Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most widespread of human infections in developing countries, and children are the most vulnerable. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia, as well as prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths in children attending pre-school or day-care centres in Kafue District, Zambia. Single stool samples were collected from 403 children from 10 pre-schools and Were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears to identify and quantify helminths. A commercial immunofluorescence kit was used to identify Cryptosporidium- and Giardia-positive samples. The overall prevalence of helminth infection was 17.9%. Ascaris lumbricoides was found in 12.0%, hookworm in 8.3%, Taenia spp. in 0.9%, Hymenolepis nano in 0.6% and Schistosoma mansoni in 0.3%. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia was 28.0 and 29.0%, respectively, with more girls infected with Giardia (33.8%) than boys (22.7%) (P = 0.02). Significant differences in infections with A. lumbricoides and Cryptosporidium were observed between the various pre-schools (P <0.001). These findings indicate that intestinal parasites are prevalent in children enrolled in pre-schools in Zambia. Future studies should explore local factors associated with transmission of these infections, and consequently provide the necessary health education to parents and teachers. Crown Copyright (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved.
Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.
Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are important parasites infecting a wide range of domestic animals worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites in different domestic animals living in close contact with humans within rural/semiurban communities in Kafue district in Zambia. A single faecal sample per animal was collected from pigs, goats, dogs, ducks, chickens and pigeons and analysed by Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia immunofluorescence antibody assay for the simultaneous detection of these parasites. The faecal consistency was noted and scored as non-diarrhoeic or diarrhoeic. A total of 236 samples were collected. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in pigs (11.5%, 17/148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), ducks (10.0%; 3/30) and chickens (14.3%; 2/14) while Giardia cysts were detected in pigs (8.1%; 12/148), goats (5.9%; 1/17), dogs (25.0%; 5/20) and ducks (6.7%; 2/30). Diarrhoea was not associated with either infection. Age was also not associated with either infection except in dogs where Giardia infection was only detected in animals aged less than six months (p=0.009). It is concluded from this study that Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia parasites are prevalent among domestic animals reared within communities in Kafue district thereby constituting a potential source for zoonotic infections.
Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.
Wetland processes are strongly influenced by hydrologic factors such as precipitation, surface runoff, and flooding dynamics. Anthropogenic disturbances to flooding regimes can thus substantially alter wetland habitat and biogeochemistry. The Kafue Flats, a large floodplain (?6500 km 2) along the Kafue River in South-Central Zambia, is a wetland impacted by upstream and downstream hydropower dams. The main purpose of this study was to develop a water budget for the Kafue Flats under current conditions, quantify nutrient and organic carbon concentrations in the river, and use the combined information to estimate biogeochemical budgets. A water balance was developed for the Kafue Flats at a subcatchment scale for the years 2002-2009 using daily hydrological data. In addition, bi-monthly flow and chemical measurements were performed over 1 year (May 2008-May 2009) at multiple stations. Evapotranspiration was an important process in the Flats, accounting for up to 49% of total hydrologic outputs in some subcatchments. Direct precipitation contributes substantial to water inputs to the flats: runoff from the upstream catchment accounted for 45% of water inputs to the Kafue Flats, while the remaining 55% came from direct precipitation to the Kafue Flats from its subcatchment. Estimates from the wet season suggest that ?75% of the water flowing in the rivers main channel as it exits the Flats spent some time within the highly productive floodplain. This exchange between the floodplain and the river appeared to play an important role in nutrient and carbon export to the rivers main channel and out of the wetland. The floodplain was a net source of phosphate (220 t/year), total nitrogen (1300 t N/year, of which ?90% was organic nitrogen) and total organic carbon (50,000 t C/year) to downstream systems. Thus, when considering dam impacts and altered flooding dynamics in this system, potential changes to carbon and nutrient cycling also need to be taken in to consideration, which may have implications for nutrient availability within the Kafue Flats and nutrient export to downstream systems.
Wamulume, J.; Landert, J.; Zurbrügg, R.; Nyambe, I.; Wehrli, B.; Senn, D. B.
Although research on peri urban arable farming had been conducted in Zambia, the concerns related to heavy metal contaminated wastewater use in crop farming in peri urban areas were inadequately tackled. The study investigated heavy metal contamination of water, soils and crops at two study sites in Zambia. The two study sites were New Farm Extension in Mufulira and Chilumba Gardens in Kafue. Heavy metals comprising chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni) were inves...
Evaristo Mwaba Kapungwe
The Kafue River is the longest river in Zambia and is a major tributary of the Zambezi River. It is a vital source of fish, transportation, drinking water, and hydropower for much of Zambia's population, over half of whom live in the Kafue River basin. Like many important water bodies in developing countries the Kafue and its ecosystems face pollution from industrial, mining, agricultural, and domestic/sewage discharge. The Kafue River forms a wide and shallow wetland (the Kafue Flats) during the rainy season (Nov. - Apr.) which serves as habitat for diverse groups of birds and mammals. In recent years the unprecedented emergence of invasive aquatic vegetation such as the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and Salvinia molesta have choked the river, degrading its ability to provide adequate habitat to promote biodiversity, ecosystem services, and hydropower. In addition, these plants provide additional habitat for mosquitoes (vectors for malaria) and aquatic snails (vectors of schistosomiasis). Nutrient-rich effluents are widely believed to contribute to the proliferation and explosive growth of this floating aquatic vegetation. The general methods for managing these aquatic weeds have included mechanical and physical removal, herbicides, and bio-control agents which have had very little impact. However, as in neighboring Lake Victoria, total weed coverage has fluctuated dramatically from year to year making evaluation of the efficacy of management programs difficult. The objectives of this study were to (1) generate the first record of aquatic plant coverage for a section of the Kafue River which is immediately downstream of a sugar plantation (a major source of nitrogen and phosphorus to the river) and (2) determine if plant coverage is correlated with any major climatic (ENSO, temperature, rainfall) or management (introduction of bio-control agents) indices. We utilized remote sensing techniques in conjunction with Landsat 4-5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM imagery for the time range 1990 to 2013 to identify the extent of aquatic vegetation in the dry season for all years available within the time range using spectral data. We derived rainfall for the time period from TRMM data and temperature from MODIS LST data. Overall weed coverage tended to increase from 1990 to 2013. There was no significant correlation between rainfall (as measured by TRMM) and water hyacinth coverage. However there was a significant positive correlation between minimum October temperatures (the warmest month of the year) and weed coverage (exponential fit, R2 = 0.81). There was no indication that the release of bio-control agents reduced weed coverage. Water hyacinth is known to be sensitive to temperature, with cooler temperatures retarding growth. In the Kafue River, aquatic plant coverage varies mainly with October low temperatures indicating an overall control of temperature on weed coverage. Increasing low temperatures in the region would be expected to exacerbate problems associated with aquatic weeds.
Mischler, J. A.; Abdalati, W.; Hussein, K.; Townsend, A. R.
Hepatic and renal concentrations of the elements arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium and zinc were determined in samples collected from four crocodiles from the Kafue River, Kafue National Park and five crocodiles from the Luangwa River, Luangwa National Park, Zambia. The concentrations of the essential elements were similar to those reported in other vertebrates. Arsenic and cadmium concentrations were low (medians below 0.05 ?g As/g and below 0.16 ?g Cd/g, wet wt.). Mercury and lead concentrations were several orders of magnitude higher (medians up to 3.7 ?g Hg/g, and up to 8.7 ?g Pb/g, all wet wt.) than in hippopotami from the same rivers, probably as a result of food-chain biomagnification. Judging by the results obtained in this study, pollution from the mining activity around the Kafue River drainage area in the Copperbelt region has not significantly influenced the trace element concentrations in tissues of the crocodiles in the Kafue National Park. The trace element concentrations measured may serve as reference values in future studies on crocodilians
Tropical floodplains are often highly productive ecosystems that produce, transform, and export large quantities of organic C (OC) and N (ON) to downstream systems and oceans. We studied OC and ON dynamics in the Kafue Flats, a 6,500-km2 floodplain system along the Kafue River in Zambia, the hydrology of which is substantially impacted by upstream and downstream dams. The goal of the study was to explore the quality and bioavailability of OC and ON, and how river-floodplain exchange influences both the net export of organic matter (OM) and its composition. We collected samples along a 410 km transect along the Kafue River downstream of Itezhi-Tezhi dam in 2009 and 2010 with a focus on the flood recession period, and determined concentrations and stable isotopes of dissolved and particulate OC (DOC, POC) and ON (DON, PON), as well as spectrofluorometric properties (excitation emission spectroscopy; EEMs) of dissolved OM (DOM). During flood recession, the Kafue Flats and Kafue River undergo intense river floodplain exchange (i.e., >80% of the stream flow passing through the floodplain), and DON and DOC loads increased 2.5-fold along the main river channel. The vast majority of fixed nitrogen was present as in organic form (~94% of the total N including 80% DON and 14% PON). Despite the large contribution of floodplain-derived DOM, measured variables of DOM quality remained relatively constant (DOC:DON ~8; ?15N-DON = +1.5 ± 1.0%) along the river. A modest decrease in the ?13C-DOC (from -22 to -24%) was observed as floodplain-derived DOC became increasingly dominant. EEMs results further suggest that overall DOM composition remained fairly constant along the river despite quantitative injection of floodplain-derived DOM. ?13C-POC, ?15N-PON, and POC:PON (-28.3 ± 0.8%, +2.8 ± 1.2%, and ~20, respectively) differed considerably with respect to the same parameters for DOC and DON, indicating that the particulate and dissolved OM pools derive from very different sources or suggesting fundamental compositional and isotopic changes during initial OM breakdown along the flow path. This presentation will explore potential underlying causes of the fairly constant DOM composition and the distinct DOM and POM pools, and what these observations imply about OM cycling in this system.
Zurbrügg, R.; Suter, S.; Lehmann, M. F.; Wehrli, B.; Senn, D. B.
Biogeochemical processes in river-floodplain ecosystems are strongly influenced by hydrology and, in particular, river-floodplain exchange. In tropical systems, where the hydrology is dominated by distinct dry and rainy seasons, annual flood waters trigger organic matter mineralization within and nutrient export from the dried and rewetted floodplain, and the magnitude of hydrological exchange between a river and its floodplain has the potential to substantially influence nutrient and carbon exports and water quality in the river. In this study we examined the extent and the effects of hydrological river-floodplain exchange in the Kafue River and its floodplain, the Kafue Flats, in Zambia. The Kafue Flats is a 7000 km2 seasonal wetland whose hydrological regime has been impacted by upstream and downstream large dams constructed in the 1970s, leading to changes in the flooding pattern in this high-biodiversity ecosystem. Field campaigns, carried out during flood recession (May 2008, 2009, 2010) and covering a ~400 km river stretch, revealed a steep decline in dissolved oxygen from 6 mg/L to 1 mg/L over a ~20 km stretch of river beginning approximately 200 km downstream from the first dam, with low oxygen persisting for an additional 150 km downstream. To further explore this phenomenon discharge measurements (ADCP) were conducted in May 2009 and May 2010. River discharge decreased from ~600 m3/s at the upstream dam to 100 m3/s midway through the Kafue Flats, and increased to >800 m3/s towards the end of the floodplain (400 km downstream). River cross section data indicate that the dramatic decrease in discharge occured primarily because of variations in channel area and channel carrying capacity, with channel constrictions forcing ~85% of the discharge out of the river channel and into the floodplain. Using specific conductivity and ?18O-H2O as tracers for floodplain water, we estimate that the downstream increases in flow occur through lateral inflows of receding floodplain waters, induced by an expansion of the river channel, and that 80% of the downstream flow came from the floodplain. Model calculations indicate that intense exchange between river and floodplain and the introduction of low-oxygen floodplain water into the river was the primary cause of the low dissolved oxygen levels observed in the river during flood recession in May 2008-2010. This exchange also appears to play an important role in nutrient and carbon export, with the floodplain acting as a net source of phosphate (220 tons/yr), total nitrogen (1300 tons/yr, of which ~90% was organic nitrogen) and total organic carbon (50,000 tons/yr) to downstream systems.
Zurbrugg, R.; Wamulume, J.; Blank, N.; Nyambe, I.; Wehrli, B.; Senn, D. B.
Fisheries, wildlife and pastures are under massive pressure in the Kafue Flats, a wetland, which is one of the largest floodplains in Southern and Central Africa. This ecosystem which once harboured abundant common-pool resources and which was managed by local common property regimes is now being threatened with overexploitation. The last 30 years however, have witnessed severe pressure and overuse of these commons. A historical and institutional analysis of the situation of common-pool resou...
Harry Nixon Chabwela; Tobias Haller
Hydrological exchange between a river and its floodplain plays a critical role in maintaining key ecosystem services like habitat formation, nutrient transformation, and flood attenuation. We studied the spatial and temporal patterns of river-floodplain exchange in the Kafue Flats, a 6500-km2, dam-impacted floodplain ecosystem in Zambia. In addition, we characterized the effects of floodplain runoff on river biogeochemistry and assessed dam-related changes in the hydrological regime. The basic flood pulse concept poorly describes conditions in the Kafue Flats. Instead, high resolution measurements of discharge and tracers (specific conductivity,?18O-H2O) along 410 km of river revealed substantial spatial variations in both the magnitude and direction of river-floodplain exchange. During peak discharge, a river channel constriction, 230 km into the floodplain, diverted as much as 80% of the river's 700 m3 s-1discharge into the floodplain. As a net result, >80% of the water exiting the Kafue Flats via the river, either passed through the floodplain or originated from precipitation on the floodplain. This floodplain-derived water had a strong impact on river water quality, resulting in a seasonally recurring sharp decline in dissolved oxygen levels to <50?M that persisted for 150 km downstream. A comparison with historical flow data showed that concurrent bank overflow and floodplain inflows were a sustained pattern during the wet season. However, lateral exchange over an annual cycle has been reduced by as much as 50% due to dam operation.
Zurbrügg, Roland; Wamulume, Jason; Kamanga, Romas; Wehrli, Bernhard; Senn, David B.
A total of 984 snails, comprising nine species, were collected from six areas in the Kafue wetlands between August and October 2003 to assess larval trematode infections. Of these, 135 (13.7%) were positive. Most trematode infections were recorded from Lymnaea natalensis (42.8%), which harboured four of the five morphologically different cercariae found. No trematodes were recovered from Bellamya capillata, Biomphalaria pfeifferi, Melanoides tuberculata, Physa acuta and Cleopatra nswendweensis. One snail (0.2%) of 416 Bulinus snails shed brevifurcate-apharyngeate distome cercariae while three (0.7%) shed amphistomes. Gymnocephalous and longifurcate-pharyngeate distome were the commonest types of cercariae recorded while xiphidiocercaria was the least common. The highest prevalence rates of F. gigantica (68.8%) and amphistomes (50.0%) in cattle (n = 101) were in Chiyasa while those in Kaleya had the lowest (9.1 and 18.2%, respectively). In most habitats, infections were recorded in both cattle and snails. Critical determinants of infection may have been the distance of settlements and/or cattle kraals, the number of animals in nearby homesteads and the presence of susceptible host snails. This study suggests that fascioliasis and amphistomiasis could be major constraints of cattle production in the Kafue wetlands because favourable factors were available to introduce and maintain the infections. It further provides a starting point for some comprehensive studies on snail-related aspects of transmission and snail host ecology in Zambia. PMID:17381873
Phiri, A M; Phiri, I K; Chota, A; Monrad, J
The aquatic weed situation in the Kafue River in Zambia continues to be a major challenge to the sustainable utilization of the water resources of the river. The general methods for managing the weeds, especially the water hyacinth, include use of bio-agents, chemicals, mechanical and physical approaches. These have had very little impact. This paper reports on a project that is investigating weed management strategies which involve use of cleaner production (CP) approach and the utilization of the weed for economic purposes. In addition, the ecological implications of these methods are being assessed. Effluent assessments indicated that apart from nitrates and phosphates, other effluent parameters met the Environmental Council of Zambia standards. Results further show that all the 24 areas surveyed for CP have uncontrolled socio-economic activities which generate both point and non-point sources of pollution that enter the water bodies. To minimize pollution, efforts include devising policy and technical strategies with the involvement of the affected riparian community. Production of mushroom by the communities using the water hyacinth substrate has been demonstrated. Up to 2.1 kg of mushroom was harvested from a single flush over a period of 4-5 weeks. Vegetables grown on soils treated with water hyacinth manure performed better than those grown using commercial fertiliser. The economics of the production are however, yet to be confirmed. If weed usage is proven economically and ecologically viable, the riverine community is envisaged to play a big role in aquatic weed management. High numbers of invertebrates known to be sensitive to pollution have been recorded in the weed-infested Kafue River implying that the water is of good quality for these aquatic invertebrates. This observed quality of water may be due to water hyacinth playing a role by sieving pollutants from the river.
Sinkala, Thomson; Mwase, Enala T.; Mwala, Mick
Prevalence, incidence and seasonal variation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis were studied over a 12-month period in 100 children from four pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia. Questionnaire data and a single stool sample were collected monthly from each child. Samples were processed using a commercial kit (Meridian Diagnostics Inc., USA) and oo(cysts) visualised by immunofluorescence microscopy. Cryptosporidium was detected in 30.7% (241/786; 95% CI = 27.5-33.9) while G. duodenalis was detected in 29.0% (228/786; 95% CI = 25.8-32.2). A total of 86% experienced one or more episodes of cryptosporidiosis while 75% had giardiasis. Cumulative incidence per 100 children was 75.4 for Cryptosporidium and 49.0 for G. duodenalis. Both infections were significantly more common in the wet compared to the dry season (34.8%, 162/466 vs. 24.7%, 79/320, P = 0.003 and 35.2%, 164/466 vs. 20.0%, 64/320, P <0.001, respectively). Thus, risk ratios (RR) were 1.41 (95% CI = 1.13-1.77) and 1.76 (95% CI = 1.38-2.27) for Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively. Diarrhoea was significantly associated with cryptosporidiosis (RR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.03-1.47; P = 0.029) but not with giardiasis (RR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.91-1.53; P = 0.26). We conclude that gastro-intestinal protozoal infections are highly prevalent among children attending pre-school in peri-urban Zambia highlighting the need for further studies of risk factors.
Siwila, J.; Phiri, I.G.K.
Seasonality of bovine amphistomosis in the Southern province of Zambia was established after examining 268 faecal samples from cattle presented for slaughter at Turnpike slaughter slab, Mazabuka. Amphistomosis was found present throughout the year but the highest abundance rate was found during the post-rainy season (47.8%) and the lowest during the cold dry season (24.8%). In the rainy and post-rainy seasons, higher mean egg counts and cattle found positive were recorded than in any other season. The distribution of amphistome eggs was significantly different (p amphistomes. PMID:18318347
Phiri, A M; Chota, A; Phiri, I K
Background: Past case reports and recent data from LF mapping surveys indicate that LF occurs in Zambia, but no studies have been carried out to document its epidemiology and health implications. The present study assessed infection, disease, transmission and human perception aspects of LF in an endemic area of Luangwa District, South-East Zambia, as a background for planning and implementation of control. Methods. Two neighbouring rural communities were registered and a questionnaire survey undertaken. Clinical examination, and sampling of blood for circulating filarial antigens (CFA; marker of adult worm infection) and antibodies to Bm14 antigen (marker of exposure to transmission), were carried out during the daytime. Blood from CFA positive individuals was examined for microfilariae (mf) at night. Vector surveys were carried out in selected households, using light traps. Results: 985 individuals aged ? 1 year were registered. The CFA prevalence increased with age from 1.2% in age group 1-14 years to 20.6%in age group 50+ years (overall 8.6%). Wuchereria bancrofti mf were identified in 10.9% of CFA positive individuals (corresponding to a community prevalence of 0.9%). Prevalence and intensity of Bm14 antibodies were much higher in individuals ? 30 years than in younger individuals (57.2 vs. 19.3%; 0.594 vs. 0.241 OD-values). Elephantiasis and hydrocele were well known clinical manifestations in the area, but only one case of hydrocele was detected in the study population. Identified potential vectors were Anopheles funestus and An. gambiae. Conclusion: The study confirmed that LF was endemic in the study communities, but infection and disease prevalence was low. Several indications, including a marked recent decline in CFA prevalence, suggest that transmission in the area is on the decrease, perhaps because of intensive application of malaria control measures targeting the Anopheles vectors. It is recommended that mass drug administration is initiated to accelerate this positive trend of decline in LF transmission in the area. © 2013 Shawa et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Shawa, Sheila Tamara; Mwase, Enala T.
Zambias estimated incidence of all forms of human tuberculosis (TB) is 707/100,000. High prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) infection with Mycobacterium bovis in cattle and the Kafue lechwe antelopes (Kobus leche Kafuensis) has been reported in the Kafue basin. Consumption of unpasteurised milk and meat products from infected animals poses a risk of transmitting zoonotic tuberculosis to people living at the human-animal interface. Despite the reported high prevalence of BTB in...
Malama, Sydney; Muma, John Bwalya; Godfroid, Jacques
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis in humans, is considered primarily a human pathogen. It has, however, been reported in a wide range of domestic and wild animals, often living in close prolonged contact with humans. Sputum samples in which acid fast bacteria were detected in smears were collected from patients at three health facilities in Namwala district, Zambia. Samples from cattle presenting gross lesions compatible with bovine tuberculosis were collected at a local abattoir in the same district. Isolated mycobacteria were identified and genotyped using classical molecular methods. From a total of 33 isolates of M. tuberculosis detected (30 from humans and 3 from cattle), two cattle isolates shared the same spoligotype and MIRU-VNTR pattern with a human patient. This study has for the first time documented the isolation of M. tuberculosis from cattle in Zambia and provides molecular evidence of an epidemiological link between M. tuberculosis isolates from humans and cattle in Namwala district. A possible spill back of M. tuberculosis to humans cannot be excluded and therefore further studies documenting to what extent M. tuberculosis is shed in cattle milk are needed. This finding further suggests that veterinary public health measures to control human TB, should also take into account the bovine reservoir. PMID:24845573
Malama, Sydney; Muma, John; Munyeme, Musso; Mbulo, Grace; Muwonge, Adrian; Shamputa, Isdore Chola; Djønne, Berit; Godfroid, Jacques; Johansen, Tone Bjordal
Schistosoma mansoni disease is endemic in most parts of rural Zambia, and associated complications are common. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 754 people in rural communities of Kaoma District, western Zambia to determine the burden of S. mansoni infection and associated morbidity. Parasitology and ultrasonography assessments were conducted on consenting participants. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection and geometric mean egg count (GMEC) were 42.4% (304) and 86.6 eggs per gram (95% confidence interval = 75.6-99.6), respectively. Prevalence was highest in the age group of 15-19 years old (adjusted prevalence ratio = 1.70, P = 0.017). S. mansoni-related portal fibrosis was detected in 26% of the participants screened. Participants above 39 years old were 2.93 times more likely to have fibrosis than the 7-9 years old age group (P = 0.004). The study highlights the high burden of S. mansoni disease in this area and calls for immediate interventions to avert complications associated with the disease. PMID:25246696
Mutengo, Mable M; Mwansa, James C L; Mduluza, Takafira; Sianongo, Sandie; Chipeta, James
Full Text Available This paper encapsulates the outputs of a Swiss Agency for Development Cooperation (SDC funded project that aimed to improve the levels of HIV governance at the district level in Malawi and Zambia by encouraging public participation in an effort to more effective use of local resources. The methodology for this project, developed by the Institute for Democracy in Africa (Idasa and SDC, included a barometer which assessed perceptions of district HIV governance among key stakeholders. Perceptions were gathered on governance principles of effectiveness, efficiency, rule of law, accountability, participation and equity. The stakeholders ranged from administrators, political representatives, community-based organisations and the private sector on the supply side and citizens on the demand or beneficiary side. The findings of the research indicate specific sector governance issues that may be generalised to governance. Communication and transparency appear to be major issues underpinning the bottlenecks and shortcomings in the HIV sector governance at the district level. Information gaps have given rise to accountability deficits and coordination deficiencies. Addressing these matters would make more effective use of resources and lessen dependence on external funding sources.
Abstract Background The increasing resources available for and number of partners providing health sector aid have stimulated innovations, notably, the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, which aim to improve aid coordination. In this, one of the first studies to analyse implementation of aid coordination below national level, the aim was to investigate the effect of the Paris Declaration on coordination of health sector aid at the district level in Zambia. Methods...
Sundewall Jesper; Forsberg Birger C; Jönsson Kristina; Chansa Collins; Tomson Göran
Cross-sectional surveys with carers, health workers, community drug distributors (CDDs) and neighbourhood health committees were conducted to identify factors associated with utilization of community-directed treatment (ComDT) of soil-transmitted helminths in children aged 12-59 months in Mazabuka district, Zambia. The surveys took place in December 2006 and December 2007. In addition child treatment records were reviewed. The factors that were found to be significantly associated (p<0.05) with treatment of children by the CDDs were: (1) the perception of soil-transmitted helminth infections as having significant health importance, (2) the community-based decision to launch and subsequently implement ComDT, (3) the use of the door-to-door method of drug distribution, (4) CDDs being visited by a supervisor, (5) CDDs receiving assistance in mobilizing community members for treatment, (6) CDDs having access to a bicycle and (7) CDDs having received assistance in collecting drugs from the health centre. Despite the effectiveness of ComDT in raising treatment coverage there are factors in the implementation process that will still affect whether children and their carers utilize the ComDT approach. Identification and understanding of these factors is paramount to achieving the desired levels of utilization of such interventions. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2014.
Halwindi, H.; Magnussen, Pascal
Summary Cross-sectional surveys with carers, health workers, community drug distributors (CDDs) and neighbourhood health committees were conducted to identify factors associated with utilization of community-directed treatment (ComDT) of soil-transmitted helminths in children aged 12-59 months in Mazabuka district, Zambia. The surveys took place in December 2006 and December 2007. In addition child treatment records were reviewed. The factors that were found to be significantly associated (pdrug distribution, (4) CDDs being visited by a supervisor, (5) CDDs receiving assistance in mobilizing community members for treatment, (6) CDDs having access to a bicycle and (7) CDDs having received assistance in collecting drugs from the health centre. Despite the effectiveness of ComDT in raising treatment coverage there are factors in the implementation process that will still affect whether children and their carers utilize the ComDT approach. Identification and understanding of these factors is paramount to achieving the desired levels of utilization of such interventions. PMID:24830775
Halwindi, H; Magnussen, P; Siziya, S; Meyrowitsch, D W; Olsen, A
Cross-sectional surveys with carers, health workers, community drug distributors (CDDs) and neighbourhood health committees were conducted to identify factors associated with utilization of community-directed treatment (ComDT) of soil-transmitted helminths in children aged 12-59 months in Mazabuka district, Zambia. The surveys took place in December 2006 and December 2007. In addition child treatment records were reviewed. The factors that were found to be significantly associated (p<0.05) with treatment of children by the CDDs were: (1) the perception of soil-transmitted helminth infections as having significant health importance, (2) the community-based decision to launch and subsequently implement ComDT, (3) the use of the door-to-door method of drug distribution, (4) CDDs being visited by a supervisor, (5) CDDs receiving assistance in mobilizing community members for treatment, (6) CDDs having access to a bicycle and (7) CDDs having received assistance in collecting drugs from the health centre. Despite the effectiveness of ComDT in raising treatment coverage there are factors in the implementation process that will still affect whether children and their carers utilize the ComDT approach. Identification and understanding of these factors is paramount to achieving the desired levels of utilization of such interventions. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2014.
HALWINDI, H.; MAGNUSSEN, P.
BACKGROUND: The challenge of priority setting (PS) in health care within contexts of severe resource limitations has continued to receive attention. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) has emerged as a useful framework to guide the implementation of PS processes. In 2006, the AFR approach to enhance legitimate and fair PS was introduced by researchers and decision makers within the health sector in the EU funded research project entitled 'Response to Accountable priority setting for Trust in health systems' (REACT). The project aimed to strengthen fairness and accountability in the PS processes of health systems at district level in Zambia, Tanzania and Kenya. This paper focuses on local perceptions and practices of fair PS (baseline study) as well as at the evolution of such perceptions and practices in PS following an AFR based intervention (evaluation study), carried out at district level in Kapiri-Mposhi District in Zambia. METHODS: Data was collected using in depth interviews (IDIs), focus group discussions (FGDs) and review of documents from national to district level. The study population for this paper consisted of health related stakeholders employed in the district administration, in non-governmental organizations (NGO) and in health facilities. RESULTS: During the baseline study, concepts of legitimacy and fairness in PS processes were found to be grounded in local values of equity and impartiality. Government and other organizational strategies strongly supported devolution of PS and decision making procedures. However, important gaps were identified in terms of experiences of stakeholder involvement and fairness in PS processes in practice. The evaluation study revealed that a transformation of the views and methods regarding fairness in PS processes was ongoing in the study district, which was partly attributed to the AFR based intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings suggest that increased attention was given to fairness in PS processes at district level. The changes were linked to a number of simultaneous factors among them the concepts introduced by the present project with its emphasis on fairness and enhanced participation. A responsive leadership that was increasingly accountable to its operational staff and communities emerged as one of the key elements in driving the processes forward.
Zulu, Joseph M; Michelo, Charles
Abstract Background Hypertension is a leading cause for ill-health, premature mortality and disability. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors for hypertension in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted. Odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess relationships between hypertension and explanatory variables. Results A total of 1928 individuals participated...
Goma Fastone M; Nzala Selestine H; Babaniyi Olusegun; Songolo Peter; Zyaambo Cosmos; Rudatsikira Emmanuel; Siziya Seter; Muula Adamson S.
Effective animal disease control and prevention should be based on accurate information from the field. Part of this field information can be obtained from the cattle owners. In order to assess their disease knowledge, a survey focusing on East Coast Fever (ECF) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) was organised among 302 cattle owners from the Kazungula and Livingstone Districts of the Southern Province of Zambia. The cattle owners' level of knowledge of ECF was low (34%) with most of those able...
Background A number of studies from countries with severe HIV epidemics have found gaps in condom availability, even in places where there is a substantial potential for HIV transmission. Although reported condom use has increased in many African countries, there are often big differences by socioeconomic background. The aim of this study was to assess equity aspects of condom availability and uptake in three African districts to evaluate whether condom programmes are given sufficient priority. Methods Data on condom availability and use was examined in one district in Kenya, one in Tanzania and one in Zambia. The study was based on a triangulation of data collection methods in the three study districts: surveys in venues where people meet new sexual partners, population-based surveys and focus group discussions. The data was collected within an overall study on priority setting in health systems. Results At the time of the survey, condoms were observed in less than half of the high risk venues in two of the three districts and in 60% in the third district. Rural respondents in the population-based surveys perceived condoms to be less available and tended to be less likely to report condom use than urban respondents. Although focus group participants reported that condoms were largely available in their district, they expressed concerns related to the accessibility of free condoms. Conclusion As late as thirty years into the HIV epidemic there are still important gaps in the availability of condoms in places where people meet new sexual partners in these three African districts. Considering that previous studies have found that improved condom availability and accessibility in high risk places have a potential to increase condom use among people with multiple partners, the present study findings indicate that substantial further efforts should be made to secure that condoms are easily accessible in places where sexual relationships are initiated. Although condom distribution in drinking places has been pinpointed in the HIV/AIDS prevention strategies of all the three countries, its priority relative to other HIV/AIDS measures must be reassessed locally, nationally and regionally. In practical terms very clear supply chains of condoms to both formal and informal drinking places could make condom provision better and more reliable
SandØy, Ingvild Fossgard; Blystad, Astrid
Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies from countries with severe HIV epidemics have found gaps in condom availability, even in places where there is a substantial potential for HIV transmission. Although reported condom use has increased in many African countries, there are often big differences by socioeconomic background. The aim of this study was to assess equity aspects of condom availability and uptake in three African districts to evaluate whether condom programmes are given sufficient priority. Methods Data on condom availability and use was examined in one district in Kenya, one in Tanzania and one in Zambia. The study was based on a triangulation of data collection methods in the three study districts: surveys in venues where people meet new sexual partners, population-based surveys and focus group discussions. The data was collected within an overall study on priority setting in health systems. Results At the time of the survey, condoms were observed in less than half of the high risk venues in two of the three districts and in 60% in the third district. Rural respondents in the population-based surveys perceived condoms to be less available and tended to be less likely to report condom use than urban respondents. Although focus group participants reported that condoms were largely available in their district, they expressed concerns related to the accessibility of free condoms. Conclusion As late as thirty years into the HIV epidemic there are still important gaps in the availability of condoms in places where people meet new sexual partners in these three African districts. Considering that previous studies have found that improved condom availability and accessibility in high risk places have a potential to increase condom use among people with multiple partners, the present study findings indicate that substantial further efforts should be made to secure that condoms are easily accessible in places where sexual relationships are initiated. Although condom distribution in drinking places has been pinpointed in the HIV/AIDS prevention strategies of all the three countries, its priority relative to other HIV/AIDS measures must be reassessed locally, nationally and regionally. In practical terms very clear supply chains of condoms to both formal and informal drinking places could make condom provision better and more reliable.
BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality continues to be a heavy burden in low and middle income countries where half of all deliveries take place in homes without skilled attendance. The study aimed to investigate the underlying and proximate determinants of health facility childbirth in rural and urban areas of three districts in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia. METHODS: A population-based survey was conducted in 2007 as part of the 'REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems' (REACT) project. Stratified random cluster sampling was used and the data included information on place of delivery and factors that might influence health care seeking behaviour. A total of 1800 women who had childbirth in the previous five years were analysed. The distal and proximate conceptual framework for analysing determinants of maternal mortality was modified for studying factors associated with place of delivery. Socioeconomic position was measured by employing a construct of educational attainment and wealth index. All analyses were stratified by district and urban-rural residence. RESULTS: There were substantial inter-district differences in proportion of health facility childbirth. Facility childbirth was 15, 70 and 37% in the rural areas of Malindi, Mbarali and Kapiri Mposhi respectively, and 57, 75 and 77% in the urban areas of the districts respectively. However, striking socio-economic inequities were revealed regardless of district. Furthermore, there were indications that repeated exposure to ANC services and HIV related counselling and testing were positively associated with health facility deliveries. Perceived distance was negatively associated with facility childbirth in rural areas of Malindi and urban areas of Kapiri Mposhi. CONCLUSION: Strong socio-economic inequities in the likelihood of facility childbirths were revealed in all the districts added to geographic inequities in two of the three districts. This strongly suggests an urgent need to strengthen services targeting disadvantaged and remote populations. The finding of a positive association between HIV counselling/testing and odds in favor of giving birth at a health facility suggests potential positive effects can be achieved by strengthening integrated approaches in maternal health service delivery.
Ng'anjo Phiri, Selia; Kiserud, Torvid
The copper smelting activities in the Copperbelt mining district (Zambia) left a huge pollution related to the disposal sites of smelting waste (slags) and to the continuous deposition of the smelter stack particulates in the soil systems. We sampled 196 surface and subsurface soils in the vicinity of the Nkana copper smelter at Kitwe and a 110 cm deep lateritic soil profile in order to assess the regional distribution of metallic contaminants and their vertical mobility. The content of contaminants in soil samples were measured by ICP techniques and the lead isotopic compositions (206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/206Pb ratios) were determined by ICP-MS. The spatial distribution of the major contaminants (Cu, Co, Pb, Zn) indicated the highest contamination NW of the smelter stack corresponding to the direction of prevailing winds in the area. The highest metal concentrations in soils were: 27410 ppm Cu, 606 ppm Co, 480 ppm Pb, 450 ppm Zn. Lead isotopes helped to discriminate the extent of metallic pollution related to the smelter emissions having similar 206Pb/207Pb ratio of 1.17-1.20 in contrast to the regional background value of 1.32. The investigation of the lateritic soil profile sampled in the near vicinity of the Nkana smelter indicated that contamination is mostly located in the uppermost soil horizons enriched in organic matter (smelter particulate emissions (206Pb/207Pb = 1.17-1.20), which means that the anthropogenic emissions are the important source of mobile (and potentially bioavailable) metals.
Ettler, Vojtech; Mihaljevic, Martin; Majer, Vladimir; Kribek, Bohdan; Sebek, Ondrej
A case application of data-driven estimation of evidential belief functions (EBFs) is demonstrated to prospectivity mapping in Lundazi district (eastern Zambia). Spatial data used to represent recognition criteria of prospectivity for aquamarine-bearing pegmatites include mapped granites, mapped faults/fractures, mapped shear zones, and radioelement concentration ratios derived from gridded airborne radiometric data. Data-driven estimates EBFs take into account not only (a) spatial association between an evidential map layer and target deposits but also (b) spatial relationships between classes of evidences in an evidential map layer. Data-driven estimates of EBFs can indicate which spatial data provide positive or negative evidence of prospectivity. Data-driven estimates of EBFs of only spatial data providing positive evidence of prospectivity were integrated according to Dempster's rule of combination. Map of integrated degrees of belief was used to delineate zones of relative degress of prospectivity for aquamarine-bearing pegmatites. The predictive map has at least 85% prediction rate and at least 79% success rate of delineating training and validation deposits, respectively. The results illustrate usefulness of data-driven estimation of EBFs in GIS-based predictive mapping of mineral prospectivity. The results also show usefulness of EBFs in managing uncertainties associated with evidential maps
Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to prompt and effective treatment is a cornerstone of the current malaria control strategy. Delays in starting appropriate treatment is a major contributor to malaria mortality. WHO recommends home management of malaria using artemisininbased combination therapy (ACT and Rapid Diagnostic tests (RDTs as one of the strategies for improving access to prompt and efective malaria case management. Methods A prospective evaluation of the effectiveness of using community health workers (CHWs as delivery points for ACT and RDTs in the home management of malaria in two districts in Zambia. Results CHWs were able to manage malaria fevers by correctly interpreting RDT results and appropriately prescribing antimalarials. All severe malaria cases and febrile non-malaria fevers were referred to a health facility for further management. There were variations in malaria prevalence between the two districts and among the villages in each district. 100% and 99.4% of the patients with a negative RDT result were not prescribed an antimalarial in the two districts respectively. No cases progressed to severe malaria and no deaths were recorded during the study period. Community perceptions were positive. Conclusion CHWs are effective delivery points for prompt and effective malaria case management at community level. Adherence to test results is the best ever reported in Zambia. Further areas of implementation research are discussed.
Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. It is associated with poor sanitary practices, free-range pig husbandry and lack of disease awareness in endemic communities. A comparative research was conducted with pre and post-intervention assessments in nine villages to evaluate Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) as an intervention measure for the control of porcine cysticercosis in Katete District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. Blood samples were collected from pigs for circulating antigen detection and a questionnaire focused on the household was administered to a total of 153 respondents whose pigs were examined (64 pre-intervention, 89 post-intervention), in order to obtain information on general demographic characteristics, pig husbandry practices, sanitation practices and associated knowledge and awareness of T. solium infections. The first sampling was conducted prior to the implementation of the CLTS and second sampling eight months after triggering of CLTS in the selected villages. A total of 379 pig serum samples were examined using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA to detect T. solium cysticercosis, 104 pre-intervention and 275 post-intervention, of which 14 (13.5%) and 45 (16.4%) were positive, respectively. Wald test p-values were computed to assess significant differences in the variables of interest mentioned above for the pre and post CLTS. The research revealed that CLTS as a control measure did not significantly improve T. solium infections in pigs. The research also revealed that the sanitation practices and awareness of cysticercosis did not change. It is recommended that a longer term evaluation be undertaken when the villages have been declared open defaecation free. In addition, the research recommends that health education, mass drug treatment and pig vaccination be incorporated, as an essential component of prevention and control programmes for T. solium infections. PMID:25591408
Bulaya, Carol; Mwape, Kabemba E; Michelo, Charles; Sikasunge, Chummy S; Makungu, Chitwambi; Gabriel, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Phiri, Isaac K
Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing countries are undergoing an epidemiological transition, from Communicable or Infectious to 'Non-Communicable' diseases (NCDs, such that cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory diseases, cancer, and diabetes were responsible for 60% of all deaths globally in 2005, with more than 75% of these deaths occurring in developing countries. A survey was conducted to determine among other objectives the prevalence of diabetes and its association with physical fitness and biological factors. Methods A cross sectional study utilizing a modified World Health Organization's STEPwise approach to surveillance of NCDs was conducted in Lusaka district, Zambia. A multi-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select study participants of age 25 years or older. All eligible members of a household that was selected were invited to participate in the study. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR, and adjusted odds ratios (AOR together with their 95% Confidence Intervals (CI were obtained using Complex samples logistic regression Results A total of 1928 individuals participated in the survey, of which 33.0% were males. About half of the participants were of age 25-34 years (53.2%, and about a third of the respondents had attained secondary level of education (35.8%. The combined prevalence for impaired glucose level or diabetes was 4.0%. Age and mild hypertension were significantly associated with impaired levels of glucose or diabetes. Compared to participants in the age group 25-34 years, older participants were more likely to have impaired glucose level or diabetes (AOR = 2.49 (95%CI [1.35, 2.92] for 35-44 years age group, and AOR = 3.80 (95%CI [2.00, 7.23] for 45 + years age group. Mild hypertension was associated with impaired glucose level or diabetes (AOR = 2.57 (95%CI [1.44, 4.57]. Conclusions The prevalence of diabetes in Lusaka district has not reached an alarming level and it is now that interventions targeting the younger age group 25-34 years should be put in place to curtail the spread of diabetes.
Full Text Available Se describe y representa una nueva especie del género Gonimbrasia Butler, 1878, Gonimbrasia desena Vinciguerra, sp. n., atribuida al grupo de belina (Westwood, 1849 de Zambia (Kafue sobre la base de un solo espécimen macho. Se desconocen la hembra y los estados preimaginales.
Full Text Available Abstract Background While sustainability of health programmes has been the subject of empirical studies, there is little evidence specifically on the sustainability of Community Based Organisations (CBOs for HIV/AIDS. Debates around optimal approaches in community health have centred on utilitarian versus empowerment approaches. This paper, using the World Bank Multi-Country AIDS Program (MAP in Zambia as a case study, seeks to evaluate whether or not this global programme contributed to the sustainability of CBOs working in the area of HIV/AIDS in Zambia. Lessons for optimising sustainability of CBOs in lower income countries are drawn. Methods In-depth interviews with representatives of all CBOs that received CRAIDS funding (n = 18 and district stakeholders (n= 10 in Mumbwa rural district in Zambia, in 2010; and national stakeholders (n=6 in 2011. Results Funding: All eighteen CBOs in Mumbwa that received MAP funding between 2003 and 2008 had existed prior to receiving MAP grants, some from as early as 1992. This was contrary to national level perceptions that CBOs were established to access funds rather than from the needs of communities. Funding opportunities for CBOs in Mumbwa in 2010 were scarce. Health services: While all CBOs were functioning in 2010, most reported reductions in service provision. Home visits had reduced due to a shortage of food to bring to people living with HIV/AIDS and scarcity of funding for transport, which reduced antiretroviral treatment adherence support and transport of patients to clinics. Organisational capacity and viability: Sustainability had been promoted during MAP through funding Income Generating Activities. However, there was a lack of infrastructure and training to make these sustainable. Links between health facilities and communities improved over time, however volunteers skills levels had reduced. Conclusions Whilst the World Bank espoused the idea of sustainability in their plans, it remained on the periphery of their Zambia strategy. Assessments of need on the ground and accurate costings for sustainable service delivery, building on existing community strengths, are needed before projects commence. This study highlights the importance of enabling and building the capacity of existing CBOs and community structures, rather than creating new mechanisms.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the impact of malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT use on management of acute febrile disease at a community level, and on the consumption of anti-malarial medicines, is critical to the planning and success of scale-up to universal parasite-based diagnosis by health systems in malaria-endemic countries. Methods A retrospective study of district-wide community-level RDT introduction was conducted in Livingstone District, Zambia, to assess the impact of this programmed on malaria reporting, incidence of mortality and on district anti-malarial consumption. Results Reported malaria declined from 12,186 cases in the quarter prior to RDT introduction in 2007 to an average of 12.25 confirmed and 294 unconfirmed malaria cases per quarter over the year to September 2009. Reported malaria-like fever also declined, with only 4,381 RDTs being consumed per quarter over the same year. Reported malaria mortality declined to zero in the year to September 2009, and all-cause mortality declined. Consumption of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT dropped dramatically, but remained above reported malaria, declining from 12,550 courses dispensed by the district office in the quarter prior to RDT implementation to an average of 822 per quarter over the last year. Quinine consumption in health centres also declined, with the district office ceasing to supply due to low usage, but requests for sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP rose to well above previous levels, suggesting substitution of ACT with this drug in RDT-negative cases. Conclusions RDT introduction led to a large decline in reported malaria cases and in ACT consumption in Livingstone district. Reported malaria mortality declined to zero, indicating safety of the new diagnostic regime, although adherence and/or use of RDTs was still incomplete. However, a deficiency is apparent in management of non-malarial fever, with inappropriate use of a low-cost single dose drug, SP, replacing ACT. While large gains have been achieved, the full potential of RDTs will only be realized when strategies can be put in place to better manage RDT-negative cases.
Background In March 2012, The Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation trained maternal and child health workers in Southern Province of Zambia to use a new rapid syphilis test (RST) during routine antenatal care. A recent study by Bonawitz et al. (2014) evaluated the impact of this roll out in Kalomo District. This paper estimates the costs and cost-effectiveness from the provider's perspective under the actual conditions observed during the first year of the RST roll out. Methods Information on materials used and costs were extracted from program records. A decision-analytic model was used to evaluate the costs (2012 USD) and cost-effectiveness. Basic parameters needed for the model were based on the results from the evaluation study. Results During the evaluation study, 62% of patients received a RST, and 2.8% of patients tested were positive (and 10.4% of these were treated). Even with very high RST sensitivity and specificity (98%), true prevalence of active syphilis would be substantially less (estimated at syphilis is only useful for reducing adverse birth outcomes if patients testing positive are actually treated. Even with very low prevalence of syphilis (a needle in the haystack), cost effectiveness improves dramatically if those found positive are treated; additional treatment costs little but DALYs avoided are substantial. Without treatment, the needle is essentially found and thrown back into the haystack. PMID:25478877
Larson, Bruce A.; Lembela-Bwalya, Deophine; Bonawitz, Rachael; Hammond, Emily E.; Thea, Donald M.; Herlihy, Julie
BACKGROUND: Priority-setting decisions are based on an important, but not sufficient set of values and thus lead to disagreement on priorities. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) is an ethics-based approach to a legitimate and fair priority-setting process that builds upon four conditions: relevance, publicity, appeals, and enforcement, which facilitate agreement on priority-setting decisions and gain support for their implementation. This paper focuses on the assessment of AFR within the project REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT). METHODS: This intervention study applied an action research methodology to assess implementation of AFR in one district in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia, respectively. The assessments focused on selected disease, program, and managerial areas. An implementing action research team of core health team members and supporting researchers was formed to implement, and continually assess and improve the application of the four conditions. Researchers evaluated the intervention using qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods. RESULTS: The values underlying the AFR approach were in all three districts well-aligned with general values expressed by both service providers and community representatives. There was some variation in the interpretations and actual use of the AFR in the decision-making processes in the three districts, and its effect ranged from an increase in awareness of the importance of fairness to a broadened engagement of health team members and other stakeholders in priority setting and other decision-making processes. CONCLUSIONS: District stakeholders were able to take greater charge of closing the gap between nationally set planning on one hand and the local realities and demands of the served communities on the other within the limited resources at hand. This study thus indicates that the operationalization of the four broadly defined and linked conditions is both possible and seems to be responding to an actual demand. This provides arguments for the continued application and further assessment of the potential of AFR in supporting priority-setting and other decision-making processes in health systems to achieve better agreed and more sustainable health improvements linked to a mutual democratic learning with potential wider implications.
Byskov, Jens; Marchal, Bruno
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Zambia, the presence of bovine tuberculosis in both wild and domestic animals has long been acknowledged and mutual transmission between them has been predicted without any direct evidence. Elucidation of the circulating Mycobacterium bovis strains at wild and domestic animals interphase area in Zambia, where bovine tuberculosis was diagnosed in wildlife seemed to be important. Results A PCR identified 15 and 37 M. bovis isolates from lechwe and cattle, respectively. Spoligotype analysis revealed that M. bovis strains from lechwe and cattle in Kafue basin clustered into a major node SB0120, where isolates outside the Kafue basin clustered into different nodes of SB0131 and SB0948. The comparatively higher variety of strains in cattle compared to lechwe elucidated by Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive UnitsVariable Number Tandem Repeats analyses are consistent with cattle being the probable source of M. bovis in wild and domestic animals interphase area in Zambia. Conclusions These results provide strong evidence of M. bovis strains transfer between cattle and lechwe, with the latter having developed into a sylvatic reservoir host.
Hangombe Mudenda B
Abstract Background A number of studies from countries with severe HIV epidemics have found gaps in condom availability, even in places where there is a substantial potential for HIV transmission. Although reported condom use has increased in many African countries, there are often big differences by socioeconomic background. The aim of this study was to assess equity aspects of condom availability and uptake in three African districts to evaluate whether condom programmes ar...
Sandøy Ingvild; Blystad Astrid; Shayo Elizabeth H; Makundi Emmanuel; Michelo Charles; Zulu Joseph; Byskov Jens
In rural Zambia refugees and host communities are working together to move from relief dependence to self reliance. Could UNHCRs Zambia Initiative (ZI) be a model for other countries struggling to cope with the protracted presence of refugees?
Livestock play a paramount role in the traditional agricultural sector of zambia. A sero-epidemiological survey (cattle, Sanga type, Tonga breed) has been done in the Valley disctricts of the Southern Porvince, whci is the most important area of the country for agriculture and livestock prodoction. Overall prevalences were: 6,6% for brucellosis, 2,9% for chalmydiosis, 2,9% for leptospirosis and 11% for leukosis. No animal was positive to listeriosis. As some of these diseases are of zzonotic ...
Meneghi, Daniele; Mannelli, Alessandro
The only prospective population-based study of maternal mortality in rural Zambia recorded a ratio of 889 per 100,000 births, about 8 times higher than that found in an urban hospital-based study. To obtain an accurate assessment of maternal mortality in Zambia's rural Kalabo district, both the sisterhood survey method and a review of hospital data were utilized. The maternal mortality ratio derived from the sisterhood survey (August-September 1994) of 1978 respondents was 1238 per 100,000 live births. Data from Kalabo Hospital on 2474 deliveries during 1990-94 revealed a ratio of 548 per 100,000 live births; however, when the latter ratio was corrected for an additional 15 maternal deaths that were not recorded as such, it rose to 1179 per 100,000 live births. The major causes of the 20 (71%) direct maternal deaths were obstructed labor and sepsis. Substandard hospital care factors (primarily inappropriate choice and/or lack of antibiotics, poor monitoring of vital signs, and poor provision of blood products by the laboratory) contributed to 71% of maternal deaths. Delay in seeking care played a role in 29% of all maternal deaths, and poor accessibility to the hospital was implicated in at least 25% of cases. These findings indicate that maternal mortality in rural Zambia is among the highest in the world. The sisterhood method survey appears to be an efficient indirect means of assessing maternal mortality in rural areas of developing countries. PMID:9292638
Vork, F C; Kyanamina, S; van Roosmalen, J
Full Text Available This study was intended to investigate the factors associated with the high under-five mortality in one province of Zambia. Specifically the study (a Identifies predominant traditional cultural beliefs and perceptions concerning main causes of child deaths; (b assesses quality of health care services; and, (c determines the causes of death among children under-five years. Multiple data collection instruments were used to collect the necessary information about 360 deaths. Findings indicate that most children died before the second year of life with more than 50% dying before their first birthday. The paper argues that most of the deaths could have been averted had quality health care been provided. Recommendations on how to improve child health care provision are provided.
Expansion of antiretroviral treatment to rural health centre level by a mobile service in Mumbwa district, Zambia / Élargissement de l'accès au traitement antirétroviral au niveau des centres de santé ruraux grâce à un service mobile dans le district de Mumbwa, Zambie / Expansión del tratamiento antirretroviral a nivel de los centros de salud rurales mediante un servicio móvil en el distrito de Mumbwa, Zambia
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish SITUACIÓN: A pesar de los esfuerzos del Gobierno por extender los servicios hasta el nivel de distrito, sigue resultando difícil que las personas con VIH accedan al tratamiento antirretroviral (TAR) en la Zambia rural. Las enérgicas súplicas para ampliar los servicios relacionados con el TAR a los c [...] entros de salud rurales se enfrentan a las dificultades derivadas de la escasez de recursos. ENFOQUE: El equipo de gestión sanitaria en el distrito de Mumbwa introdujo servicios móviles de TAR que hacían uso de recursos humanos y asesoramiento técnico de hospitales de distrito, así como la participación de la comunidad en cuatro centros de salud rurales en el primer trimestre de 2007. Este trabajo aborda el uso de los servicios móviles de TAR en el distrito rural de Mumbwa. MARCO REGIONAL: Mumbwa es un distrito rural con un área de 23 000 km2 y una población de 167 000 habitantes. Antes de la introducción de los servicios móviles, los servicios de TAR se proporcionaban sólo en el Hospital de Distrito de Mumbwa. CAMBIOS IMPORTANTES: Los servicios móviles mejoraron la accesibilidad al TAR, especialmente para usuarios con un mejor estado funcional, es decir, aún capaces de trabajar. Además, estos servicios móviles pueden reducir el número de casos de «pérdidas durante el seguimiento». Esto podría deberse a la mayor implicación de la comunidad y al mejor apoyo ofrecido por estos servicios a los usuarios en las áreas rurales. LECCIONES APRENDIDAS: Estos servicios móviles para el TAR ayudaron a extender los servicios a los centros de salud rurales cuando los recursos fueron limitados, acercándolos lo máximo posible a los lugares donde viven los usuarios. Abstract in english PROBLEM: Despite the Government's effort to expand services to district level, it is still hard for people living with HIV to access antiretroviral treatment (ART) in rural Zambia. Strong demands for expanding ART services at the rural health centre level face challenges of resource shortages. APPRO [...] ACH: The Mumbwa district health management team introduced mobile ART services using human resources and technical support from district hospitals, and community involvement at four rural health centres in the first quarter of 2007. This paper discusses the uptake of the mobile ART services in rural Mumbwa. LOCAL SETTING: Mumbwa is a rural district with an area of 23 000 km² and a population of 167 000. Before the introduction of mobile services, ART services were provided only at Mumbwa District Hospital. RELEVANT CHANGES: The mobile services improved accessibility to ART, especially for clients in better functional status, i.e. still able to work. In addition, these mobile services may reduce the number of cases "lost to follow-up". This might be due to the closer involvement of the community and the better support offered by these services to rural clients. LESSONS LEARNT: These mobile ART services helped expand services to rural health facilities where resources are limited, bringing them as close as possible to where clients live.
Christopher, Dube; Ikuma, Nozaki; Tadao, Hayakawa; Kazuhiro, Kakimoto; Norio, Yamada; James B, Simpungwe.
This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub?sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change).
Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, SØren
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Zambia, translocation of wildlife from National Parks to private owned game ranches demands that only animals free of infectious diseases that could adversely affect the expansion of the wildlife industry should be translocated to game ranches. Sarcoptes mange (Sarcoptes scarbiei has been involved in the reduction of wildlife populations in some species. Results Sarcoptes mange (Sarcoptes scarbiei was detected and eradicated from two herds of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer calves captured in the Kafue GMA in July 2004 and August 2005. The overall prevalence was estimated at 89.5% (77/86. Sex had no influence on the occurrence and severity of the disease. Of the 86 calves used in the study, 72.1% had good body condition scores, 20.9% were fair and 7.0% were poor. Of the 77 infected calves, 53.2% were mildly infected, 28.6% were moderately and 18.2% were severely infected. Body condition score was correlated to the severity of the infection (r = 0.72, p n = 86 at capture. Eradication of Sarcoptes mites from the entire herd using ivermetcin was dependant on the severity of the infection. The overall ability of ivermectin to clear the infection after the first treatment was estimated at 81.8% (n = 77. It increased to 94.8% and 100% after the second and third treatments respectively. Conclusion This is the first report on the epidemiology and treatment of Sarcoptes mange in African buffaloes in Zambia. This study improves our understanding about Sarcoptes scabiei epidemiology and treatment which will have further applications for the safe animal translocation.
The Zambia Country Study, which was part of the Danida-funded project Climate Change Mitigation in Southern Africa: Phase 2, aimed at methodological development, national mitigation analysis and institutional capacity building in Zambia. The study comprised the following five elements: Comprehensive evaluation of national social and economic development framework for climate change; Baseline scenario(s) projection(s); Mitigation scenario(s) projection(s); Macro-economic assessment; Implementation Issues. (au) 17 refs.
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Zambia was first reported in 1974 during an epizootic of cattle and sheep that occurred in parts of Central, Southern and Copperbelt Provinces. In 1990, the disease was documented in nine districts of the provinces of Zambia. In the last two decades, there have been no rep [...] orts of RVF. This long period without reported clinical disease raises questions as to whether RVF is a current or just a perceived threat. To address this question, World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) disease occurrence data on RVF for the period 2005-2010 in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) was analysed. From the analysis, it was evident that most countries that share a common border with Zambia had reported at least one occurrence of the disease during the period under review. Due to the absence of natural physical barriers between Zambia and most of her neighbours, informal livestock trade and movements is a ubiquitous reality. Analysis of the rainfall patterns also showed that Zambia received rains sufficient to support a mosquito population large enough for high risk of RVF transmission. The evidence of disease occurrence in nearby countries coupled with animal movement, and environmental risk suggests that RVF is a serious threat to Zambia. In conclusion, the current occurrence of RVF in Zambia is unclear, but there are sufficient indications that the magnitude of the circulating infection is such that capacity building in disease surveillance and courses on recognition of the disease for field staff is recommended. Given the zoonotic potential of RVF, these measures are also a prerequisite for accurate assessment of the disease burden in humans.
George, Dautu; Calvin, Sindato; Aaron S., Mweene; Kenny L., Samui; Polly, Roy; Robert, Noad; Janusz, Paweska; Phelix A.O., Majiwa; Antony J., Musoke.
In Zambia, because safe, legal abortion is inaccessible to many women, an unknown number of women each year resort to illegal abortions, many of which are performed under unsanitary and unsafe conditions. The death toll from these procedures is likely high, and almost all such deaths could be avoided if access to safe abortion were improved and unintended pregnancies were prevented. PMID:20653092
Likwa, Rosemary Ndonyo; Biddlecom, Ann; Ball, Haley
Zambia has for many years been heavily dependent upon the mining of copper which, combined with cobalt production, represents over 98% of mineral sales and 75% of export earnings (1997 figures). The industrial minerals industry within Zambia has therefore been inevitably tied to the fortunes of these two metals. The recent privatization, and break up, of ZCCM (Zambia Consolidated Copper Mines) has led to a resurgence in investment in the mining sector. Many analysts have predicted that there ...
Abstract Background User fees for primary care services were removed in rural districts in Zambia in 2006. Experience from other countries has suggested that health workers play a key role in determining the success of a fee removal policy, but also find the implementation of such a policy challenging. The policy was introduced against a backdrop of a major shortage in qualified health staff. Methods As part of a larger study on the experience and effect of user...
Carasso Barbara S; Lagarde Mylene; Cheelo Caesar; Chansa Collins; Palmer Natasha
Abstract This paper is a commentary on a project application of telemedicine to alleviate primary health care problems in Lundazi district in the Eastern province of Zambia. The project dubbed 'The Virtual Doctor Project' will use hard body vehicles fitted with satellite communication devices and modern medical equipment to deliver primary health care services to some of the neediest areas of the country. The relevance and importance of the project lies in the fact that these areas ...
Mustarde Paul; Mupela Evans N; Lc, Jones Huw
Full Text Available Our aim in this study was to investigate the relationships among a calling orientation, work role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement of teachers in Zambia. A quantitative approach was followed and a cross-sectional survey was used. The sample (n = 150 included 75 basic and 75 secondary school teachers in the Choma district of Zambia. The Work Role Fit Scale, Work-Life Questionnaire, Psychological Meaningfulness Scale, and Work Engagement Scale were administered. Structural equation modelling confirmed a model in which a calling orientation impacted psychological meaningfulness and work engagement significantly. A calling orientation impacted work engagement directly, while such work orientation impacted psychological meaningfulness indirectly via work role fit. The results suggest that it is necessary to address the work orientation and work role fit of teachers in Zambia as pathways to psychological meaningfulness and work engagement.These results have implications for the recruitment, selection, training, and development of teachers in Zambia.
Abstract Background Maternal mortality in developing countries is high and international targets for reduction are unlikely to be met. Zambia's maternal mortality ratio was 591 per 100,000 live births according to survey data (2007) while routinely collected data captured only about 10% of these deaths. In one district in Zambia medical staff reviewed deaths occurring in the labour ward but no related recommendations were documented nor was there evidence of actions taken to ...
Hadley Mary B; Tuba Mary
Abstract Background Much of the debate as to whether or not the scaling up of HIV service delivery in Africa benefits non-HIV priority services has focused on the use of nationally aggregated data. This paper analyses and presents routine health facility record data to show trend correlations across priority services. Methods Review of district office and health facility client records for 39 health facilities in three districts of Zambia, covering four consecut...
Brugha Ruairí; Simbaya Joseph; Walsh Aisling; Dicker Patrick; Ndubani Phillimon
The study determined the types of pesticide/herbicide pollutants in water, sediment and fish from the Kafue River. A preliminary investigation of the oxidative stress from these pesticides/herbicides was also assessed by measurement of catalase activity. Water, sediment and fish samples were collected upstream, midstream and downstream the Kafue river in Chingola, Kitwe, Kafue National Park and Kafue Town. Water, sediment and fish muscle were sampled and analysed for pesticides using Gas chromatography. For catalase activity fish liver samples only were examined. The pesticides/herbicides detected in all samples collectively included: Heptachlor, pp'-DDE, Cypermethrin, Chlordane, Toxaphene, Terbufos, Kelthane, Endosulfan, Dieldrin, pp'-DDD, pp'-DDT, Atrazine, Disulfoton, d-trans-Allethrin and Endrin. On the other hand, catalase activity was detected in all fish liver samples from all sites. Its levels increased significantly from Chingola upstream to sites downstream with highest being in Kafue town. This study therefore, demonstrates that there is widespread contamination of the Kafue River with pesticides/ herbicides. It also demonstrates that organochlorides are found throughout the river especially in fish samples. The spectrum of pesticides/herbicides was much wider in fish probably due to bioaccumulation. It was also observed that fish are subjected to oxidative stress as determined by catalase levels. The stress is more pronounced downstream where the catalase levels were significantly higher than Chingola. The observation that more pesticide varieties are also found downstream may suggest a likely causative effect of the pesticides on oxidative stress although this needs further investigation. This study further tentatively highlights the potential dangers of these agro-related substances to dependants of the Kafue River water body and the need to carry out risk assessments and thereafter institute corrective measures to help reduce contamination and adverse effects. PMID:17201197
Syakalima, Michelo; Choongo, Kennedy; Mwenechanya, Roy; Wepener, Victor; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maede, Yoshimitsu
Despite Zambia's relatively progressive abortion law, women continue to seek unsafe, illegal abortions. Four domains of abortion attitudes - support for legalization, immorality, rights, and access to services - were measured in 4 communities. A total of 668 people were interviewed. Associations among the 4 domains were inconsistent with expectations. The belief that abortion is immoral was widespread, but was not associated with lack of support for legalization. Instead, it was associated with belief that women need access to safe services. These findings suggest that increasing awareness about abortion law in Zambia may be important for encouraging more favorable attitudes. PMID:22920619
Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Gebreselassie, Hailemichael; Awah, Paschal; Pearson, Erin
Mining in Zambia has been practised for centuries, and in the last 70 years Zambia has risen to become one of the world's leading Cu producers as a result of the exploitation of the Zambian Copperbelt orebodies. In contrast to this long history of mining, Zambia has a relatively short history of Earth Science Education. For the past 24 years, the earth sciences have been taught within the School of Mines in University of Zambia. The School started operation on 1st June, 1973, with the purpose of training professional geologists, extractive metallurgical/mineral processing engineers and mining engineers to service the needs of the mining industry in Zambia. The School consists of three departments Geology, Metallurgy and Mineral Processing, and Mining Engineering which deliver a five-year undergraduate programme. Students are admitted to the School after completing a one-year programme in the School of Natural Sciences of the University of Zambia. Students with an average of C+ or better in Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics and Physics are admitted into the School of Mines. The School of Mines has a total of 36 teaching positions 12 for each Department. To successfully complete their course, students must pass 40 courses over a period of five years. During this time, industrial training is mandatory in the vacation periods after the third and fourth years of study. This training is mainly within the mining industry who in most cases sponsor the students for their studies in the School. The School admits 50 students on average per year, of whom five students take up Geology as a career. So far only two female students have studied in the School of Mines, both of them in Geology. The student to staff ratio in the Geology Department is 3 to 1. The low enrolment in Geology is thought to be because of a lack of knowledge of geology as a possible career by prospective students and a perceived lack of progression, once employed in industry. This has lead to a 'Geoscience in Schools' project with the main aim of making secondary school students aware of geology as a career. The Geology Department enjoys close co-operation with geology departments in a number of universities around the world, with industry, government ministries and regional bodies. It is hoped that the current increase in employment prospects for Geology graduates in Zambia will attract more students to geology as a career.
Nyambe, Imasiku Anayawa
Abstract Background This paper describes the task-shifting taking place in health centres and district hospitals in Mozambique and Zambia. The objectives of this study were to identify the perceived causes and factors facilitating or impeding task-shifting, and to determine both the positive and negative consequences of task-shifting for the service users, for the services and for health workers. Methods Data collection involved individual and group interviews a...
Ferrinho Paulo; Sidat Mohsin; Goma Fastone; Dussault Gilles
Abstract Background Non-communicable lifestyle diseases are a growing public health concern globally. Obesity is a risk factor for premature mortality from cardiovascular diseases and diabetes as well as all-cause mortality. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence and associated factors for obesity among Zambian adults in Lusaka district. Methods A community-based study was done among adults in Zambia. Descriptive and co-relational analyses wer...
Rudatsikira Emmanuel; Muula Adamson S.; Mulenga David; Siziya Seter
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Our aim in this study was to investigate the relationships among a calling orientation, work role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement of teachers in Zambia. A quantitative approach was followed and a cross-sectional survey was used. The sample (n = 150) included 75 basic and 75 sec [...] ondary school teachers in the Choma district of Zambia. The Work Role Fit Scale, Work-Life Questionnaire, Psychological Meaningfulness Scale, and Work Engagement Scale were administered. Structural equation modelling confirmed a model in which a calling orientation impacted psychological meaningfulness and work engagement significantly. A calling orientation impacted work engagement directly, while such work orientation impacted psychological meaningfulness indirectly via work role fit. The results suggest that it is necessary to address the work orientation and work role fit of teachers in Zambia as pathways to psychological meaningfulness and work engagement.These results have implications for the recruitment, selection, training, and development of teachers in Zambia.
Sebastiaan, Rothmann; Lukondo, Hamukang' andu.
Abstract Background: Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is important for effective treatment. Little is known about barriers and facilitators to ART in Zambia. The aim of the study was to gain knowledge about adherence to antiretroviral treatment among patients and health care professionals in Zambia, in order to identify interventions that may be efficient in increasing patients? adherence to antiretroviral treatment. Methods: I conducted a qualitative study in Kitwe and Masaiti ...
Background Client-initiated HIV counselling and testing has been scaled up in many African countries, in the form of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT). Test rates have remained low, with HIV-related stigma being an important barrier to HIV testing. This study explored HIV testing decisions in one rural and one urban district in Zambia with high HIV prevalence and available antiretroviral treatment. Methods Data were collected throug...
Jürgensen Marte; Tuba Mary; Fylkesnes Knut; Blystad Astrid
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and the second leading cause of mortality in Zambia. Perceptions of fairness and legitimacy of decisions relating to treatment of malaria cases within public health facilities and distribution of ITNs were assessed in a district in Zambia. The study was conducted within the framework of REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT, a north-south collaborative action research study, which evaluates the Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR approach to priority setting in Zambia, Tanzania and Kenya. Methods This paper is based on baseline in-depth interviews (IDIs conducted with 38 decision-makers, who were involved in prioritization of malaria services and ITN distribution at district, facility and community levels in Zambia, one Focus Group Discussion (FGD with District Health Management Team managers and eight FGDs with outpatients' attendees. Perceptions and attitudes of providers and users and practices of providers were systematized according to the four AFR conditions relevance, publicity, appeals and leadership. Results Conflicting criteria for judging fairness were used by decision-makers and patients. Decision-makers argued that there was fairness in delivery of malaria treatment and distribution of ITNs based on alleged excessive supply of free malaria medicines, subsidized ITNs, and presence of a qualified health-provider in every facility. Patients argued that there was unfairness due to differences in waiting time, distances to health facilities, erratic supply of ITNs, no responsive appeal mechanisms, inadequate access to malaria medicines, ITNs and health providers, and uncaring providers. Decision-makers only perceived government bodies and donors/NGOs to be legitimate stakeholders to involve during delivery. Patients found government bodies, patients, indigenous healers, chiefs and politicians to be legitimate stakeholders during both planning and delivery. Conclusion Poor status of the AFR conditions of relevance, publicity, appeals and leadership corresponds well to the differing perceptions of fairness and unfairness among outpatient attendees and decision-makers. This may have been re-enforced by existing disagreements between the two groups regarding who the legitimate stakeholders to involve during service delivery were. Conflicts identified in this study could be resolved by promoting application of approaches such as AFR during priority setting in the district.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria in Zambia accounts for about 4 million clinical cases and 8 000 deaths annually. Artemether-lumefantrine (ACT, a relatively expensive drug, is being used as first line treatment of uncomplicated malaria. However, diagnostic capacity in Zambia is low, leading to potentially avoidable wastage of drugs due to unnecessary anti malarial treatment. Methods A cost-effectiveness evaluation of the three current alternatives to malaria diagnosis (clinical, microscopy and Rapid Diagnostic Tests- RDT was conducted in 12 facilities from 4 districts in Zambia. The analysis was conducted along an observational study, thus reflecting practice in health facilities under routine conditions. Average and incremental cost effectiveness ratios were estimated from the providers' perspective. Effectiveness was measured in relation to malaria cases correctly diagnosed by each strategy. Results Average cost-effectiveness ratios show that RDTs were more efficient (US$ 6.5 than either microscopy (US$ 11.9 or clinical diagnosis (US$ 17.1 for malaria case correctly diagnosed. In relation to clinical diagnoses the incremental cost per case correctly diagnosed and treated was US$ 2.6 and US$ 9.6 for RDT and microscopy respectively. RDTs would be much cheaper to scale up than microscopy. The findings were robust to changes in assumptions and various parameters. Conclusion RDTs were the most cost effective method at correctly diagnosing malaria in primary health facilities in Zambia when compared to clinical and microscopy strategies. However, the treatment prescription practices of the health workers can impact on the potential that a diagnostic test has to lead to savings on antimalarials. The results of this study will serve to inform policy makers on which alternatives will be most efficient in reducing malaria misdiagnosis by taking into account both the costs and effects of each strategy.
BackgroundTwo mitochondrial DNA clades have been described in Anopheles funestus populations from southern Africa. Clade I is common across the continent while clade II is known only from Mozambique and Madagascar. The specific biological status of these clades is at present unknown. We investigated the possible role that each clade might play in the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and the insecticide resistance status of An. funestus from Zimbabwe and Zambia.MethodsMosquitoes were collected inside houses from Nchelenge District, Zambia and Honde Valley, Zimbabwe in 2013 and 2014. WHO susceptibility tests, synergist assays and resistance intensity tests were conducted on wild females and progeny of wild females. ELISA was used to detect Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein. Specimens were identified to species and mtDNA clades using standard molecular methods.ResultsThe Zimbabwean samples were all clade I while the Zambian population comprised 80% clade I and 20% clade II in both years of collection. ELISA tests gave an overall infection rate of 2.3% and 2.1% in 2013, and 3.5% and 9.2% in 2014 for Zimbabwe and Zambia respectively. No significant difference was observed between the clades. All populations were resistant to pyrethroids and carbamates but susceptible to organochlorines and organophosphates. Synergist assays indicated that pyrethroid resistance is mediated by cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenases. Resistance intensity tests showed high survival rates after 8-hrs continuous exposure to pyrethroids but exposure to bendiocarb gave the same results as the susceptible control.ConclusionsThis is the first record of An. funestus mtDNA clade II occurring in Zambia. No evidence was found to suggest that the clades are markers of biologically separate populations. The ability of An. funestus to withstand prolonged exposure to pyrethroids has serious implications for the use of these insecticides, either through LLINs or IRS, in southern Africa in general and resistance management strategies should be urgently implemented. PMID:25293669
Choi, Kwang S; Christian, Riann; Nardini, Luisa; Wood, Oliver R; Agubuzo, Eunice; Muleba, Mbanga; Munyati, Shungu; Makuwaza, Aramu; Koekemoer, Lizette L; Brooke, Basil D; Hunt, Richard H; Coetzee, Maureen
Instances of economic benefits which are likely to be considered when introducing food irradiation as an industrial and commercial food processing method in Zambia are discussed from a point of view of increasing both the local and external marketing potential of various local food commodities. The present status of the food irradiation programme is also briefly discussed. (author)
As countries' populations become more religiously diverse, a need to review the religious education syllabus that operates is often perceived. One such country is Zambia, which was not only traditionally religiously diverse but has become even more so with the advent of Christianity, Islam and Hinduism and other non-African faiths. This article
Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable attention has been given by policy makers and researchers to the human resources for health crisis in Africa. However, little attention has been paid to quantifying health facility-level trends in health worker numbers, distribution and workload, despite growing demands on health workers due to the availability of new funds for HIV/AIDS control scale-up. This study analyses and reports trends in HIV and non-HIV ambulatory service workloads on clinical staff in urban and rural district level facilities. Methods Structured surveys of health facility managers, and health services covering 2005-07 were conducted in three districts of Zambia in 2008 (two urban and one rural, to fill this evidence gap. Intra-facility analyses were conducted, comparing trends in HIV and non-HIV service utilisation with staff trends. Results Clinical staff (doctors, nurses and nurse-midwives, and clinical officers numbers and staff population densities fell slightly, with lower ratios of staff to population in the rural district. The ratios of antenatal care and family planning registrants to nurses/nurse-midwives were highest at baseline and increased further at the rural facilities over the three years, while daily outpatient department (OPD workload in urban facilities fell below that in rural facilities. HIV workload, as measured by numbers of clients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT per facility staff member, was highest in the capital city, but increased rapidly in all three districts. The analysis suggests evidence of task sharing, in that staff designated by managers as ART and PMTCT workers made up a higher proportion of frontline service providers by 2007. Conclusions This analysis of workforce patterns across 30 facilities in three districts of Zambia illustrates that the remarkable achievements in scaling-up HIV/AIDS service delivery has been on the back of sustained non-HIV workload levels, increasing HIV workload and stagnant health worker numbers. The findings are based on an analysis of routine data that are available to district and national managers. Mixed methods research is needed, combining quantitative analyses of routine health information with follow-up qualitative interviews, to explore and explain workload changes, and to identify and measure where problems are most acute, so that decision makers can respond appropriately. This study provides quantitative evidence of a human resource crisis in health facilities in Zambia, which may be more acute in rural areas.
Abstract Background Considerable attention has been given by policy makers and researchers to the human resources for health crisis in Africa. However, little attention has been paid to quantifying health facility-level trends in health worker numbers, distribution and workload, despite growing demands on health workers due to the availability of new funds for HIV\\/AIDS control scale-up. This study analyses and reports trends in HIV and non-HIV ambulatory service workloads on clinical staff in urban and rural district level facilities. Methods Structured surveys of health facility managers, and health services covering 2005-07 were conducted in three districts of Zambia in 2008 (two urban and one rural), to fill this evidence gap. Intra-facility analyses were conducted, comparing trends in HIV and non-HIV service utilisation with staff trends. Results Clinical staff (doctors, nurses and nurse-midwives, and clinical officers) numbers and staff population densities fell slightly, with lower ratios of staff to population in the rural district. The ratios of antenatal care and family planning registrants to nurses\\/nurse-midwives were highest at baseline and increased further at the rural facilities over the three years, while daily outpatient department (OPD) workload in urban facilities fell below that in rural facilities. HIV workload, as measured by numbers of clients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) per facility staff member, was highest in the capital city, but increased rapidly in all three districts. The analysis suggests evidence of task sharing, in that staff designated by managers as ART and PMTCT workers made up a higher proportion of frontline service providers by 2007. Conclusions This analysis of workforce patterns across 30 facilities in three districts of Zambia illustrates that the remarkable achievements in scaling-up HIV\\/AIDS service delivery has been on the back of sustained non-HIV workload levels, increasing HIV workload and stagnant health worker numbers. The findings are based on an analysis of routine data that are available to district and national managers. Mixed methods research is needed, combining quantitative analyses of routine health information with follow-up qualitative interviews, to explore and explain workload changes, and to identify and measure where problems are most acute, so that decision makers can respond appropriately. This study provides quantitative evidence of a human resource crisis in health facilities in Zambia, which may be more acute in rural areas.
This thesis studied reliability of power supply in Zambia following two major power blackouts that affected the whole country. The case study focussed on the generation and transmission network owned by Zambia?s biggest utility company Zesco. Three methods of study were selected. The first method looked at the transient stability simulations of Zesco generators when subjected to a large disturbance after a three phase short circuit was applied at three selected buses which are considered cri...
Full Text Available This paper uses household data collected from livestock-rearing communities in 3 districts inSouthern Province of Zambia and corner-solution econometric models to measure the effectof productive potential and market access on livestock production. We also test for theexistence of heterogeneous effects across agro-ecological regions, livestock species andpoverty levels. To the best of our knowledge, no study has done this before. The findingsidentify the need for policies and interventions that are aimed at strengtheninglivestock-based livelihood systems to be responsive to not only the target groups but alsoproductive potential and market access characteristics of the communities in which they live.The livestock systems inherent in the various districts and communities also need to beexplicitly taken into account.
Human monkeypox is a viral zoonosis caused by monkeypox virus, an orthopoxvirus (OPXV). The majority of human monkeypox cases have been reported in moist forested regions in West and Central Africa, particularly in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). In this study we investigated zoonotic OPXV infection among wild animals in Zambia, which shares a border with DRC, to assess the geographical distribution of OPXV. We screened for OPXV antibodies in sera from non-human primates (NHPs), rodents and shrews by ELISA, and performed real-time PCR to detect OPXV DNA in spleen samples. Serological analysis indicated that 38 of 259 (14.7?%) rodents, 14 of 42 (33.3?%) shrews and 4 of 188 (2.1?%) NHPs had antibodies against OPXV. The OPXV DNA could not be detected in spleens from any animals tested. Our results indicated that wild animals living in rural human habitation areas of Zambia have been infected with OPXV. PMID:25319753
Orba, Yasuko; Sasaki, Michihito; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Ishii, Akihiro; Thomas, Yuka; Ogawa, Hirohito; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Morikawa, Shigeru; Saijo, Masayuki; Sawa, Hirofumi
This reports details the technical evaluation of ceramic clays collected during visits to Zambia in 1990 and 1991 by the author (Clive Mitchell). The clay samples included: Choma kaolin (Southern Province), Twapia kaolin (Copperbelt Province), Kapiri Mposhi kaolin (Central Province), Masenche clay (Northern Province), Leula clay, Misenga clay and Chikankata clay (Southern Province). The Choma kaolin was asessed to be an excellent source of ceramic-grade kaolin. The Twapia and Kapiri Mposhi ka...
Mitchell, C. J.
Zambia being part of the world community clearly understands that careless handling of radioactive waste would cause problems - worldwide - for human health, for the environment and natural resources management. It is for this reason that the Radiation Protection Board has initiated a Radioactive Waste Management Programme covering the following areas: (i) Legislation of Radioactive Waste Management; (ii) Immobilization of spent sealed radioactive sources; and (iii) Siting and construction of an interim storage facility. (author)
The paper discusses the results of Uranium content analyses of samples collected on a country wide survey using fluorimetry.The analysis of the survey samples and based on the threshold of 3.0 ppm U established three possible Uranium provinces in Zambia,namely: the Bangweulu; the Kabwe-Mkushi; and in scattered pockets in the Petauke,Chipata,Lundazi,Kasempa,Mwinilunga,Mumbwa and Mpika areas.13 refs.,fig.,3 maps
Full Text Available Abstract Background Theileriosis, caused by Theileria parva, is an economically important disease in Africa. It is a major constraint to the development of the livestock industry in some parts of eastern, central and southern Africa. In Zambia, theileriosis causes losses of up to 10,000 cattle annually. Methods Cattle blood samples were collected for genetic analysis of Theileria parva from Isoka and Petauke districts in Zambia. Microsatellite analysis was then performed on all Theileria parva positive samples for PCR using a panel of 9 microsatellite markers. Microsatellite data was analyzed using microsatellite toolkit, GenAlEx ver. 6, Fstat ver. 22.214.171.124, and LIAN computer softwares. Results The combined percentage of positive samples in both districts determined by PCR using the p104 gene primers was 54.9% (95% CI: 46.7 63.1%, 78/142, while in each district, it was 44.8% (95% CI: 34.8 54.8% and 76.1% (95% CI = 63.9 88.4% for Isoka and Petauke districts, respectively. We analyzed the population genetic structure of Theileria parva from a total of 61 samples (33 from Isoka and 28 from Petauke using a panel of 9 microsatellite markers encompassing the 4 chromosomes of Theileria parva. Wrights F index (FST = 0.178 showed significant differentiation between the Isoka and Petauke populations. Linkage disequilibrium was observed when populations from both districts were treated as a single population. When analyzed separately, linkage disequilibrium was observed in Kanyelele and Kalembe areas in Isoka district, Isoka district overall and in Petauke district. Petauke district had a higher multiplicity of infection than Isoka district. Conclusion Population genetic analyses of Theileria parva from Isoka and Petauke districts showed a low level of genotype exchange between the districts, but a high level of genetic diversity within each district population, implying genetic and geographic sub-structuring between the districts. The sub-structuring observed, along with the lack of panmixia in the populations, could have been due to low transmission levels at the time of sampling. However, the Isoka population was less diverse than the Petauke population.
This guide is designed for language teachers training Peace Corps volunteers in Nyanja for service in Zambia, and focuses on daily communication skills in that context. It consists of a language "survival kit" of useful phrases and vocabulary, conjugation of the verb "to be," the Zambia national anthem, extensive notes on verb tenses and
Peace Corps (Zambia).
Since the early 1990s and, perhaps, as one effect of the emergence of the uni-polar world, there have been a lot of "democratizing" activities in the Sub-Saharan context, with Zambia, a central African country of about 10 million, at the forefront of these processes. While democracy, in one form or another, has come to Zambia, socio-economic
Abdi, Ali A.; Shizha, Edward; Bwalya, Ignatio
The papers presented at this meeting dealt with an international comparison of district heating, the Swiss district heating network, political aspects of nuclear district heating, nuclear and non-nuclear sources for district heating. 17 figs., 6 tabs
The purpose of this thesis is to research how the Zambian Government through the use of the Zambia ?Tourist Board can increase awareness of Zambias various tourist attractions, its geographical position, and ?differentiate the country from its competitors as an African tourist destination.? The research information was collected by studying theories related to marketing planning. Personal ?interviews with Chinese visitors in Zambia, members of staff at the Zambia Tourism Board,...
Kasongo, Mulenga Ablbertina
...of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia. 319.56-48 Section 319.56-48...of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia. Baby squash (Curcurbita maxima ...into the continental United States from Zambia only under the conditions...
Willemite mineralisation of several Zn-Pb deposits hosted in the Proterozoic carbonates of Namibia and Zambia has been rather neglected in the literature on zinc ores of southern Africa. In fact, willemite (Zn2SiO4) is one of the main zinc carriers in several high-grade carbonate-hosted non-sulphide deposits and prospects, located in the southern African subcontinent. These deposits (Berg Aukas, Abenab West and Baltika in the Otavi Mountain Land, Namibia; Kabwe, Excelsior and Star Zinc, Zambi...
Radioactive materials have been in use in Zambia for a long time and its applications are non-military and mostly are used in medicine, research, teaching and industry. Radioactive waste management practices have been confined mainly to collection and storage of radioactive wastes in temporal storage facilities or strong rooms. With the proposed establishment of the Radiotherapy Centre, the increase of radioactive materials in the country's hospitals, research centres and industries, the volume and types of radioactive wastes on the whole is expected to increase requiring a well defined radiation infrastructure. (author)
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that, as of the end of 1994, 17% of adults in Zambia had been infected with HIV. The Ministry of Health's National AIDS/STD/TB and Leprosy Program's (NASTLP) prevalence estimates concur with those of the WHO. NASTLP surveillance covers women attending antenatal clinics, outpatients, and blood donors. Although available HIV prevalence data for the country are less than reliable, it is clear that HIV prevalence has increased over time to presently high levels and that prevalence is higher in urban areas than in rural areas. Very high levels of HIV prevalence have been found among some health care professionals tested at Lusaka University Teaching Hospital. The data on AIDS cases are of poor quality. 42% of urban and 33% of rural households in 1993 contained orphans. Projections of the course of the epidemic are presented along with discussion of the potential impact upon the economy, the agricultural sector, and the private sector. Zambia's background is outlined. Vulnerability is then considered with regard to sexually transmitted diseases, poverty, the loss of formal sector employment and structural adjustment programs, mobility within society, urbanization, social pressure upon girls to have sexual intercourse, and the traditional practice of cleansing surviving spouses through sexual intercourse with an in-law. Government and private sector responses and external assistance from the European Commission are noted. PMID:12292060
Zambia was economically prosperous at independence (1964), due to the thriving copper industry. Zambia has the potential to expand agricultural production. However, it is estimated that only 14% of total agricultural land is currently being utilized. Agriculture generates about 22% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and provides direct livelihood to more than 50% of the population. The agricultural sector employs 67% of the labor force and it is the main source of income and provides employment ...
Samatebele, Helen M.
"While public participation in constitution-making is recognised under international law, its extent is not elaborated. This has resulted in governments pursuing constitution-making processes that, despite involving public participation, do not involve meaningful public participation. As shall be illustrated in this study, this is the dilemma faced in Zambia. Zambia has experienced constitutional instability since independence. It has had four constitutions since then, and is currently in the...
This thesis investigates the utilisation of maternal health care in Zambia, where despite being a signatory to the Safe Motherhood Initiative and Millennium Development Goals, which are aimed at improving maternal health, indicators of maternal health continue to perform poorly. The need to understand crucial factors in improving maternal health motivated the current research, especially since there is a dearth of literature in this area in Zambia. The thesis focuses on two aspects of materna...
Chama-chiliba, Chitalu Miriam
ABSTRACT The dissertation comprises four chapters focusing on issues concerning policy re-forms and monetary policy in Zambia. Chapter 1 briefly outlines the theoretical foundations for the reforms undertaken in Zambia since the mid 1980s and the process thereof. The main issues addressed were the removal of interest rate and credit controls, exchange rate devaluation and the use of indirect instruments in implementing monetary policy. Monetary policy also began to focus more on stabili...
Simatele, Munacinga C. H.
The Mesoproterozoic Irumide belt is a northeast-trending structural province stretching from central Zambia to the Zambia-Tanzania border and northern Malawi. Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic transcurrent shear zones within reactivated parts of the Palaeoproterozoic Ubendian belt define its northeastern limit. The northwestern margin is defined by the largely undeformed basement lithologies of the Bangweulu block. An intensely folded and sheared zone at the southeastern margin of the Mporokoso Group sedimentary depocentre on the Bangweulu block, interpreted to have developed above a thrust at the basement-cover interface, indicates that far-field effects of the Irumide Orogen also affected the southeastern part of the Bangweulu block sedimentary cover. To the west and southwest, Irumide and basement lithologies were reworked by the Damara-Lufilian-Zambezi Orogen within the Neoproterozoic Zambezi and Lufilian belts. The Choma-Kalomo block, previously regarded as the southwesterly continuation of the Irumide belt, is a distinct Mesoproterozoic province, while a succession of structurally juxtaposed tectonic terranes in eastern Zambia record a deformation event related to the Irumide Orogen. The lithological units identified in the Irumide belt include: (1) limited Neoarchaean rocks emplaced between 2.73 and 2.61 Ga and representing the oldest rocks in the Bangweulu block; (2) ca. 2.05-1.85 Ga volcano-plutonic complexes and gneisses representing the most important components in the Bangweulu block; (3) an extensive quartzite-metapelite succession with minor carbonate forming the Muva Supergroup, and deposited at ca. 1.85 Ga; (4) granitoids emplaced between 1.65 and 1.55 Ga; (5) a minor suite of anorogenic plutons (nepheline syenite and biotite granite) restricted to the far northeastern Irumide belt and emplaced between 1.36 and 1.33 Ga; (6) voluminous syn- to post-kinematic Irumide granitoids emplaced between 1.05 and 0.95 Ga. Crustal shortening and thickening in the Irumide belt are shown by northwestward-directed thrusts and related folds and metamorphic parageneses recording a clockwise medium-pressure/medium-temperature P- T- t path. Metamorphic grades range from greenschist facies in the foreland to the northwest to upper amphibolite facies in the southeast, with local granulites. Peak metamorphism is diachronous across the belt and bracketed between 1.05 in the southeast and 1.02 Ga in the northwest.
De Waele, B.; Kampunzu, A. B.; Mapani, B. S. E.; Tembo, F.
Abstract For many sub-Saharan African countries, a National Health Research System (NHRS) exists more in theory than in reality, with the health system itself receiving the majority of investments. However, this lack of attention to NHRS development can, in fact, frustrate health systems in achieving their desired goals. In this case study, we discuss the ongoing development of Zambias NHRS. We reflect on our experience in the ongoing consultative development of Zambias NHRS a...
Chanda-Kapata Pascalina; Campbell Sandy; Zarowsky Christina
Abstract Background Zambia experienced declining aggregate fertility and increasing aggregate contraceptive use from 1990 to 2000. Yet, in rural Zambia, progress in family planning has lagged far behind the advances made in Zambia's urban areas. The contraceptive prevalence rate in Lusaka and other urban areas outstripped the rate in rural Zambia by nearly 25 percentage points (41.2 percent versus 16.6 percent) in 2001. The total fertility rate varied between urban and rural ...
Speizer Ilene S; White Justin S
Aim of this volume, which brings together seven studies of religious change in Zambia, is to describe the processes of religious change in this country during the last few centuries. These studies are: 1) Towards a theory of religious change in Central Africa. 2) Possession and mediumship in Zambia: towards a comparative approach. 3) Explorations in the history and sociology of territorial cults in Zambia. 4) Religious change and the problem of evil in Western Zambia. 5) Regional and non-regi...
Binsbergen, W. M. J.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria vector control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and indoor residual spraying (IRS, with pyrethroids and DDT, to reduce malaria transmission has been expansively implemented in Zambia. The impact of these interventions on malaria morbidity and mortality has not previously been formally assessed at the population level in Zambia. Methods The impact of IRS (15 urban districts and LLINs (15 rural districts implementation on severe malaria cases, deaths and case fatality rates in children below the age of five years were compared. Zambian national Health Management Information System data from 2007 to 2008 were retrospectively analysed to assess the epidemiological impact of the two interventions using odds ratios to compare the pre-scaling up year 2007 with the scaling-up year 2008. Results Overall there were marked reductions in morbidity and mortality, with cases, deaths and case fatality rates (CFR of severe malaria decreasing by 31%, 63% and 62%, respectively between 2007 and 2008. In urban districts with IRS introduction there was a significant reduction in mortality (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.31-0.43, P = 0.015, while the reduction in mortality in rural districts with LLINs implementation was not significant (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.67-1.04, P = 0.666. A similar pattern was observed for case fatality rates with a significant reduction in urban districts implementing IRS (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.33-0.36, P = 0.005, but not in rural districts implementing LLINs (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.91-1.00, P = 0.913. No substantial difference was detected in overall reduction of malaria cases between districts implementing IRS and LLINs (P = 0.933. Conclusion Routine surveillance data proved valuable for determining the temporal effects of malaria control with two strategies, IRS and LLINs on severe malaria disease in different types of Zambian districts. However, this analysis did not take into account the effect of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT, which were being scaled up countrywide in both rural and urban districts.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurses and midwives are the key providers of nursing and midwifery services; in many countries, they form the major category of frontline workers who provide both preventive and curative services in the community. When the skills and experience of nursing and midwifery personnel are maximized, they can contribute significantly to positive health outcomes. We conducted a survey among nurses and midwives working at district level in Sudan and Zambia to determine their roles and functions in polio eradication and measles elimination programmes. Methods Nurses and midwives practising in four selected districts in Sudan and in Zambia completed a self-administered questionnaire on their roles and responsibilities, their routine activities and their functions during supplementary immunization campaigns for polio and measles. Results Nurses and midwives were found to play significant roles in implementing immunization programme activities. The level of responsibilities of nurses and midwives in their routine work related more to existing opportunities than to their job descriptions. In Zambia, where nurses reported constraints in performing their tasks, the reasons cited were an increase in the burden of disease and the shortage of health personnel. Factors identified as key to improving work performance included written job descriptions, opportunities for staff and career development and opportunities to earn extra income through activities associated with their jobs. Other non-monetary incentives mentioned included reliable transport, resources and logistics to support routine work in the district. However, in both countries, during supplementary immunization activities or mass campaigns for polio eradication and measles control, nurses and midwives took on more management responsibilities. Conclusion This study shows that nurses and midwives play an important role in implementing immunization activities at the district level and that their roles can be maximized by creating opportunities that lead to their having more responsibilities in their work and in particular, their involvement in early phases of planning of priority health activities. This should be accompanied by written job descriptions, tasks and clear lines of authority as well as good supportive supervision. The lessons from supplementary immunization activities, where the roles of nurses and midwives are maximized, can be easily adopted to benefit the rest of the health services provided at district level.
By request of the Dutch Lower House the Netherlands Court of Audit examined the profitability or loss-making of district heating projects between 2001 and 2003. District heating supplies heat to consumers for heating their houses and providing warm tap water. The heat is supplied via warm water that runs through a network of pipes. In the Netherlands, about 250,000 households use district heating. The request by the Dutch Lower House to conduct research on district heating coheres with the initiative District Heating Bill. The bill aims to legally guarantee the supply and affordability of heat for consumers of district heating. [mk
Forest Conservation and Peoples Livelihoods: Explaining Encroachment on Zambias Protected Forest Landscapes - The Case Of Mwekera National Forest, Kitwe, CopperbeltAbstractThe conflicts between conservation objectives and the livelihood needs of local communities are intricate and difficult to resolve and yet the success of any conservation effort hinges on their solution. This is particularly true in forest conservation in Third World countries like Zambia, where rural populations depe...
Shitima, Mwepya Ephraim
Forest Conservation and Peoples Livelihoods: Explaining Encroachment on Zambias Protected Forest Landscapes - The Case Of Mwekera National Forest, Kitwe, Copperbelt Abstract The conflicts between conservation objectives and the livelihood needs of local communities are intricate and difficult to resolve and yet the success of any conservation effort hinges on their solution. This is particularly true in forest conservation in Third World countries like Zambia, where rural populations de...
Shitima, Mwepya Ephraim
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity, mortality and non-fatal disability in Zambia, especially among children, pregnant women and the poor. Data gathered by the National Malaria Control Centre has shown that recently observed widespread treatment failure of SP and chloroquine precipitated a surge in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. As a result, the Government has recently replaced chloroquine and SP with combination therapy as first-line treatment for malaria. Despite the acclaimed therapeutic advantages of ACTs over monotherapies with SP and CQ, the cost of ACTs is much greater, raising concerns about affordability in many poor countries such as Zambia. This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness analysis of artemether-lumefantrine, a version of ACTs adopted in Zambia in mid 2004. Methods Using data gathered from patients presenting at public health facilities with suspected malaria, the costs and effects of using ACTs versus SP as first-line treatment for malaria were estimated. The study was conducted in six district sites. Treatment success and reduction in demand for second line treatment constituted the main effectiveness outcomes. The study gathered data on the efficacy of, and compliance to, AL and SP treatment from a random sample of patients. Costs are based on estimated drug, labour, operational and capital inputs. Drug costs were based on dosages and unit prices provided by the Ministry of Health and the manufacturer (Norvatis. Findings The results suggest that AL produces successful treatment at less cost than SP, implying that AL is more cost-effective. While it is acknowledged that implementing national ACT program will require considerable resources, the study demonstrates that the health gains (treatment success from every dollar spent are significantly greater if AL is used rather than SP. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is estimated to be US$4.10. When the costs of second line treatment are considered the ICER of AL becomes negative, indicating that there are greater resource savings associated with AL in terms of reduction of costs of complicated malaria treatment. Conclusion This study suggests the decision to adopt AL is justifiable on both economic and public health grounds.
This paper aims to examine the causality relationship between foreign direct investment inflow (FDI) and economic growth (GDPGR) in Zambia using the time-series analyses. All analyses are conducted with the annual data of foreign direct investment and real gross domestic product of Zambia over the years of 1970 and 2011. The results of the ADF unit root test show that the time-series data are non-stationary at levels, but become stationary in the first differences. Besides, the results of ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the recognition that morbidity and mortality due to malaria had dramatically increased in the last three decades, in 2002 the government of Zambia reviewed its efforts to prevent and treat malaria. Convincing evidence of the failing efficacy of chloroquine resulted in the initiation of a process that eventually led to the development and implementation of a new national drug policy based on artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT. Methods All published and unpublished documented evidence dealing with the antimalarial drug policy change was reviewed. These data were supplemented by the authors' observations of the policy change process. The information has been structured to capture the timing of events, the challenges encountered, and the resolutions reached in order to achieve implementation of the new treatment policy. Results A decision was made to change national drug policy to artemether-lumefantrine (AL in the first quarter of 2002, with a formal announcement made in October 2002. During this period, efforts were undertaken to identify funding for the procurement of AL and to develop new malaria treatment guidelines, training materials, and plans for implementation of the policy. In order to avoid a delay in implementation, the policy change decision required a formal adoption within existing legislation. Starting with donated drug, a phased deployment of AL began in January 2003 with initial use in seven districts followed by scaling up to 28 districts in the second half of 2003 and then to all 72 districts countrywide in early 2004. Conclusion Drug policy changes are not without difficulties and demand a sustained international financing strategy for them to succeed. The Zambian experience demonstrates the need for a harmonized national consensus among many stakeholders and a political commitment to ensure that new policies are translated into practice quickly. To guarantee effective policies requires more effort and recognition that this becomes a health system and not a drug issue. This case study attempts to document the successful experience of change to ACT in Zambia and provides a realistic overview of some of the painful experiences and important lessons learnt.
Snow Robert W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Zambia is facing a double crisis of increasing malaria burden and dwindling capacity to deal with the endemic malaria burden. The pursuit of sustainable but equity mechanisms for financing malaria programmes is a subject of crucial policy discussion. This requires that comprehensive accounting of the economic impact of the various malaria programmes. Information on the economic value of programmes is essential in soliciting appropriate funding allocations for malaria control. Aims and objectives This paper specifically seeks to elicit a measure of the economic benefits of an improved malaria treatment programme in Zambia. The paper also studies the equity implications in malaria treatment given that demand or malaria treatment is determined by household socio-economic status. Methods A contingent valuation survey of about 300 Zambian households was conducted in four districts. Willingness-to-pay (WTP was elicited for an improved treatment programme for malaria in order to generate a measure of the economic benefits of the programme. The payment card method was used in eliciting WTP bids. Findings The study reports that malaria treatment has significant economic benefits to society. The total economic benefits of an improved treatment programme were estimated at an equivalent of US$ 77 million per annum, representing about 1.8% of Zambia's GDP. The study also reports the theoretically anticipated association between WTP and several socio-economic factors. Our income elasticity of demand is positive and similar in magnitude to estimates reported in similar studies. Finally, from an equity standpoint, the constraints imposed by income and socio-economic status are discussed.
In Zambia, continuous assessment (CA) is defined as an on-going, diagnostic, classroom-based process that uses a variety of assessment tools to measure learner performance (MOE, 2005:5). Over the years, examinations have been used for selection and certification, without formal considerations on school-based continuous assessment as a component in
Kapambwe, William M.
During germplasm explorations within Zambia in 1984, seven Cucumis accessions were collected that could not be identified to species. Two of the accessions were studied in-depth. Based on phenotypic characters, they were closest to Cucumis pustulatus. In ITS analyses of all available Cucumis spec...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are serious complications of pregnancy and major causes of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. According to systematic reviews and WHO guidelines magnesium sulphate injection (MgSO4 should be the first -line treatment for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Studies have shown that this safe and effective medicine is unavailable and underutilized in many resource poor countries. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to the availability and use of MgSO4 in the Zambian Public Health System. Methods A 'fishbone' (Ishikawa diagram listing probable facilitators to the availability and use of MgSO4 identified from the literature was used to develop an assessment tool. Barriers to availability and use of MgSO4 were assessed at the regulatory/government, supply, procurement, distribution, health facility and health professional levels. The assessment was completed during August 2008 using archival data, and observations at a pragmatic sample of health facilities providing obstetric services in Lusaka District, Zambia. Results The major barrier to the availability of MgSO4 within the public health system in Zambia was lack of procurement by the Ministry of Health. Other barriers identified included a lack of demand by health professionals at the health centre level and a lack of in-service training in the use of MgSO4. Where there was demand by obstetricians, magnesium sulphate injection was being procured from the private sector by the hospital pharmacy despite not being registered and licensed for use for the treatment of severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia by the national Pharmaceutical Regulatory Authority. Conclusions The case study in Zambia highlights the complexities that underlie making essential medicines available and used appropriately. The fishbone diagram is a useful theoretical framework for illustrating the complexity of translating research findings into clinical practice. A better understanding of the supply system and of the pattern of demand for MgSO4 in Zambia should enable policy makers and stakeholders to develop and implement appropriate interventions to improve the availability and use of MgSO4.
Hill Suzanne R
...2010-01-01 false Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia. 319.56-48 Section 319... § 319.56-48 Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia. Baby...
As a member of the United Nations, Zambia is committed to the observance of human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948. This is evidenced, among others, by the fact that Zambia is a signatory to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. Zambia has a
Siaciwena, Richard; Lubinda, Foster
At the request of the Government of the Republic of Zambia, the International Atomic Energy Agency set up a technical assistance project to supply an expert plus some equipment, commencing 1 October 1971 and of one year's duration. The project was to expand Zambia's radiation protection service through monitoring of radiation doses, radiation sources, and premises, and provide advise related to the safe handling of sources of ionizing radiation. Upon arrival the expert found that some of these activities had been initiated. The key measures therefore were to establish channels of communication and authority, survey the state of radiation safety and protective measures, and coordination of protective and control measures. On these lines the Ionising Radiation Act is stated to show how its establishment and organizational structure could assist in the implementation of radiation protection measures. maps
During 1967-1976 five airborne geophysical surveys, covering almost the whole country, were carried out in Zambia. In every case magnetic total field and gamma-ray spectrometer measurements were made. In the Western Province the spectrometer measurements do not cover the Kalahari area. Four of these surveys have been made on behalf of the Government of Zambia. They were done in order to speed up mineral prospecting and also to diversify mining activities from the Copperbelt to other parts of the country. A summary of the airborne gamma-ray spectrometer surveys with short comments on the results and outlines of the analysis of survey data as well as the follow-up work are given. (author)
Problem statement: The life cycle and culture structure of two commonly eaten worms in Zambia (Isoberlinia paniculata and Miombo/Mopani) were evaluated. The worms were grown on an artificial medium to evaluate the potential of producing them on a commercial scale. Approach: An interesting characteristic of the worms studied was that they reached their maximum weight and maximum length at the same time. Results: The larvae started to decrease in weight soon after reaching ...
Ghaly, Abdel E.
This paper discusses some issues on how to evaluate the impact of HIPC debt relief in the cases of Tanzania and Zambia using two computable general equilibrium models. Within our relatively simple model framework, we found that the macroeconomic impact of debt relief is modest. One reason for this relatively modest impact is that the annual injection of additional resources relative to current actual debt service is small in both cases, which implies that the impact of debt relief per se woul...
Bigsten, Arne; Levin, Jo?rgen; Persson, Ha?kan
The programme of wheat improvement developed in Zambia used local facilities (finance, personnel, infrastructure), low budget, and few personnel. Incomplete resistance against rusts was used to obtain durable resistance.The abiotic conditions, socio-economic status of the farmers, cropping methods, economic aims of wheat production and the status of research are described. Pests and diseases are discussed including some which are yet of minor importance. Possible grain yield losses are estima...
Milliano, W. A. J.
A sero-epidemiological study of Taenia saginata cysticercosis was carried out in adult cattle in Zambia to determine the prevalence and study the influence of the farming system on the infection rate. Serum samples were examined for circulating parasite antigen by a monoclonal-based sandwich ELISA. Thirty-eight of 628 serum samples were found positive (prevalence 6.1%). Cysticercosis was significantly more prevalent in feedlots and in traditional farming systems than in dairy farms. It is sug...
Dorny, P.; Phiri, I.; Gabriel, S.; Speybroeck, N.; Vercruysse, J.
Zambia has undergone a dramatic transformation of economic policy during the 1990s. The election in 1991 of the Movement for Multi-party Democracy government saw the introduction of a series of major economic reforms designed to transform the Zambian economy from a relatively inward looking and state dominated economy to a outward oriented economy based upon private enterprise. A sharp stabilization early in the decade was followed by reforms to open the economy to the rest of the world inclu...
Macculloch, Neil; Baulch, Bob; Cherel-robson, Milasoa
This dissertation both proposes and records the ongoing implementation of a Landsafe integrated conservation and development model for the customary commons of Zambia. In Volume I, a geographical historical perspective of the country is presented which concentrates on wildlife conservation and rural people. The changes wrought successively on indigenous peoples by invading native Africans of the Bantu linguistic group, then in turn on them by Europeans in the form of Charter...
Manning, Ian Patrick Alexander
Access to this dissertation is resticted until 2014-04-28 © 2010 University of Pretoria. All rights reserved. The copyright in this work vests in the University of Pretoria. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the prior written permission of the University of Pretoria Please cite as follows: Chungu, D 2010, Pathogens associated with plantation tree diseases in Zambia, MSc dissertation, University o...
Aim To determine the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of patients accessing antiretroviral treatment, in the public sector in Zambia. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional survey, using a pre-structured interview questionnaire, with patients on antiretroviral treatment. A total of 200 patients receiving antiretroviral treatment at the 2 national referral hospitals and seven provincial hospitals providing ART were included in the study Data was a...
Many cities are working to create innovation districts in the vein of the Silicon Valley and it can be an up-hill battle. Boston is currently working just such a district in its Seaport neighborhood and has been the recent subject of many articles, blog posts, and general discussion. As the city's official website for the district, visitors to this site can learn about physical headquarters in the District Hall building, along with details on long-term strategy, and upcoming events. Some recent posts deal with co-working spaces, networking, and more. In the Resources area visitors can learn about the various innovative businesses that are already in the neighborhood, along with others in and around Boston.
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR) of 10 infectious bursal disease viruses detected in indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia from 2004 to 2005 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses diverged into two genotypes and belonged to the African very vi [...] rulent types (VV1 and VV2). In the phylogenetic tree, strains in one genotype clustered in a distinct group and were closely related to some strains isolated in western Africa (VV1), with nucleotide similarities of 95.7% - 96.5%. Strains in the other genotype were clustered within the eastern African VV type (VV2), with nucleotide similarities of 97.3% - 98.5%. Both genotypes were distributed in the southern parts of Zambia and had a unique conserved amino acid substitution at 300 (E?A) in addition to the putative virulence marker at positions 222(A), 242(1), 256(1), 294(1) and 299(S). These findings represent the first documentation of the existence of the African VV-IBDV variants in both indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia.
Christopher J., Kasanga; Tsuyoshi, Yamaguchi; Hetron M., Munang' andu; Kenji, Ohya; Hideto, Fukushi.
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This paper aims at understanding how Zambia's electricity system would be affected by droughts (due to a dry year) and how the system's adaptive capacity could be improved. Hydropower currently supplies 99% of the total electricity in Zambia, and concerns have been raised because many climate change [...] studies project increased occurrences of dry years in the Southern Africa region. Different economic and climatic scenarios were explored to understand their impact on the development of Zambia's power generation system, and what policies and strategies could be adopted to mitigate these impacts on security of supply and average generation costs, which directly affect the electricity price. The results show that a dry year has significant impact on the average generating cost since hydropower continues to dominate the system. Diversifying the system does not improve the adaptive capacity of the system but only increases the average cost of generating electricity in an average year. The most cost effective way of increasing the system's adaptive capacity is by importing electricity and gradually increasing share of renewable and coal technologies in the system. Further research on how electricity trade in Southern Africa could be enhanced, should be done.
Bernard, Tembo; Bruno, Merven.
Full Text Available Nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR of 10 infectious bursal disease viruses detected in indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia from 2004 to 2005 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses diverged into two genotypes and belonged to the African very virulent types (VV1 and VV2. In the phylogenetic tree, strains in one genotype clustered in a distinct group and were closely related to some strains isolated in western Africa (VV1, with nucleotide similarities of 95.7% 96.5%. Strains in the other genotype were clustered within the eastern African VV type (VV2, with nucleotide similarities of 97.3% 98.5%. Both genotypes were distributed in the southern parts of Zambia and had a unique conserved amino acid substitution at 300 (E?A in addition to the putative virulence marker at positions 222(A, 242(I, 256(I, 294(I and 299(S. These findings represent the first documentation of the existence of the African VV-IBDV variants in both indigenous and exotic chickens in Zambia.
Christopher J. Kasanga
...2010-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43 Section... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked...consignments only. (b) Immature baby carrots (Daucus carota L. ssp....
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is posing a great threat to global TB control. The burden in Zambia is not well defined because routine surveillance data are scarce. We reviewed national MDR-TB data for the last decade to inform future public health policy with respect to MDR-TB in Zambia.
Kapata, N.; Chanda-kapata, P.; Bates, M.; Mwaba, P.; Cobelens, F.; Grobusch, M. P.; Zumla, A.
...Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43 Section 319...QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a)...
...International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia...May 29, 2012, regarding the Executive- Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia...section of the Notice of the Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and...
...International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia...May 29, 2012, regarding the Executive- Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia...the mission statement for the Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and...
...International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia...is amending notice for the Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia...associations to participate in the Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and...
This study sought to identify strategies for living with the challenges of HIV and antiretroviral (ARV) use among new medication users in urban Zambia. Participants (n = 160) were recruited from urban Lusaka, Zambia. Qualitative Data was drawn from monthly ARV treatment education intervention groups addressing HIV and antiretroviral use. Themes
Jones, Deborah; Zulu, Isaac; Mumbi, Miriam; Chitalu, Ndashi; Vamos, Szonja; Gomez, Jacqueline; Weiss, Stephen M.
Objective: To research the correlation between physical and sexual abuse by family members and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy and behavior among urban and rural adolescents in Zambia. Sample: The sample comprises 3,360 adolescents, aged 10-19, from urban and rural Zambia; 2,160 of them attended school, while 1,200 of them did
Slonim-Nevo, Vered; Mukuka, Lawrence
This study utilized in-depth interviewing, participant observation, and student diaries completed by participants to examine the quality of teacher-student relationships at a low-cost private school in the townships of Ndola, Zambia. Amidst economic decline and the HIV/AIDS epidemic facing Zambia today, teachers and students developed strong
The purpose of this paper is to examine whether there are positive benefits for small-scale tour operators in Zambia due to the development of sustainable tourism. Since tourism is an important sector in the Zambian economy, and the government encourages self-sustainability which is positive towards poverty alleviation in its communities. The research in this paper addresses the role tourism plays, the nature of tourism resources, its benefits towards poverty alleviation and reforms used in t...
Sibeso Imbula Sveinsson 1970
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Current health policy directions in Zambia are formulated in the National Health Strategic Plan. The Plan focuses on national health priorities, which include the human resources (HR crisis. In this paper we describe the way the HRH establishment is distributed in the different provinces of Zambia, with a view to assess the dimension of shortages and of imbalances in the distribution of health workers by province and by level of care. Population and methods We used secondary data from the "March 2008 payroll data base", which lists all the public servants on the payroll of the Ministry of Health and of the National Health Service facilities. We computed rates and ratios and compared them. Results The highest relative concentration of all categories of workers was observed in Northern, Eastern, Lusaka, Western and Luapula provinces (in decreasing order of number of health workers. The ratio of clinical officers (mid-level clinical practitioners to general medical officer (doctors with university training varied from 3.77 in the Lusaka to 19.33 in the Northwestern provinces. For registered nurses (3 to 4 years of mid-level training, the ratio went from 3.54 in the Western to 15.00 in Eastern provinces and for enrolled nurses (two years of basic training from 4.91 in the Luapula to 36.18 in the Southern provinces. This unequal distribution was reflected in the ratio of population per cadre. The provincial distribution of personnel showed a skewed staff distribution in favour of urbanized provinces, e.g. in Lusaka's doctor: population ratio was 1: 6,247 compared to Northern Province's ratio of 1: 65,763. In the whole country, the data set showed only 109 staff in health posts: 1 clinical officer, 3 environmental health technologists, 2 registered nurses, 12 enrolled midwives, 32 enrolled nurses, and 59 other. The vacancy rates for level 3 facilities(central hospitals, national level varied from 5% in Lusaka to 38% in Copperbelt Province; for level 2 facilities (provincial level hospitals, from 30% for Western to 70% for Copperbelt Province; for level 1 facilities (district level hospitals, from 54% for the Southern to 80% for the Western provinces; for rural health centres, vacancies varied from 15% to 63% (for Lusaka and Luapula provinces respectively; for urban health centres the observed vacancy rates varied from 13% for the Lusaka to 96% for the Western provinces. We observed significant shortages in most staff categories, except for support staff, which had a significant surplus. Discussion and Conclusions This case study documents how a peaceful, politically stable African country with a longstanding tradition of strategic management of the health sector and with a track record of innovative approaches dealt with its HRH problems, but still remains with a major absolute and relative shortage of health workers. The case of Zambia reinforces the idea that training more staff is necessary to address the human resources crisis, but it is not sufficient and has to be completed with measures to mitigate attrition and to increase productivity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Zambia was the first African country to change national antimalarial treatment policy to artemisinin-based combination therapy artemether-lumefantrine. An evaluation during the early implementation phase revealed low readiness of health facilities and health workers to deliver artemether-lumefantrine, and worryingly suboptimal treatment practices. Improvements in the case-management of uncomplicated malaria two years after the initial evaluation and three years after the change of policy in Zambia are reported. Methods Data collected during the health facility surveys undertaken in 2004 and 2006 at all outpatient departments of government and mission facilities in four Zambian districts were analysed. The surveys were cross-sectional, using a range of quality of care assessment methods. The main outcome measures were changes in health facility and health worker readiness to deliver artemether-lumefantrine, and changes in case-management practices for children below five years of age presenting with uncomplicated malaria as defined by national guidelines. Results In 2004, 94 health facilities, 103 health workers and 944 consultations for children with uncomplicated malaria were evaluated. In 2006, 104 facilities, 135 health workers and 1125 consultations were evaluated using the same criteria of selection. Health facility and health worker readiness improved from 2004 to 2006: availability of artemether-lumefantrine from 51% (48/94 to 60% (62/104, presence of artemether-lumefantrine dosage wall charts from 20% (19/94 to 75% (78/104, possession of guidelines from 58% (60/103 to 92% (124/135, and provision of in-service training from 25% (26/103 to 41% (55/135. The proportions of children with uncomplicated malaria treated with artemether-lumefantrine also increased from 2004 to 2006: from 1% (6/527 to 27% (149/552 in children weighing 5 to 9 kg, and from 11% (42/394 to 42% (231/547 in children weighing 10 kg or more. In both weight groups and both years, 22% (441/2020 of children with uncomplicated malaria were not prescribed any antimalarial drug. Conclusion Although significant improvements in malaria case-management have occurred over two years in Zambia, the quality of treatment provided at the point of care is not yet optimal. Strengthening weak health systems and improving the delivery of effective interventions should remain high priority in all countries implementing new treatment policies for malaria.
A study was made of stress factors experienced by primary school teachers in Zambia after they had attended a course on stress management and counselling skills. Their pupils were significantly affected by poverty, death and illness of parents, fellow-pupils and teachers, teenage sex and pregnancy, violence in the home and, among girls, low self-esteem. The HIV epidemic had a major bearing on these factors, and there were wide-ranging effects on the teachers' own lives. Despite the training t...
Baggaley, R.; Sulwe, J.; Chilala, M.; Mashambe, C.
This brief presentation gives some of the highlights of the activities that the government of the Republic of Zambia undertook from 1972 to date in its effort to ensure the development of a national radiation protection infrastructure. The paper also discusses some of the challenges that have to be addressed. The final section discusses some of the policy options and recommendations that should be undertaken in order to ensure that the Zambian government has a clear direction for the development of radiation safety infrastructure. The issue of national emergency plan and response in the event of a radiological accident is also discussed. (author)
In this paper, we investigate what affects school attendance and child labour in an LDC, using data for Zambia. Since the data come from a household survey with information on all household members, it allows us to take account of unobserved household effects by introducing household specific effects in a logit model. The empirical analysis suggests that both economic and sociological variables are important determinants for the choice between school attendance and child labour. In particular, we find some support for the hypothesis that poverty forces households to keep their children away from school.
Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt
The epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus in Zambia has led to a dramatic rise in the incidence of human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)associated Kaposi's sarcoma in both adults and children. However, there is a paucity of knowledge about the routes of HHV-8 transmission to young children. The Zambia Children's KS-HHV8 Study, a large, prospective cohort study in Lusaka, Zambia, was launched in 2004 to investigate the role of household members as a source of HHV-8 infection in young children and ...
Minhas, Veenu; Crabtree, Kay L.; Chao, Ann; Wojcicki, Janet M.; Sifuniso, Adrian M.; Nkonde, Catherine; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mitchell, Charles D.; Wood, Charles
The persistence of lindane and endosulfan was studied under field conditions in Zambia in 1992 to 1994. Both pesticides dissipated rapidly under field conditions. About 29% and 73% of initial concentration was lost during the first 30 and 60 days after treatment, respectively in 1992. After 180 days, about 11% of the initial concentration was recovered from the soil. In 1993, 40% of initial residues were lost during the first 30 days. At 180 days after spraying, slightly more residues (25% of the initial values) were recovered at this time than in 1992. This indicated a change in the longer term behaviour of lindane in the soil since the calculated half-lives of lindane, covering the shorter term behaviour, were 55-80 days in 1992 and ? 17 days in 1993. In 1994, losses of ?-Endosulfan and ?-Endosulfan were 40% and 37% respectively during the initial 30 days after treatment. A further 25% of ?-Endosulfan and 33% of ?-Endosulfan were lost during the following 30 days. These data allow estimates of the half-lives of ?- and ?-Endosulfan (40 and 38 days) under the field conditions pertaining in Zambia at the time of the trials showing that this compound has only moderate persistence and unlikely to cause long term environmental problems. (author). 7 refs, 8 tabs
In most parts of the world, political systems which utilize authoritative rule and mostly employ top-down decision-making processes are slowly transcending towards democratic norms. Information Technology Systems have been identified and adopted as one of the most efficient vehicles for appropriate, transparent and inclusive / participatory decision making. Zambia has shown a higher propensity to indigenous knowledge systems which are full of inefficiencies, a lot of red tape in public service delivery, and prone to corrupt practices. Despite that being the case, it is slowly trying to implement e-government. The adoption of e-government promises a sharp paradigm shift where public institutions will be more responsive and transparent, promote efficient PPP (Public Private Partnerships), and empower citizens by making knowledge and other resources more directly accessible. This paper examines three cases from Zambia where ICT in support of e-government has been implemented for Development Information Exchange (DIE) - knowledge-based decision making. The paper also assesses the challenges, opportunities, and issues together with e-government adoption criteria regarding successful encapsulation of e-government into the Zambian contextual environment. I propose a conceptual model which offers balanced e-government adoption criteria involving a combination of electronic and participatory services. This conceptual e-government adoption model can later be replicated to be used at the Southern African Development Community (SADC) level given the similarity in the contextual environment.
Joseph, Bwalya Kelvin
Miombo woodlands cover the transition zone between dry open savannas and moist forests in Southern Africa. They cover about 2.7 million km2 in southern Africa and provide many ecosystem services that support rural life, including medical products, wild foods, construction timber and fuel. In Zambia, as in many of its neighbouring countries, miombo woodlands are currently experiencing accelerating degradation and clearing, mostly with charcoal production as the initial driver. Domestic energy needs in the growing urban areas are largely satisfied by charcoal, which is less energy-efficient fuel on a tree-to-table basis than the firewood that is used in rural areas, but has a higher energy density and is thus cheaper to transport. This study uses data from inventories and from eddy covariance measurements of carbon exchange to characterize the impact of charcoal production on miombo woodlands. We address the following questions: (i) how much carbon is lost at local as well as at national scale and (ii) does forest degradation result in the loss of a carbon sink? On the basis of our data we (iii) estimate the per capita emissions through deforestation and forest degradation in Zambia and relate it to fossil fuel emissions. Furthermore, (iv) a rough estimate of the energy that is provided by charcoal production to private households at a national level is calculated and (v) options for alternative energy supply to private households are discussed.
Kutsch, W.; Merbold, L.; Scholes, B.; Mukelabai, M.
The international development arena is currently subject to major changes in the geographies of power. In this article I analyse how and to what extent the (re)entry on the development scene of China, India and Brazil, together with increasing prices for primary commodities and improved access to international finance, has affected Zambias political leverage to set, implement and fund its own developmental policies. I argue that, while real changes in external financial flows comparable to aid from these non-traditional state actors are still small, these actors experience is providing Zambia with an alternative development model that combines purposive state intervention with market-based economic growth and integration into world markets. While Zambia may be taking the first steps in strengthening its sovereign frontier, the extent of this movement is still small and its development outcomes are far from assured.
...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia AGENCY: International...other appropriate sectors as space permits. This mission will be led by a senior Department of Commerce official and will...
Uranium mineralization related to the fluviatile continental sandstone of the Escarpment Grit Formation of Upper Karroo System has been studied in detail in the Bungua area. Airborne and ground gamma-radiation surveys resulted in the discovery of mineralized bodies containing secondary minerals such as meta-autunite, phosphuranylite, uranocircite, abernythite, boltwoodite, etc. disseminated in various ways. Geological, radiometric, stratigraphic, sedimentological and petrological studies coupled with exploration pitting, trenching and drilling were employed to assess the nature, distribution and sub-surface continuation of mineralized bodies. Drilling, logging and XRF analysis revealed that the uranium mineralized bodies are mainly lenses at different levels, which may be concordant or discordant with bedding. The thickness and grade of ore horizons differ considerably. Mineral distribution and controls are complex and that the main deposit is controlled by reducing lithologies, organic matter, clay traps, micas, iron cementing and permeable channels. Although no definite mode of origin can be attributed to the presently seen uranium mineralized bodies, they appear to be from a pre-existing ore deposit which is mobilized and redistributed during oxidation by supergene processes. It is suggested that the original uranium was in solution as uranylion and came from the same source area as the host rocks and the uranium-bearing groundwater and streams moved in the same dioundwater and streams moved in the same direction as the associated Escarpment Grit sediments. Uranium was precipitated wherever favourable conditions prevailed in the Escarpment Grit Formation. (author)
BACKGROUND: Among school- attending adolescents, victimization from bullying is associated with anxiety, depression and poor academic performance. There are limited reports on victimization from bullying in Zambia; we therefore conducted this study to determine the prevalence and correlates for victimization from bullying among adolescents in grades 7 to 10 in the country in order to add information on the body of knowledge on victimization from bullying. METHODS: The 2004 Zambia Global Scho...
Emmanuel Rudatsikira; Seter Siziya; Adamson Sinjani Muula
Aim: Under the Millennium Development Goal of improving maternal health (MDG 5), the global community aims to reduce maternal mortality ratio (MMR) by three quarters. Unsafe abortion is a significant, but preventable cause of maternal mortality. In Eastern Africa for every 100,000 live births it is estimated that 160 women die from causes related to unsafe abortion accounting for almost 30% of all maternal mortality. Zambias MMR is 440, of which a significant proportion is likely to be ...
Parmar, D.; Leone, Tiziana; Coast, Ernestina; Murray, Susan; Hukin, Eleanor; Vwalika, Bellington
Southern Africa is noted for not only constant power shortages but also poor access to electricity. In Zambia, for example, 75% of the population does not have access to electricity. This is partly because although Zambia has one of the lowest energy tariffs in Southern Africa, when compared with household monthly income, the resource is still reasonably unaffordable. Therefore, there is need to find innovative ways of reducing energy cost. Recent studies have indicated that there are pattern...
Lilias Makashini; Austine Ngombe; Henry Abanda; Albert Malama; Priscilla Mudenda
Abstract Background The human resource shortage in Zambia is placing a heavy burden on the few health care workers available at health facilities. The Zambia Prevention, Care and Treatment Partnership began training and placing community volunteers as lay counsellors in order to complement the efforts of the health care workers in providing HIV counselling and testing services. These volunteers are trained using the standard national counselling and testing curriculum. This s...
Kapanda Paul; Nyirenda Lameck; Kasonde Prisca; Simumba Caroline; Schwarzwalder Alison; Torpey Kwasi; Sanjana Parsa; Kakungu-Simpungwe Matilda; Kabaso Mushota; Thompson Catherine
BACKGROUND: Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis is a parasitic infection occurring in many developing countries. Data on the status of human infections in Zambia is largely lacking. We conducted a community-based study in Eastern Zambia to determine the prevalence of human taeniosis and cysticercosis in a rural community. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Stool and serum samples were collected from willing participants. Geographical references of the participants' households were determined and househo...
Mwape, K. E.; Phiri, I. K.; Praet, N.; Muma, J. B.; Zulu, G.; Den Bossche, P.; Deken, R.; Speybroeck, N.; Dorny, P.; Gabrie?l, S.
Abstract Background HIV is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Zambia. Like many other African nations with high HIV burden, heterosexual intercourse is the commonest mode of HIV spread. The estimation of prevalence and factors associated with sexual intercourse among in-school adolescents has potential to inform public health interventions aimed at reducing the burden of sex-related diseases in Zambia. Methods We carried out secondary analysis of the ...
Rudatsikira Emmanuel; Kazembe Lawrence N; Muula Adamson S.; Siziya Seter
QUALITY OF CARE FOR PATIENTS WITH SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASESIN ZAMBIA Elisabeth Faxelid Factors which have implications for STD care in Zambia have been described andanalysed in order to find strategies for quality improvements. A total of 684 patients with STD were interviewed about health seeking behaviour,sex partners, and satisfaction with quality of care. The male patients had had moresex partners than the female patients, but both groups knew the identity pa...
Abstract Background Like many sub-Saharan African countries, Zambia is dealing with major health issues, including HIV/AIDS, family planning, and reproductive health. To address reproductive health problems and the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Zambia, several social marketing and health communication programs focusing on reproductive and HIV/AIDS prevention programs are being implemented. This paper describes the reach of these programs and assesses their impact on condom use.
Meekers Dominique; Van Rossem Ronan
Abstract Introduction Current health policy directions in Zambia are formulated in the National Health Strategic Plan. The Plan focuses on national health priorities, which include the human resources (HR) crisis. In this paper we describe the way the HRH establishment is distributed in the different provinces of Zambia, with a view to assess the dimension of shortages and of imbalances in the distribution of health workers by province and by level of care. Population ...
Ferrinho Paulo; Siziya Seter; Goma Fastone; Dussault Gilles
Abstract Background Zambia has achieved significant reductions in the burden of malaria through a strategy of "scaling-up" effective interventions. Progress toward ultimate malaria elimination will require sustained prevention coverage and further interruption of transmission through active strategies to identify and treat asymptomatic malaria reservoirs. A surveillance system in Zambia's Southern Province has begun to implement such an approach. An early detection system cou...
Chime Nnenna; Castillo-Salgado Carlos; Kamanga Aniset; Davis Ryan G; Mharakurwa Sungano; Shiff Clive
This study investigated the amount of and impact of fertiliser loading into the upper Kaleya river of Mazabuka district in Southern Province of Zambia. It provides an opportunity to evaluate water quality associated with nutrient and pesticide use, due to prominence of intensive agriculture in the area. Storm water runoff of fertilizers and pesticides applied on farmlands have appeared to be the predominant source of nutrients and contaminants affecting surface water quality in upper Kaleya River, a factor very much dependent on land use in the catchment.The study concluded that upper Kaleya River is polluted from the application of fertilizers and pesticides used by farmers and that more long term studies are required to evaluate environmental effects of fertilizers and pesticide use in order to provide assessments of pollution and and for developing cost effective pollution control and monitoring programmes
Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating incrar, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the establishment of an independent regulator so as to stimulate private sector participation and efficiency. In addition, a Rural Electrification Fund (REF) and associated administration mechanism was established in 1995. However, RE continued to experience many challenges. In 2003, the government enacted the Rural Electrification Act leading to the establishment of an agency dedicated to RE. This paper analyses the policy, legal and institutional measures implemented in Zambia and assesses their potential or effectiveness to tackle some of the challenges facing RE in the country so as to increase access and affordability
Zambia is well endowed with hydropower and other energy resources, which could facilitate production of electricity for both urban and rural areas of the country. The country has an installed electricity generation capacity of 1786 MW and undeveloped hydropower potential of over 6000 MW. In the last few years, demand has been growing and it is anticipated to outstrip supply in 2008. The load growth is attributed to increased mining activities and development of the industrial base. The country is also endowed with abundant natural resources such as arable land, water, minerals and wildlife. With the available resource base, electricity along with other social and economic infrastructure such as roads and telecommunications could facilitate increased economic activities. In rural areas, electricity could be used for crop irrigation, agro-processing, small-scale mining and to facilitate tourism. However, rural electrification (RE) faces many challenges such as long distances from existing power stations to targeted rural areas, low population densities, high poverty levels and low skills availability. These and other factors have contributed to continued low levels of access to electricity in rural areas of the country. Measures so far undertaken to facilitate access to electricity in rural areas of Zambia include the adoption of a new National Energy Policy (NEP) in 1994. With regard to the electricity sector and RE in particular, the NEP was aimed at facilitating incrar, the NEP was aimed at facilitating increased access by liberalising and restructuring the electricity market and promoting the use of low-cost technologies and decentralised renewable energies. To facilitate implementation of the new policy, the government established a legal and institutional framework by enacting new legislation, namely, the Electricity Act and the Energy Regulation Act in 1995. The Electricity Act provided for liberalisation and regulation of the electricity sector, while the Energy Regulation Act provided for the establishment of an independent regulator so as to stimulate private sector participation and efficiency. In addition, a Rural Electrification Fund (REF) and associated administration mechanism was established in 1995. However, RE continued to experience many challenges. In 2003, the government enacted the Rural Electrification Act leading to the establishment of an agency dedicated to RE. This paper analyses the policy, legal and institutional measures implemented in Zambia and assesses their potential or effectiveness to tackle some of the challenges facing RE in the country so as to increase access and affordability. (author)
Full Text Available A common strategy for ameliorating soil acidity is the application of agricultural lime. However, this measure is hampered by the lack of high resolution soil maps that can enable lime application according to the spatial variability of soil pH in an area. Therefore, this study was carried out to map soil acidity in South Eastern Zambia. The objective of the study was to apply geostatistical procedures to mapping soil acidity in the country. Ordinary kriging was performed on a set of 119 soil samples collected from the 020 cm soil layer whose pH was determined by the electrometric method. The kriging model that was developed was found to be satisfactory with low prediction errors (root mean square error 0.36. Thus, the map produced could be used to draw up strategies for management of soil acidity in the area.
Lydia M. Chabala
Food processing is important to the Zambian economy and entails a set of options for local firms to grow and create employment given the growth potential the country possesses in agriculture. This policy brief summarizes the findings of a study of 38 Zambian owned firms in the food processing industry. The study, which is the first of its kind in Zambia, reveals that a major part of the interviewed firms find that they have performed above industry average the last five years. A minor part states performance below industry average. Close to 80% of the firms views government and business associations to provide insufficient support to the sector. In conclusion, various ways forward are suggested.
Jeppesen, SØren; Hampwaye, Godfrey
In 1989 the first activities concerning wind energy started in Zambia, resulting in a wind energy project of the Department of Energy. The first phase of this project was the set up of an appropriate technology test site. It included the fabrication of a CWD 2740 wind pump, adapted to local circumstances. The total costs of the manufacture of the complete system was approximately US$ 8,000 (of which 60% are labor cost), while an imported system would cost between US$ 2,000 and US$ 4,000. The second phase will focus on possible commercialization of wind energy. The major constraints for implementation of wind energy are: 1. inadequate provision of funds, caused by short sighted policy makers having not a clear policy regarding the utilization of wind energy; 2. high costs of windmills, especially when these are manufactured locally; 3. lack of trained and skilled manpower to provide backup and effective maintenance service of windmills in the field
Full Text Available Lusaka, the capital of Zambia with over 2,000,000 inhabitants, is built on an extensive plateau composed mainly of schists and dolomitic marbles, constituting a very important aquifer that provides the city with almost half of its drinking water needs. Recent demographic growth, leading to uncontrolled urban expansion, and mismanagement of the water resource and of urban waste has lead, in the past 20 years, to an overexploitation of the aquifer and to a generalised water quality depletion, putting in serious danger the future social and economical development of the capital. This third world city has, for these reasons, become a terrifying example of human impact on a vulnerable karst environment, and if no measures will be taken in the very near future, quality of life in the city will be at serious risk.
De Waele Jo
The environmental risks and uncertainties of a high-energy future are disturbing and give rise to several reservations concerning the use of fossil fuels. A number of technologies will help to reduce atmospheric pollution. In Denmark special importance is attached to the following: Energy conservation. Efficient energy conversion. Renewable energy sources. District heating, combined production of heat and power. Many agree that district heating (DH), produced by the traditional heat-only plant, and combined heat and power (CHP) have enormous potential when considering thermal efficiency and lowered environmental impacts: The basic technology of each is proven, it would be relatively simple to satisfy a substantial part of the energy demand, and their high efficiencies mean reduced pollution including greenhouse gas emissions. This is especially important in high population density areas - the obviously preferred sites for such energy generation. Compared with individual heating DH can provide a community with an operationally efficient and most often also an economically competitive heat supply. This is particularly true under the circumstances where the DH system is supplied from CHP plants. Their use results in very substantial improvements in overall efficiency. Further environmental improvements arise from the reduced air pollution obtainable in reasonably large CHP plants equipped with flue gas cleaning to remove particles, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen acids. Ass, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen acids. As a consequence of these considerations, DH plays an important role in fulfilling the space and water heating demand in many countries. This is especially the case in Denmark where this technology is utilised to a very great extent. Indeed, DH is one of the reasons why Denmark has relatively good air quality in the cities. (au)
In the past decade, "big push" global health initiatives financed by international donors have aimed to rapidly reach ambitious health targets in low-income countries. The health system impacts of these efforts are infrequently assessed. Saving Mothers, Giving Life is a global public-private partnership that aims to reduce maternal mortality dramatically in one year in eight districts in Uganda and Zambia. We evaluated the first six to twelve months of the program's implementation, its ownership by national ministries of health, and its effects on health systems. The project's impact on maternal mortality is not reported here. We found that the Saving Mothers, Giving Life initiative delivered a large "dose" of intervention quickly by capitalizing on existing US international health assistance platforms, such as the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. Early benefits to the broader health system included greater policy attention to maternal and child health, new health care infrastructure, and new models for collaborating with the private sector and communities. However, the rapid pace, external design, and lack of a long-term financing plan hindered integration into the health system and local ownership. Sustaining and scaling up early gains of similar big push initiatives requires longer-term commitments and a clear plan for transition to national control. PMID:24889956
Kruk, Margaret E; Rabkin, Miriam; Grépin, Karen Ann; Austin-Evelyn, Katherine; Greeson, Dana; Masvawure, Tsitsi Beatrice; Sacks, Emma Rose; Vail, Daniel; Galea, Sandro
In ensuring growth and development collaborative State-Business relations (SBRs) matters, and with economic growth comes increasing levels of employment, options for poverty reduction and hence more equitable development. Whereas it is known that SBR matters at a macro-economic level, the concept of SBR has also been employed in a more or less all-encompassing way in the literature. Accordingly, while it is clear that SBRs work, there is lack knowledge about which dimensions of SBRs are the most important. Due to the continued importance of agriculture in many developing countries, processing of the food produced in the sector is a key manufacturing activity of high economic importance to many economies. Ensuring collaborative SBRs in the food processing industry is therefore of interest to growth and development, particularly as it is a sector about which little is known about the role of SBRs. The paper attempts to examine how and why SBRs matter to and influence the growth and performance of local owned firms in the food processing sub-sector in Zambia. In particular, the paper analyses the roles and influence of government regulations and policies compared to those of business associations for the performance of the food processing sector in Zambia. The paper draws on primary data from a survey of firms in the food processing sector which was conducted between 2013 and 2014. It is shown that while the majority of the Zambian food processing firms experienced growth over the last five years, with increased employment and in a number of cases growing earnings, this seems to have happened in spite of a business environment which is not particularly supportive. The firms experience is that the SBRs mainly constitute institutional barriers to the performance of firms and highlight that formal government institutions and polices are incapable of assisting the firms and in most cases government institutions formulate and enact insufficient support schemes.
Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, SØren
The aim of this study was to determine the provision of learning and teaching materials for pupils with visual impairment in basic and high schools of Zambia. A survey approach utilizing a questionnaire, interviews and a review of the literature was adopted for the study. The findings demonstrated that most schools in Zambia did not provide
Akakandelwa, Akakandelwa; Munsanje, Joseph
The global spread of HIV and AIDS has presented a major threat to development, affecting the health of the poor and many aspects of social and economic development. The greatest impact of the epidemic has been felt in sub-Saharan Africa, and Zambia ranks among the worst hit countries. The Free Basic Education Policy in Zambia upholds the right of
Robson, Sue; Kanyanta, Sylvester Bonaventure
There has been an increase in the number of wild ungulates kept in captivity for ecotourism and conservation in Zambia and these animals are susceptible to a number of diseases including gastrointestinal helminth infections. Surveys to determine anthelmintic efficacy to gastrointestinal nematodes in captive-wildlife are not common and there have been no reports of anthelmintic resistance in captive-wildlife in Zambia. This study was carried out to determine the efficacy of the benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole in captive wild impala (Aepyceros melampus) in Zambia. During the month of April 2011, at the end of the rainy season, the faecal egg count reduction test was performed at a private game facility for assessing anthelmintic efficacy of oral fenbendazole and the anthelmintic treatment showed an efficacy of 90%. Haemonchus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. were the predominant genera present before treatment, but Haemonchus spp. larvae were the only genus recovered from the faecal cultures after anthelmintic treatment. This represents the first documentation of anthelmintic treatment failure in captive wild-antelopes in Zambia. It also demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the common traditional practice of deworming captive-wild antelopes at the end of the rainy season due to the rapid re-infection of impala that occurs due to high pasture infectivity. Suggestions on changes to current anthelmintic use/practices that will make them more efficacious and reduce the possibility of development of anthelmintic resistance in captive wild game in Zambia are also made. PMID:22115945
Nalubamba, King S; Mudenda, Ntombi B
Full text: Zambia is involved in the peaceful application in Nuclear Science and Technology which cover the agriculture, human health, industry, research and education sectors. In the execution of the projects various radioactive sources and radioisotopes are used. The data from the Radiation Protection Board show that there are 136 organizations and 971 Radiation workers benefit from the regulatory control and personnel Dosimetry service that is provided by the Board. The radiation user institutions are broken down as follows: medical (106), industrial (18), research (10) and (2) in teaching. The radioactive waste generated and spent sources are managed, in several ways depending on the type . In addition to radioactive waste generated by various application there are new developments concerning the management of spent sources mainly brought into control by the detection of illicit trade or trafficking activities by the Police, Drug Enforcement Commission, and the vigilant people of the community. The challenge for Zambia is to set-up a Radioactive Waste Management Facility preferably under the National Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research (NISIR). The RPB should legally designate NISIR for this function and assist to have the Government provide support that is required to have an operation and effective facility. One Radioactive Waste Interim Storage Shed at Kalulushi. This shed was put up by a copper mining conglomerate which now has been privatized. It is hoped that this facility can be licensed by Radiation Protection Board to be run by private enterprise for storage of prescribed spent radioactive sources and materials. This shed should be technically competent persons and should have good equipment for the purpose. The application in industry (NDT, mining, radiation sterilization, pipeline and construction, human health (nuclear medicine, radioimmunoassay and radiotherapy practices) and agriculture (use of P-32) required that a National Strategy for the management of the spent radioactive materials and the waste materials from the practices be developed with Radiation Protection Board playing a leading role. The International Atomic Energy Agency will continue to be a major cooperating partner in the development of this capacity through die technical expertise, equipment, technical literature and training fellowships that can be provided through the Technical Cooperation Programme. (author)
African economies are currently experiencing an upsurge in foreign ownership of key parts of their economies. This, however, is not new, and in the wake of independence several African countries pursued indigenisation policies to bring ownership back to their own citizens. Now indigenisation policies thrive again, this time disguised in terms such as empowerment, but just as politicised as in the 1970s. Zambia is at the heart of this development. In the light of liberalisation, booming commodity prices and the increasing importance of Chinese investors, this article seeks to further our understanding of how processes of exclusion interact with domestic politics in Zambia. It argues that the Citizens Economic Empowerment Commission, a new institution to bring ownership back to Zambians, builds on a long tradition of nationalist policies in Zambia, while its actual work is strictly related to the critique of the growing foreign dominance over the economy, and in particular of the upsurge in Chinese investments.
Zambia is one of the countries in Africa with a high rate of waste generation. It has been argued that high rate of waste generation in Zambia and particularly Lusaka, its capital, is due to high population growth caused by rural-urban, urban-urban migration and natural growth. Poor waste management in the city of Lusaka has resulted in loss of people's lives due to the outbreak of diseases like cholera and dysentery. Management of waste has both positive and negative impact on...
From July 1995 to January 2005, five cases of attempted illicit trafficking of spent radioactive materials have been reported and investigated in Zambia. In all five cases, monetary gain was the motivation. The paper describes factors contributing to the vulnerability of Zambia to illicit trafficking of nuclear material, including the consequences of an unstable economy, the involvement of international institutions in Government funding policies, inadequate training or remuneration of personnel and inadequate equipment. To raise awareness among policy makers and the public, a six-pronged strategy is suggested. (author)
The Karroo geology of Zambia with respect to uranium mineralization is outlined and compared with the sandstone deposits of western United States of America. Whereas numerous uranium anomalies are known in the Karroo System, those of the Escarpment Grit Formation in the mid-Zambezi Valley would appear to be significant. Airborne radiometric survey did not always reflect the mineralization recorded on the ground. Several other Karroo anomalies are still to be traversed. Porosity, permeability, clay traps, micas and reducing lithologies are the major factors controlling mineralization. The present loci of mineralization are a function of the remobilization brought about by fluctuating water table, dip of strata and structure. While most of the deposits contain secondary uranium minerals, pitchblende has been recorded in two areas, and probably reflects the 'primary' ore. The deposits are primarily sheet-like, concordant to discordant units. The source for uranium would appear to be the Katanga and basement rocks to the north-north east and north-west. The results of the last three years of investigation support further work and already a number of low to medium scale deposits have been outlined, thus warranting further intensive large-scale investigation. (author)
Abstract Background The Zambia Malaria Indicator Survey (ZMIS) of 2006 was the first nation-wide malaria survey, which combined parasitological data with other malaria indicators such as net use, indoor residual spraying and household related aspects. The survey was carried out by the Zambian Ministry of Health and partners with the objective of estimating the coverage of interventions and malaria related burden in children less than five years. In this study, the ZMIS data w...
Chizema-Kawesha Elizabeth; Gosoniu Laura; Miller John M; Vounatsou Penelope; Riedel Nadine; Mukonka Victor; Steketee Rick W
Intelligent district heating is the combination of traditional district heating engineering and modern information and communication technology. A district heating systemis a highly complex environment consisting of a large number of distributed entities, and this complexity and geographically dispersed layout suggest that they are suitable for distributed optimization and management. However, this would in practice imply a transition from the classical production-cent...
A report has recently been published which describes the findings of the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) mission to Zambia. The IUREP Orientation Phase mission to Zambia estimates that the Speculative Resources of that country fall within the range of 33 000 and 100 000 tonnes uranium. The majority of these resources are believed to exist in the Karoo sediments. Other potentially favourable geological environments are the Precambrian Katanga sediments, as well as intrusive rocks of different chemical compositions and surficial duricrusts. Previous unofficial estimates of Zambia's Reasonably Assured Resources (RAR) and Estimated Additional Resources (EAR) are considered to be still valid: the total RAR amount to 6 000 tonnes uranium, located in Karoo (4 000 tonnes) and Katanga (2 000 tonnes) sediments, while the EAR are believed to total 4 000 tonnes being found only in Karoo sediments. The mission recommends that approximately US$ 40 million be spent on uranium exploration in Zambia over 10 years. The largest part of this expenditure would be for drilling, while the remainder should be spent on airborne and ground surveys, as well as on interpretative work on previous airborne data, Landsat imageries, etc. (author)
This study examined how individual, relational and environmental factors related to adolescent demand for HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). A cross-sectional survey among randomly selected 16-19-year-olds in Ndola, Zambia, covered individual (e.g., HIV knowledge), environmental (e.g., distance), and relational factors (e.g., discussed
Denison, Julie A.; McCauley, Ann P.; Dunnett-Dagg, Wendy A.; Lungu, Nalakwanji; Sweat, Michael D.
This article considers the ways in which educators and learning societies in Zambia and Zimbabwe have had to struggle to create independent, democratic and critical curricula in difficult circumstances over the last 50 years in the context of historical shifts in power, a declining British Empire and the re-emergence of reactionary forces at a
Full Text Available Health worker salaries in Zambia are low by any standard. In recent times there have been real reductions in thesalaries of health workers. This has resulted in significant attrition in the public sector as health workers areattracted to the private sector or leave Zambia entirely, leaving a large deficit in public sector health workers. Inthis study we examine the relationship between health worker incomes and their satisfaction and motivation.Cross-sectional data collection was undertaken using both quantitative and qualitative methods. A refined surveyinstrument was used for the quantitative data method. Document review (past and current records was employedfor the qualitative method. Data was collected in three regions that represent extremes in overall remunerationand benefits. Lusaka represented the favourable area while Monze and Nyimba represented less favourable areasfor study in Zambia.There are hefty disparities between different health workers. There are also enormous salary differentials for thesame workers between the public and private sectors. These salary differentials explain the experience of publicto private traffic of health workers as well as casual private sector work by public sector health workers. Inaddition, there are negligible efforts by government to reduce the benefits gaps among key public health cadres.The low incomes received by public health workers in Zambia have many negative implications: it begetsabsenteeism, results in low output, poor quality health care, and the departure of health workers to the privatesector and overseas.
This presentation gives an overview of the situation in Zambia with respect to the management of chemicals. A summary description of key pieces of legislation that deal with the protection of human beings and the environment and their objectives are discussed briefly. The paper gives also a summary description of key approaches and procedures for the management of chemicals. (author)
The National Radiation Infrastructure includes legislation, human resource, technical capacity to execute responsibilities of the regulatory (1). In cases of developing countries like Zambia, special challenges arise in view of the constraints both in terms of human resource and funding. This paper will highlight same measures that may be undertaken to improve the operations of nation radiation protection infrastructure. The measures include collaboration with Science and Technology organisations that have technical capacity, delegation of responsible to key institutions that may have competence and generation of funds through training and provision of reliable quality service. (2). In Zambia, some achievements in this line have been registered by Radiation Protection Board working with the University of Zambia and National Institute for Scientific and Industrial Research (3). Some measures of generation of funds have been done though utilization of the generated remains to be the limiting factor to exploit fully benefits that may arise from the use of the monies generated from services. Partnerships with private sector may be used as regulatory authorities for support to its programme in particular the public awareness campaign. Sponsorship by a Private Cellar Phone Company (Telecel Zambia) and Rotary Club of Lusaka for Radiation Week to Radiation Protection Service under Theme 'Safe Radiation Use' is one such an example. The other opportunity is the technical cooperation with regional and international organisations such as SADC, IAEA, WHO, Interpol, EU and WCO for technical capacity building, human resource development and information access. (author)
The place of religion in higher education has been and remains a complex issue internationally. This article aims to outline the nature and development of Religious Studies at the University of Zambia in Lusaka (UNZA) as an instance of how religion entered higher education in an African setting. In doing so, it will also provide perspectives on
This article considers the folklore of the Chewa people of Zambia as an instrument of education. It suggests that there is only a fine distinction between Chewa culture ["mwambo wa a Chewa"] and Chewa education ["maphunziro ya Uchewa"]. The former comprises tribal "truths" to be imposed on the minds of the younger
Banda, Dennis; Morgan, W. John
This study explored factors that may predict condom use among college and high school students in Zambia. Using the Social Cognitive Theory, this study examined the relationship of drinking behaviors, alcohol-sexual expectations, education level, and religion to condom use among 961 students. The results of the study show that condom use was low
Mbulo, Lazarous; Newman, Ian M.; Shell, Duane F.
This article discusses the impact of including gender in the analytical framework in a study of the management and provision of education in Zambia from 1900 to 1939. It shows that a focus on gender allows females to enter the historical narrative and the leadership of women such as Mabel Shaw, Hannah Frances Davidson and Julia Smith can be given
Two cases of extremely drug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg isolated from patients in Zambia were investigated by utilizing MIC determinations and whole-genome sequencing. The isolates were resistant to, and harbored genes toward, nine drug classes, including fluoroquinolones and extended-spectrum cephalosporins, contained two plasmid replicons, and differed by 93 single-nucleotide polymorphisms.
Hendriksen, Rene S.; Joensen, Katrine Grimstrup
This article explores an attempt to disrupt gender inequality in a unique, low-cost private school in Ndola, Zambia. It examines deliberate school policies aimed at "undoing gender" or fostering greater gender equity. These include efforts to maintain gender parity at all levels of the school and the requirement that both young men and women carry
Zambia, a central African country of about 10 million people, is currently exposed to the nonsubjective forces of globalization, including institutional weaknesses such as high unemployment rated and chronic levels of poverty that ipso facto problematize its governance and social development priorities. The first part of the article focuses on an
Abdi, Ali A.; Ellis, Lee
In the Republic of Zambia, an estimated 256,000 persons have some form of disability, and of these, 5.4% have intellectual disabilities. Even now, traditional beliefs about the etiology of intellectual disabilities persist and considerable stigma is attached to the presence of persons with intellectual disabilities who are often excluded from
This article identifies information provision services in emergency settings using Zambia as a case study by identifying innovative ways of providing library and information services. The thrust of the article is to analyze information management practices of organizations that work within refugee camps and how they take specific cognizance of the
Kanyengo, Brendah Kakulwa; Kanyengo, Christine Wamunyima
Abstract Background While consensus on malaria vector control policy and strategy has stimulated unprecedented political-will, backed by international funding organizations and donors, vector control interventions are expansively being implemented based on assumptions with unequaled successes. This manuscript reports on the strategies, achievements and challenges of the past and contemporary malaria vector control efforts in Zambia. Case description All availabl...
Chanda Emmanuel; Mukonka Victor M; Kamuliwo Mulakwa; Macdonald Michael B; Haque Ubydul
Following a brief description of national and international experience, the author outlines the market chances of district heating. He then discusses the marketing action required to enable further expansion of district heating as well as the continued need for subsidising district heating because of the low level of energy prices. The technical discussion focusses on the separation of the Graz district heating system from the Mellach district-heating power station as well as on the experience gathered so far with the REFUNA project in Switzerland. (Auth.)
This presentation briefly describes the Zambian Seisimic Network (ZSN), Zambia's participation in past CTBTO activities and upgrading of AS119 and N192. It goes on to describe various experiences encountered and makes some suggestions for future considerations
Full Text Available Abstract Background Client-initiated HIV counselling and testing has been scaled up in many African countries, in the form of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT. Test rates have remained low, with HIV-related stigma being an important barrier to HIV testing. This study explored HIV testing decisions in one rural and one urban district in Zambia with high HIV prevalence and available antiretroviral treatment. Methods Data were collected through 17 in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions with individuals and 10 in-depth interviews with counsellors. Interpretive description methodology was employed to analyse the data. Results 'To know your status' was found to be a highly charged concept yielding strong barriers against HIV testing. VCT was perceived as a diagnostic device and a gateway to treatment for the severely ill. Known benefits of prevention and early treatment were outweighed by a perceived burden of knowing your HIV status related to stigma and fear. The manner in which the VCT services were organised added to this burden. Conclusions This study draws on social stigma theory to enhance the understanding of the continuity of HIV related stigma in the presence of ART, and argues that the burden of knowing an HIV status and the related reluctance to get HIV tested can be understood both as a form of label-avoidance and as strong expressions of the still powerful embodied memories of suffering and death among non-curable AIDS patients over the last decades. Hope lies in the emerging signs of a reduction in HIV related stigma experienced by those who had been tested for HIV. Further research into innovative HIV testing service designs that do not add to the burden of knowing is needed.
This study was performed as a bachelor thesis at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden, in the spring of 2012. The project was carried out as a Minor Field Study in Lusaka, Zambia, in collaboration with Mr. Obert Mambwe at Petrec Zambia Limited. The local waste management in Lusaka suffers from severe overload due to insufficient funds and rapid population growth. This has resulted in the inability to collect approximately fifty percent of the total produced waste, including ...
Berling, Ludvig; Palm, Alexander; Sahlin, Linnea
Due to the increased burden of poor health on poor and rural households, Malawi and Zambia waived user fees in health. Malawi introduced an Essential Health Package (EHP) in 2004 to address common causes of morbidity and mortality that disproportionately affect the poor. Zambia abolished user fees in health for rural households in 2006. Waving user fees was seen as an effective tool for bridging the socio-economic divide and improving health equity. These policies sought to reduce the nationa...
Cleopas Gabriel, Sambo
Background: Unintended pregnancy, abortion and STI, including HIV are common sexual and reproductive health problems among young people in Kenya and Zambia. Yet, the reproductive health services are underutilised. Nurses and midwives are key providers in the promotion young people s sexual and reproductive health in Kenya and Zambia. Aim: The overall aim was to describe and explore young people s sexual and reproductive health needs and experiences and to describe health ...
The research had an anthropological perspective, regarding the integration of Art and Music in Zambia. By using qualitative interviews and participating observations I collected information about how some teachers in Zambia reflect about the integration of Art and Music. Through the theoretical framework I analyzed the results. The results demonstrated how the teachers were responding due to the curriculum and teachers guide but acting differently through the observations. The teachers ...
Abstract Background Zambia adopted integrated management of Childhood illnesses (IMCI) in 1995 and a number of adaptations have been made to the generic WHO/UNICEF IMCI guidelines to better conform to Zambia's health service needs. One significant adaptation is the incorporation of HIV guidelines into the IMCI algorithm. Since 2004, health workers that have undergone IMCI case management training have also received training in HIV assessment. During initial follow-up visits i...
Kalesha Penny; Mutale Wilbroad; Mugala Nantalile; Sinyinza Elijah
Abstract Background Zambias national HIV testing algorithm specifies use of two rapid blood based antibody assays, Determine®HIV-1/2 (Inverness Medical) and if positive then Uni-GoldTM Recombigen HIV-1/2 (Trinity Biotech). Little is known about the performance of oral fluid based HIV testing in Zambia. The aims of this study are two-fold: 1) to compare the diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) under field conditions of the OraQuick® ADVANCE® Rapid...
Zachary Dalila; Mwenge Lawrence; Muyoyeta Monde; Shanaube Kwame; Schaap Albertus; Bond Virginia; Kosloff Barry; de Haas Petra; Ayles Helen
Full Text Available Agriculture is vital to Zambias economic development and is a mainstay for the livelihoods of a large proportion of the population. Agricultural production is mainly dependent on rain-fed hoe cultivation with maize as the principal staple food crop. About 18 percent of national maize production comes from Zambias Southern province. In order to improve food security and minimize risks associated with heavy dependence on maize, the government of Zambia has been promoting crop diversification. This study analyzed the determinants of crop diversification as well as the factors influencing the extent of crop diversification by smallholder farmers in Southern province. The study used secondary data from the Central Statistical Office of Zambia. Results from a double-hurdle model analysis indicates that landholding size, fertilizer quantity, distance to market, and the type of tillage mechanism adopted have a strong influence on whether a farmer practices crop diversification. Our findings have important implications for policies that are designed to enhance crop diversification. In particular, our results suggest the need for government to consider undertaking policies that will enhance farmers access to and control over land, that will provide farmers with improved access to agricultural implements like ploughs, and that will bring trading markets closer to farmers.
This paper critically examines labor market changes accompanying the process of structural adjustment in the Philippines and Zambia and, in particular, the resulting impact on women's economic participation. The changes in the labor market occurring during the process of economic restructuring in Zambia and the Philippines are similar in some respects but very different in others. Zambia's economic performance has not been sufficient to generate wide-based employment and has been characterized by rising unemployment. The Philippines has also unfortunately been characterized by a growth in joblessness, specifically with regard to skilled and semiskilled employment. Global integration of labor markets in the Philippines give some employment opportunity to workers who are willing to seek jobs overseas but not to those in Zambia. Both in the Philippines and Zambia, the informal sector has shifted its agricultural reforms to female labor toward agricultural wage work (which is seasonal and low paid). In the Philippines, specifically in urban areas, certain export-oriented industries have created some jobs, predominantly for young women, but only a small proportion of total females are employed. Much of the female job growth has occurred in sales and service sectors, including sex work, domestic service, and petty trade. International labor migration in the Philippines has become more feminized, because a majority of overseas contract workers are women, who are employed in the service sector as entertainers and domestic helpers. Access to paid work in some cases may empower women, yet in other cases their power may be diminished. Both the specific character of labor market development and the nature of the accompanying economic reform alter the ability of the women and men to take advantage of the opportunity. Reform shifts patterns of production organization and location of employment and can either reinforce the prevailing distribution of power or provide tension, thereby challenging the governing pattern of income control and decision making. Thus, the economic restructuring of the Philippines and Zambia did not necessarily bring about significant changes in the labor market such that gender equality would be promoted. PMID:12322204
Floro, M S; Schaefer, K
A district heating system consists of one or more production units supplying energy in the form of heated water through a distribution pipe network to a multitude of consumers. District heating systems come in a range of different forms and sizes; from small independent systems within industrial estates or university campuses to large city-wide systems supplying millions of consumers with heating and hot water. The geographically dispersed layout of district heating sy...
The University Teaching Hospital is situated in the Zambian capital, Lusaka. In a 15-year period (1979 to 1993), 81 child patients with cancrum oris were admitted to the pediatric plastic surgery unit. There were 29 boys and 52 girls, of whom 58 were below 3 years of age. The majority of them were from certain provinces where the population is comparatively much lower than in other provinces of Zambia. The dietary habits in cancrum orisprone provinces are quite different than those of other provinces of Zambia. Of 81 patients, 3 refused surgery, 11 died during early medical treatment, and 12 died following early minor surgery. A total of 55 patients had reconstructive surgery by one of the authors (Nath). Problems encountered during management, such as anesthesia, trismus, and choice of appropriate flaps, are discussed in this paper. The implication of human immunodeficiency virus is also addressed. PMID:9703069
Nath, S; Jovic, G
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Culture plays a significant role in people's lives in Zambia and in Africa as a whole. Consequently, there is a need to take Zambian or African culture seriously in order to look at the salient elements of cultural practices in rites of passage that influence the spread of HIV and AIDS. This article [...] analyses four rites of passage associated with birth, puberty, marriage and death. There are numerous rites of passage in Zambian culture. Some of these rites help to curb the spread of HIV and AIDS, whilst others exacerbate the spread of the virus. Using the Reformed Church in Zambia Bible Study Method of Subgroups, discussions were held that allowed victims of cultural practices to tell their stories using the narrative model. This article sought to shed light on cultural practices that exacerbate HIV and AIDS and more importantly, provide culturally sensitive alternatives to these harmful practices.
Nolipher, Moyo; Julian C., M& #252; ller.
Economy-wide and hydrological-crop models are combined to estimate and compare the economic impacts of current climate variability and future anthropogenic climate change in Zambia. Accounting for uncertainty, simulation results indicate that, on average, current variability reduces gross domestic product by four percent over a ten-year period and pulls over two percent of the population below the poverty line. Socio-economic impacts are much larger during major drought years, thus underscori...
Thurlow, James; Zhu, Tingju; Diao, Xinshen
Biochar addition to agricultural soils can improve soil fertility, with the added bonus of climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. Conservation farming (CF) is precision farming, often combining minimum tillage, crop rotation and residue retention. In the present farmer-led field trials carried out in Zambia, the use of a low dosage biochar combined with CF minimum tillage was tested as a way to increase crop yields. Using CF minimum tillage allows the biochar to be applied to...
Alfred Obia; Jan Mulder; Hale, Sarah E.; Breedveld, Gijs D.; Rutherford, David W.; Magnus Sparrevik; Vanja Alling; Vegard Martinsen; Victor Shitumbanuma; Gerard Cornelissen
The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and factors associated with genital tract infections among HIV-infected pregnant women from African sites. Participants were recruited from Blantyre and Lilongwe, Malawi; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; and Lusaka, Zambia. Genital tract infections were assessed at baseline. Of 2627 eligible women enrolled, 2292 were HIV-infected. Of these, 47.8% had bacterial vaginosis (BV), 22.4% had vaginal candidiasis, 18.8% had trichomoniasis, 8.5% had genital ...
Aboud, S.; Msamanga, G.; Read, J. S.; Mwatha, A.; Chen, Y. Q.; Potter, D.; Valentine, M.; Sharma, U.; Hoffmann, I.; Taha, T. E.; Goldenberg, R. L.; Fawzi, W. W.
Four samples of kaolinite from Central Zambia were collected in April 1990 by D.A. Briggs (Mineralogy and Petrology Report WG/90/15R) in order to characterise them mineralogically and assess their suitability as industrial raw materials, possibly in the manufacture of paper. Other applications such as use in ceramics, as fillers in paint, plastic and rubber, or in agriculture were also to be considered.
Mitchell, C. J.; Briggs, D. A.; Bloodworth, A. J.
The black lechwe Kobus leche smithemani) is an antelope that belongs to the family reduncinae. Its current population is confined to the Bangweulu Basin in the northern Zambia. This research was undertaken to assess its current population status, the sex and age ratios, carrying capacity of the flood-plain where it occurs and its maximum sustainable yield. The study also estimated its potential sustainable off-take and looked into the links that exists between wildlife and socio-economics in ...
Kamweneshe, Bernard Mwila
The global food price crisis of 2007/08 raised fears about the impacts of higher and more volatile food prices for the poor in Zambia. Like in the past, the implementation of the strategies to deal with the rising food prices, especially for the staple crop maize were delayed due to ineffective response policies, mistrust between government and private sector, protracted discussions, inaction amongst key agriculture stakeholders and rent-seeking behaviour by some. Using the political economy ...
Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major public health problems in Zambia. However, information about lineages of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates useful for epidemiology investigations is unknown. In this study, we investigated the diversity of MTBC isolates from Ndola, a typical Zambian urbanized city with a documented high HIV prevalence. Methods This was part of a prospective cohort study in subjects with sputum smear-positiv...
Mwakazanga David; Shamputa Isdore C; Mulenga Chanda; Kapata Nathan; Portaels Françoise; Rigouts Leen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in HIV-infected children in Zambia, as implementation at the local health centre level has yet to be undertaken in many resource-limited countries despite recommendations in recent updated World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. DESIGN: A probabilistic decision analytical model of HIV/AIDS progression in children based on the CD4 cell percentage (CD4%) was populated with data from the placebo-controlled Children with...
Ryan, M.; Griffin, S.; Chitah, B.; Walker, As; Mulenga, V.; Kalolo, D.; Hawkins, N.; Merry, C.; Barry, Mg; Chintu, C.; Sculpher, Mj; Gibb, Dm
Abstract Background Following the recognition that morbidity and mortality due to malaria had dramatically increased in the last three decades, in 2002 the government of Zambia reviewed its efforts to prevent and treat malaria. Convincing evidence of the failing efficacy of chloroquine resulted in the initiation of a process that eventually led to the development and implementation of a new national drug policy based on artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). Meth...
Snow Robert W; Olumese Peter; Chanda Pascalina; Simon Jonathon L.; Sipilanyambe Naawa; Hamer Davidson H
Full Text Available Southern Africa is noted for not only constant power shortages but also poor access to electricity. In Zambia, for example, 75% of the population does not have access to electricity. This is partly because although Zambia has one of the lowest energy tariffs in Southern Africa, when compared with household monthly income, the resource is still reasonably unaffordable. Therefore, there is need to find innovative ways of reducing energy cost. Recent studies have indicated that there are patterns that show that there is a relationship between households lifestyles and energy consumption. This means that understanding household lifestyles and how that impacts on energy use would be crucial in helping occupants to change their behaviours. This would result in the minimisation of energy consumption and thus a reduction in energy bills. However, there is a dearth of scholarly literature about households lifestyles and their impacts on energy consumption in most developing countries including Zambia. This study investigates the perceptions of different lifestyles on household energy consumption and knowledge about energy efficiency in the city of Kitwe, the second largest city in Zambia. Motivation and barriers to energy efficiency have also been investigated. To achieve this, a mixed research approach was adopted. Firstly, a quantitative closed structured questionnaire instrument was used to collect data from 59 households in Kitwe. Secondly, mini-focus group discussions (average size of 5 ? brought about by the curiosity of residents and hence the contribution as families per household ? were undertaken in the informal settlement. The major findings are that households are generally motivated to implement energy saving strategies like covering pots when cooking, switching off lights in rooms that are not in use and that more information is needed as lack of knowledge and landlord control were identified as some of the barriers to energy efficiency.
Three smallholder dairy production systems in Zambia, Sri Lanka and Kenya are analysed and compared. The focus is on the relationships between the animal production system, the farm household system, and the institutional environment. Attention is given to the valuation of marketed and non-marketed products and the intangible benefits of livestock in insurance, financing and status display. The comprehensive and comparative analysis of the production systems shows the direct relationship betw...
Moll, H. A. J.; Staal, S. J.; Ibrahim, M. N. M.
Abstract Background The presence of mental distress during pregnancy and after childbirth imposes detrimental developmental and health consequences for families in all nations. In Zambia, the Ministry of Health (MoH) has proposed a more comprehensive approach towards mental health care, recognizing the importance of the mental health of women during the perinatal period. Aim The study explores factors contributing to mental distress during the perinatal period o...
Mwape Lonia; McGuinness Teena M; Dixey Rachael; Johnson Sally E
In 2003 national heads of African states, including Zambia, met in Maputo and pledged to increase financial resources to the agriculture sector, up to 10 % of their national budgets, in order to meet growth targets. Given the need to increase investments in agriculture, it follows that impact assessment studies have become handy as funding agencies demand better accountability and empirical justification for further investment. However, experts have reasoned that the quantity of resources ...
Abstract Background Dental health is a neglected aspect of adolescent health globally but more so in low-income countries. Secondary analysis using the 2004 Zambia Global School-Based Health Survey (GSHS) was conducted in which we estimated frequencies of relevant socio-demographic variables and explored associations between selected explanatory variables and self-reported poor oral hygiene (not cleaning or brushing teeth) within the last 30 days of the completion of question...
Rudatsikira Emmanuel; Muula Adamson S.; Siziya Seter
Abstract Background Since 2003 pediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs have scaled-up in sub-Saharan Africa and should be evaluated to assess progress and identify areas for improvement. We evaluated secular trends in the characteristics and treatment outcomes of children in three pediatric ART clinics in urban and rural areas in Zambia. Methods Routinely collected data were analyzed from three ART programs in rural (Macha and Mukinge) and urban (Lusak...
Cotham Matt; van Dijk Janneke H; Bolton-Moore Carolyn; Sutcliffe Catherine G; Tambatamba Bushimbwa; Moss William J.
Abstract Background Malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity, mortality and non-fatal disability in Zambia, especially among children, pregnant women and the poor. Data gathered by the National Malaria Control Centre has shown that recently observed widespread treatment failure of SP and chloroquine precipitated a surge in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. As a result, the Government has recently replaced chloroquine and SP with combination therapy as first-line tr...
Hawela Moonga; Sipilanyambe Naawa; Chitah Bona M; Masiye Felix; Chanda Pascalina; Banda Patrick; Okorosobo Tuoyo
Abstract Background Despite the 1991 reforms of the health system in Zambia, mental health is still given low priority. This is evident from the fragmented manner in which mental health services are provided in the country and the limited budget allocations, with mental health services receiving 0.4% of the total health budget. Most of the mental health services provided are curative in nature and based in tertiary health institutions. At primary health care level, there is e...
Mwanza Jason; Kapungwe Augustus; Sikwese Alice; Mwape Lonia; Flisher Alan; Lund Crick; Cooper Sara
Slash and burn shifting (Chitemene) cultivation has been the dominant traditional land use system in the Miombo woodlands of Northern Zambia. The land use system adopted by farmers depends on the interaction between biophysical and socio- cultural and economical resources available to them. Socio economic resources also include policies, which influence the farmers decisions. Despite the so many interventions that have been done and condemnation of this system, this practice ...
Kapekele, Evan Mutale
This study has investigated the biblical and historical relevancy of doing theology of pastoral ministry in rural Zambia .After a meticulous examination of essential distinctives of pastoral ministry, the study brought to the fore the fact that the role of the faith community among other things is to engage the community in a practical and relevant way by creating an enabling environment that promote dialogue. Social communication and cohesion are important imperatives especially in the co...
Abstract The concept of the Knowledge Translation Platform (KTP) provides cohesion and leadership for nationallevel knowledge translation efforts. In this review, we discuss nine key lessons documenting the experience of the Zambia Forum for Health Research, primarily to inform and exchange experience with the growing community of African KTPs. Lessons from ZAMFOHRs organizational development include the necessity of selecting a multi-stakeholder and -sectoral Board of Directo...
Kasonde Joseph M; Campbell Sandy
Abstract Background The diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis (TB) is difficult, especially so in health care facilities in developing countries where laparoscopy and colonoscopy are rarely available. There is little information on abdominal TB in HIV infection. We estimated the prevalence and clinical features of abdominal (excluding genitourinary) TB in HIV infected adults attending the University Teaching Hospital, Zambia. Methods We screened 5,609 medical inpa...
Vermund Sten H; Zimba Lameck; Mudenda Victor; Zulu Isaac; Gray Sylvia; Sinkala Edford; Drobniewski Francis; Kelly Paul
Kapenta (Limnothrissa miodon) was introduced from Lake Tanganyika into the man-made Lake Kariba, where it now supports a large and viable fishery for Zimbabwe and Zambia who share the lake. The challenge for this paper has been to investigate whether the viability of the kapenta fishery is dependent upon biological factor or economic parameters. The Pella and Tomlinson surplus production model (Pella and Tomlinson, 1967) was used, and parameterised by historical catch and effor...
Abstract Background The Ministry of Health (MoH) in Zambia is operating with fewer than half of the human resources for health (HRH) necessary to meet basic population health needs. Responding urgently to address this HRH crisis, the MoH plans to double the annual number of health training graduates in the next five years to increase the supply of health workers. The feasibility and costs of achieving this initiative, however, are unclear. Methods We determined ...
Lee Joanne; Libetwa Miriam; Kapihya Margaret; Tjoa Aaron; Pattinson Charmaine; McCarthy Elizabeth; Schroder Kate
Abstract Background Approximately half of the countries in the African Region had a mental health policy by 2005, but little is known about quality of mental health policies in Africa and globally. This paper reports the results of an assessment of the mental health policies of Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia. Methods The WHO Mental Health Policy Checklist was used to evaluate the most current mental health policy in each country. Assessments were complet...
Mwanza Jason; Ssbunnya Joshua; Ofori-Atta Angela; Kleintjes Sharon; Funk Michelle; Faydi Edwige; Kim Caroline; Flisher Alan
Some Bantu languages spoken in southwestern Zambia and neighboring regions of Botswana, Namibia, and Angola are characterized by the presence of click consonants, whereas their closest linguistic relatives lack such clicks. As clicks are a typical feature not of the Bantu language family, but of Khoisan languages, it is highly probable that the Bantu languages in question borrowed the clicks from Khoisan languages. In this paper, we combine complete mitochondrial genome sequences from a representative sample of populations from the Western Province of Zambia speaking Bantu languages with and without clicks, with fine-scaled analyses of Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms and short tandem repeats to investigate the prehistoric contact that led to this borrowing of click consonants. Our results reveal complex population-specific histories, with female-biased admixture from Khoisan-speaking groups associated with the incorporation of click sounds in one Bantu-speaking population, while concomitant levels of potential Khoisan admixture did not result in sound change in another. Furthermore, the lack of sequence sharing between the Bantu-speaking groups from southwestern Zambia investigated here and extant Khoisan populations provides an indication that there must have been genetic substructure in the Khoisan-speaking indigenous groups of southern Africa that did not survive until the present or has been substantially reduced. PMID:22929022
Barbieri, Chiara; Butthof, Anne; Bostoen, Koen; Pakendorf, Brigitte
Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia pestis is a bacterium that causes plague which infects a variety of mammals throughout the world. The disease is usually transmitted among wild rodents through a flea vector. The sources and routes of transmission of plague are poorly researched in Africa, yet remains a concern in several sub-Saharan countries. In Zambia, the disease has been reported on annual basis with up to 20 cases per year, without investigating animal reservoirs or vectors that may be responsible in the maintenance and propagation of the bacterium. In this study, we undertook plague surveillance by using PCR amplification of the plasminogen activator gene in fleas. Findings Xenopsylla species of fleas were collected from 83 rodents trapped in a plague endemic area of Zambia. Of these rodents 5 had fleas positive (6.02% for Y. pestis plasminogen activator gene. All the Y. pestis positive rodents were gerbils. Conclusions We conclude that fleas may be responsible in the transmission of Y. pestis and that PCR may provide means of plague surveillance in the endemic areas of Zambia.
Hang'ombe Bernard M
Lead poisoning can have devastating health consequences, especially for children, with childhood lead exposure estimated to contribute to 600,000 new cases globally of children with intellectual disabilities every year. Lead exposure is entirely preventable, yet is estimated to account for 0.6% of the global burden of disease, with the highest burden in developing regions. Kabwe, the second largest city in Zambia with a population of approximately 203,000, is located in Zambia's Copperbelt. During 1904-1994, lead mining and smelting operations contaminated the soil in residential areas, but no extensive environmental health assessment was completed. In 2003, the World Bank funded the Copperbelt Environmental Project to assist the Government of Zambia in addressing environmental health problems related to the mining sector. Components of the project included removal of mining waste materials, soil remediation, resident evacuation, and treatment of lead-exposed children. During July 22-28, 2014, a team from PureEarth/Blacksmith Institute, the City University of New York School of Public Health, and Green Cross Switzerland conducted extensive surface soil testing and blood lead testing of children in six communities adjacent to the now-closed Kabwe mines and smelters. PMID:25375074
Caravanos, Jack; Fuller, Richard; Robinson, Stephan
Many African protected areas (PAs) are not functioning effectively. We reviewed the performance of Zambias PA network and provide insights into how their effectiveness might be improved. Zambias PAs are under-performing in ecological, economic and social terms. Reasons include: a) rapidly expanding human populations, poverty and open-access systems in Game Management Areas (GMAs) resulting in widespread bushmeat poaching and habitat encroachment; b) underfunding of the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) resulting in inadequate law enforcement; c) reliance of ZAWA on extracting revenues from GMAs to cover operational costs which has prevented proper devolution of user-rights over wildlife to communities; d) on-going marginalization of communities from legal benefits from wildlife; e) under-development of the photo-tourism industry with the effect that earnings are limited to a fraction of the PA network; f) unfavourable terms and corruption which discourage good practice and adequate investment by hunting operators in GMAs; g) blurred responsibilities regarding anti-poaching in GMAs resulting in under-investment by all stakeholders. The combined effect of these challenges has been a major reduction in wildlife densities in most PAs and the loss of habitat in GMAs. Wildlife fares better in areas with investment from the private and/or NGO sector and where human settlement is absent. There is a need for: elevated government funding for ZAWA; greater international donor investment in protected area management; a shift in the role of ZAWA such that they focus primarily on national parks while facilitating the development of wildlife-based land uses by other stakeholders elsewhere; and new models for the functioning of GMAs based on joint-ventures between communities and the private and/or NGO sector. Such joint-ventures should provide defined communities with ownership of land, user-rights over wildlife and aim to attract long-term private/donor investment. These recommendations are relevant for many of the under-funded PAs occurring in other African countries. PMID:24847712
Lindsey, Peter A.; Nyirenda, Vincent R.; Barnes, Jonathan I.; Becker, Matthew S.; McRobb, Rachel; Tambling, Craig J.; Taylor, W. Andrew; Watson, Frederick G.; tSas-Rolfes, Michael
Full Text Available Abstract Background Well-documented shortages of health care workers in sub-Saharan Africa are exacerbated by the increased human resource demands of rapidly expanding HIV care and treatment programmes. The successful continuation of existing programmes is threatened by health care worker burnout and HIV-related illness. Methods From March to June 2007, we studied occupational burnout and utilization of HIV services among health providers in the Lusaka public health sector. Providers from 13 public clinics were given a 36-item, self-administered questionnaire and invited for focus group discussions and key-informant interviews. Results Some 483 active clinical staff completed the questionnaire (84% response rate, 50 staff participated in six focus groups, and four individuals gave interviews. Focus group participants described burnout as feeling overworked, stressed and tired. In the survey, 51% reported occupational burnout. Risk factors were having another job (RR 1.4 95% CI 1.21.6 and knowing a co-worker who left in the last year (RR 1.6 95% CI 1.32.2. Reasons for co-worker attrition included: better pay (40%, feeling overworked or stressed (21%, moving away (16%, death (8% and illness (5%. When asked about HIV testing, 370 of 456 (81% reported having tested; 240 (50% tested in the last year. In contrast, discussion groups perceived low testing rates. Both discussion groups and survey respondents identified confidentiality as the prime reason for not undergoing HIV testing. Conclusion In Lusaka primary care clinics, overwork, illness and death were common reasons for attrition. Programmes to improve access, acceptability and confidentiality of health care services for clinical providers and to reduce workplace stress could substantially affect workforce stability.
In short-term and long-term considerations of economy planning of long-lived infrastructure investments, situations of conflict may occur which are illustrated by examples and whose causes are stated. The paper then deals with some points of emphasis in the findings of the 'District Heating', study. The approach from industry's point of view is mentioned. The topics discussed are a) the costs of economical district heat supply from combined heat and power generation under realistic conditions of energy economy, b) determination of the technically suitable and economically realistic district heat potential, and c) accompanying measures of regional authorities for a faster development of district heating. Finally, the productive lives of a number of energy carriers are compared. (GG)
Computeristed clerical work program "District Neighborhoods Office IS" is created using DELPHI field, and it acts in Windows'98/2000/XP surroundings. It is integrated registration system, this system fits for Utena District Neighborhoods. This program helps to facilitate the control of the tasks fulfilling, which are provided in documents, also documents registration, files formating and looking for information. Documentical information analysis takes much time. This program helps to improve ...
ABSTRACT Background: In many countries, pregnancy tests are not freely available in family planning clinics. As a result, providers sometimes deny services to non-menstruating clients due to uncertainty about pregnancy. Few clients are actually pregnant, yet denied clients run the risk of becoming pregnant, and those sent to pharmacies pay inflated prices for inexpensive tests. To assess the programmatic effect of free pregnancy testing, we conducted cluster-randomized trials in Ghana and Zambia, assessing clients' uptake of contraception in family planning clinics. Methods: In each country, 5 clinics were randomized to intervention status and 5 to control. Service data from 2,028 new, non-menstruating clients in Zambia and 1,556 in Ghana were collected. Intervention clinics received supplies of pregnancy tests, and staff were instructed to use tests as needed to help exclude pregnancy. Control clinics received no intervention. The primary outcome was the proportion of non-menstruating clients denied an effective contraceptive method. Cost-effectiveness was also evaluated. Results: In Zambia, clients in intervention and control clinics faced a similar risk of service denial at baseline, 15% and 17%, respectively. At follow-up, denial remained unchanged at 17% in control clinics, but decreased significantly to 4% in intervention sites. Clients in Zambia were 4.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.314.4) times more likely to be denied a method in control sites versus intervention sites (P<.01). Results from Ghana were inconclusive. Cost of a denial averted in Zambia was estimated to be US$0.59. Interpretation: Zambia results suggest that availability of free pregnancy testing significantly reduced contraceptive service denial, although results from Ghana preclude an unqualified recommendation. Authors conclude that free pregnancy testing in family planning clinics may make strong public health sense in those developing countries where denial to non-menstruating clients remains a problem. Although pregnancy can usually be excluded with a client history, pregnancy tests are often necessary. PMID:25276551
Stanback, John; Vance, Gwyneth; Asare, Gloria; Kasonde, Prisca; Kafulubiti, Beatrice; Chen, Mario; Janowitz, Barbara
Full Text Available Abstract Background While consensus on malaria vector control policy and strategy has stimulated unprecedented political-will, backed by international funding organizations and donors, vector control interventions are expansively being implemented based on assumptions with unequaled successes. This manuscript reports on the strategies, achievements and challenges of the past and contemporary malaria vector control efforts in Zambia. Case description All available information and accessible archived documentary records on malaria vector control in Zambia were reviewed. Retrospective analysis of routine surveillance data from the Health Management Information System (HMIS, data from population-based household surveys and various operations research reports was conducted to assess the status in implementing policies and strategies. Discussion and evaluation Empirical evidence is critical for informing policy decisions and tailoring interventions to local settings. Thus, the World Health Organization (WHO encourages the adoption of the integrated vector management (IVM strategy which is a rational decision making process for optimal use of available resources. One of the key features of IVM is capacity building at the operational level to plan, implement, monitor and evaluate vector control and its epidemiological and entomological impact. In Zambia, great progress has been made in implementing WHO-recommended vector control policies and strategies within the context of the IVM Global Strategic framework with strong adherence to its five key attributes. Conclusions The country has solid, consistent and coordinated policies, strategies and guidelines for malaria vector control. The Zambian experience demonstrates the significance of a coordinated multi-pronged IVM approach effectively operationalized within the context of a national health system.
A survey of heavy element levels in top soils collected around four industrial plants and along four highway stretches demonstrated that there was significant pollution only around an abandoned Pb/Zn mine. Sample collection in a rectangular grid encompassing each source sought to depict the spatial extent of pollution. Ascertaining levels of heavy elements in potentially polluted soils in urban areas of Zambia and along major highways was deemed desirable because it is common practice to grow maize and vegetables in lots adjacent to accessible industrial sites and highways. Pb is a heavy element of interest for all sampled sites whose distribution at the abandoned mine ranged from 13 to 2028 ppm
Processes of globalisation are currently changing the global activity of multinational companies (MNCs). Emerging MNCs are competing with conventional MNCs when investing in new markets. This article sets out to analyse the motives and strategies of Chinese and Indian MNCs investing in Zambia. It argues that despite the different home-country contexts of these investments, emerging MNCs depict differences as well as similarities. Moreover, the article maintains that existing theories explaining international production provide a suitable framework to understand emerging patterns, but that more emphasis must be placed on the home and host contexts and how institutional features impact investment decisions.
Kragelund, Peter; Hampwaye, Godfrey
The main source of geothermal energy is the heat flow from the mantle beneath the Earths surface, generated by the gradual decay of radioactive isotopes in the Earths crust. A hot spring is produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater flowing out to the Earths surface. The Chinyunyu hot spring is located about 90km east of Lusaka, Zambia. Water from the spring has been artificially channeled into a large excavated pool which is used as a bathing place. Since the undil...
The main aim of the study was to determine knowledge and use of modem contractive methods among reproductive age group rural women in Zambia. The study is a descriptive cross-sectional study of 105 randomly selected rural women. Data was collected using semi-structured interview schedule and analyzed using EPI Info version 6 statistical packages. The findings revealed that 63% of the respondents were within the age group 21-35 years, 65% were married and 64% were peasant farmers. 90% of the r...
Mubita-ngoma, C.; Chongo Kadantu, M.
The Bangweulu Basin (BB) (ca. 29 degrees-31 degrees E, 10 degrees-12 degrees S) is a roughly circular depression, ~150 km in diameter, on the Bangweulu Block of Zambia. The basin, about 1148 m ASL, is occupied by Lakes Bangweulu (~85 km long) and Kampolombo (~20 km long) and the Bangweulu Swamps [1,2]. The basement consists partly of granitoids (~1.8 Ga) together with ~1.1-Ga Katangan cover rocks. To the north, cover rocks of the Mporokoso Group (~1.8-1.3 Ga) form the arcuate Luongo Fold Belt , partly defining the perimeter of the outermost ring (R = 125 km) of the Bangweulu structure. Drainage into the BB is centripetal, with one outlet in the south, draining into a tributary of the Luapula River, which then curves in a broad arc toward the north, along the Zambia-Zaire border, before entering Lake Mweru. Rivers entering the BB include the Luansenshi, which rises in the north and flows in an arc to the southeast and south before joining the Chambeshi River, which flows southwest, west, and northwest before entering Lake Bangweulu. There is an arcuate watershed in the west (at R = 100 km), to the west of which rivers drain to the southwest and west into the Luapula River. Several elongate curved sliver-like islands, including Mbawala (~30 x 4 km) and Chisi, are present in Lake Bangweulu. The curvature of the islands follows the arcuate northwest boundary of the lake in a concentric manner. Unlike all the other major lakes in Zambia and surrounding areas (Mweru, Tanganyika, Rukwa, Malawi, and Kariba), which occupy seismically active rift structures [4,5], the Bangweulu Basin is generally aseismic, and is unrelated to rifting. There is a positive aeromagnetic intensity anomaly over the central Bangweulu depression, and there is also a magnetic anomaly density high over the central part of the BB, surrounded by a concentric low . A roughly circular anomaly, outlined by the -140 mgal contour, of the regional Bouguer gravity field is centerd on Lake Bangweulu, surrounded by an arcuate high south of the Luongo Fold Belt [7,8]. There are few heat flow measurements in Zambia , but there is no indication that the Bangweulu Basin has abnormally high heat flow, which is present in the Luangwaand Upper Zambezi rifts, as evidenced by numerous hot springs and historical geysers . Satellite imagery of Central Africa clearly shows a roughly circular outline of the Bangweulu Basin, including the lakes and swamps, surrounded by a concentric ring of uplifts. The concentric islands in Lake Bangweulu are reminiscent of the multiple concentric rings around impact basins in other planetary bodies, e.g., Valhalla and Asgard structures on the jovian moon of Callisto. Lunar craters Eratosthenes, Aristarchus, and others also have similar terraced morphologies with concentric rings. Based on the above geomorphological and geophysical features, it is postulated that the Bangweulu Basin represents the eroded remnant of a large multiring impact structure that postdates the Katangan Supergroup. Any possible connection between the Bangweulu structure and the Lukanga swamp (a postulated astrobleme in central Zambia ) is unknown at this stage. Ground search for macro- and microscopic shock features in the Bangweulu Basin is planned for 1994. References:  Debenham F. (1947) Geog. Rev., 37, 351-368.  Thieme J. G. and Johnson R. L. (1976) The 1:1,000,000 Scale Geological Map of the Republic of Zambia, Geol. Surv. Zambia.  Andersen L. S. and Unrug R. (1984) Precambrian Res., 25, 187-212.  Bram K. (1972). Bull. Seis. Soc. Am., 62, 1211-1216.  Fairhead J. D. and Henderson N. B. (1977) Tectonophysics, 41, 19-26.  Saviaro K. (1979) Bull. Geol. Surv. Botswana, 22, 159-181.  Mazac O. (1974) Tech. Rept. Geol. Surv. Zambia, 76, 40 pp.  Cowan I. M. and Pollack H. N. (1977) Nature, 266, 615-617.  Chapman D. S. and Pollack H. N. (1975) Nature, 256, 28-30.  Legg C. A. (1974) Econ. Rept. Geol. Surv. Zambia, 50, 60 pp.  Vrana S. (1985) Meteoritics, 20, 125-139.
This dissertation is informed by the need for adequate ethical consciousness in view of the perceived need for public responsibility, cooperation and participation in ensuring sound environmental management. It investigates and critiques the extent to which an adequate range of ethical principles has been incorporated in Zambia's attempts to address environmental issues.The investigation focused on the role of government policy, education system and the mass media in promoting responsible environmental management and practices by raising environmental ethical consciousness. The study confirmed the preponderance of economic utilitarianism with regard to environmental issues. (author)
Generation of radioactive waste in Zambia is limited by application of radioisotopes in medicine and research, and by use of sealed radioactive sources in industry, agriculture and at health care facilities. Use of radioactive materials and management of associated wastes are governed by National Ionising Radiation Act. Totally more then 100 institutions in the country are using different radioactive materials and consequently are dealing with radioactive waste. Responsibility for managing these wastes rested with organisations and institutions producing radioactive waste, with the supervision of this activity by National Radiation Service (RPS). (author)
The effect of endosulfan on non-target fauna in a maize agro-ecosystem was studied in Zambia in 1994 and 1995. Endosulfan was well tolerated by a number of beneficial arthropods such as spiders, coccinelids, carabids and ants. Springtails were significantly reduced. However the effect was only transient and lasted for at most eight weeks. While endosulfan was effective against the target pest (stalk borers) it appeared to have no real effect on the soil inhabiting microorganisms. (author). 6 refs, 6 tabs
Full Text Available Biochar addition to agricultural soils can improve soil fertility, with the added bonus of climate change mitigation through carbon sequestration. Conservation farming (CF is precision farming, often combining minimum tillage, crop rotation and residue retention. In the present farmer-led field trials carried out in Zambia, the use of a low dosage biochar combined with CF minimum tillage was tested as a way to increase crop yields. Using CF minimum tillage allows the biochar to be applied to the area where most of the plant roots are present and mirrors the fertilizer application in CF practices. The CF practice used comprised manually hoe-dug planting 10-L sized basins, where 10%12% of the land was tilled. Pilot trials were performed with maize cob biochar and wood biochar on five soils with variable physical/chemical characteristics. At a dosage as low as 4 tons/ha, both biochars had a strong positive effect on maize yields in the coarse white aeolian sand of Kaoma, West-Zambia, with yields of 444% ± 114% (p = 0.06 and 352% ± 139% (p = 0.1 of the fertilized reference plots for maize and wood biochar, respectively. Thus for sandy acidic soils, CF and biochar amendment can be a promising combination for increasing harvest yield. Moderate but non-significant effects on yields were observed for maize and wood biochar in a red sandy clay loam ultisol east of Lusaka, central Zambia (University of Zambia, UNZA, site with growth of 142% ± 42% (p > 0.2 and 131% ± 62% (p > 0.2 of fertilized reference plots, respectively. For three other soils (acidic and neutral clay loams and silty clay with variable cation exchange capacity, CEC, no significant effects on maize yields were observed (p > 0.2. In laboratory trials, 5% of the two biochars were added to the soil samples in order to study the effect of the biochar on physical and chemical soil characteristics. The large increase in crop yield in Kaoma soil was tentatively explained by a combination of an increased base saturation (from <50% to 60%100% and cation exchange capacity (CEC; from 23 to 59 cmol/kg and increased plant-available water (from 17% to 21% as well as water vapor uptake (70 mg/g on maize cob biochar at 50% relative humidity.
African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic viral disease of domestic pigs. The disease is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and has repeatedly been introduced into other continents. The current study describes the diagnostic investigations of a hemorrhagic disease that was reported in pigs in Lusaka (October 2013), Zambia. Necropsy, histopathology, and molecular diagnosis using polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis confirmed the disease to be ASF. The sequences obtained showed high similarity to previously isolated ASF viruses. Consistent surveillance and rapid diagnosis of the disease is recommended to prevent future outbreaks and economic losses as there is currently no vaccine against the disease. PMID:25535151
Yabe, John; Hamambulu, Pharaoh; Simulundu, Edgar; Ogawa, Hirohito; Kajihara, Masahiro; Mori-Kajihara, Akina; Changula-Chitanga, Katendi; Mwase, Max; Mweemba-Muwowo, Mutinta; Chambaro, Herman Moses; Mataa, Liywalii; Hang'ombe, Bernard; Namangala, Bonniface; Fandamu, Paul; Sawa, Hirofumi; Takada, Ayato; Higashi, Hideaki; Mweene, Aaron Simanyengwe
Full Text Available A two-sex compartmental model of the dynamics of HIV infection was developed and applied to the case of Zambia. Parameters include age specific rates of fertility, mortality, entry into sexual life, number of partners and age of partners. They were all derived from empirical data from Demographic and Health Surveys, and applied by single year of age. The model was unable to fit age and sex patterns of infection observed in 2001. Current knowledge of HIV transmission does not allow fitting the dynamics of HIV epidemics. Further research is needed to understand the dynamics of HIV heterosexual epidemics in Africa.
A two-sex compartmental model of the dynamics of HIV infection was developed and applied to the case of Zambia. Parameters include age specific rates of fertility, mortality, entry into sexual life, number of partners and age of partners. They were all derived from empirical data from Demographic and Health Surveys, and applied by single year of age. The model was unable to fit age and sex patterns of infection observed in 2001. Current knowledge of HIV transmission does not allow fitting the...
Michel Garenne; Leclerc, Pauline M.
Nuclear district heating - a relatively new direction of nuclear power development is considered. Three methods how to organize the centralized district heating from nuclear power sources are discussed. The application of nuclear central heating- and-power plants (NCHPP), the combined generation of heat and electric power by reactors of condensation NPP and the application of nuclear boilers. The first method is the most economic but the most complicated, the third one - the creation of nuclear district heating plants (NDHP) without generation of electricity has a number of design advantages though it lends to a less economic utilization of primary energy. The second method occupies the intermediate position. Main requirements on NDHP (nuclear boiler) safety operation are stated, its flowsheet and a brief description of its reactor plant are given. It is emphasized that the combined generation of heat and electric power by NCHPP is less effective than by fossil fuel CHPP
Presents a case study of institutional response to policy-driven/donor-influenced teacher-education reforms in Zambia, exploring perceptions and reactions of teacher educators as they cope with a new teacher-education paradigm and examining how policy-driven reforms can be at cross-purposes with, and destabilize, the professional beliefs of the
Musonda, Lawrence W.
This dissertation aims to characterize the relationship between the temporal and information-structuring functions of tense and aspect marking in Totela, an endangered Bantu language of Zambia and Namibia. To that end, I investigate and describe in detail the semantics and pragmatics of selected tense and aspect markers, showing for each that a
Crane, Thera Marie
This paper explores the accessibility situation in a developing country such as Zambia. The global view of accessibility for disabled people is provided to examine the accessibility situation in developed and developing countries, highlighting the role of the environment in achieving rights for disabled people. Recognition of disability rights
Banda-Chalwe, Martha; Nitz, Jennifer C.; de Jonge, Desleigh
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the socio-cultural variables that may influence teachers' adoption of classroom-based HIV/AIDS education within the school setting and among school types in Zambia's Lusaka Province. Method: Mixed methods were used to collect original data. Using semi-structured interviews (n=11) and a survey
Henning, Margaret; Chi, Chunheui; Khanna, Sunil K.
Full Text Available This is a comparative study of agricultural support institutions in Central Province, Zambia focusing on the 1980-90 and 1997-2008 periods. Generally, the study intended to identify the names of agricultural support institutions which existed in Central Province, as a smaller unit, and Zambia in general, and analyze their spatial aspect. In order to achieve this and other goals, the investigation conducted an extensive review of existing literature, old and new maps, distribution of questionnaires to informants, interviews, Focus Group Discussions and observations. The main thesis of this study was that agricultural support institutions differed in nature, funding, control and spatiality over different periods in Zambias history. The major findings were that both private and government agricultural support institutions existed soon after independence up to 1973 when the Zambian government declared a one party system and thereby nationalizing over 90% of the agricultural industry. Thus, the majority of agricultural support institutions between 1973 and 1990 were government funded, owned and controlled parastatal organizations such as National Agriculture Marketing Board (NAMBOARD, Zambia Cooperative Federation (ZCF and Lima Bank. These institutions had both a regional and national character, and were spatially more widely distributed. After the introduction of multi party politics and liberalization economic policies in 1991, the institutions collapsed due to withdraw of subsidies by government and, new, largely privately owned institutions, emerged such as Miombo and Omnia Fertilizer companies, Maize Research Institute (MRI, among others. Institutions which emerged after 1991 were more limited in distribution but more financially independent and sustainable. However, after 1997, the government intervened in the agricultural industry again by establishing the Food Reserve Agency (FRA and Farmer Input Support Programme (FISP. FRA was the conduit through which government bought crops especially maize while FISP was used to distribute subsidized maize seed and eight bags of chemical fertilizers to selected members of cooperatives. The study concludes that different agricultural support institutions have existed at different periods of Zambias history and their spatial distribution has been changing depending on their resource base.
Augrey H. Malambo
Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent for Kaposi Sarcoma (KS), the most common cancer diagnosed in HIV- infected patients. The role of neutralizing antibodies in KS pathogenesis and in KSHV infected individuals is not clearly understood. The goal of this study was to investigate and compare the prevalence and titers of neutralizing antibodies in plasma samples from KS patients and KSHV infected asymptomatic individuals from Zambia, a KS endemic region in sub-Saharan Africa. Plasma samples (N?=?267) consisting of KS patients (group 1) and asymptomatic individuals (group 2) were collected from Lusaka, Zambia. A flow cytometry based quantitative neutralization assay utilizing recombinant KSHV expressing GFP was used to detect KSHV neutralizing antibodies. Our results show that the overall prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in KS patients (group 1) was 66.7% which was significantly higher than the prevalence of 6.5% present in KSHV infected asymptomatic individuals (group 2). Total antibody titers as well as neutralizing antibodies titers were found to be significantly higher among KS patients. It is likely that higher neutralizing antibodies prevalence and titers in KS patients result from higher levels of antigenic stimulation over time. This study is first to compare prevalence and titers of neutralizing antibodies in participants with and without disease from a KSHV endemic region. PMID:23967174
Kumar, Pankaj; Kuwa, Nithal Y; Minhas, Veenu; Marimo, Clemence; Shea, Danielle M; Kankasa, Chipepo; Wood, Charles
Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis (TB is difficult, especially so in health care facilities in developing countries where laparoscopy and colonoscopy are rarely available. There is little information on abdominal TB in HIV infection. We estimated the prevalence and clinical features of abdominal (excluding genitourinary TB in HIV infected adults attending the University Teaching Hospital, Zambia. Methods We screened 5,609 medical inpatients, and those with fever, weight loss, and clinical features suggestive of abdominal pathology were evaluated further. A clinical algorithm was used to specify definitive investigations including laparoscopy or colonoscopy, with culture of biopsies and other samples. Results Of 140 HIV seropositive patients with these features, 31 patients underwent full evaluation and 22 (71% had definite or probable abdominal TB. The commonest presenting abdominal features were ascites and persistent tenderness. The commonest ultrasound findings were ascites, para-aortic lymphadenopathy (over 1 cm in size, and hepatomegaly. Abdominal TB was associated with CD4 cell counts over a wide range though 76% had CD4 counts Conclusion The clinical manifestations of abdominal TB in our HIV-infected patients resembled the well-established pattern in HIV-uninfected adults. Patients with fever, weight loss, abdominal tenderness, abdominal lymphadenopathy, ascites and/or hepatomegaly in Zambia have a high probability of abdominal TB, irrespective of CD4 cell count.
Vermund Sten H
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate how knowledge retention may be enhanced at the University of Zambia (UNZA. A quantitative case study design employing a triangulation of data collection methods was used. Data were collected using interviews and questionnaires. Purposive sampling was used to determine participants for the interviews whilst stratified random sampling was employed to select the respondents for the questionnaire. The quantitative and qualitative data that was analysed using SPSS® indicates that UNZA lacked certain knowledge retention practices that might enable it to retain operational relevant knowledge. In view of the findings, the study recommends the adoption of a knowledge retention framework that could be embedded in UNZAs knowledge management policy.
How to cite this article:
Wamundila, S. & Ngulube P., 2011, Enhancing knowledge retention in higher education: A case of the University of Zambia, SA Journal of Information Management 13(1, Art. # 439, 9 pages. doi:10.4120/ sajim.v13i1.439
Until recently occurrences of uranium in the Katanga System were known only in the Shaba Province of Zaire and on the Copperbelt, but a survey by AGIP has shown the existence of uranium mineralization in north-western Zambia. In each area, syngenetic copper and uranium mineralization are found near the base of the Katanga System. As a result of tectonism during the Lufilian orogeny and metamorphism related to and subsequent to the tectonism, epigenetic vein-type uranium deposits were formed by the repeated mobilization and depositing of the original mineralization. Supergene alteration and thermal events resulted in further redistribution and concentration. In the Domes area of north-western Zambia, the mineralization occurs mainly in mica schists underlying a quartzite horizon near the base of the Lower Roan Group at the margins of the Kabompo, Mwombezhi and Solwezi Domes. The mineralization occurs as thorium-free pitchblende, disseminated or in veins, and as secondary uranium minerals. Several occurrences have been investigated by drilling. (author)
The USACE Division and District Boundary data contains the delination of Corps Division and District boundaries. District and Division Boundaries are based on the US political and watershed boundaries. In the mid 1990's, WES created the file by digitizing the 1984 Civil Wor...
As changes in society and health provision mean that one in four people over the age of 75 will require nursing care at home, pre-registration adult nurse education increasingly prepares student nurses for a future career within the community. District nurses undertake complex, multidimensional health and social assessments and care in a non-clinical setting and work in partnership with patients and their significant others to promote practical and psychological coping mechanisms and self-care. The district nurse's first assessment visit is key to developing a therapeutic partnership and it is often during this visit that expertise in district nursing practice emerges. The holistic, contextual and dynamic aspects of nursing in the home setting can make district nursing expertise difficult to illustrate and demonstrate within the classroom setting. This article explores the ways in which an understanding of expertise development theory can enable the tacit expertise that occurs within the first assessment visit to be made visible to student nurses, using simulation and expert narrative as a pedagogical strategy. PMID:25475676
School districts have resorted to hiring debt collectors, employing constables, and swapping out standard meals for scaled-back versions to try to coerce parents to pay off school lunch debt that, in recent years, appears to have surged as the result of a faltering economy and better record-keeping. While the average school lunch costs just about
Draconian cuts have become the order of business for many school districts since the economic recession hit in 2008. But for the coming school year, "draconian" has taken on an even harsher meaning, as states from California and Texas to Illinois and New York wrestle with deficits in the tens of billions of dollars and make multi-billion-dollar
Abstract Background The mosquito Anopheles arabiensis is the primary vector of Plasmodium falciparum in Macha, Zambia. A major portion of Zambia's current malaria control programme relies on long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) with insecticides. Currently, the efficacy of these measures against An. arabiensis in Macha is unknown, and previous data has shown that An. arabiensis has continued to fe...
Norris Douglas E; Norris Laura C
The proceedings of the 7th International District Heating Conference contain the full texts of the 89 presented papers of which 11 fall under the INIS Subject Scope. The conference met in seven sessions and dealt with the following problem areas: design and optimization of systems of district heating, integration of the power system and the district heating systems, cooperation of nuclear and fossil burning sources in district heating systems, the use of specific nuclear power plants for heating purposes, questions of the control of systems of district heating, the development of components of heating networks, the reliability and design of heat supply pipes. (Z.M.)
Changes in sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators among young people aged 1524 years in Zambia: An in-depth analysis of the 20012002 and 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Surveys
HIV and AIDS still pose a major public health problem to most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Zambia included. The objective of the paper is to determine changes in selected sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators between 20012002 and 2007. We used the Demographic and Health Survey Indicators Database for the computation of the selected indicators. We further used STATA 10.0 to compute significance tests to test for statistical difference in the indicators. The results indicate some changes in sexual behaviour, as indicated by an increase in abstinence, use of condoms and the decrease in multiple partnerships. The overall percentage of abstinence among never-married young men and women aged 1524 years in Zambia increased significantly by 15.2% (p = .000) and 5.9% (p = .001) respectively, between 20012002 and 2007. A statistically significant increase of 6.6% (p = .029) was observed in the percentage of young women who reported having used a condom during the last time they had had premarital sex. A statistically significant decrease of 11.0% (p = .000) and 1.4% (p = .000) was observed among young men and women, respectively, who reported having multiple partners in the preceding 12 months. The factorial decomposition using multivariate analysis reveals that the indicators which contributed to the statistically significant 2.6% decline in HIV prevalence among young women aged 1524 years in Zambia include proportion reporting condom use during premarital sex (+6.6%), abstinence (+5.9%), sex before age 15 ( 4.5%), premarital sex ( 2.6%), sex before age 18 ( 2.4%) and proportion reporting multiple partnerships ( 1.4%). Remarkable strides have been achieved towards promoting responsible sexual behaviour and practice among young people in Zambia. Further research focusing on factors that predispose young women in Zambia to higher risk of infection from HIV is required. The results from this paper should be useful in the design of programmes to control the spread of HIV and AIDS, particularly among young people in Zambia and other sub-Saharan countries. PMID:24702245
Changes in sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators among young people aged 15-24 years in Zambia: an in-depth analysis of the 2001-2002 and 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Surveys.
HIV and AIDS still pose a major public health problem to most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Zambia included. The objective of the paper is to determine changes in selected sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators between 2001-2002 and 2007. We used the Demographic and Health Survey Indicators Database for the computation of the selected indicators. We further used STATA 10.0 to compute significance tests to test for statistical difference in the indicators. The results indicate some changes in sexual behaviour, as indicated by an increase in abstinence, use of condoms and the decrease in multiple partnerships. The overall percentage of abstinence among never-married young men and women aged 15-24 years in Zambia increased significantly by 15.2% (p=.000) and 5.9% (p=.001) respectively, between 2001-2002 and 2007. A statistically significant increase of 6.6% (p=.029) was observed in the percentage of young women who reported having used a condom during the last time they had had premarital sex. A statistically significant decrease of 11.0% (p=.000) and 1.4% (p=.000) was observed among young men and women, respectively, who reported having multiple partners in the preceding 12 months. The factorial decomposition using multivariate analysis reveals that the indicators which contributed to the statistically significant 2.6% decline in HIV prevalence among young women aged 15-24 years in Zambia include proportion reporting condom use during premarital sex (+6.6%), abstinence (+5.9%), sex before age 15 (-4.5%), premarital sex (-2.6%), sex before age 18 (-2.4%) and proportion reporting multiple partnerships (-1.4%). Remarkable strides have been achieved towards promoting responsible sexual behaviour and practice among young people in Zambia. Further research focusing on factors that predispose young women in Zambia to higher risk of infection from HIV is required. The results from this paper should be useful in the design of programmes to control the spread of HIV and AIDS, particularly among young people in Zambia and other sub-Saharan countries. PMID:24702245
The Palaeoproterozoic basement in the Muyombe and Luwumbu River areas of northeastern Zambia comprises a WNW-ESE (to E-W) trending cordierite-garnet-sillimanite granulite unit with numerous enderbite bodies and an amphibolite-facies migmatite unit. Zircons from a biotite metatonalite intruding the granulites were dated at 1960.7 ± 0.4 Ma, and this is time-equivalent with the Nyika granite in adjacent Malawi. Mesoproterozoic intrusions into this basement are represented by a nepheline syenite at Mivula Hill (zircon age: 1360.1 ± 0.8 Ma) and the porphyritic Ntendele biotite metagranite (zircon age: 1329.1 ± 0.6 Ma). The Ntendele granite attains plutonic dimensions north of Muyombe. The Mesoproterozoic Mafinga Group occurs in two major belts imbricated in the basement, i.e., the Makutu Range belt and Nyika escarpment belt, both trending NE-SW, nearly at right angles to the Ubendian structures in the basement. Numerous smaller tectonic slices of the Mafinga Group, in the Ubendian basement gneisses farther south of the two major belts, document a significant areal extent of this unit. Structures and metamorphic effects (greenschist-facies, biotite ± garnet zone) imprinted in the Mafinga Group rocks correlate with those in the Irumide belt farther west near Isoka and to the north, in the Mafinga Hills. A mylonitic foliation and newly-formed mineral assemblages (biotite zone) in the Ntendele granite correspond to deformation and metamorphism of the Mafinga Group. Mylonitization affecting the basement complex near the Mafinga Group slices resulted in strongly but heterogeneously sheared domains with a corresponding Irumide-age structural and metamorphic overprint. 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of muscovite from mylonitic gneisses derived from basement rocks and from a Mafinga Group phyllite point to closure of the K-Ar system in the interval 860-890 Ma. These early Neoproterozoic ages correlate with published muscovite and biotite K-Ar ages of biotite gneisses and muscovite schists from other parts of the Irumide belt in NE Zambia. They probably indicate slow cooling rates after main Irumide tectonism and associated magmatism around 1015 Ma. The 40Ar/ 39Ar data show that the Muyombe area was not affected by Pan-African thermal overprinting on a regional scale. In view of contrasting relations between the area studied and published results from northern Malawi, where both structural and thermal Pan-African overprints are documented, it is suggested that the NW-SE trending Mugesse shear zone in northern Malawi and along the border with NE Zambia is an important structural boundary separating contrasting crustal domains, i.e. the Ubendian belt, Irumide belt, and East African Orogen.
Vrána, S.; Kachlík, V.; Kröner, A.; Marheine, D.; Seifert, A. V.; á?ek, V.; Bab?rek, J.
Many African protected areas (PAs) are not functioning effectively. We reviewed the performance of Zambia's PA network and provide insights into how their effectiveness might be improved. Zambia's PAs are under-performing in ecological, economic and social terms. Reasons include: a) rapidly expanding human populations, poverty and open-access systems in Game Management Areas (GMAs) resulting in widespread bushmeat poaching and habitat encroachment; b) underfunding of the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) resulting in inadequate law enforcement; c) reliance of ZAWA on extracting revenues from GMAs to cover operational costs which has prevented proper devolution of user-rights over wildlife to communities; d) on-going marginalization of communities from legal benefits from wildlife; e) under-development of the photo-tourism industry with the effect that earnings are limited to a fraction of the PA network; f) unfavourable terms and corruption which discourage good practice and adequate investment by hunting operators in GMAs; g) blurred responsibilities regarding anti-poaching in GMAs resulting in under-investment by all stakeholders. The combined effect of these challenges has been a major reduction in wildlife densities in most PAs and the loss of habitat in GMAs. Wildlife fares better in areas with investment from the private and/or NGO sector and where human settlement is absent. There is a need for: elevated government funding for ZAWA; greater international donor investment in protected area management; a shift in the role of ZAWA such that they focus primarily on national parks while facilitating the development of wildlife-based land uses by other stakeholders elsewhere; and new models for the functioning of GMAs based on joint-ventures between communities and the private and/or NGO sector. Such joint-ventures should provide defined communities with ownership of land, user-rights over wildlife and aim to attract long-term private/donor investment. These recommendations are relevant for many of the under-funded PAs occurring in other African countries. PMID:24847712
Lindsey, Peter A; Nyirenda, Vincent R; Barnes, Jonathan I; Becker, Matthew S; McRobb, Rachel; Tambling, Craig J; Taylor, W Andrew; Watson, Frederick G; t'Sas-Rolfes, Michael
To many people district energy (DE) is seen as a new technology and a new approach to planning and delivery. This presents a challenge to those in the business of marketing DE. Representatives from six major providers of DE (Toronto District Heating Corp., the Municipality of Geraldton, Ontario, Ajax Energy Corp., Corporation de Chauffage Urbain de Montreal, Cornwall Electric, and Kattner/FVB District Energy Systems) presented their insights and expertise in marketing strategies. It was suggested that effective marketing should not be only commodity driven, but should also focus on explaining the overall benefits of DE systems. Another marketing approach is to emphasize the customer perspective, and the value-added aspect of DE, for example the fact that DE provides heating and cooling with the least amount of consumer involvement, thus liberating them to focus on their own businesses. The marketing strategy should also reflect the business goals and the nature of the DE system, i.e., is it a for profit business, or is it a community service.
Descriptive models, grade-tonnage relations, and databases for the assessment of sediment-hosted copper deposits--with emphasis on deposits in the Central Africa Copperbelt, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia
The Central African Copperbelt (CACB) is one of the most important copper-producing regions of the world. The majority of copper produced in Africa comes from this region defined by the Neoproterozoic Katanga sedimentary basin of the southern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and northern Zambia. Copper in the CACB is mined from sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits associated with red beds and includes the giant deposits in the Kolwezi and Tenge-Fungurume districts in the DRC and the Konkola-Musoshi and Nchanga-Chingola districts in Zambia. In recent years, sediment-hosted structurally controlled replacement and vein (SCRV) copper deposits, such as the giant Kansanshi deposit in Zambia have become important exploration targets in the CACB region. In 2011, the CACB accounted for 7.2 percent of the estimated global mine production of copper. Global production of copper is principally derived from porphyry and sediment-hosted copper deposits (57 and 23 percent, respectively). Almost 50 percent of the copper known to exist in sediment-hosted deposits (past production plus identified resources) is contained in the CACB, 25 percent is contained in the Zechstein Basin of northern Europe, and the remainder is contained in an additional 29 sedimentary basins distributed around the globe. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) led an assessment of undiscovered copper resources in the CACB as part of a global mineral resource assessment for undiscovered resources of potash, copper, and platinum-group elements in selected mineral deposit types. As part of the assessment process, available data for the CACB were compiled and evaluated. This report describes the results of that work, including new descriptive mineral-deposit and grade and tonnage models and spatial databases for deposits and occurrences, ore bodies and open pits. Chapter 1 of this report summarizes a descriptive model of sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits. General characteristics and subtypes of sediment-hosted stratabound copper deposits are described based upon worldwide examples. Chapter 2 provides a global database of 170 sediment-hosted copper deposits, along with a statistical evaluation of grade and tonnage data for stratabound deposits, a comparison of stratabound deposits in the CACB with those found elsewhere, a discussion of the distinctive characteristics of the subtypes of sediment-hosted copper deposits that occur within the CACB, and guidelines for using grade and tonnage distributions for assessment of undiscovered resources in sediment-hosted stratabound deposits in the CACB. Chapter 3 presents a new descriptive model of sediment-hosted structurally controlled replacement and vein (SCRV) copper deposits with descriptions of individual deposits of this type in the CACB and elsewhere. Appendix A describes a relational database of tonnage, grade, and other information for more than 100 sediment-hosted copper deposits in the CACB. These data are used to calculate the pre-mining mineral endowment for individual deposits in the CACB and serve as the basis for the grade and tonnage models presented in chapter 2. Appendix B describes three spatial databases (Esri shapefiles) for (1) point locations of more than 500 sediment-hosted copper deposits and prospects, (2) projected surface extent of 86 selected copper ore bodies, and (3) areal extent of 77 open pits, all within the CACB.
Taylor, Cliff D.; Causey, J. Douglas; Denning, Paul D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Horton, John D.; Kirschbaum, Michael J.; Parks, Heather L.; Wilson, Anna B.; Wintzer, Niki E.; Zientek, Michael L.
In response to a history of contended and ineffective policy initiatives aimed at arresting environmental problems, scientific knowledge is increasingly called for to inform decision makers in their design of better policy solutions. Based on the rationale that scientific knowledge on the environment is indispensable in environmental policy making, significant human and financial resources are being allocated to activities that are able to generate the required scientific knowledge. However, for many involved in such activities, the question arises: when do policy makers actually listen to science? This PhD thesis contributes to answering this questions; however it does this by questioning the conceptions of science that contribute to political decision-making and by exploring the relationship between scientific knowledge, other types of knowledge and policy. This PhD study employs the REDD+ (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation and enhancement of forest carbon stocks) process and the phenomenon of deforestation in Zambia as research examples. The research was carried out from mid 2008 and to mid 2013 and applies a mixed methods research design. Fieldwork was carried out in Zambia during the period 2009 to 2011 at national policy level and in two field sites in the Copperbelt Province. The empirical substance consists of archival, interview, questionnaire and remote sensing data. The thesis is composed of an introductory chapter and three individual, but thematically and theoretically interlinked scientific papers. The first paper focuses on science-policy interactions seen broadly in the Zambian REDD+ process. The paper proposes five challenges, which should be addressed, among others a need for understanding the relationship between science and policy as a two-sided transaction of knowledge and for recognizing the importance of boundary work. The second paper further explores the conceptualization of science-policy interactions and the implications of boundary work as well as co-production to science-policy interaction. The paper specifically explores how knowledge related to deforestation gets translated across the social boundaries of science and policy through the interwoven processes of knowledge production, circulation, and application. It is demonstrated that production, circulation, and application of deforestation related knowledge is influenced by an epistemic community, which in a current situation of weak and contradictory empirical evidence is able to sustain a deforestation discourse centered on high forest loss and neo-Malthusian causal explanations. The third paper examines how knowing about deforestation is closely linked to issues of framing, discourse, scale, and context; and how it may be difficult to demark scientific knowledge from other types of knowledge. The paper provides suggestion on how national policy makers and policies should deal with the complex issues of knowledge and evidence in relation to deforestation and forest degradation in future REDD+ design and implementation. To curtail potential negative consequences of the identified mode of science-policy interaction in Zambia, the study concludes by making a number of proposals. The proposals are generic in nature and may be found relevant in environmental policy processes outside Zambia.
Kamelarczyk, Kewin Bach Friis
The country programme summary reported here is one in the series of such studies being undertaken of the Agency's TC programme with Member States. With $5.5 million of Agency support received, Zambia ranks 33rd among all recipients of technical assistance in the period 1958 through 1991. More than half of the assistance during the past ten years has been provided in the form of equipment (61%), followed by expert services (25%) and training (14%). Almost all of the resources made available came from the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (93%), with only very small shares provided through extrabudgetary contributions (4%) and assistance in kind (3%). With regard to project disbursements during the past ten years, by sector, the largest areas have been agriculture (33%) and general atomic energy development (23%), followed by industry and hydrology (19%), nuclear raw materials (13%) and nuclear safety (6%)
Present work characterizes tourmaline from one of the major pegmatite fields in Zambia - the Lundazi pegmatite belt.
Microprobe analysis gave (wt%): SiO2 34.65, TiO2 0.85, Al2O3 29.80, Fe2O3 4.94, FeO 9.47, MnO 0.29, MgO 4.06, Li2O < 0.01, CaO 0.59, Na2O 2.38, K2O 0.08, F 0.32...
Ondru P; Vrána S; Malá? M
This article explores an attempt to disrupt gender inequality in a unique, low-cost private school in Ndola, Zambia. It examines deliberate school policies aimed at "undoing gender" or fostering greater gender equity. These include efforts to maintain gender parity at all levels of the school and the requirement that both young men and women carry out cleaning tasks generally viewed as "women's work". Observations, interviews, student diaries and surveys from this school and from government schools provide the basis for a comparison, indicating how the former strives to interrupt the transmission of gender inequalities as well as how students respond to these practices. The findings suggest that the pedagogical practices deployed by this school have generally succeeded in destabilising norms of gender subordination and gender-based violence, though the replicability of these practices is interrogated given broader questions about the country's public resources and political will.
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english This article is descriptive in nature and a practical theological assessment of the schisms that took place in the Reformed Church in Zambia (RCZ) between 1996 and 2001. It analyses empirical evidence to find an answer to the question why it happened. Pentecostal or charismatic tendencies have chall [...] enged the long inherited tradition of mainline churches. Subsequently, Pentecostal or charismatic movements have caused intense conflict in the church between the pro-conservatives and pro-Pentecostals. In the RCZ this led to the formation of the Christian Reformed Church (CRC) in 1999 and the Bible Gospel Church in Africa (BIGOCA) in 2001.
Lukas, Soko; H. Jurgens, Hendriks.
Whilst remarkable progress in elucidating the mechanisms governing interspecies transmission and pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) has been made, similar studies focusing on low-pathogenic AIVs isolated from the wild waterfowl reservoir are limited. We previously reported that two AIV strains (subtypes H6N2 and H3N8) isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia harbored some amino acid residues preferentially associated with human influenza virus proteins (so-called human signatures) and replicated better in the lungs of infected mice and caused more morbidity than a strain lacking such residues. To further substantiate these observations, we infected chickens and mice intranasally with AIV strains of various subtypes (H3N6, H3N8, H4N6, H6N2, H9N1 and H11N9) isolated from wild waterfowl in Zambia. Although some strains induced seroconversion, all of the tested strains replicated poorly and were nonpathogenic for chickens. In contrast, most of the strains having human signatures replicated well in the lungs of mice, and one of these strains caused severe illness in mice and induced lung injury that was characterized by a severe accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. These results suggest that some strains tested in this study may have the potential to infect mammalian hosts directly without adaptation, which might possibly be associated with the possession of human signature residues. Close monitoring and evaluation of host-associated signatures may help to elucidate the prevalence and emergence of AIVs with potential for causing zoonotic infections. PMID:24862188
Simulundu, Edgar; Nao, Naganori; Yabe, John; Muto, Nilton A; Sithebe, Thami; Sawa, Hirofumi; Manzoor, Rashid; Kajihara, Masahiro; Muramatsu, Mieko; Ishii, Akihiro; Ogawa, Hirohito; Mweene, Aaron S; Takada, Ayato
Full Text Available Abstract Background The human resource shortage in Zambia is placing a heavy burden on the few health care workers available at health facilities. The Zambia Prevention, Care and Treatment Partnership began training and placing community volunteers as lay counsellors in order to complement the efforts of the health care workers in providing HIV counselling and testing services. These volunteers are trained using the standard national counselling and testing curriculum. This study was conducted to review the effectiveness of lay counsellors in addressing staff shortages and the provision of HIV counselling and testing services. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by means of semistructured interviews from all active lay counsellors in each of the facilities and a facility manager or counselling supervisor overseeing counseling and testing services and clients. At each of the 10 selected facilities, all counselling and testing record books for the month of May 2007 were examined and any recordkeeping errors were tallied by cadre. Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions with health care workers at each facility. Results Lay counsellors provide counselling and testing services of quality and relieve the workload of overstretched health care workers. Facility managers recognize and appreciate the services provided by lay counsellors. Lay counsellors provide up to 70% of counselling and testing services at health facilities. The data review revealed lower error rates for lay counsellors, compared to health care workers, in completing the counselling and testing registers. Conclusion Community volunteers, with approved training and ongoing supervision, can play a major role at health facilities to provide counselling and testing services of quality, and relieve the burden on already overstretched health care workers.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental illnesses are increasingly recognised as a leading cause of disability worldwide, yet many countries lack a mental health policy or have an outdated, inappropriate policy. This paper explores the development of appropriate mental health policies and their effective implementation. It reports comparative findings on the processes for developing and implementing mental health policies in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia as part of the Mental Health and Poverty Project. Methods The study countries and respondents were purposively selected to represent different levels of mental health policy and system development to allow comparative analysis of the factors underlying the different forms of mental health policy development and implementation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Data analysis was guided by conceptual framework that was developed for this purpose. A framework approach to analysis was used, incorporating themes that emerged from the data and from the conceptual framework. Results Mental health policies in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia are weak, in draft form or non-existent. Mental health remained low on the policy agenda due to stigma and a lack of information, as well as low prioritisation by donors, low political priority and grassroots demand. Progress with mental health policy development varied and respondents noted a lack of consultation and insufficient evidence to inform policy development. Furthermore, policies were poorly implemented, due to factors including insufficient dissemination and operationalisation of policies and a lack of resources. Conclusions Mental health policy processes in all four countries were inadequate, leading to either weak or non-existent policies, with an impact on mental health services. Recommendations are provided to strengthen mental health policy processes in these and other African countries.
Changes in sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators among young people aged 1524 years in Zambia: An in-depth analysis of the 20012002 and 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Surveys
HIV and AIDS still pose a major public health problem to most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Zambia included. The objective of the paper is to determine changes in selected sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators between 20012002 and 2007. We used the Demographic and Health Survey Indicators Database for the computation of the selected indicators. We further used STATA 10.0 to compute significance tests to test for statistical difference in the indicators. The results...
Urban districting refers to partitioning of an urban area into smaller regions for a specific application in order to effectively facilitate and enhance the quality of municipal services. Among other considerations, which are imposed by the general problem or the application in hand, several factors in urban districting have spatial aspects, many of which have been disregarded in most of districting plans, and only descriptive measures have been considered. This paper explores the impact of spatial aspects on census districting, as an important urban districting. It proposes an approach that not only considers the workload, as the most effective criterion in census districting, but spatial criteria such as compactness, barriers and travers length are also involved. The implementation results of the proposed approach for a case study have been evaluated and discussed.
Dezyani, S.; Karimipour, F.
...Commission [Project No. 12745-002] Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...16, 2010. On February 1, 2010, Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District...
The Konkola deposit is a high grade stratiform CuCo ore deposit in the Central African Copperbelt in Zambia. Economic mineralisation is confined to the Ore Shale formation, part of the Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks of the Katanga Supergroup. Petrographic study reveals that the coppercobalt ore minerals are disseminated within the host rock, sometimes concentrated along bedding planes, often associated with dolomitic bands or clustered in cemented lenses and in layer-parallel and ...
Torremans, K.; Gauquie, J.; Boyce, A. J.; Barrie, C. D.; Sikazwe, O.; Muchez, P. H.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of Trichomonas sp. infection among adolescent girls, pregnant women, and commercial sex workers in Ndola, Zambia. METHODS:: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 460 girls attending school, 307 pregnant women, and 197 commercial sex workers. Self-collected specimens from the vagina, rectum, and mouth were tested by polymerase chain amplification assays for the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis, Pentatrichomonas hominis, and T...
Crucitti, T.; Jespers, V.; Mulenga, C.; Khondowe, S.; Vandepitte, J.; Buve?, A.
Concerns about domestic energy security and global climate change mitigation have led the European Union, the United States, and others to introduce policies to enhance the use of biofuels in the transport sector fuel mix. While countries throughout the global South are positioning themselves to capture the economic benefits of this fuel transition, their capacity to do so is highly variable. This paper reviews the early evolution of the biofuel sector in Zambia to explore the ext...
German, L. A.; Schoneveld, G. C.
Babesia spp. were detected from 4 asymptomatic pukus captured on a game ranch in central Zambia in October 2008. Blood smears were examined in 4 species of aymptomatic free-ranging antelopes, namely the puku (Kobus vordanii), reedbuck (Redunca arundinum), bushbuck (Tragelaphus sylvaticus), and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), and showed the presence of Babesia parasites only in the puku. In the puku, the prevalence of babesiosis was estimated at 33.3% (n=12), while the overall prevalence in a...
Munang Andu, Hetron Mweemba; Munyeme, Musso; Nambota, Andrew Mubila; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo; Siamudaala, Victor M.
Several sub-Saharan African countries, including Zambia, have initiated national voluntary medical male circumcision (MC) programs to reduce HIV incidence. In-depth interviews were conducted with twenty female sex workers (FSWs) in Lusaka to examine their understanding of MC and experiences with circumcised clients. Knowledge of MC was derived primarily through informal sources, with very few FSWs reporting exposure to MC educational campaigns. MC was not widely believed to be protective agai...
Abbott, Sharon A.; Haberland, Nicole A.; Mulenga, Drosin M.; Hewett, Paul C.
Seed systems in Kenya, Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe were studied jointly by ODI, ICRISAT, and national researchers. The study examined various aspects - the nature of seed demand, particularly for new varieties; local-level seed provision and farmer-to-farmer diffusion; the commercial seed sector; community level projects; emergency seed distribution programs; seed policy and regulatory framework; and the role of public-sector research. The study also provides specific recommendations to deve...
Abstract Background Children aged under five years with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in Africa and Asia have high mortality rates without effective treatment. Primary care-based treatment of SAM can have good outcomes but its cost effectiveness is largely unknown. Method This study estimated the cost effectiveness of community-based therapeutic care (CTC) for children with severe acute malnutrition in government primary health care centres in Lusaka, Zambia, ...
Bachmann Max O
Conservation agriculture has been promoted in Zambia as a strategy to mitigate some of the negative effects arising from conventional tillage practices. Conservation agriculture offers several potential benefits on soil properties. However, these benefits and impacts vary across agro ecological regions and management practices. This study investigated changes, over time, associated with the practice of conservation agriculture in selected soil chemical, physical and biological properties, ...
Jane Muchabi; Lungu, Obed I.; Mweetwa, Alice M.
Abstract Background The PLACE-method presumes that targeting HIV preventive activities at high risk places is effective in settings with major epidemics. Livingstone, Zambia, has a major HIV epidemic despite many preventive efforts in the city. A baseline survey conducted in 2005 in places where people meet new sexual partners found high partner turnover and unprotected sex to be common among guests. In addition, there were major gaps in on-site condom availability. This stud...
Sandøy Ingvild; Zyaambo Cosmas; Michelo Charles; Fylkesnes Knut
Background: Emerging issues in HIV prevention include the importance of considering underlying social and economic factors at the community and individual level. We examined the associations between individual and neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP) on HIV prevalence in young people in a high HIV prevalence country. Methods: The study re-analysed data from the Zambia Demographic and Health Survey, a cross- sectional nationally representative survey conduc...
This paper reveals how the outcomes of large-scale land acquisitions made by foreign investors in Zambia are determined by the characteristics of the country's land governance system. Proposing a conceptual framework adapted from Williamson (1998), and using evidence constituted by expert interviews and focus group discussions, we scrutinize the nature and evolution of the Zambian land governance system, the steps that an investor has to go through in order to attain land and the actors shapi...
Abstract Background Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) are double-stranded DNA viruses, considered to be the primary etiological agents in cervical intraepithelial neoplasias and cancers. Approximately 1520 of the 40 mucosal HPVs confer a high-risk of progression of lesions to invasive cancer. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of sexually transmitted HPVs in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive and negative patients in Zambia, Africa. The rate of high-risk HPV...
Hause Lara; Richards Paula J; Lowe John J; Ng'andwe Christopher; Wood Charles; Angeletti Peter C
Abstract Background Zambia is facing a double crisis of increasing malaria burden and dwindling capacity to deal with the endemic malaria burden. The pursuit of sustainable but equity mechanisms for financing malaria programmes is a subject of crucial policy discussion. This requires that comprehensive accounting of the economic impact of the various malaria programmes. Information on the economic value of programmes is essential in soliciting appropriate funding allocations ...
Rehnberg Clas; Masiye Felix
Abstract Background Malaria, caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in southern Zambia. In the Mapanza Chiefdom, where transmission is seasonal, Anopheles arabiensis is the dominant malaria vector. The ability to predict larval habitats can help focus control measures. Methods A survey was conducted in March-April 2007, at the end of the rainy season, to identify and map locations of wat...
Shiff Clive; Musapa Mulenga; Kamanga Aniset; Clennon Julie A; Glass Gregory E
Abstract Introduction Mortality of children with Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) in inpatient set-ups in sub-Saharan Africa still remains unacceptably high. We investigated the prevalence and effect of diarrhea and HIV infection on inpatient treatment outcome of children with complicated SAM receiving treatment in inpatient units. Method A cohort of 430 children aged 6-59 months old with complicated SAM admitted to Zambia University Teaching Hospital's stabiliza...
Mwambazi Mwate; Irena Abel H; Mulenga Veronica
Monthly economic diversity column for the Tri-City Herald (May 2012) - excerpt follows: Its been a while since Ive updated you on the Tri-Cities Research District, most certainly not for lack of new activity over the past several months. In fact, much has happened, and theres more to come. I think many of us see new land development and construction as indicative of current or impending economic growth. So those of you who have ventured into North Richland either via Stevens Drive or George Washington Way lately have probably begun sensing and anticipating that such growth is afoot.
Madison, Alison L.
Metal (Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni) and metalloid (As) accumulation was studied in roadside soil and wild rat (Rattus sp.) samples from near a Pb-Zn mine (Kabwe, Zambia) and the capital city of Zambia (Lusaka). The concentrations of the seven metals and As in the soil samples and Pb in the rat tissue samples were quantified using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, and As in Kabwe soil were much higher than benchmark values. Geographic Information System analysis indicated the source of metal pollution was mining and smelting activity. Interestingly, the area south of the mine was more highly contaminated even though the prevailing wind flow was westward. Wild rats from Kabwe had much higher tissue concentrations of Pb than those from Lusaka. Their body weight and renal Pb levels were negatively correlated, which suggests that mining activity might affect terrestrial animals in Kabwe. - The area around Kabwe, Zambia is highly polluted with metals and As. Wild rats from this area had high tissue concentrations of Pb and decreased body weight.
Nakayama, Shouta M.M.; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Hamada, Kyohei [Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 18, Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan); Muzandu, Kaampwe; Choongo, Kennedy [Department of Biomedical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, P.O. Box 32379, Lusaka (Zambia); Teraoka, Hiroki; Mizuno, Naoharu [Department of Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu 069-8501 (Japan); Ishizuka, Mayumi, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Environmental Veterinary Sciences, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 18, Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0818 (Japan)
Metal (Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni) and metalloid (As) accumulation was studied in roadside soil and wild rat (Rattus sp.) samples from near a Pb-Zn mine (Kabwe, Zambia) and the capital city of Zambia (Lusaka). The concentrations of the seven metals and As in the soil samples and Pb in the rat tissue samples were quantified using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, and As in Kabwe soil were much higher than benchmark values. Geographic Information System analysis indicated the source of metal pollution was mining and smelting activity. Interestingly, the area south of the mine was more highly contaminated even though the prevailing wind flow was westward. Wild rats from Kabwe had much higher tissue concentrations of Pb than those from Lusaka. Their body weight and renal Pb levels were negatively correlated, which suggests that mining activity might affect terrestrial animals in Kabwe. - The area around Kabwe, Zambia is highly polluted with metals and As. Wild rats from this area had high tissue concentrations of Pb and decreased body weight.
This paper describes the geology of the Streltsovskoye uranium district located in south-eastern Zabaikalie region, Chita Province, Siberia, Russia. This district hosts Russia's only currently active uranium production centre. The uranium ore was discovered from 1963 to 1967 by drilling below fluorite veins which had minor associated uranium mineralization and radioactive anomalies. The uranium occurs as large scale vein stockwork deposits of hydrothermal origin within a volcano-tectonic caldera formed by continental volcanism of Late Mesozoic age. Rocks occurring in the caldera include basalt and trachydacite, overlain by rhyolite, and with associated interbedded sediments. The ore bodies occur in steeply dipping faults, with the greatest concentrations located where faults along the margins of the caldera intersect steeply dipping, cross cutting, northeasterly and northwesterly striking faults. The Streltsovskoye caldera extends over an area of 150 km2 and is underlain by a large batholith. The 19 identified uranium deposits occurred in structural features that cut through the caldera sequence and extend into the basement rocks. The caldera has a maximum thickness of 1400 metres. Details of several deposits are given, including descriptions of mineralization and associated alteration. (author). 10 figs
This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal
...this section is the mean high water line on the south shore of Fire...all portions of the lands and waters within the boundary of the...the William Floyd Estate at Mastic. (d) The Dune District...District extends from the mean high water line to 40 feet landward...
This survey describes the situation for district heating in Switzerland on the basis of national energy conception. The energy conception of the city of Berne is just being established and concrete proposals for optimal energy supply possibilities are worked out. The nuclear power plant of Muehleberg is proposed as an alternative to the traditional heat plants in the Bernese area. The cost calculations lead to the conclusions that the heat supply from the Muehleberg reactor is economically not attractive, but if the heat is supplied at a lower temperature from the reactor and then elevated to the requested temperature in a refuse incineration plant the nuclear heat supply by Muehleberg seems to become more economical. (M.S.)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Zambia has achieved significant reductions in the burden of malaria through a strategy of "scaling-up" effective interventions. Progress toward ultimate malaria elimination will require sustained prevention coverage and further interruption of transmission through active strategies to identify and treat asymptomatic malaria reservoirs. A surveillance system in Zambia's Southern Province has begun to implement such an approach. An early detection system could be an additional tool to identify foci of elevated incidence for targeted intervention. Methods Based on surveillance data collected weekly from 13 rural health centres (RHCs divided into three transmission zones, early warning thresholds were created following a technique successfully implemented in Thailand. Alert levels were graphed for all 52 weeks of a year using the mean and 95% confidence interval upper limit of a Poisson distribution of the weekly diagnosed malaria cases for every available week of historic data (beginning in Aug, 2008 at each of the sites within a zone. Annually adjusted population estimates for the RHC catchment areas served as person-time of weekly exposure. The zonal threshold levels were validated against the incidence data from each of the 13 respective RHCs. Results Graphed threshold levels for the three zones generally conformed to observed seasonal incidence patterns. Comparing thresholds with historic weekly incidence values, the overall percentage of aberrant weeks ranged from 1.7% in Mbabala to 36.1% in Kamwanu. For most RHCs, the percentage of weeks above threshold was greater during the high transmission season and during the 2009 year compared to 2010. 39% of weeks breaching alert levels were part of a series of three or more consecutive aberrant weeks. Conclusions The inconsistent sensitivity of the zonal threshold levels impugns the reliability of the alert system. With more years of surveillance data available, individual thresholds for each RHC could be calculated and compared to the technique outlined here. Until then, "aberrant" weeks during low transmission seasons, and during high transmission seasons at sites where the threshold level is less sensitive, could feasibly be followed up for household screening. Communities with disproportionate numbers of aberrant weeks could be reviewed for defaults in the scaling-up intervention coverage.
District energy is considered to be the key to community sustainability. It represents an enhancement of quality of life for Canadian cities, towns and communities; it helps to deal with rising energy demands and prices; and helps Canada in reaching its commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. District energy systems planned or existing are reviewed, highlighting the Ouje-Bougoumou (Quebec) biomass energy system and the Central Heating Plant in Cornwall, Ontario.
Wilfert, B. [House of Commons, Ottawa, ON (Canada)
This paper is based on research conducted in Kitwe, Zambia on the effects of the introduction of prepayment meters on the energy usage behaviour of domestic consumers in the Low, Medium and High Income categories. The research was motivated by the fact that there is very little information that exists on the subject not just in Zambia but world-wide. The paper has identified some key issue vis-a-viz: behavioral change as a result of the introduction of the prepayment meters, debt recovery and...
Albert Malama; Priscilla Mudenda; Austine Ngombe; Lilias Makashini; Henry Abanda
Zambias tidligere præsident, Frederick Chiluba, er ikke den første afrikanske leder, som har stået over for anklager om korruption. Han bliver formentlig heller ikke den sidste. Alligevel er den netop overståede retssag mod ham værd at lægge mærke til også selv om den endte med en frifindelse. For Chiluba er ikke som andre korruptionsanklagede, afrikanske ledere før ham. Dels gik anklagerne primært på personlig berigelse i størrelsesordenen 500.000 dollar. Dels var sagen rejst ved en lokal domstol i hans hjemland Zambia. Var Chiluba blevet dømt skyldig, kunne han være indskrevet i historiebøgerne som den første afrikanske leder, der blev straffet for korruption i sit eget land
Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to determine knowledge and use of modem contractive methods among reproductive age group rural women in Zambia. The study is a descriptive cross-sectional study of 105 randomly selected rural women. Data was collected using semi-structured interview schedule and analyzed using EPI Info version 6 statistical packages. The findings revealed that 63% of the respondents were within the age group 21-35 years, 65% were married and 64% were peasant farmers. 90% of the respondents had heard about modem contraceptives and their main source of information was the Health worker (62%. 76% of the respondents stated that modem contraceptive methods could be obtained from public health facilities. 56% of the respondents were currently using modem contraceptive methods and 46% were not using modem contraceptive methods. Reasons for non use of contraceptive methods were religious beliefs (50%, partner disapproval (30% and side effects (20%. The results showed a relationship between educational level and use of contraceptives (Chi-square 7.83, df = 3, P < 0.05 and spouse approval or support of contractive methods and use of contraceptive (Chisquare 5.9, df = 2, P < 0.05. Therefore, efforts to promote modem contraceptive use among the rural women should be intensified to overcome barriers to contraceptive use and should involve men.
While ebullition has the capacity to be a significant methane (CH4) release pathway from reservoirs, it has not been systematically studied in most surveyed systems, due in part to ebullition's high spatiotemporal variability. We hypothesized that CH4 ebullition from littoral areas that are influenced by riverine organic carbon inputs contributes disproportionately to overall CH4 emissions from Lake Kariba (Zambia-Zimbabwe border), one of the world's largest reservoirs. Hydroacoustic measurements and traditional surface chamber surveys revealed substantially higher fluxes in river deltas (~10^3 mg CH4 m-2 d-1) compared to littoral zones with no river input (< 100 mg CH4 m-2 d-1). Hydroacoustic measurements additionally showed that ebullition frequency varied strongly between all sites and that flux events varied over several orders of magnitude (up to 10^5 mg CH4 m-2 d-1) in the ebullition hot spots. An ebullition estimate for the largest subbasin of Lake Kariba was two orders of magnitude more than potential atmospheric CH4 emissions from turbine degassing and surface diffusion combined. Thus, we suggest that CH4 ebullition emissions from river deltas should be explored in greater detail and their contribution included in the CH4 budgets of reservoirs, including even large tropical reservoirs.
Del Sontro, T.; Kunz, M.; Wuest, A.; Wehrli, B.; Senn, D. B.
Liver scanning using the radio-isotope indium-113m, can now be routinely perfomed at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia. The dose used is 1 - 4 mCi. Liver scans have been performed on 48 subjects, including 10 healthy individuals 16 patients with histologically proven hepatocellular carcinoma, 11 with clinical and laboratory evidence of portal hypertension and 11 with miscellaneous illnesses. Seven representative scans are illustrated. The procedure is easy, and gives a fairly accurate functional estimate of Kupffer cell mass. In hepatoma the scan may be either larger than or smaller than normal and reflects more accurately the residual function of the Kupffer cells. In cirrhosis of the liver with portal hypertention, residual Kupffer cell mass is small. Consequently, most of the indium-113m is taken up by the splenic reticulo-endothelial system, resulting in a large spleen scan. This technique, although fraught with major limitations, is a useful additional diagnostic tool in the management of chronic liver disease
This article reviews the District Heating Forum that was held on the 21st of January 2010 in Biel, Switzerland. Under the title 'From a Vision to Practice', the development of district heating systems for the period 2010 - 2030 was discussed. The conclusion reached at the conference is quoted as being that waste heat is a usable form of residual energy and that this energy should not simply be ejected into the environment. State promotion of renewable energy sources is discussed and, in particular, the high interest shown in projects for long and short-distance district heating systems. Developments in Europe and Switzerland and the political general frameworks for the realisation of district heating networks are discussed. Specific examples of such systems that have been implemented are examined. The use of waste heat from nuclear power stations is also discussed
This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.
Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease with a wide geographical distribution in a range of climate and with different epidemiological patterns. In Rajasthan a new endemic zone of the disease has been found at Jodhpur district. The clincial features of 21 smear positive cases of oriental sore from Jodhpur district studied during a period of 1 year have been described. Also the importance of intralesional berberine sulphate in the treatment of oriental sore has been highlighted.
Major trends in the development of nuclear district heating in the USSR are outlined. The nuclear power sources considered are as follows: nuclear thermoelectric plants (NTP), nuclear distric heating plants (NDH) and nuclear process heat plants (NPH). The NTP are designed for both electric and heat supply of large cities, the NPH-for industrial process heat supply, the steam pressure ranging from 0.12 to 10 MPa, and the NDH-for hot water supply. The NTP, NDH and NPH projects developed nowadays are based on the WWER-500 (1000) reac.tors. Some data on the reduced costs and overall efficiency of the plants in comparison with corresponding fossil-fueled plants are presented. In the European part of the USSR the NTP are economical when constructed in cities with the heat rates above 1700 MJ/s; the NDH and NPH can be competitive against fossil-fueled boilers at the heat rates of populated areas and industrial complexes of 900-1700 MJ/s. If the problems in the development of prestressed reinforced concrete reactor vessels are solved, the competitiveness of the NTP, NDH and NPH might be even higher
Livestock production activities among small-scale farmers of semi-arid (Agro-ecological zone 1) and sub-humid (Agro-ecological zone 2) areas of Zambia are integrated with crop production activities in what is termed as crop/livestock farming system. This is a closed system in which production of one enterprise depends on the other. In Zambia, crop production depends on draught animals for tillage of cropping area, animal manure for fertilisation of crops while livestock depend on crop residues for dry season feeding. Good quality grass is generally available in adequate amounts to support reasonable level of livestock productivity during the rainy season. But livestock rely on low quantity and poor quality, highly fibrous perennial grass from veld and fibrous crop residues during the dry season. These resources are inadequate to support optimum livestock productivity activities. Poor nutrition results in low rates of reproduction and production as well as increased susceptibility to diseases. With the increasing human population cropping land is expanding, leading to increased production of crop residues. This has however, reduced the grazing land available for ruminant production. In Zambia large quantities of crop residues (stovers, husks and straws, legume tops and hulls, sugar cane tops, cassava leaves, potato vines, etc.) are left in the field where they are wasted each year because small-scale farmers lack the knowledge on how best to use them. There is a need to find ways to reverse this situation by adapting known and workable technologies to local conditions and by introducing new approaches for improving the use of crop residues and poor quality fibrous feeds. Efforts should also be made to enlarge feed resource base. The technologies should be simple and effective. In the presence of a dynamic market system, livestock production in a crop/livestock system could be intensified and made profitable for small-scale farmers. (author)
We investigate the determinants of wages in Zambia and based on the quantile regression approach, we analyze how their effects differ at different points in the wage distribution and over time. We use three cross-sections of Zambian household data from the early nineties, which was a period of economic transition, because items as privatization and deregulation were on the political agenda. The focus is placed on the public-private sector wage gap, and the results show that this gap was relatively favorable for the low-skilled and less favorable for the high-skilled. This picture was further strengthened during the period 1991-1996.
Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael
Although simple and low-cost interventions for sickle cell disease (SCD) exist in many developing countries, child mortality associated with SCD remains high, in part, because of the lack of access to diagnostic tests for SCD. A density-based test using aqueous multiphase systems (SCD-AMPS) is a candidate for a low-cost, point-of-care diagnostic for SCD. In this paper, the field evaluation of SCD-AMPS in a large (n?=?505) case-control study in Zambia is described. Of the two variations of...
Kumar, Ashok A.; Chunda-liyoka, Catherine; Hennek, Jonathan W.; Mantina, Hamakwa; Lee, S. Y. Ryan; Patton, Matthew R.; Sambo, Pauline; Sinyangwe, Silvester; Kankasa, Chipepo; Chintu, Chifumbe; Brugnara, Carlo; Stossel, Thomas P.; Whitesides, George M.
Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani) is a semi-aquatic medium sized antelope currently enlisted on the IUCN red list of endangered species and is only endemic to the Bangweulu basin of Zambia. Its population has significantly decreased due to floods that took place during the period 1930-1940 from over 250 000-15 000 leading the Zambian government to gazette all habitats of Black lechwe into state protected areas, and to establish urgent management strategies needed to save the remaining pop...
Siamudaala, Victor M.; Musso Munyeme; Wigganson Matandiko; Muma, John B.; Munang Amp Andu, Hetron M.
The effect of lindane on non-target fauna in a maize agro-ecosystem was studied in Zambia in 1992 and 1993. While lindane was effective against the stalk borers, a target pest, it also affected other non-target fauna. Ants, spiders and springtails were significantly reduced. However the effect was only transient and lasted for approximately two months. Lindane appeared to have no real effect on aerial non-target fauna or on soil inhabiting microorganisms. (author). 8 refs, 6 tabs
...No. UL11-1-000; Project No. 2299-078] Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status On January 9, 2013, the Modesto Irrigation District (Modesto) filed a motion for clarification...
...Commission [Project No. 2299-074] Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...Filed: May 24, 2010. d. Applicant: Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation...
...Commission [Project No. 2299-075] Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Intent To File License...February 10, 2011. d. Submitted By: Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation...
...Hydroelectric Project Project No. 2299-075] Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process...Hydroelectric Project No. 2299-075.\\1\\ Turlock Irrigation District and the Modesto Irrigation...
11 million residents in 1450 square kilometers make the Calcutta Metropolitan District the world's most densely packed metropolis and the world's 6th largest urban agglomeration. But even though Calcutta is India's largest city, it is growing at a much slower pace than other Indian cities. Its annual growth rate between 1971 and 1981 was 2.65%, well below the 3.8% growth rate for India's urban population as a whole. Even at this relatively slow growth rate, however, Calcutta's population will still grow to 11.7 million residents in 1990 and 15.9 million in 2000. Calcutta's failure to create urban jobs quickly enough to accommodate its vast population increase has led to widespread evidence of unemployment and extreme poverty. Many in Calcutta complain that the central goverment has thwarted development and international aid to Calcutta. Industrial stagnation has slowed the area's urbanization and rural-urban migration. As greater numbers of new job seekers enter the labor force and the dropout rate diminishes due to dramatic inprovement in health, relentless pressure is put on Calcutta's already strained economy. Calcutta's job seekers will be partly absorbed by the informal sector; one study estimates that 40-50% of Calcutta's labor force is employed in the informal sector. In 1971, 6% of Calcutta's work force was employed in agriculture, 40% in manufacturing, and 54% in services. 2/3 of the population make less than $35 a month, and about 10% are officially unemployed. Despite great improvements in public works, Calcutta's slums are still India's worst. Living standards have gone down compared to India as a whole. Most of the middle class has moved to the suburbs; what is left in the central core is the rich and the poor. However, despite widening income disparities, Calcutta is still a peaceful city--especially so at a time when India is marked with so much violence. PMID:12268497
In 1998, as part of what was then Zambia's Department of Technical Education and Vocational Training's (DTEVT) human resources capacity building initiative, under the Ministry of Science, Technology and Vocational Training (MSTVT), donor funding was secured to provide degree-level training for key teachers and managers within the technical
Smith, Christopher J.
In settings of high fertility and high HIV prevalence, individuals are making fertility decisions while simultaneously trying to avoid or manage HIV. We sought to increase our understanding of how individuals dually manage HIV risk while attempting to achieve their fertility goals as part of the project entitled HIV Status and Achieving Fertility Desires conducted in Zambia in 2011. Using multivariate regression to predict fertility patterns based on socio-demographic characteristics for respondents from facility-based and community-based surveys, we employed Anomalous Case Analysis (ACA) whereby in-depth interview respondents were selected from the groups of outliers amongst the survey respondents who reported lower or higher fertility preferences than predicted as well as those who adhered to predicted patterns, and lived in Lusaka (n=45). All of the facility-based respondents were HIV-positive. We utilize the Theory of Conjunctural Action (TCA) to categorize domains of influence on individuals' preferences and behavior. Both community-based and facility-based right-tail respondents (outliers whose fertility intentions indicated that they wanted a/nother child when we predicted that they did not) expressed comparatively less control over their fertility and gave more weight to pressures from others to continue childbearing. Partner communication about fertility desires was greater among left-tail respondents (outliers whose fertility intentions indicated that they did not want a/nother child when we predicted that they did). HIV-positive right-tail respondents were more likely to see anti-retroviral therapies (ARTs) which prevent mother to child transmission of HIV as highly effective, mitigating inhibitions to further childbearing. Drug interactions between ARTs and contraceptives were identified as a limitation to HIV-positive individuals' contraceptive options on both sides of the distribution. Factors that should be taken into account in the future to understand fertility behavior in high HIV-prevalent settings include couples' communication around fertility and perception of the efficacy of ARTs. PMID:25150655
Moore, Ann M; Keogh, Sarah; Kavanaugh, Megan; Bankole, Akinrinola; Mulambia, Chishimba; Mutombo, Namuunda
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Recently, the world has witnessed emergence of novel diseases such as avian influenza, HIV and AIDS, West Nile Virus and Ebola. The evolution of these pathogens has been facilitated mainly by a constantly evolving animal-human interface. Whilst infectious disease control was previously conceptualise [...] d as either public health or animal health related issues, the distinction between disciplinary foci have been blurred by multiple causal factors that clearly traverse traditional disciplinary divides. These multiple evolutionary pressures have included changes in land use, ecosystems, human-livestock-wildlife interactions and antibiotic use, representing novel routes for pathogen emergence. With the growing realisation that pathogens do not respect traditional epistemological divides, the 'One Health' initiative has emerged to advocate for closer collaboration across the health disciplines and has provided a new agenda for health education. Against this background, the One Health Analytical Epidemiology course was developed under the auspices of the Southern African Centre for Infectious Diseases Surveillance by staff from the University of Zambia with collaborators from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and the Royal Veterinary College in London. The course is aimed at equipping scientists with multidisciplinary skill sets to match the contemporary challenges of human, animal and zoonotic disease prevention and control. Epidemiology is an important discipline for both public and animal health. Therefore, this two-year programme has been developed to generate a cadre of epidemiologists with a broad understanding of disease control and prevention and will be able to conceptualise and design holistic programs for informing health and disease control policy decisions.
J.B., Muma; Martin, Simuunza; K., Mwachalimba; M., Munyeme; B., Namangala; C., Hankanga; G., Sijumbila; R. Likwa, Ndonyo; Yona, Sinkala; A., Mwanza; A. Simanyengwe, Mweene.
Changes in catchment response as a result of climate change and/or variability continue to be of concern to hydrologists and water managers and thus identification and study of changes in rainfall as a major input into the hydrologic system remains pivotal in water resources management and planning for reliable input into modelling catchment response systems. An attempt has been made in this study to analyse long-term rainfall data obtained from five rain gauges (Kabompo, Kasempa, Mwinilunga, Mongu and Kaoma) located in the headstream regions of the Zambezi river basin in Zambia and to determine if these time series belonged to similar regime, have had any significant trends and if there was any homogeneity in trends among stations. To detect change in regime, the data were separately subjected to intervention analysis (using Cumulative Summation or CUSUM technique) and step change analysis (using rank-sum test) and subsequently the trend in each of the time series were determined using Mann-Kendall-statistic. The analyses undertaken to identify possibility of any intervention due to either natural and/or man-made causes, through the CUSUM technique, did not show signs of any major interventions except for Mongu station, where a change in regime was observed around 1980. This was even confirmed through step change analysis using the rank-sum test. Though the five stations showed marginal downward trends, these were not significant. Even, the test of homogeneity in trends observed at different stations showed homogeneity between them. Based on these findings, it was concluded that the rainfall data in the entire sub-basin belonged to a similar climate regime and the rainfall data for the entire period could be used for developing rainfall-response relationship except for Mongu, where the time series from 1981 onwards appear to have been subjected human/instrumental errors and needs to be investigated and updated.
Kampata, J. M.; Parida, B. P.; Moalafhi, D. B.
Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate need for and efficacy of a structured gastroenterology didactic session in expanding awareness and understanding of digestive disorders. METHODS: A four-day symposium was developed with didactic sessions (days 1, 2 and practical endoscopy (days 3, 4. Didactic sessions included case presentations highlighting pathophysiology and management. One nurse and four practicing gastroenterologists from the United Kingdom led lectures and supervised workshops with audience participation. Practical endoscopy focused on diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and their application to diagnosis and treatment of ailments of the gastrointestinal tract. Pre- and post-workshop questionnaires were distributed to participants during didactic sessions. A pre-workshop questionnaire gauged expectations and identified objectives to be met at the symposium. Post-workshop questionnaires were administered to assess efficacy of each session. Participants graded sessions from 1 (poor to 5 (excellent on quality of case presentations, knowledge, clarity and mode of presentation. We assessed if time allotted to each topic was sufficient, value of sessions, impact on practice and interest in future symposiums. RESULTS: There were 46 attendees on day 1: 41% undergraduates, 41% residents, 11% consultants and 4% unspecified. Day 2 (a Saturday had 24 participants: 17% undergraduates, 71% residents, 9% consultants, 4% unspecified. Primary pre-workshop symposium expectation was to gain knowledge in: general gastroenterology (55.5%, practical endoscopy (13.8%, pediatric gastroenterology (5%, epidemiology of gastrointestinal disorders specific to Zambia (6%, and interaction with international speakers (6%. The post-symposium questionnaire was answered by 19 participants, of whom 95% felt specific aims were met; all would attend future conferences and recommend to others. CONCLUSION: The beneficial effect of a structured symposium in developing countries warrants further attention as a mechanism to improve disease awareness in areas where resources are limited.
Akwi W Asombang
As an HIV prevention strategy, the scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is underway in 14 countries in Africa. For prevention impact, these countries must perform millions of circumcisions in adolescent and adult men before 2015. Although acceptability of VMMC in the region is well documented and service delivery efforts have proven successful, countries remain behind in meeting circumcision targets. A better understanding of men's VMMC-seeking behaviors and experiences is needed to improve communication and interventions to accelerate uptake. To this end, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 40 clients waiting for surgical circumcision at clinics in Zambia. Based on Stages of Change behavioral theory, men were asked to recount how they learned about adult circumcision, why they decided it was right for them, what they feared most, how they overcame their fears, and the steps they took to make it to the clinic that day. Thematic analysis across all cases allowed us to identify key behavior change triggers while within-case analysis elucidated variants of one predominant behavior change pattern. Major stages included: awareness and critical belief adjustment, norming pressures and personalization of advantages, a period of fear management and finally VMMC-seeking. Qualitative comparative analysis of ever-married and never-married men revealed important similarities and differences between the two groups. Unprompted, 17 of the men described one to four failed prior attempts to become circumcised. Experienced more frequently by older men, failed VMMC attempts were often due to service-side barriers. Findings highlight intervention opportunities to increase VMMC uptake. Reaching uncircumcised men via close male friends and female sex partners and tailoring messages to stage-specific concerns and needs would help accelerate men's movement through the behavior change process. Expanding service access is also needed to meet current demand. Improving clinic efficiencies and introducing time-saving procedures and advance scheduling options should be considered. PMID:25375790
Price, Jessica E; Phiri, Lyson; Mulenga, Drosin; Hewett, Paul C; Topp, Stephanie M; Shiliya, Nicholas; Hatzold, Karin
Full Text Available Abstract Background The premise for using antenatal care (ANC clinic data for estimating HIV prevalence in the general population is the finding from community studies in sub-Saharan Africa that total HIV prevalence in pregnant women attending ANC clinics closely approximate levels in the total general population of both women and men aged 1549 years. In this study, the validity of national level HIV prevalence estimates for the total general population 1549 years made from ANC clinic and population survey data was assessed. Methods In 20012002, a national population HIV prevalence survey for women 1549 years and men 1559 years was conducted in Zambia. In the same period, a national HIV sentinel surveillance survey among pregnant women attending ANC clinics was carried out. Results The ANC HIV prevalence estimates for age-group 1549 years (rural: 11.5%; 95% CI, 11.211.8; urban: 25.4%; 95% CI, 24.826.0; adjusted national: 16.9%; 95% CI, 16.617.2 were similar to the population survey estimates (rural: 10.8%; 95% CI, 9.612.1; urban: 23.2%; 95% CI 20.725.6; national: 15.6%; 95% CI, 14.416.9. The HIV prevalence urban to rural ratio was 2.2 in ANC and 2.1 in population survey estimates. Conclusion The HIV prevalence estimate for the total general population 1549 years derived from testing both women and men in the population survey was similar to the estimate derived from testing women attending ANC clinics. It shows that national HIV prevalence estimates for adults aged 1549 years can also be obtained from ANC HIV sentinel surveillance surveys with good coverage when ANC attendance and fertility are high.
Flake based assemblages (Mode 1) comprise the earliest stone technologies known, with well-dated Oldowan sites occurring in eastern Africa between ??? 2.6-1.7 Ma, and in less securely dated contexts in central, southern and northern Africa. Our understanding of the spread and local development of this technology outside East Africa remains hampered by the lack of reliable numerical dating techniques applicable to non-volcanic deposits. This study applied the still relatively new technique of cosmogenic nuclide burial dating (10Be/26Al) to calculate burial ages for fluvial gravels containing Mode 1 artefacts in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. The Manzi River, a tributary of the Luangwa River, has exposed a 4.7 m deep section of fluvial sands with discontinuous but stratified gravel layers bearing Mode 1, possibly Oldowan, artefacts in the basal layers. An unconformity divides the Manzi section, separating Mode 1 deposits from overlying gravels containing Mode 3 (Middle Stone Age) artefacts. No diagnostic Mode 2 (Acheulean) artefacts were found. Cosmogenic nuclide burial dating was attempted for the basal gravels as well as exposure ages for the upper Mode 3 gravels, but was unsuccessful. The complex depositional history of the site prevented the calculation of reliable age models. A relative chronology for the full Manzi sequence was constructed, however, from the magnetostratigraphy of the deposit (N>R>N sequence). Isothermal thermoluminescence (ITL) dating of the upper Mode 3 layers also provided consistent results (???78 ka). A coarse but chronologically coherent sequence now exists for the Manzi section with the unconformity separating probable mid- or early Pleistocene deposits below from late Pleistocene deposits above. The results suggest Mode 1 technology in the Luangwa Valley may post-date the Oldowan in eastern and southern Africa. The dating programme has contributed to a clearer understanding of the geomorphological processes that have shaped the valley and structured its archaeological record. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Barham, L.; Phillips, W.M.; Maher, B.A.; Karloukovski, V.; Duller, G.A.T.; Jain, M.; Wintle, A.G.
Flake based assemblages (Mode 1) comprise the earliest stone technologies known, with well-dated Oldowan sites occurring in eastern Africa between 2.6-1.7 Ma, and in less securely dated contexts in central, southern and northern Africa. Our understanding of the spread and local development of this technology outside East Africa remains hampered by the lack of reliable numerical dating techniques applicable to non-volcanic deposits. This study applied the still relatively new technique of cosmogenic nuclide burial dating (10Be/26Al) to calculate burial ages for fluvial gravels containing Mode 1 artefacts in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. The Manzi River, a tributary of the Luangwa River, has exposed a 4.7 m deep section of fluvial sands with discontinuous but stratified gravel layers bearing Mode 1, possibly Oldowan, artefacts in the basal layers. An unconformity divides the Manzi section, separating Mode 1 deposits from overlying gravels containing Mode 3 (Middle Stone Age) artefacts. No diagnostic Mode 2 (Acheulean) artefacts were found. Cosmogenic nuclide burial dating was attempted for the basal gravels as well as exposure ages for the upper Mode 3 gravels, but was unsuccessful. The complex depositional history of the site prevented the calculation of reliable age models. A relative chronology for the full Manzi sequence was constructed, however, from the magnetostratigraphy of the deposit (N>R>N sequence). Isothermal thermoluminescence (ITL) dating of the upper Mode 3 layers also provided consistent results (78 ka). A coarse but chronologically coherent sequence now exists for the Manzi section with the unconformity separating probable mid- or early Pleistocene deposits below from late Pleistocene deposits above. The results suggest Mode 1 technology in the Luangwa Valley may post-date the Oldowan in eastern and southern Africa. The dating programme has contributed to a clearer understanding of the geomorphological processes that have shaped the valley and structured its archaeological record.
Barham, Lawrence; Phillips, William M.
Full Text Available Occupation refers to a person's trade or profession or the type of work. The study of working population directly related to the analysis of occupational structure, which is concerned with the resource base, economic behavior urbanization etc. An attempt has been made here to study the spatio, temporal changes in occupation structure. In 2001 census recorded 42.47% of the district population as main workers, 3.48% as marginal worker and remaining 54.05% as non worker the corresponding figures for the state are 39.28%, 3.68% and 57.02% respective. As compared to 1991, there has been substantial rise in the work participation rate in the district (35.43% in 1991 and 42.47% in 2001. Among the main workers participation rate in the district was 50.59%, while that female was 33.91% as per 2001 census. The corresponding figures (1991 for males and females participation rates in the district were 52.19% and 30.45% respective. The proportion of marginal workers was the highest in Jamkhed tahsil (6.81% The lowest in Nagar tahasil (1.73%. It is mainly due to industrialization. Out of the total 4543083 economically active population 47.37% is engaged in agriculture as cultivators, while 26.59% was worked as agricultures lab our laborers in 2001cenus. In the year 1991. Among the main workers in the district 46.37% were cultivators. 30.51% agricultural labors.
Full Text Available The study conducted in Southern Zambia investigated smallholder farmers use of indigenous knowledge to respond to rainfall variations and soil fertility problems. Farmer and key informant interviews and observations were employed to collect data. A total of 60 smallholder farmers and 6 key informants were interviewed. Chipepo lies in the low rainfall region of Zambia. Its upland area faces moisture stress and soil fertility problems compared to its valley areas located along tributaries of the Zambezi River. The annual flooding of the tributaries of the Zambezi River along the valley fields results in loss of crop yields. Farmers have responded to problems of low moisture in the upland fields and too much moisture in the river valley fields through crop diversification concentrated on three main food crops namely; maize, sorghum and bulrush millet. These differ not only in their moisture requirements but also in maturity periods. Drought tolerant early maturing crop varieties and off-farm activities enhance their resilience. Maize was planted in river valley fields due to its high water requirements while drought tolerant sorghum and millet were planted on upland fields. The farmers knowledge of particular flowering plants helped forecast the onset of rains for purposes of early planting. Farmers with upland fields have adopted indigenous soil classification techniques based on vegetation types, soil colour, and texture and soil workability and utilize particular soils for specific crops. Integrating this indigenous knowledge into modern technologies will enhance smallholder farmers resilience when faced with impacts of climate change and variability.
Kabwe Harnadih Mubanga
A molecular survey was conducted for several hemoparasites of domestic dogs and three species of wild carnivores from two sites in Zambia. Three Babesia spp. were detected including Babesia felis and Babesia leo in lions (Panthera leo) and a Babesia sp. (similar to Babesia lengau) in spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) and a single lion. All wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and domestic dogs were negative for Babesia. High prevalences for Hepatozoon were noted in all three wild carnivores (38-61%) and in domestic dogs (13%). Significantly higher prevalences were noted in hyenas and wild dogs compared with domestic dogs and lions. All carnivores were PCR negative for Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ewingii, and Bartonella spp. Overall, high prevalences and diversity of Babesia and Hepatozoon were noted in wild carnivores from Zambia. This study is the first molecular characterization of Babesia from any hyena species and is the first report of a Babesia sp. closely related to B. lengau, a parasite previously only reported from cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), in lions and hyenas. Although usually benign in wild carnivores, these hemoparasites can be pathogenic under certain circumstances. Importantly, data on vectors for these parasites are lacking, so studies are needed to identify vectors as well as determine transmission routes, infection dynamics, and host specificity of these hemoparasites in wildlife in Africa and also the risk of transmission between domestic animals and wildlife. PMID:24363181
Williams, Brianna M; Berentsen, Are; Shock, Barbara C; Teixiera, Maria; Dunbar, Michael R; Becker, Matthew S; Yabsley, Michael J
Full Text Available This study evaluated the long-term implications of a Public-Private Partnership (PPP on livelihoods and natural resource (NR dynamics under a market-oriented approach to conservation. Drawing examples from the Luangwa Valley in eastern Zambia, the study sought to answer questions on two closely interrelated aspects. These included the contribution of PPP to sustainable livelihoods in and around Protected Areas (PAs and its impacts on natural resources in Game Management Areas (GMAs. Quantitative data were collected from PPP participating and non-PPP households using standardized structured interviews, while qualitative data were obtained from three chiefdoms using semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. Taking the case of Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO in eastern Zambia, results of this study showed that PPP contributed to sustainable livelihoods and overall natural resources management through varied ways. These include promotion of conservation farming, agroforestry, poacher transformation (individuals who have given up poaching due to PPP interventions and provision of markets for the produce of participating households. Further, impacts of PPP on soil fertility, crop, and honey yields were statistically significant (p ? 0.05. A combination of increased crop productivity and household incomes has seen a 40-fold increase in poacher transformation. The results of this study suggest that PPPs, if well-structured, have the potential to address both livelihoods and enterprise needs with an ultimate benefit of promoting both sustainable livelihoods and natural resources management around PAs in tropical Africa.
Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: English Abstract in spanish El lechwe negro (Kobus leche smithemani) es un antílope semi-acuático de tamaño medio que en la actualidad se encuentra en la lista roja de la UICN de especies en peligro de extinción y sólo es endémica de la cuenca del Bangweulu de Zambia. Su población ha disminuido considerablemente, de más de 250 [...] 000 a 15 000, debido a las inundaciones que se dieron durante el período 1930-1940, lo que llevó al gobierno de Zambia a declarar todos los hábitats del lechwe negro en áreas protegidas estatales, y a establecer estrategias de administración urgentes necesarias para salvar el resto de la población de la extinción. Utilizando los datos retrospectivos, nuestros resultados muestran que la población ha aumentado de 15 000 animales en 1954 a 55 632 en 2009. La población actual se estima en 34.77% (55 632/160 000) de la capacidad de carga de la cuenca del Bangweulu. Aunque el lechwe Negro es una de las 42 especies que se ofrecen para su utilización consuntiva por la Autoridad de Vida Silvestre de Zambia (ZAWA), sólo el 0.12% y 0.08% de la población actual se ha ofrecido para el safari y la caza residente anual para el período 2005-2009, respectivamente. La utilización de la cuota anual se estima en 67% (n=67) y 81% (n=37) para safari de caza y residente, respectivamente. Por lo tanto, los ingresos totales obtenidos de la utilización del lechwe negro son muy bajos contando sólo el 2.1% de los ingresos totales obtenidos de la utilización de la fauna silvestre. Aunque la tendencia actual de la población está mostrando un incremento unitario de 639 animales por año, está todavía muy por debajo de los niveles ideales para la utilización lucrativa. En este estudio, se demuestra que los cambios ecológicos perjudiciales sobre especies de fauna silvestre, puede conducir a su vulnerabilidad y peligro de extinción, y que la recuperación de su capacidad de carga completa puede exigir una cantidad considerable de tiempo. Abstract in english Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani) is a semi-aquatic medium sized antelope currently enlisted on the IUCN red list of endangered species and is only endemic to the Bangweulu basin of Zambia. Its population has significantly decreased due to floods that took place during the period 1930-1940 from [...] over 250 000-15 000 leading the Zambian government to gazette all habitats of Black lechwe into state protected areas, and to establish urgent management strategies needed to save the remaining population from extinction. Using retrospective data, our findings show that the population has increased from 15 000 animals in 1954 to 55 632 in 2009. The current population is estimated at 34.77% (55 632/160 000) of the carrying capacity of the Bangweulu basin. Although the Black lechwe is one of the 42 species offered for consumptive utilization by the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA), only 0.12% and 0.08% of the current stock was offered for safari and resident hunting annually for the period 2005-2009, respectively. Annual quota utilization were estimated at 67% (n=37) and 81% (n=37) for safari and resident hunting, respectively. Hence, overall income obtained from utilization of Black lechwe is very low accounting for only 2.1% of the total revenue earned from wildlife utilization. Although the current population trend is showing a unit increase of 639 animals per year, it is still far below levels ideal for the lucrative utilization. In this study, we demonstrate that adverse ecological changes on wildlife species, can lead to their vulnerability and danger of extinction, and that their recovery to full carrying capacity may demand a considerable amount of time
Victor M., Siamudaala; Musso, Munyeme; Wigganson, Matandiko; John B, Muma; Hetron M, Munang& #8217; andu.
In preparation for the U.S. congressional recess, AGU Public Affairs hosted an instructional webinar about meeting with legislators and their staff at their district offices. Congress is on recess, with most members back in their districts to reconnect with their constituents. The August recess is a great opportunity for AGU members to schedule meetings with their legislators to talk about the importance of their research and the value of science funding. In these meetings, members can initiate a connection with their senator or representative that will allow them to build a relationship as a valuable resource.
Full Text Available This paper provides a comparison study of industrial districts in two European countries, Spain and Sweden, using the conceptual framework of corporation. The relevance of this approach is based on the specific qualities that the industrial districts have, including the preexisting conditions, local traditions, products and production characteristics, marketing strategies, local policies and present challenges. The findings indicate the ways in which different patterns of inter-firm relationships, organization of production and dynamics of local alliances have shaped divergent regional responses to the industrial construction.
Reza MOHAMMADY GARFAMY
Full Text Available The underlying assumption of this study is that in order to retain the competitiveness while reaching for the EU targets regarding low-energy construction, district heating companies need to develop new business and service models. How district heating companies could broaden their perspective and switch to a more service-oriented way of thinking is a key interest of our research. The used methods in our study are house builder interviews and a questionnaire. With the help of these methods we discussed the potential interest in heating related services acquiring a comprehensive understanding of the customer needs. The results indicate the importance of certain criteria when choosing the heating system in households: easiness, comfort and affordability seem to dominate the house builders preferences. Also environmental awareness seems to be for many an important factor when making a decision about the heating of the house. Altogether, based on the results of this study, we suggest that the prospects of district heating could benefit from highlighting certain aspects and strengths in the future. District heating companies need to increase flexibility, readiness to adopt new services, to invest in new marketing strategies and improving the communication skills.
This thesis presents an analysis of heat pump operation in a District Heating and District Cooling system. Two heat pumps with supersonic centrifugal compressors use untreated sewage as their heat source/sink for the simultaneous production of heating and cooling. The heat pumps operate in one of three different modes, according to the momentary demand for heating and cooling. The performance of the heat pumps in each mode is analysed, and the feasibility of the installed control system is discussed. The analysed performance is based on momentary measurements of the process variables, while the heat pump plant was in normal operation during the measuring period of two years. It was not possible to manipulate the operation as would be possible in a laboratory. This limited the available operational conditions. To evaluate the performance of the supersonic centrifugal compressors their part load efficiencies in the different modes are calculated and presented. The limitation of the operation of the heat pump due to the risk of surging is discussed. When the District Heating and Cooling plant was designed, the possible energy source were raw sewage and sea water. The evaluation of the most suitable energy source is discussed, and the operational experiences with the use of untreated sewage are presented. No alternative system design for the distribution of heating and cooling was discussed prior to the design of the heat pump plant in Sandvika, Norway. For future plants the distribution of energy at intermediate temperature with distributed heat pumps may be an alternative. Some aspects of this concept is discussed, based on the experiences from the District Heating and Cooling plant in Sandvika. The cost of an intermediate temperature system is compared to the resulting cost for the conventional District Heating and Cooling plant. 60 refs., 93 figs., 15 tabs.
Discusses public library districts that provide funding directly to libraries rather than through local government or property taxes. Other types of library organization are described, including municipal and county libraries; a model library district law is suggested; and an example of a public library district in Kalamazoo (Michigan) is
Brawner, Lee B.; Amdursky, Saul
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many public health researchers conducting studies in resource-constrained settings have experienced negative 'rumours' about their work; in some cases they have been reported to create serious challenges and derail studies. However, what may appear superficially as 'gossip' or 'rumours' can also be regarded and understood as metaphors which represent local concerns. For researchers unaccustomed to having concerns expressed from participants in this manner, possible reactions can be to be unduly perturbed or conversely dismissive. This paper represents a retrospective examination of a malnutrition study conducted by an international team of researchers in Zambia, Southern Africa. The fears of mothers whose children were involved in the study and some of the concerns which were expressed as rumours are also presented. This paper argues that there is an underlying logic to these anxieties and to dismiss them simply as 'rumours' or 'gossip' would be to overlook the historic and socio-economic factors which have contributed to their production. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with the mothers whose children were involved in the study and with the research nurses. Twenty five face-to-face interviews and 2 focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted with mothers. In addition, face-to-face interviews were conducted with research nurses participating in the trial. Results A prominent anxiety expressed as rumours by the mothers whose children were involved in the study was that recruitment into the trial was an indicator that the child was HIV-infected. Other anxieties included that the trial was a disguise for witchcraft or Satanism and that the children's body parts would be removed and sold. In addition, the liquid, milk-based food given to the children to improve their nutrition was suspected of being insufficiently nutritious, thus worsening their condition. The form which these anxieties took, such as rumours related to the stealing of body parts and other anxieties about a stigmatised condition, provide an insight into the historical, socio-economic and cultural influences in such settings. Conclusions Employing strategies to understand local concerns should accompany research aims to achieve optimal success. The concerns raised by the participants we interviewed are not unique to this study. They are produced in countries where the historic, socio-economic and cultural settings communicate anxieties in this format. By examining this study we have shown that by contextualizing these 'rumours', the concerns they express can be constructively addressed and in turn result in the successful conduct of research aims.
Many breeders have observed that induced mutation increases genetic variability, and the expose to mutagenic agents increases mutation frequency. Studies have indicated the effect in height reduction, increased yield components,disease resistance, in crop like rice and wheat. A study was conducted in finger millet in thr Northern part of Zambia (Region III), a high rainfall area, aiming at improving finger length, number of fingers till ring capacity in order to increase the yield. the seed of Nyika variety, popular to farmers due to its medium maturity, palm shaped fingers (six fingers on average), and light brown grain. Three quantities of seed were irradiated at 15Kr, 20Kr and 30Kr doses. A dose of 15Kr of gamma rays irradiation continued to create good genetic change in the exposed material. These observations clearly suggest that 15Kr dose of gamma rays is the optimum one to expose/irradiate finger millet to create desired genetic changes. The results of 2000/2001 were not significantly different. However, FMM 165 had better yields (3193 Kg) than FMM 175 in Misamfu, while FMM 175 yielded better (3272 Kg) in Chinsali. During 2001/2002 both FMMs performed well in the national finger number of 10 per head. There were also highly significant differences among finger lengths.FMM 165 had finger length of 10.3 cm. Concerning grain yield FMM 165 and FMM 175 had 3802 and 3864 Kg/ha, respectively, which were above the overall mean 3864 Kg/ha. Grain yield correlated positiv3864 Kg/ha. Grain yield correlated positively with finger number with an r-value of 0.19 and finger length r-value of 0.22 although it was not significant at 1% or 5%. Meanwhile in the advance trial there were significant differences among genotypes in finger number. Both FMMs had 9 fingers above the overall mean of 8.8. In the finger length there were highly significant differences. FMM 175 had a length of 11.5 cm while FMM 165 had 10.4 cm. There were highly significant differences among the genotypes in yield. FMM 165 (4636 Kg) and FMM 175 (4104 Kg/ha) yielded more than the checks (Nyika and Local) 3104 Kg/ha and 2854 Kg/ha respectively. There was some correlation between finger length and finger number with r-value of 0.688, finger number and grain yield with an r-value of 0.187, and finger length and yield r-value of -ve 0.016 but there were not significant at 1% or 5%
Full Text Available Abstract Background Population level data on mental health from Africa are limited, but available data indicate mental problems to represent a substantial public health problem. The negative impact of HIV on mental health suggests that this could particularly be the case in high prevalence populations. We examined the prevalence of mental distress, distribution patterns and the ways HIV might influence mental health among men and women in a general population. Methods The relationship between HIV infection and mental distress was explored using a sample of 4466 participants in a population-based HIV survey conducted in selected rural and urban communities in Zambia in 2003. The Self-reporting questionnaire-10 (SRQ-10 was used to assess global mental distress. Weights were assigned to the SRQ-10 responses based on DSM IV criteria for depression and a cut off point set at 7/20 for probable cases of mental distress. A structural equation modeling (SEM was established to assess the structural relationship between HIV infection and mental distress in the model, with maximum likelihood ratio as the method of estimation. Results The HIV prevalence was 13.6% vs. 18% in the rural and urban populations, respectively. The prevalence of mental distress was substantially higher among women than men and among groups with low educational attainment vs. high. The results of the SEM showed a close fit with the data. The final model revealed that self-rated health and self perceived HIV risk and worry of being HIV infected were important mediators between underlying factors, HIV infection and mental distress. The effect of HIV infection on mental distress was both direct and indirect, but was particularly strong through the indirect effects of health ratings and self perceived risk and worry of HIV infection. Conclusion These findings suggest a strong effect of HIV infection on mental distress. In this population where few knew their HIV status, this effect was mediated through self-perceptions of health status, found to capture changes in health perceptions related to HIV, and self-perceived risk and worry of actually being HIV infected.
Chipimo Peter J
Phenobarbital remains one of the most widely used antiepileptic drugs worldwide, yet there are limited data regarding side effects associated with its use in routine clinical care settings in low-income countries. Available data suggests that phenobarbital is as effective as other first-line drugs for treating tonic-clonic seizures, but side effect reports differ widely between high and low-income settings. A better understanding of phenobarbital side effect profile and severity in low-income settings is warranted given its role in efforts to decrease the epilepsy treatment gap. We used the Liverpool adverse events profile (LEAP) to assess side effects in consecutive patients with epilepsy on phenobarbital seeking care in rural Zambia. Data regarding age, gender, medication dose, and medication adherence were also collected. T-tests and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used to assess predictors of LEAP score and medication adherence. Thirty-five patients receiving a mean dose of 2.1mg/kg/day (SD: 2.78 mg/kg/day) of phenobarbital were assessed. All participants reported at least one side effect in the previous four weeks with a median of 6 symptoms (IQR: 4-8) and a mean side effects score of 28/76 (SD: 5.38). Over half reported sleepiness and dizziness. Memory problems and depression were also common (both 46%). Total LAEP score was not associated with age (p=0.88), gender (p=0.17), or phenobarbital dose (p=0.13). Medication adherence was not associated with side effects total score (p=0.56). Rural Zambian adults taking phenobarbital at doses recommended by the World Health Organization report a significant number of side effects. The most common side effects reported were similar to those reported in high-income countries. The significant burden of phenobarbital-associated side effects in this African cohort is in contrast to data from non-randomized clinical trials in China that reported phenobarbital to be well-tolerated with few side effects. Additional investigations regarding phenobarbital side effects during routine care in low income settings is warranted. PMID:25219354
Elafros, Melissa A; Bui, Esther; Birbeck, Gretchen L
The Lumwana Cu (± Co ± U) deposits of NW Zambia are large, tabular, disseminated ore bodies, hosted within the Mwombezhi Dome of the Lufilian Arc. The host rocks to the Lumwana deposits are two mineralogically similar but texturally distinct gneisses, a granitic to pegmatitic gneiss and a banded to augen gneiss which both comprise quartz-feldspar ± biotite ± muscovite ± haematite ± amphibole and intervening quartz-feldspar ± biotite schist. The sulphide ore horizons are typically developed within a biotite-muscovite-quartz-kyanite schist, although mineralization locally occurs within internal gneiss units. Contacts between the ore and host rocks are transitional and characterized by a loss of feldspar. Kinematic indicators, such as S-C fabrics and pressure shadows on porphyroblasts, suggest a top to the north shear sense. The sulphides are deformed by a strong shear fabric, enclosed within kyanite or concentrated into low strain zones and pressure shadows around kyanite porphyroblasts. This suggests that the copper mineralization was introduced either syn- or pre-peak metamorphism. In addition to Cu and Co, the ores are also characterized by enrichments in U, V, Ni, Ba and S and small, discrete zones of uranium mineralization, occur adjacent to the hanging wall and footwall of the copper ore bodies or in the immediate footwall to the copper mineralization. Unlike typical Copperbelt mineralization, unmineralized units show very low background copper values. Whole rock geochemical analyses of the interlayered schist and ore schist, compared to the gneiss, show depletions in Ca, Na and Sr and enrichments in Mg and K, consistent with replacement of feldspar by biotite. The mineral chemistry of muscovite, biotite and chlorite reflect changes in the bulk rock chemistry and show consistent increases in X Mg as the schists develop. ?34S for copper sulphides range from +2.3 to +18.5 , with pyrite typically restricted to values between +3.9 and +6.2 . These values are atypical of sulphides precipitated by bacteriogenic sulphate reduction. ?34S data for Chimiwungo (Cu + Co) show a broader range and increased ?34S values compared to the Malundwe (Cu) mineralization. The Lumwana deposits show many characteristics which distinguish them from classical Copperbelt mineralization and which suggests that they are formed by metasomatic alteration, mineralization and shearing of pre-Katangan basement. Although this style of mineralization is reported elsewhere in the Copperbelt, sometimes associated with the more widely reported stratiform ores of the Lower Roan, none of the previously reported occurrences have so far developed the tonnages of ore reported at Lumwana.
Bernau, Robin; Roberts, Stephen; Richards, Mike; Nisbet, Bruce; Boyce, Adrian; Nowecki, James
Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately half of the countries in the African Region had a mental health policy by 2005, but little is known about quality of mental health policies in Africa and globally. This paper reports the results of an assessment of the mental health policies of Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia. Methods The WHO Mental Health Policy Checklist was used to evaluate the most current mental health policy in each country. Assessments were completed and reviewed by a specially constituted national committee as well as an independent WHO team. Results of each country evaluation were discussed until consensus was reached. Results All four policies received a high level mandate. Each policy addressed community-based services, the integration of mental health into general health care, promotion of mental health and rehabilitation. Prevention was addressed in the South African and Ugandan policies only. Use of evidence for policy development varied considerably. Consultations were mainly held with the mental health sector. Only the Zambian policy presented a clear vision, while three of four countries spelt out values and principles, the need to establish a coordinating body for mental health, and to protect the human rights of people with mental health problems. None included all the basic elements of a policy, nor specified sources and levels of funding for implementation. Deinstitutionalisation and the provision of essential psychotropic medicines were insufficiently addressed. Advocacy, empowerment of users and families and intersectoral collaboration were inadequately addressed. Only Uganda sufficiently outlined a mental health information system, research and evaluation, while only Ghana comprehensively addressed human resources and training requirements. No country had an accompanying strategic mental health plan to allow the development and implementation of concrete strategies and activities. Conclusions Six gaps which could impact on the policies' effect on countries' mental health systems were: lack of internal consistency of structure and content of policies, superficiality of key international concepts, lack of evidence on which to base policy directions, inadequate political support, poor integration of mental health policies within the overall national policy and legislative framework, and lack of financial specificity. Three strategies to address these concerns emerged, namely strengthening capacity of key stakeholders in public (mental health and policy development, creation of a culture of inclusive and dynamic policy development, and coordinated action to optimize use of available resources.
[Background] The Ministry of Community Development and Social Services (MCDSS) has taken the decision to rollout in 2009 a national social cash transfer scheme (SCTS) to cover the whole country by 2012. Thus far, social cash transfer schemes are being piloted in five districts in Southern and Eastern Provinces. The schemes are using structures created for the implementation of the Public Welfare Assistance System (PWAS) which rise from community level all the way to the national level. The ad...
Chiwele, Dennis Kaputo
Designing a methodology for mapping and studying soils in a quick and inexpensive way is critical especially in developing countries which lack detailed soil surveys. The main aim of this research was to explore the potential of Landsat ETM data combined with various forms of ancillary data in mapping soils in Chongwe, a semi arid region in Zambia. The study also examines how spectral maps produced by digital analysis of Landsat ETM data compare with field observation data. The study area, covering 54 000 ha, is located about 45 km to the east of the capital city, Lusaka, Zambia. It encompasses five main landscapes: hilland, piedmont, plateau, alluvial plain and valley dambos (seasonally waterlogged depressions). Geospatial tools were applied in four related chapters, (1) a review and discussion on the application of geospatial tools to aid soil mapping, (2) identification and characterization of soils in different landscapes in the Chongwe region of Zambia, (3) digital analysis of Landsat ETM data and its application to soil mapping, and (4) summary of the results, conclusions and suggestions for future research. This research has shown that visual interpretation and digital analysis of Landsat images have the capacity to map soils with reasonable accuracy. It demonstrates the utility of Landsat data to delineate soil patterns, especially when acquired during the dry season when there are long periods of cloud free skies, low soil moisture and minimal vegetation cover. When the accuracy of the Landsat ETM image was tested the agreement between Landsat ETM data and field reference data was 72%, indicating a definite relationship between Landsat imagery and soils types. Furthermore, the study revealed that overall, upland areas have a better agreement with Landsat spectral data compared to lowland areas, probably due to diverse origin of sediments and low spatial extent of most geomorphic units in lowland areas. In terms of soilscape boundary delineation, the Landsat derived map was better than the conventional soil map. Landsat data delineated more areas within the conventional soil map polygons. Examining the spectral responses in different bands, it was found that spectral bands, 3, 5, and 7 provide images of optimum contrast for the delineation of soilscapes.
The burden of non-communicable diseases such as musculoskeletal diseases in the developing world is often overshadowed by the more prevalent infectious diseases. Generally, there is gross underestimation of the burden of rheumatologic disease in the backdrop of scanty or indeed non-existent rheumatology services in these countries. Local studies conducted in the last two decades in Zambia have documented the increasing burden of rheumatologic conditions in the country. There are unfortunately negligible rheumatology services in the country both at tertiary or primary health-care facility levels. There is thus an urgent need to build capacity for these services so as to improve the care and management of rheumatic conditions. Here, we review progress made by an International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR)-supported project that has run for the past 2 years (2012-2013) with the objective of enhancing paediatric and adult rheumatology education and practice so as to stimulate positive change in practice and related care services in Zambia. During this short time of the project, substantial progress has been made in the areas of paediatric and adult rheumatology services enhancement at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka: streamlining of referrals and follow-ups of rheumatology patients, laying foundations for short- and long-term medical education in rheumatology and raising public awareness of rheumatic diseases. The progress made by this grant underscores the suitability of the ILAR mission statement "think global, act local" demonstrating that even with minimum resources and networking, improvement of rheumatology care in developing countries is attainable. PMID:24752350
Chipeta, James; Njobvu, Panganani; McGill, Paul E; Bucala, Richard
Background Global policy regarding optimal umbilical cord care to prevent neonatal illness is an active discussion among researchers and policy makers. In preparation for a large cluster-randomized control trial to measure the impact of 4% chlorhexidine as an umbilical wash versus dry cord care on neonatal mortality in Southern Province, Zambia, we performed a qualitative study to determine local perceptions of cord health and illness and the cultural belief system that shapes umbilical cord care knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Methods and Findings This study consisted of 36 focus group discussions with breastfeeding mothers, grandmothers, and traditional birth attendants, and 42 in-depth interviews with key community informants. Semi-structured field guides were used to lead discussions and interviews at urban and rural sites. A wide variation in knowledge, beliefs, and practices surrounding cord care was discovered. For home deliveries, cords were cut with non-sterile razor blades or local grass. Cord applications included drying agents (e.g., charcoal, baby powder, dust), lubricating agents (e.g., Vaseline, cooking oil, used motor oil) and agents intended for medicinal/protective purposes (e.g., breast milk, cow dung, chicken feces). Concerns regarding the length of time until cord detachment were universally expressed. Blood clots in the umbilical cord, bulongo-longo, were perceived to foreshadow neonatal illness. Management of bulongo-longo or infected umbilical cords included multiple traditional remedies and treatment at government health centers. Conclusion Umbilical cord care practices and beliefs were diverse. Dry cord care, as recommended by the World Health Organization at the time of the study, is not widely practiced in Southern Province, Zambia. A cultural health systems model that depicts all stakeholders is proposed as an approach for policy makers and program implementers to work synergistically with existing cultural beliefs and practices in order to maximize effectiveness of evidence-based interventions. PMID:24244447
Herlihy, Julie M.; Shaikh, Affan; Mazimba, Arthur; Gagne, Natalie; Grogan, Caroline; Mpamba, Chipo; Sooli, Bernadine; Simamvwa, Grace; Mabeta, Catherine; Shankoti, Peggy; Messersmith, Lisa; Semrau, Katherine; Hamer, Davidson H.
This report presents the findings of research into the main outcomes of government and donor-backed efforts to promote small and medium-sized energy businesses (energy SMEs) in sub-Saharan Africa. The research follows an outcome analysis methodology. The focus is on four countries: Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia and primarily on UNEP's AREED programme (2002-2012). This research focuses on the 'contributing factors' - a deliberately broader term that incorporates the internal 'success factors' - for energy SMEs, about which much has already been written. Indeed, the research findings presented in this report reaffirm most of what has been concluded in previous studies. These studies identified the lack of access to affordable finance as being the predominant, persistent, barrier to establishing and scaling up a commercially viable energy SME sector, emphasising the lack of strong policy support from governments, poor business skills capacity and the high cost of many RETs as related cause-and-effect barriers. While these issues continue to characterise, to a greater or lesser extent, the energy SMEs sectors in the countries studied for this research, it is more relevant to revisit the main assumption behind AREED and other donor-backed programmes designed to promote energy SMEs. The assumption is that the solution to the aforementioned barriers would be overcome by a 'demonstration effect' whereby successful energy SMEs, supported by donor-backed programmes, influence the commercial financial sector to invest in energy SMEs, thus triggering a virtuous circle of growth and profitability. Experiences drawn from a decade of AREED support across four of the project countries reveal both the presence (Ghana, Senegal) and absence, or weak presence, of this demonstration effect (Tanzania, Zambia). This is a central question, and one which was not the focus of previous research, presumably because the answer was not fully apparent prior to 2006 when the last substantial work was conducted. (LN)
Haselip, J.A.; Desgain, D.; Mackenzie, G.A.
Research on water scarcity in the South has often focused on the impacts of limited water resources for the rural poor, prompted most recently by the climate change debate. Less attention has been drawn to the social and institutional processes surrounding the emergence of new collective water resources, and how this affects authority, access rights and social exclusion in local water governance. The paper addresses this issue through a study of local competition over access to new common-pool water resources in isolated rural areas of Zambia and Mali. In Mali, climate change has led to the sporadic emergence of new natural lakes and ponds in some locations. In Zambia, the development of boreholes has provided access to water resources that were not previously available to local communities. The paper explores how local actors and organizations have sought to assert control over and rights of access to the new water resources. It shows the ways in which this has furthered both conflict and cooperation between the involved actors, and how new rules of access and associated institutional domains have developed. At the same time, however, it also shows how the struggles over access and authority have tended to marginalize the poorest and other user groups from access to the new water resources, by seeking either to monopolize access rights or developing explicit and implicit mechanisms of exclusion. The paper concludes by discussing the implications for water policy and research in terms of the way we understand the development of new water resources in the current context of inequality, water scarcity and climate change.
Cold-Ravnkilde, Signe Marie; Funder, Mikkel
In this paper, the following aspects of the subject are discussed: developments in long distance heat supply; heat extraction for district heating from a nuclear power plant (live steam; heat extraction from the cross-over line to the low pressure cylinders of the turbine); multi-stage hot water heating; supply from separate back-pressure turbine; high temperature nuclear power plants; fuel economy when using CHP. (U.K.)
Full Text Available In three mixed samples (mosses and leaf litter collected in the Republic of Zambia (Southern Africa, forty three specimens and six eggs of eutardigrades were found. Among them, twenty nine specimens belonged to a new species of the family Hypsibiidae, Doryphoribius niedbalai sp. nov. The new species belongs to the Doryphoribius evelinae group and it differs from other members of the group mainly by a different number and configuration of dorsal gibbosities as well as by some morphometric characters. Apart from the new species, the examined material contained also two rare African eutardigrades: Milnesium tetralamellatum and Calcarobiotus (Calcarobiotus parvicalcar. These species are recorded for the first time outside their type localities. Additionally, Paramacrobiotus vanescens is recorded for the fourth time from Africa. In this paper, together with the description of the new species, first ever photomicrographs of Milnesium tetralamellatum and Paramacrobiotus vanescens are also given. This is the first account of the phylum Tardigrada from the Republic of Zambia.
Krzysztof Piotr Zawierucha
In this Power Point presentation, the author described the case study of the City of Markham, Ontario with district energy and combined heat and power (CHP). The company, Kattner/FVB District Energy Inc. has undergone projects in several cities, including Sudbury, Windsor, Cornwall in Ontario, Ouje-Bougoumou in Quebec, and Fort McPherson in the Northwest Territories. The author explained the concept of district heating, whereby a combined heat and power plant is installed. Fuel is used to power it, and it produces electricity, hot water and chilled water while only 10 per cent is released as waste heat. Some international comparisons were established, looking at CHP as a share of national power production. Another diagram showed end-use temperature requirements, followed by a chart detailing carbon emission projections. The specific case of Markham, Ontario was examined. The CHP project was initiated as a result of the ice storm that paralysed parts of Ontario, Quebec and the Maritimes with power outages. The project was described, and the reasons explaining why the customers buy it were revealed. The town benefits on many levels, namely an economic development incentive for businesses to locate in Markham, image building and an improved skyline. figs.
Damecour, R. [Kattner FVB District Energy Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)
Current district heating trends are towards an increasing use of electricity. This report concerns the evaluation of an alternative means of energy supply - the direct use of thermal energy from CANDU nuclear stations. The energy would be transmitted via a hot fluid in a pipeline over distances of up to 40 km. Advantages of this approach include a high utilization of primary energy, with a consequent reduction in installed capacity, and load flattening due to inherent energy storage capacity and transport delays. Disadvantages include the low load factors for district heating, the high cost of the distribution systems and the necessity for large-scale operation for economic viability. This requirement for large-scale operation from the beginning could cause difficulty in the implementation of the first system. Various approaches have been analysed and costed for a specific application - the supply of energy to a district heating load centre in Toronto from the location of the Pickering reactor station about 40 km away. (author)
Kaposi's sarcoma occurs at high incidence among Zambian adults and children, but there is a paucity of data on human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) incidence and routes of infection, especially in children. Between 1998 and 2004, the authors conducted a prospective study of viral transmission in a cohort of 684 children in Lusaka, Zambia, to estimate the annual incidence of HHV-8 from birth through 48 months of age. Maternal and pediatric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection status wa...
Minhas, Veenu; Crabtree, Kay L.; Chao, Ann; M Soka, Tendai J.; Kankasa, Chipepo; Bulterys, Marc; Mitchell, Charles D.; Wood, Charles
The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a series of 8 goals and 18 targets aimed at ending extreme poverty by 2015, and there are 48 quantifiable indicators for monitoring the process. Most of the MDGs are health or health-related goals. Though the MDGs might sound ambitious, it is imperative that the world, and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, wake up to the persistent and unacceptably high rates of extreme poverty that populations live in, and find lasting solutions to age-old problems. Extreme poverty is a cause and consequence of low income, food insecurity and hunger, education and gender inequities, high disease burden, environmental degradation, insecure shelter, and lack of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. It is also directly linked to unsound governance and inequitable distribution of public wealth. While many regions in the world will strive to attain the MDGs by 2015, most of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa, with major human development challenges associated with socio-economic disparities, will not. Zambia's MDG progress reports of 2003 and 2005 show that despite laudable political commitment and some advances made towards achieving universal primary education, gender equality, improvement of child health and management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, it is not likely that Zambia will achieve even half of the goals. Zambia's systems have been weakened by high disease burden and excess mortality, natural and man-made environmental threats and some negative effects of globalization such as huge external debt, low world prices for commodities and the human resource "brain drain", among others. Urgent action must follow political will, and some tried and tested strategies or "quick wins" that have been proven to produce high positive impact in the short term, need to be rapidly embarked upon by Zambia and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa if they are to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. PMID:16968967
Anyangwe, Stella C E; Mtonga, Chipayeni; Chirwa, Ben
Zambia is a highly urbanized country with 60% of its urban population residing in low cost areas also called peri-urban, slum or informal settlements. The increase in urban population attributed to rapid migration and urbanization due to political and economic changes has taken a toll on service provision as the infrastructure development and service provision has failed to meet the demand. For the 33 peri-urban areas in Lusaka, the water supply and sanitation has been poor, inadequate and un...
Mwandu Siyeni, Yvonne
This study conducted at Dambwa Forest Reserve in Livingstone, Zambia, evaluated the perception of local people about joint management of the forest reserve in the area and if there had been improvements to the livelihoods of the community and the ecological condition of the forest following joint forest management (JFM). Generally, more people (68%) participated in joint forestry management meetings than in forestry activities, such as forest patrol and prescribed early burning, a...
Phiri, M.; Chirwa, Paxie W.; Watts, S.; Syampungani, Stephen
Full Text Available The concentration of organochlorines (OCs such as organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls were measured in adipose tissue collected from 14 male hippopotami at Mfuwe in the southern part of the Luangwa National Park, Zambia. The samples contained low levels of OCs, and the concentrations of OCs were comparable to or lower than reported for wild herbivores studied in other parts of the world.
Abstract Background Effective malaria control depends on timely acquisition of information on new cases, their location and their frequency so as to deploy supplies, plan interventions or focus attention on specific locations appropriately to intervene and prevent an upsurge in transmission. The process is known as active case detection, but because the information is time sensitive, it is difficult to carry out. In Zambia, the rural health services are operating effectively ...
Kamanga Aniset; Moono Petros; Stresman Gillian; Mharakurwa Sungano; Shiff Clive
Abstract Background It is often assumed, with little supportive, empirical evidence, that women who use maternal health care are more likely than those who do not to use modern contraceptives. This study aims to add to the existing literature on associations between the use of antenatal (ANC) and post-natal care (PNC) and post-partum modern contraceptives. Methods Data come from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in Kenya (200809) and Zambia...
Do Mai; Hotchkiss David
Zambian willemite (Zn2SiO4) deposits occur in the metasedimentary carbonate rocks of the Proterozoic Katangan Supergroup. The most important orebodies are located around Kabwe and contain both sulphides and willemite in dolomites of low metamorphic grade. The Star Zinc and Excelsior prospects (Lusaka area), discovered in the early 1920s, occur in the metamorphic lithotypes of the late Proterozoic Zambezi Supracrustal sequence, which were deposited in a transtensional basin formed during the oblique collision of the Kalahari and Congo cratons. The deposits are hosted by the limestone and dolomitic marbles of the Cheta and Lusaka Formations. Structural analysis indicates that several fracture sets host the deposits, which may be genetically related to the Pan-African Mwembeshi dislocation zone (a major geotectonic boundary between the Lufilian Arc and the Zambezi Belt). In both prospects, willemite replaces the marbles and is found along joints and fissures with open-space filling textures and locally may develop colloform and vuggy fabrics as well. Silver as well as traces of germanium and cadmium have been detected within the willemite ore, and lead or zinc sulphides are scarce or absent. Calcite locally replaces willemite. Willemite is associated with specular hematite and franklinite and post-dates the Zn-spinel gahnite in the paragenesis. Genthelvite [Zn4Be3(SiO4)3S] occurs as a minor phase in irregular aggregates. The willemites from the Lusaka area, though Mn-poor, show green cathodoluminescence colours and bright green fluorescence in short-wave UV (as the high-temperature willemites in USA). Thermometric analyses of primary fluid inclusions in willemite yield homogenization temperatures that range from 160°C to 240°C and salinities of 8-16 wt.% equiv. NaCl. The homogenization temperatures suggest a hypogene-hydrothermal origin for the willemite concentrations. The geochemistry of fluid inclusion leachates suggests that the hydrothermal fluids were brines derived from highly evaporated seawater. Precise age constraints are currently lacking for the Lusaka area deposits, though the deposits are not deformed, indicating that they post-date the Lufilian orogeny (~520 Ma). The possibility of precursor ores exists; the gahnite-franklinite-willemite deposits could have been derived from a metamorphosed primary sulphide (or even nonsulphide) concentration that has subsequently been completely destroyed. However, there is no real evidence of such a primary source for the willemite mineral association. The Lusaka zinc ores may have been produced by an extensive hydrothermal system, with fluids discharging along basinal fracture zones controlled by the pre-Pan-African rifting stage. A paragenesis similar to that of the Lusaka prospects has been proposed to be a vector towards massive sulphide ores in several parts of the world; therefore, it is possible that these small willemite showings in Zambia may be part of a much bigger, and still unexplored, zinc province.
Boni, Maria; Terracciano, Rosario; Balassone, Giuseppina; Gleeson, Sarah A.; Matthews, Alexander
Full Text Available A research was conducted in three districts (Luanshya, Ndola and Kitwe of the mineral-rich Copperbelt Province, from 1st May to 30th June 2012 to determine the most preferred and tasty fish on the market through administration of questionnaires to randomly selected respondents. The study also examined the different types of fish found on the market at any given time. A total of 130 questionnaires were administered, 40 to traders and 30 to consumers in each of the three districts. Slightly over forty-seven per cent (47.50% of the respondents indicated that the Bream, was most preferred fish species among consumers, while 30, 10 and 10% preferred Buka buka (Luciolates spp., Kapenta (Limnothrissa spp. and Mintesa (Mormyrids. A further 62.5% of the respondents felt that fresh fish was most preferred form on the market, as 62% of the consumers purchased more of fresh than dry fish. Over and above, 67.5% of the fish sold on the market had good taste, with the tasty preference for bream being 37%. Fish traders were also aware of the fact that stocking the right species preferred by customers helped to improve on the marketing strategy, thereby increasing on their net returns. It was further noted that 58% of the traders ventured into fish trading to earn a living, 32% due to lack of formal employment, while 5%, as a result of family tradition and another 5% considered it as good business.
...Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2299-075] Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project: Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Supplement to Notice of Study Dispute Resolution Technical Conference On March 16,...
The paper dealt with the waste problem in the ilute district. The aim of the work is to study municipal waste in ilute district analysis and provide their management. Analysis of the sources of literature and waste management in the district have been performed, theoretically calculated municipal waste and fuel calorific capacity, quantity and concentration of gases in the air, reducing concentration of increasing the amount of the air for burning waste. It was established that 18919,5 t ...
The use of Wanzhou District Chongqing City Yearbook in 2001-2008 and other relevant information, based on the present strategic situation of Wanzhou District Chongqing city, the paper constructs the evaluation index system for land sustainable utilization and sets up the comprehensive evaluation model using linear weighting technology to evaluate the land sustainable utilization state during 2001--2008 of Wanzhou District Chongqing city. The result showed that the total level of land sustaina...
Lei Wang; Changquan Wang; Bing Li; Wanqiu Wang
The development of a district heating systems calculation model means improvement in the energy efficiency of a district heating system, which makes it possible to reduce the heat losses, thus positively affecting the tariffs on thermal energy. In this paper, a universal approach is considered, based on which the optimal flow and temperature conditions in a district heating system network could be calculated. The optimality is determined by the least operational costs. The developed calculation model has been tested on the Ludza district heating system based on the technical parameters of this system.
Vigants, Girts; Blumberga, Dagnija; V?gants, ?irts; Blumberga, Dagnija
Full Text Available School restructuring raises questions about the role of school districts in improving student learning. Centralization by state governments and decentralization to individual schools as proposed in systemic reform leave districts' role unsettled. Empirical research on the district role in the context of ongoing reform is inadequate. This analysis of combined data from the NAEP and the Common Core of Data (CCD was intended to address the issue. We analyzed 1990, 1992, and 1996 NAEP 8th grade mathematics national assessment data in combination with CCD data of corresponding years to examine the extent to which student achievement was related to districts' control over instructional expenditure, adjusting for relevant key factors at both district and student levels. Upon sample modification, we used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM to estimate the relationships of student achievement to two district fiscal policy indictors, current expenditure per pupil (CEPP and districts' discretionary rates for instructional expenditure (DDR. Net of relevant district factors, DDR was found unrelated to districts' average 8th grade math performance. The null effect was consistent in the analysis of the combined NAEP-CCD data for 1990, 1992, and 1996. In contrast, CEPP was found related to higher math performance in a modest yet fairly consistent way. Future research may be productive to separately study individual states and integrate the findings onto the national level.
Gary G. Huang
This article presents a review of various contributions presented at a conference of the Swiss association of district heating systems professionals. District heating systems are discussed that form the backbones of systems that distribute heat generated using renewable energy resources such as refuse incineration, waste heat and geothermal energy as well as from thermal power stations and combined heat and power units. Marketing topics, climate protection and, in particular, the proposed carbon dioxide levy are dealt with in the contributions. Details of the CO2 legislation are discussed and various details that concern district heating are examined. As an example, the successful district heating system in Riehen, Switzerland, is described
Barddhaman district (22 56' N to 23 53'N and 86 48' E to 88 25' E) holds 4th position in percentage share of urban population in West Bengal, India. Level of urbanisation is high than the state and national averages. There exists wide intra district variation in level of urbanisation. Interestingly, much of the share comes from Western Barddhaman. The present work intends to study intra district disparity of urbanisation in Barddhaman district, West Bengal. Census of India...
Sushmita Chakraborty; Namita Chakma
Often the choice is between reparation or exchange of a damaged section of the network. If the exchange is based on the wrong assumptions, large sections of undamaged pipelines could be removed. Most important for the district heating company is to decide which strategy to use for the future exchange of the pipelines. Whichever strategy used, it has to based on an assessment of the network and/or assumptions based on that assessment. The question if it is possible extend the life span of the pipelines arises. What is the most economical choice, the exchange or the renovation. (au)
Ottosson, Peter [AaF-Energikonsult Syd AB (Sweden)
Background Malaria, caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in southern Zambia. In the Mapanza Chiefdom, where transmission is seasonal, Anopheles arabiensis is the dominant malaria vector. The ability to predict larval habitats can help focus control measures. Methods A survey was conducted in March-April 2007, at the end of the rainy season, to identify and map locations of water pooling and the occurrence anopheline larval habitats; this was repeated in October 2007 at the end of the dry season and in March-April 2008 during the next rainy season. Logistic regression and generalized linear mixed modeling were applied to assess the predictive value of terrain-based landscape indices along with LandSat imagery to identify aquatic habitats and, especially, those with anopheline mosquito larvae. Results Approximately two hundred aquatic habitat sites were identified with 69 percent positive for anopheline mosquitoes. Nine species of anopheline mosquitoes were identified, of which, 19% were An. arabiensis. Terrain-based landscape indices combined with LandSat predicted sites with water, sites with anopheline mosquitoes and sites specifically with An. arabiensis. These models were especially successful at ruling out potential locations, but had limited ability in predicting which anopheline species inhabited aquatic sites. Terrain indices derived from 90 meter Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation data (DEM) were better at predicting water drainage patterns and characterizing the landscape than those derived from 30 m Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) DEM. Conclusions The low number of aquatic habitats available and the ability to locate the limited number of aquatic habitat locations for surveillance, especially those containing anopheline larvae, suggest that larval control maybe a cost-effective control measure in the fight against malaria in Zambia and other regions with seasonal transmission. This work shows that, in areas of seasonal malaria transmission, incorporating terrain-based landscape models to the planning stages of vector control allows for the exclusion of significant portions of landscape that would be unsuitable for water to accumulate and for mosquito larvae occupation. With increasing free availability of satellite imagery such as SRTM and LandSat, the development of satellite imagery-based prediction models is becoming more accessible to vector management coordinators. PMID:21050496
Full Text Available Abstract Background The mosquito Anopheles arabiensis is the primary vector of Plasmodium falciparum in Macha, Zambia. A major portion of Zambia's current malaria control programme relies on long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs and indoor residual spraying (IRS with insecticides. Currently, the efficacy of these measures against An. arabiensis in Macha is unknown, and previous data has shown that An. arabiensis has continued to feed on human hosts, despite high ITN coverage. It is possible that this could be due to either decreased efficacy of ITNs in used in Macha, or pyrethroid resistance in the vector. Methods F1 offspring of field-collected adult An. arabiensis were tested for insecticide resistance, using CDC bottle bioassays and deltamethrin ITN susceptibility assays. The mosquitoes were characterized for the knock-down resistance (kdr allele by PCR. LLINs that had been in use for two years in nearby villages were collected and tested for residual deltamethrin concentration and net quality, and were used in bioassays against susceptible colonized Anopheles gambiae s.s. Keele. Additionally, a survey on ITN use and care was conducted among LLIN owners. Results In the F1 An. arabiensis field population, low levels of resistance to DDT and deltamethrin-treated net material were detected by bioassay, although the knock-down resistance (kdr allele not present in the population. ITN evaluations revealed high variability in residual deltamethrin concentration, quality of the nets, and mosquito mortality in bioassays. Mortality against An. gambiae s.s. in bioassays was correlated with residual deltamethrin concentration, which was dependent upon the number of washes each net had received. Conclusions Proper LLIN care was a strong determinant of LLIN efficacy, indicating that education on the importance of LLIN use and care is key when distributing nets. As there is little insecticide resistance in the local vector population, degradation of LLINs most likely allowed for continued human feeding by An. arabiensis. Continued monitoring and assessment of both the vector population and the efficacy of LLINs in use is necessary in order to appropriately modify vector control operations and prevent the development of pyrethroid resistance.
Norris Douglas E
Full Text Available Present work characterizes tourmaline from one of the major pegmatite fields in Zambia - the Lundazi pegmatite belt.
Microprobe analysis gave (wt%: SiO2 34.65, TiO2 0.85, Al2O3 29.80, Fe2O3 4.94, FeO 9.47, MnO 0.29, MgO 4.06, Li2O < 0.01, CaO 0.59, Na2O 2.38, K2O 0.08, F 0.32, H2O+ 3.24, B2O3 10.32, O=F -0.14, totalling 100.45. The empirical formula, calculated on the basis of 31 (O, OH, F per formula unit gives: (Na0.78Ca0.11K0.02 ?0.09?1.00 (Fe2+1.33Fe3+0.63Mg0.61Ti0.11Mn0.04 ?0.12?3.00 (Al5.59Mg2+0.41?6.00 [(Si5.84Al0.16?6.00O18.00](BO33.00(OH3.00[(OH0.64O019F0.17]?1.00 resulting in simplified formula: Na(Fe2+, Fe3+, Mg3(Al,Mg6(Si6O18(BO33.00(OH3.00 (OH, O, F. Analysis of Mossbauer spectra confirms both Fe2+ and Fe3+ in the Y site; Fe3+/Fe2+ is 0.47. The water was determinate using Karl Fischer titration, B2O3 was calculated to stoichiometry. Refined crystal structure data (atomic coordinates, inter-atomic distances and angles are in agreement with data for schorl. Mean polyhedron distances are (Å: X-O 2.646, Y-O 2.078, Z-O 1.939, Si-O 1.644, B1-O 1.382. The refined unit-cell parameters are: a = 15.9856 (2, c = 7.1892 (1 Å, V = 1591.00(4 Å3, space group is R3 m, Z=3. Dm = 3.18(1 g/cm3, Dx = 3.195(2 g/cm3. Streak is light grey, lustre is glassy. Pleochroism in powder mounts: ? = light brownish red, ? = dark bluish grey (thin fragments, ? = strong brownish red, ? = opaque (thick fragments. The studied sample belongs to hydroxy-tourmaline subgroup with 19 atomic % of oxy subgroup (Fe3+/Fe2+ = 0.47 in the Y site and ratio O/(OH- = 0.30 in the W site.
The size of schools and districts in which they are located has become a salient policy issue in recent years. While consolidation of school districts and expanding high school size were in vogue from the 1960s until recently, funding agencies are now sponsoring projects to reduce school size under the assumption that smaller schools will lead to
Jones, John T.; Toma, Eugenia F.; Zimmer, Ron W.
A comparative study of first-grade reading instructional methods was undertaken with the support of the Granite School District Exemplary Center for Reading Instruction. This study was conducted in 19 schools of the district and involved approximately 1,295 students. Nine hypotheses concerning the various approaches used in reading instruction
Castner, Myra H.; And Others
A feasibility study of a nuclear reactor system specifically designed for district heating purpose has been carried out with the emphasis on its technical, economical and safety aspects. As a preliminary phase, the general design criteria, technical characteristics and inherent safety features of a foreign reactor suitable for district heating have been surveyed and analyzed to a certain extent. (Author)
Near the shores of Lake Superior, Michigan's Houghton-Portage Township School District is known for academic leadership and strives to provide an exceptional and secure learning environment for its students. However, like many districts around the country, Houghton-Portage is not immune to the economic restrictions. In a recent effort to address
The aim of the Political Districting Problem is to partition a territory into electoral districts subject to some constraints such as contiguity, population equality, etc. In this paper, we apply statistical physics methods to Political Districting Problem. We will show how to transform the political problem to a spin system, and how to write down a q-state Potts model-like energy function in which the political constraints can be written as interactions between sites or external fields acting on the system. Districting into q voter districts is equivalent to finding the ground state of this q-state Potts model. Searching for the ground state becomes an optimization problem, where optimization algorithms such as the simulated annealing method and Genetic Algorithm can be employed here.
Chou, C.-I [Department of Physics, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan 111 (China)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Li, S.-P. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 115 (China)
Objective We describe rates of unintended pregnancy among HIV positive couples in Lusaka, Zambia. We also identify factors associated with unintended pregnancy among oral contraceptive pill (OCP) using couples in this cohort. Design Data were analyzed from couples randomized in a factorial design to two family planning intervention videos. Methods Rates of unintended pregnancy were stratified by contraceptive method used at time of pregnancy. Predictors of time to unintended pregnancy among OCP users were determined via multivariate Cox modeling. Results The highest rates of unintended pregnancy were observed among couples requesting condoms only (26.4/100CY) or OCPs (20.7/100CY); these rates were not significantly different. OCP users accounted for 37% of the couple-years (CY) observed and 87% of unintended pregnancies. Rates of unintended pregnancy for injectable (0.7/100CY) and intrauterine device (1.6/100CY) users were significantly lower relative to condom only users. No pregnancies occurred among contraceptive implant users or after tubal ligation. Factors associated (pLong-acting reversible contraceptive methods were effective in the context of integrated couples HIV prevention and contraceptive services. Injectable methods were also effective in this context. Given the high user failure rate of OCPs, family planning efforts should promote longer-acting methods among OCP users wishing to avoid pregnancy. Where other methods are not available or acceptable, OCP adherence counseling is needed, especially among younger and new OCP users. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00067522 PMID:24098692
Wall, Kristin M.; Haddad, Lisa; Vwalika, Bellington; Htee Khu, Naw; Brill, Ilene; Kilembe, William; Stephenson, Rob; Chomba, Elwyn; Vwalika, Cheswa; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan
Several sub-Saharan African countries, including Zambia, have initiated national voluntary medical male circumcision (MC) programs to reduce HIV incidence. In-depth interviews were conducted with twenty female sex workers (FSWs) in Lusaka to examine their understanding of MC and experiences with circumcised clients. Knowledge of MC was derived primarily through informal sources, with very few FSWs reporting exposure to MC educational campaigns. MC was not widely believed to be protective against HIV, however it was viewed by some as protective against STIs. Three FSWs reported having sex with recently circumcised clients, and most reported that men often used their MC status to try to convince FSWs to forego condoms. Findings suggest that FSWs, already at high risk for HIV infection, may face additional pressure toward higher risk behavior as a result of MC. As MC services are expanded, programs should support FSWs' efforts to protect themselves by providing information about what MC can--and cannot--offer for HIV/STI infection prevention. PMID:23349745
Abbott, Sharon A; Haberland, Nicole A; Mulenga, Drosin M; Hewett, Paul C
Full Text Available Abstract Background A low body mass index (BMI at antiretroviral therapy (ART initiation is a strong predictor of mortality among HIV-infected adults in resource-constrained settings. The relationship between nutrition and inflammation-related serum biomarkers and early treatment outcomes (e.g., less than 90 days in this population is not well described. Methods An observational cohort of 142 HIV-infected adults in Lusaka, Zambia, with BMI under 16 kg/m2 or CD4+ lymphocyte counts of less than 50 cells/mm3, or both, was followed prospectively during the first 12 weeks of ART. Baseline and serial post-treatment phosphate, albumin, ferritin and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP serum levels were measured. The primary outcome was mortality. Results Lower baseline phosphate and albumin serum levels, and higher ferritin and hsCRP, were significantly associated with mortality prior to 12 weeks (p Conclusions The predictive value of serum biomarkers for early mortality in a cohort of adults with malnutrition and advanced HIV in a resource-constrained setting was primarily driven by pre-treatment values, rather than post-ART changes. Interventions to promote earlier HIV diagnosis and treatment, address nutritional deficiencies, and identify the etiologies of increased systemic inflammation may improve ART outcomes in this vulnerable population.
Koethe John R
Full Text Available Abstract Background In formerly endemic areas where malaria transmission has declined, levels of population immunity to Plasmodium falciparum provide information on continued malaria transmission and potentially susceptible populations. Traditional techniques for measuring serological responses to P. falciparum antigens use plasma or dried blood spots (DBS. These invasive procedures pose a biohazard and may be unacceptable to communities if performed frequently. The use of oral fluid (OF samples to detect antibodies to P. falciparum antigens may be a more acceptable strategy to monitor changes in population immunity. Methods An enzyme immunoassay was optimized to detect antibodies to whole, asexual stage P. falciparum antigens. Optical density (OD values from paired DBS and OF samples collected as part of a community-based survey of malaria parasitaemia were compared. Results Oral fluid and dried blood spot samples were collected from 53 participants in Southern Province, Zambia. Their ages ranged from 1 to 80 years and 45% were female. A statistically significant correlation (r = 0.79; P Conclusions Oral fluid is a valid alternative specimen for monitoring changes in antibodies to P. falciparum antigens. As OF collection is often more acceptable to communities, poses less of a biohazard than blood samples and can be performed by community volunteers, serological surveys using OF samples provide a strategy for monitoring population immunity in regions of declining malaria transmission.
Full Text Available (Palmer and Stough 2001 defined as Emotional intelligence as the capacity to deal effectively with ones own and others emotions Previous empirical studies in this area have indicated that the construct of emotional intelligence provides an athlete with an understanding of their specific emotional competencies, and therefore a better understanding and awareness of how to use emotions in sport. The comparison of the study is to attempt and examine the differences between female and male athletes of Lusaka Province with respect to their emotional intelligence in the selected variables such as Self-awareness, Self-regulation, Motivation, Empathy, Social skills.It was assumed that female athletes would have high emotional intelligence as compared to the male athletes. Emotional Intelligence Test developed by Dr. N. K. Chadha (1998 was applied on all of the participants of the study (i.e. 30 female and 40 male athletes.Were selected random for this study Statistical analysis by computation of t-test revealed a significant difference in the emotional intelligence of female and male athletes of Lusaka Province. The results confirmed the hypothesis differences in relation to emotional intelligence, findings of the current study indicate that females are more emotionally intelligent than male athletes. The higher level of emotional intelligence of female than male in Lusaka Province are explained in terms of traditional trends, pattern of society and social roles assigned to male and female with respect to African culture in Zambia.
Mathivanan D & Clement chileshe
In 2007, the first free mass distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) occurred in southern Zambia. To determine the effect of ITNs on heterogeneity in biting rates, human DNA from Anopheles arabiensis blood meals was genotyped to determine the number of hosts that had contributed to the blood meals. The multiple feeding rate decreased from 18.9% pre-ITN to 9.1% post-ITN, suggesting that mosquito biting had focused onto a smaller fraction of the population. Pre-ITN, 20% of persons in a household provided 40% of blood meals, which increased to 59% post-ITN. To measure heterogeneity over a larger scale, mosquitoes were collected in 90 households in two village areas. Of these households, 25% contributed 78.1% of An. arabiensis, and households with high frequencies of An. arabiensis were significantly spatially clustered. The results indicate that substantial heterogeneity in malaria risk exists at local and household levels, and household-level heterogeneity may be influenced by interventions, such as ITNs. PMID:23382169
Norris, Laura C; Norris, Douglas E
Exposure to cement dust has been associated with deleterious health effects in humans. This study investigated whether residing near a cement factory increases the risk of irritations to the mucous membranes of the eyes and respiratory system. A cross sectional study was conducted in Freedom Compound, a community bordering a cement factory in Chilanga, Zambia and a control community, Bauleni, located 18 km from the cement plant. A modified American Thoracic Society questionnaire was administered to 225 and 198 respondents aged 15-59 years from Freedom and Bauleni, respectively, to capture symptoms of the irritations. Respondents from Freedom Compound, were more likely to experience the irritations; adjusted ORs 2.50 (95% CI: 1.65, 3.79), 4.36 (95% CI (2.96, 6.55)) and 1.94 (95% CI (1.19, 3.18)) for eye, nose and sinus membrane irritations respectively. Cohort panel studies to determine associations of cement emissions to mucous membrane irritations and respiratory symptoms, coupled with field characterization of the exposure are needed to assess whether the excess prevalence of symptoms of mucous membrane irritations observed in Freedom compound are due to emissions from the cement factory. PMID:25602972
Nkhama, Emmy; Ndhlovu, Micky; Dvonch, J Timothy; Siziya, Seter; Voyi, Kuku
Since the advent of community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) in the mid-1980s, scholars and practitioners have sought to explain the uneven performance of CBNRM programs. Most CBNRM assessments examine the underlying principles of community-based conservation, the local social and ecological contexts, and connections with larger political and historical patterns. In this article, I argue that analysis of the potential and pitfalls of CBNRM also requires an understanding of the institutional history and internal dynamics of projects that implement CBNRM reforms. Drawing upon theory and methods from development ethnography and public policy, I examine the rise and fall of CONASA, a second-generation CBNRM project in Zambia that operated from 2001 to 2004. CONASA was constituted from a merger of organizations and discourses to provide continuity with previous projects. Its ambitious suite of activities included support for household livelihoods, community-based resource management, policy analysis, advocacy, and conservation enterprises at local, national, and transboundary levels. While individual activities were largely successful, CONASA's hybrid origins and logframe-centric management created fissures between its holistic design and operational logics, and hindered its ability to develop a broader narrative and maintain key alliances. This case study illustrates the importance of understanding the interplay between project design and operational context to fully appreciate the possibilities and limitations of project-mode conservation. PMID:23263566
Full Text Available In Zambia poverty mitigation programmes based on agricultural production assets transfer constitute social protection and have been implemented to help the poor change their experiences of poverty and transform their social economic relationships. The effect of these programmes in realizing substantial poverty upward mobility has however been hindered by a myriad of factors including failure to understand the poors poverty situation and consequently misdirecting the poverty interventions. This study aims at clarifying changes in experiences of poverty due to agricultural production assets transfer, and identify potential intrinsic household attributes that could influence effective agricultural assets utilization among households within domestic life cycle stages. Participatory poverty profiling and rapid appraisals were done to respectively identify poverty perceptions and experiences, and elicit household attributes perceived to influence effective asset utilization. Data was collected from 150 randomly selected households. Results indicate that agricultural production assets transfer to poor rural households can help mitigate their poverty, but movement out of poverty does not spontaneously cover all poverty dimensions, and could be affected by intrinsic attributes of a household. Thus, anti-poverty programmes should pay enough attention not only to community age stratification but also to intrinsic household attributes and basic need areas which may respond most to interventions among the domestic life cycle stages.
Martin W. Muyunda
Genetic mutations controlling eye color, fat body color, structural abnormalities, and insecticide resistance are common in mosquitoes. We have identified a novel color variant of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus characterized by a heavily pigmented integument in adult specimens circulating in field populations of this species in southern Zambia. Mosquitoes were collected monthly by pyrethrum spray catch between November and May 2004-05 and 2005-06, with between 25% and 80% of the total Cx. p. quinquefasciatus collections comprising this pigmented variety. The identity of pigmented specimens was morphologically confirmed as Cx. p. quinquefasciatus by examination of orientation of the dorsal and ventral arms of the male genitalia of F1 male progeny reared in the laboratory, and molecularly verified by diagnostic polymerase chain reaction and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate dehydrogenase subunit 4 nucleotide sequence homology. Preliminary laboratory rearings indicated that the pigmentation was heritable and not influenced by larval habitat and environmental conditions. Further investigation into the mechanism of the mutation, inheritance patterns, and potential linkage to additional markers is pending. PMID:17536371
Kent, Rebekah J; Mharakurwa, Sungano; Hamapumbu, Harry; Norris, Douglas E
A study on the origin of groundwaters around the Itezhitezhi storage dam in Zambia was performed with the aid of analyses of the environmental isotopes 18O and D at the Laboratory of Mass Spectrometry, Division of Hydrology at the University of Uppsala. After the reservoir was constructed and filled a number of springs with warm water emerged in an area downstream from the dam. Analyses of 18O indicated the existence of a lower groundwater aquifer different in origin to the upper groundwater. A continued programme to study the variation of 18O contents at selected water-sampling points has shown that there is no rapid hydraulic connection between the recent water in the reservoir and the artesian water in the bedrock downstream from the dam. Chemical investigations and 14C age dating confirmed the conclusions drawn from the 18O analysis that the artesian water originated from an ancient epoch. Calculations on calcite saturation and original temperatures of the artesian water suggest the existence of well-separated groundwater aquifers in the area. (author)
This study investigated the effect of simulated sunlight on the survival of Salmonella isolates on surfaces under both clean and dirty conditions. Isolates from Zambia were compared to a strain of S. Enteritidis with known characteristics, which was isolated from poultry in the UK. Cells were suspended in 20 ?l droplets on stainless steel surfaces and placed in an incubator maintained at 25 deg. C and a relative humidity of between 50 and 70%. Survival after a period of 12 h light and 12 h dark or 24 h dark was measured. Differences were analysed for significance using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results show there were a significantly higher number of cells surviving on surfaces after 24 h in the dark when compared to that of populations exposed to a 12 h light/ 12 h dark cycle. Significantly more cells also survived exposure to sunlight under dirty than clean conditions. Under field conditions exposure of contaminated surfaces to sunlight could be used in place of chemical methods of control as a cheaper way to reduce Salmonella contamination of surfaces
Full Text Available Seed systems in Kenya, Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe were studied jointly by ODI, ICRISAT, and national researchers. The study examined various aspects - the nature of seed demand, particularly for new varieties; local-level seed provision and farmer-to-farmer diffusion; the commercial seed sector; community level projects; emergency seed distribution programs; seed policy and regulatory framework; and the role of public-sector research. The study also provides specific recommendations to develop the seed sector. For example, public research programs must invest more heavily in variety promotion and production of breeder and foundation seed. Seed certification should be made voluntary, and variety registration simplified. Emergency seed programs should pay greater attention to variety adaptation and seed quality; and should support local seed enterprises, not compete with them. Seed companies should strengthen their retail networks. NGO seed projects should consider marketing and sustainability issues more carefully. Donor-funded projects, which currently operate in isolation from each other, must be integrated into a coherent, long-term, nationally-directed seed strategy.
Childhood lead poisoning is a serious public health concern worldwide. Blood lead levels exceeding 5 ?g dL(-1) are considered elevated. In Kabwe, the capital of Zambia's Central Province, extensive Pb contamination of township soils in the vicinity of a Pb-Zn mine and posing serious health risk to children has been reported. We investigated BLLs in children under the age of 7 years in townships around the mine; where blood samples were collected and analyzed using an ICP-MS. All of the sampled children had BLLs exceeding 5 ?g dL(-1). Children in these areas could be at serious risk of Pb toxicity as 18% of the sampled children in Chowa, 57% (Kasanda) and 25% (Makululu) had BLLs exceeding 65 ?g dL(-1). Eight children had BLLs exceeding 150 ?g dL(-1) with the maximum being 427.8 ?g dL(-1). We recommend that medical intervention be commenced in the children with BLL exceeding 45 ?g dL(-1). PMID:25303652
Yabe, John; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Yohannes, Yared B; Bortey-Sam, Nesta; Oroszlany, Balazs; Muzandu, Kaampwe; Choongo, Kennedy; Kabalo, Abel Nketani; Ntapisha, John; Mweene, Aaron; Umemura, Takashi; Ishizuka, Mayumi
...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT DISTRICTS...1 Designation of Economic Development Districts...request of a District Organization (as defined in...designate a Region as an Economic Development District...for intra-District cooperation, self-help,...
Theileriosis or East Coast Fever (ECF) is an important livestock disease widespread in Zambia except for some provinces such as Luapula. This freedom status has been achieved due to strict livestock movement regulations that only authorise cattle imports from commercial farms implementing strict ECF control regimens. Recent increases in both the demand and price of beef in Zambia are stimulating a policy change towards a more inclusive inter-provincial trade in live cattle. This may also encourage the introduction of breeding cattle from high production pastoral sectors such as Central Province to stimulate the beef industry in disease free low production areas such as the Luapula Province. To estimate and compare the risks linked with those potential introductions of cattle from the traditional or commercial production sectors of the Central Province, a quantitative risk assessment model was developed. This risk comparison was necessary because the traditional livestock production sector accounts for over 79% of breeding cattle trade in Central Province but is characterised by minimalistic tick-borne disease control and a higher prevalence of ECF. We estimate that should the importation of breeding cattle from Central into Luapula Province be permitted, we could expect to import ECF by the introduction of infected animals at a median rate (5th and 95th percentiles) of every 0.44 years (0.12, 2.60), from the traditional sector compared to every 3.57 years (0.37, 103.6) from the commercial sector. Infected ticks would be expected to enter every 3.46 (0.66, 43.8) years via traditional cattle imports. These risks are strongly influenced by the prevalence of infection, performance of pre-transport screening tests, and the effectiveness of pre-transport tick cleansing. This assessment is expected to provide a model for tick borne disease risk assessments in similar settings, as well as inform ECF control, cattle trade, and stock movement policies in Zambia. PMID:24974081
Makungu, C; Mwacalimba, K K
This web site hosts field trips to 10 localities in the Mojave area of southeastern California and southwestern Nevada. Most of the localities are mining districts or mines. They include: Calico Mining District, Waterman Mine, Mohawk Mine and Copper World Mine, Mountain Pass Mine, Colosseum Mine, the Goodsprings District with Red Cloud Mine and Keystone Mine, Snow White Mine, Beck Iron Mine, War Eagle Mine, and several stops in the Mammoth/Owens Valley area. The commodities include gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron, lead, barite, and talc. Sketches give the geology and mining history of the areas and may include cross sections and simple geologic maps.
A problem in the field of district heating is the oil burners needed to provide power when a peak load occurs. One possible way of reducing the needed amount of oil is to reduce the power demand for space heating in the district-heating substations when the need for district heating water exceeds a certain limit. This can be done by use of a locally working controller function. In this Thesis the options concerning load priority are evaluated. To evaluate the potential for using controller fu...
Full Text Available The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs are a series of 8 goals and 18 targets aimed at ending extreme poverty by 2015, and there are 48 quantifiable indicators for monitoring the process. Most of the MDGs are health or health-related goals. Though the MDGs might sound ambitious, it is imperative that the world, and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, wake up to the persistent and unacceptably high rates of extreme poverty that populations live in, and find lasting solutions to age-old problems. Extreme poverty is a cause and consequence of low income, food insecurity and hunger, education and gender inequities, high disease burden, environmental degradation, insecure shelter, and lack of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. It is also directly linked to unsound governance and inequitable distribution of public wealth. While many regions in the world will strive to attain the MDGs by 2015, most of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa, with major human development challenges associated with socio-economic disparities, will not. ZambiaÃ¢ÂÂs MDG progress reports of 2003 and 2005 show that despite laudable political commitment and some advances made towards achieving universal primary education, gender equality, improvement of child health and management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, it is not likely that Zambia will achieve even half of the goals. ZambiaÃ¢ÂÂs systems have been weakened by high disease burden and excess mortality, natural and man-made environmental threats and some negative effects of globalization such as huge external debt, low world prices for commodities and the human resource Ã¢ÂÂbrain drainÃ¢ÂÂ, among others. Urgent action must follow political will, and some tried and tested strategies or Ã¢ÂÂquick winsÃ¢ÂÂ that have been proven to produce high positive impact in the short term, need to be rapidly embarked upon by Zambia and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa if they are to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.
Jatropha curcas is grown as a biofuel crop in the tropics, and in many parts of Africa it also has a number of domestic uses, e.g. it is frequently grown as a hedge. The collapse of the biofuels market in Zambia has inspired a search for alternative uses for this plant. Previous laboratory studies suggested that Jatropha exhibits a range of beneficial properties, including pesticidal properties. In this paper, we report a series of studies aimed at testing whether formulations of Jatropha pow...
Wilson, Ken; Maloney, Kyran; Zulu, Donald; Mutamba, Emmanuel; Vermeylen, Saskia
Two Oregon schools districts that have been effective in managing their resources are Reedsport, a smaller district and the subject of part 1 of this bulletin; and Beaverton, one of the largest districts in the state, the focus of part 2. The Reedsport district plans the use of its funds based on a goal-setting process in the areas of instruction,
Malaria has long been known as one of the major public health problems in West Sumba District, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. To obtain baseline data for establishment of a suitable malaria control program in the area, malariometric surveys were conducted in two sub-districts, Wanokaka and Loli, during the periods of January, May, and August 2005. The survey included three selected villages in each sub-district, and blood smear analyses of 701, 921, and 894 randomly selected subjects...
Pursuing the action of stress factors and the prevailing representation of the ecologically important elements, the districts of Slovakia can be classified into 17 categories, which include the districts with moderate occurrence of stress phenomena and the districts with very high representation of eco-stabilising elements, but also districts with extreme occurrence of stress phenomena and scarce representation of eco-stabilising elements. The character of the map is that of orientation, as it offers the possibility to identify the most problematic districts in terms of environmental quality, the districts requiring completion of eco-stabilising elements, the relatively not stressed districts, etc. (author)
Main goal of this work is to establish background for improvement of forecasting and planning of heat market for district heating through defining functional relations between heat consumption versus internal and external factors.
In order to achieve a high utilisation of the dictrict heating plant and especially of the supply lines to the distribution network, it appears to be necessary to extract a basic part of 40 to 55% of the maximum district heating requirements from the nuclear power station and the peak load part from other, fossil fired plants, in the neighbourhood of the main concentration of users. The arrangements with heating steam extraction from the low pressure turbine and with separate heating turbine in a pressurised water reactor are explained. The plan views of the buildings for instance the equipment for district heating, the main machine houses and the heating turbine houses are presented. Plant cost for district heating from PWR stations is calculated and the conslusion is that power station technology can offer adequate possibilities for economic production of district heating from nuclear power stations. (M.S.)
A nuclear reactor for district heating is proposed, and a preliminary design concept is presented. Emphasis is laid on a design that is safe, simple and suitable for manufacture by Danish industry. (author)
...Del Norte, Humboldt, Trinity, Mendocino, Lake, Sonoma, Marin, Napa, Solano, Yolo, Colusa, and Glenn. (e) District...Contra Costa, El Dorado, Amador, Sacramento, Alpine, San Francisco, Alameda, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, San...
Abstract Background Ethnobotanical pharmacopoeia is confidently used in disease intervention and there is need for documentation and preservation of traditional medical knowledge to bolster the discovery of novel drugs. The objective of the present study was to document the indigenous medicinal plant utilization, management and their extinction threats in Samburu District, Kenya. Methods Field research was conducted in six divisions of Samburu District in Kenya....
Kaburia Humphrey F; Koros Kipsengeret B; Wagate Cyrus G; Lanyasunya Adamson L; Mbaria James M; Nanyingi Mark O; Munenge Rahab W; Ogara William O
District energy systems have the potential to decrease the CO2 emissions linked to energy services (heating, hot water, cooling and electricity), thanks to the implementation of large polygeneration energy conversion technologies, connected to a group of buildings over a network. To transfer the energy from the large polygeneration energy conversion technologies to the users, conventional district energy systems use water as energy transfer medium with often two independent supply and return ...
Mirandola, Alberto; Arnas, O?zer; Lazzaretto, Andrea; Weber, Ce?line; Favrat, Daniel
Highlights: ? European excess heat recovery and utilisation by district heat distribution. ? Heat recovery in district heating systems a structural energy efficiency measure. ? Introduction of new theoretical concepts to express excess heat recovery. ? Fourfold potential for excess heat utilisation in EU27 compared to current levels. ? Large scale excess heat recovery a collaborative challenge for future Europe. -- Abstract: Increased recovery of excess heat from thermal power generation and industrial processes has great potential to reduce primary energy demands in EU27. In this study, current excess heat utilisation levels by means of district heat distribution are assessed and expressed by concepts such as recovery efficiency, heat recovery rate, an