In this study, we evaluated the use of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for the detection of concomitant pulmonary TB in patients admitted to the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia, with a primary obstetric or gynaecological condition. Methods: The Study population were inpatients admitted with a primary obstetric or gynaecological p...

  16. The Philadelphia School District's Ongoing Financial Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskey, John; Kuperberg, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the budget crisis that the School District of Philadelphia has faced for the past few years. Three specific events triggered the 2012 crisis: an abrupt reduction in federal and state funding, the inability of the district to cut many of its costs, and political pressures on the district to spend available revenues in a given…

  17. Site-Based Budgeting: A New Age of District Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The effects of linking school districts' funding directly to the students they serve and providing local school districts and communities with more control over how that money is spent could ripple through the entire K-12 system, from the state Capitol to the classroom. For district leaders anxious to improve their schools and better support…

  18. Is Industrial Districts Logistics suitable for Industrial Parks?

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Musso

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses the role of logistics for industrial districts, highlighting the current status and defining a logistics model supporting the relationships between providers and users of logistic services within the local context of an industrial district. A comparison with industrial parks, with reference to Romanian ones, allows identifying the potential of adaptation for industrial district logistic models to industrial parks.

  19. District Finds the Right Equation to Improve Math Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstrom, Annette

    2010-01-01

    The math problem is common to most U.S. school districts, and education leaders are well aware that U.S. math achievement lags far behind many other countries in the world. University Place (Washington) School District Superintendent Patti Banks found the conspicuous income gap for math scores even more disturbing. In her school district, only 23%…

  20. District Composite Report: Bossier Parish. 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document examines the Lousiana School and District Accountability system. There are five key facets to the system: (1)challenging curriculum and content standard; (2) assessment program; (3) school and district performance monitoring and reporting; (4)assistance to low performing schools and districts; and (5) recognition and rewards. Each…

  1. Tight Focus on Instruction Wins Texas District Prize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2009-01-01

    It took a while for four-time finalist Aldine, Texas, to win the Broad Prize for Urban Education. But it took even longer to craft the system that ultimately put the district over the top. Educators in Aldine district have been working for more than a decade to refine their "managed instruction" system. Reviewers examined how the school district

  2. Greening the Toronto District School Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Emily

    2002-01-01

    The Toronto District School Board (Ontario) established a department of environmental education to lighten the school board's impact on the environment and to increase ecological literacy among students. School programs have been developed in the areas of eco-literacy, energy conservation, waste management, and school yard greening. One program…

  3. School Districts as Partners in Research Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Marco A.; Rodosky, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    When researchers are focused on improving teaching-and-learning domains that match the school district's strategic plan, not only focusing on their own research agenda, they yield powerful results that can be useful for guiding processes of improving student learning.

  4. A unified solution for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MODiS range of products for district heating is based on comprehensive development work funded partly by the Finnish government. The product family has been developed together with local institutes, industry and customers, to cover a range of customer needs and environments in Central and Eastern European markets

  5. School Districts Can Stretch the School Dollar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrilli, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Many districts continue to face budget challenges of historic proportions. Decisions made in the coming months will carry significant repercussions for years to come. The path of least resistance is to slash budgets in ways that erode schooling. In this scenario, important reforms are left behind, overall services are diminished, innovations are…

  6. Arbitrage Interest Rules and School District Borrowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, Ward

    1989-01-01

    The Tax Reform Act of 1986 limited the ability of school districts to borrow money through the sale of tax-exempt bonds and then invest bond issue proceeds at interest rates higher than those paid on the bonds. Discusses practical considerations and public policy ramifications. (MLF)

  7. Baltimore District Tackles High Suspension Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on how the Baltimore District tackles its high suspension rates. Driven by an increasing belief that zero-tolerance disciplinary policies are ineffective, more educators are embracing strategies that do not exclude misbehaving students from school for offenses such as insubordination, disrespect, cutting class, tardiness, and…

  8. Economical problems of nuclear district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreign papers dealing with technical and economical investigations of the problems of designing the nuclear power plants for district heating are reviewed. Results of investigations devoted to optimizing the profile, equipment set, technological arrangement and main parameters of the nuclear power plants for district heating (NPPDH) are considered as well as the results of studying the NPPDH and the thermal power plants (TPP) economic contestability. Results of determination of the rational scale of NDHP development are presented. The investigations carried out in the GDR show that the optimal power of the WWER type reactor unit for the single-purpose nuclear district heating plant is 100 MW(t). The FRG specialists maintain that expenses on heat generation at NPPDH and TPP.will be equal, if the cost of the organic fuel is 2 dollars/GJ (which corresponds to the world level of prices for oil and coal from Ruhr) with the reactor unit power of 1000-1200 MW(t) and heat supply of 500-600 MW(t). It is stressed that in the FRG the NPPDH with a reactor of 2000 MW thermal power and the distance of heat transportation more than 20 km and the NPPDH with the reactor of 3000 MW thermal power and transportation distance more than 30 km can contest with a thermal power plant. The economically reasonable level of the centralized heat supply system use for district heating is, as a rule, 40-60 % of the theoretically possible level

  9. Leveraging Mental Health Dollars into Your District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilkenny, Robert; Katz, Nechama; Baron, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    By addressing common reasons that schools and mental health partners often cannot sustain sufficient school-based mental health services, Connecting With Care (CWC)--a mental health collaboration that places full-time clinicians in schools in Boston's most under-served urban neighborhood--is demonstrating how schools and districts can leverage…

  10. Hidalgo School District Supports All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodine, Thad R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, the Hildago (Texas) Independent School District, in partnership with the University of Texas-Pan American, the University of Texas System, the Communities Foundation of Texas/Texas High School Project, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, promised that all of its students would earn college credits before graduating from high school.…

  11. Geology of the Portrerillos District, Atacama, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, S. F.

    The geology of the Potrerillos porphyry copper district records the patterns of marine sedimentation, volcanism, igneous intrusion, and deformation in the Andes of northern Chile from Jurassic to Recent times. Pre-Jurassic granitic and metamorphic basement is overlain by marine sedimentary and volcanic rocks of Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous age and continental volcanic rocks of Paleocene-Eocene age. Both the marine and continental volcanic sequences are much thicker on the western side of the district and pinch out abruptly over the center of the district. Timing of reverse faulting is bracketed between 32 and 12 m.y.b.p. The Potrerillos district appears to lie near the eastern margin of a major fault-bounded depression in which volcanic rocks accumulated between Jurassic and Paleocene times. Most of the Eocene-Oligocene porphyry copper deposits in northern Chile occupy similar regional stratigraphic and volcanic settings, and are proximal to major high-angle faults. The geology of the Potrerillos area suggests that these faults may have been active as normal faults in Jurassic-Paleocene time, later guided the emplacement of porphyry plutons, and were subsequently reactivated in Miocene-Recent times.

  12. One Urban District's Digital Learning Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Jay; Paredes, Judi

    2011-01-01

    Planning and implementing major innovations in large urban districts can be a daunting and overwhelming idea--particularly when it comes to technology--due to real and perceived obstacles. Added to this challenge is the reality of the worst budget crisis in California history. When students are empowered by full access to technology, learning…

  13. Woodfuel procurement strategies of district heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodfuel use in the Swedish district heating sector increased significantly from 1985 to 1999. This study analysed strategies and considerations concerning woodfuel procurement in district heating plants. Priorities and concerns in the industry involved an increased woodfuel share, ambitions to create an environmental image, cost minimisation, awareness about the role of energy policies for fuel choice, improvement of woodfuel quality and the ambition to maintain a competitive woodfuel market with several suppliers. Factor analysis yielded five dimensions in the woodfuel procurement strategies among the district heating companies: (1) increased woodfuel use; (2) import; (3) spot market woodfuel purchases; (4) focus on refined woodfuels; and (5) using price only when deciding whether to use woodfuels or other fuels. Five clusters were defined along the three strategy dimensions (1)-(3). The clusters differed concerning size, experiences from the introduction of woodfuels, perceptions about woodfuels and strategies employed to date. This paper describes different strategies that the district heating companies apply on the woodfuel market. The conclusion is that policies should consider this diversity in procurement strategies, mitigate their negative side-effects and assist to make them cost-effective. (author)

  14. Kern Community College District Information Technology Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern Community Coll. District, Bakersfield, CA.

    The Information Technology Plan as set forth in this document provides the organizational structure, assignment of duties, infrastructure, and philosophic environment that should permit the Kern Community College District to proceed in an orderly manner in developing information technology to enhance student learning, serve the faculty, and…

  15. District heating substations. Performance, operation and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollerstrand, J.

    1997-09-01

    This thesis work is concerned with the efficient layout and operation of substations, i.e. those district heating (DH) system units which connect the network and internal building heating systems, such as radiator heating systems and domestic hot water distribution networks. The ambition was to make realistic investigations closely related to practical technologies within the field

  16. Selecting Telephone Systems for a School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Steve

    1989-01-01

    A tried and tested formula for selecting the right telephone system includes the following elements: determining telephone system needs, considering future growth, using written proposals to make comparisons, and shopping for quality products with excellent references. Flagstaff (Arizona) Uified School District's experience is used to illustrate…

  17. Full-Day Kindergarten: A Case Study on the Perceptions of District Leaders in Four Suburban Pennsylvania School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the reasons why suburban district leaders opted for full-day or half-day kindergarten programming in a sample of four local suburban districts operating such programs in Southeastern, Pennsylvania. The primary data source was interviews with key district leaders including school board members, superintendents,…

  18. The Ethnic Politics of Coup Avoidance: Evidence from Zambia and Uganda Ethnopolitik und die Vermeidung von Militärputschen: Sambia und Uganda im Vergleich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Lindemann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Though military interventions seem endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, more than a third of all countries have been able to avoid military coups. To solve this puzzle, this article relates the likelihood of military coups to the degree of ethnic congruence between civilian and military leaders, arguing that coup avoidance is most likely when government and army either exhibit the same ethnic bias or are both ethnically balanced. This argument is illustrated by a comparison of the diverging experiences of Zambia and Uganda. While Zambia is among Africa’s coup-free countries, Uganda’s vulnerability to military intervention has varied over time – with four coups under Obote and the Uganda National Liberation Front (UNLF but no coups under Amin and Museveni. Drawing on original longitudinal data on the ethnic distribution of political and military posts, the article shows that the absence of military coups in Zambia goes back to the balanced composition of government and army. In Uganda, coup avoidance under Amin and Museveni can be linked to the fact that government and army exhibited the same ethnic bias, whereas the coups against the Obote and UNLF regimes reflected either ethnic incongruence between civilian and military leaders or the destabilising combination of a similarly polarised government and army.Politische Interventionen von Militärs scheinen im subsaharischen Afrika allgegenwärtig zu sein. In mehr als einem Drittel der afrikanischen Staaten kam es jedoch bislang nicht zu einem Militärputsch. Der Autor dieses Beitrags vermutet eine Verbindung zwischen dem Grad ethnischer Kongruenz in der zivilen und der militärischen Führung eines Staates und der Wahrscheinlichkeit von Militärinterventionen; er argumentiert, dass ein Putsch immer dann vermieden werden kann, wenn Regierung und militärische Führung entweder von der gleichen ethnischen Gruppe dominiert werden oder wenn beide ethnisch ausgewogen zusammengesetzt sind. Dieser Erklärungsansatz wird an einer vergleichenden Fallstudie zu Sambia und Uganda empirisch überprüft. Während es in Sambia bislang keinen Militärputsch gab, war Uganda im Zeitverlauf unterschiedlich stark anfällig für politische Interventionen des Militärs – es kam zu insgesamt vier Militärputschen gegen Obote und die Uganda National Liberation Front (UNLF, nicht aber gegen Amin und Museveni. Auf der Grundlage umfangreicher Primärdaten zur ethnischen Verteilung von Staatsämtern und hohen militärischen Funktionen führt der Autor das Ausbleiben von Militärputschen in Sambia auf die ethnisch ausgewogene Zusammensetzung von Regierung und Militär zurück. Im Fall von Uganda erklärt er das Ausbleiben erfolgreicher Putsche unter Amin und Museveni vor allem dadurch, dass die Schaltstellen politischer und militärischer Macht jeweils von Mitgliedern derselben ethnischen Gruppe dominiert waren. Demgegenüber führt der die Militärputsche gegen Obote und die UNLF entweder auf die Inkongruenz der ethnischen Balance innerhalb der jeweiligen politischen und militärischen Elite zurück oder auf die destabilisierende Kombination einer ethnisch ähnlich stark polarisierten Zusammensetzung von Regierung und Armee.

  19. ‘Are We Not Human?’ Stories of Stigma, Disability and HIV from Lusaka, Zambia and Their Implications for Access to Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Janet A.; Bond, Virginia A.; Nixon, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The advent of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in Southern Africa holds the promise of shifting the experience of HIV toward that of a manageable chronic condition. However, this potential can only be realized when persons living with HIV are able to access services without barriers, which can include stigma. Our qualitative study explored experiences of persons living with disabilities (PWD) in Lusaka, Zambia who became HIV-positive (PWD/HIV+). Methods and Findings We conducted interviews with 32 participants (21 PWD/HIV+ and 11 key informants working in the fields of HIV and/or disability). Inductive thematic analysis of interview transcripts was informed by narrative theory. Participants’ accounts highlighted the central role of stigma experienced by PWD/HIV+, with stigmatizing attitudes closely linked to prevailing societal assumptions that PWD are asexual. Seeking diagnostic and treatment services for HIV was perceived as evidence of PWD being sexually active. Participants recounted that for PWD/HIV+, stigma was enacted in a variety of settings, including the queue for health services, their interactions with healthcare providers, and within their communities. Stigmatizing accounts told about PWD/HIV+ were described as having important consequences. Not only did participants recount stories of internalized stigma (with its damaging effects on self-perception), but also that negative experiences resulted in some PWD preferring to “die quietly at home” rather than being subjected to the stigmatizing gaze of others when attempting to access life-preserving ART. Participants recounted how experiences of stigma also affected their willingness to continue ART, their willingness to disclose their HIV status to others, as well as their social relations. However, participants also offered counter-stories, actively resisting stigmatizing accounts and portraying themselves as resilient and resourceful social actors. Conclusions The study highlights a significant barrier to healthcare experienced by PWD/HIV+, with important implications for the future design and equitable delivery of HIV services in Zambia. Stigma importantly affects the abilities of PWD/HIV+ to manage their health conditions. PMID:26039666

  20. Genomic Signature of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Isolates Related to a Massive Outbreak in Zambia between 2010 and 2012.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas

    2015-01-01

    Retrospectively, we investigated the epidemiology of a massive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi outbreak in Zambia during 2010 to 2012. Ninety-four isolates were susceptibility tested by MIC determinations. Whole-genome sequence typing (WGST) of 33 isolates and bioinformatic analysis identified the multilocus sequence type (MLST), haplotype, plasmid replicon, antimicrobial resistance genes, and genetic relatedness by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis and genomic deletions. The outbreak affected 2,040 patients, with a fatality rate of 0.5%. Most (83.0%) isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR). The isolates belonged to MLST ST1 and a new variant of the haplotype, H58B. Most isolates contained a chromosomally translocated region containing seven antimicrobial resistance genes, catA1, blaTEM-1, dfrA7, sul1, sul2, strA, and strB, and fragments of the incompatibility group Q1 (IncQ1) plasmid replicon, the class 1 integron, and the mer operon. The genomic analysis revealed 415 SNP differences overall and 35 deletions among 33 of the isolates subjected to whole-genome sequencing. In comparison with other genomes of H58, the Zambian isolates separated from genomes from Central Africa and India by 34 and 52 SNPs, respectively. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that 32 of the 33 isolates sequenced belonged to a tight clonal group distinct from other H58 genomes included in the study. The small numbers of SNPs identified within this group are consistent with the short-term transmission that can be expected over a period of 2 years. The phylogenetic analysis and deletions suggest that a single MDR clone was responsible for the outbreak, during which occasional other S. Typhi lineages, including sensitive ones, continued to cocirculate. The common view is that the emerging global S. Typhi haplotype, H58B, containing the MDR IncHI1 plasmid is responsible for the majority of typhoid infections in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa; we found that a new variant of the haplotype harboring a chromosomally translocated regioncontaining the MDR islands of IncHI1 plasmid has emerged in Zambia. This could change the perception of the term "classical MDR typhoid" currently being solely associated with the IncHI1 plasmid. It might be more common than presently thought that S. Typhi haplotype H58B harbors the IncHI1 plasmid or a chromosomally translocated MDR region or both.